WorldWideScience

Sample records for lebanon bologna stored

  1. Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    General notes about Lebanon are presented: political history, government, population, geography, economy and foreign relations. Lebanon lies on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean, and is composed of a coastal plain bound on the east by high mountains. The population numbers about 2.5 million, although no census has been taken since 1932. 6 different types of Christian sects and 3 of Muslims contribute to instability. The strife has been aggravated by invasions by Israel against Palestinians encamped there, and by Syria as part of an Arab peace-keeping force. Despite constant civil war since the 1950s, the Lebanese government has continued to function, a parliamentary constitutional system with a judicial system based on the Napoleonic code. Amendments to the 1926 constitution have mandated that representation in the National Assembly and among top government positions be apportioned based on distribution of significant religious groups. Political parties in Lebanon are extremely complex, and include parties loyal to clan or local leaders, those ranging from the right to left, those resembling Arab parties in other nations, and those dedicated to religious sects. The economy is normally based on agriculture, and on commerce and banking in the primary coastal cities, but is in decline currently.

  2. Stores

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following the introduction of Condensators, resistors and potentiometers from the Farnell electronic-catalogue into CERN Stores' catalogue, following products are now available: PRODUCT FAMILY GROUP SCEM Oscillators and quartz crystals 07.94.10 / 07.94.12 Diodes 08.51.14 / 08.51.54 Thyristors 08.51.60 / 08.51.66 Opto-electronics 08.52 Transistors 08.53 Integrated circuits 08.54 / 08.55 These articles can be procured in the same way as any other stores item, by completing a Material Request. N.B. Individual Farnell order codes can be used as keywords to facilitate searches in the CERN Stores Catalogue.

  3. Fieldtrip Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle; Hansen, Bent S. E.; Kjøller Olsen, Brian

    2017-01-01

    This handbook is the sum of the experiences of 20 social workers and a researcher on a fieldtrip to Lebanon during August 2017. The handbook was created from the participants’ notes, collected and interpreted and put together by Michelle Pace, Bent SE Hansen and Brian Kjøller Olsen. This manual...... offers a platform through which good practices of all those working with young arrivals in host communities can be shared with their counterparts not just across Denmark and Lebanon, but hopefully across other European and MENA host societies....

  4. The Bologna Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henckel, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen har form af et interview om Bologna-processen og dennes historiske og organsatoriske udvikling. Afslutningsvis diskuteres sammenhængen mellem etatbleringen af et European Higher Education Area (EHEA) og EU's prestigiøse Erasmus Mundus-program, som i en dansk kontekst har afstedkommet sto...

  5. Computing Conference at Bologna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    From 9-12 September a Europhysics Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics, organized by the Computational Physics Group of the European Physical Society, was held in Bologna, attracting some 150 participants. Its purpose was contact and exchange of information between experimental physicists (from both fields of research) and computer experts (on whom the successful outcome of the research has become increasingly dependent)

  6. Denmark in the Bologna Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    The creation of the European Higher Education Area foreseen in the Bologna Declaration (1999) will facilitate inter-university co-operation by promoting the mobility and employability of European citizens. The article outlines the current development in Denmark, especially as regards the training...

  7. Studying through the Bologna process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarauw, Laura Louise

    the relationship between the official policy level and everyday lives of academics and students in the Bologna process. Over the last decades, the traditional approach to policy reforms as linear processes and its vocabularies of dichotomy (structure-actor, cause-effect, action-reaction etc.) has found a valuable...

  8. Aligning seminars with Bologna requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Rainer; Lueg, Klarissa; Lauridsen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Changes in public policy, such as the Bologna Process, require students to be equipped with multifunctional competencies to master relevant tasks in unfamiliar situations. Achieving this goal might imply a change in many curricula toward deeper learning. As a didactical means to achieve deep...... learning results, the authors suggest reciprocal peer tutoring (RPT); as a conceptual framework the authors suggest the SOLO (Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes) taxonomy and constructive alignment as suggested by Biggs and Tang. Our study presents results from the introduction of RPT in a large...... and students, suggest that RPT fosters deeper learning than does teacher-led instruction. Based on these findings, the authors also offer guidelines regarding how to implement RPT and how to overcome barriers....

  9. Lebanon: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfleet, P

    1988-05-01

    A brief profile of Lebanon's economy, people, health, culture and political situation is presented. Lebanon has an estimated 3.5 million people, with a Maronite Christian elite, a Muslim Shiite majority, and Muslim Sunnis and Druze groups. The infant mortality is estimated at 41/1000; literacy is 69% among women and 86% among men; life expectancy was 66 years, 10 years ago. The economy, previously thriving on banking, manufacturing and agriculture, is now decimated, and Lebanon's once active tourist industry, based on elegant facilities in Beirut and neighboring beaches and ski slopes, is the victim of 15 years of civil strife. Israel has invaded, supporting Maronite Christians, Syria has invaded in support Muslim and Druze militias, and Iran has aggressively supported Shiite factions.

  10. Salmonella burden in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaeb, M; Bizri, A R; Ghosn, N; Berry, A; Musharrafieh, U

    2016-06-01

    Salmonellosis is a disease that represents a major public health concern in both developing and developed countries. The aim of this article is to evaluate the public health burden of Salmonella illness in Lebanon. The current scope of the Salmonella infection problem was assessed in relation to disease incidence and distribution with respect to age, gender and district. Factors that provide a better understanding of the magnitude of the problem were explored and highlighted. Data reported to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Department at the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health between 2001 and 2013 was reviewed. Information obtained was compared to information reported regionally and globally. The estimated true incidence was derived using multipliers from the CDC and Jordan. A literature review of all published data from Lebanon about Salmonella susceptibility/resistance patterns and its serious clinical complications was conducted. The estimated incidence was 13·34 cases/100 000 individuals, most cases occurred in the 20-39 years age group with no significant gender variation. Poor and less developed districts of Lebanon had the highest number of cases and the peak incidence was in summer. Reflecting on the projected incidence derived from the use of multipliers indicates a major discrepancy between what is reported and what is estimated. We conclude that data about Salmonella infection in Lebanon and many Middle Eastern and developing countries lack crucial information and are not necessarily representative of the true incidence, prevalence and burden of illness.

  11. Radioactive waste management in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assi, Muzna

    2011-01-01

    The disused sealed radioactive sources including orphan sources in Lebanon, along with the growing industry of sealed radioactive sources in medical, industrial and research fields have posed a serious problem for authorities as well as users due to the lack of a national store for disused radioactive sources. Assistance from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was requested to condition and store disused radium needles and tubes present at two facilities. The mission took place on July 25, 2001 and was organized by the IAEA in cooperation with the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission (LAEC). Other disused radioactive sources were kept in the facilities till a safer and securer solution is provided; however orphan sources, found mainly during export control, were brought and stored temporarily in LAEC. The necessity of a safe and secure store became a must. Prior to October 2005, there was no clear legal basis for establishing such store for disused radioactive sources, until the ministerial decree no 15512 dated October 19, 2005 (related to the implementation of decree-law no 105/83) was issued which clearly stated that 'The LAEC shall, in cooperation with the Ministry of Public Health, establish a practical mechanism for safe disposal of radioactive waste'. Following this, the work on inventory of disused sealed sources along with collecting orphan sources and placing them temporarily in LAEC was legally supported. Moreover, several missions were planned to repatriate category I and II sources, one of which was completed specifically in August 2009; other missions are being worked on. In 2008, a national technical cooperation project with the IAEA was launched. Under the Technical Cooperation (TC) project with reference number LEB3002, the project was entitled 'Assistance in the establishment of a safe temporary national storage at the LAEC for orphan sources and radioactive waste' which cycle is 2009-2011. Under this project, a national store for

  12. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Frankfurter, frank, furter, hot-dog, wiener, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst and similar cooked... accordance with the provisions of § 381.118 of this chapter. (b) Frankfurter, frank, furter, hot-dog, wiener..., lips, weasands, and spleens; and partially defatted pork fatty tissue, or partially defatted beef fatty...

  13. Kõrghariduse astmete korrastamine Bologna protsessis / Gunnar Vaht

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaht, Gunnar

    2001-01-01

    1999. aastal kinnitasid Euroopa haridusministrid Bolognas vajadust luua Euroopa ühtne kõrgharidusruum, mis seab eesmärgiks omavahel võrreldavad kõrgharidusastmed, selgelt mõistetavad kvalifikatsioonid, ühtsed kõrghariduse kvaliteedi hindamise ja õpingute mahtu arvestavad põhimõtted. Euroopa kõrgharidussüsteemides valitseb kas ühe- või kaheastmeline üldsüsteem. Kaheastmelise süsteemi aluseks on angloameerika (ka anglosaksi) mudeli Bachelor-Master-üldsüsteem või, nagu Bologna deklaratsioonis nimetatud, undergraduate-graduate-süsteem

  14. International Student Mobility and the Bologna Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichler, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The Bologna Process is the newest of a chain of activities stimulated by supra-national actors since the 1950s to challenge national borders in higher education in Europe. Now, the ministers in charge of higher education of the individual European countries have agreed to promote a similar cycle-structure of study programmes and programmes based…

  15. Bluetongue virus in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hage, J; Lorusso, A; Carmine, I; Di Gennaro, A; Portanti, O; Olivieri, S; Casaccia, C; Pisciella, M; Teodori, L; Sghaier, S; Savini, G

    2013-10-01

    Since 2000, several incursions of bluetongue virus (BTV) occurred in the Mediterranean Basin involving European and surrounding Countries. The Middle East represents one of the most important gateways for the access of BTV in Europe. Limited data on the BTV situation in this area are available. In this perspective, an epidemiological survey on the presence of BTV in Lebanon was conducted. Of the 181 serum samples tested, 97 (mean = 53.6%; 95% CI: 46.3-60.7) resulted positive when tested for the presence of BTV antibodies by c-ELISA, of these 42 (mean = 42%; 95% CI: 32.8-51.8) serum samples were from sheep and 55 (mean = 67.9%; 95% CI: 57.1-77.1) serum samples were from goats. Fourteen blood samples (14/110; mean = 12.7%; 95% CI: 7.8-20.3), 6 (6/66; mean = 9.1%; 95% CI: 4.4-18.5) from sheep and 8 (8/44; mean = 18.2%; 95% CI: 9.6-32.0) from goats, were positive by qRT-PCR. The results with serum-neutralization assay and typing performed by RT-PCR confirmed that six BTV serotypes are currently circulating in Lebanon, and these serotypes are as follows: 1, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 24. This study is the first report that confirms the presence and circulation of BTV in Lebanon. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Lupus nephritis in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthman, I W; Muffarij, A A; Mudawar, W A; Nasr, F W; Masri, A F

    2001-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of the clinicopathological characteristics of 50 systemic lupus erythematosus patients with nephritis who underwent a kidney biopsy and were admitted to the American University of Beirut Medical Center, in Lebanon, between 1979 and 1999. There were 43 females and seven males, with a median age of 24 y. Renal histology slides from these patients were assessed according to the World Health Organization classification, and were distributed as follows: class I (n = 3, 6%); class II (n = 14, 28%); class III (n = 11, 22%); class IV (n = 19, 38%); class V (n = 1, 2%); class VI (n = 2, 4%). All the patients received oral prednisone, in addition the following treatments were used: pulse intravenous (i.v.) cyclophosphamide (n = 23, 46%); azathioprine (n = 22, 44%); pulse i.v. steroids (n = 19, 38%); chloroquine sulfate (n = 17, 34%); methotrexate (n = 5, 10%); and plasmapheresis (n = 2, 4%). The median duration of follow-up was 5 y (range 1-33 y). On their last evaluation, out of 37 patients who were followed, 20 patients (54%) had controlled disease, eight patients (22%) were still on active medical treatment, four patients (11%) were on chronic hemodialysis, and five patients (13%) had died. Unlike three other Arab populations studies from Kuwait, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia, where the most frequent histopathologic abnormality was class III, diffuse proliferative LN (class IV) was the most common type of lupus nephritis in Lebanon, similarly to reports from USA, France, Netherlands, South Africa, Thailand and Taiwan.

  17. Solid wastes management in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Simon E.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the problem of wastes in Lebanon and their management according to international (European and French) descriptions. It presents the situation in Lebanon including the policies taken by the ministry of environment towards the treatment of different types of wastes especially solid wastes. It is estimated that the production of wastes in Lebanon is 5854 tones per day and it is distributed as follows: Domestic wastes 3200 t/d; industrial wastes 1300 t/d; commercial wastes 1000 t/d; slaughter-houses 150 t/d; waste oils 100 t/d; hospital wastes 64 t/d; vehicle wheels 40 t/d. The annual production within regions is also presented in tables. Collection, transportation, recycling, composting and incineration of wastes are included

  18. The Bologna Process: Inception, "Take Up" and Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Guy; Veiga, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the value of the Bologna Process in placing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) on a solid institutional footing. How far has Bologna contributed to firming up the views academia, management and students have of the EHEA? The article is based on a survey administered across four systems of higher education in 2008. It…

  19. National Evaluation of Bologna Implementation in Finland: Procedures and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, Sakari

    2012-01-01

    Finland has performed, as one of the first Bologna countries, a national evaluation of the outcomes of the implementation of the Bologna process. The evaluation was organized by the Finnish Higher Education Evaluation Council and performed by an independent expert group during 2010. In general, the reform was conceived as a significant development…

  20. The "Bologna-München" Tandem--Experiencing Interculturality

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    This case study describes the "Bologna-München" Tandem, a cross-border collaboration which began in 2011. The aim of the collaboration is to give students studying Italian at the Ludwig- Maximilians-University in Munich and students studying German at the University of Bologna the opportunity to experience interculturality through…

  1. Renewable Energy Resources in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, R.

    2010-12-01

    The energy sector in Lebanon plays an important role in the overall development of the country, especially that it suffers from many serious problems. The fact that Lebanon is among the few countries that are not endowed with fossil fuels in the Middle East made this sector cause one third of the national debt in Lebanon. Despite the large government investments in the power sector, demand still exceeds supply and Lebanon frequently goes through black out in peak demand times or has to resort to importing electricity from Syria. The Energy production sector has dramatic environmental and economical impacts in the form of emitted gasses and environment sabotage, accordingly, it is imperative that renewable energy (RE) be looked at as an alternative energy source. Officials at the Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) and Lebanese Electricity (EDL) have repeatedly expressed their support to renewable energy utilization. So far, only very few renewable energy applications can be observed over the country. Major efforts are still needed to overcome this situation and promote the use of renewable energy. These efforts are the shared responsibility of the government, EDL, NGO's and educational and research centers. Additionally, some efforts are being made by some international organizations such as UNDP, ESCWA, EC and other donor agencies operating in Lebanon. This work reviews the status of Energy in Lebanon, the installed RE projects, and the potential projects. It also reviews the stakeholders in the field of RE in Lebanon Conclusion In considering the best R.E. alternative, it is important to consider all potential R.E. sources, their costs, market availability, suitability for the selected location, significance of the energy produced and return on investment. Several RE resources in Lebanon have been investigated; Tides and waves energy is limited and not suitable two tentative sites for geothermal energy are available but not used. Biomass resources badly affect the

  2. War and Memory in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    From 1975 to 1990, Lebanon endured one of the most protracted and bloody civil wars of the twentieth century. Sune Haugbolle's timely and poignant book chronicles the battle over ideas that emerged from the wreckage of that war. While the Lebanese state encouraged forgetfulness and political part...

  3. Bologna Process: Apply or Not Apply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer ELMAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are lots of studies carried on education and training all over the world. U.S., Japan, Australia, East Asia and Europe continue this work in diff erent ways, but the main idea is the same. Here, the main idea is designing and sustaining educational systems based on learning outcomes, student centered approaches, system evaluation and quality cycles rather than inputs. Studies carried out in parallel with developments in the world are made under European Higher Education Area/Bologna Process. Th e aim here is to have graduates who are world citizens open to change. In recent years, in parallel with the changes in the world, especially based on Bologna Process reforms, comprehensive studies such as National Qualifications Framework, ECTS credits, student exchange programs and quality assurance systems are carried out in Turkey. Challenges, problems and bureaucracy make diff icult to sustain these important studies. Create a cycle in order to ensure the sustainability of the quality of this work is the most important step. A university management and evaluation scheme is consisting of corporate figures such as student, academic staff , physical infrastructure and financial parameters, and process qualities for student achievement, scientific research and community share, and their results shaped by managerial and behavioral capability of the system. Goals, objectives and performance in activities of individuals, departments and faculty of the universities are gett ing more important to identify and evaluate in certain periods. Th is challenging work having high bureaucracy strains university management and other stakeholders, and increases resistance to the quality processes. Establishing systems to ensure the sustainable quality gains importance as understanding and implementing the change in the world. Operating these quality processes with a systematic approach based on web technologies will result in reduced work load, increased

  4. The Impacts of Bologna Process on European Higher Education Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer ÇELİK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the impact of Bologna Process on European higher education systems. It focuses on the influences of the main components of Bologna Process (i.e., implementing two-cycle system, increasing the student and academic staffs' mobility, European Credit Transfer System, quality assurance and qualification framework on the transformation of higher education systems. Although Bologna Process is perceived as a move to increase the quality of higher education system in Turkey, there are very serious criticisms from academics, students, and businessmen to the Bologna Process in various European countries. This study claims that the Process did not achieve its goals, more importantly the main instruments of the Process (qualifications, quality assurance agency etc. brought about hyper-bureaucratization, hierarchization and standardization of European higher education systems.

  5. Hospital waste management in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaker, Alissar

    1999-01-01

    Hospital wastes comprises approximately 80% domestic waste components, also known as non-risk waste and 20% hazardous or risk waste. The 20% of the hospital waste stream or the risk waste (also known as infectious, medical, clinical wastes) comprises components which could be potentially contaminated with infections, chemical or radioactive agents. Therefore, it should be handled and disposed of in such a manner as to minimize potential human exposure and cross-contamination. Hospital risk waste and be subdivided into seven general categories as follows: infections, anatomical/pathological, chemical, pharmaceutical, radioactive waste, sharps and pressurised containers. These waste categories are generated by many types of health care establishments, including hospitals, clinics, infirmaries.... The document presents also tables of number of hospitals and estimated bed number in different regions in Lebanon; estimated hospital risk and non-risk waste generation per tonnes per day for the years 1998 until 2010 and finally sensitivity analysis of estimated generation of hospital risk waste in Lebanon per tonnes per day for the years 1998 until 2010. The management, treatment and disposal of hospital risk waste constitute important environmental and public safety issues. It is recognised that there is alack of infrastructure for the safe and environmentally acceptable disposal of hospital waste in Lebanon

  6. Salafism in Lebanon: Local and Transnational Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pall, Z.

    2014-01-01

    In my dissertation I look at the anatomy and dynamics of the Salafi da‛wa in North Lebanon. My analysis is based on an eighteen months long ethnographic fieldwork in Lebanon, Kuwait, Qatar and Europe. The study seeks answers how and why Salafism emerged as a key player on the Lebanese Sunni

  7. Predominant airborne pollen in a district of Beirut, Lebanon for the period extending from March 2004 to August 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahal, E.A.; Halas, Y.; Zaytoun, G.; Abdelnoor, A.M.; Zeitoun, F.

    2007-01-01

    Pollen grains rank high among causative agents of hay fever, allergic rhinitis,allegro-conjunctivitis, and asthma. Data on aerial pollen types, concentrations and patterns in Lebanon is lacking. Hence, we undertook the pioneering task of identifying and enumerating atmospheric pollen types in Beirut, the Lebanese capital, for the period extending from March 2004 to August 2004. Our aim was to shed some light on the prevalent sorts of airborne pollen in the city for subsequent studies attempting to assess associations between pollen types and allergic disease varieties. For this purpose, a VPPS 2000 Sampler (Lanzoni, Bologna, Italy) was employed. The daily average number of pollen detected for the span of the study was 41.32 pollen grains/m3 of air. The ten most commonly encountered pollen types were Cupressus, Pinus, Quercus, Parietaria, Fraxinus, Urtica, Buxus, Brassica, Syringa, and Chenopodium.Levels of the majority of pollen types peaked in April; however, March had the highest daily average record mostly enforced by immense bouts of Cupressus pollen. A pollen-monitoring network is in demand in Lebanon. Identification of airborne pollens in Lebanon would allow allergists to include them in a panel of potential allergens used in tests aimed at determining causative allergens in their patients. (author)

  8. Chemical Engineering Education in a Bologna Three Cycle Degree System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    For the purpose of harmonization of European higher education, Europe’s education system has been going through major changes under what is commonly known as the ”Bologna Process”. The Bologna declaration in 1999 was the start of the introduction of a three cycle degree system in higher education...... in Europe. To date, many European universities have adopted this degree structure. The Working Party on Education (WPE) of the European Federation of Chemical Engineering (EFCE) carried out research to determine the contents of higher education in chemical engineering (ChE) and related disciplines...... such as applied chemistry and process engineering throughout Europe. The result has been a set of recommendations for the first (BS), second (MS) and third (PhD) cycle chemical engineering education aligned to the Bologna Process. They recommend that students studying towards bachelor and masters qualifications...

  9. Semantic description of three-dimensional models of Bologna porches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ballabeni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study is part of a broader search coordinated by the Department of Architecture of the University of Bologna, the Cineca and the city of Bologna for the nomination of the city porticoes in the UNESCO World Heritage Site. The study describes, first, the problems and the methods adopted for the survey, the numerical modeling and visualization of the arcades models. In addition, the paper aims to describe a method for the semantic studying of the porticoes architecture and the segmentation of the models. The goal is also to establish an integrated approach to the semantic cataloguing of the Bologna arcades based on historical, material, formal, dimensional and theoretical data, and to make this information easily readable and communicable.

  10. Energy efficient home in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to present new methods or new products that could save money while improving the environment in Lebanon. Cost of energy is on the increase and is predicted to increase even more in the future. Environmental issues and awareness are gaining momentum in Lebanon. With electricity production directly linked to power plants that represent about 30% of the air pollution which is also linked to health related issues. There is an intermediate need to introduce more energy efficient products in the construction industry which require less energy to operate or could be linked indirectly to energy. In this context, cost-benefit analysis of heating, light, painting, energy consumption and energy lamp burning hours in addition to fuel burner, gas and electric heater in buildings are presented in tables. Finally, there is a lack of awareness on the positive impact on the environment reflected in the saving of natural resources, reducing pollution and creation of a better living environment

  11. Selective Acquiescence, Creative Commitment and Strategic Conformity: Situated National Policy Responses to Bologna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Cristina; Saunders, Murray

    2014-01-01

    The non-binding nature of the Bologna Declaration and loose policy-making and implementation through the open method of coordination (OMC) have led to varied national responses to the Bologna Process. The OMC has allowed countries room for manoeuvre to interpret Bologna policy and attach different degrees of importance to it. Looking at the…

  12. Crisis in Lebanon: camps for Syrian refugees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Loveless

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lebanon has absorbed the enormous Syrian influx but at a high costto both refugees and Lebanese populations. Current humanitarianprogrammes can no longer cope and new approaches are needed.

  13. Lebanon's Hizbollah Movement: The Party of God

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schad, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    In the summer of 1982 in Lebanon, a group of radical Shi'a Muslim clerics in association with Iranian Revolutionary Guardsmen formed the secretive and at times deadly movement known as Hizbollah, or the Party of God...

  14. Lebanon: The Israel-Hamas-Hezbollah Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharp, Jeremy M; Blanchard, Christopher; Katzman, Kenneth; Migdalovitz, Carol; Prados, Alfred; Gallis, Paul; Rennack, Dianne; Rollins, John; Browne, Marjorie; Bowman, Steve; Veillette, Connie; Kumins, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    ... in a surprise attack along the Israeli-Lebanese border. Israel has responded by carrying out air strikes against suspected Hezbollah targets in Lebanon, and Hezbollah has countered with rocket attacks against cities and towns in northern Israel...

  15. Lebanon: The Israel-Hamas-Hezbollah Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharp, Jeremy M; Blanchard, Christopher; Katzman, Kenneth; Migdalovitz, Carol; Prados, Alfred; Gallis, Paul; Rennack, Dianne; Rollins, John; Bowman, Steve; Veillette, Connie

    2006-01-01

    ... in a surprise attack along the Israeli-Lebanese border. Israel responded by carrying out air strikes against suspected Hezbollah targets in Lebanon, and Hezbollah countered with rocket attacks against cities and towns in northern Israel...

  16. Lebanon: The Israel-Hamas Hezbollah Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharp, Jeremy M; Blanchard, Christopher; Katzman, Kenneth; Migdalovitz, Carol; Prados, Alfred; Gallis, Paul; Rennack, Dianne; Rollins, John; Bowman, Steve; Veillette, Connie

    2006-01-01

    ... in a surprise attack along the Israeli-Lebanese border. Israel responded by carrying out air strikes against suspected Hezbollah targets in Lebanon, and Hezbollah countered with rocket attacks against cities and towns in northern Israel...

  17. The Bologna Process as a possible driver for the globalisation of HE?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens Smed; Hørsted, Anne; Nygaard, Claus

    2017-01-01

    The role of the Bologna Process for the globalisation of Higher Education is examined and a central model for quality enhancement based on the themes of the Bologna Accord is developed. The globalisation aspects of Bologna are then reflected to answer if Bologna helps Higher Education Institutions...... (HEI) to globalise or it only is an institutional construction at the macro-political level? The Bologna Process is forund to act as a push strategy at the macro political level to harmonize education - but it may also be used as a proactive tool by HEIs in their internal strive for quality enhancement....

  18. Bologna Process Principles Integrated into Education System of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessipbayeva, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the fulfillment of the parameters of the Bologna Process in the education system of Kazakhstan. The author gives short review of higher education system of the Republic of Kazakhstan with necessary data. And the weaknesses of the system of higher education are identified. Moreover, implementing…

  19. The Bologna Process, Globalisation and Engineering Education Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhomoibhi, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the Bologna Process in the light of globalisation and examine how it affects curriculum and engineering education developments. Design/methodology/approach: The growing need for creative competitiveness and the striving for specific profiles of engineering qualifications that are of high quality…

  20. Survey on the Implementation of the Bologna Process in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Amelia; Amaral, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    For several years Portuguese higher education institutions have been waiting for the legislation framework necessary for the implementation of the Bologna process. Such legislation was passed quite recently (2006) and has resulted in an unexpected flood of proposals presented at very short notice by higher education institutions to the Ministry.…

  1. The Bologna Process: The Democracy-Bureaucracy Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukland, Linda

    2017-01-01

    The Bologna Process was aimed at making a Europe of Knowledge possible, but the standardisation process following the development of the European Higher Education Authority challenged its democratic values; the autonomy of the bureaucratic part of higher education institutions has been strengthened while their faculty members have less formal…

  2. The Bologna Process and the European Gain: Africa's Development Demise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawa, Lester Brian

    2008-01-01

    The Bologna process is a fundamental restructuring of higher education in Europe, of which the introduction of three cycles: bachelor's, master's and doctorate, in lieu of the traditional long program is the single most important feature. Its objectives are to increase the employability of European citizens and the competitiveness and…

  3. "Bildung", the Bologna Process and Kierkegaard's Concept of Subjective Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindal, Solveig M.

    2013-01-01

    The Bologna Framework for higher education has agreed on three "cycle descriptors"--knowledge, skill and general competence--which are to constitute the learning outcomes and credit ranges for the three cycles of higher education: The Bachelor, the Master and the PhD. In connection with the implementations of the national qualification…

  4. The Role of the Bologna Process in Defining Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    The question of what Europe is remains under-explored in the literature on European matters, and this suggests a need to formulate a definition of "Europe". This paper suggests that it is not possible to resolve the problem of the meaning of Europe without considering its higher education developments. The Bologna Process is a recent…

  5. The Bologna Process in Portugal and Poland: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tomé

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the consequences of the introduction of the EU directed Bologna Process in Portuguese and Polish Universities. Specifically, we study how the Bologna Process has impacted in the employment situations of graduates in Portugal and Poland. Concerning methodology, we use available official data on the implementation of the Bologna Process in Poland and Portugal. We have found that the investment in Higher Education (HE stalled in both countries in the years since the implementation of the Bologna Process due to massive budgetary restrictions. Nevertheless, the stock of HE graduates increased massively, seemingly because the authorities thought that the free market should lead the HE market in the two countries. Employment prospects, unemployment prospects and wages of graduates continued to be much higher than those of non-graduates. But an unexpected divide appeared between graduates and Masters/PhDs, with important social consequences. While the first “saved” themselves and prospered going into high skilled jobs, the later had to endure minimum wage and underskilled occupations. The low payment for these youngsters was also justified because the supply of HE with Bologna increased but the demand by companies did not match. In fact, both Portugal and Poland have stronger needs in the demand side of the market than in the supply side. Finally, both markets continue to be essentially public and the experiences of privatization did not succeed to much. In terms of social implications, the Bologna Process faces in both countries the massive and decisive challenge of eliminating youth unemployment and emigration but this can only be done with the cooperation of companies that should create high paid and high skilled jobs. Only when this occurs the Bologna Process will achieve its ultimate goal of transforming Portugal and Poland in high skilled equibriuns. Let us hope it happens, for the good of the two countries and particularly for the

  6. All projects related to Lebanon | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Renegotiating Arab Civil-Military Relations: Political and Economic Governance in Transition ... Region: Egypt, Libya, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen, Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, United States ... Region: Lebanon, Turkey, Cyprus, Israel.

  7. lebanon : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Lebanon, Turkey, Cyprus, Israel ... Sujet: HUMAN RIGHTS, GENDER EQUALITY, DEMOCRATIZATION, CULTURAL RELATIONS ... Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen, Sudan.

  8. Tackling inflation and pension reform in Lebanon | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... In Lebanon, the elderly constitute a large share of its population; moreover, Lebanese ... More than half live in poverty and face shortages in health services, water, ... The team reviewed price statistics for Lebanon, identifying ...

  9. The Eisenhower Doctrine and its Implementation in Lebanon - 1958

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, David

    2002-01-01

    In May 1958, President Camille Chamoun of Lebanon sent an urgent cable to U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower requesting military aid under the terms of the Eisenhower Doctrine, to put down civil unrest in Lebanon...

  10. Bologna Trends 2010: The Implementation of the Bologna Process and a Move towards a "New Global Regionalism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The European University Association, whose members include European higher educations institutions across 46 countries, just published Trends 2010, the sixth in the Trends series, its flagship pan-European report. The principal aim of the 2010 report is to situate and analyse the implementation of the Bologna Process, an initiative to create a…

  11. 76 FR 59503 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lebanon, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ...-0558; Airspace Docket No. 11-AEA-13] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lebanon, PA AGENCY: Federal... at Lebanon, PA, to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures that have been developed... amend Class E airspace 700 feet above the surface, at Lebanon, PA (76 FR 39038). Subsequent to...

  12. Lebanon: A Case of History Education in a Sectarian Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper synthesizes the extant literature on history education in Lebanon. The sectarian nature of the country and the recent civil war make the case of Lebanon a unique and compelling one. Three emerging understandings underscore the complexity of history education in Lebanon and demonstrate the ways in which history is used to undercut…

  13. Using the Bologna Score to assess normal delivery healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Isaiane da Silva; Brito, Rosineide Santana de

    2016-01-01

    Describing the obstetric care provided in public maternity hospitals during normal labour using the Bologna Score in the city of Natal, Northeastern Brazil. A quantitative cross-sectional study conducted with 314 puerperal women. Data collection was carried out consecutively during the months of March to July 2014. Prenatal care was provided to 95.9% of the mothers, beginning around the 1st trimester of pregnancy (72.3%) and having seven or more consultations (51%). Spontaneous vaginal delivery was planned for 88.2% women. All laboring women were assisted by a health professional, mostly by a physician (80.6%), and none of them obtained 5 points on the Bologna Score due to the small percentage of births in non-supine position (0.3%) and absence of a partogram (2.2%). A higher number of episiotomies were observed among primiparous women (75.5%). The score obtained using the Bologna Index was low. Thus, it is necessary to improve and readjust the existing obstetrical model. Descrever a assistência obstétrica prestada em maternidades públicas municipais durante o parto normal na cidade de Natal, Nordeste do Brasil, com uso do Índice de Bologna. Estudo transversal com abordagem quantitativa, desenvolvido com 314 puérperas. A coleta de dados processou-se de forma consecutiva durante os meses de março a julho de 2014. A assistência pré-natal foi prestada a 95,9% das puérperas, com início em torno do 1º trimestre de gestação (72,3%) e realização de sete ou mais consultas (51%). O parto vaginal espontâneo foi planejado para 88,2% mulheres. Todas as parturientes foram assistidas por um profissional de saúde, especialmente pelo médico (80,6%) e nenhuma obteve 5 pontos no Índice de Bologna em virtude dos baixos percentuais de partos em posição não supina (0,3%) e ausência do partograma (2,2%). Houve maior número de episiotomias em primíparas (75,5%). A pontuação obtida por meio do Índice de Bologna foi baixa. Desse modo, é preciso melhorar e

  14. BOLOGNA MODEL OF MEDICAL EDUCATION-UTOPIA OR REALITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunic, Lejla; Donev, Doncho

    2016-07-24

    Higher education in Europe and in the Balkan's countries is undergoing major reforms. The Bologna Process was a major reform created with the claimed goal of providing responses to issues such as the public responsibility for higher education and research, higher education governance, the social dimension of higher education and research, and the values and roles of higher education and research in modern, globalized, and increasingly complex societies with the most demanding qualification needs. Changes in the curricula, modernization of facilities and their alignment with the programs of other European universities, employment of a larger number of assistants, especially in the clinical courses at our universities are necessary. Also, it is necessary to continue to conduct further detailed analysis and evaluation of teaching content and outcomes in the future. In this review authors expressed their views and experience of using Bologna model of education in the Balkan's countries with emphasis on Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Macedonia.

  15. Big Bologna. Le anomalie degli spazi pubblici in grande scala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ingersoll

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nella periferia di Bologna sono nati recentemente nuovi spazi pubblici, molto diversi rispetto a quelli della città storica, che esprimono chiaramente  la mania della grandezza, la sindrome di Big Bologna. Ovunque si getta lo sguardo si notano nuove manifestazioni di una scala fuori proporzione che contribuisce alla segregazione sociale. Da quando sono arrivate le torri bianche della megastruttura di Kenzo Tange alla Fiera, la grande scala ha dato origine a spazi pubblici poco ameni per la vita urbana. Forse questi megaprogetti sono inevitabili segni dell’epoca della globalizzazione, ma ci si chiede se i committenti e i loro architetti sono stati consapevoli di quanto la progettazione di tali forme causa un deterrente alla socializzazione.

  16. Bologna 3D: la pianificazione partecipata del Piano Strutturale Comunale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Deiana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Bologna 3D: the Municipal Structural Plan partecipated planning The Bologna Municipality used 3D GIS solutions by Skyline for opening to citizens the decision process which leaded to its new urban plan (PSC: 3D prospective is enhancing understanding of territory strategical planning, even to nontechnical and common people. A Skyline 3D terrain, produced in TerraBuilder environment from 10 meters DTM and from 50 centimeters per pixel colour imagery, is served online by TerraGate streaming server as basis layer for the delivering of interactive 3D GIS applications made using TerraExplorer Pro’s authoring environment, integrating all the significant GIS layers and various informations into many 3D projects, now also available online by installing the free plugin TerraExplorer Viewer.

  17. Bologna 3D: la pianificazione partecipata del Piano Strutturale Comunale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Deiana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Bologna 3D: the Municipal Structural Plan partecipated planningThe Bologna Municipality used 3D GIS solutions by Skyline for opening to citizens the decision process which leaded to its new urban plan (PSC: 3D prospective is enhancing understanding of territory strategical planning, even to nontechnical and common people. A Skyline 3D terrain, produced in TerraBuilder environment from 10 meters DTM and from 50 centimeters per pixel colour imagery, is served online by TerraGate streaming server as basis layer for the delivering of interactive 3D GIS applications made using TerraExplorer Pro’s authoring environment, integrating all the significant GIS layers and various informations into many 3D projects, now also available online by installing the free plugin TerraExplorer Viewer.

  18. Point-of-sale tobacco advertising in Beirut, Lebanon following a national advertising ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Nakkash, Rima T; Myers, Allison E; Wood, Kathryn A; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2013-06-03

    The objective of this study was to conduct an audit of point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising and assess compliance with an advertising ban in a large district of Beirut, Lebanon. The audit was conducted 3 months following the ban on tobacco advertising. Trained students observed all tobacco retail outlets (n = 100) and entered data into a web-based form using iPad(®) technology. Presence of tobacco advertisements was assessed to determine compliance with the national advertising ban. Among the 100 tobacco retail outlets, 62% had tobacco advertisements, including 7% with a tobacco brand logo as part of the main exterior store sign. POS tobacco advertising is widespread in Beirut despite the national advertising ban. These findings point to an urgent need for the enforcement of the advertisement ban with tobacco retail outlets in Lebanon.

  19. Using the Bologna Score to assess normal delivery healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiane da Silva Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Describing the obstetric care provided in public maternity hospitals during normal labour using the Bologna Score in the city of Natal, Northeastern Brazil. METHOD A quantitative cross-sectional study conducted with 314 puerperal women. Data collection was carried out consecutively during the months of March to July 2014. RESULTS Prenatal care was provided to 95.9% of the mothers, beginning around the 1st trimester of pregnancy (72.3% and having seven or more consultations (51%. Spontaneous vaginal delivery was planned for 88.2% women. All laboring women were assisted by a health professional, mostly by a physician (80.6%, and none of them obtained 5 points on the Bologna Score due to the small percentage of births in non-supine position (0.3% and absence of a partogram (2.2%. A higher number of episiotomies were observed among primiparous women (75.5%. CONCLUSION The score obtained using the Bologna Index was low. Thus, it is necessary to improve and readjust the existing obstetrical model.

  20. Bologna Process and Basic Nursing Education in 21 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humar, L; Sansoni, J

    2017-01-01

    The Bologna Process and the Directives of the European Union have had a profound impact on nursing education in Europe. The aim of this study was to identify the similarities and differences within nursing education framework at entry level in 2014 in European countries. A questionnaire was devised by the researchers and distributed via e-mail to the nursing associations/nursing regulatory bodies of 30 European countries. Data were collected from January to May 2014. Responses were received from 21 European Countries. Results indicated that while a completion of 12 years of general education was a requirement to access nursing education in almost all respondent countries, other admission requirements differed between countries. Nursing courses were offered mostly by Faculties of Nursing and Faculties of Health Sciences (in higher education Institutions) and lecturers and management staff were mainly nurses. The results indicated significant different educational requirements for nurse educators. A foreign language was mandatory in half of the respondent countries. Nursing profession was represented at government level in just over half of the respondent countries, often with a Directorate position. The Bologna Process has helped harmonise initial nursing education in Europe but clear standards for nursing education need to be set up. Therefore, the research about the influence of the Bologna process on the development of the nursing profession should be further encouraged.

  1. Venous trauma in the Lebanon War--2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitecki, Samy S; Karram, Tony; Hoffman, Aaron; Bass, Arie

    2007-10-01

    Reports on venous trauma are relatively sparse. Severe venous trauma is manifested by hemorrhage, not ischemia. Bleeding may be internal or external and rarely may lead to hypovolemic shock. Repair of major extremity veins has been a subject of controversy and the current teaching is to avoid venous repair in an unstable or multi-trauma patient. The aim of the current paper is to present our recent experience in major venous trauma during the Lebanon conflict, means of diagnosis and treatment in a level I trauma center. All cases of major venous trauma, either isolated or combined with arterial injury, admitted to the emergency room during the 33-day conflict were reviewed. Out of 511 wounded soldiers and civilians who were admitted to our service over this period, 12 (2.3%) sustained a penetrating venous injury either isolated (5) or combined with arterial injury (7). All injuries were secondary to high velocity penetrating missiles or from multiple pellets stored in long-range missiles. All injuries were accompanied by additional insult to soft tissue, bone and viscera. The mean injury severity score was 15. Severe external bleeding was the presenting symptom in three cases of isolated venous injury (jugular, popliteal and femoral). The diagnosis of a major venous injury was made by a CTA scan in five cases, angiography in one and during surgical exploration in six cases. All injured veins were repaired: three by venous interposition grafts, four by end to end anastomosis, three by lateral suture and two by endovascular techniques. None of the injuries was treated by ligation of a major named vein. Immediate postoperative course was uneventful in all patients and the 30-day follow-up (by clinical assessment and duplex scan) has demonstrated a patent repair with no evidence of thrombosis. Without contradicting the wisdom of ligating major veins in the setup of multi-trauma or an unstable patient, our experience indicates that a routine repair of venous trauma can

  2. Archeologia e Risorgimento. La scoperta degli Etruschi a Bologna / Archaeology and Risorgimento. The discovery of the Etruscans in Bologna

    OpenAIRE

    Sassatelli, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    During the italian Risorgimento and unification periods there was a link between the idea of national unity, the exploitation of urban identities and archeology, in particular the archeology of sites belonging to inhabitance of Italy in pre-Roman times. The discoveries concerning the Etruscans particularly influenced historical events and projects related to the future of the newly unified Italy. This paper analyzes the discovery of the Etruscans in Bologna and the consequences with respect t...

  3. The Syrian refugees in Lebanon and the EU-Lebanon Partnership Compact – new strategies, old agendas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The article discusses the cooperation between the EU and Lebanon with a focus on the newly launched EU-Lebanon Partnership Compact, based on a decision by the EU-Lebanon Association Council of 11 November 2016. The Compact describes the suggested (and partly mutual) commitments by the EU...... and Lebanon aiming at securing the stabilization of Lebanon in general, but also measures attempting to “provide an appropriate and safe environment for refugees and displaced persons from Syria during their temporary stay in Lebanon.”2 An important discussion in connection with that is the question of easing...... the refugees’ controlled access to the Lebanese labour market – obviously a controversial issue. The article concludes that the main EU interests are twofold. Firstly, it is about avoiding destabilization of Lebanon by supporting the integration of refugees in the Lebanese society. Secondly, the reputation...

  4. Educational Disparities and Conflict: Evidence from Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, Rania; Diab, Hassan; Kulczycki, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the impact of Lebanon's civil war (1975-1991) on disparities in education among the country's main religious sects and across various regions. District of registration is adopted as a proxy for religious affiliation through a novel, detailed classification to assess sectarian differentials by region and regional differentials…

  5. Chemical Composition of Rain Water in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SLIM, K.; SAAD, Z.; GHADDAR, A.; NASREDDINE, M.; KATTAN, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of rainfall water were collected from fifteen stations in Lebanon during the period between October 1999 and April 2000 (the rainy season in Lebanon). Nine of these stations are distributed along the urban coastal cities, from the north to the south. The remaining 6 stations which have different altitudes ranging fom 400 m to 1200 m high are distributed in the mountainous rural areas. The concentrations of major cations (H + ,Na + , Ca 2 +, Mg 2 + and NH + 4 ) and major anions (Cl - , NO - 3 , HCO - 3 and SO 2 - 4 are determined for the first time in Lebanon. It has been found that the rain water is not acidic, due to the presence of carbonate dust particles in the atmosphere, which arise from the natural carbonate rocks, especially predominance in the mountains and internal regions of Lebanon. The high predominance of Na + and Cl - in the coastal investigated stations, is attributed to marine aerosol spray. The concentrations of SO - 4 and NO - 3 are close to the concentrations expected in typical urban areas. The correlation between the concentration of chemical species confirms the influence of natural and anthropogenic sources. (author)

  6. Aging in Lebanon: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahim, Sawsan; Ajrouch, Kristine J; Antonucci, Toni C

    2015-08-01

    This spotlight offers a unique window into factors affecting aging in Lebanon. As a bridge between east and west, both geographically and culturally, Lebanon has the fastest growing older adult population in the Arab region, but few societal resources to address its needs. In a country with a history of political instability and war, but also a culture with strong family values, aging adults in Lebanon are vulnerable in some ways and advantaged in others. Outmigration of youth is an important determinant of the wellbeing of the elderly. While often advantaged by remittances sent by their children, older Lebanese adults have less access to instrumental social and personal support previously provided by young adults in the family. How Lebanon manages these challenges is likely to foreshadow the future aging experience for much of the Arab region. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Energy in Lebanon facing the third millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said; Matar, Toni

    2001-01-01

    Competitive, diverse and secure energy supplies are the very lifeblood of modern economies. These supplies are often taken for granted but as past experience has shown, even brief interruptions in supply have serious economic and social consequences. With this central importance of energy in mind, Lebanon energy policy must for the future be based upon three main objectives: competitiveness, diversity and security of energy supplies. These objectives aim to address the complex set of strategic challenges facing the energy sector and the wider energy system, the later comprising end-use sector and the economy at large. They aim also to insure that the energy system is contributing to sustainable development of the lebanese economy with regard to the economic, social and environmental dimensions of the sustainability. The study includes tables on the evolution of the importation bill of fossil fuel; on the total primary energy production and consumption; it presents also the existing thermal and hydro-electrical power plants in Lebanon; the evolution of the electrical energy production; it gives also the emissions estimation of atmospheric pollutant due to the energy sector; the electricity rates in Lebanon; consumption of combustibles in the household; liquid petroleum prices breakdown in 1999 and the comparison of gasoline, diesel, fuel-oil and LPG prices as sold in Lebanon

  8. School-Parent Relations in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Majzoub, Nada

    2013-01-01

    Lebanon is a nation whose history may be depicted as continuous social, political, and sectarian conflict due to European political meddling and a protracted civil war. Although finding common ground in this complex milieu over the past several decades has been challenging, political and educational reforms have been enacted. The role of parents…

  9. State of the energy in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said; Matar Toni

    1998-01-01

    The article describes the state of the energy in Lebanon. In 1996, Lebanon consumed 4647 Ktoe as a primary energy. 97% of this energy is imported mainly polluting oil products: 1623 Ktons fuel-oil, 1379 Ktons gasoline, 930 Ktons diesel, 200 Ktons coal, 124 Ktons LPG, 107 Ktons jet-fuel/Kerosene, 109 Ktons Asphaltic products. The remaining 3% of the energy consumption is renewable energy. As for production, the state owns two refineries which are not used anymore. The year 2000 plan includes an expansion project for the Tripoli refinery and an alternative plan for the Zahrani refinery. These refineries require a total investment in order to reach a production capacity of 50000 barrels a day. The article is a description of the pollution type sources and location in Lebanon. The combustion of the total energy produces yearly more than 15 Ktons of dust, 85 Ktons of SO 2 , 40 Ktons of NOX and 3500 Ktons of CO 2 . Another risk of pollution is due to spilling oil along the Lebanese coast which represents a potential oil spill hazard, with a serious impact on marine and coastal ecosystem. The paper presents also a proposed management schemes of energy policy , control and monitoring options. In addition to the energy balance in 93/94; the consumption of oil products in 93/94/96; oil products importations in 93/96; electricity consumption in 96; ventilation of thermal and hydraulic electricity production in 95/96; estimated inventory of emissions of selected pollutants to air in Lebanon in 93 and 2010; maximum permissible air pollutants in Lebanon; storage capacity of major petroleum importers

  10. Realising pedagogical potencial of the Bologna process third cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis González Geraldo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Higher Education Area (EHEA has been achieved, at least in structure, remapping Higher Education as we know it. This scenario offers a new framework in which the role of universities can be rethought, independently of the field of the new degrees and post grade studies. More specifically, the roles of teachers and students need to be reconsidered. Achieving an enhanced doctoral experience for the next generation of PhD students represents a measurable practical outcome of the Bologna Process. This doctoral case study is contextualised within the issues of internationalisation, standards and standardization of degree credit ratings, collaboration and competition, and language and writing.

  11. Bologna e il Welfare locale, appunti per una storia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Troilo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ancora oggi il welfare locale continua ad essere un tema chiave in una città tra le più sviluppate in Italia e con tradizioni politiche radicate. In questo articolo si pone l’attenzione sull’amministrazione di Bologna e sulla classe politica che l’ha governata in maniera quasi ininterrotta dal dopoguerra. Si analizzeranno in maniera sintetica le politiche messe in atto e il dibattito interno ai partiti di sinistra sulla necessità di mantenere, rinforzare o limitare le politiche del welfare cittadino.

  12. How Was the Bologna Process in Poland, the Netherlands and Flanders Implemented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnicka, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The Bologna Process is an important factor which has had an impact on higher education in Europe. In this paper the implementation of the Bologna Process in Poland, the Netherlands and Flanders is discussed, to show how the different contexts influenced its realization. In order to study the transformation of higher education, new institutionalism…

  13. University education: From Humbolt's model to the Bologna process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodroški-Spariosu Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the European university education in the context of the Bologna process are the topic of this article. The aim is to analyze the key issues in university education in comparison to the classic or Humbolt's model. In the periods of extensive reforms of high education it is important to review the place and role of the university from the standpoint of institutional characteristics, a dominant educational orientation and attitudes towards society. The Bologna process initiated three key changes in the European system of university education: a the change of institutional framework - from the binary to the so called uniquely diversified system; b dominant orientation - instead of science the student is in the centre of education; c the social role of the university - from the development of science and impartial critique of the society towards providing educational services to the market. The pedagogic implications of these changes open the questions of the purpose of education, relations between professors and students and the identity of the modern university itself.

  14. Radioactive contamination in the Bologna sewage system due to nuclear medicine examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testoni, G.; Bernardi, T.; Tubertini, O.; Bergamini, B.; Marengo, M.

    1988-01-01

    Liquid wastes produced by the city of Bologna and surrounding areas are collected by a sewage system, leading to a depuration plant. At present, the capacity of the sewage system is about 230,000 m 3 per day, half of which is treated by the depurator. The incoming flow is fairly constant throughout the year, except for August when, owing to factory shut-down for holidays, there is a decrease of about 60,000 m 3 per day. The treatment of of liquid waste in the depurator is in four phases : primary decantation, active oxidation, active decantation, and disinfection. After treatment lasting 12-13 hours, clarified liquids are discharged into the Navile canal. This leads to the Reno river and then to the Adriatic sea. Muds produced during decantation are further treated and reduced to ashes (within 24-48 hours) that are then stored. Since the sewage system also collects liquid waste from two nuclear medicine departments (Malpighi and Maggiore hospitals), we decided to measure radioactivity in the liquids both at entrance and at exit from the depurator, and in the muds and ashes produced by treatment

  15. The plant macroremains from PPNB Tell Labwe (Lebanon)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyurova, Dobrina; Otaegui, Amaia Arranz; Richter, Tobias

    Tell Labwe constitutes the oldest Neolithic settlement in the Beqaa Valley (Lebanon). This site was excavated by D. Kirkbride in 1966 and revealed a sequence dated from the Late PPNB to the Pottery Neolithic. In 2011, a Lebanese-Spanish team carried out a fieldwork season in order to complete...... the Neolithic in Lebanon....

  16. School Counseling in Lebanon: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyash-Abdo, Huda; Alamuddin, Rayane; Mukallid, Samar

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the status of school counseling in Lebanon. An overview that points out some weakness in the educational system, such as high dropout and repetition rates, is presented. Calls for counseling have been voiced partly because of the psychological consequences of social change, such as political instability in Lebanon. A sample…

  17. Attitudes toward Students with Disabilities at Notre Dame University, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loan, Amira

    2013-01-01

    Disability issues in Lebanon are not being addressed on a national scale. Among the myriad of underrepresented groups, individuals with disabilities in Lebanon continue to be marginalized in education, employment, health care, politics, and all aspects of society. The focus of this project investigation was to identify the attitudes of faculty…

  18. Cooperation challenges for the Special Tribunal for Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, B.

    2007-01-01

    While the Agreement between the United Nations and Lebanon provides a solid framework for cooperation between the Special Tribunal and Lebanon, Security Council Resolution 1757 (2007) is silent on the duty of third states to assist the Tribunal. As a result, the Special Tribunal will be confronted

  19. 76 FR 50535 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7555] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Lebanon Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs... States to waive the requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Lebanon and I hereby...

  20. The Bologna process - governing higher education in Europe through standardisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fejes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the rationalities of governing that makes it possible to govern higher education in Europe through a voluntarily process such as the Bologna process. 45 nations have signed it and try to accommodate to the ideas in it without anyone telling them they have to. Drawing on the Foucaultian notion of governmentality official documents concerning the Bologna process, higher- and adult education on the European and Swedishlevels are analysed. In the first part «planetspeak» discourses such asknowledge society, employability, lifelong learning, quality assurance and mobility are analysed. They create a configuration of thought that makes following the Bologna process a rational way to act. In the second part we analyse this process as a standardisation technique which creates a tension related to the idea of freedom. The narratives create exclusion; those nations who chose not to participate are created as «the other», in need of remedy. Inthe third part we problematize how these ideas mesh with, and challenge local ideas about education. Even though the narratives produced in Sweden to major parts seem to adapt to the process, there is a creation of the«specific» Swedish. It acts as a persuasive technique for implement the ideas in the Bologna declaration.Este artículo analiza las razones de gobierno o gubernamentalidad que hacen posible la legislación de la educación superior en Europa, a través de su configuración en una suerte de proceso voluntario como el de Bolonia, cuarenta y cinco países han ratificado tal proceso e intentan acomodarse a las ideas en él expuestas, sin que nadie les haya dicho que deban hacerlo. Partiendo de la noción foucaultiana de gubernamentabilidad, se analizan los documentos oficiales referentes al proceso de Bolonia y la educación superior y de adultos a niveles europeos y suecos. En su primera parte, se estudian discursos y términos mundialmente aceptados tales como la saciedad del

  1. Vincenzo Neri and His Legacy in Paris and Bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanone, Federico; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Venturini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Italian neurologist Vincenzo Neri was able to discover cinematography at the beginning of his career, when in 1908 he went to Paris to learn and improve his clinical background by following neurological cases at La Pitié with Joseph Babinski, who became his teacher and friend. While in Paris, Neri photographed and filmed several patients of famous neurologists, such as Babinski and Pierre Marie. His stills were published in several important French neurological journals and medical texts. He also collaborated with Georges Mendel, who helped Doyen film the first known surgical operation in the history of cinema. In 1910, when he came back to Bologna, he continued in his clinical activities and, for 50 years, slowly developed a huge archive of films, images, and prints of neurological, psychiatric, and orthopedic cases. This archive was extremely helpful to Neri, who especially needed to analyze neurological disorders and to differentiate them from functional conditions in order to understand clinical signs, rules, and mechanisms.

  2. The social context of tobacco products use among adolescents in Lebanon (MedSPAD-Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Bejjani

    2012-03-01

    Conclusions: Further analysis confirmed that narguileh use is now an accepted familial and social phenomenon, with restrictions apparently decreasing. These results necessitate drawing strategies to address this public health concern that is becoming more prevalent in Lebanon and elsewhere in the Middle East.

  3. ENGLISH LANGUAGE FOR SUCCESSFUL INTEGRATION: LEARNING FROM THE BOLOGNA PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez - Carrion Jose Rodolfo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bologna Process aims to provide tools to connect the European national educational systems. The purpose of this paper is to analyze what we have learned and what challenges remain today. Since the beginning all participating countries had to agree on a comparable three cycle degree system for undergraduates (Bachelor degrees or Grades and graduates (Master and PhD degrees in order to create compatibility and comparability for achieving international competitiveness and a worldwide degree of attractiveness in higher education. The Bologna Declaration, originally signed by 29 countries, has now reached 47 countries, engaged in the process of creating a European Higher Education Area (EHEA, searching to be competitive to launch the European Academia of the 21st Century. The European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS has turned out to be the perfect tool to design, describe, and deliver programs and award higher education qualifications. Markets and European universities are going to be able to compete overseas in the future if the new regulations let them to create profitable business in the education area. As expected, European Universities have responded promptly and actively to the call. In the case of small countries like Spain, it is an opportunity to internationalize Spanish universities; moreover, there is the opportunity for the expansion and consolidation of the Spanish language as the second most important foreign language. The 2009 Report highlights that early teaching of a foreign language is advancing in Europe. In lower secondary education, earlier teaching of English is becoming widespread; and the three Nordic countries, Germany, and the UK are the highest innovation performers. The result is a system of higher education more competitive and more attractive for Europeans and non-Europeans students and scholars. Reform is needed today if Europe wants to match the performance of the best performing higher education

  4. Archeologia e Risorgimento. La scoperta degli Etruschi a Bologna / Archaeology and Risorgimento. The discovery of the Etruscans in Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sassatelli, Giuseppe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During the italian Risorgimento and unification periods there was a link between the idea of national unity, the exploitation of urban identities and archeology, in particular the archeology of sites belonging to inhabitance of Italy in pre-Roman times. The discoveries concerning the Etruscans particularly influenced historical events and projects related to the future of the newly unified Italy. This paper analyzes the discovery of the Etruscans in Bologna and the consequences with respect to the foundation of the "Museo Civico Archeologico" (Civic Archaeological Museum, known as a major achievement in the city's history, which is aimed at defining and recovering an urban identity according to the the project of national unity.

  5. Questioning Faculty Use of Information Technology by Context of NETS-T Standards in Bologna Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmas, Muzaffer

    2013-01-01

    Using technology in and out of class has been becoming more and more important recently. University settings also become more dependent to technology. Bologna process requires university and faculty diffuse and

  6. Lebanon and Syria: between dissociation and spillover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Lion Bustillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The risk of Syrian civil war violence spreading towards Lebanon is high. This can be explained by various factors deriving as much from the neighbouring conflict as from other existing factors in Lebanese politics, which have led to the significant collaboration of Lebanon’s Future Movement and Hezbollah with their respective allies in Syria, and to undermining Najib Mikati’s dissociation policies. However, the leaders of those parties tend to balance their will to preserve their confessional leadership with an image of being the defender of national interests. This limits the possibility of an openly sectarian conflict, but it does not totally eliminate it.

  7. The Repercussions of the Syrian crisis on Tourism in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Salem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lebanon is characterised by a touristic industry, making of it the highest touristic destination in the Arab world before 1975, the year in which Lebanon's civil war has erupted, a war from which Lebanon still suffers until now. Moreover, Lebanon suffers from internal political conflicts and the repercussions of the geopolitical conflicts in the Middle East, the latest of which is the Syrian war. While the crises in Lebanon prevail- from political, security, economic, social to even environmental - Lebanese policymakers are still seeking to make out of Lebanon a country considered as a touristic one, and are working on achieving a sustainable touristic development. In this context, this study tackles the crisis that Lebanon is experiencing as a result of forced Syrian displacement into its territory, and sheds light on its negative and positive effects on Lebanese tourism. The study also aims to determine the effectiveness of sustainable tourism development in times of crisis, based on the study of Lebanese touristic data during a specific period of time.

  8. FATHI YAKAN THE PIONEER OF ISLAMIC ACTIVISM IN LEBANON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Rabil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the ideology of Fathi Yakan, the pioneer of Sunni Islamism in Lebanon and a principal founder of the Islamist party al-­‐Jama'a al-­‐Islamiya.  It also traces the establishment of  al_Jama'a as the first organized Islamist party in Lebanon.  As Secretary General of al-­‐Jama'a, Fathi Yakan blazed the ideological trail for Islamism's participation in Lebanon's political realm.  Significantly, Yakan's political activism, in much the same vein as that of Druze "Socialist" Kamal Jumblat, was also more about removing Maronite hegemony over the state.

  9. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Geologically speaking, Lebanon is a young country since the oldest rocks are of Upper Jurassic age. Two volcanic periods are included in the more recent rocks. The country is intersected by numerous faults mainly striking NNE but also including numerous small transverse faults. No prospecting for nuclear raw materials has been recorded and there is no known activity at the present time. Lebanon has no national geological organization to support uranium prospecting. From the geological standpoint, possibilities of occurrences of nuclear minerals in Lebanon are poor and the Speculative Potential is placed in the less than 1000 tonnes uranium category. (author)

  10. Consanguinity in Lebanon: prevalence, distribution and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Bernadette; Salameh, Pascale

    2009-07-01

    The union of individuals with a common ancestor may lead to serious health consequences in their offspring. Consanguinity is high in Middle Eastern communities; it was around 26% in 1988. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of consanguinity in Beirut and other Lebanese regions, and its associated factors in different subgroups. The cross-sectional study was performed on a convenience sample of married women in Lebanon. The women were administered a standardized questionnaire in a face-to-face interview by independent enquirers. Among 1556 women, the overall prevalence of consanguineous marriages was 35.5%, and the consanguinity coefficient was 0.020; 968 marriages (62.2%) were not consanguineous, 492 (31.6%) were first cousin, 61 (3.9%) were second cousin and 36 (2.3%) had lower degrees of consanguinity. Beirut suburb dwelling, low education subgroups, women working in the home and non-Christian religion presented the highest rates of consanguinity (pwomen thinking that consanguinity would not lead to serious diseases. Consanguinity is therefore still a prevailing problem in Lebanon. Specific health education, and genetic counselling in particular, are suggested to explain the consequences of consanguinity to the general population and to help couples make informed choices.

  11. Attitudes Toward Placebo Use in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Mrad, Fadi; Tarabey, Lubna

    2015-05-01

    Placebo use, both in clinical trials and patient care, is a problematic ethical issue surrounded by opposing arguments from those who advocate its use versus those who do not. This problematic aspect of placebo is more challenging in Lebanon where religious ideologies dominate people's beliefs, and where laws that guide medical care are vague. This paper aims to highlight the cultural ideologies that dominate medical care and the perspectives of people associated with the field. The method relied on semi-structured interviews with religious leaders, representatives of society and healthcare professionals. Panel discussions incorporating healthcare professionals, academics, scientists and medical researchers were also organized. The legal environment in Lebanon is characterized by lack of an appropriate legislative guideline that categorically clarifies the value of the human person in medical care. There is a lack of a common ethical standard within a society characterized by social and political dissent. The culturally upheld principles and actual application of the principles of ethics surrounding patient autonomy were overviewed. Medical practitioners failed to agree to a general outline that should guide the use of placebo where it became evident that each practitioner adopted a subjective framework which ultimately undermines patient autonomy. The paper proposes that until a new legislative code that clarifies ethical principles properly guiding medical care is coined, the process of placebo use will continue to be subject to the paternalistic assessments of medical professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hospital waste management status in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, R.; Oueida, F.; Tissot-Guerraz, F.; Trepo, D.; Collombel, C.

    2000-01-01

    author.The existing management of hospital waste in Lebanon currently poses both an environmental hazard as well as a public health risk. This is due mainly to lack of legislation, information and modern treatment and disposal facilities designed for this purpose. A nation-wide questionnaire survey was conducted to asses the status of hospital waste management. The study started from October 1997 till August 1998. We found that 75% of the surveyed hospitals completely ignore their total waste quantity: 73% of hospitals surveyed practice segregation at source of infectious, pathological, sharps and pharmaceuticals; more than 40% dispose of their hospital risk wastes through the municipality waste disposal, 24% by burning in open fires, 14% by on-site hospital incinerators, 11% in on-site dumping, 8% handled by a private contractor and 1% in uncontrolled landfill. We conclude that with some exceptions, the hospital waste management situation in Lebanon is very far from being satisfactory and therefore needs to be reconsidered. 1 Fig., 6 tabs., 18 refs

  13. TO STORES USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL Division

    2001-01-01

    Stores users are informed that the Stores (Central, Emergency window, Raw materials, Chemical products and Prévessin Self service stores) will be closed on Friday, 7 December owing to migration of the Stores computers to Windows 2000. Thank you for your understanding.

  14. SPORT EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS BOLOGNA PROCESS APPLICATION EXPERIENCES AND PROBLEMS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Ilić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Current changes in education legislative and efforts in direction of aligning domestic educational system with European union legislative and Bologna declaration were broadly welcomed in scientific institutions as positive and necessary step towards educational system modernization. However, together with new Higher education law implementation, ac creditation process start and education system modification a few important problems came to an attention. Although the time frame from the beginning of the changes is relatively short, certain conclusions and experiences about current problems can be presented. According to current experiences, new legislation was inadequately precise and correct in proper sport categorization, considering its distinctions as multidisciplinary and specific scientific area. It also failed to recognize needs and differences of sport higher education institutions in connection with students and teaching staff profile and quality. Above-mentioned factors caused problems which occurred in process of accreditation, knowledge transfer process, finding and adequate teaching staff acquiring with danger of potential lowering of numbers and quality of future graduates. As a conclusion,it can be said that prompt improvements and changes of current legislative are needed in order to meet true needs of sport and sport education.

  15. [Mortality study in metal electroplating workers in Bologna (Northern Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerosa, Alberto; Scarnato, Corrado; Giacomozzi, Giuseppe; d'Errico, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    to investigate general and cause-specific mortality of workers exposed to metals and other chemicals in the electroplating industry in Bologna Province. factory records of workers employed in 90 electroplating companies present in 1995 were used to build a cohort of subjects potentially exposed to carcinogenic and other substances in this industry, defined as "revised cohort", which was followed-up for mortality from 1960, or since first employment in an electroplating company if later, to 2008. Mortality risk was also examined separately in a subset of the cohort, composed of workers with at least one year of employment in electroplating, denominated "final cohort". Death rates of residents in Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy) were used as a reference. follow-up completeness was 99%. During the observation period, 533 deaths out of 2,983 subjects were observed in the revised cohort and 317 out of 1,739 in the final cohort. Significantly increased Standardized Mortality Ratios were estimated for overall mortality and for mortality from AIDS in the revised cohort and for bladder and rectal cancer in both cohorts. the present study is, to authors' knowledge, the largest mortality investigation conducted in Italy on electroplating workers, for both size and temporal extension. The presence of excess mortality from causes of death not consistently associated in the literature with exposure to agents in this industry suggests that further research is needed to confirm these associations.

  16. All projects related to Lebanon | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Europe, Turkey, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Iraq, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine ... will have a negative impact on employment and the economy in tobacco-producing countries. ... Program: Food, Environment, and Health.

  17. Reducing early marriage of adolescent Syrian refugees in Lebanon ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... in Lebanon: Improving access to sexual and reproductive health information and services ... on family planning, and higher risk of gender-based violence. ... in the 2016-2030 WHO led Global Strategy for Women, Children and Adolescents, ...

  18. Limited legal status for refugees from Syria in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Aranki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Having limited legal status has direct negative consequences for Syrian refugees’ access to protection and assistance during their stay in Lebanon. Limited legal status also increases the risks of abuse and exploitation.

  19. When is return voluntary? Conditions of asylum in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Keith

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The decision of Syrian refugees in Lebanon to return to Syria must not be based on a deteriorating quality of asylum that creates physical, social and material pressures on decisions to return.

  20. U.S. Foreign Aid to Lebanon: Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharp, Jeremy M

    2007-01-01

    In Lebanon today, there is a battle for political primacy between the anti-Syrian, pro-Western government of Prime Minister Fouad Siniora and the opposition, led by the Hezbollah and former General Michel Aoun...

  1. Searching for radiations in consumed meat in Lebanon in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hage, N.

    1987-01-01

    The thesis is a survey on the contamination of meat in Lebanon following Chernobyl accident, taking into consideration that Lebanon is a big importer of meat from eastern european countries. The first part of the study presents an exhaustive description of radioactivity and different types of irradiation; the impact of Chernobyl accident on environment ; sources of contamination of meat by Iodine 131, Strontium 90 and Cesium 137; radiation doses admitted and radiation effects on men organs. The survey describes radioactivity analysis of one hundred samples of meat collected from different regions in Lebanon along the period dating from June to September 1986. Results showed the absence of radioactive contamination of consumed meat in Lebanon after Chernobyl accident. Recommendations are formulated for a permanent control of food products by Lebanese government in application of IAEA international regulations on preservation of food products from radioactive elements

  2. Electricity in Lebanon: a century report (1885-1994)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The document reports the status of the 'electricity' in Lebanon since 1885 with an emphasis on its present economical situation. Data concerning electric power consumption and distribution as well as the average of rainwater, spring and weather are given. Power plants in Lebanon, the production of electric power and its consumption are described. A quantitative analysis of specifications of power plants and their annual and monthly production of electric power, the distribution of electricity consumption in Lebanon (geographical, annual, monthly) are presented in tables and graphs. An overview of the economical status of the 'electricity' in Lebanon is presented. The evolution of prices charges, hour cuts, damages and the impact of Lebanese wars on the distribution and the consumption of electricity are presented

  3. All projects related to lebanon | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · What we do / Regions and countries / lebanon ... IDRC's Acacia program identified small-scale agriculture, including environment and natural ... but tend to be poorly organized and lacking in programs and networking opportunities.

  4. lebanon : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: EMIGRANTS, POLITICAL AFFILIATION, POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR, ... et manquent de structures pour soutenir des programmes et se regrouper en réseaux. ... South Asia, Jordan, Lebanon, Malaysia, Syria, Yemen, Palestine, Réunion.

  5. All projects related to lebanon | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Improving access to sexual and reproductive health information and services ... to provide employment counseling and job matching services for male and ... refugee crisis on the education systems in Jordan and Lebanon is immense.

  6. Health equity in Lebanon: a microeconomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad Firas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health sector in Lebanon suffers from high levels of spending and is acknowledged to be a source of fiscal waste. Lebanon initiated a series of health sector reforms which aim at containing the fiscal waste caused by high and inefficient public health expenditures. Yet these reforms do not address the issues of health equity in use and coverage of healthcare services, which appear to be acute. This paper takes a closer look at the micro-level inequities in the use of healthcare, in access, in ability to pay, and in some health outcomes. Methods We use data from the 2004/2005 Multi Purpose Survey of Households in Lebanon to conduct health equity analysis, including equity in need, access and outcomes. We briefly describe the data and explain some of its limitations. We examine, in turn, and using standardization techniques, the equity in health care utilization, the impact of catastrophic health payments on household wellbeing, the effect of health payment on household impoverishment, the equity implications of existing health financing methods, and health characteristics by geographical region. Results We find that the incidence of disability decreases steadily across expenditure quintiles, whereas the incidence of chronic disease shows the opposite pattern, which may be an indication of better diagnostics for higher quintiles. The presence of any health-related expenditure is regressive while the magnitude of out-of-pocket expenditures on health is progressive. Spending on health is found to be "normal" and income-elastic. Catastrophic health payments are likelier among disadvantaged groups (in terms of income, geography and gender. However, the cash amounts of catastrophic payments are progressive. Poverty is associated with lower insurance coverage for both private and public insurance. While the insured seem to spend an average of almost LL93,000 ($62 on health a year in excess of the uninsured, they devote a smaller

  7. BLC Bank - Lebanon : Leading in Banking on Women

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2016-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to learn about the impact of International Finance Corporation’s (IFC) Banking on Women (BoW) Program in the Europe and Central Asia and the Middle East and North Africa (EMENA) through BLC Bank of Lebanon. The objective of this specific case study is to understand the success of the BoW program for BLC Bank in Lebanon in terms of the program’s contri...

  8. Emergency response to mass casualty incidents in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Mazen J

    2013-08-01

    The emergency response to mass casualty incidents in Lebanon lacks uniformity. Three recent large-scale incidents have challenged the existing emergency response process and have raised the need to improve and develop incident management for better resilience in times of crisis. We describe some simple emergency management principles that are currently applied in the United States. These principles can be easily adopted by Lebanon and other developing countries to standardize and improve their emergency response systems using existing infrastructure.

  9. Determinants of caesarean section in Lebanon: geographical differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayol, Marion; Zein, Ali; Ghosn, Nada; Du Mazaubrun, Christiane; Breart, Gérard

    2008-03-01

    This study, based on the Lebanese National Perinatal Survey which included 5231 women, examined the relations between the caesarean section (CS) rate and the characteristics of mothers, children, antenatal care and maternity units in two geographical zones of Lebanon (Beirut-Mount Lebanon and the rest of the country) and then looked at geographical variations. This analysis concerned 3846 women with singleton pregnancies and livebirths at low risk of CS, after exclusion of women with a previous CS, non-cephalic fetal presentations, or delivery before 37 weeks' gestation. The principal end point was caesarean delivery. The relations between the factors studied and CS were estimated by odds ratios (OR), both crude and adjusted, using logistic regression. The rate of CS was higher in the Beirut-Mount Lebanon zone than elsewhere (13.4% vs. 7.6%). After adjustment, several factors remained associated with caesarean delivery in each zone. Common factors were primiparity, gestational age > or = 41 weeks and antenatal hospitalisation. Factors identified only in the Beirut-Mount Lebanon zone were obstetric history and insurance coverage, whereas for the other zones we only found major risk factors for obstetric disease: maternal age > or = 35 years, number of antenatal consultations > or = 4 and birthweight Lebanon (OR = 1.80 [95% CI 1.09, 2.95]). In conclusion, the CS rates in Lebanon were high, with geographical differences that were associated with access to care and with obstetric practices.

  10. Violence Against Displaced Syrian Women in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Jinan; Masterson, Amelia Reese; Farver, JoAnn M

    2016-10-01

    This study used focus group discussions to explore 29 Syrian women's experiences of being displaced refugees in Lebanon. Women reported intimate partner violence (IPV), harassment, and community violence. They experienced difficult living conditions characterized by crowding and lack of privacy, adult unemployment, and overall feelings of helplessness. Most frequently, they used negative coping strategies, including justification and acceptance of IPV and often physically harmed their own children due to heightened stress. Some sought support from other Syrian refugee women. Although the study did not address the root causes of IPV, the results shed light on women's experiences and indicate that training them in positive coping strategies and establishing support groups would help them face IPV that occurs in refugee settings.

  11. Survey on the energy in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said

    1998-01-01

    The state of energy sector in Lebanon for 1997 is presented. Balance of primary and final energy is drawn up as well as the production and consumption of electricity for 1997. Results have shown that primary energy is imported and is based essentially on petroleum products such as fuel oil 33,5%, gas oil 27,5%, gasoline 27%, GPL 3% and carbureactor 2%. Energy consumption has increased by 13% in 1997. Energy pricing has increased by 9% comparing to 1996. Balance of final energy shows that 80% of this energy is represented by gas oil, gasoline and electricity. Emissions of toxic substances due to the combustion of energy based on hydrocarbures are estimated. Economic analysis of electricity sector is presented. Tables and statistics support the results reported

  12. Organic Food Market Segmentation in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tleis, Malak; Roma, Rocco; Callieris, Roberta

    2015-04-01

    Organic farming in Lebanon is not a new concept. It started with the efforts of the private sector more than a decade ago and is still present even with the limited agricultural production. The local market is quite developed in comparison to neighboring countries, depending mainly on imports. Few studies were addressed to organic consumption in Lebanon, were none of them dealt with organic consumers analysis. Therefore, our objectives were to identify the profiles of Lebanese organic consumer and non organic consumer and to propose appropriate marketing strategies for each segment of consumer with the final aim of developing the Lebanese organic market. A survey, based on the use of closed-ended questionnaire, was addressed to 400 consumers in the capital, Beirut, from the end of February till the end of March 2014. Data underwent descriptive analyses, principal component analyses (PCA) and cluster analyses (k-means method) through the statistical software SPSS. Four cluster were obtained based on psychographic characteristics and willingness to pay (WTP) for the principal organic products purchased. "Localists" and "Health conscious" clusters constituted the largest proportion of the selected sample, thus were the most critical to be addressed by specific marketing strategies emphasizing the combination of local and organic food and the healthy properties of organic products. "Rational" and "Irregular" cluster were relatively small groups, addressed by pricing and promotional strategies. This study showed a positive attitude among Lebanese consumer towards organic food, where egoistic motives are prevailing over altruistic motives. High prices of organic commodities and low trust in organic farming, remain a constraint to levitating organic consumption. The combined efforts of the public and the private sector are required to spread the knowledge about positive environmental payback of organic agriculture and for the promotion of locally produced organic goods.

  13. NACS Store Planning Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Store Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Topics discussed by the NACS Store Planning/Renovation Committees in this updated version of the college store renovation manual include: short- and long-range planning, financial considerations, professional planning assistance, the store's image and business character, location considerations, building requirements, space requirements, fixtures,…

  14. Path Dependence and Foreign Policy: A Case Study of United States Policy toward Lebanon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reyes, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    ... there. What has often been overlooked is the historical legacy of a tiny nation in the Levant: Lebanon. Many studies show Lebanon as a viable democracy prior to the start of its civil war in 1975...

  15. Early Marriage and Barriers to Contraception among Syrian Refugee Women in Lebanon: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cherri, Zeinab; Gil Cuesta, Julita; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose M.; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2017-01-01

    The Syrian conflict has displaced five million individuals outside their country with Lebanon hosting the largest numbers per capita. Around 24% of Syrian refugees fleeing to Lebanon are women of reproductive age (15-49). Yet, a better understanding of the sexual and reproductive health needs of Syrian refugee women in Lebanon is required to improve provided services. Eleven focus group discussions were conducted in four regions of Lebanon with 108 Syrian refugee women of reproductive age. Th...

  16. Chemical characteristics of atmospheric deposition collected at two ENEA stations near Bologna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barilli, L.; Olivieri, P.; Salvi, S.; Morselli, L.; Grandi, E.; Ianuccilli, A.

    1997-06-01

    This article presents the results of the measurements of the water quality in acid rains, collected by a Wet and Dry Sampler in 1994 and in 1995 at two ENEA stations, Brasimone and Bologna town, belonging to the RIDEP network and characterized by different geography and different anthropogenic sources. In the Bologna station from April 95 an innovative sampler DAS (Dry Deposition on Aquatic Surface) has been activated. The monitoring has allowed determining the wet deposition fluxes in both the stations and pointing out the differences between two areas characterized by different topology. Besides the DAS sampler has allowed evaluating the total deposition fluxes (wet and dry deposition) in the Bologna station and comparing them with the ''critical loads'' pertaining to the examined territory

  17. With Bologna in Mind and the Sword in the Hand: The German Bachelor/Master Reform Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mause, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, many European countries have adapted their traditional one-cycle curriculum structure in higher education to the two-cycle structure employed in the Anglo-American world. In the large social science literature dealing with this reform phenomenon, the Bologna Process -- starting with the 1999 Declaration of Bologna -- is…

  18. Financing and Political Economy of Higher Education: The Case of Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, Charbel

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the adequacy, efficiency, and equity of higher education in Lebanon in both the public and private sectors, while highlighting challenges that are specific to Lebanon. It concludes by discussing various approaches and strategies to remedy the challenges facing higher education in Lebanon.

  19. 78 FR 46487 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ...--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Lebanon #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0... With Respect to Lebanon On August 1, 2007, by Executive Order 13441, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Lebanon pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C...

  20. 76 FR 39038 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lebanon, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ...-0558; Airspace Docket No. 11-AEA-13] Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lebanon, PA AGENCY... action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at Lebanon, PA, to accommodate new Standard Instrument... amendment to Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 to establish Class E airspace at Lebanon...

  1. The Actual (Un)usefulness of the Bologna System in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin

    2016-04-01

    Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo has officially started working on 22.11.1944, and is the oldest faculty in the medical field in Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the same time there are two systems of organization of the teaching process, the old system and the Bologna system. To analyze the implementation of the Bologna system, and making an overview of its justification. Answers from questionnaires from total of 459 students were analyzed (197 who had studied under the old system and 262 who studied under the Bologna system), so total of four generations of the Bologna system. They filled out a questionnaire in which they evaluated the teaching process. Student's opinion about quality of medical education was measured by modified Lickert scale. Students of old system are older than students of the Bologna process, whose average age is increasing from generation to generation, given the growing number of students who repeat a year. All students of old system repeated an academic year once or several times (p educational process (teachers, methods, effects). The only significant progress has been proven in terms of rating the degree of computerization of the educational process-general records on enrolled students (old system vs Bologna system-3,44 vs 3,63), record of attendance (3,47 vs 3,73), obtaining certificates (3,08 vs 3,84), method of registration of exam (2,98 vs 3,71), method of practical exam (3,06 vs 3,36) and theoretical methods of taking exam (3,01 vs 3,14). Average grades where no average grade, on any issue, does not reach grade 4 of Likert Scale, talks about real problems of education in medical field. In a relatively large sample (four generations of students) true benefit and progress of the Bologna system has not been proven, in comparison to the old system. Bologna system has eased the students in the administrative sense by introduction of computerization of faculties, but the old problems and old questions about the organization

  2. Characterization of organic aerosols in Beirut, Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waked, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    The chemical composition of PM2.5 includes both organic and inorganic compounds. Organic compounds, which constitute a significant fraction of the PM2.5 mass, can be emitted directly as primary aerosol from sources such as fossil-fuel combustion, biomass burning, and natural biogenic emissions, or formed in the atmosphere via chemical reactions leading to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. SOA, which account for 20 - 80 % of total organic aerosol, are currently a major source of uncertainty in air quality modeling. The identification and quantification of the chemical composition of the organic fraction of PM2.5 and its source apportionment are of great interest, especially in the Middle East region where data on organic aerosols are currently lacking. Lebanon, a small developing country in the Middle East region located on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean basin represents a good example for characterizing organic aerosols in this region. To address this issue, the air quality in Beirut (the capital city of Lebanon) was investigated with a focus on organic aerosols. First, an air pollutant emission inventory was developed for Lebanon with a spatial resolution of 5 km x 5 km and for Beirut with a spatial resolution of 1 km x 1 km. The results obtained show that the road transport sector is the major contributor to carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions, whereas fossil fuel-fired power plants and large industrial plants are the major contributors to sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and primary particulate matter (PM) emissions. Then, two intensive 15-day measurement campaigns were conducted at a semi-urban site located in a Beirut suburb to characterize air pollutant concentrations. The first measurement campaign took place in July 2011 and the second in February 2012. Measurements included PM2.5, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) mass concentrations as well as a molecular

  3. Rangeland degradation in two watersheds of Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, T; Faour, G.

    2008-01-01

    A complex and rugged nature characterizes the Lebanese mountains.The climatic pattern prevailing in the country, deforestation and man made erosion caused increased rangeland degradation. The purpose of this study was to monitor two contrasting watersheds, representing the Lebanese agro-ecological zones, to analyze the vegetation dynamics and trace the state of rangeland degradation. The Kfarselouane (205 km2) and Aarsal (316.7 km2) watersheds are located in the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon mountain chain and characterized by sub humid and semi-arid climate respectively.Using multitemporal spot vegetation images between 1999 and 2005 to analyze the normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) revealed some improvement of the vegetation cover over recent years in Kfaselouane with a steady state in Aarsal. The NDVI trend curve inclines in spring and declines in summer and fall. Judging by the time scale amplitude change and highest magnitude between the peak and lower NDVI level in Aarsal, an increased vulnerability to drought is observed in the dry Lebanese areas. Comparing land cover/use in Aarsal area between 1962 and 2000 using aerial photos and large resolution Indian satellite images (IRS) showed wood fragmentation and slight increase of the degenerated forest cover from 1108 ha to 1168 ha. Landuse change was accompanied by a simultaneous increase of cultivated lands (mostly fruit trees) from 932 ha to 4878 ha with absence of soil conservation and water harvesting practices. On the contrary, grasslands decreased from 29581 ha to 25000 ha. In Kfarselouane, the area of grassland was invaded by forestland where rangeland decreased from 8073 ha to 3568 ha and woodland increased from 5766 ha to 11800 ha. Forest expansion occurred even at the account of unproductive land which decreased from 2668 ha to 248 ha, while cultivated lands did not reveal any substantial change. Based on animals' seasonal feeding pattern, a mismatch between land carrying capacity and grazing

  4. Etiologic agents of dermatophyte infection in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araj, George F; Racoubian, Eddie S; Daher, Nemat K

    2004-01-01

    Dermatophytes are common and cause important human fungal infections in many parts of the world, including Lebanon. The prevalence of these fungi, however, tends to vary with time and geographic location. In our region, studies on the prevalence of dermatophytoses and the distribution of the various dermatophyte species involved are rare. In Lebanon, only one study was published on this subject over the last forty years. This study was undertaken to shed light on the types and prevalence of dermatophytes recovered at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC), and to compare the findings with those of the only study from the same hospital published in the early 1960s. Records from the clinical microbiology section were reviewed for the patients on whom dermatophyte cultures were requested between 1996 and 2002. All positive cultures were identified and analyzed. Among 1631 submitted specimens for culture (one per patient), 208 (12.7%) yielded 11 species of dermatophytes, dominated by Trichophyton spp. (89.9%), followed by Microsporum spp. (9.1%), Epidermophyton floccosum (0.4%) and Trichosporum beigelii (0.4%). The male to female ratio was almost 1:1, and the age range was 1 to 77 yrs for both sexes; 14% were children (< or = 15 yrs). The most commonly recovered species were: T. tonsurans (54.8%), T. mentagrophytes (24.5%), M. canis (7.7%), T. rubrum (5.3%) and T. verrucosum (4%). The distribution of infection according to body sites was : tinea unguium (44.2%), tinea corporis (43.2%), tinea capitis (7.7%) and tinea pedis (4.8%). Compared to the previous study from AUBMC in 1962, the current study showed an overall lower prevalence of dermatophytoses (12.7 vs 18.5%, p = 0.001) and variations in the prevalence rates of the dermatophyte species involved (dominated by T. tonsurans and T. mentagrophytes in the current study compared to E. floccosum and T. rubrum recovered in 1962). Based on the source of infection the current study showed higher

  5. Information for Stores Users

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2004-01-01

    As the FARNELL Catalogue CAPACITORS, RESISTORS and POTENTIOMETERS have now been integrated into the CERN Stores Catalogue (SCEM Groups 10 and 11) they can now be obtained via an EDH 'Material Request' like any other Stores item. N.B. The Farnell 'Order code' is one of the key-words that make it easier to find items in the Stores Catalogue. Logistics Group FI Department

  6. Distributed energy store railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that when the limiting case of a distributed energy store railgun is analyzed, i.e., the case where the space between adjacent energy stores become indefinitely small, three important results are obtained. First, the shape of the current pulse delivered by each store is sinusoidal and an exponential tail. Second, the rail-to-rail voltage behind the rear-most active store approaches zero. Third, it is not possible to choose parameters in such a way that capacitor crowbars can be eliminated

  7. Dementia prevalence, care arrangement, and access to care in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phung, Kieu T T; Chaaya, Monique; Prince, Martin

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In North Africa and the Middle East, studies about dementia prevalence are scarce. A pilot study was conducted in Lebanon to assess dementia prevalence, using the Arabic-validated 10/66 Dementia Research Group (DRG) diagnostic assessment for case ascertainment. The study also examined...... care arrangement and access to care. METHODS: A random sample of 502 persons older than 65 years and their informant were recruited from Beirut and Mount Lebanon governorates through multistage cluster sampling. RESULTS: The crude and age-standardized dementia prevalences were 7.4% and 9.......0%, respectively. People with dementia were mainly cared for by relatives at home. Access to formal care was very limited. DISCUSSION: Dementia prevalence in Lebanon ranks high within the global range of estimates. These first evidence-based data about disease burden and barriers to care serve to raise awareness...

  8. The Impact of the Bologna Process on Academic Staff in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Marta A.; Chapman, David W.; Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.

    2012-01-01

    Academic staff in Ukraine face a convergence of institutional and professional pressures precipitated by a national economic crisis, projected declines in enrolment and dramatic changes to institutional procedures as institutions implement the Bologna Process. This article examines the extent to which these pressures are reshaping the way academic…

  9. The Open Method of Coordination and the Implementation of the Bologna Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Amelia; Amaral, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the authors argue that the use of the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) in the implementation of the Bologna process presents coordination problems that do not allow for the full coherence of the results. As the process is quite complex, involving three different levels (European, national and local) and as the final actors in the…

  10. Managing the Dynamics of the Bologna Reforms: How Institutional Actors Re-Construct the Policy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Amélia; Neave, Guy

    2015-01-01

    How do the constituencies in higher education re-interpret Bologna's function with regard to the European Higher Education Area? This research examines how institutional actors re-construct the policy framework in the light of their own institutional agendas. Drawing on empirical data from a survey of academics, students and administrative and…

  11. International Student Mobility in Europe in the Context of the Bologna Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichler, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The Bologna Process is the newest of a chain of activities stimulated by supra-national actors since the 1950s to challenge national borders in higher education in Europe. Now, the ministers in charge of higher education of the individual European countries agreed to promote a similar cycle-structure of study programmes and programmes based on the…

  12. Importing Education: Europeanisation and the Bologna Process in Europe's Backyard--The Case of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampayeva, Gulnara Y.

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the problem of the implementation of European educational standards in Kazakhstan higher education. This is considered in the frame of post-socialist education, when reforms in several post-Soviet states were undertaken under the Bologna Process. Kazakhstan, as this article argues, is justified for consideration in the frame…

  13. An Anatomy of Authority: The Bologna and ASEM Education Secretariats as Policy Actors and Region Builders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Que Anh

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the sources of authority behind the Bologna and ASEM secretariats' technocratic appearance and administrative routines, and argues that they are transnational policy actors in their own right. By drawing on principal-agent theory and the concept of "authority," it offers an alternative framework for understanding the…

  14. Working on the Bologna Declaration: Promoting Integrated Curriculum Development and Fostering Conceptual Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colet, Nicole Rege; Durand, Natacha

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses ongoing work at the University of Geneva to reform programs to fit the principles of the Bologna Declaration. Analysis of the national context addresses how Swiss universities are currently building a Swiss area of higher education along similar lines to the European Area of Higher Education. Focus is put on the role of the…

  15. Aligning Seminars with Bologna Requirements: Reciprocal Peer Tutoring, the Solo Taxonomy and Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueg, Rainer; Lueg, Klarissa; Lauridsen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Changes in public policy, such as the Bologna Process, require students to be equipped with multifunctional competencies to master relevant tasks in unfamiliar situations. Achieving this goal might imply a change in many curricula toward deeper learning. As a didactical means to achieve deep learning results, the authors suggest reciprocal peer…

  16. The governance of higher education regionalisation: comparative analysis of the Bologna Process and MERCOSUR-Educativo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verger, A.; Hermo, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The article analyses two processes of higher education regionalisation, MERCOSUR‐Educativo in Latin America and the Bologna Process in Europe, from a comparative perspective. The comparative analysis is centered on the content and the governance of both processes and, specifically, on the reasons of

  17. The Devil in the Detail: Contradictory National Requirements and Bologna Master Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This article compares the national-level requirements for master degree provision in England, Denmark and Portugal following the implementation of the Bologna Process, and ponders upon the reconcilability of these requirements in cross-national initiatives (e.g. joint degrees). In all three countries, master degrees have to comply with the…

  18. Sistemi museali a confronto: il caso dell’Ateneo di Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Maggio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo offre una panoramica delle pratiche di gestione e amministrazione del sistema museale dell’Università di Bologna. L'analisi del caso studio è integrata dall'elaborazione di una ipotesi gestionale alternativa, adottata da analoghe realtà museali italiane. 

  19. Predicting Commissary Store Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    stores or if it is possible to predict that success. Multiple studies of private commercial grocery consumer preferences , habits and demographics have...appropriate number of competitors due to the nature of international cultures and consumer preferences . 2. Missing Data Four of the remaining stores

  20. Storing up trouble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsley, M.

    1992-01-01

    Scottish Nuclear have applied for permission to build a temporary ground-level dry store for spent fuel at Torness. However, Nirex's failure to find a suitable site for a long-term repository could mean that the Torness store will be less temporary than planned. (author)

  1. Packaging properties and control of Listeria monocytogenes in bologna by cellulosic films incorporated with pediocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Judith Pérez Espitia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen, able to survive and proliferate at refrigeration temperatures. As a result, ready-to-eat meat products have been associated with major outbreaks. Producing meat products involves lethal preservation treatments, e.g. thermal treatments. Listeria contamination, however, may be introduced when products are sliced and packaged at retail businesses or delicatessens. In Brazil, sliced bologna is very popular at retail markets. After slicing, however, bologna has a short shelf-life. The aim of this work was to study the effects of pediocin incorporation on the load at break, water vapor permeability rate and structure, by microscopic analysis, of antimicrobial cellulosic packaging. The potential application of the developed packaging for the preservation of bologna and inhibition of Listeria biofilm formation was also studied. Cellulosic antimicrobial packaging films were produced with cellulose acetate and acetone. Pediocin (commercially available concentrate ALTA TM 2341 was incorporated at 30, 40 and 50 % w/w. The load at break of films was studied using the Universal Testing Machine (Instron at 10 °C and 25 °C. The water vapor permeability was determined by gravimetric method. A scanning electron microscope was used to study the developed packaging structure. Antimicrobial activity of films against Listeria innoucua and L. monocytogenes was tested both in vitro and in bologna samples. Results showed that values of load at break decreased with increasing concentrations of pediocin at 10 °C and 25 °C. Regarding water vapor permeability, only the control and 50 % pediocin films presented statistical difference, with the 50 % pediocin film being more permeable. In vitro tests showed antimicrobial activity against L. innocua. Cellulosic film with 50 % pediocin reduced L. monocytogenes growth on sliced bologna by 1.2 log cycles after 9 days and prevented biofilm formation on packaging and bologna

  2. Live birth rates in the different combinations of the Bologna criteria poor ovarian responders: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Antonio; Grisendi, Valentina; Giulini, Simone; Sighinolfi, Giovanna; Tirelli, Alessandra; Argento, Cindy; Re, Claudia; Tagliasacchi, Daniela; Marsella, Tiziana; Sunkara, Sesh Kamal

    2015-06-01

    to compare the baseline characteristics and chance of live birth in the different categories of poor responders identified by the combinations of the Bologna criteria and establish whether these groups comprise a homogenous population. database containing clinical and laboratory information on IVF treatment cycles carried out at the Mother-Infant Department of the University Hospital of Modena between year 2007 and 2011 was analysed. This data was collected prospectively and recorded in the registered database of the fertility centre. Eight hundred and thirty women fulfilled the inclusion/ exclusion criteria of the study and 210 women fulfilled the Bologna criteria definition for poor ovarian response (POR). Five categories of poor responders were identified by different combinations of the Bologna criteria. There were no significant differences in female age, AFC, AMH, cycle cancellation rate and number of retrieved oocytes between the five groups. The live birth rate ranged between 5.5 and 7.4 % and was not statistically different in the five different categories of women defined as poor responders according to the Bologna criteria. The study demonstrates that the different groups of poor responders based on the Bologna criteria have similar IVF outcomes. This information validates the Bologna criteria definition as women having a uniform poor prognosis and also demonstrates that the Bologna criteria poor responders in the various subgroups represent a homogenous population with similar pre-clinical and clinical outcomes.

  3. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group - FI Department

    2005-01-01

    The Farnell catalogue can now be accessed from the Material Request form on EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue. Users can order Farnell equipment as well as standard Stores equipment at the same time using a single document, the EDH Materials Request form. The Materials Request form offers users items from both the internal 'Stores' catalogue and the external 'Farnell' catalogue, all of which may be ordered on the same form. The system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment to the CERN Stores and those for Farnell equipment to Farnell. The delivery time is 48 hours in both cases. Requests for materials are routed for approval in accordance with the standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  4. Extrahuman Epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafei, Rayane; Hamze, Monzer; Pailhoriès, Hélène; Eveillard, Matthieu; Marsollier, Laurent; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Dabboussi, Fouad

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Acinetobacter baumannii outside hospitals is still a controversial issue. The objective of our study was to explore the extrahospital epidemiology of A. baumannii in Lebanon. From February 2012 to October 2013, a total of 73 water samples, 51 soil samples, 37 raw cow milk samples, 50 cow meat samples, 7 raw cheese samples, and 379 animal samples were analyzed by cultural methods for the presence of A. baumannii. Species identification was performed by rpoB gene sequencing. Antibiotic susceptibility was investigated, and the A. baumannii population was studied by two genotyping approaches: multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and blaOXA-51 sequence-based typing (SBT). A. baumannii was detected in 6.9% of water samples, 2.7% of milk samples, 8.0% of meat samples, 14.3% of cheese samples, and 7.7% of animal samples. All isolates showed a susceptible phenotype against most of the antibiotics tested and lacked carbapenemase-encoding genes, except one that harbored a blaOXA-143 gene. MLST analysis revealed the presence of 36 sequence types (STs), among which 24 were novel STs reported for the first time in this study. blaOXA-51 SBT showed the presence of 34 variants, among which 21 were novel and all were isolated from animal origins. Finally, 30 isolates had new partial rpoB sequences and were considered putative new Acinetobacter species. In conclusion, animals can be a potential reservoir for A. baumannii and the dissemination of new emerging carbapenemases. The roles of the novel animal clones identified in community-acquired infections should be investigated. PMID:25616788

  5. Screening for congenital hypothyroidism in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ezzi, Asmahan; Hachem, Hoda

    1999-01-01

    Full text.National programs of neonatal screening were introduced in most countries and have proved their effectiveness against different types of retardation in children. Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the most common causes of physical and mental retardation in children. Programs of screening have shown that the incidence of this disorder is ethnic-background: it is low in Africans: 1-32000 whereas it is 1-3500 and 1-5000 in Hispanic and European newborns respectively. No previous mass screening programs were done in Lebanon. For this purpose, this program was introduced in collaboration with the IAEA. Cord blood is spotted into circles on filter paper just after delivery. These samples are air-dried at room temperature and kept at 4 degree C. They are then collected from hospitals to be screened. In the laboratory, all samples are assayed for IRMA TSH first. Those showing high or borderline TSH level (20mU/L) are then assayed for RIA TT4. Only those showing straight forward high TSH and low TT4 are considered as congenital hypothyroidism cases. For IRMA and RIA, the technique of coated beads is used. We started the program by using reagents from NETRIA, but actually, we start preparing most of our reagents with the exception pf the tracer. A total of 7500 babies have been up now. One case was detected as possible case of congenital hypothyroidism: straight forward high TSH and borderline TT4: this case is now under treatment by endocrinologist and is supposed to have a problem at the pituitary level

  6. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    From next week, the SFS UNIMARKET (tooling) catalogue will be accessible using the Material Request form on EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue and those of existing suppliers. Users will now be able to place orders from the SFS catalogue using the Material Request form on EDH. Note: The system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment and those for SFS equipment, placed using the same Material Request form, to the CERN Stores and SFS respectively. In both cases, the maximum delivery time will be 48 hours. Requests for equipment will be routed for approval in accordance with standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  7. INFORMATION FOR STORES USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    From next week, the SFS UNIMARKET (tooling) catalogue will be accessible using the Material Request form on EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue and those of existing suppliers. Users will now be able to place orders from the SFS catalogue using the Material Request form on EDH. Note: The system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment and those for SFS equipment, placed using the same Material Request form, to the CERN Stores and SFS respectively. In both cases, the maximum delivery time will be 48 hours. Requests for equipment will be routed for approval in accordance with standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  8. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Radiospares Catalogue is now accessible from the Material Request page on EDH in the same way as the CERN Stores Catalogue. This means that users can order Radiospares equipment by completing an EDH Materials Request form. N.B.: The system will automatically forward orders for standard Stores equipment to the CERN Stores and those for Radiospares equipment to Radiospares. In both cases the delivery time will be a maximum of 48 hours. Requests for materials will be routed for approval in accordance with the standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  9. INFORMATION FOR STORES USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL Division

    1999-01-01

    You can now make Material Request from CERN Stores over the WEB :CERN Home/Administrative Tools/EDH/Material Requestor https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAGVia the Stores Catalogue : CERN Home/Administrative Tools/Stores Catalogueor http://edhcat.cern.ch/In both cases, you need to enter your EDH login and password.For more details, you can consult the Quick Reference Guide on :http://edh.cern.ch/doc/quickrefguides.htmlor obtain a printed version from AIS Support at tel: 79933or e-mail to: ais.support@cern.chSPL DivisionLogistics Group

  10. Trust and cooperation relations in environmental management of Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Nivine; van der Molen, I.; Nader, M.R.; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the spatial variation in vulnerability between different geographical areas of the northern coastal region of Lebanon within the context of armed conflict. The study is based on the ‘vulnerability of space’ approach and will be positioned in the academic debate on vulnerability

  11. All Glory Is Fleeting: Insights from the Second Lebanon War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    longer has claim to underdog status as it did in 1948, 1956, 1967, and 1973. The reasons are several and not particularly rel- evant to the discussion...Israel Probes Use of Cluster Munitions in Lebanon,” Jane’s Defence Weekly, December 6, 2006f. ———, “Debriefing Teams Brand IDF Doctrine ‘Completely

  12. Trust and cooperation relations in environmental management of Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Nivine; van der Molen, I.; Nader, M.R.; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates trust and cooperation in the context of environmental management in Lebanon. Literature already indicated increasing environmental problems in this area that suffered from repeated episodes of armed conflict. The Lebanese government has been faced by many difficulties to

  13. Organizational Support of Technology Integration in One School in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgheib, Rosine S.

    2013-01-01

    Technology has been at the center of heated debates in educational settings driving schools to compete for the best technological equipments. However, in Lebanon there is a lag in technology integration matching twenty first century advances. Several barriers related to teacher attitudes, lack of technical skills and organizational constraints to…

  14. Gender-Based Differences Among Entrepreneurs and Workers in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    Lebanon has faced a continuous series of economic setbacks fueled by mounting political uncertainties and war over the decades. The current global financial crisis compounds the levels of uncertainty and anxiety facing households with regards to their future security. The need for earned income and employment is therefore higher than ever and an increasing number of women are entering the ...

  15. Innovative tools to fight chronic diseases in Lebanon | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... Refugees in Lebanon are unable to access several critical services, including ... In doing so, the eHealth system has shown how digital technologies such as ... access to health services and improve the quality of service for Palestinians in ... Healthcare providers, most of them nurses, were offered training ...

  16. Ongoing epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis among Syrian refugees, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroufim, Maya; Charafeddine, Khalil; Issa, Grace; Khalifeh, Haifaa; Habib, Robert H; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Rady, Alissar; Khalifeh, Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%.

  17. A Model for the Education of Gifted Learners in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a model for developing a comprehensive system of education for gifted learners in Lebanon. The model consists of three phases and includes key elements for establishing gifted education in the country, such as raising community awareness, adopting valid identification measures, and developing effective…

  18. Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus: prevalence and risk factors in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, E; Hosri, C; Abi-Rizk, A

    2015-12-01

    An epidemiological survey, accompanied by a serological analysis,was conducted on samples taken from Lebanese goat herds in order to determine the prevalence of infection with the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in Lebanon. The results of the survey provided information on various livestock production, animal health and herd management factors. Serum samplesfrom 952 goats, including the local breeds (Baladi and Damascene) and imported breeds (Alpine and Saneen), were taken from 60 farms distributed throughout Lebanon and tested for the presence of anti-CAEV antibodies. The data obtained were analysed using a statistical model to assess CAEV infection risk factors in Lebanon. In total, 125 samples proved to be positive, representing a prevalence in selected individuals of 13.1% and in selected herds of 51.7%. The Bekaa region had the highest number of herds with seropositive goats (90% of herds); the level was lower in Mount Lebanon, the North and the South (54%, 34% and 33%, respectively). The prevalence in relation to the livestock production system was 70% in herds in intensive systems, 54% in semi-intensive systems and 45% in extensive systems. The indigenous breeds were more resistant and tolerant of CAEV than the imported breeds. This study confirms the presence of CAEV in Lebanese goat herds and identifies the different livestock production practices likely to favour the rapid spread of the virus.

  19. Refugee activists’ involvement in relief effort in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Topham Smallwood

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A cadre of educated middle-class Syrian refugees dedicated to improving conditions for Syrians at home and in Lebanon are building a civil society in exile but face obstacles to consolidating their presence and becoming more effective.

  20. Attitudes of Teachers and Headteachers towards Inclusion in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khochen, Maha; Radford, Julie

    2012-01-01

    In the Arabic region, the drive towards inclusive practices in mainstream schools is at a relatively early stage, although, in Lebanon, the recent initiative of the National Inclusion Project (NIP), a project managed by a consortium of four organisations aimed at addressing the exclusion experienced by people with a disability, has the potential…

  1. Ongoing Epidemic of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis among Syrian Refugees, Lebanon1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroufim, Maya; Charafeddine, Khalil; Issa, Grace; Khalifeh, Haifaa; Habib, Robert H.; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Rady, Alissar

    2014-01-01

    In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%. PMID:25279543

  2. Spatial variation of vulnerability in geographic areas of North Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Sahar; van der Molen, I.; Nader, M.R.; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the spatial variation in vulnerability between different geographical areas of the northern coastal region of Lebanon within the context of armed conflict. The study is based on the ‘vulnerability of space’ approach and will be positioned in the academic debate on vulnerability

  3. Israeli Deterrence And the 2nd Lebanon War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    06 April 2017 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Disclaimer The views expressed in this academic ...peace and stability on the Israel-Lebanon border. This stability owes to strong Israeli deterrence, whose roots stem at the 2006 war. This essay claims

  4. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Bossard catalogue is now accessible alongside the CERN Stores catalogue from the Material Request form on EDH. Users will thus be able to order Bossard equipment using the EDH Materials Request form. As a reminder, the system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment to the CERN Stores and those for Bossard equipment to Bossard. In both cases the delivery time will be a maximum of 48 hours. Requests for materials will be routed for approval in accordance with the standard EDH routing procedures. Some items will remain available from the emergency desk in the event of urgent requests. These items will be visible in the Stores catalogue even if they cannot be purchased via the EDH material request form. Logistics Group FI Department

  5. Provenance Store Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, Patrick R.; Gibson, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2008-03-01

    Requirements for the provenance store and access API are developed. Existing RDF stores and APIs are evaluated against the requirements and performance benchmarks. The team’s conclusion is to use MySQL as a database backend, with a possible move to Oracle in the near-term future. Both Jena and Sesame’s APIs will be supported, but new code will use the Jena API

  6. Cybertechnology Ethics of University Students in Lebanon: Assessing University Students' Activities and Perceptions of Cybertechnology Ethics in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Khayrazad Kari

    2011-01-01

    Use of internet technologies is widespread in Lebanon. Technology has a revolutionary impact on our lives, behavior, and in particular a strong impact on our students. Part of our students every day routine is to use the computer and the Internet to play, learn, and communicate. Although most students use the computer and the Internet on a daily…

  7. LEBANON AFTER THE CEDAR REVOLUTION/ARE KNUDSEN AND MICHAEL KERR (eds; LEBANON: A HISTORY, 600--2011/by WILLIAM HARRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Salameh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available LEBANON AFTER THE CEDAR REVOLUTION, ARE KNUDSEN AND MICHAEL KERR (eds; London: C. Hurst & Company, 2012. 323 pp. $29.95. LEBANON: A HISTORY, 600--2011, WILLIAM HARRIS; Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. 360 pp. $34.95.

  8. The Nord interim store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leushacke, D.F.; Rittscher, D.

    1996-01-01

    In line with the decision taken in 1990 to shut down and decommission the Greifswald and Rheinsberg Nuclear Power Stations, the waste management concept of the Energiewerke Nord is based on direct and complete decommissioning of the six shut down reactor units within the next fifteen years. One key element of this concept is the construction and use of the Zwischenlager Nord (Nord Interim Store, ZLN) for holding the existing nuclear fuels and for interim and decay storage of the radioactive materials arising in decommissioning and demolition. The owner and operator of the store is Energiewerke Nord GmbH. The interim store has the functions of a processing and Energiewerke Nord GmbH. The interim store has the functions of a processing and treatment station and buffer store for the flows of residues arising. As a radioactive waste management station, it accommodates nuclear fuels, radioactive waste or residues which are not treated any further. It is used as a buffer store to allow the materials accumulating in disassembly to be stored temporarily before or after treatment in order to ensure continuous loading of the treatment plants. When operated as a processing station, the ZLN is able to handle nearly all types of radioactive waste and residues arising, except for nuclear fuels. These installations allow the treatment of radioactive residues to be separated from the demolition work both physically and in time. The possibilities of interium storage and buffer storage of untreated waste and waste packages make for high flexibility in logistics and waste management strategy. (orig.) [de

  9. Use of poultry protein isolate as a food ingredient: sensory and color characteristics of low-fat Turkey bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omana, Dileep A; Pietrasik, Zeb; Betti, Mirko

    2012-07-01

    The potential of using poultry protein isolate (PPI) as a food ingredient to substitute either soy protein isolate (SPI) or meat protein in turkey bologna was investigated. PPI was prepared from mechanically separated turkey meat using pH-shift technology and the prepared PPI was added to turkey bologna at 2 different concentrations (1.5% and 2% dry weight basis). Product characteristics were compared with those prepared with the addition of 2% SPI, 11% meat protein (control-1), or 13% meat protein (control-2). All the 5 treatments were subjected to sensory analysis to evaluate aroma, appearance, color, flavor, saltiness, juiciness, firmness, and overall acceptability of the turkey bologna samples using 9-point hedonic scales. A turkey bologna control sample with 11% meat protein appeared to be softer compared to other treatments as revealed by texture profile analysis while purge loss during storage in a retail display case was significantly (P Sensory analysis concluded that 1.5% PPI and 2% PPI could be used as substitute of SPI or lean meat and the treatments could be improved by increasing saltiness and decreasing firmness. The study revealed that with slight modifications in saltiness, turkey bologna can be prepared with the addition of poultry protein isolates as an acceptable substitute for soy protein isolate or meat protein. This will help to avoid usage of nonmeat ingredients (as SPI substitute) and to reduce the cost of production (as meat protein substitute) of low-fat turkey bologna. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Digital fruition of archaeological finds. The experience at the Archaeological Museum of Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents a series of investigations undertaken thanks to the collaboration between the Department of Architecture and Territorial Planning of the University of Bologna and the Archaeological Museum of Bologna , aimed at finding a procedure for the 3d digital survey and exploration of archaeological finds. In particular, this paper shows how users can benefit from the use of digital technologies for the fruition of historical-artistic heritage. As a matter of fact, digital communication tools stimulate multisensory perception mechanisms and therefore allow to actively involve users in the exploration of contents presented through collections. Immersive visualizations, augmented reality and both tactile and visual exploration of findings can ease the establishment of a more immediate and direct communication channel with users that generally communicate and access information using digital technologies and mediums.

  11. Inflammable materials stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandagopan, V.

    2017-01-01

    A new Inflammable Materials Stores has been constructed by A and SED, BARC near Gamma Field for storage of inflammable materials falling into Petroleum Class ‘A’ ‘B’ and “C” mainly comprising of oils and lubricants, Chemicals like Acetone, Petroleum Ether etc. which are regularly procured by Central Stores Unit (CSU) for issue to the various divisions of BARC. The design of the shed done by A and SED, BARC was duly got approved from Petroleum and Explosive Safety Organization (PESO) which is a mandatory requirement before commencement of the construction. The design had taken into account various safety factors which is ideally required for an inflammable materials stores

  12. Wild food plants traditionally consumed in the area of Bologna (Emilia Romagna region, Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    Background This research was performed in an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The purpose of the present survey was to record the local knowledge concerning traditional uses of wild food plants and related practices, such as gathering, processing, cooking, therapeutic uses, with the aim of preserving an important part of the local cultural heritage. Methods Thirty-nine people still retaining Traditional Local Knowledge (TLK) were i...

  13. The effects of the bologna process on college enrollment and drop-out rates

    OpenAIRE

    Horstschräer, Julia; Sprietsma, Maresa

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates the short-term effects of the introduction of the Bachelor degree in the framework of the Bologna Process on college enrollment and drop-out rates. We use variation in the timing of the Bachelor implementation at the department level to identify the effect of the reform based on longitudinal administrative student data from Germany. We find no significant effects on college enrollment or drop-out rates for most subjects.

  14. L'abitato dell'Età del Bronzo di S. Giovanni in Triario (Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Vinci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo riassume i risultati delle ricerche condotte a S. Giovanni in Triario nella pianura a Nord-Est di Bologna, mettendo insieme numerosi dati di natura diversa provenienti dalla documentazione di vecchi scavi di emergenza, l'analisi aerofotografica e dalle recenti indagini condotte sul sito costituite da ricognizioni di superficie e carotaggi manuali. Grazie alle nuove indagini condotte sul deposito stratigrafico e allo studio di un consistente campione di manufatti rendono ora possibile delineare gli elementi cronologici.

  15. INTERNATIONALISATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN EUROPE: BY EXPERIENCE OF BOLOGNA UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda V. Krasilnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to study and analyse the current trends in internationalisation of higher education in European countries; analyse the performance of the University of Bologna with regard to development and implementation of its internationalisation strategy as well as identify factors facilitating successful development of internationalisation and hindering this process.Methods. Theoretical methods – analysis of regulatory documents on development and reforming of higher education; documents of national and international organisations which activities are relevant to internationalisation of higher education; conference papers; and regulatory documents of the University of Bologna. Empirical methods – student surveys and interviews with the staff members of the University of Bologna, observation, methods of mathematical statistics.Results and scientific novelty. The study has identified and described the major recent changes in the process of internationalisation in Europe. The outcomes of the research reveal that internationalisation process aimed primarily at enhancing the quality of education and research has become a strategic focus of universities; emphasis is being given to providing all students with the opportunity to develop intercultural competencies. The results of the empirical study suggest that the development of internationalisation at the University of Bologna is focused on enhancing academic mobility of students, elaborating and implementing double / joint degree programmes, as well as developing international research activities. One of the factors driving this development is the development and monitoring of the implementation of the University’s internationalisation strategy. Difficulties in the implementation of this strategy are still related to financial issues, as well as foreign language competency of students and professors and their insufficient motivation to participate in academic mobility

  16. The lost honour of the social dimension: Bologna, exports and the idea of the university

    OpenAIRE

    Holford, John

    2014-01-01

    In important respects, European ideas of the university have spread across the world. The principal ‘philosophical’ statements on which this idea of the university is based (Humboldt and Newman) assumed the people inhabiting universities — as students — would come from the youth of a social elite. The outward-facing elements of the Bologna Process, and the European Higher Education Area, aiming mainly at promoting higher education as an export business, focus on students of similar age and so...

  17. Reflections of Bologna Process on Websites of Undergraduate Nursing Programs in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğçe TÜRTEN KAYMAZ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the data about the Bologna Process on the websites of universities’ undergraduate nursing programs in Turkey. In this descriptive study, all state and private universities which have BSc Nursing Programs and are within the scope of the Council of Higher Education of Turkey were included. Data were collected between May 1st and June 1st, 2015 by searching the websites of universities that were included in this study. An Evaluation Form that was developed by the researchers was used to collect data. Data were analyzed by using frequencies and percentages. We found that 77.2% of the universities included in the study were state universities and information about the Bologna Process could be found by using the website link on the main page in 65.3% of these universities. The majority of the universities (87.1% had general information about their program but 44% did not take the European Credit Transfer System into consideration on compulsory lessons and 41% of them on elective lessons. It was found that the majority of essential nursing lessons held by eight departments in BSc of Nursing programs had an Information Package of Lessons (68.1%-77.6% and that this package contained information on the European Credit Transfer System Credits in 72.3%-82.7% and calculations of student workload in 54.2%-65.6%. In conclusion, the universities with BSc Nursing Program did not have full information about the Bologna Process on their websites. We recommend making the necessary updates on these websites according to the standard format of the Council of Higher Education of Turkey to avoid giving inadequate and false information about the Bologna Process.

  18. Video e comunicazione scientifica. Il laboratorio MELA dell’Università di Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Corazza

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Al Media Education e-learning LAboratorio del Dipartimento di Scienze dell’educazione e della Facoltà di Scienze della formazione, Università di Bologna, un gruppo di esperti e di tecnici svolge attività di supporto alla didattica e alla ricerca, lavorando con i docenti per produrre audiovisivi e materiali multimediali. I prodotti MELA sono video per l’approfondimento culturale, per la produzione scientifica, per la documentazione.

  19. Information for Stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    The DISTRELEC catalogue (IT) is now available in EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue and the catalogues of existing suppliers. Using an EDH materials request form, users can now order DISTRELEC equipment from amongst the following product groups: peripherals, multimedia, PC components, data media, communication and data cables and adapters. Non-authorised materials will be clearly indicated. As a reminder, the system automatically manages the distribution of standard Stores equipment and punch out equipment ordered on the same request form. In both cases, delivery will take a maximum of 48 hours. The approval of the EDH document will follow the usual EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  20. Prognosis and cost-effectiveness of IVF in poor responders according to the Bologna Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busnelli, Andrea; Somigliana, Edgardo

    2018-02-01

    Poor ovarian response (POR) to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF) is one of the most challenging issue in the field of reproductive medicine. However, even if improving IVF outcome in poor responders (PORs) represents a main priority, the lack of a unique definition of POR has hampered research in this area. In order to overcome this impediment, an ESHRE Campus Workshop was organized in Bologna in 2010 and reached a consensus on the criteria for the diagnosis of POR ("Bologna Criteria"). In this review we aimed to estimate the prognostic potential of the ESHRE definition, to elucidate its possible weaknesses and to analyze the economic aspects of IVF in a population of poor responders (PORs). Available evidence confirmed that the Bologna criteria are able to select a population with a poor IVF prognosis thus supporting their validity. Nonetheless, different aspects of the definition have been criticized. The main points of debate concern the homogeneity of the population identified, the cut-off values chosen for the ovarian reserve tests and the risks factors other than age associated with POR. Data concerning the economic profile of IVF in PORs are scanty. The only published study on the argument showed that IVF in these cases is not cost-effective. However, considering the potential substantial impact of cost-effectiveness analyses on public health policies, there is the need for further and independent validations.

  1. The expansion of higher education in Brazil under the influence of the Bologna Declaration: first approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Pinto de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this article is to investigate the current scenario of expansion of higher education in Brazil reflects the educational principles and guidelines laid down by the Bologna Declaration. The study starts from the hypothesis that the current policies of expansion of higher education in the country reveal global influences on the role of the State, the Universities and Entrepreneurs, one of these documents to the Bologna Declaration of 19 June 1999 Thus, understand the contents of this document would give us some pointers understand the assumptions that guide the contours of Brazilian educational policies of the last thirteen years, with reference to data published by the Ministry of Education from 2000 to 2011 the authors advocate the thesis that the expansion of higher education in Brazil led by the private sector reflects the propositions, even partial, of the Bologna Declaration, since this is an attempt to reform the European educational landscape in order to increase competitiveness in the European System of Higher Education.

  2. Antioxidant effect of mango seed extract and butylated hydroxytoluene in bologna-type mortadella during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Fernandes Pereira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mango seed extract (MSE and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT on pH, lipid oxidation, and color of Bologna-type mortadella during refrigerated storage for 21 days were studied. Bologna-type mortadella samples were formulated to contain 0.1% MSE, 0.2% MSE, or 0.01% BHT. After 14 days of storage, the products containing MSE 0.1 or 0.2% had higher pH values than those containing BHT 0.01%. Lipid oxidation values increased with storage time but were not affected by the type of antioxidant. The highest values for color parameter L* were observed for mortadella containing BHT 0.01% after 7, 14, and 21 days of storage. Values for the color parameters a* and b* tended to decrease during mortadella storage. Products containing 0.1 or 0.2% MSE showed higher values for color parameter a* and lower values for color parameter b* compared to those containing 0.01% BHT. It can be concluded that MSE can be used in 0.1 or 0.2% levels in Bologna-type mortadella with similar or better antioxidant effects than those of BHT 0.01%.

  3. Shaktismen - hinduismens store gudindetradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne Wernicke

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen giver en introduktion til shaktismen - hinduismens store gudindetradition. Den ser på de vigtigste gudinder, begreber, traditioner og forestillinger, ligesom den giver et vue over forskningssituationen. Shaktismens opståen i sin klassiske form, dens hovedretninger, virkelighedsforståelse...

  4. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    From the beginning of March onwards, the LYRECO (stationery) catalogue will be accessible from the Material Request form on EDH in the same way as the CERN Stores catalogue and the existing individual supplier catalogues. Items will be delivered within a maximum of 48 hours. Logistics Group FI Department

  5. Store Security: Reducing Shoplifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsel, Robert; Garman, Jerry

    The major purpose of the course outline presented in the document is the reduction of stealing in retail stores. The teaching outline is formatted by juxtaposing the content outline of each substantive area next to relevant activities and methods. Some of the topics covered are psychology of shoplifting, tools used by shoplifters, Ohio's law on…

  6. Barriers to breastfeeding in Lebanon: A policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akik, Chaza; Ghattas, Hala; Filteau, Suzanne; Knai, Cecile

    2017-08-01

    Although the issue of breastfeeding in Lebanon has risen on the political agenda, the country does not meet international recommendations for early breastfeeding practices. This study analysed barriers to dissemination, implementation, and enforcement of key policies to improve early breastfeeding practices. We conducted interviews with stakeholders in breastfeeding policy in Lebanon and used a framework approach for analysing data. We found a disconnect between policy endorsement and translation on the ground, weak engagement of professional associations and governmental institutions, undue influence by the breast milk substitute industry, and competing priorities-most notably the current refugee crisis. This study highlights the potential policy opportunities to counter these barriers and points to the role of international organisations and grassroots advocacy in pushing, monitoring, and implementing policies that protect breastfeeding, where government capacity is limited, and the private sector is strong.

  7. Sleep patterns and disorders among university students in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaad, Shafika; Costanian, Christy; Haddad, Georges; Tannous, Fida

    2014-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is a significant public health issue with adverse medical consequences. Sleep disturbances are common among university students and have an effect on this group's overall health and functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate sleep habits and disorders in a population of university students across Lebanon. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in 2012 among 735 students aged 18-25 yrs. old, enrolled at six universities across Lebanon. The Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality and habits. Less than half of the total study population (47.3%) were good sleepers (PSQILebanon. This study suggests that sleep problems among Lebanese college students were common and such problems may interfere with daily performance. Findings from this study have important implications for programs intended to improve academic performance by targeting sleep habits of students.

  8. Policy development for solar water heaters: the case of Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chedid, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.The electric energy demand in Lebanon is estimated to grow at an average of 3-5% per year for the coming 10 years. Such an increase in energy demand is problematic for Lebanon since its economy is almost totally dependent on imported fuel which contributes to 97% of the overall energy requirements. Solar water heaters (SWH) are regarded as the most important element in a long term energy conservation and management strategy for this country, but their promotion is a national issue requiring the participation of many stake holders and decision makers. Additionally, the success of solar energy penetration into the existing energy market is constrained by many factors such as technical and financial limitations, decision criteria and policy instruments. This paper will explore the feasibility of SWH, and will work out, using the Analytic Hierarchy Process technique, a policy to ensure a large scale diffusion of SWH in the energy market

  9. The Uneasy Inter-communal Relations in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina NEDELCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of the inter-communal relations in Lebanon and it approaches issues such as diversity and identity. Ever since the creation of modern Lebanon in 1920, the principle of proportionality has been subject of a significant inter-communal debate. Although, proportionality was to support state’s development and fair representation of all religious groups, it ended up the basis for a rigid political system, which turned into a major problem for the inter-communal political relationship, situation which escalated to civil war. The war, not only emphasized the inter-communal debate of what constituted a fair power-distribution system, but it also deepened this question, because it added new components such as new political actors.

  10. Epidemiology of hip fractures in Lebanon: a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, G; Bachour, F; Hlais, S; Maalouf, N M; Yazbeck, P; Yaghi, Y; Yaghi, K; El Hage, R; Issa, M

    2013-10-01

    Hip fractures are a reliable indicator of osteoporosis. Despite their importance, few studies have assessed their epidemiology in Lebanon and the Middle East. Hip fracture incidence rates in Lebanon approximate those of Northern countries, and show the same characteristics, particularly the exponential increase with age, higher incidence in women, and a recent trend of rate leveling in women but not in men. A national database of hip fracture cases admitted to hospitals in Lebanon in 2007 was created. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated at 5-year intervals for individuals over age 50. These rates were also standardized to the 2000 United States population, and compared to those of other countries. Projected incidence rates in Lebanon in 2020 and 2050 were also calculated. A total of 1199 patients were included in the study. The crude annual incidence rate in individuals over 50 was 147 per 100,000 individuals, 132 per 100,000 males and 160 per 100,000 females, with a female-to-male ratio of 1.2. The age-standardized annual incidence rates (per 100,000) were 180 in males and 256 in females. Assuming unchanged healthcare parameters, the projected crude incidence rates for people over 50 are expected to reach 174 and 284 per 100,000 in 2020 and 2050 respectively. Lebanese hip fracture rates are lower than Northern countries, but show many similar characteristics such as an exponential increase with age, a higher incidence in women, and clues of a leveling of rates in women but not in men. Numbers are expected to increase substantially in the coming decades. Level IV. Epidemiological study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Centennial Olive trees in Lebanon: a substantial patrimony

    OpenAIRE

    Chalak, L.; Malas, F.; Hamadeh, B.; Essalouh, Laila; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the centennial olive trees growing across Lebanon, with the perspective of conservation of the ancient germplasm. The survey indicated the existence of numerous centennial olive trees distributed in different agro-climatic areas, from 80 to 1350 meters altitude across the country. Centennial olives were found in large size orchards and scattered as well as in young orchards, road hedges and gardens for ornamental purposes. Yet, no reliable information...

  12. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of traumatic brain injury in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Abbass, Hussein; Bahmad, Hisham; Ghandour, Hiba; Fares, Jawad; Wazzi-Mkahal, Rayyan; Yacoub, Basel; Darwish, Hala; Mondello, Stefania; Harati, Hayat; El Sayed, Mazen J.; Tamim, Hani; Kobeissy, Firas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a debilitating medical and emerging public health problem that is affecting people worldwide due to a multitude of factors including both domestic and war-related acts. The objective of this paper is to systematically review the status of TBI in Lebanon – a Middle Eastern country with a weak health system that was chartered by several wars and intermittent outbursts of violence - in order to identify the present gaps in knowledge, direct future research initiatives and to assist policy makers in planning progressive and rehabilitative policies. Methods: OVID/Medline, PubMed, Scopus databases and Google Scholar were lastly searched on April 15th, 2016 to identify all published research studies on TBI in Lebanon. Studies published in English, Arabic or French that assessed Lebanese patients afflicted by TBI in Lebanon were warranting inclusion in this review. Case reports, reviews, biographies and abstracts were excluded. Throughout the whole review process, reviewers worked independently and in duplicate during study selection, data abstraction and methodological assessment using the Downs and Black Checklist. Results: In total, 11 studies were recognized eligible as they assessed Lebanese patients afflicted by TBI on Lebanese soils. Considerable methodological variation was found among the identified studies. All studies, except for two that evaluated domestic causes such as falls, reported TBI due to war-related injuries. Age distribution of TBI victims revealed two peaks, young adults between 18 and 40 years, and older adults aged 60 years and above, where males constituted the majority. Only three studies reported rates of mild TBI. Mortality, rehabilitation and systemic injury rates were rarely reported and so were the complications involved; infections were an exception. Conclusion: Apparently, status of TBI in Lebanon suffers from several gaps which need to be bridged through implementing more basic

  13. sponsorship ban in Lebanon: a baseline cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Chaaya

    2016-05-01

    This study provided information about compliance to the smoking ban in Beirut. The advertising sector's compliance would hopefully decrease the tobacco industry’s influence on the public. Further studies aiming at understanding the underlying factors behind the lack of compliance to the indoor smoking ban and finding effective solutions in a politically unstable country with weak rule of law like Lebanon are crucial and can serve as an example for similar developing countries.

  14. An Assessment of the 2006 Lebanon-Israeli War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-29

    across the region. This “tactical plagiarism ” includes the successful use of improvised explosive devices and suicide bombers in Iraq, which have...tactical plagiarism ” comes from Hoffman, 16. For a discussion of the rise of suicide bombings in Afghanistan see Brian Glyn Williams, “Suicide Bombings in...18 Scott Macleod, “What Makes Lebanon so Skeptical About the Peace,” Time (August 2006), http://www.time.com/time/world/ article

  15. STORE IN STORE FRANCHISING STRATEGY: THE TREND IN FRANCHISING NEGOTIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado-Serrano, Alexander; Universidad de Puerto Rico

    2016-01-01

    The literature on franchising has traditionally focused on the effects and transformation it has promoted in the service sector, retailing, restaurants, hotels and other service-related industries. Store within a store research has been focused on the perspective of the manufacturer entering department stores. To date, little research has been carried out for the store in store strategy from the franchising perspective. This paper explores why big box retailers such as Walmart are adopting th...

  16. Guidelines for breast cancer screening in Lebanon Public Health Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Salim M; El Saghir, Nagi S; Ammar, Walid

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of national epidemiological data since the late 1990s has led to the adoption of evidence-based guidelines for breast cancer screening in Lebanon (2006). Almost 50% of breast cancer patients in Lebanon are below the age of 50 years and the age-adjusted incidence rate is estimated at 69 new cases per 100,000 per year (2004). This official notification calls for breast self-examination (BSE) every month starting age 20, and a clinical breast examination (CBE) performed by a physician every three years between the ages of 20 and 40 years. Starting age 40, and for as long as a woman is in good health, an annual CBE and mammography are recommended. Women with known genetic family history of breast cancer should start screening 10 years earlier than the first young patient in the family, or earlier depending on medical advice. The Breast Cancer National Task Force (BCNTF) recommends certification of mammography centers and continued training of personnel to assure high quality mammograms, and to minimize unnecessary investigations and surgeries.It recommends that a national program should record call-backs of women for annual screening and follow-up data on abnormal mammograms. BCNTF encourages the adoption of these guidelines and monitoring of their results, as well as follow-up of breast cancer epidemiology and registry in Lebanon, and scientific progress in early breast cancer detection to determine needs for modifications in the future.

  17. Promoting women entrepreneurs in Lebanon: the experience of UNIFEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseini, R

    1997-02-01

    The work of the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) in West Asia began in 1994 with a regional program to strengthen women-owned enterprises in Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon. In Lebanon, a survey of 100 women entrepreneurs, as well as nontraditional credit programs and banks, was conducted prior to program design. A second survey assessed micro-entrepreneurs' demands for financial and other services. Since gender analysis was a new concept in Lebanon, UNIFEM organized a gender awareness workshop for representatives of government, nongovernmental organizations, and the banking sector, followed by a strategic planning workshop. The surveys confirmed that women were concentrated mainly in the less profitable economic sectors, producing handicrafts and food products or running small service or trading companies. Women were less likely than men to get bank loans or to register their businesses. Women's problems accessing credit--the main obstacle limiting their ability to develop their businesses--were compounded by their lack of information, male-oriented collateral requirements, and discriminatory banking regulations. UNIFEM decided to channel counseling of women entrepreneurs on legal matters, marketing, and credit sources through the Ministry of Social Affairs. It is expected that knowledge of gender-related employment issues and the use of gender-specific analysis will become integral to the Ministry's program as a result.

  18. Financial Burden of Cancer Drug Treatment in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Fadia; Khuri, Fadlo R; Adib, Salim M; Karam, Rita; Harb, Hilda; Awar, May; Zalloua, Pierre; Ammar, Walid

    2016-01-01

    The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) in Lebanon provides cancer drugs free of charge for uninsured patients who account for more than half the total caseload. Other categories of cancer care are subsidized under more stringent eligibility criteria. MOPH's large database offers an excellent opportunity to analyze the cost of cancer treatment in Lebanon. Using utilization and spending data accumulated at MOPH during 20082013, the cost to the public budget of cancer drugs was assessed per case and per drug type. The average annual cost of cancer drugs was 6,475$ per patient. Total cancer drug costs were highest for breast cancer, followed by chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and NonHodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), which together represented 74% of total MOPH cancer drug expenditure. The annual average cancer drug cost per case was highest for CML ($31,037), followed by NHL ($11,566). Trastuzumab represented 26% and Imatinib 15% of total MOPH cancer drug expenditure over six years. Sustained increase in cancer drug cost threatens the sustainability of MOPH coverage, so crucial for socially vulnerable citizens. To enhance the bargaining position with pharmaceutical firms for drug cost containment in a small market like Lebanon, drug price comparisons with neighboring countries which have already obtained lower prices may succeed in lowering drug costs.

  19. Diversity and distribution of ticks from domestic ruminants in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabaja, Mayssaa Fawaz; Tempesta, Maria; Bayan, Ali; Vesco, Gesualdo; Vesco, Gesualdo; Greco, Grazia; Torina, Alessandra; Blanda, Valeria; La Russa, Francesco; Scimeca, Salvatore; Ezzedine, Mohamad; Mortada, Hussein; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre Edouard; Mortada, Mohamad

    2017-06-30

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are ectoparasites infesting livestock in every geographic area in the world and they are vectors of several viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens to animals and humans worldwide. A deep knowledge of the geographical distribution of these arthropods would have a key role in the control of tick-borne diseases. Few data are available about tick presence in domestic ruminants in Lebanon. The study aimed at providing an analysis of tick presence and distribution in Lebanon. Ticks were collected from cattle, sheep, and goats farms distributed in 6 Lebanese provinces between June and September 2014. A total of 272 adult hard ticks were randomly collected from domestic ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goats) located at 37 Lebanese farms, distributed among 30 villages. Ticks belonged to 4 Ixodidae genera: Rhipicephalus (72.4%), Haemaphysalis (11.4%), Dermacentor (8.1%), and Hyalomma (8.1%). They included the following species: Rhipicephalus annulatus (50.7%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (18.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum (8.1%), Haemaphylasis punctata (11.4%), Dermacentor marginatus (8.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (2.5%), and Rhipicephalus bursa (0.4%). Rhipicephalus turanicus and H. anatolicum were found on cattle, sheep, and goats, R. annulatus on cattle and sheep, R. sanguineus, D. marginatus and Hea. punctata on sheep and goats, while R. bursa was collected only on sheep. Tick species involved in pathogen transmission were found and some of the identi ed species were recorded in Lebanon for the rst time.

  20. Responding to a Refugee Influx: Lessons from Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninette Kelley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Between 2011 and 2015, Lebanon received over one million Syrian refugees. There is no country in the world that has taken in as many refugees in proportion to its size: by 2015, one in four of its residents was a refugee from Syria. Already beset, prior to the Syrian crisis, by political divisions, insecure borders, severely strained infrastructure, and over-stretched public services, the mass influx of refugees further taxed the country. That Lebanon withstood what is often characterized as an existential threat is primarily due to the remarkable resilience of the Lebanese people. It is also due to the unprecedented levels of humanitarian funding that the international community provided to support refugees and the communities that hosted them. UN, international, and national partners scaled up more than a hundred-fold to meet ever-burgeoning needs and creatively endeavored to meet challenges on the ground. And while the refugee response was not perfect, and funding fell well below needs, thousands of lives were saved, protection was extended, essential services were provided, and efforts were made to improve through education the future prospects of the close to half-a-million refugee children residing in Lebanon. This paper examines what worked well and where the refugee response stumbled, focusing on areas where improved efforts in planning, delivery, coordination, innovation, funding, and partnerships can enhance future emergency responses.

  1. The geological controls of geothermal groundwater sources in Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaban, Amin [National Council for Scientific Research, Remote Sensing Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Khalaf-Keyrouz, Layla [Notre Dame University-Louaize, Zouk Mosbeh (Lebanon)

    2013-07-01

    Lebanon is a country that is relatively rich in water resources, as compared to its neighboring states in the Middle East. Several water sources are issuing on the surface or subsurface, including nonconventional water sources as the geothermal groundwater. This aspect of water sources exists in Lebanon in several localities, as springs or in deep boreholes. To the present little attention has been given to these resources and their geological setting is still unidentified. The preliminary geological field surveys revealed that they mainly occur in the vicinity of the basalt outcrops. Therefore, understanding their geological controls will help in exploring their origin, and thus giving insights into their economical exploitation. This can be investigated by applying advanced detection techniques, field surveys along with detailed geochemical analysis. This study aims at assessing the geographic distribution of the geothermal water in Lebanon with respect to the different geological settings and controls that govern their hydrogeologic regimes. It will introduce an approach for an integrated water resources management which became of utmost significance for the country.

  2. Fuel element store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, R.

    1987-01-01

    The spherical fuel elements are stored dry in cans. The cans themselves are stacked in parallel storage shafts, which are combined into a rectangular storage space. The storage space is made earthquake-proof by surrounding it with concrete. It consists of a ceiling assembled from several steel parts, which is connected to the floor by support elements. A cooling air ventilation station supplies the individual storage shaft and therefore the cans with cooling air via incoming and outgoing pipes. (DG) [de

  3. Air corrosion in storing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazaudier, F.; Feron, D.; Baklouti, M.; Midoux, N.

    2001-01-01

    The air corrosiveness of a radioactive waste package has been estimated in a store inside which the environmental conditions are supposed to be rather close to the outside ones. It is expressed according to the ISO 9223 standard, from the humidification value and the amounts of sulfur dioxide and chlorine ions. A computer code has been perfected too; the thermal behaviour of the package can then been determined. (O.M.)

  4. Store and forward teledermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthraj Garehatty

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Store and forward and real time or videoconferences are the two types of teledermatology services practiced. Dermatology and radio-diagnosis are visual specialties suited for store-and-forward teledermatology (SAFT. Advances in information technology, electronic instruments and biotechnology have revolutionized and brought changes in SAFT. Cellular phone, digital camera, personal digital assistants, Wi-Fi, Wi-Max and computer- aided-design software are incorporated to deliver the quality health care to remote geographic regions. Complete SAFT care equivalent to face-to-face consultation (Gold standard is essential. Health care providers in rural areas are the ′eyes′ for the consultants. Consultants to guide them should have a rapid periodic audit of visual parameters and dimensions of lesions. Given this background, this article reviews advances in 1 capture, store and transfer of images. 2 Computer Aided measurements of generalized and localized lesions and 3 the integration model to meet all the above two requirements in a centralized location. This process enables diagnosis, management, periodic assessment and complete follow-up care to achieve patient and physician satisfaction. Preservation of privacy and confidentiality of digital images is important. Uniform rules and regulations are required. Indian space research organization (ISRO, Government of India has demonstrated telemedicine pilot projects utilizing the satellite communication and mobile telemedicine units to be useful in meeting the health care needs of remote and rural India. we have to join hands with them to meet dermatology problems in rural areas.

  5. An assessment of antenatal care among Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benage, Matthew; Greenough, P Gregg; Vinck, Patrick; Omeira, Nada; Pham, Phuong

    2015-01-01

    After more than three years of violence in Syria, Lebanon hosts over one million Syrian refugees creating significant public health concerns. Antenatal care delivery to tens of thousands of pregnant Syrian refugee women is critical to preventing maternal and fetal mortality but is not well characterized given the multiple factors obtaining health data in a displaced population. This study describes antenatal care access, the scope of existing antenatal care, and antenatal and family planning behaviors and practice among pregnant Syrian refugees in various living conditions and multiple geographic areas of Lebanon. A field-based survey was conducted between July and October 2013 in 14 main geographic sites of refugee concentration. The assessment evaluated antenatal services among a non-randomized sample of 420 self-identified pregnant Syrian refugee women that included demographics, gestational age, living accommodation, antenatal care coverage, antenatal care content, antenatal health behaviors, antenatal health literacy, and family planning perception and practices. In total, 420 pregnant Syrian refugees living in Lebanon completed the survey. Of these, 82.9% (348) received some antenatal care. Of those with at least one antenatal visit, 222 (63.8%) received care attended by a skilled professional three or more times, 111 (31.9%) 1-2 times, and 15 (4.3%) had never received skilled antenatal care. We assessed antenatal care content defined by blood pressure measurement, and urine and blood sample analyses. Of those who had received any antenatal care, only 31.2% received all three interventions, 18.2% received two out of three, 32.1% received one out of three, and 18.5% received no interventions. Only (41.2%) had an adequate diet of vitamins, minerals, and folic acid. Access, content and health behaviors varied by gestational age, type of accommodation and location in Lebanon. Standards of antenatal care are not being met for pregnant Syrian refugee women in

  6. Epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Rached, Antoine; Abou Kheir, Selim; Saba, Jowana; Ammar, Walid

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis B and C are two potentially life threatening liver infections. Lebanon is ranked as a zone of moderate endemicity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C in Lebanon and their distribution according to age, region and sex. This national prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2011 till December 2012 in the six Lebanese Governorates in collaboration with municipalities, the Ministry of Public Health, Health Centres and dispensaries. An upcoming screening for hepatitis B and C was announced? in different districts of each Governorate. All individuals presenting to local laboratory, not known to have chronic hepatitis, were asked for a blood sample and answered a questionnaire addressing sex, age, place of birth and residence. Screening tests were "Abbots" for hepatitis B and "Human Hexagon" for hepatitis C. PCR testing was used to confirm the positivity of the previous tests. Of 31147 individuals screened, 542 had a rapid test positive for HBV (prevalence 1.74%, 95% CI 1.6-1.89) with a male to female ratio of 1.08. This prevalence was higher in the South and Nabatieh (1.9%) compared to Beirut (0.73%). Of 31,147 individuals screened, 64 had a rapid test positive for HCV (prevalence 0.21%, 95% CI 0.16-0.27) with a male to female ratio of 0.85. This prevalence was higher in Nabatieh (0.61%) compared to Mount Lebanon (0.08%). The prevalence of HBV and HCV in Lebanon is 1.74% and 0.21%, respectively with a higher prevalence in South and Nabatieh districts. These data rank Lebanon amongst countries with low endemicity for both viruses. Decrease in the prevalence of HBV is due to awareness campaign as well as success of the MOPH National Hepatitis Program in vaccinating all new born since 1998 and in screening and vaccinating high risk groups. Copyright © 2016 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hashish in Morocco and Lebanon: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsahi, Kenza; Darwich, Salem

    2016-05-01

    In the 1960s and the 1970s, Morocco and Lebanon became major producers of hashish for export to markets in West and Central Europe, Africa and the Middle East. By using a comparative approach, this paper aims to evaluate changes in production in the traditional areas of cannabis cultivation in the Rif (Morocco) and the Beqaa (Lebanon) and to better understand the role that these countries play in current trends in the global cultivation and consumption of cannabis. The comparative approach takes in account the historical and institutionnal context, and the perception of cannabis in those two country. We rely on primary field research done in the Rif (from 2002) and in the Beqaa (from 1995) in the form of interviews and observations with farmers and intermediaries. Acreage and production estimates of hashish for both countries have been triangulated from different sources. Maghreb and Middle East have a long history of consumption, production and marketing of cannabis. Over the past 12 centuries, migration, trade and different spiritual practices and trends have led to the expansion of cannabis markets. This long period is marked by stages and rifts caused by foreign interference, a worldwide prohibition of cannabis at the beginning of the 20th century and increased global demand in the 1960s and the 1970s. Morocco and Lebanon are among the most important producers of hashish to be exported for trade for the last fifty years. The global prohibition of cannabis and the global sustained demand have created opportunities for poor farmers in the Rif and the Beqaa regions to survive and get wealthy. It is difficult to understand the reasons why areas producing cannabis are steadily increasing. If the Rif and the Beqaa share some features (such are marginalized areas of production, repressive legislation, huge international demand, range of comparable tasks and Mediterranean climate suitable for growing cannabis, etc.) then a comparison between the two countries makes it

  8. Early Marriage and Barriers to Contraception among Syrian Refugee Women in Lebanon: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherri, Zeinab; Gil Cuesta, Julita; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose M; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2017-07-25

    The Syrian conflict has displaced five million individuals outside their country with Lebanon hosting the largest numbers per capita. Around 24% of Syrian refugees fleeing to Lebanon are women of reproductive age (15-49). Yet, a better understanding of the sexual and reproductive health needs of Syrian refugee women in Lebanon is required to improve provided services. Eleven focus group discussions were conducted in four regions of Lebanon with 108 Syrian refugee women of reproductive age. Thematic analysis was used to examine the data. Interviewed women were mainly adults. They believed that, in Lebanon, they were subjected to early marriage compared to the norm in Syria due to their financial situation and uncertainty. Cost was reported as the main barrier to use contraception in Lebanon but some Syrian refugee women were not aware of free services covering sexual and reproductive health. In general, marriage, pregnancy, and family planning behavior of Syrian refugee women in Lebanon slightly differed from those in Syria pre-conflict in terms of age of marriage, conception subsequent to marriage, and contraception method. Hence, interventions to increase awareness of subsidized sexual and reproductive health services, including free contraceptives at primary health care centers, and those targeting protection from early marriage of Syrian refugee women in Lebanon are strongly recommended.

  9. Slowly but Surely: Small Steps toward Establishing Gifted Education Programs in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to shed light on the state of gifted education in Lebanon and to describe the efforts underway to establish programs for gifted learners in the country. The article starts with a description of the Lebanese system of education followed by research conducted in Lebanon on an instrument called Discovering Intellectual…

  10. A National Peace Education Program in Lebanon: Exploring the Possibilities from the Leaders' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannous, Joseph M.; Oueijan, Harvey N.

    2011-01-01

    This document reports the findings of a doctoral project regarding peace education in Lebanon. The emergence of Lebanon from a long civil war necessitates the existence of a peace program that will educate the new generations for a culture of peace. In this study, we tried to explore the potential of the development of a unified peace program…

  11. Contribution to the Study of the flora diatomic Nahr Yahfufah (Lebanon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SLIM, K.; ALOUF, N.

    1984-01-01

    Contribution to the study of Diatomic flora on Nahr Yahfufah Lebanon. From October 1980 to June 1982 a hydrobiologic study has taken place on the river of Yahfufah situated to the west of anti Lebanon. From the diatomic population 52 species and varieties were designated. Further more the physico-chemical parameters were followed and studied. (author).

  12. 78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8469] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Lebanon Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Lebanon, and I...

  13. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2016-01-01

    In Lebanon, no estimate for autism prevalence exists. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers in nurseries in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon. The final sample included 998 toddlers (16-48 months) from 177 nurseries. We sent parents the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for…

  14. Teaching for Citizenship in Lebanon: Teachers Talk about the Civics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Bassel

    2012-01-01

    "National and Civic Education" is a program of study compulsory across all grade levels in Lebanon aimed at promoting social cohesion and active citizenship. A sample of 19 civics teachers in Lebanon across four of the six governorates participated in semi-structured interviews. The conversations delved into their conceptions of…

  15. Educating Children with Down Syndrome in Lebanon: An Exploratory Study of Urban Mothers' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatoum, Rima J.

    2010-01-01

    In view of the fact that Lebanon does not currently have a special education infrastructure, the purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to understand the phenomenon of educating children with Down syndrome (DS) in Lebanon in terms of the meanings mothers ascribe to it and their description of their experience. The intent was to develop…

  16. 78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8282] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Lebanon Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Lebanon and I...

  17. War Memories and the Refusal of Male Dominance in Shakir's "Oh, Lebanon"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Momani, Hassan Ali Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the role of the war memories in the construction of the female gender identity in Evelyin Shakir's "Oh, Lebanon," in which the female protagonist refuses to belong to her Arab identity when she lives in the United States because of the brutal war memories she witnesses in Lebanon. Such memories make the…

  18. Chemical characteristics of atmospheric deposition collected at two ENEA stations near Bologna; Caratteristiche chimiche delle deposizioni atmosferiche raccolte presso le stazioni ENEA del Brasimone e di Bologna nel 1994/95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilli, L.; Olivieri, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche ``Ezio Clementel``, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Salvi, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brasimone, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Morselli, L.; Grandi, E.; Ianuccilli, A. [Bologna, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Industriale e dei Materiali

    1997-06-01

    This article presents the results of the measurements of the water quality in acid rains, collected by a Wet and Dry Sampler in 1994 and in 1995 at two ENEA stations, Brasimone and Bologna town, belonging to the RIDEP network and characterized by different geography and different anthropogenic sources. In the Bologna station from April 95 an innovative sampler DAS (Dry Deposition on Aquatic Surface) has been activated. The monitoring has allowed determining the wet deposition fluxes in both the stations and pointing out the differences between two areas characterized by different topology. Besides the DAS sampler has allowed evaluating the total deposition fluxes (wet and dry deposition) in the Bologna station and comparing them with the ``critical loads`` pertaining to the examined territory.

  19. Proceedings of the 20th ASPA Congress, Bologna, June 11-13, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guest Editors: A. Piva, P. Bosi, A. Bonaldo, F. Sirri, A. Badiani, G. Biagi, R. Davoli, G. Martelli, A. Meluzzi, P. Trevisi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The 20th Congress of the Animal Science and Production Association (ASPA, is held in the prestigious home of the oldest university of the world: Bologna. The anniversary also celebrates the 40th year of the founding of the Society and is an occasion to remember the past and plan for the future of Animal Sciences in Italy. In this Congress, 137 oral presentations and 155 posters are presented, for a total of 292 scientific contributions. The Congress sessions with their relative number of papers are listed as follows: Animal breeding and genetics 109, Nutrition and feeding 45, Dairy production 42, Animal welfare, health and behaviour 39, Meat quality 35, Poultry and rabbit production 11 and Aquaculture 11. I would like to point out that 3 main lectures will be presented in the Animal breeding and genetics, Nutrition and feeding and Animal welfare, health and behaviour sessions, respectively. I would thank, first of all, Prof. Vincenzo Russo, Honorary President of the Congress and Emeritus of ASPA, for the contribution of the University of Bologna in organizing this event. I would also thank all the members of the Scientific Committee, Prof. Andrea Piva (Chairperson, Prof. Anna Badiani, Prof. Giacomo Biagi, Dr. Alessio Bonaldo, Prof. Paolo Bosi, Prof. Roberta Davoli, Prof. Luca Fontanesi, Prof. Giovanna Martelli, Prof. Adele Meluzzi, Dr. Attilio Mordenti, Prof. Luca Sardi, Dr. Federico Sirri, Dr. Paolo Trevisi, and of the Organizing Committee, Prof. Claudio Cavani (Chairperson, Prof. Stefania Dall’Olio, Prof. Andrea Formigoni, Prof. Pier Giorgio Monetti, Prof. Leonardo Nanni Costa, Dr. Massimiliano Petracci, Prof. Giuliano Zaghini, Dr. Paolo Zambonelli. A special thanks to the secretary of the Congress, MV Congressi. Indeed, I would like to congratulate and thank all those who have organized the meeting and have collaborated in reviewing the summaries for what they have done for ASPA and the Italian Animal Science. A special thanks to Prof

  20. I materiali della collezione Altobello del Museo di Zoologia dell'Università di Bologna 1. Mammiferi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Scaravelli

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Materials of Altobello collection in the Zoological Museum, University of Bologna 1. Mammals - Mammals of Altobello Collection of the Zoologica1 Museum, University of Bologna, are listed. 165 stuffed specimens of 26 species are now present, coming from Central Italy (years 1889 - 1929. Only a specimens of Sciurus vulgaris coming from Tuscany is not comprised in the "Catalogo manoscritto della fauna dell'Abruzzo e del Molise" of the Author. Riassunto Sono passati in rassegna i Mammiferi della Collezione Altobello presenti nel Museo di Zoologia dell'Università di Bologna. 165 esemplari naturalizzati appartenenti a 26 specie e provenienti dal centro Italia (anni 1889 - 1929 sono attualmente presenti. Solo un esemplare di Sciurus vulgaris proveniente dalla Toscana non fa parte del "Catalogo manoscritto della fauna dell'Abruzzo e del Molise" dell'Autore.

  1. Measurements of Cs 137 and Cs 134 internal contamination during 1987 by the Bologna Enea PAS whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melandri, C.; Castellani, C.M.; Torroni, G.; Formignani, M.

    1988-01-01

    Internal contamination data obtained during 1987 at the ENEA PAS-FIBI- AEROSOL Laboratory in Bologna, following the accident at the nuclear reactor in Chernobyl, are presented. The data are referred to person living in the Bologna area, in other Italian regions and to individuals returned from abroad, mainly from Eastern Europe countries. Trend of Cs-137 and Cs-134 internal body burden in adult men resident in Bologna are given together with values of mean daily intake by ingestion and evaluation of the commited dose equivalents up to decembre 1987. Measurement campaigns, specifically projected in order to evaluate the men/women activity differences and the distribution of the internal contamination in various Italian regions, have been performed

  2. Storing of free neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinks, U.

    1978-12-01

    The applied method makes use of the interaction between the magnetic moment μ vector of the neutron and a magnetic field B vector. By means of superconducting magnets there can easily be achieved potential walls of μ B approximately 2 x 10 -7 eV. The principle of magnetic storing was first used for the storage ring NESTOR and showed immediate success: the stored neutrons decreased exponentially with a time constant tau = (907 +- 70) sec corresponding to the natural lifetime of the neutrons within the statistical errors. This means that there occurred no measurable additional losses (e.g. by resonance excitation) Neutrons therefore could be observed in the storage ring during about 5 half-lives (in principle of course longer, too). The orbit dynamics for neutrons in the storage ring is smilar to that in circular accelerators for charged particles. It is so well understood that the problem of the storage ring for uncharged particles (with magnetic moment) may be considered to e solved. (orig./HSI) [de

  3. The ENEA calibration service for ionising radiations; Il centro di taratura per le radiazioni ionizzanti di Bologna. Parte 1: Fotoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteventi, F.; Sermenghi, I. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The report describes all the facilities available at the the service of the ENEA Calibration Service for Ionising Radiations at Bologna (Italy). It gives a detailed description of all equipment qualified for photon fields metrology including the secondary standards and the calibration procedures performed for radiation monitoring devices and dosemeters. [Italian] Il presente lavoro descrive i servizi e le attivita' del Centro di Taratura dell'ENEA di Bologna, in particolare delle attrezzature qualificate per la metrologia fotonica, dei campioni di misura e delle procedure adottate per la taratura degli strumenti e dei dosimetri.

  4. Store manager performance and satisfaction: effects on store employee performance and satisfaction, store customer satisfaction, and store customer spending growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netemeyer, Richard G; Maxham, James G; Lichtenstein, Donald R

    2010-05-01

    Based on emotional contagion theory and the value-profit chain literatures, the present study posits a number of hypotheses that show how managers in the small store, small number of employees retail context may affect store employees, customers, and potentially store performance. With data from 306 store managers, 1,615 store customer-contact employees, and 57,656 customers of a single retail chain, the authors examined relationships among store manager job satisfaction and job performance, store customer-contact employee job satisfaction and job performance, customer satisfaction with the retailer, and a customer-spending-based store performance metric (customer spending growth over a 2-year period). Via path analysis, several hypothesized direct and interaction relations among these constructs are supported. The results suggest implications for academic researchers and retail managers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Mesotheliomas in Lebanon: Witnessing a Change in Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Joseph; Eid, Roland; Kourie, Hampig Raphael; Farhat, Fadi; Ghosn, Marwan; Ghorra, Claude; Tomb, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Mesotheliomas are relatively rare tumors in Lebanon. The only previous study goes back to 14 years ago, when we published epidemiological characteristics of mesotheliomas in Lebanon, showing that the pleural location accounted for the vast majority of cases, with clear evidence of asbestos exposure from the Eternit factory of Chekka region. The objective of this current study was to estimate the incidence of mesothelioma in the past decade and to identify its epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic characteristics, making comparisons with our first study published in 2001. Between 2002 and 2014, patients diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma at Hotel-Dieu de France University Hospital were investigated. Epidemiological data focusing on asbestos exposure history were collected from medical records and interviews with the families. A total of 26 patients were diagnosed with mesothelioma, 21 of which were successfully investigated. The mean age of these 21 patients is 62.5 (19-82). Only 3 (14.29%) are women. 18 (85.71%) were smokers. Among the 21 available mesotheliomas, 15 (71.4%) are pleural, while 5 (23.8%) are peritoneal and 1 (4.8%) pericardial. Only 60% of patients with pleural mesothelioma and 50% of those with an obvious exposure to asbestos lived and/or worked in Chekka region. The mean time of asbestos exposure in patients with mesothelioma is 24.5 (1-50) years and the mean latency is 37.4 (4-61) years. Of the 21 patients, 10 (47.6%) underwent surgery during their treatment, 16 (76.2%) received chemotherapy and 3 (14.3%) received best supportive care. Compared to the previous study (1991-2000), substantial changes in the epidemiology of mesothelioma in Lebanon were observed, such as an increase in peritoneal localizations and a lower correlation with Chekka region asbestos contamination.

  6. Why are breastfeeding rates low in Lebanon? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabulsi, Mona

    2011-08-30

    Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context.

  7. Why are breastfeeding rates low in Lebanon? a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabulsi Mona

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. Methods We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Results Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Conclusions Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context.

  8. Superconducting energy store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsel, W.

    1986-01-01

    The advantages obtained by the energy store device according to the invention with a superconducting solenoid system consist of the fact that only relatively short superconducting forward and return leads are required, which are collected into cables as far as possible. This limits the coolant losses of the cables. Only one relatively expensive connecting part with a transition of its conductors from room temperature to a low temperature is required, which, like the normal conducting current switch, is easily accessible. As the continuation has to be cooled independently of the upper part solenoid, cooling of this continuation part can prevent the introduction of large quantities of heat into the connected part solenoid. Due to the cooling of the forward and return conductors of the connecting cable with the coolant of the lower part solenoid, there are relatively few separations between the coolant spaces of the part solenoids. (orig./MM) [de

  9. Shopping in discount stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    quarters of intentions to shop in discount stores. Value perception has the strongest total effect, which is partly mediated by enjoyment, shame and guilt. Attributions influence the shopping intention indirectly via value perception and emotions. The inferior quality attribution has the strongest total......This paper analyzes the impact of price-related attributions, emotions and value perception on the intention to shop at grocery discounters in an integrated framework. Moderating effects of price consciousness are also analyzed. The results show that the proposed model explains almost three...... effect, followed by the efficiency of the business model attribution. The unfairness to stakeholders and the tricks in price communication attribution mostly influence the shopping intention for less price-conscious customers....

  10. Overview of Didactic Methodical Organization of University Teaching by Bologna Concept of Higher Education

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    Nedim Čirić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reassessment of the existing didactic-methodological organization within the University lectures as well as the role of students and University lecturers is a result of the current process of higher education reforms. The advancement of pedagogical and didactic-methodological competences of university lecturers represents an imperative in reaching a high quality education. The results of this research may function as a starting point in the self-evaluation of University lecturers. The point of this work was to present didactic and methodical elements of contemporary university teaching, according to Bologna concept of higher education, and position of students. Taking into consideration the very definition and didactic methodological structure and legality of teaching, researches related to representation of individual didactic and methodical elements of contemporary university teaching are presented, which relate to forms of teaching, methods of teaching and application of teaching and technical aids. In the context of the current reform of the high education and considering the Bologna Declaration it could be concluded that contemporary university teaching is marked with cooperative interactive teaching in which the position of students and teachers is defined as partnership.

  11. Storage of vacuum-packaged smoked bologna sausage prepared from Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Aline Ferreira Silva Bartolomeu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in smoked bologna sausage manufactured with Niletilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and wheat fibers in refrigerated storage (6 ± 2°C during 30 days were evaluated. Minced fish (MF obtained from waste (parings from the filleting fish operations of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was used as raw material. In this experiment, were determined Staphylococcus count, the detection of Salmonella sp. (day 0, psychrotrophic count, total and fecal coliforms at45°C, the acceptance sensory test (days 0 and 30, water activity, instrumental color, pH and lipid oxidation analysis (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances - TBARS days 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 of storage. Lipid oxidation (TBARS and water activity provided significant differences among storage days. However it was concluded that the bologna sausage remained stable and with acceptable quality for 30 days of storage may be a new alternative to adding value to fish products, because the researched microorganisms had a low count, changes in pH were not significant and sensory test indicated good acceptance of the product during the 30 days of storage.

  12. THE BOLOGNA PROCESS AND THE DYNAMICS OF ACADEMIC MOBILITY: A COMPARATIVE APPROACH TO ROMANIA AND TURKEY

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    Monica ROMAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent changes that have occurred in the European higher education system are grounded on the options of continental countries, expressed in the Bologna Declaration, to achieve a single European space in this field by the year 2010. The purpose of this paper is to develop a better understanding of student mobility in the process of internationalization of higher education in a South European context. The rationale of the study is that student mobility has long been the most important dimension of the process of internationalization of higher education. At the moment there is increasing demand for higher education, as a consequence of demographic trends and the need for new degrees and diploma programs. The article focuses on two countries from South-Eastern Europe, Romania and Turkey. Both countries have a very dynamic higher education system, in terms of number of students and stuff, integrating in Bologna process. They also are primarily perceived as sending students countries. The key findings are linked to obstacles and solutions to overcome this obstacle. It also stresses the necessity of the two higher education systems to be more involved in attracting European students.

  13. The Bologna Process of German’s Media and Communication Studies

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    Yoseph Bambang Wiratmojo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization of the higher education system through the Bologna Process in German’s media and communication studies is on progress; all higher education institutions were chosen as the samples in this research had the same opinion that international student’s mobility in term of the Bologna Process was the most important variable to create international cooperation with other universities. Providing more courses in English also became their main concern to attract international students come their academic life. The implementation of the new curricula model, bachelor and masters, was considered more transparent and clearer in the structure and content than the Diplom and Magister models. Nevertheless, the compatible and comparable qualification principle of bachelor and masters structure brought also dilemma that some of the content of media and communication studies had to be adjusted considering the workload and study period that is different from the old curricula systems. The bachelor and masters structure caused apprehension that the bachelor graduates would prefer to work in industries than return to campus to pursue higher degree. This research was based on content analysis of curricula documents and interview transcription of some representative of HEI in media and communication studies.

  14. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk in North Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Kassaa, I; El Omari, Kh.; Esmail, B.; Hamze, M; Saati, M.

    2016-01-01

    Listeriosis, although a zoonosis, is an invasive disease that can affect newborns, pregnant women and immunocompromised adults. Clinical manifestations can be expressedby febrile gastroenteritis, invasive forms including severe sepsis, meningitis, rhombencephalitis, prenatal infections and abortions. Species of Listeria bacteria are ubiquitous and adaptableto the environment in animal and plant foods. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in 100 samples of fresh cow milk collected from different areas of North Lebanon. Listeria monocytogenes was detected by using the Grand VIDAS technique (Biomérieux France). The results obtained revealed the absence of Listeria monocytogenes inall analyzed samples. (Author)

  15. Acute spinal cord injuries in the Lebanon War, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohry, A; Rozin, R

    1984-04-01

    Our experience with 17 patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI) acquired in the Lebanon War, 1982, is described. The SCI were due to gunshot wounds in 12 patients and to other causes in 5. Two laparotomies and one thoracotomy were performed. Corticosteroids were not seen to influence recovery, nor was laminectomy, which was performed in three cases. Complications such as pressure sores, hydronephrosis, ileus and deep vein thrombosis were rare or did not occur. Three high quadriplegics died. Based on our experience, we recommend conservative treatment and rehabilitation in acute SCI.

  16. Hydrogeology of the carbonate rocks of the Lebanon Valley, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisler, Harold

    1963-01-01

    The Lebanon Valley, which is part of the Great Valley in southeastern Pennsylvania, is underlain by carbonate rocks in the southern part and by shale in the northern part. The carbonate rocks consist of alternating beds of limestone and dolomite of Cambrian and Ordovician age. Although the beds generally dip to the south, progressively younger beds crop out to the north, because the rocks are overturned. The stratigraphic units, from oldest to youngest, are: the Buffalo Springs Formation, Snitz Creek, Schaefferstown, Millbach, and Richland Formations of the Conococheague Group; the Stonehenge, Rickenbach, Epler, and Ontelaunee Formations of the Beekmantown Group; and the Annville, Myerstown, and Hershey Limestones.

  17. The importance of store windows in creating store identity and store attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renko Sanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While choosing the store, customer first notices the store window and it plays an important role in retailing strategy. Store's window is what customers see first in meeting with the store. Store window design can lead customer to enter the store, and can give a lot of information about store brands and products. Besides the analysis of the way how specific elements of the window design affect customers and their perception, the explanation of their attraction and rejection to customers is given. If we consider the importance of the topics, we can point out the lack of literature about store windows as the communication tool which allow store to communicate with its customers and to create its retailing strategy as well. There is the scientific contribution of this paper. The paper gives theoretical comprehensions completed with the results of the study about the importance of store windows for retailers as well as for customers. Therefore, for the purpose of this paper, a two-phase research study, including a qualitative and a quantitative approach, was used: 1 the qualitative study among retailers which indicated the most important elements of store windows, the level of financial sources invested in the window design, the basis for the decisions about store window design, etc.; 2 the quantitative study on the sample of consumers conducted with on-line questionnaire. Findings suggest that store window attractiveness is the main motif for store visits. The results of the research confirm that by means of store window and its elements (with special emphasis on price and pricing actions retail store sends messages to its consumers.

  18. Invading Bologna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.; Pradhan-Blach, Flemming

    European NATO nations need better staff officers. Operation Unified Protector exposed a widespread deficiency in the professional knowledge of field-grade European officers. Professional military education (PME) is where corrective Alliance action must focus. The Nordic countries—Norway, Denmark...

  19. Social Relations in Lebanon: Convoys Across the Life Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Toni C; Ajrouch, Kristine J; Abdulrahim, Sawsan

    2015-10-01

    This study systematically analyzed convoys of social relations to investigate the ways in which gender and income shape patterns of social relations across the life course in Lebanon. Data were drawn from a representative sample of adults aged 18 and older in Greater Beirut, Lebanon (N = 500). Multiple linear regression and multilevel models were conducted to examine main and interactive effects of age, gender, and income on social relations. Findings indicate main effects of age, income, and gender on network structure and relationship quality. Older age was associated with larger network size, greater proportion of kin in network, higher positive and lower negative relationship quality. Higher income was associated with larger network size and decreased contact frequency. Female gender was also associated with decreased contact frequency. Gender interacted with income to influence network size and network composition. Higher income was associated with a larger network size and higher proportion of kin for women. Findings suggest diversity in the experience of social relations. Such nuance is particularly relevant to the Lebanese context where family is the main source of support in old age. Policy makers and program planners may need to refrain from viewing social relations simplistically. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Implementing opioid substitution in Lebanon: Inception and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Joseph; Abbas, Zeinab; Nakhle, Pascale E; Matar, Marie-Therese

    2016-05-01

    Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST) is a firmly established method of treating and managing dependence to opioids in Europe, the US and rest of the developed world. It has a solid evidence base and a positive safety track record. Dissemination of its practice, in parallel to the acceptance of harm reduction as an effective approach, is still timid in low and middle Income countries. After years of advocacy on the parts of clinicians and the voluntary sector, the government of Lebanon launched a national opioid substitution program in 2011 using buprenorphine as the substance of substitution. Lebanon is one of the first countries in the MENA region to establish such a program despite a difficult socio-political context. This paper provides the background of harm reduction efforts in the region and presents the outline of the program from inception to present date. Challenges and recommendations for the future are also discussed. The Lebanese experience with opioid substitution is encouraging so far and can be used as a template for others in the region who might be contemplating broadening the range of services available to tackle addiction to heroin and related substances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reducing Reforestation Costs in Lebanon: Adaptive Field Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garabet (Garo Haroutunian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lebanon’s Ministry of Environment initiated a project in 2009 to determine low-cost reforestation techniques for stone pine (Pinus pinea and Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani for large-scale land rehabilitation activities in the arid Middle East. Irrigation (several techniques vs. no water, planting (8- to 18-month-old seedlings, seeding, and soil preparation methods were evaluated in three sets of adaptive management field trials. The aim was to reduce reforestation costs while still achieving sufficient regeneration. A key result for management was that non-irrigated seed planting of stone pine and possibly of Lebanon cedar showed promise for cost-effective reforestation and could be competitive with seedlings, given correct seed source and planting conditions. Stone pine seeds collected from nearby mother trees and planted without irrigation on sandy soil showed 35% survival for <600 USD/ha; seedlings planted without irrigation cost about 2500 USD/ha and achieved 50–70% survival (costs based on 800 seedlings/ha. Water supplements increased establishment costs over 2 years without concomitant improvements to survival. Future studies should evaluate how soil texture and soil preparation interact with other factors to affect seed germination and survival for each species.

  2. Consanguinity and family clustering of male factor infertility in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Kobeissi, Loulou; Nassar, Zaher; Lakkis, Da'ad; Fakih, Michael H

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the influence of consanguineous marriage on male factor infertility in Lebanon, where rates of consanguineous marriage remain high (29.6% among Muslims, 16.5% among Christians). Clinic-based, case-control study, using reproductive history, risk factor interview, and laboratory-based semen analysis. Two IVF clinics in Beirut, Lebanon, during an 8-month period (January-August 2003). One hundred twenty infertile male patients and 100 fertile male controls, distinguished by semen analysis and reproductive history. None. Standard clinical semen analysis. The rates of consanguineous marriage were relatively high among the study sample. Patients (46%) were more likely than controls (37%) to report first-degree (parental) and second-degree (grandparental) consanguinity. The study demonstrated a clear pattern of family clustering of male factor infertility, with patients significantly more likely than controls to report infertility among close male relatives (odds ratio = 2.58). Men with azoospermia and severe oligospermia showed high rates of both consanguinity (50%) and family clustering (41%). Consanguineous marriage is a socially supported institution throughout the Muslim world, yet its relationship to infertility is poorly understood. This study demonstrated a significant association between consanguinity and family clustering of male factor infertility cases, suggesting a strong genetic component.

  3. Habitat Characterization of Entomopathogenic Nematodes in North Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noujeim Abi Nader, E.; El Hayek, P.; Darwich, T.; Khater, C.; Nemer, N.; Thaler, O.

    2010-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are soil organisms, adapted to most climatic conditions in hot, temperate, and cold zones, distributed from lowlands to high alpine altitudes (Steiner, 1996). During a previous survey of entomopathogenic nematodes-EPNs in Lebanon (Noujeim Abi Nader et al., in review), 3 out of 19 sites were estimated positive in EPNs. The reasons for the presence of EPNs in some sites in Lebanon rather than others, are still not well established. Even less is known about the correlation between EPNs distribution in land and soil texture, soil pH, insect hosts, and vegetation cover. In the current study, assessment of habitat preference of EPNs is conducted in a positive site previously sampled for EPNs occurrence. The relationship between EPNs, entomofauna, vegetation cover and soil characteristics is determined using a gridded method and baiting with Galleria mellonella tubes introduced in situ into soil. The method used allows precision sampling with minimal soil disturbance. Results showed a correlation between EPNs and some soil characteristics (humidity, organic matter, texture, porosity) and also communities of invertebrates. No significant linkages were demonstrated between the presence of EPNs and the vegetation nor with the soil pH or any specific entomofauna order. (author)

  4. Mental health care in the Lebanon War, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, S; Levy, R; Solomon, Z

    1984-04-01

    Lessons in mental health care learned from the October 1973 War were applied in the Lebanon War 1982. A three-echelon system of management was followed according to the practices prevalent in Western armies. The clinical pictures were essentially similar to those observed in other wars. Combat stress reactions (CSR) comprised 15 to 20% of the total casualties during the active phase of the war; the rate of late reactions was 30 to 40% of the total CSR. Treatment on the battlefield was more effective than treatment following airlift to the rear, in returning soldiers to their units. The role of stress in causing CSR, and the importance of leadership and cohesion in its prevention were evident. The important lessons learned from the Lebanon War are discussed and include: 1) the need for a broad definition of CSR; 2) the importance of forward unit intervention; 3) the necessity of mobility and divisibility of mental health treatment units; 4) fighting units should not be dispersed immediately after combat; and 5) the management of stress reactions to be the responsibility not only of the mental health services, but of all sections of the medical corps, both in treatment and prevention.

  5. Situation analysis of community pharmacy owners in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallit S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the current community pharmacists’ interventions and job satisfaction, secondary to the alteration in the financial rewards. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out, using a proportionate random sample of Lebanese community pharmacy owners from all districts of Lebanon. Results: Out of 1618 distributed questionnaires, 1465 (90.5% were collected back from pharmacy owners. Our study results showed that the monthly sales and profit decreased significantly in the last decade as well as the number of loyal customers (p<0.001 for all. The rent, the total assistant pharmacists’ and employees’ salaries, income taxes, municipality fees, the total bills (electricity, water, cleaning, security and the disposal of expired products per year significantly increased during the last 10 years (p<0.001. 95% of the owners said they cannot afford to hire any more pharmacists while 45% said they cannot afford buying software for their pharmacies. Finally, 89% of these owners admitted that their situation was better 10 years ago compared to nowadays. Conclusion: Most Lebanese community pharmacists are not financially satisfied; their financial situation deteriorated in the last decade. The ministry of Health along with the Order of Pharmacists in Lebanon should cooperate together to resolve this problem since they are two entities responsible for the patient’s health.

  6. First-episode psychosis at the West Bologna Community Mental Health Centre: results of an 8-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarricone, I; Mimmi, S; Paparelli, A; Rossi, E; Mori, E; Panigada, S; Carchia, G; Bandieri, V; Michetti, R; Minenna, G; Boydell, J; Morgan, C; Berardi, D

    2012-11-01

    Research mostly conducted in the UK and northern Europe has established that there are high rates of first-episode psychosis (FEP) in large cities and immigrant populations; moreover, psychosis has been found to be associated with cannabis use and early trauma. The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence rate of FEP and the distribution of several risk factors (e.g. age, ethnicity, substance abuse) in Bologna, Italy. The Bologna FEP (BoFEP) study is an 8-year prospective study. All FEP patients, 18-64 years old, consecutively referred to the West Bologna Community Mental Health Centre (CMHC) from 2002 to 2009 were evaluated. Sociodemographic information, migration history and clinical data were collected through an ad-hoc schedule. Psychiatric diagnoses were recorded using the Schedule for Clinical Assessment of Neuropsychiatry (SCAN). The overall incidence rate (IR) in the BoFEP study was 16.4 per 100 000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 13.9-18.9]. The incidence was higher in young people, men and migrants (MI). The IR of FEP found by the Bologna study is lower than that found by other European studies. However, as in other studies, the incidence was higher in certain groups. This heterogeneity has implications for policy and mental health service development, and for understanding the aetiology of psychosis.

  7. Teacher Education Curricula after the Bologna Process--A Comparative Analysis of Written Curricula in Finland and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakku-Sihvonen, Ritva; Tissari, Varpu; Ots, Aivar; Uusiautti, Satu

    2012-01-01

    During the Bologna process, from 2003 to 2006, degree programmes, including teacher education curricula, were developed in line with the two-tier system--the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) and modularization. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the development of teacher education profiling measures by…

  8. Global References, Local Translation: Adaptation of the Bologna Process Degree Structure and Credit System at Universities in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eta, Elizabeth Agbor; Vubo, Emmanuel Yenshu

    2016-01-01

    This article uses temporal comparison and thematic analytical approaches to analyse text documents and interviews, examining the adaptation of the Bologna Process degree structure and credit system in two sub-systems of education in Cameroon: the Anglo-Saxon and the French systems. The central aim is to verify whether such adaptation has replaced,…

  9. The Bologna Process as a Reform Initiative in Higher Education in the Balkan Countries: The Case of Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Radu Mircea

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Bologna process in Romania. The historical context covers the last years of the communist regime through 1989. From 1990 free elections of university leadership, the foundation of private universities and new democratic legislation, and projects for reforming higher education funded by different sources…

  10. Design of the Curriculum for a Second-Cycle Course in Civil Engineering in the Context of the Bologna Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, K. G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the curriculum for a Master of Engineering programme in civil engineering at University College Dublin. The revised programme was established to meet the requirements of the Bologna process and this paper specifically considers the design of a new, second-cycle master's component of the programme. In addition to…

  11. Accreditation in Western Europe: adequate reactions to Bologna declaration and the General Agreement on Trade in Services?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerheijden, Donald F.

    2003-01-01

    Challenged by globalization (especially the General Agreement on Trade in Services [GATS]) and by European developments (the Bologna process), the Netherlands will introduce program accreditation as a new form of quality assurance. Other, sometimes similar initiatives are found in other countries

  12. Pedagogical Benefits of Fieldwork of the Students at the Faculty of Geography in the Light of the Bologna Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andelkovic, Sladana; Dedjanski, Vojislav; Pejic, Biljana

    2018-01-01

    Students' opinion and assessment of the quality of teaching presents an important segment of the evaluation of the quality of teaching at university level in accordance with the principles of the Bologna Process. In this study, we have examined opinion of students at the Faculty of Geography, University of Belgrade on the pedagogical benefits of…

  13. Legal Developments and Problems of the Bologna Process within the European Higher Education Area and European Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cippitani, Roberto; Gatt, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    2010 sees the end of the process of establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Although not all countries may have achieved all the objectives, many are those countries and universities who have implemented many of the targets set. Within the Bologna Process, there have been many developments such as: European Credit Transfer and…

  14. Initial Science Teacher Education in Portugal: The Thoughts of Teacher Educators about the Effects of the Bologna Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Laurinda; Dourado, Luís; Morgado, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Between the 1980s and 2007, Portugal used to have one-stage (5-year period) initial teacher education (ITE) programs. In 2007 and consistent with the Bologna process guidelines, Portuguese teacher education moved toward a two-stage model, which includes a 3-year undergraduate program of subject matter that leads to a "licenciatura" (or…

  15. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1910192

  16. Techniques and methods to guarantee Bologna-conform higher education in GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Bologna Declaration is aiming for student-centered, outcome-related, and competence-based teaching. In order to fulfill these demands, deep level learning techniques should be used to meet the needs of adult-compatible and self-determined learning. The presentation will summarize selected case studies carried out in the framework of the lecture course "Introduction into GNSS positioning" of the Geodetic Institute of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Karlsruhe, Germany). The lecture course "Introduction into GNSS positioning" is a compulsory part of the Bachelor study course "Geodesy and Geoinformatics" and also a supplementary module of the Bachelor study course "Geophysics". Within the lecture course, basic knowledge and basic principles of Global Navigation Satellite Systems, like GPS, are imparted. The lecture course was migrated starting from a classically designed geodetic lecture course, which consisted of a well-adapted combination of teacher-centered classroom lectures and practical training (e.g., field exercises). The recent Bologna-conform blended learning concepts supports and motivates students to learn more sustainable using online and classroom learning methods. Therefore, an appropriate combination of - classroom lectures: Students and teacher give lectures - practical training: Students select topics individually - online learning: ILIAS (learning management system) is used as data, result, and communication platform. The framing didactical method is based on the so-called anchored instruction approach. Within this approach, an up-to-date scientific GNSS-related paper dealing with the large-scale geodetic project "Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link" is used as anchor. The students have to read the paper individually in the beginning of the semester. This enables them to realize a lot of not-known GNSS-related facts. Therefore, questions can be formulated. The lecture course deals with these questions, in order to answer them. At the end of the

  17. Curriculum restructuring in Higher Education after the Bologna Process: a new pedagogic regime?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Karseth

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available By adopting the Bologna Process as the frame of reference this article discusses the ongoing policy of curriculum restructuring in higher education.The analysis is based on policy documents produced on the European scene and documents which describe the restructuring process in the highereducation system of Norway. The article shows how the new discourse presented by the Bologna Process challenges the traditional curriculum discourses in higher education. The credit accumulation and transfer discourse asks for a curricular framework which enhances mobility,employability and competitiveness. Although the rhetoric calls attention to institutional autonomy the curriculum restructuring represents a standardisation of higher education whereby the management of credit transfer and accumulation becomes the salient task. The aim is to develop a highly reliable space of higher education which is manageable and predictable. Although a flexible curriculum approach together with a studentcentred pedagogy are advocated, the Bologna Process can be read as a rational programme that tends to create a discourse for the governing of the student (the self in light of the objectives already set.Tras adoptar el proceso de Bolonia como punto de referencia, este artículo se encarga de analizar la corriente política de reestructuración de currículos en educación superior. El análisis se basa en documentos producidos en el ámbito europeo, algunos dedicados al estudio del proceso de reestructuración de la educación superior en Noruega. El artículo muestra cómo el nuevo discurso presentado por el proceso de Bolonia, pone en entredicho los discursos tradicionales en educación superior en referencia al currículo. La acumulación y transferencia de créditos necesitan moverse en un marco más actual, que realce la movilidad, empleabilidad y competitividad. Aunque la retórica pueda ser importante en términos de autonomía institucional, la reestructuraci

  18. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were sur...

  19. Dietetic practices in hemodialysis units in Lebanon and their conformity with KDOQI nutrition guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karavetian, M.; Elzein, H.; Nahla, H.; de Vries, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: In Lebanon, HD units are exclusively hospital based, and most hospitals have only one dietitian performing all nutrition related activities in the hospital. This study investigated current dietetic practices and their conformity with Kidney Disease Quality Outcomes Initiative

  20. Studio di prevalenza delle polmoniti in un'Azienda opsedaliera di Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Leoni

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: nell’ambito di un progetto di sorveglianza attiva dei casi di polmonite da legionella, è stata studiata la prevalenza di tutti i casi di polmonite ricoverati in un ospedale di Bologna, allo scopo di definirne la distribuzione per origine (comunitaria o nosocomiale, eziologia, caratteristiche individuali e di confrontarle con le polmoniti da legionella.

    Metodi: per ogni caso con diagnosi clinica e/o radiologica di polmonite è stato compilato un questionario, raccogliendo le informazioni dalle cartelle cliniche. Tutti i casi di polmonite non specificata sono stati inoltre sottoposti al test per la ricerca dell’antigene di legionella nelle urine.

  1. Some Strategies for Strengthening Research and Teaching in the Era of the Bologna Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadine VAN GRAMBERG

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Universities across the world are undergoing rapid, and often significant, change to compete in an increasingly global environment. The Bologna process of higher education reforms has had its impact not only across Europe but globally given the pressure on universities to compete and to provide students with transferable qualifications in the quest for borderless education. As part of the process universities have been encouraged to differentiate themselves, particularly in terms of being research focused or teaching focus. As a result, many universities are putting in place strategies to boost their research output. With a view to contributing to the discussions by the International Advisory Board of the Department of Public Administration at Babes- Bolyai University, this paper overviews some of the strategies put in place by Australian Universities in order to improve the research output of their academic staff and provides some university marketing based suggestions for Babes-Bolyai University.

  2. Music undergraduates' usefulness and importance expectations: The Bologna Process from an Australian university perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Harvey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Bologna Process model of higher education has been introduced into some Australian universities since 2008. This model promoted university study through a liberal arts philosophy that advanced a worldview approach at the undergraduate level. The model generalised the student experience and eliminated undergraduate specialisation. An interesting situation for music undergraduate study thus arose. Expertise and expert performance research has argued an opposing educational approach, namely: Extensive long-term commitment through focused practical engagement and specialised tuition as prerequisites to achieving musical mastery, especially in performance. Motivation research has shown that the majority of this specialised development in pre-university years would be accessed and reinforced predominantly through private music tuition. Drawing on this contextual literature, commencing university music undergraduates would have expectations of their prospective study founded from two historical influences. The first: How undergraduates had accessed pre-university music tuition. The second: How and in what ways undergraduates’ pre-university musical activities were experienced and reinforced. Using usefulness and importance measures, the study observed the expectations of students about to commence music undergraduate studies at three representative Australian university music schools. One of these universities operated the Bologna styled model. No other known Australian study has investigated this implementation for any effects upon music undergraduate expectations. How much commencing music undergraduates would draw on their pre-university music instruction and experiences to predict their usefulness and importance expectations formed the basis for this investigation. Strong relationships between usefulness and importance were found across all units of study. Despite strong correlations across all units of study between usefulness and

  3. Music Undergraduates' Usefulness and Importance Expectations: The Bologna Process from an Australian University Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Dominic G; Davidson, Jane W; Nair, Chenicheri S

    2016-01-01

    The Bologna Process model of higher education has been introduced into some Australian universities since 2008. This model promoted university study through a liberal arts philosophy that advanced a worldview approach at the undergraduate level. The model generalized the student experience and eliminated undergraduate specialization. An interesting situation for music undergraduate study thus arose. Expertise and expert performance research has argued an opposing educational approach, namely: Extensive long-term commitment through focused practical engagement and specialized tuition as prerequisites to achieving musical mastery, especially in performance. Motivation research has shown that the majority of this specialized development in pre-university years would be accessed and reinforced predominantly through private music tuition. Drawing on this contextual literature, commencing university music undergraduates would have expectations of their prospective study founded from two historical influences. The first: How undergraduates had accessed pre-university music tuition. The second: How and in what ways undergraduates' pre-university musical activities were experienced and reinforced. Using usefulness and importance measures, the study observed the expectations of students about to commence music undergraduate studies at three representative Australian university music schools. One of these universities operated the Bologna styled model. No other known Australian study has investigated this implementation for any effects upon music undergraduate expectations. How much commencing music undergraduates would draw on their pre-university music instruction and experiences to predict their usefulness and importance expectations formed the basis for this investigation. Strong relationships between usefulness and importance were found across all units of study. Despite strong correlations across all units of study between usefulness and importance, there was a

  4. Knowledge and Attitudes About Oral Cancer Among Dental Students After Bologna Plan Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frola, María Inés; Barrios, Rocío

    2017-09-01

    Oral cancer is the most common of head and neck tumours. Dentists have an important role in the most effective prevention measures: controlling aetiological factors and early detection. Dental curriculum has suffered changes in their structures and contents during Bologna process. The aim of this study is to explore oral cancer knowledge and attitudes among dental students of Granada after the implementation of the Bologna plan. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the School of Dentistry of the University of Granada. A questionnaire was delivered to dental students in the fourth and fifth years (of study) to assess knowledge and attitudes about oral cancer area. 79.3 % related that they examined the oral mucosa from their patients regularly. Almost the whole sample (95.9 %) said that they would advise their patients about risk factors for oral cancer when they graduated. Tobacco followed by alcohol was the main oral cancer risk factor identified (94.2 and 72.7 %, respectively). 96.7 % of the sample would like to receive more information about this subject. Fourth year students had taught self-examination for early detection of oral cancer more frequently than fifth year students (42.5 versus 22.9 %, respectively). The results of this study revealed that dental students had good attitudes in the area of oral cancer. On the other hand, it highlights the need for an improvement of the teaching program regarding risk factors for oral cancer and performing routine oral examination.

  5. European nursing students' academic success or failure: a post-Bologna Declaration systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dante, Angelo; Petrucci, Cristina; Lancia, Loreto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to synthesise the available evidence in the European scientific literature produced after the Bologna Declaration and to evaluate studies that quantify and examine the factors associated with the academic success or failure of nursing students. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Major health literature databases were searched for studies published from 2000 to 2011. This review includes only European observational studies that were submitted to a quality assessment by two researchers before inclusion. Only five studies were included in this review. There are discordant results regarding the predictors of success or failure, which were common objects of study (gender, age, qualification on entry, ethnic group). other factors were studied individually (student personality, gendered view of nursing careers, intention to leave, family commitments, working while on course, student performance, clinical learning environment) need to be confirmed in additional studies. Although the predictors may be relevant at the local level, given their low external validity and the conflicting results, it is not possible to state with certainty that these factors are effectively predictive of success or failure in the context of post-Bologna Declaration Europe. This review showed that over the last ten years, in the European context, only a few high-quality observational studies have been performed. In this regard, given the small number and heterogeneity of the available studies, there is little useful evidence available for Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to effectively address the problem. In the future, European researchers should focus not only on the documentation of the predictors but also on the documentation of the outcomes produced by the HEI strategies that have been implemented to prevent avoidable academic failure and contain physiological academic failure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Music Undergraduates' Usefulness and Importance Expectations: The Bologna Process from an Australian University Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Dominic G.; Davidson, Jane W.; Nair, Chenicheri S.

    2016-01-01

    The Bologna Process model of higher education has been introduced into some Australian universities since 2008. This model promoted university study through a liberal arts philosophy that advanced a worldview approach at the undergraduate level. The model generalized the student experience and eliminated undergraduate specialization. An interesting situation for music undergraduate study thus arose. Expertise and expert performance research has argued an opposing educational approach, namely: Extensive long-term commitment through focused practical engagement and specialized tuition as prerequisites to achieving musical mastery, especially in performance. Motivation research has shown that the majority of this specialized development in pre-university years would be accessed and reinforced predominantly through private music tuition. Drawing on this contextual literature, commencing university music undergraduates would have expectations of their prospective study founded from two historical influences. The first: How undergraduates had accessed pre-university music tuition. The second: How and in what ways undergraduates' pre-university musical activities were experienced and reinforced. Using usefulness and importance measures, the study observed the expectations of students about to commence music undergraduate studies at three representative Australian university music schools. One of these universities operated the Bologna styled model. No other known Australian study has investigated this implementation for any effects upon music undergraduate expectations. How much commencing music undergraduates would draw on their pre-university music instruction and experiences to predict their usefulness and importance expectations formed the basis for this investigation. Strong relationships between usefulness and importance were found across all units of study. Despite strong correlations across all units of study between usefulness and importance, there was a

  7. Regionalizing healthcare: a vision for transforming Lebanon into a regional academic hub

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Kamal F; Akl, Elie A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Lebanon suffers from a large scale emigration of physicians coupled with an oversaturation of the physician job market. Lebanon is currently witnessing an expansion of its medical education capacity with the establishment of new private medical schools, raising the fears of a worsening market oversaturation. Discussion The neighboring Arabian Gulf countries are suffering from a serious shortage of clinicians and academicians. In spite of their enormous investments in educa...

  8. Heart health in Lebanon and considerations for addressing the burden of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deek, Hiba; Newton, Phillip; Inglis, Sally; Kabbani, Samer; Noureddine, Samar; Macdonald, Peter S; Davidson, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Lebanon is a small country located at the western boundary of the Middle East. Approximately 40% of health care in Lebanon is financed by the public sector. Cardiovascular diseases in Lebanon are scarcely addressed in the literature raising the need for baseline data on these health condition to be better treated. To (1) aggregate and define the burden of cardiovascular disease in Lebanon and (2) describe implications for policy, practice and research to improve health outcomes in Lebanon. An integrative review was conducted of both peer-reviewed papers and unpublished reports. CINAHL, Medline, Google Scholar and Academic Search Complete were searched along with the websites of The World Health Organization, Ministry of Public Health Lebanon and Central Intelligence Agency of Lebanon. No year limit was applied to our search. The search yielded 28 peer-reviewed articles and 15 reports. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Lebanon and is also the primary cause of hospital admission. A range of social, political, economic and cultural factors explain the burden of cardiovascular diseases, some of these risks are culture specific such as the arghile smoking and the high rates of familial hypercholesterolemia. Workforce shortage produced by high rates of migrating nurses also has an implication on the patients' outcomes. Conclusion: Much of the presented data are sourced from the gray literature; more research, using systematic and prospective data collection methods, are needed to inform health services planning, delivery and evaluation. Primary care needs to be enhanced to produce better outcomes for a population with high profile of cardiovascular risk factors.

  9. Drought or humidity oscillations? The case of coastal zone of Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Amin; Houhou, Rola

    2015-10-01

    There is discrepancy in classifying Lebanon according to the different climatic zones; however, it is often described as a semi-arid region. Lately, Lebanon has been witnessing climatic oscillations in the meteorological parameters. The impact of these oscillations on water sector has been reflected also on energy-food nexus. Yet, there are a number of studies obtained to identify the climate of Lebanon, and they show contradictory results; especially these studies elaborated different datasets and applied diverse methods which often modeled only on large-scale regions. Therefore, the analysis of climatic data depended on complete and long-term climatic records that can be applied to assess the existing climatic status of Lebanon, as well as to assure whether Lebanon is under drought, humidity or it is oscillating between both. This study utilized considerable datasets, from different sources including the remotely sensed systems (e.g. TRMM). These datasets were interpolated and analyzed statistically according to De Martonne Aridity Index. Aiming to affirm the climatic attribute of Lebanon; however, ten climatic stations were investigated. They are with representative geographic setting and diverse time series in the coastal zone of Lebanon were investigated. Even though, Lebanon is known as a semi-arid region, yet results in this study show that the studied zone does not evidence any drought, since around 70% of the investigated years are characterized by semi-humid to humid climate. This climatic figure is well pronounced since rainfall rate exceeds 900 mm, average temperature rate is about 19 °C, and snow remains for a couple of months annually.

  10. PREVALENCE OF SICKLE CELL TRAIT IN THE SOUTHERN SUBURBS OF BEIRUT, LEBANON

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Badih El Ariss; Mohamad Younes; Jad Matar; Zeina Berjaoui

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, gender differences, and time trends of Sickle Cell Trait in the Southern Suburb of Beirut, Lebanon, as well as to highlight the importance of screening for Sickle Cell Trait carriers in this population. Another objective was to describe a new screening technique for Sickle Cell Trait carriers. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study carried out at a private laboratory in the Southern Suburb of Beirut, Lebanon between 20...

  11. Cost of work-related injuries in insured workplaces in Lebanon.

    OpenAIRE

    Fayad, Rim; Nuwayhid, Iman; Tamim, Hala; Kassak, Kassem; Khogali, Mustafa

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the medical and compensation costs of work-related injuries in insured workplaces in Lebanon and to examine cost distributions by worker and injury characteristics. METHODS: A total of 3748 claims for work injuries processed in 1998 by five major insurance companies in Lebanon were reviewed. Medical costs (related to emergency room fees, physician consultations, tests, and medications) and wage and indemnity compensation costs were identified from the claims. FINDINGS: ...

  12. Two New Records from Lebanon: Chamaesyce nutans (Lag.) Small (Euphorbiaceae) and Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner (Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    HABER, Ricardus M.; SEMAAN, Myrna T.

    2007-01-01

    Chamaesyce nutans (Lag.) Small (Euphorbiaceae) and Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner (Poaceae) are described as new records for the flora of Lebanon. Specimens of C. nutans collected from roadsides and rocks in a middle mountain forest confirm the occurrence of the species on the western slopes of the Mount Lebanon Range. Additionally, specimens of E. indica were collected from wasteland and roadsides in the coastal town of Kaslik. The species were observed to thrive abundantly in similar habitat...

  13. Bottom-up approach to sustainable urban development in Lebanon: The case of Zouk Mosbeh

    OpenAIRE

    El Asmar, Jean-Pierre; Ebohon, O. J.; Taki, A. H.

    2012-01-01

    In contrast with the “top-down” approach to development, the dominant methodology in Lebanon, Iemphasize rather the “bottom-up” approach where all stakeholders have equal opportunities to participate in policy formulation and implementation. The bottom-up or participatory approach to sustainable development has hardly been tested for urban development and management in Lebanon. This research concerns the sustainable rehabilitation of the built environment in the area of Zouk Mosbeh (ZM) in ...

  14. Dorte Nors "Den store tomat"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Jimmi

    2017-01-01

    Tekstgennemgang og undervisningsforløb til Dorte Nors "Den store tomat". Undervisningsforløbet er henvendt til elever i folkeskolens udskoling......Tekstgennemgang og undervisningsforløb til Dorte Nors "Den store tomat". Undervisningsforløbet er henvendt til elever i folkeskolens udskoling...

  15. Consumers’ preferences regarding department stores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laarhoven, W.; Borgers, A.W.J.; van den Berg, P.E.W.

    2017-01-01

    The main reason for this research was the bankruptcy of one the Dutch oldest and largest chain of department stores at the end of 2015. The main goal of this research is to find what, from a consumers’ perspective, a department store should look like. A four storey (1500 m2 each) building was

  16. Forhastet regulering af de store

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Christiansborg gennemfører sandsynligvis en markant skærpet regulering af de store finansielle virksomheder. Det vil virke kontraktivt og medvirke til erhvervslivets kredittørke.......Christiansborg gennemfører sandsynligvis en markant skærpet regulering af de store finansielle virksomheder. Det vil virke kontraktivt og medvirke til erhvervslivets kredittørke....

  17. Time Trends and Policy Gaps: The Case of Alcohol Misuse Among Adolescents in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandour, Lilian; Afifi, Rima; Fares, Sonia; El Salibi, Noura; Rady, Alissar

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring studies are crucial for informing and reforming local policies. Using the Lebanon 2005 and 2011 Global School-based Student Health Surveys (GSHS), alcohol time trends were described, policy gaps were identified, and harm reduction policy recommendations were made. In 2005 and 2011, 100 (n = 5109 students) and 44 (n = 2784 students) middle schools were surveyed, respectively. Self-reported cross-sectional data on alcohol use among 7-9th graders in private and public schools was collected including 30-day prevalence, lifetime drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, and sources of alcohol. In 2011, the majority (87%) had alcohol before turning 14. Between 2005 and 2011, past 30-day alcohol use had increased by 40% and lifetime drunkenness by 50% in the total sample (122% among females with a narrowing in the gender gap). Drinking was regular for more than a third of the past 30-day drinkers (drank two or more drinks on the days they drank). Male adolescents were more likely to obtain alcohol from "stores" or "through their friends" whereas females' main source was their "family." One in twenty reported experiencing alcohol-related problems (e.g., getting into fights with family/friends and skipping school). Conclusion/Importance: Evidence-informed policy implications include enforcing a minimum legal drinking age, regulating alcohol advertising, and marketing particularly those targeting youth and women, and ensuring the availability of youth-friendly services. Public messages to increase awareness among all stakeholders including youth, their parents, and larger community are also needed.

  18. Defining Terrorism at the Special Tribunal for Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Puchooa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available On 16 February 2011, the Appeals Chamber of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL issued an interlocutory decision regarding the legal definition of terrorism.This decision was in response to a Pre-Trial Chamber (PTC list of questions requesting,' inter alia', an elaboration of the elements of this crime.In exploring this matter, the Appeals Chamber defined the subjective ('mens rea' and objective elements ('actus reus' of terrorism by referring to domestic Lebanese law and international law. It thereby set out the applicable law for the court. The consequence of this decision however is not limited to the law of STL but may be seen as having far-reaching consequences for the conception of terrorism under both international law and International Criminal Law (ICL. Given the significance of the Appeals Chamber judgment, this paper will scrutinise three areas of concern regarding its propriety:

  19. Modeling money demand components in Lebanon using autoregressive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourad, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses monetary aggregate in Lebanon and its different component methodology of AR model. Thirteen variables in monthly data have been studied for the period January 1990 through December 2005. Using the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) procedure, twelve variables are integrated at order 1, thus they need the filter (1-B)) to become stationary, however the variable X 1 3,t (claims on private sector) becomes stationary with the filter (1-B)(1-B 1 2) . The ex-post forecasts have been calculated for twelve horizons and for one horizon (one-step ahead forecast). The quality of forecasts has been measured using the MAPE criterion for which the forecasts are good because the MAPE values are lower. Finally, a pursuit of this research using the cointegration approach is proposed. (author)

  20. High burden of rheumatic diseases in Lebanon: a COPCORD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, Monique; Slim, Zeinab N; Habib, Rima R; Arayssi, Thurayya; Dana, Rouwayda; Hamdan, Omar; Assi, Maher; Issa, Zeinab; Uthman, Imad

    2012-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in Lebanon and to explore their distribution by geographic location, age, and gender.   Using the Community Oriented Program for the Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) methodology, a random sample of 3530 individuals aged 15 and above was interviewed from the six Lebanese governorates. Positive respondents were evaluated by rheumatologists using the internationally accepted classification criterion of the American College of Rheumatology for the diagnosis of rheumatic diseases. Prevalence rates of current and past musculoskeletal problems were 24.4% and 8.4%, respectively. Shoulder (14.3%), knee (14.2%) and back (13.6%) were the most common pain sites. Point prevalence of rheumatic diseases was 15.0%. The most frequent types of rheumatic diseases were of mechanical origin, namely soft tissue rheumatism (5.8%) and osteoarthritis (4.0%). Rheumatoid arthritis (1.0%) and spondylathropathies (0.3%) constituted the most common inflammatory diseases. Coastal areas had the lowest prevalence of all diseases except for fibromyalgia. All diseases showed an increasing prevalence pattern with age and a higher prevalence among women than men. This is the first study to give population-based estimates of rheumatic diseases in Lebanon. The high burden calls for public health attention for early detection, control and prevention of these conditions. Point prevalence of individual diseases was within the range of results from other COPCORD surveys with some variations that can be attributed to differences in methodology and geo-ethnic factors. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2011 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Kidney cancer in Lebanon: a specific histological distribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafaja, Sarah; Kourie, Hampig Raphael; Matar, Dany; Sader-Ghorra, Claude; Kattan, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Kidney cancer is the third most frequent urologic cancer in Lebanon after prostate and bladder cancer, accounting for 1.5% of all diagnosed cancers. In this paper, we report the histologic characteristics and distribution of kidney cancer, never described in Lebanon or the Middle East. Pathology results of operated kidney cancer were collected during a two year period (2010-2011) from two different Lebanese hospitals (Hotel-Dieu de France University Hospital and Saint Joseph Hospital). A total of 124 reports were reviewed and analyzed according to WHO classification of 2009. The 124 patients diagnosed with kidney cancer had a median age of 62.4 [18-86], 75% being men and 25% women. Some 71 % of the lesions were renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 25.8% had a urothelial histology, 1.6% were lymphomas and 1.6% were metastases to the kidney. Patients having RCC had a median age of 60.3 [18-85], 77.3% were men and 22.7% women. Of the RCCs, 59.1% were clear cell carcinoma, 22.7% papillary, 11.4% chromophobic, 3.4% rom the collecting ducts of Bellini and 3.4% were not otherwise classified. Histological distribution of Lebanese kidney cancer seems unusual when compared to the literature. The percentage of urothelial renal pelvis tumors is strikingly high. Moreover, clear cell carcinoma accounts for only 59.1% of RCCS in contrast to the 75% described elsewhere, while papillary carcinoma represents more than 22.7% compared to 10%.

  2. Optimising Nitrogen utilization by fertigated protected cucumber in coastal Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atallah, Therese; Darwich, Talal; Awad, Souhail; El-Moujabber, Maroun

    1999-01-01

    Full text.In Lebanon, protected cultures are in expansion with indications of new greenhouses installed every year, particularly at altitudes between 400 and 500 m. In these intensive systems, few studies looked at the crop requirements, the management practices and their consequences on the soil and water. This study was carried out under field conditions in Jbeil (lebanon) at 100 m of altitude for a spring cucumber. For the follow-up of the nitrogen use efficiency, labelled nitrogen fertilizer (with the heavy isotope 15 N) was used. Treatments consisted of combining two irrigation frequencies: every 2 or 3 days with two modalities of fertigation: continuous and discontinuous, with every other irrigation. Otherwise, the levels of water and nutrients were equal among all treatments. Results focused on the plant performance under these modalities and also on the nitrogen balance in the plant-soil system. The plants fertigated continuously, every two days, presented higher fresh fruit yield and above-ground dry ,matter production. In addition, the number of non-commercial fruits were significantly smaller than in the other treatments. This suggests less stressful conditions under the continuous input of nutrients and the stable EC of the fertigation solution. Concerning the nitrogen balance, it was calculated by the difference between input removal for each treatment. These values were compared with the nitrate-nitrogen build-up in the soil. Very close correspondence was found, which indicates minimal nitrogen losses for all treatments which could be related to the amount accumulated in the soil as nitrates. Overall, under the experimental conditions the continuous fertigation at a 2-day frequency was the most adequate in promoting plant production and minimizing losses from the soil-plant system

  3. The development of a gas transmission system in Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proudian, Serko; Rickaert, Stefan [Tractebel Engineering, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    Tractebel Engineering is undertaking for the Lebanese Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) advisory services for the launching and for the awarding of a DBOT (Design, Build, Operate and Transfer) contract for the development of a gas transmission system through Lebanon. The service embraces a global approach, integrating legal, market, technical and financial matters, to provide MEW with a clear strategy to its gas development program, aimed at attracting private investors willing to tender on this DBOT project.The Legal Framework Report examines the existing Lebanese legal system and analyzes its suitability to the regulatory framework required to operate gas networks; it also provides recommendations aimed at attracting potential DBOT developers, by facilitating bureaucratic procedures with possible enactment of new laws. The Gas Demand Due Diligence Report provides the market study for present and future demand of gas in Lebanon in the next 25 years (duration of the DBOT contract), with anticipated needs resulting from power generation, industrial sector, commercial and residential sectors. The Pipeline Alternative Solutions Report provides several alternative routing and configurations for the gas transmission pipeline, including surveys, in-land routing (through rough mountain and heavily populated areas), or off-shore routing (through rough marine canyons and sea water depth in excess of 1,500 meters). Basic technical economical study is elaborated for more than 30 options.The Pipeline Financial Optimization Report compares the economics and provides for each solution the expected postal tariff (the compensation that MEW would need to pay to the developer for the execution of the 25 year DBOT contract). The advisory services are completed with preparation of the Pre-Qualification Notice (aimed at selecting a short list of qualified Bidders), preparation of the Request For Proposal (bidding on the selected pipeline option), evaluation of proposal, selection of

  4. Healthy reduced-fat Bologna sausages enriched in ALA and DHA and stabilized with Melissa officinalis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2014-03-01

    Reduced-energy and reduced-fat Bologna products enriched with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were formulated by replacing the pork back-fat by an oil-in-water emulsion containing a mixture of linseed-algae oil stabilized with a lyophilized Melissa officinalis extract. Healthier composition and lipid profile was obtained: 85 kcal/100 g, 3.6% fat, 0.6 g ALA and 0.44 g DHA per 100 g of product and ω-6/ω-3 ratio of 0.4. Technological and sensory problems were not detected in the new formulations. Reformulation did not cause oxidation problems during 32 days of storage under refrigeration. The results suggest that it is possible to obtain reduced-fat Bologna-type sausages rich in ALA and DHA and stabilized with natural antioxidants, applying the appropriate technology without significant effects on the sensory quality, yielding interesting products from a nutritional point of view. © 2013.

  5. Bologna auf dem Markt der Meinungsmöglichkeiten : was mit den Studierendenprotesten gesagt werden sollte - und was verstanden wurde

    OpenAIRE

    Kunze, Manuel; Tielesch, Simon

    2010-01-01

    "Das Schlagwort 'Bologna' ist ein zunehmend sinnentleerter Sammelbegriff für die Reform der europäischen Universitäten; der Bildungsstreik vom Sommer und Herbst 2009 geriet zum Schlachtfeld um die Meinungshoheit im Bildungsdiskurs. An den vier Beispielen der Studiengebühren, der studentische Mitbestimmung, des gezielten Missverstehens und der Ökonomisierung der Hochschulen wird gezeigt, wie die Studierendenproteste vom Herbst 2009 von denjenigen genutzt wurden, gegen die sich die Proteste ric...

  6. Loose policy and local adaptation : a comparative study of masters degrees in the context of the Bologna Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sin, Cristina; Saunders, Murray

    2012-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis focuses on a comparative analysis of six master programmes in Physics in three European countries (England, Portugal and Denmark) in the context of the implementation of reforms triggered by the Bologna Agreement. It undertakes the programme comparison with a particular interest in two dimensions: first, conceptions of master degrees, i.e. what people consider a master degree is, referred to as the ontology of the degree; second, teaching and learning pra...

  7. Efforts in Bologna on quasiparticle level density systematics and on comparison and development of different approaches to preequilibrium reaction mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.; Reffo, G.; Weidenmueller, H.A.; Lenske, H.; Wolter, H.H.; Giardina, G.; Italiano, A.; Rosetti, M.

    1991-01-01

    We present a summary of activities carried out at ENEA in Bologna on the development of the preequilibrium emission models. We start with the first application of the Multistep Compound Model in the Heidelberg formulation, which is followed by the Multistep Direct calculations. Next, the comparison between the exciton and Multistep Compound model by Feshbach, Kerman, and Koonin is presented. Finally we discuss energy and isotope dependence of the average single particle level spacing. (author). Refs, 9 figs

  8. The Role of Feedback in the Bologna Process, According to Goal Setting Theory: An Exploratory Study of Students' Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Puig Terrón, Miriam; Balagué i Canadell, Jordi; Solé Pla, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study has been carried out while The Bologna Process was implemented in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). One of the main features of TBP is Lifelong Learning (LLL), introduced to improve student learning, by emphasizing the role of feedback. The Goal Setting Theory of Motivation (GST) considers feedback as a mechanism to enhance performance. Starting from this theoretical framework, our objective is to analyse whether, for those students with specific and challenging goals, fee...

  9. Legal developments and problems of the Bologna process within the European higher education area and European integration

    OpenAIRE

    Cippitani, Roberto; Gatt, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    2010 sees the end of the process of establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Although not all countries may have achieved all the objectives, many are those countries and universities who have implemented many of the targets set. Within the Bologna Process, there have been many developments such as: European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) for the transfer of period of study abroad; joint degrees; and quality assurance aspects among others. Guidelines for Quality...

  10. Allegheny County Supermarkets & Convenience Stores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Location information for all Supermarkets and Convenience Stores in Allegheny County was produced using the Allegheny County Fee and Permit Data for 2016.

  11. Information from the central stores

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    All items sold in the CERN shop (Bldg. 33) are now available in the central stores (Bldg. 73) and can be purchased on-line via EDH “Material Request” or at the “Emergency Desk” of the stores on the ground floor of Bldg. 73. These items are visible in the CERN catalogue under the “SCEM” codes beginning with 92. Department of General Infrastructure Services (GS) GS-SEM Group

  12. Hemoglobin Function in Stored Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-01

    States during 1973. Several advantages over ACA) are important. Blood stored in CPD maintains higher ./ levels of 2,3-DPG (2,3- diphosphoglycerate ) and a...survival and ATP levels in stored blood is explained by the several functions of ATP which are necessary for cell viability. However, ATP levels do...not correlate with oxygen affinity during storage. Levels of 2,3-DPG determine oxygen affinity and thus hemoglobin function. (12,13) When normal levels

  13. The Adoption of International Proceedures, the Bologna Process, by a Local University: A Case Study at Unitau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Aparecida de Araujo Querido Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the process of internationalization of the HEI, based on the Bologna Process. An exploratory study was made to identify barriers for the internationalization of a local institution: The University of Taubate. The main topics were the internationalization of the firm and the Bologna Process. This HEI is located in the Vale Paraíba Paulista, a growing and strategic region in Brazilian soil. Education and skilled labor are key elements to regional development. The essay consists of a case study. Particularities from the Brazilian Higher Education System and the European Model are analyzed. They are combined with the Institution’s policies. The results show the current stage of the action lines that direct the application of the European model, at the University of Taubate. The conclusions consider the convergence of the Bologna Process with the guidelines of the Brazilian higher education policies, and point out some difficulties and opportunities that may be considered if the HEI decides to adopt an internationalization model.

  14. IMPLEMENTATION OF BOLOGNA PROCESS AT THE SS. CYRIL AND METHODIUS UNIVERSITY IN SKOPJE: A VIEW FROM INSIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Achkovska Leshkovska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the description of the reforms in higher education in the Republic of Macedonia, made in the last decade. More precisely, the aim of this study is to discuss the implementation of Bologna principles in Ss. Cyril and Methodius University by comparing the reports from both the internal and the external evaluations in two follow-up periods (between 2002/03 and 2005/06, and between 2006/07 and 2009/10. Several official documents are analyzed for this purpose. The results show that the European credit transfer system (ECTS in first and second cycle of studies is applied in every member of the University and a number of positive changes have been made in all areas of its activity.  However, some expected difficulties and weaknesses are pointed out, due to the objective economic situation in the Republic of Macedonia or to the subjective understanding of “Bologna philosophy”. Apart from official reports, a view from inside can bring on surface additional examples of ECTS misinterpretation and illusion of progress. To avoid the catch of distorted Bologna, it is suggested all participants in this process to take seriously recommendation for improvement given by European University Association. 

  15. Wild food plants traditionally consumed in the area of Bologna (Emilia Romagna region, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2014-09-25

    This research was performed in an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The purpose of the present survey was to record the local knowledge concerning traditional uses of wild food plants and related practices, such as gathering, processing, cooking, therapeutic uses, with the aim of preserving an important part of the local cultural heritage. Thirty-nine people still retaining Traditional Local Knowledge (TLK) were interviewed between March-April 2012 and September-October 2013 by means of open and semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews. For each plant species mentioned, we recorded the botanical family, the English common name, the Italian common and/or folk names, the parts of the plant used, the culinary preparation, and the medicinal usage. The relative frequency of citation index (RFC), a tool that measures the local cultural importance of a plant species, was also included. The folk plants mentioned by the respondents belonged to 33 botanical families, of which the Rosaceae (14 plants) and the Asteraceae (9 plants) were the most representative. The species with the highest RFC index (0.77) were Crepis vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill) Thell and Taraxacum officinale Weber. Eleven folk plants were indicated as having therapeutic effects. T. officinale Weber, C. vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill) Thell and Sonchus spp., which are used as food, were reported to be depurative, blood cleaning, refreshing, diuretic and laxative. The most commonly used species was Urtica spp, which was also the most frequently cited for medicinal uses. The present survey documented the wild food plant traditional knowledge of an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The general perception obtained is that on one side the TLK related to wild food plants has strongly been eroded, mainly due to immigration and urbanization phenomena, whereas on the other side

  16. Balancing Bologna: opportunities for university teaching that integrates academic and practical learning outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Lorenz; Pflug, Verena; Brandenburg, Christiane; Guggenberger, Thomas; Mentler, Axel; Wurzinger, Maria

    2014-05-01

    In the course of the Bologna Process, the quality of university teaching has become more prominent in the discourse on higher education. More attention is now paid to didactics and methods and learner-oriented modes of teaching are introduced. The application of knowledge, practical skills and in consequence the employability of university graduates have become requirements for university teaching. Yet, the lecture-style approach still dominates European universities, although empirical evidence confirms that student-centred, interdisciplinary and experiential learning is more effective. Referring to the learning taxonomy introduced by Bloom, we argue that standard approaches rarely move beyond the learning level of comprehension and fail to reach the levels of application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Considering the rapid changes and multiple challenges society faces today, responsible practitioners and scientists who can improve the current management of natural resources are urgently needed. Universities are expected to equip their graduates with the necessary skills to reflect and evaluate their actions when addressing 'real world' problems in order to improve impact and relevance of their work. Higher education thus faces the challenge of providing multi-level learning opportunities for students with diverse practical and theoretical learning needs. In this study, we reflect on three cases of university teaching attempting to bridge theory and practice and based on the principles of systemic, problem based learning. The described courses focus on organic farming, rural development and landscape planning and take place in Uganda, Nicaragua and Italy. We show that being part of a real-world community of stakeholders requires hands-on learning and the reflection and evaluation of actions. This prepares students in a more effective and realistic way for their future roles as responsible decision makers in complex social, economic and ecological systems. We

  17. CORPORATE REBRANDING OF GRAMEDIA STORE (CORPORATE REBRANDING DI GRAMEDIA STORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Helena Kairupan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The purposes of this research are to determine the stages of analysis, planning, and evaluation of corporate rebranding process of Gramedia Book Store to be Gramedia Store to rise stakeholder’s awareness. The method used is descriptive qualitative with positivism paradigm. The technique of collecting data through in-depth interview, observation, and literature study. The result of this research showed the analysis stage by analyzing the market through insights and foresights, brand audit through SWOT analysis, and identifying opportunities. The planning stage is by determine the purpose of the planning process and then determine the target audience, consist of external and internal customer. The planning of external customer by renaming and change of corporate identity, and marketing planning using communication channel (above the line and below the line. The planning of internal customer by Brand Induction, training, inspiration briefing at store, and innovation competition. The evaluation of rebranding process of Gramedia Store is having a focus group discussion with customer, media monitoring, and presentation to BOD. Keywords : Process, Corporate Rebranding, Stakeholder Awareness, Corporate Identity, Gramedia Store Abstrak.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui bagaimana tahapan analisis, perencanaan, dan evaluasi proses corporate rebranding Gramedia Book Store menjadi Gramedia Store untuk meningkatkan stakeholder awareness. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah kualitatif dengan paradigma positivisme dan jenis studi deksriptif. Teknik pengumpulan data yang dilakukan melalui wawancara mendalam, observasi, dan studi pustaka. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, tahapan analisis dilakukan dengan menganalisis pasar melalui insights dan foresights, audit merek dengan analisis SWOT, dan mengidentifikasi peluang. Dalam tahapan perencanaan dengan menentukan tujuan kemudian menentukan target audiens, yaitu eksternal dan internal. Perencanaan

  18. 75 FR 34049 - FM Table of Allotments (The Dalles, Tualatin, Eugene, Albany, Lebanon, Paisley, and Diamond Lake...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-786; MB Docket No. 05-10; RM-11279] FM Table of Allotments (The Dalles, Tualatin, Eugene, Albany, Lebanon, Paisley, and Diamond Lake, Oregon... 279C, Lebanon, Oregon, Bicoastal Media Licenses IV, LLC (``Bicoastal''), licensee of Station KACI-FM...

  19. Early Admission Call-Up: A Strategy and Marketing Perk for Attracting Better Students to a College in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimy, Viviane; Nasser, Ramzi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an early call-up strategy helps in attracting better students to a private university in Lebanon. Early admission call-up was administered to the top 25 percentile-ranked students of main feeder schools at a private university in Lebanon. Admission data was accrued for students who applied for…

  20. An annotated checklist of the horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon with remarks on ecology and zoogeography: Pangoniinae and Chrysopsinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon is fragmentary while in most neighboring countries it has been fairly well researched. Therefore USDA-CMAVE scientists and Israeli scientists worked cooperatively to survey the species of horse flies in the Lebanon. Chrysops flavipes ...

  1. Insecticide resistance to organophosphates in Culex pipiens complex from Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osta Mike A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of Culex pipiens mosquitoes collected from a single site in Lebanon in 2005, revealed an alarming frequency of ace-1 alleles conferring resistance to organophosphate insecticides. Following this, in 2006 the majority of municipalities switched to pyrethroids after a long history of organophosphate usage in the country; however, since then no studies have assessed the impact of changing insecticide class on the frequency of resistant ace-1 alleles in C. pipiens. Methods C. pipiens mosquitoes were captured indoors from 25 villages across the country and subjected to established methods for the analysis of gene amplification at the Ester locus and target site mutations in ace-1 gene that confer resistance to organophosphates. Results We conducted the first large-scale screen for resistance to organosphosphates in C. pipiens mosquitoes collected from Lebanon. The frequency of carboxylesterase (Ester and ace-1 alleles conferring resistance to organophosphates were assessed among C. pipiens mosquitoes collected from 25 different villages across the country between December 2008 and December 2009. Established enzymatic assay and PCR-based molecular tests, both diagnostic of the major target site mutations in ace-1 revealed the absence of the F290V mutation among sampled mosquitoes and significant reduction in the frequency of G119S mutation compared to that previously reported for mosquitoes collected from Beirut in 2005. We also identified a new duplicated ace-1 allele, named ace-1D13, exhibiting a resistant phenotype by associating a susceptible and a resistant copy of ace-1 in a mosquito line sampled from Beirut in 2005. Fisher’s exact test on ace-1 frequencies in the new sample sites, showed that some populations exhibited a significant excess of heterozygotes, suggesting that the duplicated allele is still present. Starch gel electrophoresis indicated that resistance at the Ester locus was mainly attributed to the

  2. Snow observations in Mount Lebanon (2011-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Abbas; Gascoin, Simon; Faour, Ghaleb; Fanise, Pascal; Drapeau, Laurent; Somma, Janine; Fadel, Ali; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Escadafal, Richard

    2017-08-01

    We present a unique meteorological and snow observational dataset in Mount Lebanon, a mountainous region with a Mediterranean climate, where snowmelt is an essential water resource. The study region covers the recharge area of three karstic river basins (total area of 1092 km2 and an elevation up to 3088 m). The dataset consists of (1) continuous meteorological and snow height observations, (2) snowpack field measurements, and (3) medium-resolution satellite snow cover data. The continuous meteorological measurements at three automatic weather stations (MZA, 2296 m; LAQ, 1840 m; and CED, 2834 m a.s.l.) include surface air temperature and humidity, precipitation, wind speed and direction, incoming and reflected shortwave irradiance, and snow height, at 30 min intervals for the snow seasons (November-June) between 2011 and 2016 for MZA and between 2014 and 2016 for CED and LAQ. Precipitation data were filtered and corrected for Geonor undercatch. Observations of snow height (HS), snow water equivalent, and snow density were collected at 30 snow courses located at elevations between 1300 and 2900 m a.s.l. during the two snow seasons of 2014-2016 with an average revisit time of 11 days. Daily gap-free snow cover extent (SCA) and snow cover duration (SCD) maps derived from MODIS snow products are provided for the same period (2011-2016). We used the dataset to characterize mean snow height, snow water equivalent (SWE), and density for the first time in Mount Lebanon. Snow seasonal variability was characterized with high HS and SWE variance and a relatively high snow density mean equal to 467 kg m-3. We find that the relationship between snow depth and snow density is specific to the Mediterranean climate. The current model explained 34 % of the variability in the entire dataset (all regions between 1300 and 2900 m a.s.l.) and 62 % for high mountain regions (elevation 2200-2900 m a.s.l.). The dataset is suitable for the investigation of snow dynamics and for the forcing

  3. Contribution to the knowledge of Saprinus Erichson, 1834 of forensic relevance from Lebanon (Coleoptera, Histeridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayya, Salman; Dégallier, Nicolas; Nel, André; Azar, Dany; Lackner, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Many histerid beetles are necrophilous on carrion during both active and advanced stages of decomposition. In this study, 13 species of Saprinus were recorded on carrion from Lebanon, containing eight that are new for the Lebanese fauna. The following Saprinus species are newly recorded from Lebanon: 1) Saprinus (S.) caerulescens caerulescens (Hoffmann, 1803); 2) S. (S.) calatravensis Fuente, 1899; 3) S. (S.) chalcites (Illiger, 1807); 4) S. (S.) godet (Brullé, 1832); 5) S. (S.) maculatus (P. Rossi, 1792); 6) S. (S.) strigil Marseul, 1855; 7) S. (S.) submarginatus J. Sahlberg, 1913; and 8) S. (S.) tenuistrius sparsutus Solsky, 1876. The peak activity was recorded, key for the species is provided, and habitus images and male genitalia are illustrated in order to facilitate their taxonomic identifications. Saprinus species are diverse and common on animal carcass; they were likewise collected from a human cadaver in Lebanon. Preliminary comments on biology and distribution of the studied species are given. Our paper represents the first faunistic study on Histeridae from Lebanon. A rigorous research program regarding the biology of Saprinus in Lebanon and the neighbouring countries would greatly improve the knowledge of the diversity, activity, and possible forensic value of Saprinus. PMID:29670426

  4. TruStore: Implementing a Trusted Store for Android

    OpenAIRE

    Yury, Zhauniarovich; Olga, Gadyatskaya; Bruno, Crispo

    2013-01-01

    In the Android ecosystem, the process of verifying the integrity of downloaded apps is left to the user. Different from other systems, e.g., Apple, App Store, Google does not provide any certified vetting process for the Android apps. This choice has a lot of advantages but it is also the open door to possible attacks as the recent one shown by Bluebox. To address this issue, we present how to enable the deployment of application certification service, we called TruStores, for the Android pla...

  5. Using Problem-Based Learning to help Portuguese students make the Bologna transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cabral Reis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Bologna Declaration has opened a stage of big and deep changes in the internal university organization, external cooperation, teaching models and methods, among other., all over the European countries. Here we will present and discuss a pilot experience conducted at the Engineering Department of the University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal, during the second year of that transition period. In brief, we will present a set of non-mandatory courses proposed to the students of each individual syllabus, with one hundred hours duration, each, approximately seven hours/week, fifteen weeks long, with the permanent help of a specialized trainer to aid the students in their "homework". The formal bureaucratic transition is also presented. Design and implementation issues, supported on problem-based learning and experimental lab learning classes, final assessment results, as well as the opinion of the students, are presented and analyzed. We believe that this methodology helped to make the transition smoother to the students, but also to the teaching staff.

  6. Risk of psychosis and internal migration: Results from the Bologna First Episode Psychosis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarricone, Ilaria; Boydell, Jane; Kokona, Arnisa; Triolo, Federico; Gamberini, Lisa; Sutti, Enrico; Marchetta, Michela; Menchetti, Marco; Di Forti, Marta; Murray, Robin M; Morgan, Craig; Berardi, Domenico

    2016-05-01

    Incidence of psychotic disorders is higher in many migrant groups; however little is known about internal migrants (IM). This study aims to describe the IR in natives (NA), IM and external migrants (EM). All patients aged 18-64years, with First Episode Psychosis (FEP), who made contact with the Bologna West psychiatric services, between 2002 and 2010, were included. 187 cases were included. Age and sex adjusted IR of psychosis per 100,000per year were: 12.6 for NA, 25.3 for IM and 21.4 for EM. The IRR was 1.93 (1.19-3.13, P=0.007) for IM and 1.79 (1.06-3.02, P=0.03) for EM compared to NA. Rates of psychosis were significantly elevated in IM as well as in EM. This result adds evidence as to the role of migration itself (versus ethnicity) on the risk of psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Bologna complete sample of nearby radio sources. II. Phase referenced observations of faint nuclear sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzo, E.; Giovannini, G.; Giroletti, M.; Taylor, G. B.

    2009-10-01

    Aims: To study statistical properties of different classes of sources, it is necessary to observe a sample that is free of selection effects. To do this, we initiated a project to observe a complete sample of radio galaxies selected from the B2 Catalogue of Radio Sources and the Third Cambridge Revised Catalogue (3CR), with no selection constraint on the nuclear properties. We named this sample “the Bologna Complete Sample” (BCS). Methods: We present new VLBI observations at 5 and 1.6 GHz for 33 sources drawn from a sample not biased toward orientation. By combining these data with those in the literature, information on the parsec-scale morphology is available for a total of 76 of 94 radio sources with a range in radio power and kiloparsec-scale morphologies. Results: The fraction of two-sided sources at milliarcsecond resolution is high (30%), compared to the fraction found in VLBI surveys selected at centimeter wavelengths, as expected from the predictions of unified models. The parsec-scale jets are generally found to be straight and to line up with the kiloparsec-scale jets. A few peculiar sources are discussed in detail. Tables 1-4 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Elder abuse awareness in Italy: analysis of reports to the Prosecutor Office of Bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsi, Giancarlo; Mazzotti, Maria Carla; Carosielli, Grazia; Ingravallo, Francesca; Pelotti, Susi

    2015-06-01

    In Italy, the prevalence of elder abuse is estimated from 10 to 12.7 %. Even if the elderly are not specifically protected by the Italian Penal Code, it contains several articles punishing crimes against disadvantaged groups in which elders may be included. Article 572 about mistreatment of family members or cohabitants, and article 643 about circumvention of incapable best fit elder abuse or neglect and financial fraud and exploitation, respectively. To evaluate the prevalence of reported elder abuse in Bologna and province (Italy) compared to available data on prevalence obtained by population-based surveys. Reports to the Prosecutor Office about articles 572 and 643 in the period from 2000 to 2013 were collected and analyzed according to victim's age at the report time. For article 572 a total of 3,713 reports were found. The prevalence of reports ranged from 0.005 to 0.024 % for victims older than 65 years. Concerning article 643 a total of 786 reports were detected, with a prevalence ranging from 0.007 to 0.016 % for victims older than 65 years. A large gap was found between reported crimes related to elder abuse and the estimated prevalence of elder abuse in Italy. Our results showed that in Italy efforts to improve strategic approach on elder abuse as well as research at various levels following the examples of other abusive situations are needed in both health and legal systems.

  9. Discomforts of tasks video users: The case of workers of ENEA area in Bologna (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenni, P.; Varasano, R.; Cavallaro, E.; Arduini, R.; Mattioli, S.; Tuozzi, G.

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the subjective musculoskeletal discomfort in a sample of 334 workers (204 males and 130 females) of the ENEA area in Bologna, using for different periods and tasks video display units (VDU). On a preliminary self report questionnaire the workers have reported: hours at VDU per day, type of task type of hardware, physical-ergonomic environmental conditions, equipment and layout of the work station. Then, on a case-history form, the researcher has recorded for each subject: anamnesis, fatigue symptoms, discomfort and pain perceived in the back, shoulder, hand and arm regions. The results have shown that, in this sample, the main cause for potential musculoskeletal problems is related to aging whereas the women mainly engaged in repetitive jobs seem to be more likely subject to these troubles. About the correlation between type of task and musculoskeletal discomfort, the females refer more complaints than the males, especially when the task is repetitive. Also the number of hours spent at VDU per day is higher in the females. Finally, about physical-ergonomic environmental conditions, most users have not referred discomforts related to lighting, noise, micro climate or to work station (equipment and layout)

  10. Skills and Competencies Set Forth by Bologna Process in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdevs GÜNEŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technological advances of today, force the universities to train more qualified individuals. That needs to increase the quality of educational programs and practices, and requires constant updating in universities. So within the framework of the “Bologna Process” higher education programs have been started to be updated in our country. These studies, carried out to develop the skills and competencies of students' knowledge with student-centered educational approach. Besides a variety of knowledge and skills, ability to work independently and assume responsibility, learning, communication and social competence skills, such as domain specific competencies and professional competence is intended to gain to the students. This approach needs to teaching cognitive (logical, intuitive and creative thinking and practical (manual skills, methods, materials, tools to use skills, that is to say language, mental, social and emotional skills in higher education. Teaching of skills is different from teaching of the information in methods and practice. Therefore the universities should be developed for the assessment of teaching and coaching skills. Otherwise, the rote teaching of information will inevitably grow and achieving the goals of higher education will be difficult.

  11. Method of storing solidification products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Yutaro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to efficiently and satisfactorily cool and store solidification products of liquid wastes generated from the reactor spent fuel reprocessing process by a simple facility. Method: Liquid wastes generated from the reactor spent fuel reprocessing process are caused to flow from the upper opening to the inside of a spherical canistor. The opening of the spherical canistor is welded with a lid by a remote control and the liquid wastes are tightly sealed within the spherical canistor as glass solidification products. Spherical canistors having the solidification products tightly sealed therein are sent into and stored in a hopper by the remote control. Further, a blower is driven upon storing to suck cooling air from the cooling air intake port to the inside of the hopper to absorb the decay heat of radioactive materials in the solidification products and the air is discharged from the duct and through the stack to the atmosphere. (Kawakami, Y.)

  12. Bouguer gravity and crustal structure of the Dead Sea transform fault and adjacent mountain belts in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal; Khawlie, Mohamad; Haddad, Fuad; Barazangi, Muawia; Seber, Dogan; Chaimov, Thomas

    1993-08-01

    The northern extension of the Dead Sea transform fault in southern Lebanon bifurcates into several faults that cross Lebanon from south to north. The main strand, the Yammouneh fault, marks the boundary between the Levantine (eastern Mediterranean) and Arabian plates and separates the western mountain range (Mount Lebanon) from the eastern mountain range (Anti-Lebanon). Bouguer gravity contours in Lebanon approximately follow topographic contours; i.e., positive Bouguer anomalies are associated with the Mount Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ranges. This suggests that the region is not in simple isostatic compensation. Gravity observations based on 2.5-dimensional modeling and other available geological and geophysical information have produced the following interpretations. (1) The crust of Lebanon thins from ˜35 km beneath the Anti-Lebanon range, near the Syrian border, to ˜27 km beneath the Lebanese coast. No crustal roots exist beneath the Lebanese ranges. (2) The depth to basement is ˜3.5-6 km below sea level under the ranges and is ˜8-10 km beneath the Bekaa depression. (3) The Yammouneh fault bifurcates northward into two branches; one passes beneath the Yammouneh Lake through the eastern part of Mount Lebanon and another bisects the northern part of the Bekaa Valley (i.e., Mid-Bekaa fault). The Lebanese mountain ranges and the Bekaa depression were formed as a result of transtension and later transpression associated with the relative motion of a few crustal blocks in response to the northward movement of the Arabian plate relative to the Levantine plate.

  13. Farmers' Willingness to Adopt Conservation Agriculture: New Evidence from Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalak, Ali; Irani, Alexandra; Chaaban, Jad; Bashour, Issam; Seyfert, Karin; Smoot, Kaitlyn; Abebe, Gumataw Kifle

    2017-10-01

    With increasing food insecurity and climate change, conservation agriculture has emerged as a sustainable alternative to intensive conventional agriculture as a source of food supply. Yet the adoption rate of conservation agriculture is still low. Our paper analyses the factors affecting farmers' willingness to adopt conservation agriculture in Lebanon. The findings show that household characteristics-years of farming and farm size affect conservation agriculture adoption. However, household characteristics alone were insufficient to explain conservation agriculture adoption. We found that farming experience, information sources, frequency of irrigation, and severity of weed infestation in the past, participation in specific trainings, and farmers' perception about the long-term impact of conservation agriculture, were key determinants of conservation agriculture adoption. Our paper encourages policymakers to invest in conservation agriculture to overcome food insecurity and environmental changes affecting food systems in the Middle East. The paper also informs agribusiness firms to view conservation agriculture as a viable alternative to strengthen their business relationship with farmers in arid and semi-arid regions.

  14. Health after childbirth: patterns of reported postpartum morbidity from Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakian-Khasholian, Tamar; Shayboub, Rawan; Ataya, Alexandra

    2014-03-01

    The postpartum period is under-researched in low and middle income countries. The scarce literature reveals heavy burden of ill health experienced in that period and under utilisation of health services. Understanding the postpartum morbidity burden and identifying the care-seeking behaviours is essential to improve service delivery. This paper examines reported postpartum morbidity, care seeking behaviour and whether postpartum morbidity is associated with method of birth. A cross sectional study of women delivering in 18 private hospitals from two regions in Lebanon was undertaken. Women in their second or third trimester of pregnancy, visiting private obstetric clinics affiliated with participating hospitals were interviewed for baseline information. Reported postpartum morbidity was assessed in an interview conducted at women's homes from 40 days up to six months postpartum. Of the 269 women recruited, physical postpartum health problems were reported by 93.6% and psychological health problems by 84.4% of women, with more health problems being reported beyond two months postpartum. Women were less likely to seek professional care for psychological health problems. Reporting postpartum health problems was not associated with method of birth. A heavy burden of postpartum morbidity is experienced by women with gaps in utilisation of relevant health services. Efforts should be directed towards the organisation and delivery of comprehensive maternity care services. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Feminine hygiene practices among female patients and nurses in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attieh, Elie; Maalouf, Samer; Roumieh, Dina; Abdayem, Pamela; AbiTayeh, Georges; Kesrouani, Assaad

    2016-05-23

    Inappropriate feminine hygiene practices are related to vulvovaginitis. We investigated the prevalence of personal hygiene habits among Lebanese women as well as their awareness of adequate practices. Consists of a cross-sectional observational study. Female patients and nurses at Hotel-Dieu de France University Hospital in Beirut- Lebanon filled a questionnaire about their intimate hygiene habits and knowledge of proper practices. The study included 249 women. 21.3 % of the 136 nurses and 38.9 % of the 113 patients reported a history of vulvovaginitis. The majority of women took an intimate bath at least twice daily. 14 % of nurses and 17 % of patients douched.20. Seven percent of the nurses and 43.4 % of the patients used wet wipes. 1.5 % of nurses and 4.4 % of patients used feminine deodorant sprays. There was a significant lack of awareness mainly among patients about suitable hygiene practices as well for their adverse effects. Education provided by nurses, and other healthcare providers is essential to promote reproductive health among Lebanese women.

  16. Econometric modeling of electricity consumption in post-war Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, G.E.; Badr, E.A.; Dibeh, G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper applies econometric models to investigate determinants of electrical energy consumption in post-war Lebanon. The impact of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), proxied by total imports (TI), and degree days (DD) on electricity consumption is investigated over different time spans covering the period from 1993 to 1997. The time spans are chosen according to the rationing level of electricity supply. For the 1993-1994 time span, TI is found to be a significant determinant of energy consumption, whereas, DD has a negative correlation. This inconsistency might be attributed to an extensive rationing policy followed during this period. For the 1995-1997 time span which includes reduced rationing period (1995), all electrical energy consumption determinants are found to be significant at the 5% significance level. Analysis results for the rationing free 1996-1997 time span also show the significance of TI and DD at the 5% level. Furthermore, cointegration analysis for the 1995-1997 and 1996-1997 subsets reveals the existence of a long-run relationship between all variables. In addition, error correction models for both subsets are developed to predict short-run dynamics. Finally, statistical performance measures such as mean square error, mean average deviation and mean average percentage error are presented for all models

  17. Radon measurements in well and spring water in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, Samer M.; Habib, Rima R.; Nuwayhid, Rida Y.; Chatila, Malek; Katul, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    The variation of dissolved radon ( 222 Rn) levels in water supplies remains of interest because of the radiation-induced public health hazards. A large part of the Lebanese population relies on springs and wells for their drinking water. 222 Rn measurements in spring and well water sources were conducted using the E-PERM method at sites ranging from sea level to 1200m above sea level and across several geologic formations within Lebanon. The dissolved radon concentrations ranged from a low of 0.91BqL -1 in a coastal well source to a high of 49.6BqL -1 for a spring source in a mountainous region. Of the 20 sites sampled, only five had radon levels above 11BqL -1 and these mostly occurred in areas adjacent to well-known geological fault zones. A preliminary national average radon level was determined to be about 11.4BqL -1 . In general, as all determined concentrations were well below the 100 and 146BqL -1 revised reference levels proposed in the European Union and the United States, respectively, it is concluded that there is no reason to believe these water sources pose any radon-related hazard. On the other hand, at locations where water is collected directly from the springhead, it is advisable to have a settling/piping system installed allowing for further radon decay and radon loss into the air to alleviate any possible radon problem

  18. Farmers' Willingness to Adopt Conservation Agriculture: New Evidence from Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalak, Ali; Irani, Alexandra; Chaaban, Jad; Bashour, Issam; Seyfert, Karin; Smoot, Kaitlyn; Abebe, Gumataw Kifle

    2017-10-01

    With increasing food insecurity and climate change, conservation agriculture has emerged as a sustainable alternative to intensive conventional agriculture as a source of food supply. Yet the adoption rate of conservation agriculture is still low. Our paper analyses the factors affecting farmers' willingness to adopt conservation agriculture in Lebanon. The findings show that household characteristics—years of farming and farm size affect conservation agriculture adoption. However, household characteristics alone were insufficient to explain conservation agriculture adoption. We found that farming experience, information sources, frequency of irrigation, and severity of weed infestation in the past, participation in specific trainings, and farmers' perception about the long-term impact of conservation agriculture, were key determinants of conservation agriculture adoption. Our paper encourages policymakers to invest in conservation agriculture to overcome food insecurity and environmental changes affecting food systems in the Middle East. The paper also informs agribusiness firms to view conservation agriculture as a viable alternative to strengthen their business relationship with farmers in arid and semi-arid regions.

  19. Phase-out of leaded gasoline: a prescription for Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashisho, Z.; El-Fadel, M.; Ayoub, G.; Baaj, H.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.Lead is a toxic heavy metal. Nevertheless, it has been mined and used for more than 800 years. Among the different contemporary sources of lead pollution, emissions from the combustion of leaded gasoline is of particular concern, as it can constitutes more than 90 percent of total lead emissions into the atmosphere in congested urban areas. Concentrations of lead in air and blood are strongly correlated with gasoline lead content and traffic volume. As a result of the increasing awareness about the dangers of lead to human health and the measures to manage urban air pollution, the use of leaded gasoline has been decreasing worldwide. In Lebanon, in the absence of policies to reduce the use of lead in gasoline or to favor the use of unleaded gasoline, leaded gasoline is the predominant grade. The objective of this research work is to analyze the current status of gasoline, and to assess the feasibility and prospect of such action. For this purpose, background information are presented, data about gasoline usage and specifications have been collected, field measurements have been performed and a public survey has been conducted. The comparison of the expected cost savings from phasing out leaded gasoline with the potential costs indicates that such action is economically highly justified. If effective regulatory measures are undertaken, leaded gasoline can be phased-out immediately without a significant cost

  20. The Second Lebanon War Experience at Western Galilee Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Bartholomew; Eisenman, Arie; Schuster, Richard; Giloni, Carlos; Bharoum, Masad; Daniel, Moshe; Dallas, Cham

    2016-02-01

    The summer of 2006 in northern Israel served as the battleground for the second war against Hezbollah based along Israel's border with southern Lebanon. Western Galilee Hospital (WGH), which is located only 6 miles from the Lebanese border, served as a major medical center in the vicinity of the fighting. The hospital was directly impacted by Hezbollah with a Katyusha rocket, which struck the ophthalmology department on the 4th floor. WGH was able to utilize a 450-bed underground facility that maintained full hospital functionality throughout the conflict. In a major feat of rapid evacuation, the entire hospital population was relocated under the cover of darkness to these bunkers in just over 1 hour, thus emptying the building prior to the missile impact. Over half of the patients presenting during the conflict did not incur physical injury but qualified as acute stress disorder patients. The particulars of this evacuation remain unique owing to the extraordinary circumstances, but many of the principles employed in this maneuver may serve as a template for other hospitals requiring emergency evacuation. Hospital functionality drastically changed to accommodate the operational reality of war, and many of these tactics warrant closer investigation for possible implementation in other conflict zones.

  1. Nitrogen Requirements and Balance of Protected Cucumber in Coastal Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atallah, T.

    2003-01-01

    Protected cultures are widespread along the Lebanese narrow coastline, encouraged by mild winter conditions. Although one of the most intensive production systems, water and nutrients managements are mostly empirical, based on the experience of the grower himself or of his workers. So far, water has been available in Lebanon, but it will become scarce within ten years. The conservation of water quality by a rational addition of nutrients is particularly relevant to protected cultures. This is important as greenhouses are developed on imported shallow soils that could be fragile and highly vulnerable to pollution. Sound management includes the amount and the forms of fertilizers as well as the modality of fertigation. An experiment was conducted during two spring seasons in a location along the northern coast in a typical unheated greenhouse. The cucumber response to two frequencies and modalities of fertigation was followed: continuous T2C and T3C and discontinuous T2D and T3D every two and three days respectively. Nitrogen recovery by the crop was possible through the use of 15 N-labeled fertilizers. An evaluation of the nitrogen fertilizer fate in the plant-soil system was undertaken in 1999, despite large proportions of Ndff(%) plant N fertilizer recovery was smaller than in the previous season and did not exceed 55% of N inputs

  2. Exposure to Violence and Children's Desensitization Attitudes in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabah, Asma; Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Usta, Jinan; Doyle, John

    2016-11-01

    Children exposed to multiple sources of violence may become desensitized, increasing the possibility of them imitating the aggressive behaviors they watch and considering such behavior as normal. The purpose of this article is to assess the association between exposure to various types of violence (including war) and desensitization in Lebanese children. A cross-sectional design with 207 school-aged children assessed exposure to violence using three surveys: (a) violence in the media (the Media Preference survey), (b) exposure to violence (the KID-SAVE survey), and (c) desensitization attitudes (the Attitude Toward Violence-Child Version). Children were between 8 and 12 years old, 56% were males, and 70%were from middle socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Seventy-six percent of children reported being exposed to violence, with more exposure in males and in the lower SES group. Impact, however, was greater on girls. The predictors of attitude toward violence were "Frequency" of exposure, "Impact" of exposure, and the amount of violence viewed on television. Children are massively exposed to violence in Lebanon resulting in desensitization, which may habituate them to accept violence as normal and put them at risk for imitating violent behaviors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Assessment of domestic water quality: case study, Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfali, Samira Ibrahim; Jurdi, Mey

    2007-12-01

    In urban cities, the environmental services are the responsibility of the public sector, where piped water supply is the norm for urban household. Likewise, in Beirut City (capital of Lebanon) official water authorities are the main supplier of domestic water through a network of piping system that leaks in many areas. Beirut City and its suburbs are overpopulated since it is the residence of 1/3 of the Lebanese citizens. Thus, Beirut suffers deficiency in meeting its water demand. Water rationing, as a remedial action, is firmly established since four decades by the Lebanese Water Authorities. Consumers resorted then to private wells to supplement their domestic water needs. Consequently, household water quality is influenced by external factors relating to well water characteristics and internal factors depending on the types of the pipes of the distribution network and cross connections to sewer pipes. These factors could result in chemical and microbial contamination of drinking water. The objective of this study is to investigate domestic water quality variation in Beirut City emerging form the aforementioned factors. The presented work encircles a typical case study of Beirut City (Ras Beirut). Results showed deterioration pattern in domestic water quality. The predicted metal species and scales within the water pipes of distribution network depended on water pH, hardness, sulfate, chloride, and iron. The corrosion of iron pipes mainly depended on Mg hardness.

  4. Multilingual educational trends and practices in Lebanon: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahous, Rima; Bacha, Nahla Nola; Nabhani, Mona

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports on the multilingual background, language education policies and practices in Lebanon. Specifically, it shows how the multilingual make-up in the country is translated into language policies in schools. A survey of 30 private school principals, middle managers and teachers was administered online to obtain their views on school policies, problems, successes, concerns and quality ranking. Results showed that a great deal of work has been done to introduce a language of instruction and a third language as decreed by the Ministry of Education and at the same time keep the national language, Arabic, alive. The main concerns of the participants were the need for teacher training programmes and resources. Although the research implies that the school systems, in keeping up with this multilingual milieu, could be contributing to the death of the national language as well as producing students who are not fluent in any of the languages, there continues to be an attempt to keep alive a quality multilingual educational context which contributes to a cohesive society.

  5. Health system resilience: Lebanon and the Syrian refugee crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Walid; Kdouh, Ola; Hammoud, Rawan; Hamadeh, Randa; Harb, Hilda; Ammar, Zeina; Atun, Rifat; Christiani, David; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Background Between 2011 and 2013, the Lebanese population increased by 30% due to the influx of Syrian refugees. While a sudden increase of such magnitude represents a shock to the health system, threatening the continuity of service delivery and destabilizing governance, it also offers a unique opportunity to study resilience of a health system amidst ongoing crisis. Methods We conceptualized resilience as the capacity of a health system to absorb internal or external shocks (for example prevent or contain disease outbreaks and maintain functional health institutions) while sustaining achievements. We explored factors contributing to the resilience of the Lebanese health system, including networking with stakeholders, diversification of the health system, adequate infrastructure and health human resources, a comprehensive communicable disease response and the integration of the refugees within the health system. Results In studying the case of Lebanon we used input–process–output–outcome approach to assess the resilience of the Lebanese health system. This approach provided us with a holistic view of the health system, as it captured not only the sustained and improved outcomes, but also the inputs and processes leading to them. Conclusion Our study indicates that the Lebanese health system was resilient as its institutions sustained their performance during the crisis and even improved. PMID:28154758

  6. A 27-year experience with infective endocarditis in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Chakhtoura, Nadim; Yasmin, Mohamad; Kanj, Souha S; Baban, Tania; Sfeir, Jad; Kanafani, Zeina A

    Although rare, infective endocarditis (IE) continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality. Previous data from the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC) had shown predominance of streptococcal infection. As worldwide studies in developed countries show increasing trends in Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis, it becomes vital to continually inspect local data for epidemiological variations. We reviewed all IE cases between 2001 and 2014, and we performed a comparison to a historical cohort of 86 IE cases from 1987 to 2001. A total of 80 patients were diagnosed with IE between 2001 and 2014. The mean age was 61 years. The most commonly isolated organisms were streptococci (37%), compared to 51% in the previous cohort. S. aureus accounted for 11%. Only one S. aureus isolate was methicillin-resistant. In the historical cohort, 26% of cases were caused by S. aureus. Enterococci ranked behind staphylococci with 22% of total cases, while in the previous cohort, enterococcal IE was only 4%. Compared to previous data from AUBMC, the rates of streptococcal and staphylococcal endocarditis have decreased while enterococcal endocarditis has increased. This study reconfirms that in Lebanon, a developing country, we continue to have a low predominance of staphylococci as etiologic agents in IE. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Method of storing fissile mateiral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoshita, Toshio; Ishitobi, Masuhiro

    1989-01-01

    Upon storing nuclear fissile materials in a storing building, vessels packed with fissile materials are inserted into a containing chamber divided with partition walls comprising neutron absorbers and neutron moderators. Thus, released neutrons permeating the vessel are moderated by the neutron moderators and then absorbed by the neutron absorbers. Accordingly, the neutron absorbing effect by the neutron absorbers is improved, and irradiation of neutrons released from one of vessels to the other of vessels can be suppressed. Accordingly, it is possible to shorten the distance between the vessels in a contained state as much as possible, while securing the critical safety, to improve the containing density during storage. (T.M.)

  8. Lebanon: assessment of the state of the environment.Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The study concerns the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon and the identification of policy options has three specific objectives namely to determine the conditions of the environment in Lebanon after years of wars (1975-1992); to identify environmentals trends associated with Lebanon's development and to assess their sustainability; to identify policy options for environmental management. Issues of the environment concerned are both the brown issues e.g. the management of wastes and effluent arising from human activitiesand green issues, the natural resource base defined through main receptors:air, water (including coastal waters), land and terrestrial ecology sectors such as agriculture, industry, energy, transport, tourism and fisheries, population and human settlements are also studied

  9. The tobacco industry's thwarting of marketing restrictions and health warnings in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, R; Lee, K

    2009-08-01

    This article outlines how the tobacco industry has undermined tobacco control efforts in Lebanon since the early 1970s. An analysis of online and on-site tobacco industry documents, reviews of newspapers, policy and other documents, and interviews with key policy makers were conducted. Findings reveal how the weakness of tobacco control legislation in Lebanon has been the product of an effective tobacco industry strategy to weaken the content and scope of regulation, and delay adoption and implementation. The tobacco industry has built and maintained strong alliances that were and are regularly mobilised to effectively oppose regulation. Despite ratification of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in 2005, Lebanon's tobacco control track remains weak. Public health professionals and the government should work hard to oppose such tobacco industry tactics.

  10. Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast ... may have. How do I store my breast milk? You can freeze and/or refrigerate your pumped ( ...

  11. Store operations to maintain cache coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin

    2017-08-01

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.

  12. Store operations to maintain cache coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin

    2017-09-12

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.

  13. Stores, Weight and Inertial System Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides stores weight, center of gravity, and inertia measurements in support of weapon/aircraft compatibility testing. System provides store weight...

  14. Storing XML Documents in Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Schmidt; S. Manegold (Stefan); M.L. Kersten (Martin); L.C. Rivero; J.H. Doorn; V.E. Ferraggine

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe authors introduce concepts for loading large amounts of XML documents into databases where the documents are stored and maintained. The goal is to make XML databases as unobtrusive in multi-tier systems as possible and at the same time provide as many services defined by the XML

  15. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  16. Storing biomass in round bales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summer, H.R.; Hellwig, R.E.; Monroe, G.E.

    1984-09-01

    Biomass fuels, in the form of crop residues, were stored outside in large round bales. The influence of rainfall on bale mass and the change in apparent average moisture content (A.A.M.C) was studied. Covering the bales with large sheets of polyethylene was found to be the most effective way of reducing moisture penetration.

  17. s larvae to stored cocoa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olufunke oyedokun

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... theobromine levels decrease, which in turn affects the colour, flavor (aroma) of the beans (Lagunes et al., 2007;. Rodriguez-Campos et al., 2011) and the organoleptic properties of the dried cocoa beans in store (Camu et al.,. 2008). Freshly harvested cocoa beans require fermentation for 5 - 7 days before ...

  18. BOT3P - Bologna Transport Analysis Pre-Post-Processors Version 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsi, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    BOT3P is a set of standard FORTRAN 77 language programs developed at the ENEA-Bologna Nuclear Data Centre. BOT3P Version 1.0 was originally conceived to give the users of the DORT and TORT deterministic transport codes some useful diagnostic tools to prepare and to check their input data files. BOT3P Version 3.0 contains some important additions in the input geometrical model description, such as 'rod' and 'hexagonal' geometrical objects, respecting the exact cross-sectional area value and very suitable to describe a reactor lattice in detail. Moreover, it has extended the possibility to produce the geometrical, material distribution, and fixed neutron source data for the deterministic transport codes TWODANT and THREEDANT of the DANTSYS system and for the PARTISN code too, starting from the same input to BOT3P. When users require X-Y-Z TORT/THREEDANT/PARTISN mesh grids to be generated, BOT3P Version 3.0 produces a geometrical input for the MCNP Monte Carlo transport code also, where the MCNP cells correspond to the X-Y-Z bodies created for TORT.BOT3P Version 3.0 lets users specify areas/volumes of the model where the zone/material distribution can be defined not only by a combinatorial geometry but also by an external source, such as one originated from computerized tomography scan data (only for three-dimensional applications) and from one or more external DORT/TORT input files. BOT3P was developed on a DIGITAL UNIX ALPHA 500/333 workstation and successfully used in some complex neutron shielding and criticality benchmarks. It was also tested on Red Hat Linux 7.1 and is designed to run on most UNIX platforms. All BOT3P versions are publicly available from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank (NEA-1627, NEA-1678)

  19. Ukrainian higher education in the format of Bologna process: trends and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Khomeriki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the process of reforming higher education taking place in the context of integration processes in order to create a unified European educational space. The author substantiates the position that Ukraine has chosen the European path of development, and the assimilation of European values is  an important step on the road to the European way of life. This is particularly evident in the student body, which at this stage is the most involved in the process of Europeanization of higher education. Also to reform higher education in Ukraine may highlight certain difficulties that are primarily related to the difference in the mentality of the Ukrainians and the Europeans that caused quite a long stay in Ukraine in the cultural field of the Soviet Union. In addition, many reforms simply require time to conduct a thorough and finance that today it is difficult to provide. The author insists that for the full harmonization of the process of transformation, it is important to remember that the best result gives the education that is born in the interaction of the teacher, the student and technologies. This consciousness and responsibility of the latter is the main key to effective training, because the student personally knows and feels exactly what he wants to achieve through education and what efforts must be applied in order to realize their own aspirations. As the reconciliation between «for» and «against» joining the Bologna process can be considered and the position of the need to moderate the implementation of international, and in fact, the Western educational standards and preserve the traditions of the national education system as a whole. In addition, many reforms simply require time to conduct a thorough and finance that today it is difficult to provide.

  20. Towards Regenerated and Productive Vacant Areas through Urban Horticulture: Lessons from Bologna, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gasperi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, urban agriculture has been asserting its relevance as part of a vibrant and diverse food system due to its small scale, its focus on nutrition, its contribution to food security, its employment opportunities, and its role in community building and social mobility. Urban agriculture may also be a tool to re-appropriate a range of abandoned or unused irregular spaces within the city, including flowerbeds, roundabouts, terraces, balconies and rooftops. Consistently, all spaces that present a lack of identity may be converted to urban agriculture areas and, more specifically, to urban horticulture as a way to strengthen resilience and sustainability. The goal of this paper is to analyse current practices in the requalification of vacant areas as urban gardens with the aim of building communities and improving landscapes and life quality. To do so, the city of Bologna (Italy was used as a case study. Four types of vacant areas were identified as places for implementing urban gardens: flowerbeds along streets and squares, balconies and rooftops, abandoned buildings and abandoned neighbourhoods. Six case studies representing this variety of vacant areas were identified and evaluated by collecting primary data (i.e., field work, participant observations and interviews and performing a SWOT analysis. For most cases, urban horticulture improved the image and quality of the areas as well as bringing numerous social benefits in terms of life quality, food access and social interaction among participants. Strong differences in some aspects were found between top-down and bottom-up initiatives, being the later preferable for the engagement of citizens. Policy-making might focus on participatory and transparent planning, long-term actions, food safety and economic development.

  1. L'omicidio a Bologna nella seconda metà del XX secolo. Scenari di vittimizzazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Sette

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The homicides seen from the victims’side, show interesting aspects of the world in which these social conflicts flare up. From the results of the diachronic analysis of the homicide victims in the province of Bologna between 1954 and 2003, carried out using official sources and institutional documents, some characteristics of these victims are evident. Subsequently, with reference to the last twenty years, we concentrated on the relationship with the author of the crime, on the scenes and the circumstances in which the crime was commited, with the aim of tracing profiles and to emphasize “risk” situations. Les homicides vues par les victimes mettent en évidence des aspects particulièrement intéressants des milieux où ces conflits sociaux se déchaînent. Par les résultats de l'analyse diachronique sur les victimes d'homicide entre 1954 et 2003 dans la province de Bologne, effectuée sur la base de sources officielles (fiches statistiques des médecins nécroscopes, rapports inauguraux des années judiciaires, données socio-démographiques et de autres documents (faits divers parus dans les journaux, on attire l'attention sur quelques-unes des caractéristiques des victimes. Après quoi, pour ce qui concerne les vingt dernières années, on se concentre sur la relation avec l'auteur du crime, sur les cas de figure et sur les circonstances où le crime s'est déroulé, pour obtenir des aperçus et pour mettre en évidence des situations "à risque".

  2. The Bologna Annotation Resource (BAR 3.0): improving protein functional annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profiti, Giuseppe; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Casadio, Rita

    2017-07-03

    BAR 3.0 updates our server BAR (Bologna Annotation Resource) for predicting protein structural and functional features from sequence. We increase data volume, query capabilities and information conveyed to the user. The core of BAR 3.0 is a graph-based clustering procedure of UniProtKB sequences, following strict pairwise similarity criteria (sequence identity ≥40% with alignment coverage ≥90%). Each cluster contains the available annotation downloaded from UniProtKB, GO, PFAM and PDB. After statistical validation, GO terms and PFAM domains are cluster-specific and annotate new sequences entering the cluster after satisfying similarity constraints. BAR 3.0 includes 28 869 663 sequences in 1 361 773 clusters, of which 22.2% (22 241 661 sequences) and 47.4% (24 555 055 sequences) have at least one validated GO term and one PFAM domain, respectively. 1.4% of the clusters (36% of all sequences) include PDB structures and the cluster is associated to a hidden Markov model that allows building template-target alignment suitable for structural modeling. Some other 3 399 026 sequences are singletons. BAR 3.0 offers an improved search interface, allowing queries by UniProtKB-accession, Fasta sequence, GO-term, PFAM-domain, organism, PDB and ligand/s. When evaluated on the CAFA2 targets, BAR 3.0 largely outperforms our previous version and scores among state-of-the-art methods. BAR 3.0 is publicly available and accessible at http://bar.biocomp.unibo.it/bar3. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. A retrospective evaluation of prognosis and cost-effectiveness of IVF in poor responders according to the Bologna criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busnelli, Andrea; Papaleo, Enrico; Del Prato, Diana; La Vecchia, Irene; Iachini, Eleonora; Paffoni, Alessio; Candiani, Massimo; Somigliana, Edgardo

    2015-02-01

    Do the Bologna criteria for poor responders successfully identify women with poor IVF outcome? The Bologna criteria effectively identify a population with a uniformly low chance of success. Women undergoing IVF who respond poorly to ovarian hyper-stimulation have a low chance of success. Even if improving IVF outcome in this population represents a main priority, the lack of a unique definition of the condition has hampered research in this area. To overcome this impediment, a recent expert meeting in Bologna proposed a new definition of poor responders ('Bologna criteria'). However, data supporting the relevance of this definition in clinical practice are scanty. Retrospective study of women undergoing IVF-ICSI between January 2010 and December 2012 in two independent infertility units. Women could be included if they fulfilled the definition of poor ovarian response (POR) according to Bologna criteria prior to initiation of the cycle. Women were included only for one cycle. The main outcome was the live birth rate per started cycle. The perspective of the cost analysis was the one of the health provider. Three-hundred sixty-two women from two independent Infertility Units were selected. A binomial distribution model was used to calculate the 95% CI of the rate of success. Characteristics of women who did and did not obtain a live birth were compared. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for confounders. The economic analysis included costs for pharmacological compounds and for the IVF procedure. The benefits were estimated on quality-adjusted life years (QALY). To develop the model, we used the local life-expectancy tables, we applied a 3% discount of life years gained and we used a 0.07 improvement in quality of life associated with parenthood. Sensitivity analyses were performed varying the improvement of the quality of life and including/excluding the male partner. The reference values for cost-effectiveness were the Italian and the local (Lombardy

  4. First assessment of the ecological status of Karaoun reservoir, Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadel, A.; Lemaire, B.; Vinc on Leite, B.; Tassin, B.; Amacha, N.; Slim, K.; Atoui, A.

    2014-01-01

    Many reservoirs have been constructed throughout the world during the 20th century, with many also suffering from eutrophication. The resulting increased phytoplankton biomass in reservoirs impairs their use. Except for Lake Kinneret, the environmental status of lakes and reservoirs in the Middle East is poorly documented. Karaoun reservoir, also known as Qaroun, Qaraoun or Qarun, is the largest water body in Lebanon, having been constructed for irrigation and hydropower production. This present study reviews Karaoun reservoir, including its characteristics, uses, water quality and phytoplankton succession, to assess the environmental status of the reservoir on the basis of the few existing previous publications about the reservoir. Since 2004, which is 39 years after its construction, the reservoir is considered to be hypereutrophic, with low phytoplankton biodiversity and regular blooms of toxic cyanobacteria. The nutrient and trace metal concentrations would not prevent use of the reservoir for a drinking water supply for Beirut, as is currently being planned, although not all the micropollutants in the lake were documented. Karaoun reservoir is compared to other monitored lakes and reservoirs around the Mediterranean Sea. They share annual toxic cyanobacteria blooms of Aphanizomenon ovalisporum and of Microcystis aeruginosa. The phytoplankton composition and succession of Karaoun reservoir is more similar to El Gergal reservoir (Spain) than nearby natural lakes such as Lake Kinneret (Israel) and Lake Trichonis (Greece). Phytoplankton diversity in Karaoun reservoir was the lowest, due to higher nutrient concentrations and a larger decrease in water level in the dry season. Karaoun reservoir represents an interesting example of the potential response of the phytoplankton community in other lakes and reservoirs during the drought periods expected to occur as a result of global climate change. (author)

  5. Injury patterns of soldiers in the second Lebanon war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Dagan; Glassberg, Elon; Nadler, Roy; Hirschhorn, Gil; Marom, Ophir Cohen; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor

    2014-01-01

    In the second Lebanon war in 2006, the Israeli Defense Forces fought against well-prepared and well-equipped paramilitary forces. The conflict took place near the Israeli border and major Israeli medical centers. Good data records were maintained throughout the campaign, allowing accurate analysis of injury characteristics. This study is an in-depth analysis of injury mechanisms, severity, and anatomic locations. Data regarding all injured soldiers were collected from all care points up to the definitive care hospitals and were cross-referenced. In addition, trauma branch physicians and nurses interviewed medical teams to validate data accuracy. Injuries were analyzed using Injury Severity Score (ISS) (when precise anatomic data were available) and multiple injury patterns scoring for all. A total of 833 soldiers sustained combat-related injury during the study period, including 119 fatalities (14.3%). Although most soldiers (361) sustained injury only to one Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) region, the average number of regions per soldier was 2.0 but was 1.5 for survivors versus 4.2 for fatalities. Current war injury classifications have limitations that hinder valid comparisons between campaigns and settings. In addition, limitation on full autopsy in war fatalities further hinders data use. To partly compensate for those limitations, we have looked at the correlation between fatality rates and number of involved anatomic regions and found it to be strong. We have also found high fatality rates in some "combined" injuries such as head and chest injuries (71%) or in the abdomen and an extremity (75%). The use of multiinjury patterns analysis may help understand fatality rates and improve the utility of war injury analysis. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  6. Changes in the Field of Education and Teaching of Law: An Investigation of Programs Developed Based on Bologna Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel KAVAK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the society change people's expectations from individuals and correspondingly expectations from educational institutions. Accordingly, different implementations are observed. One of the implementations is the Bologna process which is a reform process, aimed at establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA. Developing programs as part of the Bologna process is important because it both contributes to the efforts to be a part of global world in a rapidly growing world, and to the quality assurance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the curriculum developed in Bologna process in the faculties of law in Turkish universities. The survey model has been used in this research which is a descriptive study. As part of data collection faculties of law from 72 universities, including 28 state and 44 private universities were selected. Program packages and course catalogs of those faculties, accessed through their web sites were examined. In addition, five law faculties, which admit students with the highest scores according to the Student Selection and Placement System's results, were selected for detailed investigation. Curriculums packages and five core courses, which are common in the five faculties, were evaluated based on instructional methods and techniques, and evaluation system used and ECTS workload calculations. Results indicated that, in approximately half of the institutions packages examined, information about the program goals, key learning outcomes and occupational profiles of graduates were not available in the web pages of related institutions, contrary to the Bologna process' notion. It is also understood that the object of the law curriculum is to help graduates gain both professional and personal characteristics. On the other hand curriculum qualifications such as the level of knowledge, ability and learning outcomes are being specified based on the learning outcomes specified by National Qualifications

  7. Issues Related to University Education in Ukraine in the Context of Globalization, European Integration and Bologna Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna V. Bosenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of issued linked to the development of Ukrainian education in the contexts of globalization, European integration and Bologna Process. The needs for reforms related to the university education in Ukraine is linked with job market and social services, including educational services, globalization of economics and IT technologies: enhancing of socio-economical and pedagogical processes, informatization in society, transition to ‘knowledge societies’, changing the system f values, expanding the core of university education, emergence and distribution of innovative technologies, freedom of choice in electing the university curriculum, fundamentalization and humanization of education etc.

  8. Bologna e Rimini tra XIX e XX secolo: note di storia urbana emiliano-romagnola tra cartografia ed elaborazioni informatiche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casadei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss some aspects of the relationship between computer science and historical disciplines, with reference to teaching, dissemination and research on specific topics of urban history, highlighting the support provided by computing resources to study, analysis and presentation of themes of urban landscape history. We consider two case studies: some urban changes in Bologna from 1861 to the reconstruction after World War II, and the role of the tourism in urban history of Rimini from half of 19th century to the present day. This study is part of a larger research and educational project on urban history, with various levels of thematic and technical complexity.

  9. Internal and atmospheric contamination measurament by means of whole body counter performed up to 31.21.1986 by Bologna ENEA-PAS following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melandri, C.; Castellani, C.M.; Calamosca, M.; Torroni, G.; Formignani, M.; De Zaiacomo, T.

    1987-01-01

    Internal contamination and atmospheric sampling data obtained at ENEA PAS-FIBI-AEROSOL Laboratory in Bologna (Italy), following the accident at the nuclear reactor in Chernobyl, are presented. Internal contamination data are related to persons coming from European countries (mainly the USSR) and Italy, measured in Bologna in the period May-Dicember 1986, while the atmospheric contamination samplings were performed in Bologna during the first decade of May. Descriptions of the measurement methods, data analysis and the evaluation of the committed dose equivalent due to both inhalation and ingestion of radioactive contaminants are given. The last chapter reports an estimation of the possible trend of internal contamination due to Cs-134 and Cs-137 up to 1991

  10. Model/School Store Management Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.

    This teacher-coordinator manual assists in planning, organizing, directing, and evaluating student learning experiences associated with either a model store, school store, or combination. (A model store in a marketing laboratory simulates marketing functions; the school store markets merchandise to fellow students, faculty, and/or the public.)…

  11. Storing XML Documents in Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, A.R.; Manegold, Stefan; Kersten, Martin; Rivero, L.C.; Doorn, J.H.; Ferraggine, V.E.

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe authors introduce concepts for loading large amounts of XML documents into databases where the documents are stored and maintained. The goal is to make XML databases as unobtrusive in multi-tier systems as possible and at the same time provide as many services defined by the XML standards as possible. The ubiquity of XML has sparked great interest in deploying concepts known from Relational Database Management Systems such as declarative query languages, transactions, indexes ...

  12. Method of storing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Toshio; Hiratake, Susumu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the radiation doses externally irradiated from treated radioactive waste and also reduce the separation of radioactive nuclide due to external environmental factors such as air, water or the like. Method: Radioactive waste adhered with radioactive nuclide to solid material is molten to mix and submerge the radioactive nuclide adhered to the surface of the solid material into molten material. Then, the radioactive nuclide thus mixed is solidified to store the waste in solidified state. (Aizawa, K.)

  13. Specialty Store and Multi-Brand Store loyalty: An Indian consumer perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjot Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the competitive era of retailing, retailers need to understand the importance of store format preferences. The study aimed to understand consumer store loyalty; in-depth interview was conducted to examine consumer store loyalty antecedents for two retail formats: specialty stores and multi brand stores. The study conceptualizes store loyalty factors like program loyalty, trust and brand commitment. Trust and brand commitment act as mediating factors between store image and store loyalty formats, and also between brand image and store loyalty formats. The findings highlight how consumer store loyalty preference differ for these two formats.

  14. The Case of Educational Gerontology in Lebanon: A Harbinger of Empowerment, Emancipation and Social Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Hany; Nikkola, Eeva; Zaidan, Amani

    2017-01-01

    Context: In Lebanon, older adults face socioeconomic challenges that are expected to worsen due to an increase in older adult population, chronic governmental neglect, institutionalised ageism and a lack of educational and social gerontologists. Consequently, local older adults are in dire need for social change, which can be initiated through…

  15. Students' Perceptions of Higher Education Quality at Notre Dame University-Louaize in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Nada

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how students perceive quality of education and identifying the most important quality factors from their perspectives represent a first stage for quality improvement and customer satisfaction in higher education. The purpose of this project was to investigate how higher education students in Lebanon perceived the concept of quality…

  16. Monitoring the snowpack volume in a sinkhole on Mount Lebanon using time lapse Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chakra, C.; Gascoin, S.; Somma, J.; Drapeau, L.; Fanise, P.

    2017-12-01

    Lebanon is one of the richest country in the Middle East for water resources, thanks to its mountain ranges that trigger precipitation from the moist air masses coming from the Mediterranean Sea. Snowpack acts as natural water storage in winter and supply fresh water during spring and summer. Yet, Lebanon is facing a serious water scarcity problem due to: i) decreasing amount of precipitation and climate change; ii) major growth of population of original residence and large number of refugees during regional wars. Therefore, continuous and systematic monitoring of the Lebanese water resources is becoming crucial. The Mount Lebanon is made of karstic depressions named "sinkholes". It is important to monitor the snowmelt process inside these sinkholes because of their key role as "containers" of seasonal snow. By isolating the snowpack from sun radiation and wind, they slow down the natural melting process and sublimation, thus delaying as well the low water flow period. An observatory is set up to monitor the snowpack evolution in a pilot sinkhole located in Mount Lebanon. The system uses three time-lapse cameras and structure-from-motion principles to reconstruct the snow volume within the sinkhole. The approach is validated by standard topographic surveys. The results indicate that snow depth can be retrieved with an accuracy between 20 and 60 cm (residuals standard deviation) and a low bias of 50 cm after coregistration of the digital elevation models.

  17. The status of pediatric cardiology at a tertiary center in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Mariam; Majdalani, Marianne; El Hajj, Maria Atoui; Nemer, Georges; Sawaya, Fadi; Obeid, Mounir; Bitar, Fadi F

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac disease, both congenital and acquired, contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in children. This article describes the status of pediatric cardiology at the Children's Heart Center in the American University of Beirut Medical Center. It addresses the available clinical services as well as the research and educational activities that are present at a tertiary center in Lebanon, a developing country with a population of 4 million. Lebanon has witnessed major developments in the field of pediatric cardiology over the past few years. About 650 babies are born with heart disease every year, with more than 425 needing treatment. Nearly all types of interventional catheterization procedures are currently being performed. About 300 open and closed pediatric cardiac surgeries are performed per year in Lebanon. In 2008, the in-hospital surgical mortality rate at our center was 2.6%, reflecting the good level of care in the treatment of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) in Lebanon. Basic research in the field of pediatric cardiology is emerging at our center. Our team has been studying the effect of chronic hypoxemia on the neonatal myocardium in an animal model of chronic hypoxia, as well as the study of molecular basis of CHD. Appropriate identification of cardiac disease, its epidemiology, and outcome is of utmost importance in guiding adequate care. Centralization of facilities is important to improve results and level of care.

  18. Whose History and Who Is Denied? Politics and the History Curriculum in Lebanon and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maadad, Nina; Rodwell, Grant

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to explain and develop a better understanding of the relationship between the History curriculum and the consequences of political motive. It compares the History curricula of Australia and Lebanon, and is relevant to understanding the purpose of the History curricula in the two countries as well as, more generally, other…

  19. Transforming shortcomings into opportunities: Can market incentives solve Lebanon's energy crisis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruble, Isabella; Nader, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decades Lebanon's energy sector has been largely ignored and this has led to high economic and environmental costs. The sector is characterized by electricity poverty, an expanding and mainly unregulated transport sector and a lack of energy savings spanning through all sectors of the economy. Recently, the Government of Lebanon has committed to increase the share of renewable energy to 10% of the total energy supply by 2013 and to 12% by the year 2020; it also aims at reducing energy consumption by 6% by the year 2013. This paper aims at contributing to the formulation of a more comprehensive energy strategy for Lebanon by analyzing the recent changes in policy direction and by recommending legal, regulatory and policy measures in order to transform current shortcomings into opportunities allowing the country to become a regional 'success story' in the deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency. - Research highlights: → This paper reviews the current situation of Lebanon's energy sector. → We analyze the recent development of the markets for renewable energy and energy efficiency. → Policy recommendations that will allow for a sustainable energy future are made.

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and awareness regarding fertility preservation among oncologists and clinical practitioners in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazeeri, Ghina; Zebian, Dina; Nassar, Anwar H; Harajly, Sally; Abdallah, Alain; Hakimian, Stephanie; Skaiff, Bassem; Abbas, Hussein A; Awwad, Johnny

    2016-06-01

    Fertility preservation (FP) aims to help individuals overcome the infertility associated with cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation. The objective of this study was to assess the awareness, attitudes and knowledge of oncologists' and clinical practitioners' (CPs) about fertility preservation and its options in Lebanon. This was a cross-sectional study with surveys carried out between March 2012 and February 2013 on CPs at the American University of Beirut Medical Centre and Saint Jude's Children Cancer Centre as well as all registered oncologists in Lebanon. Ninety percent of CPs (n = 88) and 94% of oncologists (n = 53) agreed that fertility preservation should be discussed with patient before their cancer treatment. Our data showed a gender bias in relation to patients being informed of their FP options, as well as conflicting knowledge of FP options available in Lebanon among oncologists. The CPs were more likely to have accurate knowledge of FP options and treatment than oncologists. A proactive approach is required to: (1) increase the awareness and knowledge of FP; (2) improve attitudes towards FP; and (3) encourage its communication between CPs, oncologists and patients in Lebanon. Increased education programs, awareness campaigns and development of dedicated FP centres are needed.

  1. Developing Effective Earthquake Risk Reduction Strategies: The Potential Role of Academic Institutions in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda

    2015-01-01

    Lebanon faces the risk of powerful earthquakes with potentially devastating effects. However, the Lebanese people in general have not yet recognized this risk, as current educational programs and government officials have failed to inform them about it. This article discusses the essential role that Lebanese institutions of higher education should…

  2. Lebanon's 2011 ICT Education Reform Strategy and Action Plan: Curriculum Success or Abeyance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awada, Ghada; Diab, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of Lebanon's Education Reform Strategy and Action Plan (LERSAP) set in 2011 as a form of the educational reform the curriculum underwent through focusing on promoting and employing the information communication technology (ICT) tools. The LERSAP was launched to equip teachers…

  3. Tracking Drop-out Students in Palestinian Refugee Camps in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hroub, Anies

    2015-01-01

    This research paper examines the perceptions of students on the school drop-out problem in Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon regarding (a) the social and economic causes associated with the phenomenon of school drop-out; (b) the educational policies and practices used in UNRWA schools and their relationship to student drop-out; and (c) the role…

  4. Energy for Lebanon of tomorrow: paradigm of sustainable development and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, S.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the present status of energy sector in Lebanon and requirements of its future development is presented. The study is based on an economic analysis of needs and energy consumption among the population and on a comparison with other developing countries. Tables and graphs on energy distribution, needs and demands per habitant and national income are included. 3 figs. 3 tabs

  5. Education for Social Cohesion Attempts in Lebanon: Reflections on the 1994 and 2010 Education Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuayb, Maha

    2016-01-01

    Following the end of the Lebanese civil war, education was put forward as a major means for rebuilding Lebanon and promoting social cohesion and unity. A huge education development plan was launched in 1994 culminating in a new national curriculum in 1997 and the production of new textbooks. Although the quality of education improved in public…

  6. HIV Risk, Prevalence, and Access to Care Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, Robert; Barbour, Russell; Khouri, Danielle; Crawford, Forrest W; Shebl, Fatma; Aaraj, Elie; Khoshnood, Kaveh

    2017-11-01

    Little is known about HIV prevalence and risk among men who have sex with men (MSM) in much of the Middle East, including Lebanon. Recent national-level surveillance has suggested an increase in HIV prevalence concentrated among men in Lebanon. We undertook a biobehavioral study to provide direct evidence for the spread of HIV. MSM were recruited by respondent-driven sampling, interviewed, and offered HIV testing anonymously at sites located in Beirut, Lebanon, from October 2014 through February 2015. The interview questionnaire was designed to obtain information on participants' sociodemographic situation, sexual behaviors, alcohol and drug use, health, HIV testing and care, and experiences of stigma and discrimination. Individuals not reporting an HIV diagnosis were offered optional, anonymous HIV testing. Among the 292 MSM recruited, we identified 36 cases of HIV (12.3%). A quarter of the MSM were born in Syria and recently arrived in Lebanon. Condom use was uncommon; 65% reported condomless sex with other men. Group sex encounters were reported by 22% of participants. Among the 32 individuals already aware of their infection, 30 were in treatment and receiving antiretroviral therapy. HIV prevalence was substantially increased over past estimates. Efforts to control future increases will have to focus on reducing specific risk behaviors and experience of stigma and abuse, especially among Syrian refugees.

  7. Digital Literacies and Generational Micro-Cultures: Email Feedback in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coursey, Christina; Dandashly, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the introduction of email feedback, in a private university in Lebanon with marked generational differences and a traditional instructor culture focused on grammar correction. The instructor profile showed insufficient ELT training and a disjuncture between those with low and those with long service. Instructors were trained,…

  8. Nationalist Narratives, Boundaries and Social Inclusion/Exclusion in Palestinian Camps in South Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincham, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how in the contexts of exile and statelessness and in the absence of Palestinian institutions, such as schools, Palestinian youth in south Lebanon construct their identities through nationalist narratives of shared history, kinship, culture and religion. Although these narratives help to construct shared notions of…

  9. Assessing Lebanon's wildfire potential in association with current and future climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Mitri; Mireille G. Jazi; David McWethy

    2015-01-01

    The increasing occurrence and extent of large-scale wildfires in the Mediterranean have been linked to extended periods of warm and dry weather. We set out to assess Lebanon's wildfire potential in association with current and future climatic conditions. The Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) was the primary climate variable used in our evaluation of climate/fire...

  10. Technologies for adaptation to climate change. Examples from the agricultural and water sectors in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte; Stephan, Jean

    2015-01-01

    for integrating adaptation technologies into the planning and implementation of on-going and future projects. Based on local-level data from a technology needs assessment project in Lebanon, this paper presents two examples of the economic feasibility of implementing adaptation technologies in the agricultural...

  11. Self-Reported Factors That Influence Choice of College-Bound Students in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Nassif, Samir M.

    2011-01-01

    The number of students entering universities in Lebanon has steadily increased in the past ten years. This trend makes it imperative that the different stakeholders, like students, parents, schools, universities, and education officials, understand what influences the decision of a student to choose a specific college. Understanding these factors…

  12. On Progress of Mass Tertiary Education: Case of Lebanon, Kenya and Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhimin; Mutinda, Gladys

    2016-01-01

    Mass higher education is a huge force to be reckoned with and its existence, already in the expansion of tertiary institutions is undeniable. This study will focus on three countries: Lebanon, Kenya and Oman. The purpose of this study is to evaluate mass tertiary education progress in these countries. It will synthesize data results of gross…

  13. Dementia and depression among nursing home residents in Lebanon : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chahine, L. M.; Bijlsma, A.; Hospers, A. P. N.; Chemali, Z.

    Background The proportion of elderly in the Lebanese population is 7.1% and this is expected to increase to 10.2% by the year 2025. The nursing home (NH) population in Lebanon has not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of dementia and depression among a portion of

  14. “Best Practices” of Global Memory and the Politics of Atonement in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    2017-01-01

    In Lebanon, Haugbolle argues, the state has left the task of addressing difficult questions about mass violence in the recent past to cultural producers. While the impulse for truth telling and memory work evolved out of domestic debates, the logic and institutional design of the resulting cultural...

  15. Perceived Online Education Barriers of Administrators and Faculty at a U.S. University in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Turk, Sahar; Cherney, Isabelle D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify the perceived barriers obstructing the implementation of online education by administrators and faculty at the School of Arts and Sciences of a U.S. university located in Lebanon. The aim of this study was to offer a solution to the most important perceived barriers to online education that…

  16. Chemotype common planets in Lebanon gender and gender Micromeria Origanum (Lamiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilan, Ch.; Rabiha, S.; Aitour, S.

    2011-01-01

    The chemotype or (chimiotype) is the original denomination, meant to characterizean essential oil from the botanic and biochemical view point. It is so important that it is today acknowledged and used in the whole biological and botanic classification, earmarking the wildly present molecule in an essential oil. This classification is linked to factors directly related to the specific life conditions of the plant namely: the country, climate, soil and the harvest period which can influence the essential oil composition. One speaks about a chemotype essential oil (Zhiri and Baudoux, 2005). This study shows the classification of four Origanums: Origanum syriacum L.,Origanum majorana L., Origanum ehrenbergii Boiss. and Origanum libanoticum Boiss., the last 2 being endemic to Lebanon; and four Micromeria: Micromeria barbata Boiss., wild and endemic, Micromeria barbata, domesticated, Micromeria libanotica Boiss., also endemic to Lebanon and Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss Origanum of Lebanon is 'thyme of thymo' and Micromeria grown in Lebanon contain less pulegone rate than in other countries These endangered species could find a field of valorization in the food industry sector, which will definitely help in preserving them and will lead to a potential new income to the Lebanese industry . (author)

  17. Understanding Retailers’ Acceptance of Virtual Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Y.L. Chen

    2010-01-01

    The acceptance of e-commerce among consumers has stimulated the rise of virtual stores. Increasing traditional retailers or people who do not have sufficient capital for maintaining a brick-and-mortar store have considered using virtual stores to reach global market. In the e-commerce literature, there has been rich research evidence concerning consumers’ acceptance of virtual stores. However, rigorous academic research on retailers’ acceptance of virtual stores is relatively scarce today. Th...

  18. Maternal Health Care Utilization Among Syrian Refugees in Lebanon and Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappis, Hannah; Lyles, Emily; Burton, Ann; Doocy, Shannon

    2017-09-01

    Purpose The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan and Lebanon over the last 5 years presents an immense burden to national health systems. This study was undertaken to assess utilization of maternal health services among Syrian refugees in both countries. Description A cross-sectional survey of Syrian refugees living in urban and rural (non-camp) settings was conducted using a two-stage cluster survey design with probability proportional to size sampling in 2014-2015. Eighty-six percent of surveyed households in Lebanon and 88% of surveyed households in Jordan included women with a live birth in the last year. Information from women in this sub-set of households was analyzed to understand antenatal and intrapartum health service utilization. Assessment A majority of respondents reported seeking antenatal care, 82% and 89% in Jordan and Lebanon, respectively. Women had an average of at least six antenatal care visits. Nearly all births (98% in Jordan and 94% in Lebanon) took place in a health facility. Cesarean rates were similar in both countries; approximately one-third of all births were cesarean deliveries. A substantial proportion of women incurred costs for intrapartum care; 33% of Syrian women in Jordan and 94% of Syrian women in Lebanon reported paying out of pocket for their deliveries. The proportion of women incurring costs for intrapartum care was higher in Jordan both countries for women with cesarean deliveries compared to those with vaginal deliveries; however, this difference was not statistically significant in either country (Jordan p-value = 0.203; Lebanon p-value = 0.099). Conclusion Syrian refugees living in Jordan and Lebanon had similar levels of utilization of maternal health services, despite different health systems and humanitarian assistance provisions. As expected, a substantial proportion of households incurred out-of-pocket costs for essential maternal and newborn health services, making cost a major factor in care

  19. Parochial education in a global world? Teaching history and civics in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Bahous

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory article is based on a research project which runs from 2011 to 2013 that examines how global processes are expressed in educational policies and pedagogical texts in Lebanon, Sweden and Turkey by focusing on school subjects like civics, history, geography, and religion. In this text we discuss the development of education in Lebanon, the development of history and civics after the civil war, and on opinions about these school subjects in order to make a preliminary analysis of how the future Lebanese citizen is depicted in policies, curricula, and textbooks. Lebanon is interesting because of its unique education system in which foreign international institutions rather than national ones have the task of preparing individuals for a globalized world. Material for the study were collected from a sample of curricula used in private and public or national schools for history and civics/citizenship education in grade 8 as well as interviews and conference proceedings and conversations with activists, teachers and principals. We also reviewed findings of relevant empirical studies conducted in Lebanon. Our data collection was guided by three questions: how is the right citizen depicted in the Lebanese material? How is the relationship between national and global perspectives treated in guidance documents and pedagogical texts? What civic rights and obligations are given attention and what individuals are included/ excluded? Our preliminary findings imply that there is no consensus on the importance of teaching a unified history and civics book and subjects in Lebanon. Other findings indicate that private and international schools have a greater impact than national schools on preparing Lebanese students as future citizens.

  20. Maternal mortality ratio in Lebanon in 2008: a hospital-based reproductive age mortality study (RAMOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobeika, Elie; Abi Chaker, Samer; Harb, Hilda; Rahbany Saad, Rita; Ammar, Walid; Adib, Salim

    2014-01-01

    International agencies have recently assigned Lebanon to the group H of countries with "no national data on maternal mortality," and estimated a corresponding maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 150 per 100,000 live births. The Ministry of Public Health addressed the discrepancy perceived between the reality of the maternal mortality ratio experience in Lebanon and the international report by facilitating a hospital-based reproductive age mortality study, sponsored by the World Health Organization Representative Office in Lebanon, aiming at providing an accurate estimate of a maternal mortality ratio for 2008. The survey allowed a detailed analysis of maternal causes of deaths. Reproductive age deaths (15-49 years) were initially identified through hospital records. A trained MD traveled to each hospital to ascertain whether recorded deaths were in fact maternal deaths or not. ICD10 codes were provided by the medical controller for each confirmed maternal deaths. There were 384 RA death cases, of which 13 were confirmed maternal deaths (339%) (numerator). In 2008, there were 84823 live births in Lebanon (denominator). The MMR in Lebanon in 2008 was thus officially estimated at 23/100,000 live births, with an "uncertainty range" from 153 to 30.6. Hemorrhage was the leading cause of death, with double the frequency of all other causes (pregnancy-induced hypertension, eclampsia, infection, and embolism). This specific enquiry responded to a punctual need to correct a clearly inadequate report, and it should be relayed by an on-going valid surveillance system. Results indicate that special attention has to be devoted to the management of peri-partum hemorrhage cases. Arab, postpartum hemorrhage, development, pregnancy management, verbal autopsy

  1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence in Lebanon: a cross-sectional descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waked M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mirna Waked1, George Khayat2, Pascale Salameh31Saint George Hospital University Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Faculty of Medicine, Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Faculties of Pharmacy and Public Health, Lebanese University, Beirut, LebanonBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD continues to increase worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of COPD in Lebanese adults.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a multistage cluster sample from all over Lebanon. Residents aged 40 years and over were enrolled. Subjects underwent baseline spirometry and answered a questionnaire. After an albuterol + ipratropium bromide bronchodilator, a posttest was performed.Results: Of 2201 individuals, only 33.3% had never smoked. The prevalence of COPD by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease definition, was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.5%–10.9%. According to the 5% lower limit of normal definition of COPD, the prevalence was 12.5% (95% CI: 11.2%–13.9%. A total of 20.2% were already diagnosed by a physician. No differences in symptoms across stages of COPD were found, but there was a significant trend for a higher number of visits to the emergency room and to the doctor (P < 0.001, and a higher number of hospitalizations (P < 0.001. Older individuals had an increased risk of COPD (adjusted odds ratio [ORa] = 1.05; so did “ever” cigarette smokers (ORa = 4.88 and water-pipe smokers (ORa = 2.53.Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological study in Lebanon that determined COPD prevalence and the link with water-pipe smoking.Keywords: COPD, prevalence, water-pipe smoking

  2. [Determinants of occupational injuries in the construction of the "high speed train" Bologna-Florence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Venere Leda Mara; Lisi, Catiuscia; Cinti, Danilo; Cervino, Daniela; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Forastiere, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    to study determinants of occupational injuries in tunnel construction using data from the surveillance system which had been implemented in order to monitor accidents during the construction of the "high speed train tracks in the Italian Regions Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany. retrospective cohort study. 16 sites for the construction of 14 tunnels of the high speed railway-tract Bologna-Firenze, in Italy. 1,602 workers (of 3,000 employed in the underground tunnelling), aged 18 - 67 years, operating during excavation with traditional method in 1999-2002. A total of 549 injuries occurred among 385 workers. The number of worked hours were used as time at risk. incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals for all injuries, serious injuries and first injuries were considered in separate multiple regression analyses (Poisson). residence, task and working phase were taken into consideration. An increased risk was found for younger workers, for carpenters (IRR "all-events" = 2.33; 95% CI=1.85-2.94; IRR" first-events" = 2.12; 95% CI 1.62-2.77) and miners (IRR "all-events" = 1.76; 95% CI 1.39-2.24; IRR"first-events" = 1.71; 95% CI 1.30-2.24) vs. machinery operators. Construction of inverted arch turns out to have an incidence rate ratio three times higher than digging out (IRR "all-events" = 2.79; 95% CI 2.27-3.43; IRR "firsts-event = 2.98; 95% CI 2.33-3.81). The probability of "serious" injuries (>30 days) is higher for miners (IRR=2.45; 95% CI 1.65-3.64) and for carpenters (IRR=2.31; 95% CI 1.53-3.49). this study pointed out to indicate some determinants (age, task and work phase) of injuries in tunneling about which little had been published previously. These results are useful for addressing preventive measures, for control and prevention activities and point to the need to explore the effect of experience and to study, through a case crossover design, transient working and individual risk factors for traumatic injury within these working sites.

  3. The use of complementary and alternative medicine by women experiencing menopausal symptoms in Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombardo Flavia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study describes Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM use amongst Italian women transitioning through menopause. Popularity and perceived effectiveness of CAM treatments, use of pharmaceutical medications, characteristics of CAM users, the extent of communication between medical practitioners and women about their use of CAM, and variables associated with CAM use were also investigated. Methods Women, aged 45-65 years attending Family Planning and Women's Health clinics or Menopause Centres in Bologna were invited to complete a voluntary, anonymous, self administered questionnaire, which was used in a previous study in Sydney. The questionnaire was translated and adapted for use amongst Italian women. Data on general demographic and health characteristics, menopause related symptoms and the use of CAM and pharmaceutical treatments during the previous 12 months were collected. Results In total, 1,203 women completed the survey, of which 1,106 were included in the final sample. Of women who had symptoms linked with menopause and/or used remedies to alleviate symptoms, 33.5% reported to have used CAM. Among these, 23.5% had consulted one or more practitioners and 24% had used at least one CAM product. Approximately nine out of ten respondents reported medical practitioners did not seek information about their use of CAM; while one third of CAM users did not disclose the use of CAM to their physician. Nevertheless, medical practitioners were the most popular source of information. From the multivariate analysis, variables associated with CAM use were: professional employment, time since the last natural menses, use of CAM for conditions other than menopause, and presence of some severe symptoms. Conclusions The relatively high prevalence of CAM use by women transitioning through menopause should encourage research initiatives into determining which CAM treatments are the safest and effective. The increasing and

  4. The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine by women experiencing menopausal symptoms in Bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardini, Francesco; Lesi, Grazia; Lombardo, Flavia; van der Sluijs, Corinne

    2010-02-27

    The present study describes Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use amongst Italian women transitioning through menopause. Popularity and perceived effectiveness of CAM treatments, use of pharmaceutical medications, characteristics of CAM users, the extent of communication between medical practitioners and women about their use of CAM, and variables associated with CAM use were also investigated. Women, aged 45-65 years attending Family Planning and Women's Health clinics or Menopause Centres in Bologna were invited to complete a voluntary, anonymous, self administered questionnaire, which was used in a previous study in Sydney. The questionnaire was translated and adapted for use amongst Italian women. Data on general demographic and health characteristics, menopause related symptoms and the use of CAM and pharmaceutical treatments during the previous 12 months were collected. In total, 1,203 women completed the survey, of which 1,106 were included in the final sample. Of women who had symptoms linked with menopause and/or used remedies to alleviate symptoms, 33.5% reported to have used CAM. Among these, 23.5% had consulted one or more practitioners and 24% had used at least one CAM product.Approximately nine out of ten respondents reported medical practitioners did not seek information about their use of CAM; while one third of CAM users did not disclose the use of CAM to their physician. Nevertheless, medical practitioners were the most popular source of information. From the multivariate analysis, variables associated with CAM use were: professional employment, time since the last natural menses, use of CAM for conditions other than menopause, and presence of some severe symptoms. The relatively high prevalence of CAM use by women transitioning through menopause should encourage research initiatives into determining which CAM treatments are the safest and effective. The increasing and likely concomitant use of CAM with HRT and other pharmaceuticals

  5. The struggle for Via Bologna street market: crisis, racial denial and speaking back to power in Naples Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Antonia

    2018-01-10

    This paper is based on ethnographic research conducted with migrant and Italian street vendors in Naples, southern Italy, in 2012. It tells the story of Via Bologna market which was nearly closed down by the City Hall at the time. Naples is a city where issues of poverty and unemployment pre-date and have been exacerbated by manifold narratives of crisis now unfolding across Europe regarding the economy, political legitimacy, security and migration. Street markets have always been an important and visible economic survival strategy for both Neapolitans and migrants there. This article shows how the Via Bologna street vendors appropriated and adapted discourses about crisis to form their own cosmopolitan social movement that halted the closure of the market. It argues that, in the age of globalized migration, the multilingual nature of such collective action is central to understanding social struggles that must be organized between marginalized groups of people divided by race, religion, politics and legal status. This, frequently ambiguous, transcultural solidarity speaks back against a mainstream post-racial discourse - often articulated by the Neapolitan street vendors at the market - that would reduce the complexity of such collective action to questions of poverty and class struggle. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  6. Properties of bologna-type sausages with pork back-fat replaced with pork skin and amorphous cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Faria, Miriam; Cipriano, Tayssa Martins; da Cruz, Adriano Gomes; Santos, Bibiana Alves Dos; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello

    2015-06-01

    Bologna-type sausages were produced with 50% of their pork back-fat content replaced with gels elaborated with different ratios of pork skin, water, and amorphous cellulose (1:1:0, 1:1:0.1, 1:1:0.2, 1:1:0.3, and 1:1:0.4). The impact of such replacement on the physico-chemical characteristics and the consumer sensory profiling was evaluated. The modified treatments had 42% less fat, 18% more protein, and 8% more moisture than the control group. Treatments with amorphous cellulose had a lower cooking loss and higher emulsion stability. High amorphous cellulose content (1:1:0.3 and 1:1:0.4) increased hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. The gel formulated with the ratio of 1:1:0.2 (pork skin: water: amorphous cellulose gel) provided a sensory sensation similar to that provided by fat and allowed products of good acceptance to be obtained. Therefore, a combination of pork skin and amorphous cellulose is useful in improving technological quality and producing healthier and sensory acceptable bologna-type sausages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Bologna reform of subject teacher education in the newly founded states in the territory of the former Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protner Edvard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of carrying out the principles of the Bologna reform in the education of subject teachers in the newly founded states in the territory of the former Yugoslavia. Drawing upon official documents, particularly laws and by-laws, study programmes and constituent documents of individual universities, the comparative analysis of the reform processes between 2004 and 2013 is made within a relatively homogeneous area in teacher education that existed before the break-up of the former joint state. Positive effects and weak points of the reform activities are observed and detected. The analysis has shown that by implementing the Bologna process the differences in the training of subject teachers among the states and universities, and even among individual universities, increased significantly compared to the previous state of education. This is evident not only in the simultaneous implementation of different models (i.e., the duration of studies (3+2, 4+1, 5+0, but also in concurrent application of simultaneous and successive forms of acquiring teacher competences, different academic titles, and particularly in the greatest issue - different levels of education at which teachers acquire teaching competences for the same teacher profile.

  8. A Dual Function Energy Store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Tolmie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Heat can be collected from local energy sources and concentrated into a relatively small volume, and at a useful working temperature, by using a heat pump as the concentrator. That heat can be stored and utilized at a later date for applications like space heating. The process is doing two things at the same time: storing heat and shifting the power demand. The concentration step can be done at night when there is normally a surplus of power and its timing can be directly controlled by the power grid operator to ensure that the power consumption occurs only when adequate power is available. The sources of heat can be the summer air, the heat extracted from buildings by their cooling systems, natural heat from the ground or solar heat, all of which are free, abundant and readily accessible. Such systems can meet the thermal needs of buildings while at the same time stabilizing the grid power demand, thus reducing the need for using fossil-fuelled peaking power generators. The heat pump maintains the temperature of the periphery at the ambient ground temperature so very little energy is lost during storage.

  9. Method of storing radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, M; Kamiya, K; Sugimoto, Y

    1976-01-09

    A method is claimed to decrease the number of storage containers filled with radioactive wastes. A wire-netting containers having a capacity of 67 liters is filled with 60 kg of pellet-like radioactive solid material. The wire-netting container is held in the middle of a drum can, and asphalt is poured between the drum can and the wire-netting container and stored until radioactivity is attenuated. After storage, the stored body is heated to melt the asphalt and the wire-netting container is removed. Thereafter, the pellet-like radioactive solid material is taken out of the wire-netting container and combined with the other pellet-like radioactive solid material similarly taken out of the storage container, and the resultant material is filled into a wire-netting container having a capacity of 167 liters every 150 kg, and inserted again into the same drum can, into which recovered asphalt is poured for final storage.

  10. [Occupational risks in grocery stores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, Francesca; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Violante, Francesco S

    2014-01-01

    This work provides an overview of the spectrum of possible occupational risk factors in the retail grocery store/supermarket workplace. Literature on this theme, obtained consulting PubMed database and Google Scholar, was checked. We also exjlore results from the National bInstitute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). RESULTs: Contacts with objects, use of dangerous equipment (cutter, food slicer) and falls to the same level (slips, trips and falls) are the mainly described workplace hazards. Exposure to chemical (flour dust, components of detergents or disinfectants, volatile organic compounds and contact with nickel) and physical agents (cold exposure, nonionizing radiation and whole bpdy vibration) are reported by many authors. Relations between biomechanical and ergonomic risk factors and musculoskeletal disorders represent the main subjects of study. Few studies are found about biological agents (particularly among butchers). Data regarding psychosocial risks factors in this setting are still limited. Musculoskeletal disorders continue to be the most recurrent health problem between the grocery store workers (particularly low back pain and carpal tunnel syndrome among cashiers). Many technical documents and international Srecommendations are present to prevent these kinds of disorders. Psychosocial risk factors and risk of workplace violence should deserve further investigation.

  11. Factors influencing development of management strategies for the Abou Ali River in Lebanon. I: Spatial variation and land use

    OpenAIRE

    Massoud, MA; El-Fadel, M; Scrimshaw, MDirector; Lester, JN

    2006-01-01

    Surface water bodies are progressively subject to increasing stress as a result of environmentally degrading processes primarily related to anthropogenic activities. This study assesses and examines the impact of land use and anthropogenic activities on the spatial variation in water quality of the Abou Ali River in North Lebanon. It is the first detailed study of its kind in Lebanon and adds to the existing Knowledge by shedding light on a relatively small Mediterranean river in a developing...

  12. 16-channel analog store and multiplexer unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brossard, M; Kulka, Z [Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire

    1979-03-15

    A 16-channel analog store and multiplexer unit is described. The unit enables storing and selection of analog information which is then digitally encoded by single ADC. This solution becomes economically attractive particularly in multidetector pulse height analysis systems.

  13. Store Separations From a Supersonic Cone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simko, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    ... analyses of supersonic store separations. Also included in this research is a study of supersonic base pressure profiles, near-wake velocity profiles, wind tunnel shock interactions and force/moment studies on a conical store and parent vehicle...

  14. In-Store Media and Channel Management

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Dukes; Yunchuan Liu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study the interesting and complicated effects of retailer in-store media on distribution channel relationships. With the help of advanced technology, retailers can open in-store media in their stores and allow manufacturers to advertise through the instore media. We show that opening in-store media is a strategic decision for a retailer, and a retailer may strategically subsidize manufacturers on their advertising through instore media to better coordinate the channel. Even ...

  15. Consumer behaviour in Apple's App Store

    OpenAIRE

    Ayalew, Romel

    2011-01-01

    Mobile applications stores such as Apple’s App Store and Google’s Android Market revolutionized the distribution of applications for mobile devices. However, with thousands of application submissions, limited testing resources and the lack of an effective filtering mechanism, application stores suffer from information overload and a risk of releasing poor quality applications that could create confusion to consumers and may seriously affect the App store markets. Thus concern has been raised ...

  16. Corner stores: the perspective of urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Sandra; Grode, Gabrielle; McCoy, Tara; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Wojtanowski, Alexis; Sandoval, Brianna Almaguer; Foster, Gary D

    2015-02-01

    We examined the perspectives of low-income, urban youth about the corner store experience to inform the development of corner store interventions. Focus groups were conducted to understand youth perceptions regarding their early shopping experiences, the process of store selection, reasons for shopping in a corner store, parental guidance about corner stores, and what their ideal, or "dream corner store" would look like. Thematic analysis was employed to identify themes using ATLAS.ti (version 6.1, 2010, ATLAS.ti GmbH) and Excel (version 2010, Microsoft Corp). Focus groups were conducted in nine kindergarten-through-grade 8 (K-8) public schools in low-income neighborhoods with 40 fourth- to sixth-graders with a mean age of 10.9±0.8 years. Youth report going to corner stores with family members at an early age. By second and third grades, a growing number of youth reported shopping unaccompanied by an older sibling or adult. Youth reported that the products sold in stores were the key reason they choose a specific store. A small number of youth said their parents offered guidance on their corner store purchases. When youth were asked what their dream corner store would look like, they mentioned wanting a combination of healthy and less-healthy foods. These data suggest that, among low-income, urban youth, corner store shopping starts at a very young age and that product, price, and location are key factors that affect corner store selection. The data also suggest that few parents offer guidance about corner store purchases, and youth are receptive to having healthier items in corner stores. Corner store intervention efforts should target young children and their parents/caregivers and aim to increase the availability of affordable, healthier products. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Retail brand architecture and consumer store loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    is to investigate the relationship between consumers perceived retail brand architecture, their store satisfaction and loyalty. Furthermore we use perceived store image as a mediating factor in our framework. In total 772 Danish households participated in a telephone interview and returned questionnaires by mail....... The major contribution of this research is to conceptualise and empirically investigate the role of brand architecture for perceived store image, store satisfaction and loyalty....

  18. Apparatus for storing protective suits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englemann, H.J.; Koller, J.; Schrader, H.R.; Schade, G.; Pedrerol, J.

    1975-01-01

    Arrangements are described for storing one or more protective suits when contaminated on the outside. In order to permit a person wearing a contaminated suit to leave a contaminated area safely, and without contaminating the environment, it has hitherto been the practice for the suit to be passed through a 'lock' and cleansed under decontaminating showers whilst still being worn. This procedure is time wasting and not always completely effective, and it may be necessary to provide a second suit for use whilst the first suit is being decontaminated. Repeated decontamination may also result in undue wear and tear. The arrangements described provide a 'lock' chamber in which a contaminated suit may be stowed away without its interior becoming contaminated, thus allowing repeated use by persons donning and shedding it. (U.K.)

  19. The Effects of National Policy on Refugee Welfare and Related Security Issues: A Comparative Case Study of Lebanon, Egypt and Syria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cleary, Jessica E

    2008-01-01

    .... This thesis examines the relationship between the tendency of state policies regarding Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, Egypt, and Syria to create isolation or integration, and the relative extent...

  20. Alcoholic fermentation of stored sweet potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yutaka, Y; One, H

    1958-01-01

    Sweet potatoes were ground and stored in a ground hold. The stored sweet potatoes gave about 90% fermentation efficiency by the koji process. A lower fermentation efficiency by the amylo process was improved by adding 20 to 30 mg/100 ml of organic N. Inorganic N has no effect in improving the fermentation efficiency of the stored sweet potatoes by the amylo process.

  1. Mechanism of store-operated calcium entry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C/IP3 signalling pathway results in a rapid release of calcium from its intracellular stores, eventually leading to depletion of these stores. Calcium store depletion triggers an influx of extracellular calcium across the plasma membrane, a mechanism known as the ...

  2. Spirits and liqueurs in European traditional medicine: Their history and ethnobotany in Tuscany and Bologna (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Teresa; Signorini, Maria Adele; Bruschi, Piero; Rivera, Diego; Obón, Concepción; Alcaraz, Francisco; Palazón, José Antonio

    2015-12-04

    Fermented drinks, often alcoholic, are relevant in many nutritional, medicinal, social, ritual and religious aspects of numerous traditional societies. The use of alcoholic drinks of herbal extracts is documented in classical pharmacy since the 1st century CE and it is often recorded in ethnobotanical studies in Europe, particularly in Italy, where are used for a wide range of medicinal purposes. Formulations and uses represent a singular tradition which responds to a wide range of environmental and cultural factors. This research has two overarching aims To determine how long ancient uses, recipes and formulas for medicinal liqueurs from the pharmacopoeias and herbals of the 18th century persisted in later periods and their role in present ethnobotanical knowledge in areas of Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna (Italy). To trace other possible relationships among ancient and recent recipes of alcoholic beverages, from both popular and 'classic' (learned) sources in N-C Italy and neighboring areas. The review of herbals and classical pharmacopoeias, and ethnobotanical field work in Alta Valle del Reno (Tuscany and Emilia Romagna, Italy) were followed of a systematic study of ingredients and medicinal uses with multivariate analysis techniques. The multivariate analysis clearly shows six different styles of preparing medicinal alcoholic beverages: 1. The medicinal wine formulae by Dioscorides (1st century CE). 2. The pharmacopoeias of Florence and Bologna in the 18th century CE. 3. The formularies of Santa Maria Novella and Castiglione (19th and early 20th centuries CE). 4. The ethnobotanical data from Appennino Tosco-Emiliano; home-made formulations based almost exclusively on the use of local resources. 5. Traditional recipes from NE Italy and Austria. 6. Traditional recipes from NW Italy, Emilia, and Provence (France). A total of 54 ingredients (29 fruits) from 48 species are used in different combinations and proportions in Alta Valle del Reno (Italy) to produce

  3. El Proceso de Bolonia y las nuevas competencias / The Bologna Process and the new skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Montero Curiel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La construcción del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES, más conocido como Proceso de Bolonia, constituye una magnífica oportunidad para que las universidades aborden un conjunto de reformas que les permita adaptarse a la nueva realidad social, la llamada Sociedad del Conocimiento, reformas orientadas en múltiples direcciones: en las metodologías docentes, en la estructura de las enseñanzas, en la garantía de los procesos de aprendizaje o en la calidad y, por supuesto, en potenciar la movilidad de estudiantes y profesores. En definitiva, es una transformación que afecta de lleno al concepto de la educación superior.La competencia se presenta como un fin que el estudiante deberá lograr en su fase universitaria. En esta nueva perspectiva, el papel del estudiante se modifica y cobra un significado especial; primero, porque él mismo deberá ser el motor que genere su aprendizaje y, segundo, porque no sólo aprenderá dentro de las instituciones superiores, sino que cualquier situación y experiencia educativa podrá acercarle al conocimiento a lo largo de toda su vida. También el profesor se ve sometido a una gran reforma: ahora no sólo tendrá que transmitir una serie de contenidos, sino que el enfoque deberá encaminar a abrir al alumno las puertas a un futuro profesional más amplio. Para ello, será fundamental una enseñanza coordinada, con mayor carga práctica y con una diversidad docente a la que quizá el sistema educativo español no siempre ha estado acostumbrado. Abstract: The construction of the European Space for Higer Education (ESHE, commonly known as the Bologna Process, is a great opportunity for universities to address a set of reforms that will enable the adaptation of the new social reality, the so-called Knowledge Society. These reforms are oriented in multiple directions: the teaching methodology, the structure of education, the guarantee of the learning process or quality and, of course, the

  4. Problematic of atmospheric pollution in Lebanon: the better stake is apprehended, the best acts are taken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said

    1998-01-01

    The document presents an overview on atmospheric pollution in Lebanon, with an analysis of sources of pollution, their impact on local and global environment and their control.Local causes of pollution are mainly: -Thermal power plants of electric power production which produce 75% SO 2 emission and 60% dust - Industries, especially cement industry - Land transportation which produces 70% NOX emission and 50% CO 2 A description of air pollution caused by these three sectors is revealed. Pollutants derived from fuel combustion are analyzed. It is estimated that in 2010, Co 2 emission will reach 5204450 tons, SO 2 emission will be 136470 tons, NOX emissions 96870 and dust estimated to 4130 tons. CFC consumption and measures of control according to Montreal Protocol are described. Recommendations for control of air pollution in Lebanon within a national policy are presented

  5. Are women engineers in Lebanon prepared for the challenges of an engineering profession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the status of women engineers in the Middle East, considering women engineers in Lebanon as a case study. The author investigated the following questions: What are the influences behind females' decisions to choose engineering as their major course of study? What are the motives behind this decision? What are the perceptions of females regarding the essential skills for a successful engineering career? An online survey consisting of Likert-scale items was completed by 327 female engineers who graduated from universities in Lebanon and now work in various locations around the world. A genuine interest in the field appeared to be the main influence in the participants' decisions to choose engineering profession. The potential for professional growth was the leading motivator for choosing engineering. Although participants reported that they possessed adequate theoretical knowledge and technical skills before graduation, in the actual practice of engineering, they noted weaknesses in creativity and innovation.

  6. Problematic of atmospheric pollution in Lebanon: the better stake is apprehended, the best acts are taken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said

    2000-01-01

    The article is an overview on atmospheric pollution in Lebanon. It presents an analysis of sources of pollution in the country and their impacts on local and global environment and describes their control. Air pollution is mainly due to the industrial, electrical and transportation sectors. Pollutants from fuel combustion are analyzed. It is estimated that in 2010, CO 2 emissions will reach 5987250 tons, SO 2 emissions is estimated to be 182950 tons, Nox to 105180 and dusts to 4965 tons. CFC consumption and measures of control according to Montreal protocol are described. Consumption of primary energy, consumption of petroleum products, quantity of petroleum in refineries and production of cement in Lebanon are also presented in tables

  7. Introduced, Captive, Caged and Escaped Exotic and Native Bird Species in the Littoral Area of Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan -Jradi, G.; Ramadan -Jradi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Some introduced exotic bird species may cause damages to the ecosystem they are introduced to; others may have no effect or can be beneficial to humans and ecosystems.Whatever the case is, the exotic bird species remain an issue in Lebanon, especially that they are not given the appropriate priority at the national level. With the recent intentional or accidental introduction of exotic species,the problem is increasing and therefore necessitating comprehensive evaluation of the status and origin of these species in Lebanon.Since many of the introduced species are escapes from cages, it was necessary to also evaluate both status and origin of all caged birds in order to see whether they are introduced or native to the country. (author)

  8. Scenarios of application of energy certification procedure for residential buildings in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantin, R.; Mourtada, A.; Guarracino, G.; Adra, N.; Nasser, M.; Maamari, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a French-Lebanese scientific cooperation, between 2001 and 2005, about 'Rational use of energy in the residential buildings in Lebanon and adaptation of an energy certification procedure'. The aim of this project is to promote the energy efficiency in the existing residential buildings in Lebanon, using an energy certification procedure, and to evaluate the energy certification foresight with prospective methods. The paper first describes an energy investigation in Lebanese residential buildings, and the energy certification procedure. It presents the foresight methodology implemented to identify the key variables and the actors. Finally, the paper exposes the morphological method which allows to elaborate three scenarios of energy performance certification. These scenarios are presented in order to provide a decision making for the actors of the Lebanese energy policy

  9. Assessment of energy efficiency options in the building sector of Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chedid, R.B.; Ghajar, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the merits of implementing energy efficiency policies in the building sector in Lebanon following the approach normally adopted in Climate Change studies. The paper first examines the impact of the energy sector on the Lebanese economy, and then assesses the feasibility of implementing suitable energy efficiency options in the building sector. For this purpose, a detailed analysis of the building sector in Lebanon is presented with emphasis on the thermal characteristics of building envelopes and the energy consuming equipment. The long-term benefits of applying energy efficiency options in the building sector are then assessed using a scenario-type analysis that compares these benefits against those of a baseline scenario that assumes no significant implementation of energy efficiency policies. Finally, feasible options are highlighted and recommendations to remove the major barriers hindering the penetration of energy efficiency options in the Lebanese market are provided

  10. Challenge of the energy in Lebanon: Analysis and synthesis of the survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said

    1999-01-01

    The article is a survey conducted by the students of the ESIB Saint Joseph University within the ministry of Industry and petroleum, ministry of Hydraulic and Electrical resources and the Central Administration of statistics in Lebanon. The survey presents the primary and secondary energy, its sectorial production and consumption. Tables and figures describe the essential socio-economic indicators of energy, primary and secondary consumption of energy in 1995. Sectorial distribution of final energy in 1995 per habitant, imported products and varieties as gasoline, gasoil, fuel oil etc....Charts for imported petroleum products, percentage of electric production between hydraulic and thermal energy are also included. Tarification of the EDL, prices of electricity per consumer and estimation of EDL of electricity per GWH are also described. Combustion of energy in Lebanon is a main source of air pollution by emitting substances as follows: 15 Ktonnes of dust, 80 Kt of SO 2 and 40 Kt of CO 2 per year

  11. Introduced marine macroflora of Lebanon and its distribution on the Levantine coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. BITAR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine macroflora introduced into Lebanon was studied through an analysis of historical data and field studies carried out since 1991. A total of 29 introduced species have been listed: 3 Chromobionta, 13 Rhodobionta, 12 Chlorobionta and 1 Streptobionta. Among them, Caulerpa taxifolia var. distichophylla, Spatoglossum variabile and Womersleyella setacea are recorded for the first time from Lebanon. Among them, Asparagopsis taxiformis, C. taxifolia var. distichophylla, Cladophora patentiramea, Codium arabicum, Codium parvulum, Galaxaura rugosa, Halophila stipulacea, Hypnea cornuta, Laurencia cf. chondrioides, Lophocladia lallemandii, Stypopodium schimperi, Ulva lactuca and Womersleyella setacea are potentially invasive species, and several of them already occupy extensive stretches of the Lebanese coast. The distribution of species on the Levantine coast, their dynamics and the current status of their populations are discussed.

  12. Problematic of atmospheric pollution in Lebanon: the better stake is apprehended, the best acts are taken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said

    1999-01-01

    Lebanon has imported in 1996 5000 Kt of carburants causing about 80 Kt of SO x ; 40 Kt of NO x ; 3 Kt of dusts and 3.5 million tons of CO 2 . The atmospheric pollution in Lebanon is due to three main sources: - Thermal central of electric production - Industries (cement) - Transportation sector The document describes in tables: the inventory of pollutants and pollutant emissions in 1993 and 2010; industrial and heating gas oil; liquified petroleum gas commercial propane; fuel oil for EDL; consumption of energy in 1996; sectorial distribution of pollutants PPM; emissions of CO 2 per tons per habitant in 1993; consumption in 1993 broken down by use and application. Finally, three projects concerning public transportation were presented

  13. Population ageing in Lebanon: current status, future prospects and implications for policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Sibai, Abla Mehio; Sen, Kasturi; Baydoun, May; Saxena, Prem

    2004-01-01

    During the past three decades, fast declines in fertility and mortality in Lebanon have created a compressed demographic transition, a growing trend towards survival into later life, and a larger proportion of elderly people in the population. Projections show that people aged 65 years and over are expected to constitute 10.2% of the population by 2025. Nevertheless, changes to the structure and composition of the population remain unmatched by any corresponding increase in support measures e...

  14. Sex-specific sleep patterns among university students in Lebanon: impact on depression and academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kabrita, Colette S; Hajjar-Mu?a, Theresa A

    2016-01-01

    Colette S Kabrita,1 Theresa A Hajjar-Muça,2 1Department of Sciences, 2Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Notre Dame University – Louaize, Zouk Mosbeh, Lebanon Abstract: Good sleep quality and quantity are fundamental to the maintenance of normal physiological processes. Changes in sleep patterns are commonly observed among young adults and are shown to impact neurocognitive, academic, and psychological well-being. Given the ...

  15. Implementation of a SenseMaker® research project among Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhache, Nour; Michael, Saja; Roupetz, Sophie; Garbern, Stephanie; Bergquist, Harveen; Davison, Colleen; Bartels, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The Syrian conflict has displaced over 1.2 million Syrians into Lebanon. As a result of displacement, some Syrian families are turning to child marriage as a coping mechanism. The prevalence of early marriage has reportedly increased and the average age of marriage decreased during the crisis. The aim of the project was to understand the underlying factors contributing to child marriage among Syrian refugees in Lebanon using Cognitive Edge's SenseMaker®. This manuscript explores the process of implementing this novel research tool in a humanitarian setting. Twelve interviewers conducted SenseMaker® interviews with married and unmarried Syrian girls, Syrian parents, as well as married and unmarried men. Participants were asked to share a story about the lives of Syrian girls in Lebanon and to self-interpret the narratives by answering follow-up questions in relation to the story provided. Data collection occurred across three locations: Beirut, Beqaa, and Tripoli. In total 1422 narratives from 1346 unique participants were collected over 7 weeks. Data collection using SenseMaker® was efficient, capable of electronically capturing a large volume of quantitative and qualitative data. SenseMaker® limitations from a research perspective include lack of skip logic and inability to adjust font size on the iOS app. SenseMaker® was an efficient mixed methods data collection tool that was well received by participants in a refugee setting in Lebanon. The utility of SenseMaker® for research could be improved by adding skip logic and by being able to adjust font size on the iOS app.

  16. REPRODUCING VIOLENCE THROUGH RECONSTRUCTING THE HYMEN? Gender-Based Violence Against Women in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Hajali, Majd

    2015-01-01

    Virginity in Lebanon is still a controversial and sensitive issue. Women’s value and honour is linked to the “hymen mystique”, which they fear losing before marriage. Regardless of the reasons for virginity loss, a non-virgin woman is deemed a sinner according to the Lebanese patriarchal social standards. With the existence of three-dimensional function of the hymen: honourable, social and physiological, hymen reconstruction surgeries emerged. Since studies and literature on hymenoplasty are ...

  17. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in adults presenting for bariatric surgery in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aridi, Hanaa Dakour; Alami, Ramzi S; Fouani, Tarek; Shamseddine, Ghassan; Tamim, Hani; Safadi, Bassem

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among obese patients presenting for bariatric surgery in Europe and North America. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in this patient population in Lebanon and the Middle East has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of vitamin D deficiency in a cohort of patients presenting for bariatric surgery in Lebanon. American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon. Data was extracted from a prospective database of patients presenting for bariatric surgery at the American University of Beirut Medical Center from July 2011 until June 2014. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was determined using established cut-offs followed by analysis of the relationship between low vitamin D and certain patient characteristics. More than two thirds of all patients (68.9%) were vitamin D deficient (≤19.9 ng/mL), whereas 22.6% had insufficient levels (20-29.9 ng/mL) and only 8.6 % had sufficient levels (≥30 ng/mL). Vitamin D levels were inversely associated with BMI>50 kg/m(2). Low vitamin D levels were also correlated with younger age, male gender, lack of physical exercise, and nonsunny season. No association was shown between 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, osteoarticular disease, hypertension, or depression. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among patients with Class II or Class III obesity presenting for bariatric surgery in Lebanon. These findings emphasize the need for careful attention when evaluating patients before bariatric surgery and the importance of providing patients with adequate supplementation. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Burns in the Lebanon War 1982: "the blow and the cure".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldad, A; Torem, M

    1990-03-01

    There were 70% more burns in the October 1973 war than in the Six Day War of 1967. This increase caused great concern and emphasized the need for better personal and crew protection against burns. Some of these measures were already implemented by the outbreak of the 1982 war in Lebanon. Analysis of the burn injuries of this war is the subject of this short report.

  19. “What Cultural Policies?” Explicit and Implicit Cultural Policies in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia von Maltzahn

    2017-01-01

    Cultural policies define a vision for culture, and provide frameworks for institutional practice to translate this vision on the ground. A 1981 study on Lebanese cultural policy reached the conclusion that one cannot speak of cultural policies in Lebanon if one refers to state laws, regulations and plans. However, if cultural policy was understood as the method of a state to give its citizens the space to develop themselves in a way that they could create culture, one could certainly speak of...

  20. Experimental transmission of West Nile Virus and Rift Valley Fever Virus by Culex pipiens from Lebanon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Zakhia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV are two emerging arboviruses transmitted by Culex pipiens species that includes two biotypes: pipiens and molestus. In Lebanon, human cases caused by WNV and RVFV have never been reported. However, the introduction of these viruses in the country is likely to occur through the migratory birds and animal trades. In this study, we evaluated the ability of Cx. pipiens, a predominant mosquito species in urban and rural regions in Lebanon, to transmit WNV and RVFV. Culex egg rafts were collected in the West Bekaa district, east of Lebanon and adult females of Cx. pipiens were experimentally infected with WNV and RVFV Clone 13 strain at titers of 1.6×108 and 1.33×107 plaque forming units (PFU/mL, respectively. We estimated viral infection, dissemination and transmission at 3, 7, 14 and 19 days post infection (dpi. Results showed that infection was higher for WNV than for RVFV from 3 dpi to 19 dpi. Viral dissemination and transmission started from 3 dpi for WNV; and only from 19 dpi for RVFV. Moreover, Cx. pipiens were able to excrete in saliva a higher number of viral particles of WNV (1028 ± 405 PFU/saliva at 19 dpi than RVFV (42 PFU/saliva at 19 dpi. Cx. pipiens from Lebanon are efficient experimental vectors of WNV and to a lower extent, RVFV. These findings should stimulate local authorities to establish an active entomological surveillance in addition to animal surveys for both viruses in the country.

  1. Does Good Governance Mediate Relationship Between E-Government and Public Trust in Lebanon?

    OpenAIRE

    Alaaraj, Hassan; Hassan, Sallahudin

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to study the mediating effect of good governance on the relationship between e-government practices and public trust in Lebanon. Based on extensive literature review and conceptual background including the theories of institutional-based trust and the diffusion of innovation, the theoretical research framework was developed. Primary data was collected using survey involving 400 Lebanese employees from different small and medium enterprises in Beirut. The...

  2. The Arab Uprisings and Social Rights: Asian Migrant Workers in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Picard , Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The Arab spring of 2011 first reverberated in Lebanon in the form of political protest against the rule, not of one despotic autocrat but of a clique of collusive confessional leaders. Soon, however, demands and demonstrations in favor of reform and secularization fizzled out, engulfed by the 8 March - 14 March dispute exacerbated by the spilling over of the Syrian crisis. Democratization forces and anti-system groups appeared divided along confessional and clannish lines. Hope for political ...

  3. Medication safety knowledge, attitudes and practices among community pharmacists in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj, Aline; Hallit, Souheil; Ramia, Elsy; Salameh, Pascale

    2018-01-01

    The effectiveness of a national post-marketing surveillance program depends directly on the active participation of all health professionals. There is no current comprehensive and active pharmacovigilance program available in Lebanon. To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among community pharmacists in Lebanon with respect to potential pharmacovigilance and adverse-drug-reaction reporting in Lebanon. A cross-sectional descriptive study, using a self-administered KAP questionnaire and conducted between March and July 2016, included 1857 pharmacists practicing in community settings. Statistical analysis included χ 2 test for dichotomous or multinomial qualitative variables, and Wilcoxon test for quantitative variables with non-homogeneous variances or non-normal distribution. The majority of responders had good knowledge concerning the concept and purpose of pharmacovigilance as well as adverse drug reactions (how to report these/the importance of reporting adverse events/the definition of an adverse event and pharmacovigilance). Concerning community pharmacists' attitudes and practice towards pharmacovigilance, the majority described having a positive attitude towards their role in adverse drug reaction reporting and this activity was even seen as one of their core duties. The questionnaire revealed a lack of practice and training regarding pharmacovigilance. Nonetheless, the pharmacists agreed on the Order of Pharmacists in Lebanon and the Ministry of Health's role in promoting this practice and helping them be more involved in reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The pharmacists thought that they are well positioned regarding patient-safety practice in their pharmacies and the results were not statistically different between pharmacy employers and employees. Lebanese pharmacists have the required knowledge and positive attitude to start reporting ADRs, were aware of ADRs occurring with various medicines post-marketing, yet were currently not

  4. CAN BUSINESS EDUCATION CHANGE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN NON-WESTERN SOCIETIES: LESSONS FROM LEBANON

    OpenAIRE

    Finlay Jim; Kassar Abdul-Nassar; Neal Mark

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which students from an American-style Business School in Lebanon expect the managerial behaviors that they are taught in the classroom to actually be applied by managers in the Lebanese workplace. Broadly categorized as accountability, gender equity, religious tolerance, consultation and transparency, the authors found little indication that such expectations existed. Even when they could be identified such as with racial equality, thei...

  5. A Preliminary study on the prevalence of Legionella pneumophila infection in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamze, M.; Mallat, H.; Mokhbat, J.

    2009-01-01

    After the first outbreak of Legionnaire disease was described for the first time in1976, legionellosis has been increasingly recognized in association with many outbreaks, both community and hospital acquired. This disease remains a model of water borne transmission. In Lebanon, no report has yet been published on the prevalence of Legionella pneumophila infections. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of legionellosis in hospitalized patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in patients with nosocomial pneumonia (HAP). The study was conducted between April 2004 and August 2007. Eleven community hospitals participated to this endeavour. Laboratory evaluation was conducted in two centers (Middle East Health Institute, Bsalim, Lebanon and Nini Hospital, Tripoli, Lebanon). Two hundred and forty two urinary samples and ninety one pulmonary samples from 242 patients were analyzed. The age range was 16 to 71 years. Two hundred and fifteen were from community acquired pneumonias and twenty seven were nosocomially acquired in intensive care units. The urinary antigen was investigated in 242 patients; the Binax kit ® was used in this research. In lung secretions of 91 patients, the presence of Legionella pneumophila was searched for using direct immunofluorescence method and culture. Among the 215 urinary samples from patients with CAP, three were positive for Legionella antigen with a prevalence of 1.4 %. Among the 27 patients with HAP, one was positive for Legionella antigen with a prevalence of 3.7%. This preliminary study reveals the fact that legionellosis is indeed present in Lebanon, hence the importance of considering it in the work-up and the management of patients with pneumonia. Hospital laboratories should therefore routin ely search for this pathogen through at least urinary antigen detection. Health authorities should also enforce microbiological regulations concerning water sanitation in hospitals and in the community to prevent the

  6. Regionalizing healthcare: a vision for transforming Lebanon into a regional academic hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akl Elie A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lebanon suffers from a large scale emigration of physicians coupled with an oversaturation of the physician job market. Lebanon is currently witnessing an expansion of its medical education capacity with the establishment of new private medical schools, raising the fears of a worsening market oversaturation. Discussion The neighboring Arabian Gulf countries are suffering from a serious shortage of clinicians and academicians. In spite of their enormous investments in educational, clinical and research collaborative initiatives with some of the most renowned North American medical schools and institutions, their ability to recruit and retain highly qualified clinicians and academicians remains a major challenge. Lebanese universities have the opportunity to establish triangular collaborations with the Gulf regional medical centers and their North American partners. They could achieve this goal by tapping into the globalized and high quality Lebanese physician workforce and consequently regionalize healthcare delivery in the Middle East. Summary By recruiting its globalized and high quality physician workforce to establish collaborations with the Gulf regional, Lebanon could become a regional "academic hub".

  7. Regionalizing healthcare: a vision for transforming Lebanon into a regional academic hub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Kamal F; Akl, Elie A

    2010-06-16

    Lebanon suffers from a large scale emigration of physicians coupled with an oversaturation of the physician job market. Lebanon is currently witnessing an expansion of its medical education capacity with the establishment of new private medical schools, raising the fears of a worsening market oversaturation. The neighboring Arabian Gulf countries are suffering from a serious shortage of clinicians and academicians. In spite of their enormous investments in educational, clinical and research collaborative initiatives with some of the most renowned North American medical schools and institutions, their ability to recruit and retain highly qualified clinicians and academicians remains a major challenge. Lebanese universities have the opportunity to establish triangular collaborations with the Gulf regional medical centers and their North American partners. They could achieve this goal by tapping into the globalized and high quality Lebanese physician workforce and consequently regionalize healthcare delivery in the Middle East. By recruiting its globalized and high quality physician workforce to establish collaborations with the Gulf regional, Lebanon could become a regional "academic hub".

  8. The use and abuse of female domestic workers from Sri Lanka in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-habib, L

    1998-03-01

    Women who migrate from Sri Lanka to become domestic workers in Lebanon face gender, class, and race discrimination that often results in abuse, yet the predicament of these women is largely ignored by local and international humanitarian and human rights agencies. Public consciousness about the plight of Asian domestic workers in the Persian Gulf region was raised in 1990 when domestic workers were repatriated in the wake of the Gulf War. In Lebanon, nearly half of the work permits granted to foreigners in 1997 were to women from Sri Lanka. This migration began in the 1970s and is sanctioned by the Sri Lanka government because of the economic benefits accruing from wages sent home by these women. Lebanese families procure domestic positions through an employment agency that arranges transportation and entry for the Sri Lankan women. These women, especially minors, often have to bribe Sri Lankan government agents to falsify travel documents. Upon arrival in Lebanon, the women have no support systems or job security. Most employment contracts last 3 years and pay $100/month with no benefits or protection from local labor laws. Domestic workers are made vulnerable by employers who withhold salaries or travel documents. Upon return to Sri Lanka, former domestic workers face social disapproval and marital problems. To redress this situation, the governments of sending and receiving countries must take action to protect female migrant workers, and nongovernmental organizations must publicize the plight of these women and take action to address the abuses they face.

  9. The Sexual Health of Women in Lebanon: Are There Differences by Sexual Orientation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gereige, Jessica D; Zhang, Li; Boehmer, Ulrike

    2018-01-01

    From studies conducted in Western countries (United States, United Kingdom, and Australia), we know that the sexual health of sexual minority women (SMW) differs in key ways from that of heterosexual women (HSW). To date, the sexual health of SMW living in the Middle East and North Africa region has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to compare the sexual health of SMW and HSW living in Lebanon. SMW and HSW living in Lebanon (N = 95) completed an anonymous, self-administered survey. SMW's risk perceptions and health promoting and sexual behaviors were compared to those of HSW. We examined differences by sexual orientation by using t tests and Fisher's exact tests. The 45 SMW and 50 HSW had similar demographic characteristics. Significantly more SMW had heard of human papillomavirus, but only 22% of women from both groups knew of its association with abnormal Papanicolaou tests. Cervical cancer screening rates were similar in SMW and HSW, although remarkably low (42%) compared with rates in Western countries. Significantly more SMW (18%) reported difficulty with access to care than HSW (0%). Forty-four percent of SMW reported discomfort in disclosing their sexual orientation to their healthcare provider and 61% reported that healthcare providers lacked sensitivity toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender needs. Unwanted sexual contact occurred more frequently in SMW (53%) than HSW (23%). The sexual health of women is affected by sociocultural factors. SMW living in Lebanon have unique health needs that should be addressed within their sociocultural context.

  10. Cost-benefit analysis: newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khneisser, I; Adib, S; Assaad, S; Megarbane, A; Karam, P

    2015-12-01

    Few countries in the Middle East-North Africa region have adopted national newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). We aimed to evaluate the cost-benefit of newborn screening for such disorders in Lebanon, as a model for other developing countries in the region. Average costs of expected care for inborn errors of metabolism cases as a group, between ages 0 and 18, early and late diagnosed, were calculated from 2007 to 2013. The monetary value of early detection using MS/MS was compared with that of clinical "late detection", including cost of diagnosis and hospitalizations. During this period, 126000 newborns were screened. Incidence of detected cases was 1/1482, which can be explained by high consanguinity rates in Lebanon. A reduction by half of direct cost of care, reaching on average 31,631 USD per detected case was shown. This difference more than covers the expense of starting a newborn screening programme. Although this model does not take into consideration the indirect benefits of the better quality of life of those screened early, it can be argued that direct and indirect costs saved through early detection of these disorders are important enough to justify universal publicly-funded screening, especially in developing countries with high consanguinity rates, as shown through this data from Lebanon. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Preventing thalassemia in Lebanon: successes and challenges in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi Saad, Michele; Haddad, Anthony G; Alam, Elie S; Aoun, Sanaa; Maatouk, Pascale; Ajami, Najat; Khairallah, Therese; Koussa, Suzanne; Musallam, Khaled M; Taher, Ali T

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia continues to be a major health burden. The chronicity of the disease and the high cost of life-long treatment make prevention strategies crucial in the management of this disease. In this article, we revisit different successful prevention strategies, and underline the Lebanese model. The Chronic Care Center (CCC), Beirut, is the only specialized center in Lebanon for the treatment and prevention of thalassemia. The current number of patients registered up to August 2013 was 724, representing cases from all over Lebanon. In 1994, the center launched a national prevention program following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. The major activities of the program include awareness campaigns, screening for thalassemia carriers in the general population and high risk groups, registry of new cases and follow-up on the mandatory premarital law (established at the same time). Screening programs showed a carrier rate of around 2.3% in the general population, and 4.0-41.0% in high risk groups. The major pitfall in the law is that only persons with a mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of >70.0 fL are asked to perform further hemoglobin (Hb) testing. A significant decrease in the number of new cases of thalassemia patients in Lebanon reflects the efforts deployed in the prevention of the disease. However, some limitations are faced in reaching a complete eradication of the disease, mainly due to the fact that abortion is illegal and due to pitfalls and incorrect implementation of the premarital law.

  12. “What Cultural Policies?” Explicit and Implicit Cultural Policies in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia von Maltzahn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural policies define a vision for culture, and provide frameworks for institutional practice to translate this vision on the ground. A 1981 study on Lebanese cultural policy reached the conclusion that one cannot speak of cultural policies in Lebanon if one refers to state laws, regulations and plans. However, if cultural policy was understood as the method of a state to give its citizens the space to develop themselves in a way that they could create culture, one could certainly speak of cultural policies in Lebanon (Abou Rizk. In cultural policy research, there is a distinction between explicit and implicit cultural policy (Ahearne. In this article, the concept of explicit and implicit cultural policy is applied to the case of Lebanon. The two terms are extended so that the former does not only include cultural policies designatedas such by the state, but also those created by civil society actors, and that the latter does not only include political strategies, but also practices that in the end determine cultural policies. Drawing on empirical research conducted in the context of a larger study on the role of cultural institutions in the public sphere, the power struggles between different actors involved in cultural policy making cultural policy defined in the Lebanese context, which in turn will be positioned within the regional context.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of coronary heart disease: first population-based study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, Rouba Karen; Farah, Rita; Chahine, Mirna N; Asmar, Roland; Hosseini, Hassan; Salameh, Pascale; Pathak, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Lebanon is experiencing a growing epidemic of coronary heart diseases (CHDs), as most low- and middle-income countries currently are. However, this growth can be attenuated if effective preventive strategies are adopted. To provide the first national population-based prevalence of CHD and to describe the profile of Lebanese adults with prevalent CHD. We carried out a cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sample across Lebanon. We interviewed residents aged 40 years and older using a questionnaire that captured the presence of CHDs and their risk factors (RFs). Our study showed that 13.4% of the Lebanese population aged ≥40 years suffer from a prevalent CHD. CHD seemed to appear more prematurely than in developed countries, and males seemed to be more subject to CHD than females until a certain age. CHD was associated with older age, male sex, a lower economic situation, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, having a family history of premature cardiovascular diseases, and suffering from diabetes. However, smoking and waist circumference did not seem to have an independent effect on CHD, but rather an effect mediated by biological RFs. This is the first nationwide endeavor conducted in Lebanon to assess the prevalence of CHD. This study also confirms the relevance of the classic RFs of CHD and their applicability to the Lebanese population, thus allowing for prevention strategies.

  14. State of Art About water Uses and Waste water Management in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geara, D.; Moilleron, R.; Lorgeoux, C.; El Samarani, A.; Chebbo, Gh.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows the real situation about management of water and waste water in Lebanon and focuses on problems related to urban water pollution released in environment. Water and waste water infrastructures have been rebuilt since 1992. However, waste water management still remains one of the greatest challenges facing Lebanese people, since water supply projects have been given priority over wastewater projects. As a consequence of an increased demand of water by agricultural, industrial and household sectors in the last decade, waste water flows have been increased. In this paper, the existing waste water treatment plants (WWTP) operating in Lebanon are presented. Most of them are small-scale community-based ones, only two large-scale plants, constructed by the government, are currently operational. Lebanese aquatic ecosystems are suffering from the deterioration of water quality because of an insufficient treatment of waste water, which is limited mostly to pre-treatment processes. In fact, domestic and industrial effluents are mainly conducted together in the sewer pipes to the WWTP before being discharged, without adequate treatment into the rivers or directly into the Mediterranean Sea. Such discharges are threatening the coastal marine ecosystem in the Mediterranean basin. This paper aims at giving the current state of knowledge about water uses and wastewater management in Lebanon. The main conclusion drawn from this state of art is a lack of data. In fact, the available data are limited to academic research without being representative on a national scale. (author)

  15. Survey of Leafhopper Species in Almond Orchards Infected with Almond Witches'-Broom Phytoplasma in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Efat Abou-Fakhr; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Abou-Jawdah, Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) account for more than 80% of all “Auchenorrhynchous” vectors that transmit phytoplasmas. The leafhopper populations in two almond witches'-broom phytoplasma (AlmWB) infected sites: Tanboureet (south of Lebanon) and Bourj El Yahoudieh (north of Lebanon) were surveyed using yellow sticky traps. The survey revealed that the most abundant species was Asymmetrasca decedens, which represented 82.4% of all the leafhoppers sampled. Potential phytoplasma vectors in members of the subfamilies Aphrodinae, Deltocephalinae, and Megophthalminae were present in very low numbers including: Aphrodes makarovi, Cicadulina bipunctella, Euscelidius mundus, Fieberiella macchiae, Allygus theryi, Circulifer haematoceps, Neoaliturus transversalis, and Megophthalmus scabripennis. Allygus theryi (Horváth) (Deltocephalinae) was reported for the first time in Lebanon. Nested PCR analysis and sequencing showed that Asymmetrasca decedens, Empoasca decipiens, Fieberiella macchiae, Euscelidius mundus, Thamnottetix seclusis, Balclutha sp., Lylatina inexpectata, Allygus sp., and Annoplotettix danutae were nine potential carriers of AlmWB phytoplasma. Although the detection of phytoplasmas in an insect does not prove a definite vector relationship, the technique is useful in narrowing the search for potential vectors. The importance of this information for management of AlmWB is discussed. PMID:21864154

  16. Re-evaluation and updating of the seismic hazard of Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijer, Carla; Harajli, Mohamed; Sadek, Salah

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the implications of the newly mapped offshore Mount Lebanon Thrust (MLT) fault system on the seismic hazard of Lebanon and the current seismic zoning and design parameters used by the local engineering community. This re-evaluation is critical, given that the MLT is located at close proximity to the major cities and economic centers of the country. The updated seismic hazard was assessed using probabilistic methods of analysis. The potential sources of seismic activities that affect Lebanon were integrated along with any/all newly established characteristics within an updated database which includes the newly mapped fault system. The earthquake recurrence relationships of these sources were developed from instrumental seismology data, historical records, and earlier studies undertaken to evaluate the seismic hazard of neighboring countries. Maps of peak ground acceleration contours, based on 10 % probability of exceedance in 50 years (as per Uniform Building Code (UBC) 1997), as well as 0.2 and 1 s peak spectral acceleration contours, based on 2 % probability of exceedance in 50 years (as per International Building Code (IBC) 2012), were also developed. Finally, spectral charts for the main coastal cities of Beirut, Tripoli, Jounieh, Byblos, Saida, and Tyre are provided for use by designers.

  17. Slow, stopped and stored light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, G.; Scully, M.

    2005-01-01

    Light that can been slowed to walking pace could have applications in telecommunications, optical storage and quantum computing. Whether we use it to estimate how far away a thunderstorm is, or simply take it for granted that we can have a conversation with someone on the other side of the world, we all know that light travels extremely fast. Indeed, special relativity teaches us that nothing in the universe can ever move faster than the speed of light in a vacuum: 299 792 458 ms sup - sup 1. However, there is no such limitation on how slowly light can travel. For the last few years, researchers have been routinely slowing light to just a few metres per second, and have recently even stopped it dead in its tracks so that it can be stored for future use. Slow-light has considerable popular appeal, deriving perhaps from the importance of the speed of light in relativity and cosmology. If everyday objects such as cars or people can travel faster than 'slow' light, for example, then it might appear that relativistic effects could be observed at very low speeds. Although this is not the case, slow light nonetheless promises to play an important role in optical technology because it allows light to be delayed for any period of time desired. This could lead to all-optical routers that would increase the bandwidth of the Internet, and applications in optical data storage, quantum information and even radar. (U.K.)

  18. Gas storing and processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Takano, Yosoko.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the gas injection processing performance and obtain stable accumulation layers by increasing the thickness of the accumulation layers of amorphous alloy. Constitution: The gas storing processing device comprises a cylindrical vessel constituting an outer cathode for introducing gases to be processed, an inner cathode in which transition metal material and rare earth metal material as a sputtering target disposed in the vessel are combined by way of insulating material, an anode cover disposed to the upper portion of the vessel and an anode bottom disposed at the bottom thereof. It is adapted such that DC high voltage sources are connected respectively to the outer and the inner cathodes and sputtering voltage can be applied, removed and controlled independently to the transition metal and the rare earth metal of the inner cathode. This enables to control the composition ratio of the accumulation layers of amorphous alloy formed to the surface of the outer cathode, thereby enabling operation related with the gas injection ratio. (Sekiya, K.)

  19. Nutrition environments in corner stores in Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Erica; Mallya, Giridhar; Brensinger, Colleen; Tierney, Ann; Glanz, Karen

    2013-02-01

    To examine the availability, quality, and price of key types of healthy and less-healthy foods found in corner stores in low-income urban neighborhoods and the associations between store characteristics and store food environments. A sample of 246 corner stores was selected from all corner stores participating in the Philadelphia Healthy Corner Store Initiative (HCSI). The Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Corner Stores (NEMS-CS) was used to assess the availability, quality, and price of foods and beverages in 11 common categories between February and May, 2011. NEMS-CS measures were completed in 233 stores, 94.7% of the 246 stores approached. The healthier options were significantly less available in all food categories and often more expensive. Baked goods, bread, chips and cereals were sold at nearly all stores, with significantly fewer offering low-fat baked goods (5.7%, pbread (56.2%, pfood environment and dietary choices among low-income urban populations. Availability of certain healthier foods could be improved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of coronary heart disease: first population-based study in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeidan RK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rouba Karen Zeidan,1 Rita Farah,2 Mirna N Chahine,3 Roland Asmar,3 Hassan Hosseini,4,5 Pascale Salameh,6,7 Atul Pathak8 1Doctoral School of Biology Health and Biotechnologies, Toulouse III University, Toulouse, 2Doctoral School of Life and Health Sciences, Paris-Est University, Creteil, France; 3Foundation-Medical Research Institutes, F-MRI®, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Department of Neurology, Henri Mondor Hospital AP-HP, 5EA 4391, Nerve Excitability and Therapeutics, Université Paris-Est, Creteil, France; 6School of Pharmacy, Lebanese American University, Byblos, 7Laboratory of Clinical and Epidemiology Research, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, Hadath, Lebanon; 8Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hypertension, Risk Factors and Heart Failure Unit, Clinique Pasteur, Toulouse, France Background: Lebanon is experiencing a growing epidemic of coronary heart diseases (CHDs, as most low- and middle-income countries currently are. However, this growth can be attenuated if effective preventive strategies are adopted. Purpose: To provide the first national population-based prevalence of CHD and to describe the profile of Lebanese adults with prevalent CHD. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sample across Lebanon. We interviewed residents aged 40 years and older using a questionnaire that captured the presence of CHDs and their risk factors (RFs. Results: Our study showed that 13.4% of the Lebanese population aged ≥40 years suffer from a prevalent CHD. CHD seemed to appear more prematurely than in developed countries, and males seemed to be more subject to CHD than females until a certain age. CHD was associated with older age, male sex, a lower economic situation, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, having a family history of premature cardiovascular diseases, and suffering from diabetes. However, smoking and waist circumference did not seem to have an independent effect on CHD, but rather an effect

  1. Understanding Retailers’ Acceptance of Virtual Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Y.L. Chen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance of e-commerce among consumers has stimulated the rise of virtual stores. Increasing traditional retailers or people who do not have sufficient capital for maintaining a brick-and-mortar store have considered using virtual stores to reach global market. In the e-commerce literature, there has been rich research evidence concerning consumers’ acceptance of virtual stores. However, rigorous academic research on retailers’ acceptance of virtual stores is relatively scarce today. This study draws upon the theory of planned behavior and information richness theory to propose an integrated theoretical model. A field survey is used to collect data from e-tailers. The data are analyzed to examine the six relationships posited in the research model. Findings of this study provide a further research avenue for e-commerce, and implications for those who are managing or considering using virtual stores.

  2. Estimation of transit times in a Karst Aquifer system using environmental tracers: Application on the Jeita Aquifer system-Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doummar, Joanna; Hamdan, Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    Estimating transit times is essential for the assessment of aquifer vulnerability to contaminants. Groundwater in karst aquifer is assumed to be relatively young due to fast preferential pathways; slow flow components are present in water stored in the fissured matrix. Furthermore, transit times are site specific as they depend on recharge rates, temperatures, elevation, and flow media; saturated and unsaturated zones. These differences create significant variation in the groundwater age in karst systems as the water sampled will be a mix of different water that has been transported through different flow pathways (fissured matrix and conduits). Several methods can be applied to estimate water transit time of an aquifer such as artificial tracers, which provide an estimate for fast flow velocities. In this study, groundwater residence times in the Jeita spring aquifer (Lebanon) were estimated using several environmental tracers such as Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6), Helium-Tritium (3H, 3H- 3He). Additional stable isotope and major ion analysis was performed to characterize water types. Groundwater samples were collected from six different wells in the Jeita catchment area (Jurassic Kesrouane aquifer) as well as from the spring and cave itself. The results are reproducible for the Tritium-Helium method, unlike for the CFC/SF6 methods that yielded poor results due to sampling problems. Tritium concentrations in all groundwater samples show nearly the same concentration (~2.73 TU) except for one sample with relatively lower tritium concentration (~2.26 TU). Ages ranging from 0.07 ± 0.07 years to 23.59 ± 0.00 years were obtained. The youngest age is attributed to the spring/ cave while the oldest ages were obtained in wells tapping the fissured matrix. Neon in these samples showed considerable variations and high delta Ne in some samples indicating high excess air. Four (4) samples showed extreme excess air (Delta-Ne is greater than 70 %) and

  3. Propagating separable equalities in an MDD store

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadzic, Tarik; Hooker, John N.; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We present a propagator that achieves MDD consistency for a separable equality over an MDD (multivalued decision diagram) store in pseudo-polynomial time. We integrate the propagator into a constraint solver based on an MDD store introduced in [1]. Our experiments show that the new propagator pro...... provides substantial computational advantage over propagation of two inequality constraints, and that the advantage increases when the maximum width of the MDD store increases....

  4. Signature-based store checking buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Vilas; Gurumurthi, Sudhanva

    2015-06-02

    A system and method for optimizing redundant output verification, are provided. A hardware-based store fingerprint buffer receives multiple instances of output from multiple instances of computation. The store fingerprint buffer generates a signature from the content included in the multiple instances of output. When a barrier is reached, the store fingerprint buffer uses the signature to verify the content is error-free.

  5. Customers' willingness to purchase new store brands

    OpenAIRE

    Zielke, Stephan; Dobbelstein, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify factors influencing customers’ willingness to purchase new store brands. Design/methodology/approach – The paper develops a 3 £ 3 design to investigate the impact of price and quality positioning on the willingness to purchase new store brands in five product groups. A total of 990 respondents completed a questionnaire about store brand perception, aspects of purchasing behavior and willingness to buy. Data are analyzed with analysis...

  6. Insect pests of stored grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of insects in stored products is a worldwide recognized problem. In this report chemical and physical methods to control insect infestations in stored products are discussed. Special attention is given to the use of ionizing radiation to control insect pests in stored grains. The radiosensitivity of the most common insect pests at their different developmental stages is presented and discussed. The conclusions of this review are compiled in an executive summary. 62 refs

  7. Motivation to quit smoking and acceptability of shocking warnings on cigarette packages in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layoun N

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nelly Layoun,1,2 Pascal Salameh,2,3 Mirna Waked,4 Z Aoun Bacha,5 Rony M Zeenny,6 Eric El Hitti,4 Isabelle Godin,1 Michèle Dramaix1 1Research Center in Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Clinical Research, School of Public Health, UniversitéLibre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 2Doctoral School of Sciences and Technologies, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Clinical and Epidemiological Research Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Department of Pulmonology, St George Hospital University Medical Center; Faculty of Medicine, Balamand University, Beirut, Lebanon; 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Hotel-Dieu de France, Beirut, Lebanon; 6Pharmacy Practice Department, School of Pharmacy, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon Introduction: Health warnings on tobacco packages have been considered an essential pillar in filling the gap of knowledge and communicating the health risks of tobacco use to consumers. Our primary objective was to report the perception of smokers on the textual health warnings already appearing on tobacco packages in Lebanon versus shocking pictures about the health-related smoking consequences and to evaluate their impact on smoking behaviors and motivation. Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study was undertaken between 2013 and 2015 in five hospitals in Lebanon. Participants answered a questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, chronic respiratory symptoms, smoking behavior and motivation to quit smoking. Only-text warning versus shocking pictures was shown to the smokers during the interview. Results: Exactly 66% of the participants reported that they thought shocking pictorial warnings would hypothetically be more effective tools to reduce/quit tobacco consumption compared to only textual warnings. Also, 31.9% of the smokers who were motivated to stop smoking reported that they actually had stopped smoking for at least 1 month secondary to

  8. A roadmap to parity in mental health financing: the case of Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehia, Farah; Nahas, Ziad; Saleh, Shadi

    2014-09-01

    Inadequate access to mental health (MH) services in Lebanon, where prevalence is noteworthy, is a concern. Although a multitude of factors affects access to services, lack of financial coverage of MH services is one that merits further investigation. This study aims at providing a systematic description of MH financing systems with a special focus on Lebanon, presenting stakeholder viewpoints on best MH financing alternatives/strategies and recommending options for enhancing financial coverage. A comprehensive review of existing literature on MH financing systems was conducted, with a focus on the system in Lebanon. In addition, key stakeholders were interviewed to assess MH organizational and financing arrangements. Finally, a national round table was organized with the aim of discussing findings (from the review and interviews) and developing an action roadmap. Taxation and out-of-pocket payments are the most common MH financing sources worldwide and in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. In Lebanon, all funding entities, except private insurance and mutual funds, cover inpatient and outpatient MH services, albeit with inconsistencies in levels of coverage. The national roundtable recommended two main MH financing enhancements: (i) creating a knowledge-sharing committee between insurers and MH specialists, and (ii) convincing labor unions/representatives to lobby for MH coverage as part of the negotiated benefit package. There are concerns regarding the equity, effectiveness and efficiency of the MH financing system in Lebanon. The fragmented system in Lebanon leads to differences in MH coverage across different financing intermediaries, which is inequitable. The fact that one out of four Lebanese suffer a mental disorder throughout their lives and very low percentages of those obtain treatment signals a problem in effectiveness. As for efficiency, the inefficient fragmentation of MH financing among seven intermediaries is a problematic characteristic of the

  9. Notes from the field: a case of hepatic failure and reflections on current status of healthcare of Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyed, Salim M; Kahler, John; Kalabani, Mutaz

    2018-01-01

    Recent trends and research suggest health conditions of the Syrian refugees in Lebanon are deteriorating. The following case study highlights some of the problems that refugees encounter seeking health care services in Lebanon. A coordinated response from Non-governmental organization (NGO) with intense focus on non-communicable disease (NCD) is needed to avert further worsening of health conditions on the ground.

  10. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Knowledge and Stigma Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder among College Students in Lebanon and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Rita; Daou, Nidal; DeNigris, Danielle; Shane-Simpson, Christina; Brooks, Patricia J.; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Although misconceptions associated with ASD are apparent worldwide, they may differ across cultures. This study compares knowledge and stigma associated with ASD in a country with limited autism resources, Lebanon, and a country with substantial autism resources, the United States (US). College students in the US (N = 346) and Lebanon (N = 329)…

  11. Incontri musicologici 2005 „Il dramma per musica al tempo del Farinelli. Nel 300° anniversario della nascita di Carlo Broschi detto il Farinelli“, Bologna 10.-11. 11. 2005

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonášová, Milada

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2006), s. 102-1003 ISSN 0018-7003. [Il dramma per musica al tempo del Farinelli. Nel 300° anniversario della nascita di Carlo Broschi detto il Farinelli. Bologna, 10.11.2005-11.11.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : dramma per musica * Farinelli * conference * Bologna Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  12. Organizational choices and financial performance: the case of company-owned stores, franchisee-owned stores and stores-within-a-store among French fashion retailers

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Amadieu; Karine Picot-Coupey; Jean-Laurent Viviani

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the governance and financial performance issues in the context of French Fashion retail companies. In this study, we analyze the influence of the organizational choices on the financial performance at the network level. We consider three forms used in isolation (company-owned stores, franchisee-owned stores and stores-within-a-store), three dually-organized forms (dual forms mixing two of the three forms) as well as a combined form associating the three ones. We study a ...

  13. Store Image: Scale implementation Part 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronel du Preez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the final in the three-part series regarding store image. The purposes of this article are to (1 implement the developed scale to assess whether it illustrates acceptable psychometric properties of reliability and validity, (2 assess the model fit of the developed scale and (3 formulate recommendations for future research. Results indicated that the Apparel Store Image Scale (ASIS show acceptable reliability and model fit. A refined definition of store image was proposed together with a Final Model of Apparel Store Image. Recommendations for future research are made.

  14. How the Measurement of Store Choice Behaviour Moderates the Relationship between Distance and Store Choice Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Cumberland, Flemming; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2013-01-01

    The influence of distance on consumer store choice behaviour has been considered in many studies. In that respect, frequency and budget share are frequently used methods of measurement to determine the consumer's store choice behavour. In this study, we propose that the significance of distance...... is influenced by the way in which store choice behaviour is conceptualized. A survey among 631 consuemrs was performed in order to examine the research proposition. Structural equation results suggest that the negative effect of distance on store choice behaviour is larger when store choice behaviour...... is measured as number of visits to a particular store than wehen store cjoice behaviour is measured as the percentage of budget spend at a particular store. Our results indicate that researchers should carefully consider the measurement of store choice behaviour when carrying out empirical research invlving...

  15. Das Longitudinale Curriculum "Soziale und kommunikative Komptenzen" im Bologna-reformierten Medizinstudium in Basel [The longitudinal curriculum "social and communicative competencies" within Bologna-reformed undergraduate medical education in Basel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langewitz, Wolf

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Within the Bologna reform, a longitudinal curriculum of “social and communicative competencies” (SOKO was implemented into the new Bachelor-Master structure of undergraduate medical education in Basel (Switzerland. Project description: The aim of the SOKO curriculum is to enable students to use techniques of patient-centred communication to elicit and provide information to patients in order to involve them as informed partners in decision making processes. The SOKO curriculum consists of 57 lessons for the individual student from the first bachelor year to the first master year. Teaching encompasses lectures and small group learning. Didactic methods include role play, video feedback, and consultations with simulated and real patients. Summative assessment takes place in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE. Conclusion: In Basel, a longitudinal SOKO curriculum based on students’ cumulative learning was successfully implemented. Goals and contents were coordinated with the remaining curriculum and are regularly assessed in OSCEs. At present, most of the workload rests on the shoulders of the department of psychosomatic medicine at the university hospital. For the curriculum to be successful in the long-term, sustainable structures need to be instituted at the medical faculty and the university hospital to guarantee high quality teaching and assessment.[german] Hintergrund: Mit der Umstellung auf die Bachelor-/Masterstruktur wurde in Basel (Schweiz ein longitudinales Curriculum „soziale und Kommunikative Kompetenzen“ (SOKO in das Medizinstudium implementiert. Projektbeschreibung: Ziel ist es, den Studierenden grundlegende Techniken einer patientenzentrierten Kommunikation in dem Sinne zu vermitteln, dass die Studierenden in der Lage sind, Informationen zu erheben und Informationen an Patientinnen und Patienten weiterzugeben, um sie als gut informierte Partner am Entscheidungsprozess zu beteiligen. Das

  16. The Marcus Caelius Project: a transmedial approach to support cultural communication and educational activities at the Civical Archaeological Museum of Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bentini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The project “Marcus Caelius – the Value of Memory” is a 8 minute short animation movie located in the Roman Bologna at the Augustan Age. It originated with the Civical Archaeological Museum of Bologna in collaboration with Cineca VisIT-Lab. The project emploies a well known historical fact (the Battle of Teutoburg to enable a philological approach within an emotional/narrative process. New philologically accurate reconstructions (i.e archaeological finds hedged in the Museum’s collection are integrated with 3D historical sets caming form previous Cineca projects. Mixed movie-making techniques, such as Blender rendering, Chroma key and Machinima animation, implemented an ad hoc production pipeline in order to define times and costs which could be supported by a small production.

  17. Building Store Satisfaction Centred on Customer Retention in Clothing Retailing: Store Design and Ease of Shopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulden Turhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study’s research model suggests that store design and ease of shopping are associated with customer retention through a mediated pathway in which store design and ease of shopping influence perceived store satisfaction, which in turn, influences customer retention. This survey was administered to two separate clothing stores offered to either females or males (in total, 533 participants. Using structural equation modelling methodology, data was analysed to explain the interrelations among the variables in the model. The results of an empirical study of a sample of store shoppers revealed that store design and ease of shopping influence customer retention in an indirect way through customer perception of satisfaction with the store. In building store satisfaction that is centred on customer retention, store design and shopping ease differ in their relative influences. This difference is high for females, but for men as low as to be considered negligible in males. As a result, improving customers’ perceptions of store design and ease of shopping is a way to ensure store satisfaction support customer retention. The results of the study provide a new insight into the relationships by suggesting indirect effects of shopping ease and store design on consumer retention by their impacts on store satisfaction, rather than direct effects.

  18. Building Store Satisfaction Centred on Customer Retention in Clothing Retailing: Store Design and Ease of Shopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulden Turhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study’s research model suggests that store design and ease of shopping are associated with customer retention through a mediated pathway in which store design and ease of shopping influence perceived store satisfaction, which in turn, influences customer retention. This survey was administered to two separate clothing stores offered to either females or males (in total, 533 participants. Using structural equation modelling methodology, data was analysed to explain the interrelations among the variables in the model. The results of an empirical study of a sample of store shoppers revealed that store design and ease of shopping influence customer retention in an indirect way through customer perception of satisfaction with the store. In building store satisfaction that is centred on customer retention, store design and shopping ease differ in their relative influences. This difference is high for females, but for men as low as to be considered negligible in males. As a result, improving customers’ perceptions of store design and ease of shopping is a way to ensure store satisfaction support customer retention. The results of the study provide a new insight into the relationships by suggesting indirect effects of shopping ease and store design on consumer retention by their impacts on store satisfaction, rather than direct effects.

  19. Cesarean sections among Syrian refugees in Lebanon from december 2012/january 2013 to june 2013: probable causes and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huster, Karin M J; Patterson, Njogu; Schilperoord, Marian; Spiegel, Paul

    2014-09-01

    There are nearly 3 million Syrian refugees, with more than 1 million in Lebanon. We combined quantitative and qualitative methods to determine cesarean section (CS) rates among Syrian refugees accessing care through United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)-contracted hospitals in Lebanon and possible driving factors. We analyzed hospital admission data from UNHCR's main partners from December 2012/January 1, 2013, to June 30, 2013. We collected qualitative data in a subset of hospitals through semi-structured informant interviews. Deliveries accounted for almost 50 percent of hospitalizations. The average CS rate was 35 percent of 6,366 deliveries. Women expressed strong preference for female providers. Clinicians observed that refugees had high incidence of birth and health complications diagnosed at delivery time that often required emergent CS. CS rates are high among Syrian refugee women in Lebanon. Limited access and utilization of antenatal care, privatized health care, and male obstetrical providers may be important drivers that need to be addressed.

  20. Focus Groups Investigating Mental Health Attitudes and Beliefs of Parents and Teachers in South Lebanon: Are They Culturally Determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Myrna A A; Farhood, Laila F; Hamady, Carmen

    2018-05-01

    The wars that Lebanon had endured led to a devastating number of deaths, injuries, and displacements. Such tragedies have detrimentally affected its civilians psychologically. To identify knowledge, attitudes, and practices of teachers and parents concerning child/adolescent mental health. Using purposeful sampling, five focus groups were conducted with teachers and parents of students from elementary, middle, and secondary levels in two private hub schools in South Lebanon. A total of 27 teachers and 18 parents participated separately in focus groups. Three themes emerged: (a) Mental health care is a priority for overall health, (b) Mental illness is a cultural taboo, and (c) There is a need for better education and cultural understanding about mental health. This is the first study in Lebanon directly targeted at parents' and teachers' mental health concerns. Such findings will add to transcultural nursing knowledge about the importance of mental health care.

  1. The Links between Energy Consumption, Financial Development, and Economic Growth in Lebanon: Evidence from Cointegration with Unknown Structural Breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Abosedra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relation between financial development, energy consumption, and economic growth in the economy of Lebanon over the period 2000M2–2010M12. Our findings confirm the existence of cointegration among the variables. The results indicate that financial development and energy consumption contribute to economic growth in Lebanon. The impact of energy consumption on economic growth is positive showing the significance of energy as a main stimulant of economic growth. Financial development is also found to play a vital role in enhancing economic growth. Financial development and economic growth also result in further increase in energy consumption. We offer some policy implications specific to Lebanon considering the recent discovery of large oil and gas reserves in the country and the historical importance of its banking sector which remains a center of Lebanon’s service-oriented economy.

  2. (G6PD) in stored blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red blood cell viability in stored blood determines successful transfusion. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity has been shown to maintain red blood cell membrane integrity. This study was, therefore, aimed at estimating the G6PD activity in stored blood bags at the blood bank of the University of Nigeria ...

  3. Performance Determinants for Convenience Store Suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Zainah Abdullah; Aznur Hajar Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) usage, internal relationship, supplier-retailer relationship, logistics services and inventory management on convenience store suppliers- performance. Data was collected from 275 convenience store managers in Malaysia using a set of questionnaire. The multiple linear regression results indicate that inventory management, supplier-retailer relationship, logistics services and internal relation...

  4. Apple iTunes music store

    OpenAIRE

    Lenzi, R.; Schmucker, M.; Spadoni, F.

    2003-01-01

    This technical report analyses the Apple iTunes Music Store and its success factors. Besides the technical aspects, user and customer aspects as well as content aspects are considered. Furthermore, iTunes Music Store's impact to online music distribution services is analysed and a short outlook to future music online distribution is given.

  5. Insect pest management in stored grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stored grain is vulnerable to attach by a variety of insect pests, that can generally be classified as external or internal feeders. Infestations primarily occur after grain is stored, though there is some evidence that infestations can occur in the field right before harvest. There are a variety of...

  6. Win-Win Strategies at Discount Stores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Deleersnyder (Barbara); M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); J-B.E.M. Steenkamp (Jan-Benedict); O. Koll (Oliver)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAn important development that contributes to store brands’ growing success in the grocery market is the increasing number of discount stores that sell predominantly own, private-label, brands. To fight private labels, manufacturers of national brands feel increasingly compelled to

  7. Nudging consumer behaviour in retail stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Abdulfatah

    2016-01-01

    -effectiveness of alternative interventions in retail store settings. In cooperation with a supermarket chain in Denmark, we manipulated food locations inside the store so that relatively low energy dense products were placed favorable shelf locations. The underlying theory for the experiment was the behavioral approach (so...

  8. Consumers' store choice behavior for fresh food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Consumers' preference for fresh food stores is analyzed. In particular the choice between supermarkets and specialized shops for purchasing fresh food is analyzed. Attention is given to the factors influencing this choice. For this purpose a number of research questions with respect to store choice

  9. Quantitative grading of store separation trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jamison, Kevin A

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When a new store is integrated with an aircraft, it is necessary to verify that it separates safely for all possible release and emergency jettison scenarios. A large number of store separation analyses are required to comply with this requirement...

  10. ENEA-Bologna production and testing of Jeff-3.1 multi-group cross section libraries for nuclear fission applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescarini, M.; Orsi, R.; Sinitsa, V.

    2008-01-01

    The ENEA-Bologna Nuclear Data Group produced the JEFF-3.1 VITJEFF31.BOLIB and MATJEFF31. BOLIB fine-group coupled neutron and photon (199 n + 42 γ) cross section libraries for nuclear fission applications, respectively in AMPX and MATXS format, with the same specifications and energy group structure of the Endf/B-VI-3 VITAMIN-B6 American library. Each library, containing 181 nuclide cross section files, was generated from the same set of cross section data files in GENDF format, obtained through the Bondarenko (f-factor) method, with an ENEA-Bologna revised version of the GROUPR module of the NJOY-99.160 system. Collapsed working libraries of self-shielded cross sections in FIDO-ANISN format, used by the deterministic transport codes of the DANTSYS and DOORS systems, can be generated from VITJEFF31.BOLIB and MATJEFF31.BOLIB through, respectively, further data processing with an ENEA-Bologna revised version of the SCAMPI system and with the TRANSX code. This paper describes the methodology and specifications of the data processing performed and presents some results of the VITJEFF31.BOLIB validation. (authors)

  11. Store-operate-coherence-on-value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Ohmacht, Martin; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2014-11-18

    A system, method and computer program product for performing various store-operate instructions in a parallel computing environment that includes a plurality of processors and at least one cache memory device. A queue in the system receives, from a processor, a store-operate instruction that specifies under which condition a cache coherence operation is to be invoked. A hardware unit in the system runs the received store-operate instruction. The hardware unit evaluates whether a result of the running the received store-operate instruction satisfies the condition. The hardware unit invokes a cache coherence operation on a cache memory address associated with the received store-operate instruction if the result satisfies the condition. Otherwise, the hardware unit does not invoke the cache coherence operation on the cache memory device.

  12. An updated survey of globular clusters in M 31. III. A spectroscopic metallicity scale for the Revised Bologna Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleti, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Buzzoni, A.; Federici, L.; Fusi Pecci, F.

    2009-12-01

    Aims. We present a new homogeneous set of metallicity estimates based on Lick indices for the old globular clusters of the M 31 galaxy. The final aim is to add homogeneous spectroscopic metallicities to as many entries as possible of the Revised Bologna Catalog of M 31 clusters, by reporting Lick index measurements from any source (literature, new observations, etc.) on the same scale. Methods: New empirical relations of [Fe/H] as a function of [MgFe] and Mg2 indices are based on the well-studied galactic globular clusters, complemented with theoretical model predictions for -0.2≤ [Fe/H]≤ +0.5. Lick indices for M 31 clusters from various literature sources (225 clusters) and from new observations by our team (71 clusters) have been transformed into the Trager et al. system, yielding new metallicity estimates for 245 globular clusters of M 31. Results: Our values are in good agreement with recent estimates based on detailed spectral fitting and with those obtained from color magnitude diagrams of clusters imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope. The typical uncertainty on individual estimates is ≃±0.25 dex, as resulted from the comparison with metallicities derived from color magnitude diagrams of individual clusters. Conclusions: The metallicity distribution of M 31 globular cluster is briefly discussed and compared with that of the Milky Way. Simple parametric statistical tests suggest that the distribution is probably not unimodal. The strong correlation between metallicity and kinematics found in previous studies is confirmed. The most metal-rich GCs tend to be packed into the center of the system and to cluster tightly around the galactic rotation curve defined by the HI disk, while the velocity dispersion about the curve increases with decreasing metallicity. However, also the clusters with [Fe/H]<-1.0 display a clear rotation pattern, at odds with their Milky Way counterparts. Based on observations made at La Palma, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque

  13. How the Triangle of Bologna Quality Assurance, a National Legal Framework and Internal Quality Enhancement Supports Institutional Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kareva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Macedonia (RM has been a part of the Bologna process since 2003. The Ministry of Education, law and policy makers and higher education institutions have actively engaged with its main concepts. In parallel with this, since the adoption of the law on higher education in 2008 and the reform of the Accreditation and Evaluation Board, there have been numerous changes and amendments culminating in the fast-tracked adoption of a new law at the beginning of 2015. Some of its solutions created a huge debate among the academic community, other intellectuals and students themselves, resulting in the postponement of that law and a kind of legal vacuum. In such turbulent circumstances, individual higher education institutions had to consider how and to what extent to adopt and develop relevant standards and guidelines, comply with the legal framework and promote good practice. The aim of this paper is to present how these three aspects, Bologna standards and guidelines for Quality Assurance (QA, a national legal framework and an institutional approach are being reflected, merged and implemented at a relatively young higher education institution. It questions the impact of these three elements on each other and how one institution’s drive for improvement is affected. This is done through a qualitative analysis of the three-fold perspectives. The conclusions and recommendations are expected to be of use to policy makers in the country and region as they evaluate how international trends and good practice fit into the socio-economic and political conditions of RM and similar countries. At the same time, it can demonstrate how far institutional quality assurance and progress can be implemented and recognized in the country itself and by some international stakeholders. It can also prove that the South East European University (SEEU is a national leader in this field as RM has no functioning QA evaluation system, while SEEU has managed to

  14. Consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G.; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in the consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef. Partial Least Squares analysis is used for modelling the quality perception process. Results show that consumers perceived national branded...

  15. Discomforts of tasks video users: The case of workers of ENEA area in Bologna (Italy); I disturbi da postura riferiti da utenti di videoterminale: studio di un campione ENEA dell`area di Bologna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenni, P; Varasano, R; Cavallaro, E [ENEA, Centro Ricerche ` ` E. Clementel` ` Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Arduini, R; Mattioli, S [Azienda USL, Bologna (Italy). Dip. di Prevenzione, Servizio di Medicina del Lavoro; Tuozzi, G [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Psicologia

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the subjective musculoskeletal discomfort in a sample of 334 workers (204 males and 130 females) of the ENEA area in Bologna, using for different periods and tasks video display units (VDU). On a preliminary self report questionnaire the workers have reported: hours at VDU per day, type of task type of hardware, physical-ergonomic environmental conditions, equipment and layout of the work station. Then, on a case-history form, the researcher has recorded for each subject: anamnesis, fatigue symptoms, discomfort and pain perceived in the back, shoulder, hand and arm regions. The results have shown that, in this sample, the main cause for potential musculoskeletal problems is related to aging whereas the women mainly engaged in repetitive jobs seem to be more likely subject to these troubles. About the correlation between type of task and musculoskeletal discomfort, the females refer more complaints than the males, especially when the task is repetitive. Also the number of hours spent at VDU per day is higher in the females. Finally, about physical-ergonomic environmental conditions, most users have not referred discomforts related to lighting, noise, micro climate or to work station (equipment and layout).

  16. Beyond Promotion-Based Store Switching: Antecedents and Consequences of Systematic Multiple-Store Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Gijsbrechts, E.; Campo, K.; Nisol, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that single-purpose multiple store shopping is not only driven by opportunistic, promotion-based motivations, but may also be part of a longer term shopping planning process based on stable store characteristics.Starting from a utility-maximizing shopping behavior model, we find that consumers systematically visit multiple stores to take advantage of two types of store complementarity.With 'fixed cost complementarity', consumers alternate visits to highly preferr...

  17. Using a Virtual Store As a Research Tool to Investigate Consumer In-store Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploydanai, Kunalai; van den Puttelaar, Jos; van Herpen, Erica; van Trijp, Hans

    2017-07-24

    People's responses to products and/or choice environments are crucial to understanding in-store consumer behaviors. Currently, there are various approaches (e.g., surveys or laboratory settings) to study in-store behaviors, but the external validity of these is limited by their poor capability to resemble realistic choice environments. In addition, building a real store to meet experimental conditions while controlling for undesirable effects is costly and highly difficult. A virtual store developed by virtual reality techniques potentially transcends these limitations by offering the simulation of a 3D virtual store environment in a realistic, flexible, and cost-efficient way. In particular, a virtual store interactively allows consumers (participants) to experience and interact with objects in a tightly controlled yet realistic setting. This paper presents the key elements of using a desktop virtual store to study in-store consumer behavior. Descriptions of the protocol steps to: 1) build the experimental store, 2) prepare the data management program, 3) run the virtual store experiment, and 4) organize and export data from the data management program are presented. The virtual store enables participants to navigate through the store, choose a product from alternatives, and select or return products. Moreover, consumer-related shopping behaviors (e.g., shopping time, walking speed, and number and type of products examined and bought) can also be collected. The protocol is illustrated with an example of a store layout experiment showing that shelf length and shelf orientation influence shopping- and movement-related behaviors. This demonstrates that the use of a virtual store facilitates the study of consumer responses. The virtual store can be especially helpful when examining factors that are costly or difficult to change in real life (e.g., overall store layout), products that are not presently available in the market, and routinized behaviors in familiar

  18. Buying in multiple stores : Shopping strategies beyond price promotions and their effects on Store Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbrechts, E.; Campo, K.; Nisol, P.

    2013-01-01

    Grocery-store switching has typically been viewed as evidence of cherry-picking behavior, with consumers switching stores to benefit from temporary promotional offers. However, research reveals that it may also result from a longer-term planning process based on stable store characteristics. Even in

  19. Prevalence and determinants of albuminuria in a cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb, Nadine; Salti, Haytham; Al-Mokaddam, Mona; Merheb, Marie; Salti, Ibrahim; Nasrallah, Mona

    2008-01-01

    Few data are available on the extent of albuminuria in diabetic populations in the Middle East generally and in Lebanon specifically. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence of albuminuria and its major risk factors in a cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon. Diabetic patients followed in the outpatient department at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC) were included in a prospective observational study. AUBMC is a tertiary referral center and the outpatient department typically handles patients of low socioeconomic status with advanced disease. Patients were classified according to their urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) as having normoalbuminuria (ACR or =300 mg/g creatinine). The three groups were compared to analyze the association between albuminuria and its risk factors. In addition, independent predictors of albuminuria were determined using multivariate logistic regression and presented as an odds ratio. Microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were present in 33.3% and 12.7% of 222 patients (mean age 56.4 years, mean deviation of diabetes 8.6 years, 58.7% women, 43.8% obese), respectively. Factors significantly associated with microalbuminuria included glycemic control, insulin use, and total and LDL cholesterol. Those associated with macroalbuminuria included in addition to glycemic control and insulin use, duration of diabetes, hypertension, elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP), and presence of neuropathy, retinopathy and peripheral vascular disease by bivariate analysis. Only glycemic control was an independent risk factor for both in addition to MAP and retinopathy for macroalbuminuria by multivariate analysis. Albuminuria is highly prevalent among this cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon. Both glycemic control and blood pressure need to be better targeted in its management.

  20. A qualitative study exploring child marriage practices among Syrian conflict-affected populations in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourtada, Rima; Schlecht, Jennifer; DeJong, Jocelyn

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that child marriage among Syrians may be increasing as a result of displacement and conflict. This study sought to gather qualitative data about the factors that promote child marriage practices among Syrian refugees in Al Marj area in the Bekaa valley, Lebanon, where the majority of Syrian refugees have settled in Lebanon. The second aim of this study was to generate recommendations on how to mitigate the drivers and consequences of child marriage practices based on the findings. Eight focus group discussions were conducted separately with married and unmarried young women and mothers and fathers of married and unmarried women. Furthermore, researchers conducted 11 key informant interviews with service providers and stakeholders to understand how conflict and displacement influenced marriage practices of Syrian refugees in Al Marj community. Although child marriage was a common practice in pre-conflict Syria, new factors seem to contribute to a higher risk of child marriage among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Respondents cited conflict- and displacement-related safety issues and feeling of insecurity, the worsening of economic conditions, and disrupted education for adolescent women as driving factors. Service providers, young women, and parents also reported changes in some marriage practices, including a shorter engagement period, lower bride price, change in cousin marriage practices, and a reduced age at marriage. Recommendations for interventions to mitigate the drivers of child marriage and its negative consequences should be built on a clear understanding of the local refugee context and the drivers of child marriage in refugee settings. Interventions should involve multiple stakeholders, they should be adjusted to target each specific context, age group and marital status. For these interventions to be effective, they should be addressed concurrently, and they should be delivered in a culturally sensitive and practical manner.

  1. They aren't all first cousins: Bedouin marriage and health policies in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nisrine; Chatty, Dawn; El-Kak, Faysal; Yassin, Nasser

    2014-01-01

    Fertility and consanguineous marriages among the Bedouin tribes of the Middle East have long generated interest particularly around health outcomes and social relations. In particular, Bedouin in Lebanon have increasingly embraced the Lebanese national bio-medical health system in the past two decades, while Lebanese policy-makers' responses continue to be minimal and ill-informed. This paper investigates the mismatch between policy-makers' formulations of Bedouin consanguineous marriages and the Bedouins's actual reproductive practices and discusses the implications of these formulations on the Bedouins's access to health services. The findings are drawn from the data collected as part of the Bedouin Health Project, an EU-funded five-year study (2005-2010), aiming at assessing access to reproductive and child health care among the Bedouin in Lebanon. The data was collected from 6 clusters representing the main Bedouin informal and unrecognized settlements in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon. The data consists of 111 socioeconomic questionnaires with Bedouin women users of local public, private, and nongovernmental reproductive and child health-focused clinics, in addition to 40 in-depth interviews with Bedouin women across the clusters and 17 semi-structured interviews with policy-makers. The findings suggest a gap between the perceptions of policy-makers and the incidence of consanguineous marriages and reproductive practices among the Bedouin. While there was no national data available for the Bedouin populations, policy-makers relied on a constructed 'Bedouin reproductive profile' that portrayed them as 'a problematic health group'. The national policy formulation of the Bedouin reproductive profile has an exclusionary impact on the Bedouin population as they are ignored from any targeted health policies or provided with politically motivated palliative care provision. These findings highlight the importance of addressing stereotyping and discrimination among health

  2. Assessment of reproductive health and violence against women among displaced Syrians in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese Masterson, Amelia; Usta, Jinan; Gupta, Jhumka; Ettinger, Adrienne S

    2014-02-20

    The current conflict in Syria continues to displace thousands to neighboring countries, including Lebanon. Information is needed to provide adequate health and related services particularly to women in this displaced population. We conducted a needs assessment in Lebanon (June-August 2012), administering a cross-sectional survey in six health clinics. Information was collected on reproductive and general health status, conflict violence, stress, and help-seeking behaviors of displaced Syrian women. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine associations between exposure to conflict violence, stress, and reproductive health outcomes. We interviewed 452 Syrian refugee women ages 18-45 who had been in Lebanon for an average of 5.1 (± 3.7) months. Reported gynecologic conditions were common, including: menstrual irregularity, 53.5%; severe pelvic pain, 51.6%; and reproductive tract infections, 53.3%. Among the pregnancy subset (n = 74), 39.5% of currently pregnant women experienced complications and 36.8% of those who completed pregnancies experienced delivery/abortion complications. Adverse birth outcomes included: low birthweight, 10.5%; preterm delivery, 26.5%; and infant mortality, 2.9%. Of women who experienced conflict-related violence (30.8%) and non-partner sexual violence (3.1%), the majority did not seek medical care (64.6%). Conflict violence and stress score was significantly associated with reported gynecologic conditions, and stress score was found to mediate the relationship between exposure to conflict violence and self-rated health. This study contributes to the understanding of experience of conflict violence among women, stress, and reproductive health needs. Findings demonstrate the need for better targeting of reproductive health services in refugee settings, as well as referral to psychosocial services for survivors of violence.

  3. Sociological Transition and Breast Cancer in the Arab World: the Experience of Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Lakkis, Najla; Adib, Salim M; Hamadeh, Ghassan; El Jarrah, Rana; H Osman, Mona

    2017-05-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among females in Lebanon. This study aimed at analyzing its epidemiology in the country over time. Methods: Data were extracted from the Lebanese National Cancer Registry (NCR) for the years 2004 through 2010. Age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates for cancers per 100,000 population were calculated. Results: Breast cancer ranked first, accounting for an average of 37.6% of all new female cancer cases in Lebanon during the period of 2004-2010. Breast cancer was found to have been increasing faster than other hormone-related women’s cancers (i.e. of the ovaries and corpus uteri). The breast cancer age-standardized incidence rates (world population) (ASRw) increased steadily from 2004 (71.0) to 2010 (105.9), making the burden comparable to that in developed countries, reflecting the influence of sociological and reproductive patterns transitioning from regional norms to global trends. The age-specific incidence rates for breast cancer rose steeply from around age 35-39 years, to reach a first peak in the age group 45-49 years, and then dropped slightly between 50 and 64 years to rise again thereafter and reach a second peak in the 75+ age group. Five-year age-specific rates among Lebanese women between 35 and 49 years were among the highest observed worldwide in 2008. Conclusion: Breast cancer is continuously on the rise in Lebanon. The findings of this study support the national screening recommendation of starting breast cancer screening at the age of 40 years. It is mandatory to conduct an in-depth analysis of contributing factors and develop consequently a comprehensive National Breast Cancer Control strategy. Creative Commons Attribution License

  4. A quality approach to maintain the properties of S235 JR structural carbon steel in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidawi, J.A.; Al Khatib, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.S235JR carbon steel is one of the most popular steels used in Lebanon. It is imported by steel dealers and is widely used by all fabricators and manufacturers of steels for many structural purposes and applications. This kind of steel has good ductile properties as well as excellent weldability. It is still known by its previous designation St 37-2 or E 24-2. S235JR is produced in many shapes and thicknesses such as steel plates, sheets, angles and different other geometric shapes. Standard chemical and mechanical tests were conducted and reported on S235JR hot-rolled structural low-carbon mild steel specimens collected from Lebanese steel market. The main objective of this work is to assure the compliance of these properties with those set by the steel manufacturer. The above mentioned tests were performed at the laboratories of the Industrial Research Institute (IR) in Lebanon to assure the quality and credibility of the results. related European and American standards were presented as references and compared with the achieved results. Discussion was presented to show the similarities and differences between S235JR steel samples and standard requirements. Some of the reasons for such differences were discussed. Sufficient data was furnished through this work for the public and mainly for the Lebanese Standard Organization LIBNOR to easily adopt and implement the EN 10025:1993 European standard that can be applied in Lebanon concerning the most commonly used hot rolled low carbon structural steel. A follow up concerning adopting and implementing EN 10025:1993 will be briefed

  5. Municipal solid waste management in Lebanon: the need for an integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, R.; El-Fadel, M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.This study focuses on the management of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Lebanon. It addresses the current status of MSW management in Lebanon in terms of collection, transport and disposal, infers the associated impacts of such practices and discusses mitigation measures and finally proposes basic guidelines for a national strategy for solid waste management in the country. The study is based on available previous investigations and on a field survey of 113 villages in four different countries. The study revealed the absence of an effective environmental policy and poor collection and disposal methods throughout the country, except for the Greater Beirut Area (G A), where better solid waste management practices are employed. Although collection of MSW outside GBA was found to be acceptable by local authorities, resources (labor and equipment) were not used efficiently. Furthermore, treatment of collected waste is almost not available. Waste collected is invariably open dumped and /or open burned outside GBA. The poor quality of the services were reflected by the low budgets available in the solid waste sanitation departments of most surveyed villages. Unlike the situation outside the GBA a solid waste management component can be identified in the GBA. However, until recently, nearly 90 percent of the total waste generated in the GBA is being ultimately disposed of at the landfill. This raises into question the purpose of the sorting-processing-composting facilities as well as the recycling program. Apparently, the current waste management activities, particularly source reduction and recycling have not measured up favorably with the steps outlined in an integrated solid waste management system. The study concludes with a series of policy measures that can constitute the framework for a long-term strategy in order to implement an effective solid waste master plan in Lebanon

  6. Candida profiles and antifungal resistance evolution over a decade in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araj, George Farah; Asmar, Rima George; Avedissian, Aline Zakaria

    2015-09-27

    Infection with and antifungal resistance of Candida species have been on the rise globally. Relevant data on these pathogens are relatively few in our region, including Lebanon, thus warranting this study. This retrospective study of Candida spp. profiles and their in vitro antifungal susceptibility was based on analysis requests for 186 Candida non-albicans and 61 C. albicans during three periods (2005-2007, 2009-2011, and 2012-2014) over the span of the last 10 years at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC), a major tertiary care center in Lebanon. Identification of Candida was done using the API 20C AUX system, and the E-test was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal agents. Among the 1,300-1,500 Candida isolates recovered yearly, C. albicans rates decreased from 86% in 2005 to around 60% in 2014. Simultaneously, the non-albicans rates increased from 14% in 2005 to around 40% in 2014, revealing 11 species, the most frequent of which were C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis. All these demonstrated high resistance (35%-79%) against itraconazole, but remained uniformly susceptible (100%) to amphotericin B. Though C. albicans and the other species maintained high susceptibility against fluconazole and voriconazole, their MIC90 showed an elevated trend over time, and C. glabrata had the highest resistance rates. The observed rise in resistance among Candida spp. in Lebanon mandates the need for close surveillance and monitoring of antifungal drug resistance for both epidemiologic and treatment purposes.

  7. ATTITUDES TOWARDS AND PRACTICE OF SEXUALITY AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN LEBANON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, P; Zeenny, R; Salamé, J; Waked, M; Barbour, B; Zeidan, N; Baldi, I

    2016-03-01

    Sexuality is still a taboo in Middle Eastern countries, and Lebanon is no exception. This study's objective was to evaluate attitudes towards sexuality and its practice among university students in Lebanon and assess their respective correlates. The cross-sectional study was carried out among students selected from seventeen universities across Lebanon. The participants received a self-administered standardized questionnaire that assessed their attitudes towards sexuality. It included questions on socio-demographic factors, risk-taking, risky behaviours and sexuality-related questions. Among 3384 students, 2700 (79.8%) answered the questions on sexuality. Around 15% had engaged in sexual activity, while 20% were regularly sexually active. Among males, 34.8% had never had sexual activity, 29.9% had tried it and 35.3% were regularly sexually active. Among females the results were respectively 85.1%, 5.3% and 9.6% (p<0.001). Only 36% regularly used condoms during their relationships. A liberal attitude towards sex, male sex, motives for risky behaviours, current cigarette smoking and problematic alcohol consumption were associated with sexual activity. Realizing that risky behaviours are dangerous, health concerns related to sexual relationships and a liberal attitude towards sex were associated with regular condom use. However, being bothered by condoms and female sex were inversely associated with condom use. Finally, participants who had motives for, and those who felt excited about risky behaviours, and those reporting current cigarette and waterpipe smoking and problematic alcohol consumption (β=0.600; p=0.002) embraced a more liberal attitude towards sex. Conversely, females (β=-7.58; p<0.001) and individuals who considered risky behaviours as dangerous reported an unfavourable attitude towards sexuality. A substantial proportion of Lebanese university students have regular sexual activity, but a low percentage use condoms for protection. Interventions are

  8. The causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagher, Leila; Yacoubian, Talar

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Lebanon over the period 1980–2009. Within a bivariate framework, imposed on us due to data limitations, and in an effort to increase the robustness of our results, we employ a variety of causality tests, namely, Hsiao, Toda-Yamamoto, and vector error correction based Granger causality tests. We find strong evidence of a bidirectional relationship both in the short-run and in the long-run, indicating that energy is a limiting factor to economic growth in Lebanon. From a policy perspective, the confirmation of the feedback hypothesis warns against the use of policy instruments geared towards restricting energy consumption, as these may lead to adverse effects on economic growth. Consequently, there is a pressing need to revise the current national energy policy that calls for a 5% energy conservation target. Also, to shield the country from external supply shocks, given its substantial dependence on energy imports, policymakers should emphasize the development of domestic energy resources. Further, the most pertinent implication is that relaxing the present electric capacity shortages should be made a national priority, in view of its potential positive effect on the economy. - Highlights: ► We investigate the energy-GDP nexus for Lebanon. ► Evidence of a bidirectional relationship both in the short- and the long-run is found. ► Reducing outages by expanding electric capacity should thus be prioritized. ► The energy plan calling for a 5% reduction in energy consumption needs to be revised. ► Development of domestic energy sources will help in mitigating energy supply shocks.

  9. Incidence and severity of maxillofacial injuries during the Second Lebanon War among Israeli soldiers and civilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Liran; Zadik, Yehuda; Peleg, Kobi; Bigman, Galya; Givon, Adi; Lin, Shaul

    2008-08-01

    To analyze the incidence and severity of maxillofacial injuries in the Second Lebanon War, that occurred during the summer of 2006, among Israeli soldiers and civilians. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients recorded in the Israel National Trauma Registry during the Second Lebanon War. Data refer to all general hospitals throughout the country. Data were analyzed according to the etiology of the injury, severity of trauma using the Injury Severity Score, trauma location, and duration of hospital stay. Cases with multiple injuries that included maxillofacial injuries were separated and further analyzed according to the above parameters. Patients with only dental injuries and superficial facial soft tissue lacerations were excluded because they were referred to the military dental clinics and not to general hospitals. Maxillofacial injuries were found in 36 (6.4%) of the 565 wounded. Patients with maxillofacial injuries ranged in age from 20 to 44 years (mean age, 25.5 +/- 5.7 years). Greater than 50% of the injuries required more than 3 hospitalization days. Mortality rate of the maxillofacial injured was 2.8%. Most of the maxillofacial injuries (33; 91.7%) were combined with other organ injuries; 9 (25%) patients also had dental injuries. In the Second Lebanon War, the incidence and severity of true maxillofacial injuries, without dental injuries alone, were relatively low compared with previous reports of other conflicts. However, because most injuries involved multiple organs, special attention is required when planning and providing emergency, as well as secondary and tertiary medical care to war wounded.

  10. Aero-medical evacuation from the second Israel-Lebanon war: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Dagan; Resheff, Avram; Geftler, Alex; Weiss, Aviram; Birenbaum, Erez; Lavon, Ophir

    2009-05-01

    The second Lebanon war started as a limited operation and progressed to a large-scale campaign. Most of the fighting took place in mountainous villages and small towns inhabited with civilians. The Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) Airborne rescue and evacuation unit is charged with air evacuation of soldiers and civilians in times of peace, limited conflict, and war. We describe this unit's activities in the second Lebanon war, analyzing injury, treatment, and evacuation characteristics Data were collected from flight medical reports, debriefings of aero-medical team members (usually immediately upon return from mission), ground units medical reports and debriefings, and hospital records. 725 IDF soldiers were injured and 117 killed either in Lebanon or near the Israeli-Lebanese border during the war. A total of 338 (46%) were evacuated in 95 airlifts (averaging 4.5 evacuees per airlift) from the fighting zones or the border. Air evacuation used dedicated helicopters with advanced care capacities, and most victims were evacuated straight from the battlefield, as the fighting was ensuing. Many wounded first received advanced medical care upon the arrival of the aero-medical teams. In military operations within civilian populated areas with threats to ground transport, air evacuation can sometimes be the only readily available option. Providing timely ground advanced medical care proved difficult in many instances. Thus, for many, the rescue helicopter was the first point of access to such care. Aero-medical aircrafts and personnel faced threats from gunfire and missiles, causing both delays in evacuation and a high average number of evacuees per airlift. This article proposes ways of coping with situations in which similar rescue and evacuation problems are likely.

  11. Prevalence and determinants of albuminuria in a cohort of diabeticpatients in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleb, N.; Al-Mokadda, M.; Merheb, M.; Salti, I.; Nasrallah, M.; Salti, H.

    2008-01-01

    Few data are available on the extent of albuminuria in diabeticpopulations in the Middle East generally and in Lebanon specifically. Weconducted this study to determine the prevalence of albuminuria and its majorrisk factors in cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon. Diabetic patientsfollowed in the outpatient department at the American University of BeirutMedical Center (AUBMC) were included in prospective observational study.AUBMC is a tertiary referral center and the outpatient department typicallyhandles patients of low socioeconomic status with advanced disease. Patientswere classified according to their urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR)as having normoalbuminuria (ACR -300mg/g creatinine). Thethree groups were compared to analyze the association between albuminuria andits risk factors. In addition, independent predictors of albuminuria weredetermined using multivariate logistic regression and presented as an oddsratio. Microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuira were present in 33.3% and 12.7%of 222 patients (mean age 56.4 years, mean deviation of diabetes 8.6 years,58.7% women, 43.8% obese), respectively. Factors significantly associatedwith microalbuminuria included glycemic control, insulin use and total andLDL cholesterol. Those associated with macroalbuminuria included in additionto glycemic control and insulin use, duration of diabetes, hypertension,elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP) and presence of neuropathy, retinopathyand peripheral vascular disease by bivariate analysis. Only glycemic controlwas an independent risk factor for both in addition to MAP and retinopathyfor macroalbuminuria by multivariate analysis. Albuminuria is highlyprevalent among this cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon. Both glycemiccontrol and blood pressure need to be better targeted in its management.(author)

  12. Prevalence and determinants of albuminuria in a cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadine, Taleb

    2010-01-01

    Few data are available on the extent of albuminuria in diabetic populations in the Middle East generally and in Lebanon specifically. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence of albuminuria and its major risk factors in a cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon. Patients and Diabetic patients followed in the outpatient department at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC) were included in a prospective observational study. AUBMC is a tertiary referral center and the outpatient department typically handles patients of low socioeconomic status with advanced disease. Patients were classified according to their urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) as having normoalbuminuria (ACR<30 mg/g creatinine), microalbuminuria (ACR=30 to <300 mg/g creatinine), or macro-albuminuria (ACR 2300 mg/g creatinine). The three groups were compared to analyze the association between albuminuria and its risk factors. In addition, independent predictors of albuminuria were determined using multivariate logistic regression and presented as an odds ratio.Microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were present in 33.3% and 12.7% of 222 patients (mean age 56.4 years, mean deviation of diabetes 8.6 years, 58.7% women, 43.8% obese), respectively. Factors significantly associated with microalbuminuria included glycemic control, insulin use, and total and LDL cholesterol.Those associated with macroalbuminuria included in addition to glycemic control and insulin use, duration of diabetes, hypertension, elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP), and presence of neuropathy, retinopathy and peripheral vascular disease by bivariate analysis. Only glycemic control was an independent risk factor for both in addition to MAP and retinopathy for macroalbuminuria by multivariate analysis. Albuminuria is highly prevalent among this cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon. Both glyce-mic control and blood pressure need to be better targeted in its management (Author).

  13. The effect of taxation on tobacco consumption and public revenues in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salti, Nisreen; Chaaban, Jad; Nakkash, Rima; Alaouie, Hala

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco consumption rates in Lebanon are among the highest worldwide. The country ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in 2005. A law was passed in 2011 which regulates smoking in closed public spaces, bans advertising, and stipulates larger warnings. Despite international evidence confirming that increasing taxation on tobacco products lowers tobacco consumption, no such policy has yet been adopted: a cigarette pack costs on average US$1.50. To date no studies in Lebanon have addressed the welfare and public finance effects of increasing taxes on tobacco products. Using the 2005 national survey of household living conditions, we estimate an almost ideal demand system to generate price elasticities of demand for tobacco. Using estimated elasticities and a conservative scenario for expected smuggling, we simulate the consumption and tax revenue effects of a change in the price of tobacco under various tax schemes. Increasing taxes on all tobacco products so as to double the price of imported cigarettes would lower their consumption by 7% and consumption of domestically produced cigarettes by over 90%. Young adults (ages 15-30) are more sensitive: consumption would drop by 9% for imported cigarettes and by 100% for domestic cigarettes. Government revenues would increase by approximately 52%. The estimated elasticities indicate that an increase in taxes on all tobacco products would lead to a reduction in consumption and an increase in government revenue. Evidence from Lebanon on the effectiveness of increased taxation may help initiate national debate on the need to raise taxes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Distributed energy store railguns experiment and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Electromagnetic acceleration of projectiles holds the potential for achieving higher velocities than yet achieved by any other means. A railgun is the simplest form of electromagnetic macroparticle accelerator and can generate the highest sustained accelerating force. The practical length of conventional railguns is limited by the impedance of the rails because current must be carried along the entire length of the rails. A railgun and power supply system called the distributed energy store railgun was proposed as a solution to this limitation. The distributed energy store railgun used multiple current sources connected to the rails of a railgun at points distributed along the bore. These current sources (energy stores) are turned on in sequence as the projectile moves down the bore so that current is fed to the railgun from behind the armature. In this system the length of the rails that carry the full armature current is less than the total length of the railgun. If a sufficient number of energy stores is used, this removes the limitation on the length of a railgun. An additional feature of distributed energy store type railguns is that they can be designed to maintain a constant pressure on the projectile being accelerated. A distributed energy store railgun was constructed and successfully operated. In addition to this first demonstration of the distributed energy store railgun principle, a theoretical model of the system was also constructed

  15. When Policy and Strategy Collide: U.S. Intervention in Lebanon 1982-1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Constantine J. Pettallides, “Cedars to the East: A Study of Modern Lebanon,” accessed January 5, 2014, http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/603/cedars-to-the...legacy of the Holocaust affecting the nation of Israel.57 New Zionism united with Begin’s vision of Israel’s proper place in the world formed a noted...Begin’s vision , this universe is one of unremitting conflict.”60 Begin’s outlook stemmed from what the Prime Minister described as “the rules of history

  16. Nutritional situation among Syrian refugees hosted in Iraq, Jordan, and Lebanon: cross sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S M Moazzem; Leidman, Eva; Kingori, James; Al Harun, Abdullah; Bilukha, Oleg O

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing armed conflict in Syria has caused large scale displacement. Approximately half of the population of Syria have been displaced including the millions living as refugees in neighboring countries. We sought to assess the health and nutrition of Syrian refugees affected by the conflict. Representative cross-sectional surveys of Syrian refugees were conducted between October 2 and November 30, 2013 in Lebanon, April 12 and May 1, 2014 in Jordan, and May 20 and 31, 2013 in Iraq. Surveys in Lebanon were organized in four geographical regions (North, South, Beirut/Mount Lebanon and Bekaa). In Jordan, independent surveys assessed refugees residing in Za'atri refugee camp and refugees residing among host community nationwide. In Iraq, refugees residing in Domiz refugee camp in the Kurdistan region were assessed. Data collected on children aged 6 to 59 months included anthropometric indicators, morbidity and feeding practices. In Jordan and Lebanon, data collection also included hemoglobin concentration for children and non-pregnant women aged 15 to 49 years, anthropometric indicators for both pregnant and non-pregnant women, and household level indicators such as access to safe water and sanitation. The prevalence of global acute malnutrition among children 6 to 59 months of age was less than 5 % in all samples (range 0.3-4.4 %). Prevalence of acute malnutrition among women 15 to 49 years of age, defined as mid-upper arm circumference less than 23.0 cm, was also relatively low in all surveys (range 3.5-6.5 %). For both children and non-pregnant women, anemia prevalence was highest in Za'atri camp in Jordan (48.4 % and 44.8 %, respectively). Most anemia was mild or moderate; prevalence of severe anemia was less than or equal to 1.1 % in all samples of children and women. Despite the ongoing conflict, results from all surveys indicate that global acute malnutrition is relatively low in the assessed Syrian refugee populations. However, prevalence of anemia

  17. Seeking maternal care at times of conflict: the case of Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakian-Khasholian, Tamar; Shayboub, Rawan; El-Kak, Faysal

    2013-01-01

    Providing quality maternity care within the emergency care packages for internally displaced populations in war-affected areas is somewhat challenging, although very essential. In this retrospective study, we describe the experiences and health care seeking behaviors of 1,015 pregnant and postpartum women during the 2006 war in Lebanon. Women reported interruptions in regular maternity care and experienced more complications during this period. Availability of health services and experiences of complications were the most important determinants of health care seeking behaviors. Maternal health services should be a part of any comprehensive emergency responsiveness plan, catering to women's needs in war-affected areas.

  18. A national study on nurses' retention in healthcare facilities in underserved areas in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Alameddine, Mohamad; Jamal, Diana; Dimassi, Hani; Dumit, Nuhad Y; McEwen, Mary K; Jaafar, Maha; Murray, Susan F

    2013-09-30

    Nursing shortages and maldistribution are priority issues for healthcare systems around the globe. Such imbalances are often aggravated in underserved areas, especially in developing countries. Despite the centrality of this issue, there is a dearth of studies that examine the retention of nurses in underserved areas in the Middle East Region. This study investigates the characteristic and the factors associated with the retention of nurses working in rural areas in Lebanon. This study uses a non-experimental cross-sectional design to survey nurses working in underserved areas of Lebanon. Underserved areas in Lebanon were identified using WHO definition. A total of 103 health facilities (hospitals and primary healthcare centers) located in these areas were identified and all nurses working at these facilities received a copy of the survey questionnaire. The questionnaire included five sections: demographic, work-life, career plan, job satisfaction, and assessment of work environment. Analysis included univariate and bivariate (chi-square, Student's t-test and ANOVA) tests to describe the respondents and examine the significance between nurses' characteristics and their intent to stay. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with nurses' intent to stay in underserved areas. A total of 857 nurses from 63 Primary Healthcare (PHC) centers and hospitals responded to the questionnaire (75.5% response rate). Only 35.1% of nurses indicated their intent to stay in their current job over the coming one to three years. Surveyed nurses were most satisfied with relationship with co-workers and least satisfied with extrinsic rewards. Rural nurses working in PHC centers were more satisfied than their hospital counterparts on all aspects of work and had significantly higher intention to stay (62.5% compared to 31.5% in hospitals, P job satisfaction and their intent to stay. This study reveals poor retention of nurses in rural and underserved

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Food Insecurity among Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon: Data from a Household Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Ghattas

    Full Text Available Lebanon hosts the highest per capita refugee concentration worldwide. The Palestinian presence in Lebanon dates from 1948 and they remain a marginalized population. No information on their food security status has been reported previously. A survey of a representative sample of Palestinian refugee households in Lebanon (n = 2501 was conducted using a stratified two stage cluster sampling approach. We measured food insecurity using a modified USDA household food security module, locally validated. We collected data on household demographic, socioeconomic, health, housing, coping strategies and household intake of food groups and analysed these by food security status. About 41% (CI: 39-43 of households reported being food insecure and 20% (CI: 18-22 severely food insecure. Poor households were more likely to be severely food insecure (OR 1.41 (1.06-1.86 while higher education of the head of household was significantly associated with protection against severe food insecurity (OR 0.66 (0.52-0.84. Additionally, higher food expenditure and possession of food-related assets were significantly associated with food security (OR 0.93 (0.89-0.97 and OR 0.74 (0.59-0.92, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, households where at least one member suffered from an acute illness remained significantly more likely to be severely food insecure (OR 1.31(1.02-1.66, as were households whose proxy respondent reported poor mental health (OR 2.64 (2.07-3.38 and poor self-reported health (OR 1.62 (1.22-2.13. Severely food insecure households were more likely to eat cheaper foods when compared to non-severely food insecure households (p<0.001 and were more likely to rely on gifts (p<0.001 or welfare (p<0.001. They were also more likely to have exhausted all coping strategies, indicating significantly more frequently that they could not do anything (p = 0.0102. Food insecurity is a significant problem among Palestinian refugees in Lebanon and is likely to be

  20. Assessment of Dietary Intake Patterns and Their Correlates among University Students in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Pascale; Jomaa, Lamis; Issa, Carine; Farhat, Ghada; Salamé, Joseph; Zeidan, Nina; Baldi, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Unhealthy dietary habits are major risk factors for chronic diseases, particularly if adopted during early years of adulthood. Limited studies have explored the food consumption patterns among young adults in Lebanon. Our study aimed to examine common dietary patterns and their correlates among a large sample of university student population in Lebanon, focusing on correlation with gender and body mass index (BMI). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3384 students, using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students from both public and private universities. A self-administered food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake of university students. Factor analysis of food items and groups, cluster analysis of dietary patterns, and multivariate regressions were carried out. Results: Three dietary patterns were identified among university youth namely a vegetarian/low calorie dietary pattern (characterized mainly by consumption of plant-based food while avoiding “western” food, composite dishes, and bread); a mixed dietary pattern (characterized by high consumption of plant-based food, followed by composite dishes, bread, and a low consumption of western type food); and finally, a westernized dietary pattern (characterized by high consumption of white bread and western food, and a strong avoidance of plant food and composite dishes). We observed significant differences between males and females in terms of their reported food intake and dietary patterns. Females were particularly more prone to adopt the vegetarian/low calorie diet than males (ORa = 1.69; p universities (p = 0.053). Students with high income and obese students (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) were more likely to consume vegetarian/low calorie diets (p university students reported a higher consumption of the westernized dietary pattern as compared to female university students in Lebanon, while the latter reported a higher adoption of a