WorldWideScience

Sample records for leaving foster care

  1. Mentoring for Young People Leaving Foster Care: Promise and Potential Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Renee; Collins, Mary Elizabeth; Ward, Rolanda; Smashnaya, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Mentoring for youths transitioning out of the foster care system has been growing in popularity as mentoring programs have enjoyed unprecedented growth in recent years. However, the existing empirical literature on the conditions associated with more effective youth mentoring relationships and the potential for harm in their absence should give us…

  2. Using GIS to enhance programs serving emancipated youth leaving foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsche, Catherine J; Reader, Steven

    2012-02-01

    This article describes a GIS prototype designed to assist with the identification and evaluation of housing that is affordable, safe, and effective in supporting the educational goals and parental status of youth transitioning from foster care following emancipation. Spatial analysis was used to identify rental properties based on three inclusion criteria (affordability, proximity to public transportation, and proximity to grocery stores), three exclusion criteria (areas of high crime, prostitution, and sexual predator residence), and three suitability criteria (proximity to health care, mental health care, and youth serving organizations). The results were applied to four different scenarios to test the utility of the model. Of the 145 affordable rental properties, 27 met the criteria for safe and effective housing. Of these, 19 were located near bus routes with direct service to post-secondary education or vocational training programs. Only 6 were considered appropriate to meet the needs of youth who had children of their own. These outcomes highlight the complexities faced by youth when they attempt to find affordable and suitable housing following emancipation. The LEASE prototype demonstrates that spatial analysis can be a useful tool to assist with planning services for youth making the transition to independent living. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Depression among Alumni of Foster Care: Decreasing Rates through Improvement of Experiences in Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Catherine Roller; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; English, Diana; Williams, Jason R.; Phillips, Chereese M.

    2009-01-01

    The Northwest Foster Care Alumni Study examined the relation between experiences in foster care and depression among young adults who spent at least a year in foster care as adolescents. Results indicate that preparation for leaving foster care, nurturing supports from the foster family, school stability, access to tutoring, access to therapeutic…

  4. Multidimension Treatment Foster Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken; Hansen, Helle; Deding, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Dette notat er en kort opsamling af den nyeste forskning af effekterne af Multidimension Treatment Foster Care (herefter MTFC). SFI lavede i 2010 en oversigt over forskningen om effekterne af MTFC i forbindelse med udarbejdelsen af en projektbeskrivelse. Dette notat sammenfatter den nyeste...

  5. Kinship foster care and foster care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijker, J.; Zandberg, Tj.; Van der Meulen, B.F.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the similarities and differences between foster parents and kinship foster parents in the Netherlands. Both parents and caseworkers have filled out questionnaires for the purpose of this study. No evidence has been found to support the argument that kinship foster care holds

  6. "Couch Surfing" of Latino Foster Care Alumni: Reliance on Peers as Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Beatrix F.; Romo, Harriett D.

    2011-01-01

    Youth exiting foster care often experience difficulties transitioning into adulthood. This paper focuses on Latino foster care youth in a major southwestern U.S. city and addresses the importance of peer networks as a crucial form of social capital as youth leave foster care. Case studies illustrate experiences of foster care alumni ranging in age…

  7. Homelessness: The Foster Care Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

    Roughly 600,000 families are homeless today in America, while over 2.7 million children are in foster care or out-of-home placements. Few policymakers have examined these issues together, or understood that they are interrelated and must be addressed jointly to break the cycle of family disintegration, violence, and poverty. A recent survey by the…

  8. Antipsychotic treatment among youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosreis, Susan; Yoon, Yesel; Rubin, David M; Riddle, Mark A; Noll, Elizabeth; Rothbard, Aileen

    2011-12-01

    Despite national concerns over high rates of antipsychotic medication use among youth in foster care, concomitant antipsychotic use has not been examined. In this study, concomitant antipsychotic use among Medicaid-enrolled youth in foster care was compared with disabled or low-income Medicaid-enrolled youth. The sample included 16 969 youths younger than 20 years who were continuously enrolled in a Mid-Atlantic state Medicaid program and had ≥1 claim with a psychiatric diagnosis and ≥1 antipsychotic claim in 2003. Antipsychotic treatment was characterized by days of any use and concomitant use with ≥2 overlapping antipsychotics for >30 days. Medicaid program categories were foster care, disabled (Supplemental Security Income), and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Multicategory involvement for youths in foster care was classified as foster care/Supplemental Security Income, foster care/TANF, and foster care/adoption. We used multivariate analyses, adjusting for demographics, psychiatric comorbidities, and other psychotropic use, to assess associations between Medicaid program category and concomitant antipsychotic use. Average antipsychotic use ranged from 222 ± 110 days in foster care to only 135 ± 101 days in TANF (P foster care only and 24% in foster care/adoption compared with youths in the foster care system.

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Foster Care Alumni: The Role of Race, Gender, and Foster Care Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lovie J.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult alumni of foster care and its demographic and contextual correlates. This is one of the first studies to report on racial/ethnic and gender differences and the influence of foster care experiences (i.e., revictimization during foster care, placement change rate,…

  10. Laboratory Screening for Children Entering Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Mary V; Beal, Sarah J; Nause, Katie; Staat, Mary Allen; Dexheimer, Judith W; Scribano, Philip V

    2017-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of medical illness detected by laboratory screening in children entering foster care in a single, urban county. All children entering foster care in a single county in Ohio were seen at a consultation foster care clinic and had laboratory screening, including testing for infectious diseases such as HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, and tuberculosis as well as for hemoglobin and lead levels. Over a 3-year period (2012-2015), laboratory screening was performed on 1977 subjects entering foster care in a consultative foster care clinic. The prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, and tuberculosis were all found to be <1%. There were no cases of HIV. Seven percent of teenagers entering foster care tested positive for Chlamydia . A secondary finding was that 54% of subjects were hepatitis B surface antibody-negative, indicating an absence of detected immunity to the hepatitis B virus. Routine laboratory screening for children entering foster care resulted in a low yield. Targeted, rather than routine, laboratory screening may be a more clinically meaningful approach for children entering foster care. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Identifying Divergent Foster Care Careers for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Foster care children who experience placement disruption and foster care instability are at elevated risk for a host of poor outcomes, yet little work considers what these unstable foster care careers look like or what causes them. In this article, I start by using previous studies on foster care...

  12. Foster Care and College: The Educational Aspirations and Expectations of Youth in the Foster Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Chris M.; Lewis, Rhonda K.; Nilsen, Corinne; Colvin, Deltha Q.

    2013-01-01

    Despite an overall increase in college attendance, low-income youth and particularly those in the foster care system are less likely to attend college (Wolanin, 2005). Although youth in foster care report high educational aspirations, as little as 4% obtain a 4-year college degree (Nixon & Jones, 2007). The purpose of this study is to explore…

  13. Health care of youth aging out of foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Youth transitioning out of foster care face significant medical and mental health care needs. Unfortunately, these youth rarely receive the services they need because of lack of health insurance. Through many policies and programs, the federal government has taken steps to support older youth in foster care and those aging out. The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 (Pub L No. 110-354) requires states to work with youth to develop a transition plan that addresses issues such as health insurance. In addition, beginning in 2014, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Pub L No. 111-148) makes youth aging out of foster care eligible for Medicaid coverage until age 26 years, regardless of income. Pediatricians can support youth aging out of foster care by working collaboratively with the child welfare agency in their state to ensure that the ongoing health needs of transitioning youth are met.

  14. Parenting the Poorly Attached Teenager. Fostering Families. A Specialized Training Program Designed for Foster Care Workers & Foster Care Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Mona Struhsaker; Faust, Timothy Philip

    This module is part of a training program for foster parents and foster care workers offered at Colorado State University. The module explores the attachment process and the long-term effects of attachment difficulties in the first years of a child's life. The module's learning objectives address: (1) ways of identifying the basic concepts…

  15. Supporting Youth Aging Out of Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmann, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Over 400,000 children are in foster care in the United States, and more than 100,000 of them are waiting to be adopted. Yet many will age out of foster care into adulthood without an adoptive family. Teens and young adults aging out of foster care, even those with preparation and training for the transition, often do not fare well in young adulthood. Many face challenges in areas of education, employment, homelessness, finances, the criminal justice system, and meeting health and mental healthcare needs. Research demonstrates what only makes sense: teens with tangible support from meaningful adult relationships fare better than those without. This article describes an innovative program that connects teens in foster care with supportive adults through social events that can lead to meaningful long-term teen-adult connections - including friendships, mentoring, and even, in some cases, adoption. Pediatric nurses, aware of the challenges these teens face adjusting to adulthood, can begin to explore referral and support options for such teens in their own locales using the resources herein.

  16. 75 FR 23557 - National Foster Care Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... America A Proclamation Nearly a half-million children and youth are in foster care in America, all... promise of children and youth in foster care, as well as former foster youth. We also celebrate the professionals and foster parents who demonstrate the depth and kindness of the human heart. Children and youth...

  17. We Care for Kids: A Handbook for Foster Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. of Children and Family Services, Springfield.

    This handbook outlines essential information for foster parents under these basic headings: (1) legal rights and responsibilities of children, parents and foster parents; (2) recruitment, licensing, training, and evaluation of foster homes; (3) placement and removal of foster children; (4) payments and expenses; (5) medical care; (6)…

  18. Social and Psychological Adjustment in Foster Care Alumni: Education and Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Archakova T.O.

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses issues in social and psychological adjustment of young adults, grown up in foster families. The psychological and socio-pedagogical factors facilitating professional education, successful employment and financial independence are emphasized. The methods and results of several large simple design researches of adjustment in foster care alumni, conducted in USA, are described. Recommendations for services and specialists working with young adults leaving state care are prov...

  19. 76 FR 25519 - National Foster Care Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... people in foster care. Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, we have significantly... Agriculture child nutrition programs. Additionally, beginning in 2014, the Affordable Care Act will require...

  20. Re-Imagining Language, Culture, and Family in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Victoria I.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly half a million children in the United States are currently being served by the foster care system. Infants and toddlers represent the largest single group entering foster care. While these very young children are at the greatest peril for physical, mental health, and developmental issues and tend to spend the longest time in the foster care…

  1. 45 CFR 1356.71 - Federal review of the eligibility of children in foster care and the eligibility of foster care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE... foster care and the eligibility of foster care providers in title IV-E programs. 1356.71 Section 1356.71... § 1356.71 Federal review of the eligibility of children in foster care and the eligibility of foster care...

  2. Mental and Physical Health of Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Each year, nearly 1% of US children spend time in foster care, with 6% of US children placed in foster care at least once between their birth and 18th birthday. Although a large literature considers the consequences of foster care placement for children's wellbeing, no study has used a nationally representative sample of US children to compare the mental and physical health of children placed in foster care to the health of children not placed in foster care. We used data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health, a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized children in the United States, and logistic regression models to compare parent-reported mental and physical health outcomes of children placed in foster care to outcomes of children not placed in foster care, children adopted from foster care, children across specific family types (eg, single-mother households), and children in economically disadvantaged families. We find that children in foster care are in poor mental and physical health relative to children in the general population, children across specific family types, and children in economically disadvantaged families. Some differences are explained by adjusting for children's demographic characteristics, and nearly all differences are explained by also adjusting for the current home environment. Additionally, children adopted from foster care, compared with children in foster care, have significantly higher odds of having some health problems. Children in foster care are a vulnerable population in poor health, partially as a result of their early life circumstances. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Supportive Housing in Foster Care: The Views of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Kyttälä, Minna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Finnish young people's experiences of supportive housing. Supportive housing is an after-care programme that should support the transition from foster care to independent adulthood. It is directed mainly at young people who have been taken into foster care by social workers. The sample consisted of 39 young people (23…

  4. Resiliency in Children and Youth in Kinship Care and Family Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jed

    2008-01-01

    This study examined self-concept, resiliency and social support in 107 children and youth placed in foster care in New York City. Of the children and youth, 55 were placed in family foster care, while the remaining 52 children and youth were placed in a kinship foster home. Significantly more of mothers of the kinship foster care children and…

  5. Compassionate Care Leave & Benefits. CAUT Briefing Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Compassionate care leave and benefits were introduced in 2003/04 to help employees cope with this difficult work-life balance challenge. Employment Standards legislation and the Employment Insurance program (EI) were amended to provide leave without pay, with payment of EI benefits for compassionate care leave. Collective agreements have been…

  6. Children in foster care: what forensic nurses need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Children living in foster care are a unique population with specialized healthcare needs. This article will assist forensic nurses and advanced practice forensic nurses, particularly those working in pediatrics, in understanding the needs of children in foster care and implementing a practice plan to better meet their healthcare needs. To that end, a basic understanding of the foster care system is crucial and involves an appreciation of the interface between the legal system and the child welfare system. Most important to providing care to children in foster care is a true understanding of trauma exposure and its potential effects on the lives of children: physically, developmentally, emotionally, and psychologically. This article will assist forensic nurses working with pediatric populations to more fully understand the needs of children in foster care and to develop innovative interventions to appropriately meet their unique needs.

  7. Engaging Adolescent Youth in Foster Care through Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen; Girvin, Heather; Primak, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Older youth in foster care are particularly vulnerable because they are poorly prepared for the transition from foster care to independent adulthood. Interventions designed to assist in this transition rarely engage youth directly; plans are made for youth rather than with them. Photographs can serve as an externalised medium for the expression of…

  8. Emancipated Foster Youth's Transition from Care to Virginia Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shylan E.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study was the experience of students who had successfully achieved the transition from foster care to enrollment in Virginia Community Colleges. The following questions guided the inquiry: How do students who are emancipating from foster care describe their transition to enrollment at one of the Virginia Community Colleges? What…

  9. Improving the Postsecondary Educational Attainment of Youth in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy

    2018-01-01

    This chapter examines what we know about the disparity in postsecondary educational attainment between youth in foster care and their non-foster care peers, the reasons for it, and the policies and programs that have been developed to address that disparity. It also discusses the unique role that community colleges can play in reducing this…

  10. Foster Care Involvement among Medicaid-Enrolled Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidav, Zuleyha; Xie, Ming; Mandell, David S.

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence and risk of foster care involvement among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) relative to children with intellectual disability (ID), children with ASD and ID, and typically developing children were examined using 2001-2007 Medicaid data. Children were followed up to the first foster care placement or until the end of 2007;…

  11. Trajectories of Depression Symptoms among Older Youths Exiting Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Michelle R.; McMillen, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories of depressive symptoms as older youths from the foster care system mature while also examining the correlates of these trajectories. Data came from a longitudinal study of 404 youths from the foster care system in Missouri, who were interviewed nine times between their 17th and 19th…

  12. Factors associated with family reunification for children in foster care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, Mónica; del Valle, Jorge F.; Montserrat, Carme; Bravo, Amaia

    In this paper, we analyse reunification processes from family foster care, both kinship and non-kinship, and the variables associated with them in a Spanish sample. Data collection was carried out after a review of child protection and foster care files, and those responsible for the cases were also

  13. Health risk behavior of youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie B; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy

    2009-05-01

    Many adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore, identification of risk behavior is critical. Data from a larger study were analyzed to investigate the health risk behavior of 56 youth in foster care using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition. Data indicated that youth in foster care had some increased risk behavior when compared with a normative adolescent population. Younger adolescents and those in relative placement had less risky behavior. Risk behavior was increased for youth in foster care when they were in group homes, had experienced a parental death, or had a history of physical or emotional abuse or attempted suicide. These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability for youth in foster care and suggest areas for clinicians and caregivers of these adolescents to focus interventions towards harm reduction and enhancement of resiliency.

  14. Can Medicaid Claims Validly Ascertain Foster Care Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Ramesh; Brown, Derek S; Allaire, Benjamin T

    2017-08-01

    Medicaid claims have been used to identify populations of children in foster care in the current literature; however, the ability of such an approach to validly ascertain a foster care population is unknown. This study linked children in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being-I to their Medicaid claims from 36 states using their Social Security numbers. Using this match, we examined discordance between caregiver report of foster care placement and the foster care eligibility code contained in the child's Medicaid claims. Only 73% of youth placed in foster care for at least a year displayed a Medicaid code for foster care eligibility. Half of all youth coming into contact with child welfare displayed discordance between caregiver report and Medicaid claims. Children with emergency department utilization, and those in primary care case management health insurance arrangements, had the highest odds of accurate ascertainment. The use of Medicaid claims to identify a cohort of children in foster care results in high rates of underascertainment. Supplementing administrative data with survey data is one way to enhance validity of ascertainment.

  15. Food in Foster Families: Care, Communication and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Alyson; Holland, Sally; Pithouse, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the significance of food and mealtimes in relation to the transition into foster care and the therapeutic settling of the child in a new family. In doing so, we draw upon an in-depth, qualitative case study of 10 experienced foster families in the UK focusing on what helped them to be successful. At the time of the study, there…

  16. Improving Educational Outcomes for Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christina; Kabler, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Recent statistics estimate that there are 783,000 children living in foster care in the United States. This vulnerable population is at risk for academic failure as well as internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. Compared to their peers, foster youth face significant educational difficulties, including lower levels of academic…

  17. How to Measure the Cost of Foster Family Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, Barbara H.; And Others

    This report presents a method for measuring the cost of foster family care in local areas through use of governmental and other available data on costs relating to non-foster children. The cost measurement procedures used, for which 32 pages of tables and worksheet forms are provided, are designed to measure average costs in a particular area…

  18. 77 FR 26909 - National Foster Care Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ..., childhood can be a time of sadness, pain, and separation. These children need and deserve safe, loving, and... commend the devotion and selflessness of the foster parents who step in to care for them. We also pay..., parent and advocacy groups--volunteer their time as mentors, tutors, and advocates for children in foster...

  19. Treatment Foster Care Pre-Service Trainings: Changes in Parenting Attitudes and Fostering Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Amy; Trunzo, Annette C.; Kaelin, Michael S.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Pre-service training of treatment parents is a requirement for all foster care models to ensure safety and well-being of children in care. Researchers theorize treatment parents benefit more from enhanced pre-service trainings; however, no rigorous studies exist indicating the effectiveness of these trainings for treatment parents.…

  20. The effect of foster care placement on paternal welfare dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter

    The arrival of a child profoundly alters the life-course for men. Yet, children could change men's lives not only by arriving in them, but also by departing from them. In this article, I test how one such departure-foster care placement-affects men's labor market attachment, and in so doing I...... provide a novel parallel to existing research on how fatherhood affects men, which focuses almost exclusively on a child's arrival. Using population panel data from Denmark that include all first time fathers whose children were placed in foster care from 1995-2005, I find that having a child placed...... in foster care is associated with up to a 12 percentage point increase in welfare dependency. This result persists in analyses that control for individual and family level fixed effects, unobserved heterogeneity, and selection into having a child placed in foster care....

  1. Getting Foster Youth to and through College: Successes and Challenges of the New Jersey Foster Care Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Maia; Losey, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The popularity of the New Jersey Foster Care Scholars program is a testament to its importance. Typical college students rely on parents for financial assistance and emotional support. Youth aging out of foster care often are on their own. The scholarship program offers an opportunity for higher education that many foster youth thought they would…

  2. 25 CFR 20.507 - What requirements must foster care providers meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.507 What requirements must foster care providers meet? If a child needs foster care, the social services worker must select care that... contain an approved current home study. (c) An off-reservation foster home, or residential care facility...

  3. Predictors of Early Childbirth Among Female Adolescents in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Bryn; Van Wert, Melissa

    2017-08-01

    Placement into foster care is driven by a number of factors, many of which are associated with adolescent childbirth. Yet, there are few studies that identify the experiences and characteristics that predict adolescent childbirth among girls who spend time in foster care. A longitudinal, population-based data set was constructed by probabilistically matching California child protective service records for female foster youth to maternal information available on vital birth records for children born between 2001 and 2010. Rates of childbirth among girls in foster care after their 10th birthday were generated. Chi-square tests assessed differences and survival models were specified to determine the rate of childbearing across key characteristics. Among the 30,339 girls who spent time in foster care as adolescents, 18.3% (5,567) gave birth for the first time before their 20th birthday. At a bivariate level, significant differences (p foster care placement experiences. In the fully adjusted survival model, the highest birth rates were observed among girls who entered care between ages 13 and 16 years; had been in care for relatively short periods of time; lived in congregate care at the estimated date of conception; had a history of running away; and were Latina, black, or Native American. The results suggest that there are identifiable risk factors associated with early childbirth among girls in foster care, which can help determine the timing and location of reproductive health services to minimize unintended pregnancy and maximize adolescent health and well-being. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychotropic medication patterns among youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Julie M; Safer, Daniel J; Sai, Devadatta; Gardner, James F; Thomas, Diane; Coombes, Phyllis; Dubowski, Melissa; Mendez-Lewis, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Studies have revealed that youth in foster care covered by Medicaid insurance receive psychotropic medication at a rate > 3 times that of Medicaid-insured youth who qualify by low family income. Systematic data on patterns of medication treatment, particularly concomitant drugs, for youth in foster care are limited. The purpose of this work was to describe and quantify patterns of psychotropic monotherapy and concomitant therapy prescribed to a randomly selected, 1-month sample of youth in foster care who had been receiving psychotropic medication. METHODS. Medicaid data were accessed for a July 2004 random sample of 472 medicated youth in foster care aged 0 through 19 years from a southwestern US state. Psychotropic medication treatment data were identified by concomitant pattern, frequency, medication class, subclass, and drug entity and were analyzed in relation to age group; gender; race or ethnicity; International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, psychiatric diagnosis; and physician specialty. Of the foster children who had been dispensed psychotropic medication, 41.3% received > or = 3 different classes of these drugs during July 2004, and 15.9% received > or = 4 different classes. The most frequently used medications were antidepressants (56.8%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drugs (55.9%), and antipsychotic agents (53.2%). The use of specific psychotropic medication classes varied little by diagnostic grouping. Psychiatrists prescribed 93% of the psychotropic medication dispensed to youth in foster care. The use of > or = 2 drugs within the same psychotropic medication class was noted in 22.2% of those who were given prescribed drugs concomitantly. Concomitant psychotropic medication treatment is frequent for youth in foster care and lacks substantive evidence as to its effectiveness and safety.

  5. Enhancing the Empowerment of Youth in Foster Care: Supportive Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Sandra J.; Skolnik, Louise; Turnbull, Ayme

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the research on youth empowerment in seven child welfare programmatic areas. A lack of studies specifically focused on the empowerment of youth in foster care was found. Conceptual perspectives and existing data, however, suggest that the empowerment of youth in and transitioning out of care is essential and should be overtly…

  6. Pathways to Preventing Substance Use Among Youth in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun K; Buchanan, Rohanna; Price, Joseph M

    2017-07-01

    Substance use problems are highly prevalent among youth in foster care. Such problems in adolescence have long-lasting implications for subsequent adjustment throughout adulthood and even across generations. Although several programs have demonstrated positive results in reducing substance use in at-risk youth, few studies have systemically examined how such programs work for foster youth and whether they are effective for both genders. This study examined the efficacy of KEEP SAFE, a family-based and skill-focused program designed to prevent substance use and other related health risking behaviors among youth in foster care. We hypothesized that improving the caregiver-youth relationship would lead to later reductions in youths' involvement with deviant peers, which subsequently would lead to less substance use, and that this mechanism would work comparably for both genders. A sample of 259 youth (154 girls, ages 11-17 years) in foster care and their caregivers participated in a randomized controlled trial and was followed for 18 months post-baseline. Results indicated that the intervention significantly reduced substance use in foster youth at 18 months post-baseline and that the intervention influenced substance use through two processes: youths' improved quality of relationships with caregivers at 6 months post-baseline and fewer associations with deviant peers at 12 months post-baseline. This suggests that these two processes may be fruitful immediate targets in substance use prevention programs for foster youth. We also found little gender differences in direct and mediating effects of the intervention, suggesting KEEP SAFE may be effective for both genders in foster care.

  7. A Critical Reflection: Foster Care Youth Experiences at a Four Year Postsecondary Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Renada D.

    2016-01-01

    Foster care youth face significant challenges to postsecondary educational success, especially while enrolled at four-year institutions. Foster care youth are absent of family support that their non-foster peers receive throughout the college experience. Without family support, foster care youth encounter greater challenges to persevere through…

  8. Trauma-Informed Care for Youth in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratto, Carolyn M

    2016-06-01

    For decades, evidence has shown an undeniable connection between childhood trauma and chronic adverse reactions across the lifespan (Bilchik & Nash, 2008; Perry, 2001; Perry, 2006). Childhood traumatic experiences are associated with serious and persistent, long-term physical, psychological, and substance abuse issues. In addition to adverse effects on physical health, research indicates that early childhood trauma has particularly adverse effects on adolescent self-esteem, coping skills, school performance, self-regulation, critical thinking, self-motivation, and the ability to build healthy relationships (O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009). A traumatic event is a dangerous or distressing experience, outside the range of usual human experience that overwhelms the capacity to cope and frequently results in intense emotional and physical reactions, feelings of helplessness and terror, and threatens serious injury or death (The National Child Traumatic Stress Network [NCTSNET], 2014). Approximately five million children each year in the United States experience some type of traumatic experience (Perry, 2006). Nationwide community studies estimate between 25% and 61% of children and adolescents have a history of at least one exposure to a potentially traumatic event and 38.5% of American adults claim to have experienced at least one traumatic event before the age of 13 (Briggs et al., 2012; Gerson & Rappaport, 2013). According to results of a 2002-2003 survey of 900 New York City adolescents, 24% reported a history of witnessing someone being shot, 12% reported exposure to someone being killed, and 51% reported witnessing someone being beaten or mugged (O'Connell et al., 2009). Each year, 2-3 million children are victims of maltreatment, a type of trauma, including physical and/or sexual abuse (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014; Perry, 2006). Compared to the general population, youth in foster care are significantly more likely to have experienced

  9. Prior Trauma Exposure for Youth in Treatment Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Shannon; Burns, Barbara J.; Southerland, Dannia G.; Cox, Julia Revillion; Wagner, H. Ryan; Farmer, Elizabeth M. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Very little research has focused on rates of trauma exposure for youth in treatment foster care (TFC). Available research has utilized record review for assessing exposure, which presents limitations for the range of trauma types examined, as records are predominantly focused on abuse and neglect. The current study examines exposure rates and…

  10. Modern Family: Adoption and Foster Care in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meese, Ruth Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Teachers often have no preparation for handling the questions and conversations that arise in the classroom when discussing literature having adoption or foster care themes. Instead of relying on personal experiences or stereotypes portrayed through the media, teachers are advised to understand the developmental tasks of children from families…

  11. After Foster Care and Juvenile Justice: A Preview of the Youth Villages Transitional Living Evaluation. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Ravett, Sara; Jacobs, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Young people who are leaving the foster care and juvenile justice systems often experience a difficult transition to adulthood that is characterized by a number of troubling outcomes, including poverty, low levels of education and employment, and housing instability. While some services are available for these populations, there is little evidence…

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Preschool Children in Foster Care: The Influence of Placement and Foster Family Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, Mira; Petermann, Franz

    2017-10-01

    Children in foster care often experience traumatic events which increase their risk for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Until now, no research has investigated the developmentally sensitive PTSS criteria for preschoolers among children in foster care. The current study estimated the prevalence of potentially traumatic experiences and clinical PTSS in German foster care children aged 3 to 7 years. The foster parents of 324 children completed questionnaires about children's PTSS, foster parental stress, parenting, and family functioning. Linear regression models tested trauma-related variables, placement history, and foster family characteristics as predictors of PTSS. Approximately 45.4% of the foster children had experienced at least one traumatic event and 15.4% had clinical PTSS. Physical abuse, β = .34, p < .001; hospitalization, β = -.17, p = .026; witnessing someone being hurt, β = -.15, p = .047; and parental stress, β = .43, p < .001, were significantly associated with PTSS. Results demonstrate the impact the foster family has on children who are coping with trauma, and suggest the necessity of trauma-sensitive trainings for foster parents, with stress management as an important component. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  13. Planned and unplanned terminations of foster care placements in the Netherlands: Relationships with characteristics of foster children and foster placements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, F.; Maaskant, A.; Weijers, I.; Weijers, D.; Hermanns, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of placement and child characteristics in the unplanned termination of foster placements. Data were used from 169 foster children aged 0 to 20. Results showed that 35% of all foster placement terminations were unplanned. Outcomes of logistic regression analyses

  14. 'To talk or not to talk?' : Foster youth's experiences of sharing stories about their past and being in foster care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbakkers, Anne; van der Steen, Steffie; Grietens, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Sharing stories about the past and about being in care, can help adolescents placed in foster families to make meaning of their experiences and connect with their conversation partner. However, what obstacles and opportunities for sharing stories are experienced by foster youth has not been

  15. Foster care as a form of family support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Flaga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The foster care system in Poland has recently undergone many changes on the basis of new legislation. It has been presented as a part of the work with the child and its family towards reintegration of the child’s family. However, in order for the aim of foster care to be achieved in this form, it is necessary to integrate work with the child and its family with all the elements of the local environment. Similar assumptions are the basis of the pedagogical concept of the environmental educational system by Stanisław Kowalski. The article presents how to implement pedagogical objectives through legal solutions, which emphasize the integration of the local environment.

  16. 45 CFR 1355.40 - Foster care and adoption data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 1355.40 Foster care and adoption data collection. (a) Scope of the data collection system. (1) Each... children who enter foster care prior to October 1, 1995 and who are still in the system, core data elements... of foster care data reports. (1) For each child, a computer generated transaction date must reflect...

  17. Sexual and Gender Minority Youth in Foster Care: Assessing Disproportionality and Disparities in Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Bianca DM; Cooper, Khush; Kastanis, Angeliki; Nezhad, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    LGBTQ foster youth are twice as likely to report poor treatment and more likely to live in group homes and to have more foster care placements. Approximately 1 in 5, or 1,400 foster youth in Los Angeles County, home to the nation’s largest population of foster youth, identify as LGBTQ. The finding is twice the estimated percentage of youth not in foster care who are LGBTQ. Generally, LGBTQ foster youth mirror the racial/ethnic demographic of all foster youth in Los Angeles County. The majorit...

  18. Washington state foster care: dental utilization and expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, Molly L R; Chi, Donald L; Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen E; Grembowski, David

    2014-01-01

    To identify factors associated with dental utilization and expenditures for children enrolled in Washington State (WA) foster care (FC). This cross-sectional study used 2008 Medicaid enrollment and claims files for children ages WA FC program for ≥11 months (N = 10,177). Regression models were used to examine associations between utilization and expenditures and sex, race, age group, Supplemental Security Income (SSI) (i.e., disability), substance abuse, behavior problems, placement setting (Foster Home Care, Kinship Care, Group Care, Other), and urbanicity. Only 43 percent of the children utilized any dental care; the adjusted mean expenditure was $198.35 [95% confidence interval (CI) $181.35, $215.36]. Fewer utilized diagnostic (41 percent), preventive (39 percent), restorative (11 percent), or complex (5 percent) services. Associated with utilization (P ≤ 0.01) were: female [ARR = 1.05, 95% CI(1.01, 1.10)]; 0-2 years [ARR = 0.18, 95% CI(0.15, 0.21)], [3-5 years ARR = 0.78, 95% CI(0.74, 0.83)]; Native American [ARR = 0.85, 95% CI(0.80, 0.91)]; SSI [ARR = 1.10, 95% CI(1.04, 1.17)]; Kinship Care [ARR = 0.94, 95% CI(0.90, 0.98)]; Group Care [ARR = 1.25 95% CI(1.15, 1.37)]; and urban/rural urbanicity with population WA FC for ≥11 months during 2008 did not receive dental care. Research is needed to determine the level of unmet need among children in FC and interventions to improve access to oral health of the children. Enforcement of existing federal legislation is needed. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  19. From Foster Care to College: The Seita Scholars Program at Western Michigan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unrau, Yvonne A.

    2011-01-01

    More than 32,000 young people in the United States exit the foster care system in a typical year by aging out to independence (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2011). Despite available financial support for post-secondary education through the Foster Care Independence Act of 1999, only 20% of college-qualified foster youth attend college and…

  20. 45 CFR 1356.30 - Safety requirements for foster care and adoptive home providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... licensing file for that foster or adoptive family must contain documentation which verifies that safety... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety requirements for foster care and adoptive... ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND...

  1. Practising Political Care Ethics: Can Responsive Evaluation Foster Democratic Care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visse, M.A.; Abma, T.; Widdershoven, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines if and how responsive evaluation as a deliberative approach can serve as a guide for a politically oriented care ethics. A political care ethics puts the assignment of responsibilities and the inclusion of multiple perspectives of people at the centre of care. It honours the

  2. Parental Book Reading and Social-Emotional Outcomes for Head Start Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyunghee; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the associations between parental book reading and social-emotional outcomes for Head Start children in foster care. Despite no main Head Start impact on parental book reading, subgroup effects were found. Foster parents in Head Start provided more book reading for children with disabilities but less for children with low preacademic scores. Head Start enhanced social-emotional outcomes for children in foster care. The positive impacts of Head Start on children's social-emotional outcomes were greater when parents read books frequently. Head Start should include more foster families and provided parenting skills to enhance social-emotional outcomes for children in foster care.

  3. Health care quality measures for children and adolescents in Foster Care: feasibility testing in electronic records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Katherine J; Minneci, Peter C; Nacion, Kristine M; Leonhart, Karen; Cooper, Jennifer N; Scholle, Sarah Hudson; Kelleher, Kelly J

    2018-02-22

    Preventive quality measures for the foster care population are largely untested. The objective of the study is to identify healthcare quality measures for young children and adolescents in foster care and to test whether the data required to calculate these measures can be feasibly extracted and interpreted within an electronic health records or within the Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System. The AAP Recommendations for Preventive Pediatric Health Care served as the guideline for determining quality measures. Quality measures related to well child visits, developmental screenings, immunizations, trauma-related care, BMI measurements, sexually transmitted infections and depression were defined. Retrospective chart reviews were performed on a cohort of children in foster care from a single large pediatric institution and related county. Data available in the Ohio Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System was compared to the same population studied in the electronic health record review. Quality measures were calculated as observed (received) to expected (recommended) ratios (O/E ratios) to describe the actual quantity of recommended health care that was received by individual children. Electronic health records and the Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System data frequently lacked important information on foster care youth essential for calculating the measures. Although electronic health records were rich in encounter specific clinical data, they often lacked custodial information such as the dates of entry into and exit from foster care. In contrast, Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System included robust data on custodial arrangements, but lacked detailed medical information. Despite these limitations, several quality measures were devised that attempted to accommodate these limitations. In this feasibility testing, neither the electronic health records at a single institution nor the county level Statewide

  4. Labeling and the effect of adolescent legal system involvement on adult outcomes for foster youth aging out of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JoAnn S; Courtney, Mark E; Harachi, Tracy W; Tajima, Emiko A

    2015-09-01

    This study uses labeling theory to examine the role that adolescent legal system involvement may play in initiating a process of social exclusion, leading to higher levels of adult criminal activities among foster youth who have aged out of care. We used data from the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (Midwest Study), a prospective study that sampled 732 youth from Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin as they were preparing to leave the foster care system at ages 17 or 18. The youth were interviewed again at ages 19, 21, and 23 or 24. We used structural equation modeling to examine pathways to self-reported adult criminal behaviors from juvenile legal system involvement. The path model indicated that legal system involvement as a juvenile was associated with a lower likelihood of having a high school diploma at age 19, which was associated with a reduced likelihood of employment and increased criminal activities at age 21. Legal system involvement is more common among foster youth aging out of care, and this legal system involvement appears to contribute to a process of social exclusion by excluding former foster youth from conventional opportunities. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Behavior problems of children in foster care: Associations with foster mothers' representations, commitment, and the quality of mother-child interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Bernier, Annie; Tarabulsy, George M; Cyr, Chantal; St-Laurent, Diane; Lanctôt, Anne-Sophie; St-Onge, Janie; Moss, Ellen; Béliveau, Marie-Julie

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated different environmental and contextual factors associated with maltreated children's adjustment in foster care. Participants included 83 children (52 boys), ages 1-7 years, and their foster caregivers. Quality of interaction with the foster caregiver was assessed from direct observation of a free-play situation; foster caregiver attachment state of mind and commitment toward the child were assessed using two interviews; disruptive behavior symptoms were reported by foster caregivers. Results showed that quality of interaction between foster caregivers and children were associated with behavior problems, such that higher-quality interactions were related to fewer externalizing and internalizing problems. Foster caregivers' state of mind and commitment were interrelated but not directly associated with behavior problems of foster children. Type of placement moderated the association between foster caregiver commitment and foster child behavior problems. Whereas greater foster caregiver commitment was associated with higher levels of adjustment for children in foster families (kin and non-kin), this was not the case in foster-to-adopt families. Finally, the associations between foster child behavior problems and history of maltreatment and placement related-risk conditions fell below significance after considering child age and quality of interaction with the foster caregiver. Findings underscore the crucial contribution of the foster caregiver-child relationship to fostering child adjustment and, thereby, have important implications for clinical services offered to this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Delinquency and Crime Prevention: Overview of Research Comparing Treatment Foster Care and Group Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Gershon K.; Gorey, Kevin M.; Jozefowicz, Debra M. Hernandez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence of treatment foster care (TFC) and group care's (GC) potential to prevent delinquency and crime has been developing. Objectives: We clarified the state of comparative knowledge with a historical overview. Then we explored the hypothesis that smaller, probably better resourced group homes with smaller staff/resident ratios have…

  7. Placement breakdown in foster care: Reducing risks by a foster parent training program?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis started by focusing on Dutch foster children’s well-being, emotional and behavioral functioning and placement stability. Subsequently, we attempted to identify how foster families who are considered to be at a high risk of placement breakdown could be given effective support. The

  8. Reaching everyone: Promoting the inclusion of youth with disabilities in evaluating foster care outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Blakeslee, Jennifer E.; Quest, A. Del; Powers, Jennifer; Powers, Laurie E.; Geenen, Sarah; Nelson, May; Dalton, Lawrence D.; McHugh, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to evaluate foster care outcomes must avoid systematic exclusion of particular groups. Although often unrecognized as such, youth with disabilities are highly overrepresented in the U.S. foster care system, and yet youth with some disabilities, including those with intellectual, serious emotional, and physical impairments may be underrepresented in research and evaluation studies evaluating foster care outcomes. The recruitment and retention of youth with various disabilities in such ...

  9. Where do youth in foster care receive information about preventing unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Angela L

    2012-10-01

    Adolescents in foster care are at risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection. A study using a qualitative method was conducted to describe how and where foster youth receive reproductive health and risk reduction information to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Participants also were asked to describe their relationship with their primary health care provider while they were in foster care. Nineteen young adults, recently emancipated from foster care, participated in individual interviews. Using grounded theory as the method of analysis, three thematic categories were generated: discomfort visiting and disclosing, receiving and not receiving the bare essentials, and learning prevention from community others. Recommendations include primary health care providers providing a confidential space for foster youth to disclose sexual activity and more opportunities for foster youth to receive reproductive and risk prevention information in the school setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fostering change within organizational participants of multisectoral health care alliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearld, Larry R; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Mittler, Jessica N

    2012-01-01

    A touted advantage of multisectoral health care alliances is their ability to coordinate diverse constituencies and pursue community health goals in ways that allow them to make greater progress than each constituency could independently. However, participating organizations may have goals that do not entirely overlap or necessarily align with the alliance's goals, which can weaken or undermine an alliance's efforts. Fostering changes within participating organizations in ways that are consistent with the alliance's goals (i.e., alliance-oriented change) may be one mechanism by which alliances can coordinate diverse activities and improve care in their local communities. We examined whether alliance-oriented change within participating organizations is associated with alliance decision-making and conflict management style, level of participation, perceptions of alliance participation benefits and costs, and awareness of alliance activities within participating organizations. The study used two rounds of survey data collected from organizational participants of 14 alliances participating in the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Aligning Forces for Quality program. Alliance participants generally reported low levels of alliance-oriented change within their organizations as a result of the alliance and its activities. However, participants reporting higher levels of internal change in response to alliance activities had more positive perceptions of alliance decision-making style, higher levels of participation in alliance activities, more positive perceptions of alliance participation benefits relative to costs, and greater awareness of alliance activities across multiple levels of their respective organizations. Despite relatively low levels of alliance-oriented change within participating organizations, alliances may still have the means to align the goal orientations of a diverse membership and foster change that may extend the reach of the alliance in the community.

  11. Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Transactional Sex in Youth Aging out of Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kym R.; Katon, Wayne; McCarty, Carolyn; Richardson, Laura P.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the association between history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and having transactional sex among adolescents who have been in foster care. Methods: We used an existing dataset of youth transitioning out of foster care. Independent CSA variables included self report of history of sexual molestation and rape when participants…

  12. Caregiver Involvement in the Education of Youth in Foster Care: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisse, Kay; Tyre, Ashli

    2013-01-01

    This study was an exploratory investigation of caregiver involvement in the education of youth in foster care. In this study, foster caregivers reported that they are involved in the education of children in their care and participate in at-home involvement activities more often than at-school involvement activities. Caregivers in this study…

  13. Postsecondary Strengths, Challenges, and Supports Experienced by Foster Care Alumni College Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Amy M.; Jones, Kevin R.; Emerson, John C.; Mucha, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Young people transitioning from foster care to college experience unique identities and circumstances that make being successful in college especially challenging. We used qualitative survey data from 248 college graduates who were formerly in foster care to explore the strengths, challenges, and supports they experienced while in college that…

  14. Foster Care Placement, Poor Parenting, and Negative Outcomes among Homeless Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Although homeless youth with and without foster care histories both face adverse life circumstances, little is known about how these two groups compare in terms of their early histories and whether they face similar outcomes. As such, we compared those with and without a history of foster care placement to determine if the associations between a…

  15. From Famine to Feast. A Review of the Foster Care Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellick, Clive

    2006-01-01

    Foster care has become the principal placement of choice for children and young people in public care in the United Kingdom (UK). This has been accompanied by a significant growth in its research scrutiny connected to a busy policy agenda, especially since 1997. With its increased usage, fostering has encountered both difficulties and…

  16. City Kids in the Wilderness: A Pilot-Test of Outward Bound for Foster Care Group Home Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert L.; Attah, E. B.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined perceptions of a 7-day Outward Bound program among 23 urban youths, foster parents, and foster care workers from group homes in Atlanta (Georgia). Foster parents reported improved self-esteem and behavior among the teens, but foster care workers reported worse behavior. Negative program impressions lessened among male youths but…

  17. A Foster Care Alumna’s Past and Present Technological Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesia Roche

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on technology use and access among youth raised in non-traditional family structures indicates that the youth’s experiences are different from individuals raised in traditional family structures. Foster care represents a non-traditional family structure that warrants research attention in terms of technology. Using a multicultural feminist framework, the present study explores the past and present technological experience of a woman (30 years old who was raised in the foster care system. The results are presented as a case study documenting her technological experience in foster care, as she transitioned out of the foster care system, and as she has taken on the roles of wife and mother. Results indicated that the participant had limited access to technology while in the foster care system, and this limited technology access related to her current use and perceptions of technology. Directions for future research are provided.

  18. Youth transitioning out of foster care: an evaluation of a Supplemental Security Income policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laura; Rukh-Kamaa, Aneer

    2013-01-01

    Youths with disabilities face numerous challenges when they transition to adulthood. Those who are aging out of foster care face the additional challenge of losing their foster care benefits, although some will be eligible for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments after foster care ceases. However, the time needed to process SSI applications exposes those youths to a potential gap in the receipt of benefits as they move between foster care and SSI. We evaluate the effects of a 2010 Social Security Administration policy change that allows such youths to apply for SSI payments 60 days earlier than the previous policy allowed. The change provides additional time for processing claims before the applicant ages out of the foster care system. We examine administrative records on SSI applications from before and after the policy change to determine if the change has decreased the gap between benefits for the target population.

  19. Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy to Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersky, Joshua P.; Topitzes, James; Grant-Savela, Stacey D.; Brondino, Michael J.; McNeil, Cheryl B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study presents outcomes from a randomized trial of a novel Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) model for foster families. Differential effects of two intervention doses on child externalizing and internalizing symptoms are examined. Method: A sample of 102 foster children was assigned to one of three conditions--brief PCIT,…

  20. Allowing Family to be Family: End-of-Life Care in Veterans Affairs Medical Foster Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, Chelsea E; Haverhals, Leah M; Jones, Jacqueline; Levy, Cari R

    2016-01-01

    The Medical Foster Home program is a unique long-term care program coordinated by the Veterans Health Administration. The program pairs Veterans with private, 24-hour a day community-based caregivers who often care for Veterans until the end of life. This qualitative study explored the experiences of care coordination for Medical Foster Home Veterans at the end of life with eight Veterans' family members, five Medical Foster Home caregivers, and seven Veterans Health Administration Home-Based Primary Care team members. A case study, qualitative content analysis identified these themes addressing care coordination and impact of the Medical Foster Home model on those involved: (a) Medical Foster Home program supports Veterans' families; (b) Medical Foster Home program supports the caregiver as family; (c) Veterans' needs are met socially and culturally at the end of life; and (d) the changing needs of Veterans, families, and caregivers at Veterans' end of life are addressed. Insights into how to best support Medical Foster Home caregivers caring for Veterans at the end of life were gained including the need for more and better respite options and how caregivers are compensated in the month of the Veteran's death, as well as suggestions to navigate end-of-life care coordination with multiple stakeholders involved.

  1. The Effect of Medical Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Foster Care Caseloads: Evidence from Danish Registry Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Wildeman, Christopher

    Since the early 2000s, foster care caseloads have decreased in many wealthy democracies, yet the causes of these declines remain, for the most part, a mystery. This paper uses administrative data from one country that experienced a sharp decline in foster care caseloads, Denmark, to show that inc...... rate all shape foster care caseloads, future research should be attentive to how medical treatment aimed at addressing children’s acute behavioral problems could also have a powerful effect on foster care caseloads....

  2. 25 CFR 20.508 - What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.508 What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? The social services agency must make... placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? 20.508 Section 20.508 Indians BUREAU OF...

  3. The Socioemotional Development of Orphans in Orphanages and Traditional Foster Care in Iraqi Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Abdulbaghi; Mohamad, Kirmanj

    1996-01-01

    A one-year follow-up study of children who had lost both parents and were placed in orphanages (n=19) or foster homes (n=18) in Iraqi Kurdistan investigated the orphans' situation and development. The children in orphanages were found to have higher frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder than the foster care children. (Author/CR)

  4. Protection of Children in Malaysia through Foster Care Legislation and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children are immature, naive and unable to care for themselves. Due to this verynature of children, they are in need of among others, care, attention andsupervision from adults. Care, attention and supervision are among the means ofcare and protection of children, which can only be acquired in a familyenvironment. One of the ways to achieve family environment is through FosterCare where a child who is in need of care and protection will be placed with afamily permanently or temporarily or until they are able to care for themselves.Foster care will at least provide for a family life experience especially for childrenwithout family or who have problems in their family life. This paper is to examinethe Concept of Foster care in Malaysia and the law relating to it as to provideprotection to children in need of care and protection. Examination will focus onrelevant legislations and policy relating to Foster Care. Discussion will extend toanalysis on whether the available laws and policies are adequate to sustainchildren protection in Malaysia through Foster Care.

  5. Career mentoring needs of youths in foster care: voices for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Angela L

    2013-05-01

    Adolescents with a history of foster care placement are more likely to become homeless, have mental illness, become parents too early in life, or become incarcerated within the juvenile justice/prison system. In addition, a low percentage of young adults, who formerly were in foster care, complete vocational training or higher education. This was a qualitative study, using focus group methodology. Four focus group sessions were conducted with youth living in foster care. The purpose was to obtain their perceptions about mentoring. Focus groups comprised six to eight youths per group and were guided by a semi-structured interview guide. A total of 27 youth in foster care participated in focus group interviews. Mean age was 16.4 (SD = 0.68) years. Youth participants were very knowledgeable about mentoring programs for at-risk youth, along with negative psychosocial outcomes experienced by former foster youth. However, they remarked that they are given few opportunities for career mentoring. The overall themes that emerged from narrative data were needing and finding authority figures, hooking up with a career mentor, and deserving the good life. Career mentoring is an affordable and feasible intervention for child welfare agencies. This could lead to more motivated and prepared youth living in foster care for vocational training or higher education. Learning opportunities from a career mentor may be a lifeline for preventing negative psychosocial outcomes for foster youth, reward achievement goals, and improve overall quality of life in emerging adulthood. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. 25 CFR 20.509 - What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... home or residential care facility to law enforcement and protective services in accordance with tribal... Assistance Foster Care § 20.509 What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care... tribal or state licensed foster home or residential care facility evaluating how the home has fulfilled...

  7. Good caring and vocabularies of motive among foster carers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Doyle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Employing C. Wright Mills’ concept of vocabulary of motives, this article examines the motives and attitudes of people who volunteer to foster children with high support needs. Data is drawn from a larger qualitative study involving indepth interviewing of 23 carers. When asked why they had become foster carers participants produced conventional accounts of child-centred altruistic motives–an acceptable vocabulary of motives which satisfied institutional and cultural expectations regarding caregiving. However, closer examination of participants’ experiences and attitudes revealed the likelihood that economic motives were also factors in decisions to foster. It is argued that participants chose to exclude economic motives from their accounts so as to avoid the risk of being seen to be ‘doing it for the money’.

  8. The value of a college degree for foster care alumni: comparisons with general population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Amy M

    2013-04-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives. Outcomes compared include employment, income, housing, public assistance, physical and mental health, happiness, and other outcomes that are often found to be related to educational attainment. Foster care alumni college graduates were very similar to general population college graduates for individual income and rate of employment. However, foster care alumni graduates were behind general population graduates on factors such as self-reported job security, household earnings, health, mental health, financial satisfaction, home ownership, happiness, and public assistance usage. Results have implications for policy and practice regarding the most effective means of supporting postcollege stability of youths with foster care experience.

  9. Fostering dignity in the care of nursing home residents through slow caring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohne, Vibeke; Høy, Bente; Lillestø, Britt

    2017-01-01

    Background: Physical impairment and dependency on others may be a threat to dignity. Research questions: The purpose of this study was to explore dignity as a core concept in caring, and how healthcare personnel focus on and foster dignity in nursing home residents. Research design: This study has...... personnel, maintaining human dignity requires slow caring in nursing homes, as an essential approach....... a hermeneutic design. Participants and research context: In all, 40 healthcare personnel from six nursing homes in Scandinavia participated in focus group interviews in this study. Ethical considerations: This study has been evaluated and approved by the Regional Ethical Committees and the Social Science Data...

  10. Development and piloting of a treatment foster care program for older youth with psychiatric problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, J Curtis; Narendorf, Sarah Carter; Robinson, Debra; Havlicek, Judy; Fedoravicius, Nicole; Bertram, Julie; McNelly, David

    2015-01-01

    Older youth in out-of-home care often live in restrictive settings and face psychiatric issues without sufficient family support. This paper reports on the development and piloting of a manualized treatment foster care program designed to step down older youth with high psychiatric needs from residential programs to treatment foster care homes. A team of researchers and agency partners set out to develop a treatment foster care model for older youth based on Multi-dimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC). After matching youth by mental health condition and determining for whom randomization would be allowed, 14 youth were randomized to treatment as usual or a treatment foster home intervention. Stakeholders were interviewed qualitatively at multiple time points. Quantitative measures assessed mental health symptoms, days in locked facilities, employment and educational outcomes. Development efforts led to substantial variations from the MTFC model and a new model, Treatment Foster Care for Older Youth was piloted. Feasibility monitoring suggested that it was difficult, but possible to recruit and randomize youth from and out of residential homes and that foster parents could be recruited to serve them. Qualitative data pointed to some qualified clinical successes. Stakeholders viewed two team roles - that of psychiatric nurse and skills coaches - very highly. However, results also suggested that foster parents and some staff did not tolerate the intervention well and struggled to address the emotion dysregulation issues of the young people they served. Quantitative data demonstrated that the intervention was not keeping youth out of locked facilities. The intervention needed further refinement prior to a broader trial. Intervention development work continued until components were developed to help address emotion regulation problems among fostered youth. Psychiatric nurses and skills coaches who work with youth in community settings hold promise as important

  11. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea M. Iannelli; Simone Gonçalves Assis; Liana Wernersbach Pinto

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children an...

  12. What is work? Insights from the evolution of state foster care

    OpenAIRE

    Kirton, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on state foster care as a case study in the (re)configuration and negotiation of boundaries between work and non-work. Foster care can be seen as occupying a liminal position between the domains of ‘work’ and ‘family’, requiring management of the tensions presumed to exist between competing value systems. Through a review of research and policy developments, the relevant boundary issues are contextualized and explored, drawing examples from areas such as remuneration, tax...

  13. Reaching everyone: Promoting the inclusion of youth with disabilities in evaluating foster care outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, Jennifer E.; Quest, A. Del; Powers, Jennifer; Powers, Laurie E.; Geenen, Sarah; Nelson, May; Dalton, Lawrence D.; McHugh, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to evaluate foster care outcomes must avoid systematic exclusion of particular groups. Although often unrecognized as such, youth with disabilities are highly overrepresented in the U.S. foster care system, and yet youth with some disabilities, including those with intellectual, serious emotional, and physical impairments may be underrepresented in research and evaluation studies evaluating foster care outcomes. The recruitment and retention of youth with various disabilities in such studies can be impeded by under-identification of disability and relatively high placement and school mobility. Furthermore, youth with various disabilities may experience more disappointing outcomes than foster youth overall, underscoring the importance of including these youth in outcome tracking efforts. This is especially relevant given the recent implementation of the National Youth in Transition Database (NYTD), which requires that state child welfare agencies gather baseline information about youth in foster care at age 17, and then survey outcomes at 19 and 21. To promote the full participation of foster youth with disabilities in such outcome evaluation, this paper describes successful strategies for identifying and retaining participants that were used in three separate longitudinal intervention studies. These strategies include the systematic recruitment of foster youth by special education status, and creative use of validated tracking and retention strategies incorporating minor accommodations as needed. PMID:24273364

  14. Foster care, externalizing disorders, and antipsychotic use among Medicaid-enrolled youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwerker, Lauren; Akincigil, Ayse; Olfson, Mark; Gerhard, Tobias; Neese-Todd, Sheree; Crystal, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    The authors investigated the extent to which clinical diagnoses of externalizing disorders explain higher rates of antipsychotic use by foster care youths. Medicaid claims data from 44 states for 2009 for youths in foster care (N=301,894) and those not in foster care (N=5,092,574) were analyzed, excluding those with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism, and major depressive disorder. Logistic regressions assessed the relationship between foster care, externalizing disorders, and antipsychotic use. Foster care youths had higher rates of externalizing disorders than the comparison group (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, 17.3% versus 6.5%; disruptive behavior disorder, 7.2% versus 2.5%; conduct disorder, 2.3% versus .5%) and greater antipsychotic use (7.4% versus 1.4%). Foster care remained a significant predictor of antipsychotic use after control for demographic and diagnostic covariates, including externalizing disorders (adjusted odds ratio=2.59, 95% confidence interval=2.54-2.63). High rates of externalizing disorder diagnoses only partially explained elevated levels of antipsychotic use in this vulnerable population.

  15. Disruptions in foster care: A review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, M.; Schuengel, C.; Slot, N.W.; Bullens, R.A.R.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.

    2007-01-01

    This review examined risk and protective factors associated with placement breakdown across k = 26 studies of 20,650 children in foster families. A series of meta-analyses were performed to assess the average effect sizes across multiple studies on the same factors. Older age at placement (k = 15),

  16. 78 FR 26219 - National Foster Care Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... love, protection, and stability of a permanent family. This month, we recommit to giving them that..., family members--individuals dedicated to making a difference. As they lend their strength to our most... be an adoptive or foster parent. And we will support programs that help increase permanency, reduce...

  17. Pregnancy Rates among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two Randomized Controlled Trials of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. In the present study, the authors examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (13-17…

  18. International policies toward parental leave and child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, J

    2001-01-01

    The pleasures and pressures of parenting a newborn are universal, but the supports surrounding parents vary widely from country to country. In many nations, decades of attention to benefits and services for new parents offer lessons worthy of attention in this country. This article describes policies regarding parental leave, child care, and early childhood benefits here and in 10 industrial nations in North America and Europe. The sharpest contrast separates the United States from the other countries, although differences among the others also are instructive: The right to parental leave is new to American workers; it covers one-half of the private-sector workforce and is relatively short and unpaid. By contrast, other nations offer universal, paid leaves of 10 months or more. Child care assistance in Europe is usually provided through publicly funded programs, whereas the United States relies more on subsidies and tax credits to reimburse parents for part of their child care expenses. Nations vary in the emphasis they place on parental leave versus child care supports for families with children under age three. Each approach creates incentives that influence parents' decisions about employment and child care. Several European nations, seeking flexible solutions for parents, are testing "early childhood benefits" that can be used to supplement income or pay for private child care. Based on this review, the author urges that the United States adopt universal, paid parental leave of at least 10 months; help parents cover more child care costs; and improve the quality of child care. She finds policy packages that support different parental choices promising, because the right mix of leave and care will vary from family to family, and child to child.

  19. Extended Foster Care for Transition-Age Youth: An Opportunity for Pregnancy Prevention and Parenting Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Hammond, Ivy; Eastman, Andrea Lane; McCroskey, Jacquelyn; Webster, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    This analysis examined California county birth rate variations among girls in foster care. The objective was to generate data to assess potential intervention points tied to federal legislation extending foster care beyond age 18 years. Child protection records for all adolescent girls in foster care at age 17 years between 2003 and 2007 (N = 20,222) were linked to vital birth records through 2011. The cumulative percentage of girls who had given birth by age 21 years was calculated by county and race/ethnicity. One in three (35.2%) adolescent girls in foster care had given birth at least once before age 21 years. Although significant birth rate variations emerged, even at the low end of the county range, more than one in four girls had given birth by age 21 years. Child welfare systems are now charged with coordinating transitional services for foster youth beyond age 18 years. Extended foster care provides new opportunities for pregnancy prevention work and targeted parenting support. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Usage and Quality of Formal Child Care Services Experienced by Infants and Toddlers in Foster and Kinship Care: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    This research uses data from the Early Childhood in Foster and Kinship Care (ECIFKC) study to identify the proportion of young children, under 2 years of age, in foster and kinship care who use formal child care; weekly hours of child care; predictors of weekly hours of child care; and quality of care experienced. The sample for these analyses…

  1. Children in family foster care have greater health risks and less involvement in Child Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, M; Emmelin, M; Hjern, A; Rosvall, M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the impact of being in family foster care on selected health determinants and participation in Child Health Services (CHS). Two groups of 100 children, born between 1992 and 2008, were studied using data from Swedish Child Health Services for the preschool period up to the age of six. The first group had been in family foster care, and the controls, matched for age, sex and geographic location, had not. Descriptive statistics were used to describe differences in health determinants and participation in Child Health Services between the two groups. The foster care group had higher health risks, with lower rates of breastfeeding and higher levels of parental smoking. They were less likely to have received immunisations and attended key nurse or physician visits and speech and vision screening. Missing data for the phenylketonuria test were more common in children in family foster care. Children in family foster care were exposed to more health risks than the control children and had lower participation in the universal child health programme during the preschool period. These results call for secure access to high-quality preventive health care for this particularly vulnerable group of children. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Treatment Foster Care for Improving Outcomes in Children and Young People: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William; Macdonald, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of treatment foster care (TFC) on psychosocial and behavioral outcomes, delinquency, placement stability, and discharge status for children and adolescents who, for reasons of severe medical, social, psychological and behavioural problems, were placed in out-of-home care in restrictive settings or at risk of…

  3. Temperament, disordered attachment and parental sensitivity in foster care: Differential findings on attachment security for shy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Schipper, J.C.; Oosterman, M.; Schuengel, C.

    2012-01-01

    In a foster care sample, the moderating effect of temperamental shyness on the association between parental sensitivity and attachment quality was tested. The foster parents of 59 foster children (age M=57 months, SD=16.4) filled out the Child Behavior Questionnaire. To control for confounds,

  4. Perceived social environment and adolescents' well-being and adjustment: Comparing a foster care sample with a matched sample

    OpenAIRE

    Farruggia, SP; Greenberger, E; Chen, C; Heckhausen, J

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that former foster care youth are at risk for poor outcomes (e.g., more problem behaviors, more depression, lower self-esteem, and poor social relationships). It is not clear, however, whether these findings reflect preemancipation developmental deficits. This study used 163 preemancipation foster care youth and a matched sample of 163 comparison youth. Results showed that foster-care youth did not differ from the comparison sample on measures of well-being,...

  5. Providing a secure base: parenting children in long-term foster family care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Gillian; Beek, Mary

    2005-03-01

    This paper reports on a longitudinal study of children growing up in long-term foster family care. It focuses attention on the challenges for foster carers in providing a secure base for foster children in middle childhood and early adolescence, who have come predominantly from backgrounds of abuse, neglect, and psychosocial adversity. Separation and loss in the children's lives, often through multiple placements, increase the likelihood of difficulties across a range of development. These children tend to be wary, distrustful, and controlling when they enter foster placements, but need from their carers many of the caregiving qualities most commonly described as providing a secure base in infancy. This study describes a model of parenting which uses four caregiving dimensions that are consistent with attachment theory and research: promoting trust in availability, promoting reflective function, promoting self-esteem, and promoting autonomy. A fifth dimension, promoting family membership, is added, as it reflects the need for children in long-term foster family care to experience the security that comes from a sense of identity and belonging. Qualitative data from the study demonstrates the usefulness of this model as a framework for analysis, but also suggests the potential use of such a framework for working with and supporting foster carers.

  6. Effect of Foster Care on Language Learning at Eight Years: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Jennifer; Moraru, Ana; Nelson, Charles A., III.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on language outcomes at eight years from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled study of foster care. We previously have shown that children placed in foster care by age two have substantially stronger preschool language outcomes than children placed later and children remaining in institutional care.…

  7. Validating office-based screening for psychosocial strengths and difficulties among youths in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Sandra H; Szilagyi, Moira; Conn, Anne-Marie; Nilsen, Wendy; Toth, Sheree; Baldwin, Constance D; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2011-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of social-emotional screening in the primary care setting for youths in foster care. The setting was a primary care practice for all youth in home-based foster care in 1 county. Subjects were youths, aged 11 to 17 years, and their foster parents; both completed a Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at well-child visits. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire is a previously validated 25-item tool that has 5 domains: emotional symptoms; conduct problems; hyperactivity/inattention; peer problems; and prosocial behaviors and an overall total difficulties score. We first compared youth versus parent Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores and then assessed the accuracy of these Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores by comparing them in a subsample of youths (n = 50) with results of home-based structured clinical interviews using the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes. Of 138 subjects with both youth and parent reports, 78% had prosocial behaviors (strengths), and 70% had 1 or more social-emotional problems. Parents reported significantly more conduct problems (38% vs 16%; P youth. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire had better agreement with the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (n = 50) for any Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-identified problem for combined youth and foster-parent reports (93%), compared with youth report alone (54%) or parent report alone (71%). Although most youths in foster care have social-emotional problems, most have strengths as well. Youth and foster-parent perspectives on these problems differ. Systematic social-emotional screening in primary care that includes both youth and parent reports can identify youths who may benefit from services.

  8. The effect of medical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on foster care caseloads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    = 157,938) in the period from 1998 to 2010 to show that increasing medical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) accounts for a substantial share of the decrease in foster care caseloads. According to our estimates, the decline in foster care caseloads during this period would...... have been 45% smaller absent increases in medical treatment of ADHD. These findings are especially provocative in light of recent research showing ambiguous effects of medical treatment of ADHD. Future research should be attentive to how medical treatment aimed at addressing children’s acute behavioral...

  9. Characterizing and fostering charity care in the surgeon workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D Brad; Scarborough, John E

    2011-07-01

    We sought to determine which demographic and practice characteristics are associated with both a surgeon's willingness to provide any charity care as well as the amount of charity care provided. Although it is known that surgeons tend to provide a greater amount of charity care than other physicians, no studies have attempted to look within the surgeon population to identify which factors lead some surgeons to provide more charity care than others. Using 4 rounds of data from the Community Tracking Study, we employ a 2-part multivariate regression model with fixed effects. A greater amount of charity care is provided by surgeons who are male, practice owners, employed in academic medical centers, or earn a greater proportion of their revenue from Medicaid. Surgeons who work in a group HMO are significantly less likely to provide any charity care. Personal resources (eg, time and money) had a minimal association with charity care provision. Surgeons whose characteristics are associated with a greater propensity for charity care provision as suggested by this study, should be considered as a potential source for building the volunteer workforce.

  10. Foster Care Dynamics and System Science: Implications for Research and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulczyn, Fred; Halloran, John

    2017-10-05

    Although system is a word frequently invoked in discussions of foster care policy and practice, there have been few if any attempts by child welfare researchers to understand the ways in which the foster care system is a system. As a consequence, insights from system science have yet to be applied in meaningful ways to the problem of making foster care systems more effective. In this study, we draw on population biology to organize a study of admissions and discharges to foster care over a 15-year period. We are interested specifically in whether resource constraints, which are conceptualized here as the number of beds, lead to a coupling of admissions and discharges within congregate care. The results, which are descriptive in nature, are consistent with theory that ties admissions and discharges together because of a resource constraint. From the data, it is clear that the underlying system exerts an important constraint on what are normally viewed as individual-level decisions. Our discussion calls on extending efforts to understand the role of system science in studies of child welfare systems, with a particular emphasis on the role of feedback as a causal influence.

  11. Safeguarding children and youth in residential and foster care: Supporting healthy sexual development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gitte Riis; Grandal*, Niels

    (in 2012) to report on sexual and physical violence, that raised awareness on the subject. The investigations showed that professionals perceive very few of the cases of sexual abuse in residential and foster care and in many cases the perpetrators turn out to be peers. This drew attention......In The Netherlands, Denmark and Scotland special awareness on the subject of sexual abuse and sexual exploitation was raised by national investigations on the prevalence and content of sexual abuse in residential and foster care. In Flanders (Belgium) it was the start of the so called Helpline 1712...... to a central issue: the incapability of professionals to support a healthy sexual development and discuss sexual behaviour with children and young people, their (foster) parents and other professionals. Sex is a subject that is not easily talked about and most professionals feel insecure about. Moreover...

  12. Measuring the cost of leaving care in Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Forbes; Brett Inder; Sunitha Raman

    2006-01-01

    On any given night in Victoria, around 4,000 children and young people live under the care and protection of the State. For many young people, this care extends over a long period of time, sometimes until their 18th birthday. It is well documented that young people leaving State care often lack the social and economic resources to assist them in making the transition into independent living. As a consequence, the long-term life outcomes from this group are frequently very poor. A recent repor...

  13. [Mental health of preschool foster care children: How do foster families influence the way children cope with trauma?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, Mira; Petermann, Franz

    2017-08-15

    Parents and other significant persons have an important role when preschool children develop or cope with psychological symptoms following traumatic experiences. The underlying mechanisms of the interaction between traumatic experiences and influences of the foster family are still unclear. This study investigates foster parents’ stress levels and parenting styles as moderators or mediators in the context of traumatic experiences. Foster parents of 286 children between three and seven years participated in an online or paper-and-pencil survey. The results suggest a connection between the traumatic experiences of foster children and the stress levels as well as the parenting styles of their foster parents. While verbosity and laxness as parenting styles moderated the impact of traumatic experiences on externalising symptoms, stress levels mediated the impact of traumatic experiences on children’s internalising and externalising symptoms. The results underscore the necessity of standardized preparation of and support for foster parents in order to avoid deterioration of psychological symptoms following traumatic Events.

  14. Incremental Net Benefit of Early Intervention for Preschool-Aged Children with Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Frances L; Dickerson, John F; Saldana, Lisa; Fisher, Phillip A

    2014-01-01

    Of 1 million cases of child maltreatment identified every year in the United States, one-fifth result in foster care. Many of these children suffer from significant emotional and behavioral conditions. Decision-makers must allocate highly constrained budgets to serve these children. Recent evidence suggests that Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers can reduce negative outcomes for these children, but the relative benefits and costs of the program have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess net benefit, over 24 months, of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers compared to regular foster care. Data were from a randomized controlled trial of 117 young children entering a new foster placement. A subsample exhibited placement instability (n = 52). Intervention services including parent training, lasted 9-12 months. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers significantly increased permanent placements for the placement instability sample. Average total cost for the new intervention sample was significantly less than for regular foster care (full sample: $27,204 vs. $30,090; P = .004; placement instability sample: $29,595 vs. $36,061; P = .045). Incremental average net benefit was positive at all levels of willingness to pay of zero or greater, indicating that the value of benefits exceeded costs. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers has significant benefit for preschool children in foster care with emotional and behavioral disorders compared to regular foster care services. At even modest levels of willingness to pay, benefits exceed costs indicating a strong likeliness that this program is an efficient choice for improving outcomes for young children with emotional and behavioral disorders in foster care.

  15. Kinship and Nonrelative Foster Care: The Effect of Placement Type on Child Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses a national sample of 1,215 children, ages 6-17, who spent some time in formal kinship or nonrelative foster care to identify the effect of placement type on academic achievement, behavior, and health. Several identification strategies are used to reduce selection bias, including ordinary least squares, change score models,…

  16. You Can't Fight the System: Strategies of Family Justice in Foster Care Reintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Wes; Barnum, David

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the issue of justice in family therapy interventions and shares several strategies and ways of thinking about the therapy of foster care. Illustrates a case study and the interventions used to restore justice to a family caught up in the "system." (GCP)

  17. Maltreatment, Coping, and Substance Use in Youth in Foster Care: Examination of Moderation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Joy; Jackson, Yo; Huffhines, Lindsay; Stone, Katie

    2018-05-01

    Child maltreatment is associated with negative outcomes such as substance use (SU). This study tested relations among maltreatment history, coping behavior, and SU behavior in youth residing in foster care. Participants were 210 youth ( M age = 12.71 years; SD = 2.95) in foster care who completed self-report measures through an audio computer-assisted self-interview program. Using a structural equation modeling framework and latent measurement constructs, positive associations were identified between maltreatment at baseline and coping behavior outcomes as well as SU behavior outcome approximately 4.5 months later. Specifically, greater severity and chronicity of maltreatment was associated with greater SU behavior as well as indirect action, prosocial, and asocial coping behavior. Maltreatment was not significantly related to direct action coping behavior. In moderation tests, only asocial coping provided a significant interaction effect for SU behavior outcomes; SU behavior did not moderate pathways between maltreatment and coping behavior. For youth in foster care, the coping approach may be varied and relate differentially to SU behavior outcomes, with asocial approaches to coping acting as a buffer for the maltreatment/SU relation. Additionally, SU remains an important target for intervention and prevention in youth residing in foster care.

  18. Child Welfare-Involved Youth with Intellectual Disabilities: Pathways into and Placements in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayter, Elspeth; Springer, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Existing literature suggests that youth with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment. Little is known about youth with intellectual disabilities who are supervised by child welfare authorities or living in foster care. Reasons for child welfare system involvement and placement types are explored. In this…

  19. Creating Access to Opportunities for Youth in Transition from Foster Care. An AYPF Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Erin; Fryar, Garet

    2014-01-01

    What happens to youth in foster care when they turn 18? Many face unprecedented challenges like homelessness, lack of financial resources, difficulty accessing educational opportunities, and unemployment. In this issue brief, The American Youth Policy Forum (AYPF) document these challenges and opportunities in three distinct yet overlapping areas…

  20. Educational Supports for Middle School Youths Involved in the Foster Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyre, Ashli D.

    2012-01-01

    Despite our knowledge of poor educational outcomes for youths in foster care, the literature on methods or models for addressing the needs of this vulnerable group of students remains extremely limited. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to describe a school-based educational support model that provides advocacy, tutoring, and…

  1. Psychosocial Needs of Children in Foster Care and the Impact of Sexual Abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbakkers, Annemarie; Ellingsen, Ingunn; van der Steen, Stephanie; Grietens, Hans

    Children in family foster care, especially those who have experienced sexual abuse, require a safe and nurturing environment in which their psychosocial needs are met. However, there is limited knowledge on how youth prioritize various needs and what impact previous experiences have on these needs.

  2. Mentoring and Social Skills Training: Ensuring Better Outcomes for Youth in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Youth in foster care face significant life challenges that make it more likely that they will face negative outcomes (i.e., school failure, homelessness, and incarceration). While the reason(s) for out-of-home placement (i.e., family violence, abuse, neglect and/or abandonment) provide some context for negative outcomes, such negative outcomes…

  3. Child welfare services involvement among the children of young parents in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy

    2015-07-01

    Despite the high rate of early parenthood among youth in foster care as well as the increased risk of child maltreatment among children whose adolescent parents have been neglected or abused, very little is known about child welfare services involvement among children whose parents were in foster care when they were born. This study uses administrative data from the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS) to examine the occurrence of child abuse and neglect investigations, indicated reports and out of home care placements among the children of youth in foster. Thirty-nine percent of the children were the subject of at least one CPS investigation, 17 percent had at least one indicated report and 11 percent were placed in out of home care at least once before their 5th birthday. Cox proportional hazard models are also estimated to identify characteristics of parenting foster youth and their placement histories associated with the risk of child welfare services involvement. Implications of the findings for policy and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Using GIS Mapping to Assess Foster Care: A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rine, Christine M.; Morales, Jocelyn; Vanyukevych, Anastasiya B.; Durand, Emily G.; Schroeder, Kurt A.

    2012-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have become widely used outside of traditional mapping applications, expanding their reach to social service organizations. The purpose of this article is to describe and explore the benefits of GIS mapping in identifying strengths and needs of foster care systems in rural settings through graphically assessing…

  5. Supportive Housing for Homeless Families: Foster Care Outcomes and Best Practices. Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz-Rashid, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    The "Supportive Housing for Homeless Families: Foster Care Outcomes and Best Practices" report describes the outcome evaluation of Cottage Housing Incorporated's Serna Village program in Sacramento, California. Serna Village is a supportive housing program serving homeless families. Outcomes from the program illustrate that it is…

  6. Identification of Social-Emotional Problems among Young Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Sandra H.; Conn, Anne-Marie; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Blumkin, Aaron; Baldwin, Constance D.; Szilagyi, Moira A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how best to implement behavioral screening recommendations in practice, especially for children in foster care, who are at risk for having social-emotional problems. Two validated screening tools are recommended for use with young children: the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE) identifies…

  7. The Value of a College Degree for Foster Care Alumni: Comparisons with General Population Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives.…

  8. The Educational Professional: The Educational Experiences that Enhanced and Impeded the Academic Outcome of Youth in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    A child in foster care is often categorized as a student at risk for school failure. However, children in foster care face a unique challenge in that most have been involuntarily separated from their biological parent and/or family. The schools must work in collaboration with the child to provide the necessary supports to achieve better…

  9. Supporting Youth Transitioning out of Foster Care. Issue Brief 1: Education Programs. OPRE Report No. 2014-66

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy; Smithgall, Cheryl; Courtney, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Youth transitioning out of foster care and into adulthood need many supports to navigate the challenges they face. Over the past three decades, federal child welfare policy has significantly increased the availability of those supports. In 1999, the Foster Care Independence Act amended Title IV-E of the Social Security Act to create the Chafee…

  10. The Impact of Student Services on First Year Persistence from Emancipated Foster Care Community College Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ralph Frederick, II

    2016-01-01

    The abysmal persistence to completion rate for at-risk student populations is a concern for higher education leaders; especially, emancipated foster care community college students. Multiple data sources indicate foster care youth are more likely to enroll at community colleges than four-year universities. For this reason, the first-year…

  11. Substance Use and Mental Health Problems as Predictors of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G., Jr.; Auslander, Wendy F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between substance use, mental health problems, and HIV sexual risk behaviors among a sample of foster care adolescents. Data were collected through structured baseline interviews with 320 adolescents (ages 15 to 18 years) who resided in foster care placements and participated in a larger evaluation study of an…

  12. Understanding the Relationships between Attachment Styles, Locus of Control, School Maladaptation, and Depression Symptoms among Students in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Anna M.; Lewandowska-Walter, A.; Chalupa, A. A.; Jonak, Jolanta; Duszynski, Ramzia; Mazurkiewicz, N.

    2015-01-01

    Altered family experiences place children in foster care at risk for school adjustment difficulties. This study focuses on exploring the differences in school adaptation, locus of control, depression symptoms, and attachment styles among children in foster care and children raised by their biological parents. Sixty children completed self-report…

  13. Mental health and associated risk factors of Dutch school aged foster children placed in long-term foster care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, A.M.; van Rooij, F.B.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    More than 20,000 children in the Netherlands live in foster families. The majority are in long-term foster family placements, which are intended to provide a stable rearing environment until the children reach adulthood. International studies have shown, however, that compared to children in the

  14. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannelli, Andrea M; Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Pinto, Liana Wenersbach

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

  15. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Iannelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

  16. Home or foster home care versus institutional long-term care for functionally dependent older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Camilla; Hall, Amanda M; Gonçalves-Bradley, Daniela C; Quinn, Terry J; Hooft, Lotty; van Munster, Barbara C; Stott, David J

    2017-04-03

    Changing population demographics have led to an increasing number of functionally dependent older people who require care and medical treatment. In many countries, government policy aims to shift resources into the community from institutional care settings with the expectation that this will reduce costs and improve the quality of care compared. To assess the effects of long-term home or foster home care versus institutional care for functionally dependent older people. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) via the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and two trials registers to November 2015. We included randomised and non-randomised trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series studies complying with the EPOC study design criteria and comparing the effects of long-term home care versus institutional care for functionally dependent older people. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of each included study. We reported the results narratively, as the substantial heterogeneity across studies meant that meta-analysis was not appropriate. We included 10 studies involving 16,377 participants, all of which were conducted in high income countries. Included studies compared community-based care with institutional care (care homes). The sample size ranged from 98 to 11,803 (median N = 204). There was substantial heterogeneity in the healthcare context, interventions studied, and outcomes assessed. One study was a randomised trial (N = 112); other included studies used designs that had potential for bias, particularly due lack of randomisation, baseline imbalances, and non-blinded outcome assessment. Most studies did not select (or exclude) participants for any specific disease state, with the exception of one study that only included patients if they had a stroke. All studies had methodological limitations, so readers should interpret results with caution.It is uncertain

  17. 'She was a foster mother who said she didn't give cuddles': The adverse early foster care experiences of children who later struggle with adoptive family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakings, Sarah; Selwyn, Julie

    2016-10-01

    Foster care remains a valuable and safe intervention for many children unable to live with their birth family. When birth family reunification is not considered possible, a small proportion of children in foster care will go on to achieve permanency by way of adoption. This article reports on some unexpected findings to emerge from two national adoption studies of previously looked after children in England and Wales. Focussing on a subset of families who had experienced or were at risk of an adoption disruption, the findings revealed that not only did children carry elevated risks for disruption due to their older age at entry to care, multiple foster care placements and traumatic early histories, but once in care, many of the children whose placements had disrupted were considered by their adoptive parents to have had very poor, even harmful fostering experiences before being placed for adoption. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed, together with the implications for social work practice. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  19. Measurement of Behavioral and Emotional Outcomes of Youth in Foster Care: Investigation of the Roles of Age and Placement Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Joy; Jackson, Yo; Brown, Shaquanna

    2015-09-01

    The Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2) is used to assess behavioral and emotional outcomes for youth. Research providing evidence for use of the BASC-2 parent-report form historically has included biological parents reporting on their children (Reynolds and Kamphaus 2004). For youth residing in out-of-home placements through enrollment in foster care, caregivers reporting on their functioning may include foster parents or residential staff. Given the significant adverse mental health outcomes for youth in foster care and the need to adequately assess adjustment in foster care, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the measurement properties of caregivers' report on the parent report form (PRS) of the BASC-2 in foster care youth. Using 479 respondents, a measurement model was fit to the data demonstrating adequate fit across Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems, and Adaptive Skills. Further, a comparison of measurement properties across child and adolescent groups and groups of youth residing in residential facilities versus foster homes was conducted. Factorial invariance and latent means also were assessed. The BASC-2 PRS was found to be an adequate assessment of psychological outcomes for youth in foster care when completed by foster parents or residential facility staff.

  20. Kinship foster care among African American youth: Interaction effects at multiple contextual levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufa, Anne K.; Fowler, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of kinship foster care on mental health outcomes among African American youth. Longitudinal data were used from a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents who were the subject of child protective services investigation from 1999 to 2000 (n=5,501). The secondary analyses focused on African American youth (n=225) placed into foster care. In structured interviews, current caregivers reported on youth internalizing and externalizing behaviors immediately following placement into out-of-home care and 18-months later. Path analysis tested a theoretical model that compared placements with kin to other formal out-of-home arrangements in context of setting characteristics, including aspects of caregiver and neighborhood disorder. Results suggested significant increases in internalizing symptoms over time for youth with more baseline mental health problems, as well as those placed in more distressed neighborhoods. Increased externalizing symptoms occurred among youth with greater baseline behavior problems, those placed in more problematic neighborhoods, and youth who experienced a placement change between assessments. Additionally, a combination of placement characteristics predicted increases in externalizing problems; youth placed in kinship foster care with older caregivers in poorer health exhibited greater increases in externalizing problems. Findings highlighted important contextual considerations for out-of-home placement among African American youth. PMID:26924865

  1. Social and occupational justice barriers in the transition from foster care to independent adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul-Ward, Amy

    2009-01-01

    The professional discourse on social justice suggests that more critical work is needed to sufficiently address the societal issues that affect occupational therapy practitioners' ability to advocate for and with clients. Occupational therapy offers unique opportunities for the scholarly discussion of social justice and for clinical practice to address these issues. This article discusses the importance of incorporating a social justice perspective into occupational therapy by using an example from the author's research program. The experiences of adolescents in foster care were documented in an ongoing qualitative participatory study. An overview of adolescents' (N = 40) perceived independent living and vocational service needs is provided, and several barriers that affect adolescents' ability to develop the skills needed to achieve independent adulthood are described. The article concludes with a discussion of social justice implications as they relate to the myriad issues in the foster care system, occupational therapy research, and practice.

  2. Mental Health, Behavioral and Developmental Issues for Youth in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Stephanie A; Lynch, Amy; Zlotnik, Sarah; Matone, Meredith; Kreider, Amanda; Noonan, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Youth in foster care represent a unique population with complex mental and behavioral health, social-emotional, and developmental needs. For this population with special healthcare needs, the risk for adverse long-term outcomes great if needs go unaddressed or inadequately addressed while in placement. Although outcomes are malleable and effective interventions exist, there are barriers to optimal healthcare delivery. The general pediatrician as advocate is paramount to improve long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Age-related trends in psychotropic medication use among very young children in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dosReis, Susan; Tai, Ming-Hui; Goffman, David; Lynch, Sean E; Reeves, Gloria; Shaw, Terry

    2014-12-01

    The specific objectives were to investigate changes in the prevalence of psychotropic medication use for each year increase in age from three to six years old among children in foster care and to examine time-varying odds of longer duration of use by each year of age. A retrospective analysis of data on mental health and pharmacy services was conducted for 1,491 children age six and younger who were in foster care in 2010 and had at least 365 days in foster care during 2009-2011. A total of 178 children received at least one psychotropic medication from 2009 through 2011. Psychotropic prevalence and average days of use were calculated for each therapeutic class. Longitudinal regression models assessed the time-varying relationship between year of age and duration of use, controlling for demographic and clinical covariates. Approximately 12% of children age six and younger in foster care for 365 days or more received at least one psychotropic medication over the three-year study period. Prevalence of ADHD medication and antipsychotic medication and duration increased with each year of age (p<.001). In adjusted longitudinal models, each year increase in age was associated with a nearly twofold higher likelihood of longer duration of antipsychotic and ADHD medication use. Young children who initiated antipsychotic and ADHD medications before the age of six continued to receive them for longer periods of time. There is a critical need for long-term studies to evaluate the effect of chronic exposure on children's health and well-being.

  4. Extending Foster Care to Age 21: Weighing the Costs to Government against the Benefits to Youth. Chapin Hall Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Clark M.; Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark E.; Pollack, Harold

    2009-01-01

    The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 allows states to claim federal reimbursement for the costs of caring for and supervising Title IV-E eligible foster youth until their 21st birthday. This issue brief provides preliminary estimates of what the potential costs to government and the benefits to young people…

  5. The sexuality of young women with intellectual and developmental disabilities: A neglected focus in the American foster care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballan, Michelle S; Freyer, Molly Burke

    2017-07-01

    Youths with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) are overrepresented in the American foster care system and experience heightened rates of pregnancy compared to their nondisabled peers. Yet limited information is known about sexually active or pregnant young women with ID/DD in foster care. Consequently, important healthcare needs of this population are not adequately addressed. This article explores sexuality education and sexual healthcare for female adolescents in foster care with ID/DD and recommends practice guidelines to support and prepare their emergent sexual development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Child welfare caseworkers as service brokers for youth in foster care: findings from project focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Shannon; Kerns, Suzanne E U; Trupin, Eric W; Conover, Kate L; Berliner, Lucy

    2012-02-01

    Youth in the foster care system have substantially higher rates of mental health needs compared to the general population, yet they rarely receive targeted, evidence-based practices (EBPs). Increasingly emerging in the literature on mental health services is the importance of "brokers" or "gateway providers" of services. For youth in foster care, child welfare caseworkers often play this role. This study examines caseworker-level outcomes of Project Focus, a caseworker training and consultation model designed to improve emotional and behavioral outcomes for youth in foster care through increased linkages with EBPs. Project Focus was tested through a small, randomized trial involving four child welfare offices. Caseworkers in the Project Focus intervention group demonstrated an increased awareness of EBPs and a trend toward increased ability to identify appropriate EBP referrals for particular mental health problems but did not have significantly different rates of actual referral to EBPs. Dose of consultation was associated with general awareness of EBPs. Implications for practice and outcomes for youth are discussed.

  7. Associations Between Maltreatment History and Severity of Substance Use Behavior in Youth in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Joy; Jackson, Yo; Brown, Shaquanna

    2016-09-22

    Substance use (SU) in youth remains a significant public health concern and a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in adolescents. The present study offers examination of the association between severity and chronicity of maltreatment history and SU in youth in foster care. Two hundred and ten (48% female) foster youth with a mean age of 12.71 years (SD = 2.95 years) completed surveys using an audio-computer-assisted self-interview program. Results revealed 31% of participants reported past-year SU, and substance users had a mean CRAFFT score of 3.43 (SD = 1.90). Reported age of SU onset was 11.08 years (SD = 2.21 years). The SU measurement model demonstrated excellent fit in this sample. Accounting for both youth age and youth placement type, the structural model with maltreatment predicting SU severity demonstrated strong model fit with a significant path between maltreatment and SU. Youth in residential facilities and older youth had higher rates of use than those residing in traditional foster home environments and younger youth. Findings provide additional support for the link between maltreatment experiences and SU severity in foster youth and suggest the need for screening and intervention services appropriate for this high-risk population. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Quality of life of patients with schizophrenia treated in foster home care and in outpatient treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihanović M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mate Mihanović,1,2 Branka Restek-Petrović,1,2 Anamarija Bogović,1 Ena Ivezić,1 Davor Bodor,1 Ivan Požgain3 1Psychiatric Hospital “Sveti Ivan”, Zagreb, 2Faculty of Medicine Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, 3Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Center Osijek, Osijek, Croatia Background: The Sveti Ivan Psychiatric Hospital in Zagreb, Croatia, offers foster home care treatment that includes pharmacotherapy, group psychodynamic psychotherapy, family therapy, and work and occupational therapy. The aim of this study is to compare the health-related quality of life of patients with schizophrenia treated in foster home care with that of patients in standard outpatient treatment. Methods: The sample consisted of 44 patients with schizophrenia who, upon discharge from the hospital, were included in foster home care treatment and a comparative group of 50 patients who returned to their families and continued receiving outpatient treatment. All patients completed the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire on the day they completed hospital treatment, 6 months later, and 1 year after they participated in the study. The research also included data on the number of hospitalizations for both groups of patients. Results: Though directly upon discharge from the hospital, patients who entered foster home care treatment assessed their health-related quality of life as poorer than patients who returned to their families, their assessments significantly improved over time. After 6 months of treatment, these patients even achieved better results in several dimensions than did patients in the outpatient program, and they also had fewer hospitalizations. These effects remained the same at the follow-up 1 year after the inclusion in the study. Conclusion: Notwithstanding the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that treatment in foster home care is associated with an improvement in the quality of life of patients

  9. Association between childhood sexual abuse and transactional sex in youth aging out of foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kym R; Katon, Wayne; McCarty, Carolyn; Richardson, Laura P; Courtney, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the association between history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and having transactional sex among adolescents who have been in foster care. We used an existing dataset of youth transitioning out of foster care. Independent CSA variables included self report of history of sexual molestation and rape when participants were, on average, 17 years of age. Our outcome variables were self-report of having transactional sex ever and in the past year, when participants were an average age of 19 years. Separate multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations between CSA variables and transactional sex variables. Initial analyses were performed on both genders; exploratory analyses were then performed evaluating each gender separately. Total N=732; 574 were included in the main analyses. History of sexual molestation was significantly associated with increased odds of having transactional sex, both ever and in the past year (OR [95% CI]: 3.21 [1.26-8.18] and 4.07 [1.33, 12.52], respectively). History of rape was also significantly associated with increased odds of having had transactional sex ever and in the past year (ORs [95% CI]: 3.62 [1.38-9.52] and 3.78 [1.19, 12.01], respectively). Odds ratios in female-only analyses remained significant and were larger in magnitude compared with the main, non-stratified analyses; odds ratios in male-only analyses were non-significant and smaller in magnitude when compared with the main analyses. Both CSA variables were associated with increased likelihood of transactional sex. This association appears to vary by gender. Our results suggest that policymakers for youth in foster care should consider the unique needs of young women with histories of CSA when developing programs to support healthy relationships. Health care providers should also consider adapting screening and counseling practices to reflect the increased risk of transactional sex for female youth in foster care with a history

  10. Smoking Behaviors Among Adolescents in Foster Care: A Gender-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpiegel, Svetlana; Sussman, Steve; Sherman, Scott E; El Shahawy, Omar

    2017-09-19

    Adolescents in foster care are at high risk for cigarette smoking. However, it is not clear how their smoking behaviors vary by gender. The present study examined lifetime and current smoking among males and females, and explored gender-specific risk factors for engagement in smoking behaviors. Data from the Multi Site Evaluation of Foster Youth Programs was used to evaluate patterns of smoking among adolescents aged 12-18 years (N = 1121; 489 males, 632 females). Males and females did not differ significantly in rates of lifetime and current smoking, or in the age of smoking initiation and number of cigarettes smoked on a typical day. Gender-based analyses revealed that older age and placement in group homes or residential treatment facilities were associated with heightened risk of smoking among males. In contrast, sexual minority status (i.e., nonheterosexual orientation) and increased childhood victimization were associated with heightened risk of smoking among females. A history of running away was linked to smoking in both genders. Gender should be considered when designing intervention programs to address cigarette smoking among foster youth, as the stressors associated with smoking may differ for males and females.

  11. Attachment, Development, and Mental Health in Abused and Neglected Preschool Children in Foster Care: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, Mira; Petermann, Franz

    2016-09-22

    A proper preparation for foster parents to care for abused and neglected children includes effective training and initial diagnostics in order to plan individual treatment. Hence, a basic knowledge about the main psychosocial and developmental problems associated with abuse and neglect and their prevalence in foster children is needed. For this purpose, a systematical literature review and a series of meta-analyses were conducted. A total of 25 studies reporting data on development (n = 4,033), mental health (n = 726), and attachment (n = 255) of foster children in preschool age met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analyses indicated prevalence rates of approximately 40% for developmental, mental health problems, and insecure attachment. Rates of disorganized attachment were estimated to 22%. These findings outline the necessity of an initial trauma-oriented diagnostics and trainings for foster parents that address foster children's development, mental health, and disorganized attachment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Youth with Behavioral Health Disorders Aging Out of Foster Care: a Systematic Review and Implications for Policy, Research, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang-Yi, Christina D; Adams, Danielle R

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to (1) identify and summarize empirical studies on youth with behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care and (2) address implications for behavioral health policy, research, and practice. We identified previous studies by searching PubMed, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and ISI Citation Indexes and obtaining references from key experts in the child welfare field. A total of 28 full articles published between 1991 and 2014 were reviewed and summarized into the key areas including systems of care, disability type, transition practice area, study methods, study sample, transition outcome measures, study analysis, and study findings. Considering how fast youth who have behavioral health disorders fall through the crack as they exit foster care, one cannot understate the importance of incorporating timely and appropriate transition planning and care coordination for youth who have behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care into the usual case management performed by behavioral health systems and service providers.

  13. Former foster youth's perspectives on independent living preparation six months after discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loring P

    2014-01-01

    Research findings have developed a troubling narrative of youth leaving foster care. Congress attempted to address the post-discharge difficulties of foster youth by passing the Independent Living Initiative in 1986, which mandated that the states develop services that would prepare youth for life after foster care. However, it is unclear what effect these programs have on post-foster care trajectories. This largely qualitative study examined the perceptions of a sample of discharged foster six months after leaving care. Most youth felt prepared for life and foster care. They were also for the most part were satisfied with their independent living program, but had significant dissatisfactions with elements of the program. These satisfactions and dissatisfactions are reported along with suggestions for improvement. The policy and practice implications of these suggestions are considered.

  14. Intervening to Improve Outcomes for Siblings in Foster Care: Conceptual, Substantive, and Methodological Dimensions of a Prevention Science Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Brianne H.; Blakeslee, Jennifer; Lamson-Siu, Emilie; Bank, Lew; Linares, L. Oriana; Waid, Jeffrey; Sorenson, Paul; Jimenez, Jessica; Pearson, Eva; Shlonsky, Aron

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the child welfare field has devoted significant attention to siblings in foster care. Policymakers and practitioners have supported efforts to connect siblings via shared foster placements and visitation while researchers have focused on illuminating the empirical foundations of sibling placement and sibling intervention in child welfare. The current paper synthesizes literature on sibling relationship development and sibling issues in child welfare in the service of presenting a typology of sibling-focused interventions for use with foster youth. The paper provides two examples of current intervention research studies focused on enhancing sibling developmental processes and understanding their connection to child welfare outcomes. The paper concludes by presenting an emerging agenda informing policy, practice, and research on siblings in foster care. PMID:24634558

  15. Sharing the caring : State, family and gender equality in parental leave policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widener, Anmarie J.

    2006-01-01

    Parental leave policies give parents a temporary leave from employment in order to care for a child. Secondary aims are to increase women’s attachment to the labour force as well as supporting gender equal roles in paid and unpaid work. This study researched parent satisfaction of parental leave

  16. Understanding the Barriers to College Access for Former Foster Youth at the Los Angeles Community College District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, John Chaves

    2013-01-01

    Generally referred to as aged-out youth, approximately 20,000 former foster youth leave foster care each year, with very few enrolling into the community college system. Many enroll into a college system without a clear understanding of the system. Unable to maneuver, most former foster youth will drop out. The current exploratory, comparative…

  17. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care: An Alternative to Residential Treatment for High Risk Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Fisher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care program (MTFC, an evidence based approach for providing psychotherapeutic treatment for very troubled children and adolescents that is an alternative to residential care. Versions of the MTFC program have been developed and validated for young children with a history of maltreatment as well as for older children and adolescents who are involved with the youth justice system. In the paper we describe the development of the MTFC program and its foundations in the social learning model that originated at the Oregon Social Learning Center in the 1960's and 70's. We present information about program elements. We then review the research that has been conducted on MTFC.

  18. Adverse childhood experiences among children placed in and adopted from foster care: Evidence from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    Despite good reason to believe that children in foster care are disproportionately exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), relatively little research considers exposure to ACEs among this group of vulnerable children. In this article, we use data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between foster care placement and exposure to an array of ACEs. In adjusted logistic regression models, we find that children placed in foster care or adopted from foster care, compared to their counterparts, were more likely to experience parental divorce or separation, parental death, parental incarceration, parental abuse, violence exposure, household member mental illness, and household member substance abuse. These children were also more likely to experience ACEs than children across different thresholds of socioeconomic disadvantage (e.g., children in households with incomes below the poverty line) and across different family structures (e.g., children in single-mother families). These results advance our understanding of how children in foster care, an already vulnerable population, are disproportionately exposed to ACEs. This exposure, given the link between ACEs and health, may have implications for children's health and wellbeing throughout the life course. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) of the health care provider, the type of medical practice, the medical specialty, and whether the... illness for which the current need for leave exists. An employer may seek authentication and/or... authentication and clarification of the ITO or ITA under § 825.307. An employer may not utilize the second or...

  20. The profile and progress of neglected and abused children in long-term foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, James G; Delfabbro, Paul H

    2009-07-01

    This study compared the profile of neglected and abused children in the Australian foster care system as well as differences between maltreatment types in relation to parental contact, reunification and psychosocial progress in care. The case files of 235 children entering foster care were examined and their social workers were administered standardised questionnaires at the point of intake. All measures were repeated for those remaining in care 1 year and then again 2 years later. Neglected children were younger than non-neglected children, more likely to have a physical or mental disability, more likely to experience multiple forms of maltreatment and less likely to pose conduct problems for carers. Neglected children were more likely than non-neglected children to experience a decline in parental contact over time, and were less likely to be reunified with their families of origin. There was minimal difference between neglected and non-neglected in their psychosocial progress while in care. Aboriginal children were more likely to be reunified than non-Aboriginal children when neglect was attributable to transient factors (parental incapacity) but the reverse was true for non-neglected children. The fact that neglected children more often require a second form of maltreatment before being removed from home suggests that children's services workers are less inclined to remove children for neglect than for other forms of maltreatment. As a consequence, those neglected children who are in care tend to come from more dysfunctional families than non-neglected children do, as evidenced by the relatively poorer parental contact and reunification results of neglected children. Neglected children differ systematically from non-neglected children and suffer relative disadvantage in relation to multiple forms of maltreatment, parental contact, and reunification. The fact that declines in parental contact among neglected children in care occurred only when indirect contact

  1. A Comprehensive Pregnancy and Family Medical Care Leave Program for the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sayre, Batte

    1999-01-01

    .... It also provides an option for extended family care for all medical needs with a family medical care leave of up to one year to assist unit readiness, improve quality of life, and increase soldier...

  2. Girls in Foster Care: Risk and Promotive Factors for School Adjustment Across the Transition to Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Leve, Leslie D

    2012-01-01

    Girls in foster care may face difficulties across the transition to middle school. Latent growth curve modeling was employed to examine trajectories and predictors of academic competence and aggression from and against peers for 75 girls in foster care from the end of elementary school to the 2(nd) year of middle school. Across the transition to middle school, academic competence increased. Poor self-regulation was associated with decreased academic competence, and higher caregiver support was associated with increased academic competence. Frequency of aggression from peers decreased across the transition, with perceived school competence predicting smaller decreases. Aggression against peers dropped initially and then increased to pretransition levels by the end of the 2(nd) year of middle school. Lower caregiver support was associated with higher rates of aggression against peers at the end of the 1(st) year of middle school. The results are discussed in terms of implications for interventions for girls in foster care.

  3. Explaining variations in state foster care maintenance rates and the implications for implementing new evidence-based programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Babiarz, Kimberly S.; Garfield, Rachel L.; Wulczyn, Fred; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Background U.S. Child Welfare systems are involved in the lives of millions of children, and total spending exceeds $26 billion annually. Out-of-home foster care is a critical and expensive Child Welfare service, a major component of which is the maintenance rate paid to support housing and caring for a foster child. Maintenance rates vary widely across states and over time, but reasons for this variation are not well understood. As evidence-based programs are disseminated to state Child Welfare systems, it is important to understand what may be the important drivers in the uptake of these practices including state spending on core system areas. Data and methods We assembled a unique, longitudinal, state-level panel dataset (1990–2008) for all 50 states with annual data on foster care maintenance rates and measures of child population in need, poverty, employment, urbanicity, proportion minority, political party control of the state legislature and governorship, federal funding, and lawsuits involving state foster care systems. All monetary values were expressed in per-capita terms and inflation adjusted to 2008 dollars. We used longitudinal panel regressions with robust standard errors and state and year fixed effects to estimate the relationship between state foster care maintenance rates and the other factors in our dataset, lagging all factors by one year to mitigate the possibility that maintenance rates influenced their predictors. Exploratory analyses related maintenance rates to Child Welfare outcomes. Findings State foster care maintenance rates have increased in nominal terms, but in many states, have not kept pace with inflation, leading to lower real rates in 2008 compared to those in 1991 for 54% of states for 2 year-olds, 58% for 9 year-olds, and 65% for 16 year-olds. In multivariate analyses including socioeconomic, demographic, and political factors, monthly foster care maintenance rates declined $15 for each 1% increase in state unemployment and

  4. Development and feasibility of a sibling intervention for youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Brianne H; McBeath, Bowen; Lamson-Siu, Emilie; Webb, Sara Jade; Sorenson, Paul; Bowen, Hannah; Waid, Jeff; Bank, Lew

    2014-12-01

    Due to their ubiquity and possible influence on youth mental health, academic, and other outcomes, sibling-focused intervention strategies may be important for the development and implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in child welfare. However, there is no rigorous evidence as to either the best methods for, or feasibility of, incorporating the sibling link within existing clinical treatments for foster youth. This paper applies the literature on evidence-based practices (EBP) and implementation research in child welfare to sibling-focused intervention; and presents data concerning the development, delivery, cost, and feasibility of a novel sibling-focused intervention program, Supporting Siblings in Foster Care (SIBS-FC). Results suggest that despite the challenges and costs involved with delivering SIBS-FC, the program catered to the diverse needs of pre-adolescent and adolescent siblings living together and apart, was viewed positively by youth, and was implemented with a high degree of fidelity. These findings underscore the importance of attending to the early-stage development of psychosocial interventions in child welfare and highlight the role of interagency collaboration, program planning, staff training and supervision, and fidelity tracking for EBP development in child welfare. Implications for prevention research and sibling-focused intervention programming in child welfare are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does subsequent criminal justice involvement predict foster care and termination of parental rights for children born to incarcerated women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kasiborski, Natalie; Karim, Nidal; Schmittel, Emily

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 83 incarcerated women, who gave birth during incarceration and retained their parental rights through brief sentences, examines the intersection between subsequent criminal justice involvement postrelease and child welfare outcomes. Ten years of multiple state-level administrative data sets are used to determine if arrest or conviction predict foster care and/or termination of parental rights. Findings indicate that only felony arrest is a significant predictor of foster care involvement. Additionally, 69% of mothers retained legal custody, despite subsequent criminal involvement for many, suggesting supportive parenting programs and resources need to be available to these women throughout and after incarceration.

  6. A pilot randomized trial teaching mindfulness-based stress reduction to traumatized youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Sandra H; Couderc, Jean-Philippe; Swanson, Dena; Gallegos, Autumn; Hilliard, Cammie; Blumkin, Aaron; Cunningham, Kendall; Heinert, Sara

    2015-08-01

    This article presents a pilot project implementing a mindfulness-based stress reduction program among traumatized youth in foster and kinship care over 10 weeks. Forty-two youth participated in this randomized controlled trial that used a mixed-methods (quantitative, qualitative, and physiologic) evaluation. Youth self-report measuring mental health problems, mindfulness, and stress were lower than anticipated, and the relatively short time-frame to teach these skills to traumatized youth may not have been sufficient to capture significant changes in stress as measured by electrocardiograms. Main themes from qualitative data included expressed competence in managing ongoing stress, enhanced self-awareness, and new strategies to manage stress. We share our experiences and recommendations for future research and practice, including focusing efforts on younger youth, and using community-based participatory research principles to promote engagement and co-learning. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: Protocol Registration System ID NCT01708291. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adverse Consequences of School Mobility for Children in Foster Care: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pears, Katherine C.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Buchanan, Rohanna; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Few prospective studies have examined school mobility in children in foster care. This study described the school moves of 86 such children and 55 community comparison children (primarily Caucasian), living in a medium-sized metropolitan area in the Pacific Northwest who were approximately 3-6-years-old at the study start. Additionally, the effects of moves from kindergarten through Grade 2 on academic and social emotional competence in Grades 3 through 5 were examined. A greater number of early school moves was associated with poorer later social emotional competence and partially mediated the effects of maltreatment and out-of-home placement on social emotional competence. This was only the case for children with poorer early learning skills in kindergarten. Implications for preventive intervention are discussed. PMID:25906815

  8. Fostering development of nursing practices to support integrated care when implementing integrated care pathways: what levers to use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longpré, Caroline; Dubois, Carl-Ardy

    2017-11-29

    Care integration has been the focus of recent health system reforms. Given their functions at all levels of the care continuum, nurses have a substantial and primordial role to play in such integration processes. The aim of this study was to identify levers and strategies that organizations can use to support the development of a nursing practice aligned with the requirements of care integration in a health and social services centre (HSSC) in Quebec. The research design was a cross-sectional descriptive qualitative study based on a single case study with nested levels of analysis. The case was a public, multi-disciplinary HSSC in a semi-urban region of Quebec. Semi-structured interviews with 37 persons (nurses, professionals, managers, administrators) allowed for data saturation and ensured theoretical representation by covering four care pathways constituting different care integration contexts. Analysis involved four steps: preparing a predetermined list of codes based on the reference framework developed by Minkman (2011); coding transcript content; developing general and summary matrices to group observations for each care pathway; and creating a general model showing the overall results for the four pathways. The organization's capacity for response with regard to developing an integrated system of services resulted in two types of complementary interventions. The first involved investing in key resources and renewing organizational structures; the second involved deploying a series of organizational and clinical-administrative processes. In resource terms, integration efforts resulted in setting up new strategic services, re-arranging physical infrastructures, and deploying new technological resources. Organizational and clinical-administrative processes to promote integration involved renewing governance, improving the flow of care pathways, fostering continuous quality improvement, developing new roles, promoting clinician collaboration, and strengthening

  9. Home or foster home care versus institutional long-term care for functionally dependent older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Camilla; Hall, Amanda M.; Goncalves-Bradley, Daniela C.; Quinn, Terry J.; Hooft, Lotty; van Munster, Barbara C.; Stott, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Changing population demographics have led to an increasing number of functionally dependent older people who require care and medical treatment. In many countries, government policy aims to shift resources into the community from institutional care settings with the expectation that this will reduce

  10. Home or foster home care versus institutional long-term care for functionally dependent older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Camilla; Hall, Amanda M.; Gonçalves-Bradley, Daniela C.; Quinn, Terry J.; Hooft, Lotty; van Munster, Barbara C.; Stott, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Changing population demographics have led to an increasing number of functionally dependent older people who require care and medical treatment. In many countries, government policy aims to shift resources into the community from institutional care settings with the expectation that this

  11. Demographic and placement variables associated with overweight and obesity in children in long-term foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Arnold-Clark, Janet S; Smith, Caitlin; Duan, Lei; Fuentes, Jorge

    2013-11-01

    Overweight and obesity is a growing problem for children in foster care. This study describes the prevalence of overweight and obesity in an urban, ethnic minority population of children ages 2-19 in long-term foster care (N = 312) in Los Angeles, California. It also investigates whether demographics or placement settings are related to high body mass index. The estimates of prevalence of overweight/obesity (≥85th percentile) and obesity (≥95th percentile) were presented for gender, age, ethnicity, and placement type. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine potential associations between demographic and placement variables and weight status. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was almost 40 % and obesity was 23 % for the study population. Children placed in a group home had the highest prevalence of overweight/obesity (60 %) and obesity (43 %) compared to other types of placement. Within this study, older children (ages 12-19) were more likely to be overweight/obese than normal weight compared to children between 2 and 5 years old when controlling for gender, ethnicity and placement (OR = 2.10, CI = 1.14-3.87). These findings suggest that older age and long-term foster care in general may be risk factors for obesity. Child welfare agencies and health care providers need to work together to train caregivers with children in long-term foster care in obesity treatment interventions and obesity prevention strategies.

  12. The Association between Foster Care and Substance Abuse Risk Factors and Treatment Outcomes: An Exploratory Secondary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Wendy Whiting; Shields, Joseph; Verdieck, Mary Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    The child welfare and substance abuse systems are integrally linked through the children and families they both serve. There is a dearth of knowledge, however, on how children who have experienced foster care fare when they are treated for substance abuse issues as adults. This article presents an exploratory study using the Alcohol and Drug…

  13. The psychosocial needs of children in foster care with a history of sexual abuse: Are they recognized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbakkers, Anne; Ellingsen, Ingunn; van der Steen, Stephanie; Grietens, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Youth in family foster care who have experienced sexual abuse have specific psychosocial needs. However, youth themselves are rarely asked about their needs, and it is unknown if caretakers recognize these needs as such. Using Q-methodology, this study aimed to describe what youth consider their

  14. Meaning-Making Dynamics of Emancipated Foster Care Youth Transitioning into Higher Education: A Constructivist-Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumu, Jacob O.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored college transition meaning-making dynamics of emancipated foster care youth and the role campus environments play in that process. It adds to the college student development theoretical base by acknowledging the needs, goals, and values of disenfranchised college students transitioning into higher education. Emancipated foster…

  15. Use of a brief standardized screening instrument in a primary care setting to enhance detection of social-emotional problems among youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Sandra H; Halterman, Jill S; Szilagyi, Moira; Conn, Anne-Marie; Alpert-Gillis, Linda; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether systematic use of a validated social-emotional screening instrument in a primary care setting is feasible and improves detection of social-emotional problems among youth in foster care. Before-and-after study design, following a practice intervention to screen all youth in foster care for psychosocial problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a validated instrument with 5 subdomains. After implementation of systematic screening, youth aged 11 to 17 years and their foster parents completed the SDQ at routine health maintenance visits. We assessed feasibility of screening by measuring the completion rates of SDQ by youth and foster parents. We compared the detection of psychosocial problems during a 2-year period before systematic screening to the detection after implementation of systematic screening with the SDQ. We used chart reviews to assess detection at baseline and after implementing systematic screening. Altogether, 92% of 212 youth with routine visits that occurred after initiation of screening had a completed SDQ in the medical record, demonstrating high feasibility of systematic screening. Detection of a potential mental health problem was higher in the screening period than baseline period for the entire population (54% vs 27%, P youth had 2 or more significant social-emotional problem domains on the SDQ. Systematic screening for potential social-emotional problems among youth in foster care was feasible within a primary care setting and doubled the detection rate of potential psychosocial problems. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fostering caring relationships: Suggestions to rethink liberal perspectives on the ethics of newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burg, Simone; Oerlemans, Anke

    2018-03-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) involves the collection of blood from the heel of a newborn baby and testing it for a list of rare and inheritable disorders. New biochemical screening technologies led to expansions of NBS programs in the first decade of the 21st century. It is expected that they will in time be replaced by genetic sequencing technologies. These developments have raised a lot of ethical debate. We reviewed the ethical literature on NBS, analyzed the issues and values that emerged, and paid particular interest to the type of impacts authors think NBS should have on the lives of children and their families. Our review shows that most authors keep their ethical reflection confined to policy decisions, about for instance (a) the purpose of the program, and (b) its voluntary or mandatory nature. While some authors show appreciation of how NBS information empowers parents to care for their (diseased) children, most authors consider these aspects to be 'private' and leave their evaluation up to parents themselves. While this division of moral labor fits with the liberal conviction to leave individuals free to decide how they want to live their private lives, it also silences the ethical debate about these issues. Given the present and future capacity of NBS to offer an abundance of health-related information, we argue that there is good reason to develop a more substantive perspective to whether and how NBS can contribute to parents' good care for children. © 2018 The Authors. Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Enhancing and Adapting Treatment Foster Care: Lessons Learned in Trying to Change Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Maureen M; Southerland, Dannia; Farmer, Elizabeth M; Ballentine, Kess

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based practices to improve outcomes for children with severe behavioral and emotional problems have received a great deal of attention in children's mental health. Therapeutic Foster Care (TFC), a residential intervention for youth with emotional or behavioral problems, is one of the few community-based programs that is considered to be evidence-based. However, as for most treatment approaches, the vast majority of existing programs do not deliver the evidence-based version. In an attempt to fill this gap and improve practice across a wide range of TFC agencies, we developed an enhanced model of TFC based on input from both practice and research. It includes elements associated with improved outcomes for youth in "usual care" TFC agencies as well as key elements from Chamberlain's evidence-based model. The current manuscript describes this "hybrid" intervention - Together Facing the Challenge - and discusses key issues in implementation. We describe the sample and settings, highlight key implementation strategies, and provide "lessons learned" to help guide others who may wish to change practice in existing agencies.

  18. An Examination of Differences between Promotion Rates of Third Grade Youth in Foster Care: A Study on One-to-One Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Josette R.

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative research study analyzed archival data to determine if there was a significant difference in promotion rates from third to fourth grade between students in foster care who received one-to-one tutoring and those students in foster care who did not receive one-to-one tutoring over two school years. This study also analyzed student…

  19. Preparing for a "Next Generation" Evaluation of Independent Living Programs for Youth in Foster Care: Project Overview. OPRE Report No. 2014-71

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Marla; Courtney, Mark E.; Pergamit, Michael R.; Lowenstein, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Youth transitioning out of foster care and into adulthood need multiple supports to navigate the challenges they face. Over the past three decades, federal child welfare policy has significantly increased the availability of those supports. In 1999, the Chafee Foster Care Independence Program was created, increasing the amount of funds potentially…

  20. Factors Influencing Risk of Homelessness among Youth in Transition from Foster Care in Oklahoma: Implications for Reforming Independent Living Services and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Brandon L; McDaniel, Jacqueline; Moxley, David; Salehezadeh, Zohre; Cahill, Alisa West

    Research suggests that youth aging out of foster care may be at higher risk of experiencing homelessness than other youth. Among this already at-risk population there may be certain characteristics that further exacerbate the risk. This paper uses data collected from various local and state agencies to further examine significant predictors of homelessness among youth who have aged out of foster care.

  1. Mandates for Collaboration: Health Care and Child Welfare Policy and Practice Reforms Create the Platform for Improved Health for Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, Sarah; Wilson, Leigh; Scribano, Philip; Wood, Joanne N; Noonan, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Improving the health of children in foster care requires close collaboration between pediatrics and the child welfare system. Propelled by recent health care and child welfare policy reforms, there is a strong foundation for more accountable, collaborative models of care. Over the last 2 decades health care reforms have driven greater accountability in outcomes, access to care, and integrated services for children in foster care. Concurrently, changes in child welfare legislation have expanded the responsibility of child welfare agencies in ensuring child health. Bolstered by federal legislation, numerous jurisdictions are developing innovative cross-system workforce and payment strategies to improve health care delivery and health care outcomes for children in foster care, including: (1) hiring child welfare medical directors, (2) embedding nurses in child welfare agencies, (3) establishing specialized health care clinics, and (4) developing tailored child welfare managed care organizations. As pediatricians engage in cross-system efforts, they should keep in mind the following common elements to enhance their impact: embed staff with health expertise within child welfare settings, identify long-term sustainable funding mechanisms, and implement models for effective information sharing. Now is an opportune time for pediatricians to help strengthen health care provision for children involved with child welfare. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Mental health beliefs and barriers to accessing mental health services in youth aging out of foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Christina; Mackie, Thomas I; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Franzen, Sara; Partap, Anu; Flores, Glenn; Leslie, Laurel K

    2014-01-01

    To examine the perspectives of youth on factors that influence mental health service use after aging out of foster care. Focus groups were conducted with youth with a history of mental health needs and previous service use who had aged out of foster care. Questions were informed by the Health Belief Model and addressed 4 domains: youth perceptions of the "threat of mental health problems," treatment benefits versus barriers to accessing mental health services, self-efficacy, and "cues to action." Data were analyzed using a modified grounded-theory approach. Youth (N = 28) reported ongoing mental health problems affecting their functioning; however, they articulated variable levels of reliance on formal mental health treatment versus their own ability to resolve these problems without treatment. Past mental health service experiences influenced whether youth viewed treatment options as beneficial. Youth identified limited self-efficacy and insufficient psychosocial supports "cueing action" during their transition out of foster care. Barriers to accessing mental health services included difficulties obtaining health insurance, finding a mental health provider, scheduling appointments, and transportation. Youths' perceptions of their mental health needs, self-efficacy, psychosocial supports during transition, and access barriers influence mental health service use after aging out of foster care. Results suggest that strategies are needed to 1) help youth and clinicians negotiate shared understanding of mental health treatment needs and options, 2) incorporate mental health into transition planning, and 3) address insurance and other systemic barriers to accessing mental health services after aging out of foster care. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An intervention to improve sibling relationship quality among youth in foster care: Results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Brianne H; McBeath, Bowen; Sorenson, Paul; Bank, Lew; Waid, Jeff; Webb, Sara Jade; Steele, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Sibling programming is an important part of a prevention framework, particularly for youth in foster care. After children are removed from their families and placed into foster care in the aftermath of maltreatment, the sibling relationship is often the most viable ongoing relationship available to the child, and may be critical to a youth's sense of connection, emotional support, and continuity. The promise of dyadic sibling programming in particular rests on the ability of interventions to enhance the quality of sibling relationships; yet little research exists that suggests that sibling interventions can improve relationship quality among foster youth. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the effects of a specific dyadic sibling-focused intervention for older and younger siblings on sibling relationship quality. One hundred sixty four dyads (328 youth) participated in the study, with each dyad consisting of an older sibling between 11 and 15 years of age at baseline and a younger sibling separated in age by less than 4 years. Hierarchical linear models were applied to self-reported, observer-reported and observational data over the 18-month study period. Findings suggest that the sibling intervention holds promise for improving sibling relationship quality among youth in foster care. Implications and future directions for research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fostering a strategic alliance between patients' associations and health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosconi, Paola; Colombo, Cinzia

    2010-01-01

    The Laboratory for Medical Research and Consumer Involvement was established in 2005 at Mario Negri Institute, a nonprofit institute for pharmacological research, as a consequence of the increasing interest in boosting citizens' and patients' involvement in the health care debate. It has developed several projects with patients' associations, researchers, and clinicians. Its objectives are to foster a strategic alliance among health care professionals, patients, and their organizations, developing activities with different levels of involvement. Among the laboratory' s activities, the PartecipaSalute project has organized training courses for consumers, published a Web site disseminating evidence-based information and critical appraisal tools, and collected research priorities set by patients. Two consensus conferences have been organized, one dealing with brain injury patients' assistance and the other with hormone therapy and menopause. The quality of health information covered by different sources (press articles, Web sites, and brochures) has also been assessed. Seventy consumers attended the training courses from 2006 to 2008, and between January 2008 and June 2009 the PartecipaSalute Web site registered a mean of 30 500 single visits monthly. At the consensus conference Informing women on hormone replacement therapy, 7 members of the 14-member panel defining the final recommendations were lay people. Other data from the laboratory's main activities are given in this article. The criteria for selecting patients and their organizations, the methods of involvement, and evaluation of the impact of the activities are still open questions. We are now developing ways of evaluating our activities, and trying to boost citizens' and patients' participation in decisional settings, concerning health care assistance and research studies.

  5. Need for and use of family leave among parents of children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Paul J; Garfield, Craig F; Elliott, Marc N; Carey, Colleen; Eriksson, Carl; Schuster, Mark A

    2007-05-01

    Parents of children with special health care needs are especially vulnerable to work-family conflicts that family leave benefits might help resolve. We examined leave-taking among full-time-employed parents of children with special health care needs. We identified all children with special health care needs in 2 large inpatient/outpatient systems in Chicago, Illinois, and Los Angeles, California, and randomly selected 800 per site. From November 2003 to January 2004, we conducted telephone interviews with 1105 (87% of eligible and successfully contacted) parents. Among the sample's 574 full-time-employed parents, we examined whether leave benefits predicted missing any work for child illness, missing >4 weeks for child illness, and ability to miss work whenever their child needed them. Forty-eight percent of full-time-employed parents qualified for federal Family and Medical Leave Act benefits; 30% reported employer-provided leave benefits (not including sick leave/vacation). In the previous year, their children averaged 20 missed school/child care days, 12 doctor/emergency department visits, and 1.7 hospitalizations. Although 81% of parents missed work for child illness, 41% reported not always missing work when their child needed them, and 40% of leave-takers reported returning to work too soon. In multivariate regressions, parents who were eligible for Family and Medical Leave Act benefits and aware of their eligibility had 3.0 times greater odds of missing work for child illness than ineligible parents. Parents with >4 weeks of employer-provided leave benefits had 4.7 times greater odds of missing >4 weeks than parents without benefits. Parents with paid leave benefits had 2.8 times greater odds than other parents of missing work whenever their child needed them. Full-time-employed parents of children with special health care needs experience severe work-family conflicts. Although most have leave benefits, many report unmet need for leave. Access to Family and

  6. The Role of Therapeutic Mentoring in Enhancing Outcomes for Youth in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sara B.; Pryce, Julia M.; Martinovich, Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Effective service interventions greatly enhance the well-being of foster youth. A study of 262 foster youth examined one such intervention, therapeutic mentoring. Results showed that mentored youth improved significantly in the areas of family and social functioning, school behavior, and recreational activities, as well as in the reduction of…

  7. Care in Family Relations : The Case of Surrogacy Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Burri, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The advance of reproductive technologies, like surrogacy arrangements, confronts courts with new demands and dilemmas. This contribution analyses the potential of EU law towards a better and more balanced reconciliation of work, private and family life when no national law applies. In two recent cases of the Court of Justice of the EU on leave for surrogacy mothers, the Advocates General Kokott and Wahl published diverging opinions on similar prejudicial questions of national courts. These op...

  8. Missed nursing care: the impact on intention to leave and turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschannen, Dana; Kalisch, Beatrice J; Lee, Kyung Hee

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between missed nursing care, nurse turnover, and intention to leave. A cross-sectional study using the MISSCARE Survey was conducted. The sample comprised 110 patient-care units in 10 acute-care hospitals. Staffing data, turnover rates, and unit-level Case Mix Index were collected from the participating hospitals. Higher percentages of females on the unit were associated with lower turnover rates (beta = -.235, p = .010). Units with higher rates of missed care (beta = .302, p reduce intention to leave (and subsequent turnover).

  9. Placement shift, sibling relationship quality, and child outcomes in foster care: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, L Oriana; Li, MiMin; Shrout, Patrick E; Brody, Gene H; Pettit, Gregory S

    2007-12-01

    Sibling unity during family transitions is considered a protective factor for child behavior problems, but there is little empirical support for the widespread child protection policy of placing siblings together in foster care. In a prospective study of 156 maltreated children, siblings were classified in 1 of 3 placement groups: continuously together (n = 110), continuously apart (n = 22), and disrupted placement (siblings placed together were separated; n = 24). Changes in child adjustment as a function of sibling relationship and placement group were examined. Sibling positivity predicted lower child problems at follow-up (about 14 months later), while sibling negativity predicted higher child problems. Placement group did not affect child behavior problems at follow-up; however, compared to siblings in continuous placement (either together or apart), siblings in disrupted placement with high initial behavior problems were rated as having fewer problems at follow-up, while siblings in disrupted placement with low initial behavior problems were rated as having more problems at follow-up. These findings highlight the importance of considering relationships between siblings and the risk that one poses to another before early placement decisions are made.

  10. Sick leave among home-care personnel: a longitudinal study of risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmström Eva B

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sick leave due to neck, shoulder and back disorders (NSBD is higher among health-care workers, especially nursing aides/assistant nurses, compared with employees in other occupations. More information is needed about predictors of sick leave among health care workers. The aim of the study was to assess whether self-reported factors related to health, work and leisure time could predict: 1 future certified sick leave due to any cause, in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group I and 2 future self-reported sick leave due to NSBD in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group II. Methods Study group I, comprised 443 female nursing aides/assistant nurses, not on sick leave at baseline when a questionnaire was completed. Data on certified sick leave were collected after 18 months. Study group II comprised 274 of the women, who at baseline reported no sick leave during the preceding year due to NSBD and who participated at the 18 month follow-up. Data on sick leave due to NSBD were collected from the questionnaire at 18 months. The associations between future sick leave and factors related to health, work and leisure time were tested by logistic regression analyses. Results Health-related factors such as previous low back disorders (OR: 1.89; 95% CI 1.20–2.97 and previous sick leave (OR 6.40; 95%CI 3.97–10.31, were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to any cause. Factors related to health, work and leisure time, i.e. previous low back disorders (OR: 4.45; 95% CI 1.27–15.77 previous sick leave, not due to NSBD (OR 3.30; 95%CI 1.33–8.17, high strain work (OR 2.34; 95%CI 1.05–5.23 and high perceived physical exertion in domestic work (OR 2.56; 95%CI 1.12–5.86 were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to NSBD. In the final analyses, previous low back disorders and previous sick leave remained significant in both study groups. Conclusion The results suggest a focus on previous low

  11. Comparisons of substance abuse, high-risk sexual behavior and depressive symptoms among homeless youth with and without a history of foster care placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Angela L; Nandy, Karabi

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare prevalence of substance use, high-risk sexual behaviors, and depression symptoms between homeless youth with and without a history of foster care placement. Approximately 26,000 young persons exit foster care annually in the United States. Once they 'age out' of foster care, however, many young persons do not have access to comprehensive health care. They also are at risk for substance abuse, homelessness, or mental illness. Because persons with a history of foster care are at risk for negative psycho-social outcomes, it is unclear if these young people might be different than homeless youth without this history. The design is descriptive and cross-sectional. A total of 156 homeless young persons, of whom 44 had a history of foster care placement, were recruited from a drop-in center that caters to homeless youth and young adults. The sample was majority male and white; ages were 16-25. Significantly higher proportion of homeless former foster youth used methamphetamine within the last six months compared to non-fostered homeless youth p = 0.03). Homeless former foster youth were significantly older (p = 0.02) and less educated (p = 0.02) than their homeless counterparts without a history of foster care placement. Prevalence of using tobacco, marijuana, alcohol, crack cocaine, and powder cocaine were similar for both groups. Although not significant, a higher proportion of homeless former foster youth reported trading sex for money or drugs compared to non-fostered, homeless youth (19% versus 12% [trading sex for money], and 26% versus 14% [trading sex for drugs], respectively. Findings from this study show that, in general, homelessness is a negative outcome, irrespective of having a foster care history. However, those with that history need continued support when transitioning to independent living, such as access to health care, and encouragement to further their education. It is important that nurses, who serve homeless

  12. Psychological impact of fostering on biological children of foster parents.

    OpenAIRE

    TÁBOROVÁ, Pavla

    2013-01-01

    Foster care is currently being discussed a great deal, in particular in connection with the planned shutdown of infant care centres. Currently it is preferred to place a child in foster care rather than in institutional care. However, attention should not only be paid to the children placed in foster families. The families that receive the children should also be given a lot of attention. Within a family, one cannot only consider the adults who will become foster parents for the placed childr...

  13. Evaluation of a multi-site program designed to strengthen relational bonds for siblings separated by foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waid, Jeffrey; Wojciak, Armeda Stevenson

    2017-10-01

    Sibling relationships in foster care settings have received increased attention in recent years. Despite growing evidence regarding the protective potential of sibling relationships for youth in care, some sibling groups continue to experience foster care related separation, and few programs exist to address the needs of these youth. This study describes and evaluates Camp To Belong, a multi-site program designed to provide short-term reunification to separated sibling groups through a week-long summer camp experience. Using a pre-test post-test survey design, this paper examines changes in youth ratings of sibling conflict and sibling support across camps located in six geographically distinct regions of the United States. The effects of youth age, number of prior camp exposures, and camp location were tested using multilevel modeling procedures. Findings suggest that participation in Camp To Belong may reduce sibling conflict, and improvements in sibling support are noted for youth who have had prior exposure to the camp's programming. Camp-level variance in the sibling support outcome highlight the complex nature of relationships for siblings separated by foster care, and suggest the need for additional research. Lessons learned from this multi-site evaluation and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Challenges in the Transition to Higher Education for Foster Care Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Megan Hayes

    2018-01-01

    This chapter acknowledges the contextual considerations in preparation and success in higher education and establishes a foundation of knowledge for researchers, educators, and practitioners to support foster youth in community college settings.

  15. Service Approaches to Young People with Complex Needs Leaving Out-of-Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvaso, Catia; Delfabbro, Paul; Hackett, Louisa; Mills, Hayley

    2016-01-01

    Although leaving statutory out-of-home care can be a challenging time for many young people, it is recognised that young people who have multiple or complex needs find this transition particularly difficult. This study aims to gain a deeper understanding of the challenges faced by care leavers who have complex needs, as well as to identify some of…

  16. Suicidal Ideation and Behaviour among Young People Leaving Care: Case-File Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, David J.; Taylor, Brian J.; Killick, Campbell; Bickerstaff, David

    2015-01-01

    Self-harming and suicide amongst adolescents are reported to be increasing in Europe and internationally. For young people in state care, this aspect of mental well-being is of particular concern. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence of suicidal ideation and behaviour amongst young people (age 16-21 years) leaving state care in one…

  17. Psychosocial pathways to sexually transmitted infection risk among youth transitioning out of foster care: evidence from a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kym R; McCarty, Cari; Simoni, Jane; Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark E

    2013-10-01

    To test the fit of a theoretically driven conceptual model of pathways to sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk among foster youth transitioning to adulthood. The model included (1) historical abuse and foster care experiences; (2) mental health and attachment style in late adolescence; and (3) STI risk in young adulthood. We used path analysis to analyze data from a longitudinal study of 732 youth transitioning out of foster care. Covariates included gender, race, and an inverse probability weight. We also performed moderation analyses comparing models constrained and unconstrained by gender. Thirty percent reported they or a partner had been diagnosed with an STI. Probability of other measured STI risk behaviors ranged from 9% (having sex for money) to 79% (inconsistent condom use). Overall model fit was good (Standardized Root Mean Square Residual of .026). Increased risk of oppositional/delinquent behaviors mediated an association between abuse history and STI risk, via increased inconsistent condom use. There was also a borderline association with having greater than five partners. Having a very close relationship with a caregiver and remaining in foster care beyond age 18 years decreased STI risk. Moderation analysis revealed better model fit when coefficients were allowed to vary by gender versus a constrained model, but few significant differences in individual path coefficients were found between male and female-only models. Interventions/policies that (1) address externalizing trauma sequelae; (2) promote close, stable substitute caregiver relationships; and (3) extend care to age 21 years have the potential to decrease STI risk in this population. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. People Helping People: Partnerships between Professionals and Natural Helpers. Building Community Partnerships in Child Welfare, Part Four. Family to Family: Tools for Rebuilding Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

    The Family to Family initiative has encouraged states to reconceptualize, redesign, and reconstruct their foster care systems. By 1996, the initiative was being implemented in five states, five Georgia counties, and Los Angeles County, California. This paper describes an approach for nontraditional partnerships that work to rebuild the foster care…

  19. FOSTER FAMILY AS A FORM OF UNITS FOR ORPHANS AND CHILDREN WITHOUT PARENTAL CARE (CASE STUDY OF SARATOV AND BELGOROD REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Vladimirovna Besschetnova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development and functioning of foster families, one of the priority interventions for children without parental care in Russia and abroad. The paper analyzes the current official statistics on the problem of child abandonment in Russia as a whole and in the Saratov and Belgorod regions of Russia in particular. The mechanism of social adaptation of children in foster care is based on the qualitative and quantitative methods (surveys and interviews of foster parents and foster children. The author identifies obstacles to the development of social institutions in the regions and the necessity of its active implementation in domestic social practices. The study found that foster care has been successful in areas where accepted legal basis allowed the recruiting, selecting candidates for adoptive parents, and foster care maintenance are carried out by social services. In addition, in order to reduce risk factors such as the secondary abandonment of foster children it is necessarily to increase assistance from the social guardianship bodies and professionals as well as building trusting parent-child relationships that use the democratic parenting style by foster parents.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-8

  20. A systematic review of cognitive functioning among young people who have experienced homelessness, foster care, or poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Charlotte E; Langley, Kate; Shelton, Katherine H

    2017-11-01

    Young people who have experienced homelessness, foster care, or poverty are among the most disadvantaged in society. This review examines whether young people who have these experiences differ from their non-disadvantaged peers with respect to their cognitive skills and abilities, and whether cognitive profiles differ between these three groups. Three electronic databases were systematically searched for articles published between 1 January 1995 and 1 February 2015 on cognitive functioning among young people aged 15 to 24 years who have experienced homelessness, foster care, or poverty. Articles were screened using pre-determined inclusion criteria, then the data were extracted, and its quality assessed. A total of 31 studies were included. Compared to non-disadvantaged youth or published norms, cognitive performance was generally found to be impaired in young people who had experienced homelessness, foster care, or poverty. A common area of difficulty across all groups is working memory. General cognitive functioning, attention, and executive function deficits are shared by the homeless and poverty groups. Creativity emerges as a potential strength for homeless young people. The cognitive functioning of young people with experiences of impermanent housing and poverty has been relatively neglected and more research is needed to further establish cognitive profiles and replicate the findings reviewed here. As some aspects of cognitive functioning may show improvement with training, these could represent a target for intervention.

  1. Black-White Differences in Child Maltreatment Reports and Foster Care Placements: A Statistical Decomposition Using Linked Administrative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Tim; Jiang, Nan; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Dalton, Erin; Vaithianathan, Rhema

    2017-03-01

    Introduction Official statistics have confirmed that relative to their presence in the population and relative to white children, black children have consistently higher rates of contact with child protective services (CPS). We used linked administrative data and statistical decomposition techniques to generate new insights into black and white differences in child maltreatment reports and foster care placements. Methods Birth records for all children born in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, between 2008 and 2010 were linked to administrative service records originating in multiple county data systems. Differences in rates of involvement with child protective services between black and white children by age 4 were decomposed using nonlinear regression techniques. Results Black children had rates of CPS involvement that were 3 times higher than white children. Racial differences were explained solely by parental marital status (i.e., being unmarried) and age at birth (i.e., predominantly teenage mothers). Adding other covariates did not capture any further racial differences in maltreatment reporting or foster care placement rates, they simply shifted differences already explained by marital status and age to these other variables. Discussion Racial differences in rates of maltreatment reports and foster care placements can be explained by a basic model that adjusts only for parental marital status and age at the time of birth. Increasing access to early prevention services for vulnerable families may reduce disparities in child protective service involvement. Using birth records linked to other administrative data sources provides an important means to developing population-based research.

  2. Maltreatment histories of foster youth exiting out-of-home care through emancipation: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlicek, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about maltreatment among foster youth transitioning to adulthood. Multiple entries into out-of-home care and unsuccessful attempts at reunification may nevertheless reflect extended exposure to chronic maltreatment and multiple types of victimization. This study used administrative data from the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services to identify all unduplicated allegations of maltreatment in a cohort of 801 foster youth transitioning to adulthood in the state of Illinois. A latent variable modeling approach generated profiles of maltreatment based on substantiated and unsubstantiated reports of maltreatment taken from state administrative data. Four indicators of maltreatment were included in the latent class analysis: multiple types of maltreatment, predominant type of maltreatment, chronicity, and number of different perpetrators. The analysis identified four subpopulations of foster youth in relation to maltreatment. Study findings highlight the heterogeneity of maltreatment in the lives of foster youth transitioning to adulthood and draw attention to a need to raise awareness among service providers to screen for chronic maltreatment and multiple types of victimization. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. 29 CFR 825.127 - Leave to care for a covered servicemember with a serious injury or illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family... servicemember” means a covered servicemember's biological, adoptive, step or foster father or mother, or any... are multiple family members with the same level of relationship to the covered servicemember, all such...

  4. 29 CFR 825.112 - Qualifying reasons for leave, general rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employees. A father, as well as a mother, can take family leave for the birth, placement for adoption, or foster care of a child. (c) Active employee. In situations where the employer/employee relationship has... OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act...

  5. Do sleep problems mediate the link between adverse childhood experiences and delinquency in preadolescent children in foster care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, Erin P; Rubens, Sonia L; Brawner, Thomas W; Taussig, Heather N

    2018-02-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with multiple mental and physical health problems. Yet, mechanisms by which ACEs confer risk for specific problems are largely unknown. Children in foster care typically have multiple ACEs and high rates of negative sequelae, including delinquent behaviors. Mechanisms explaining this link have not been explored in this population. Impaired sleep has been identified as a potential mechanism by which ACEs lead to delinquency in adolescents, because inadequate sleep may lead to poor executive function and cognitive control - known risk factors for delinquency. Interviews were conducted with 516 maltreated children in foster care, ages 9-11 years, and their caregivers regarding child exposure to ACEs, sleep problems, engagement in delinquent acts, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, and current psychotropic medication use. ACEs data were also obtained from child welfare case records. After controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, placement type (residential, kin, foster), length of time in placement, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and current psychotropic medication use, sleep partially mediated the association between ACEs and delinquency. Although delinquency is likely multiply determined in this population, improving sleep may be one important strategy to reduce delinquency. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  6. Attachment for Infants in Foster Care: The Role of Caregiver State of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, Mary; Stovall, K. Chase; Albus, Kathleen E.; Bates, Brady

    2001-01-01

    Examined concordance between foster mothers' attachment state of mind and infants' attachment quality. Found that two-way correspondence between maternal state of mind and infant attachment quality was similar to that of biological mother-infant dyads. Age at placement was not related to attachment quality. Concordance between maternal state of…

  7. Emerging versus Emancipating: The Transition to Adulthood for Youth in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; Singer, Erin; Hokanson, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adulthood has been defined as a distinct developmental stage in which youth experience opportunities for identity development and transition toward independence. While this period has been examined for youth in the general population, less is known about how foster youth experience this transition. This study uses qualitative interviews…

  8. A Trauma-Informed Care Approach to Supporting Foster Youth in Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Ronald E.; Westland, Melinda A.; Mo, Elaine

    2018-01-01

    This chapter describes the ways that the trauma of childhood frames the academic, social, and personal lives of many foster youth as they navigate higher education. In particular, we focus on the role of homelessness, social network fragmentation, and abuse and neglect.

  9. A Functional Approach to Reducing Runaway Behavior and Stabilizing Placements for Adolescents in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Hewitt B.; Crosland, Kimberly A.; Geller, David; Cripe, Michael; Kenney, Terresa; Neff, Bryon; Dunlap, Glen

    2008-01-01

    Teenagers' running from foster placement is a significant problem in the field of child protection. This article describes a functional, behavior analytic approach to reducing running away through assessing the motivations for running, involving the youth in the assessment process, and implementing interventions to enhance the reinforcing value of…

  10. Family foster care: a protective alternative for children and adolescents / Acolhimento familiar: uma alternativa de proteção para crianças e adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rosa do Amaral Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foster care of children and adolescents who have had their rights violated is being discussed both in the scientific literature and in agencies involved in the development of public policies. Such discussions, which aim to define some guidelines to guarantee the right to family and community inclusion, expose a field under change. This paper focuses on foster care in the Brazilian context and presents it as one of the possible alternatives for children and adolescents in risk situations. The (misleading influences of some theoretical perspectives that deal with affective bonds in foster care are also discussed. It is argued that a new foster culture requires changes in the conceptions of infancy and youth, in the meanings of affectionate bonds, and in welfare policies for children and adolescents.

  11. Prognostic factors for duration of sick leave due to low-back pain in dutch health care professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, Ivan A.; Koopman, Fieke S.; Knol, Dirk L.; Kat, Eric; Bongers, Paulien M.; de Vet, Henrica C. W.; van Mechelen, Willem

    2005-01-01

    Information on prognostic factors for duration of sick leave due to low-back pain (LBP) is growing. In this prospective cohort study prognostic factors for duration of sick leave and course of disability were identified in a very early stage of sick leave due to LBP in an occupational health care

  12. Cortisol production patterns in young children living with birth parents vs children placed in foster care following involvement of Child Protective Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Kristin; Butzin-Dozier, Zachary; Rittenhouse, Joseph; Dozier, Mary

    2010-05-01

    To examine differences in waking to bedtime cortisol production between children who remained with birth parents vs children placed in foster care following involvement of Child Protective Services (CPS). Between-subject comparison of cortisol patterns among 2 groups of children. Children referred from the child welfare system. Three hundred thirty-nine children aged 2.9 to 31.4 months who were living with birth parents (n = 155) or placed in foster care (n = 184) following CPS involvement as well as 96 unmatched children from low-risk environments. Main Exposures Involvement by CPS and foster care. Main Outcome Measure Salivary cortisol samples obtained at waking and bedtime for children on 2 days. Child Protective Services-involved children who continued to live with birth parents and CPS-involved children placed in foster care differed in cortisol production, with children living with their birth parents showing flatter slopes in waking to bedtime values. Continuing to live with birth parents following involvement of CPS is associated with greater perturbation to the diurnal pattern of cortisol production than living with foster parents. Foster care may have a regulating influence on children's cortisol among children who have experienced maltreatment.

  13. Longitudinal Assessment of Self-Harm Statements of Youth in Foster Care: Rates, Reporters, and Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Joy; Hambrick, Erin P; Tunno, Angela M; Jackson, Yo; Spangler, Amanda; Kanine, Rebecca M

    2015-12-01

    Self-harm in youth is a risk factor related to mental health and future morbidity, yet, relatively little is known about the rates and course of self-harm in youth residing in foster care. This study examined self-harm talk in foster youth based on caregiver and child report for 135 children between the ages of 8- and 11-years old. Longitudinal data on course of self-harm talk from both youth and caregivers also are provided. Caregivers identified that 24% of youth participants had disclosed a desire to die or to hurt themselves. Youth self-report revealed that 21% of children indicated a desire for self-harm, and rates of self-harm from both reporters decreased over time. While overall rates were similar across reporters, findings show discrepancies between youth self-report and caregiver report within individuals. Also, caregivers for youth in residential facilities were more likely to report youth self-harm talk than caregivers from foster home settings.

  14. Food security and the nutritional status of children in foster care: new horizons in the protection of a fragile population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Pietro; Scancarello, Marta; Khazrai, Yeganeh M; Romani, Lorenza; Cutrona, Costanza; DE Gara, Laura; Bona, Gianni

    2016-10-12

    The nutritional status of foster children, the quality of daily menus in group homes and the Food Security inside these organizations have been poorly studied and this study means to investigate them. A sample of 125 children, ranging in age from 0-17 years, among seven group homes (group A) was compared with 121 children of the general population we (group B). To evaluate nutritional status, BMI percentiles were used. Mean percentiles of both groups were compared through statistical analysis. Both nutritional and caloric daily distributions in each organization were obtained using the 24-hour recall method. A specific questionnaire was administered to evaluate Food Security. From the analysis of mean BMI-for-age (or height-for-length) percentiles, did not observe statistically significant differences between group A and group B. The average daily nutrient and calorie distribution in group homes proves to be nearly optimal with the exception of a slight excess in proteins and a slight deficiency in PUFAs. Moreover, a low intake of iron and calcium was revealed. All organizations obtained a "High Food Security" profile. Nutritional conditions of foster children are no worse than that of children of the general population. Foster care provides the necessary conditions to support their growth.

  15. Effective Approaches to the Care of the Employees on Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Kostrůnková, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    This diploma thesis focuses on identifying the most suitable model of care for em-ployees on parental leave which would bring benefits both to the company and towards employees in European countris. Thesis is built on research within six member countries, Czech Republic, Germany, Austria, Sweden, Finland and Netherlands, and companies on those markets. The main aim is to find a recommendation for employee's care which is based on Scope planning model, along with the cost's analyses of the mod...

  16. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care as a Preventive Intervention to Promote Resiliency Among Youth in the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D.; Fisher, Philip A.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Demographic trends indicate that a growing segment of families is exposed to adversity such as poverty, drug use problems, caregiver transitions, and domestic violence. Although these risk processes and the accompanying poor outcomes for children have been well-studied, little is known about why some children develop resilience in the face of such adversity, particularly when it is severe enough to invoke child welfare involvement. This paper describes a program of research involving families in the child welfare system. Using a resiliency framework, evidence from four randomized clinical trials that included components of the Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care program is presented. Future directions and next steps are proposed. PMID:19807861

  17. The Use of Expressive Therapies and Social Support with Youth in Foster Care: The Performing Arts Troupe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audra Holmes Greene

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Performing Arts Troupe is a program that provides youth in foster care and youth from low income neighborhoods with expressive therapies and social support. The program is designed to assist youth in addressing the effects of trauma and developing competencies as they prepare to transition to adulthood. The article discusses the literature base for the program, the program activities and describes the impact of the program on youth through preliminary evaluations and case studies. The program offers an innovative combination of expressive therapies and social supports that has effectively met the needs of vulnerable youth.

  18. Effect of childhood age in foster care on the incidence of divorce in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, James S M

    2010-02-01

    This retrospective study examines the long-term effect of the age at which British children were fostered in World War II on their divorce rate. A total of 859 respondents, aged 62 to 72 years, were recruited who had childhood homes in the county of Kent in southeast England during the war. Of these, 770 had been evacuated and fostered, and the remainder stayed at home. Reflecting the wartime concerns of Bowlby, Miller, and Winnicott (1939) regarding the wisdom of separating young children from their parents for a potentially long period, male and female respondents evacuated between the ages of 4 to 6 years had a significantly higher incidence of divorce compared with those in the 13- to 15-year age group. This association was found to be mediated by attachment style in which the fearful category was predominant. The relevance of these results in the broader developmental context, and to family counseling, are briefly discussed.

  19. Prior trauma exposure and serious illness at end of life: A national study of children in the US foster care system from 2005 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa C; Slayter, Elspeth M

    2018-06-08

    Children in foster care suffer with serious illness at end of life. However, the relationship between prior trauma exposure and serious illness has received little empirical attention. The objectives were to examine the prevalence and type of trauma exposure, and investigate the relationship between prior trauma and serious illness among foster children at end of life. We used national longitudinal foster care data. We included children who were less than 18 years with residence in the United States. Serious illness (i.e., physical health, mental/behavioral health, developmental disabilities) was measured via the foster care files. Three measures of prior trauma exposure (i.e., maltreatment, drug/alcohol exposure, psychosocial stressors) were created. Using multivariate logistic regressions, we evaluated the influence of prior trauma on serious illness at end of life, while controlling for demographic, geographic, and foster care support characteristics. Sixty-eight percent of children experienced maltreatment, 28% exposure to parental drug/alcohol misuse, and 39% psychosocial stressors prior to entering foster care. Maltreatment was positively associated with physical health and developmental disabilities, while parental drug/alcohol exposure was inversely related to developmental disabilities. Psychosocial stressors contributed to the prediction of poor physical, mental, and developmental health. These findings suggest that trauma-informed end-of-life care may be a critical need among children in foster care with serious illness. Future directions are discussed, including collaboration between end-of-life clinicians and social service workers and the importance of future research to understand and improve the quality of health at end of life for this underserved population. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. What is the Role of Parental Leave policies in shaping Work and Care in the Enlarged EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the article is to examine the role of parental leave in shaping a mother's choice between work and care in the enlarged EU. A central question is how parental leave schemes affect mothers' employment and the occupational consequences for mothers who spend time on full-time caring...

  1. Building positive self-image in adolescents in foster care: the use of role models in an interactive group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, A K

    1998-01-01

    In a previous article (Yancey, 1992), the literature on identity development in individuals from socially devalued racial and ethnic groups was summarized. It was postulated that the social maladaptation of adolescents in residential group foster care is reflective of identity disturbances created by the negative images of African-Americans and Latinos perpetuated by the dominant society and unfiltered by optimal parental racial/ethnic socialization. The present article describes the development of a pilot preventive mental health intervention, the PRIDE (Personal and Racial/ethnic Identity Development and Enhancement) program, designed to provide components of parenting that are necessary for promoting positive self-image in ethnically marginalized adolescents and that are typically lacking in the group foster care milieu. PRIDE utilizes successful, ethnically relevant role models in interactive group sessions to create a significant cognitive and emotional experience for teens. While the utility of role modeling for at-risk youth is widely accepted, there is little research on the packaging, delivery, and influence of this intervention modality. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a "hybrid" role-modeling approach (intermediate in intensity of exposure and cost between one-to-one mentoring and career-day programs). Implications for further research on this type of intervention are discussed.

  2. Overweight and obesity among Hispanic children entering foster care: a preliminary examination of polyvictimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Smith, Caitlin; Arnold-Clark, Janet S; Fuentes, Jorge; Duan, Lei; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2013-11-01

    This retrospective medical chart review examined the prevalence of overweight/obesity (≥85th percentile) and obesity (≥95th percentile) in Hispanic foster children aged 2-18 years in Los Angeles, California. Logistic regression was used for boys and girls separately to analyze polyvictimization (i.e., one vs. two or more types of maltreatment), type of maltreatment (abuse vs. neglect), and age-group as risk factors for overweight and obesity. Almost 40% of participants were overweight/obese, with the highest prevalence (47.7%) observed among children aged 12-18. Children aged 6-18 were at an increased risk of overweight/obesity and obesity compared with children aged 2-5. Although polyvictimization has been shown to have adverse health effects, in this study, it was related to slightly lower odds of obesity for boys but was unrelated to high weight for girls. Addressing the obesity epidemic among Hispanic foster children is vital to preventing continued obesity and the development of obesity-related health problems, especially by focusing on important community and family influences.

  3. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Girls in the Juvenile Justice System: 2-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Patricia; Leve, Leslie D.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2007-01-01

    This study is a 2-year follow-up of girls with serious and chronic delinquency who were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial conducted from 1997 to 2002 comparing multidimensional treatment foster care (MTFC) and group care (N = 81). Girls were referred by juvenile court judges and had an average of over 11 criminal referrals when they entered…

  4. Perceived effects of leave from work and the role of paid leave among parents of children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Mark A; Chung, Paul J; Elliott, Marc N; Garfield, Craig F; Vestal, Katherine D; Klein, David J

    2009-04-01

    We examined the perceived effects of leave from work among employed parents of children with special health care needs. Telephone interviews were conducted from November 2003 to January 2004 with 585 parents who had missed 1 or more workdays for their child's illness in the previous year. Most parents reported positive effects of leave on their child's physical (81%) and emotional (85%) health; 57% reported a positive effect on their own emotional health, although 24% reported a negative effect. Most parents reported no effect (44%) or a negative effect (42%) on job performance; 73% reported leave-related financial problems. In multivariate analyses, parents receiving full pay during leave were more likely than were parents receiving no pay to report positive effects on child physical (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85) and emotional (OR = 1.68) health and parent emotional health (OR = 1.70), and were less likely to report financial problems (OR = 0.20). Employed parents believed that leave-taking benefited the health of their children with special health care needs and their own emotional health, but compromised their job performance and finances. Parents who received full pay reported better consequences across the board. Access to paid leave, particularly with full pay, may improve parent and child outcomes.

  5. Effects of Motor Development Stimulation on Anthropometric Indices of Infants Aged 1-12 Months in Foster Care Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezou NikNezhad Jalali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first three years of life have a pivotal role in growth and development of infants. Extra-uterine environment largely affects brain development of infants during the first year of life.However,no specific programs are available for brain development stimulation in foster homes. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of motor development stimulation package on anthropometric indices of infants staying in foster homes. Method: This experimental study was conducted on 50 infants aged 1-12 months at Ali Asghar foster home of Mashhad, Iran in 2013. Infants were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (n=25 and control (n=25. Motor development stimulation packages were used for intervention group three times a week for eight consecutive weeks (24 sessions, two hours each. Anthropometric indices of infants were evaluated using standard instruments before and after intervention. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.11.5 using independent T-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: In this study, mean age of infants in intervention and control groups was 6.04±3.48 and 4.3±3.70 months, respectively. In total, 68% of infants were male, and 32% were female. After intervention, Mann-Whitney test results showed no statistically significant difference in height (P=0.47 and head circumference (P=0.11 of infants between the groups. However, independent T-test showed a statistically significant difference in body weight of infants (P=0.007 between the groups after intervention with the stimulation care package. Implications for Practice: According to the results of this study, use of evidence-based motor development stimulation package for eight weeks resulted in increased weight of infants, while it had no effect on height and head circumference. Therefore, it is recommended that complementary studies be conducted in this regard.

  6. “Think Research” in Everyday Clinical Practice: Fostering Research Culture in Health Care Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsa Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available “No development without research; No research without development” Yvo Nuyens1TThe quest for knowledge has helped mankind evolve over the years, from discovery of fire through Dolly the sheep clone to Chandrayan moon mission, leaving behind a record of discoveries and inventions in science and technology. Each generation can begin the search for knowledge where the last one left off and contribute their share to the benefit of humanity, cutting across culture and boundaries.

  7. Fostering excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, William; Kendall, Claire; Muggah, Elizabeth; Mayo-Bruinsma, Liesha; Ziebell, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed A key priority in primary health care research is determining how to ensure the advancement of new family physician clinician investigators (FP-CIs). However, there is little consensus on what expectations should be implemented for new investigators to ensure the successful and timely acquisition of independent salary support. Objective of program Support new FP-CIs to maximize early career research success. Program description This program description aims to summarize the administrative and financial support provided by the C.T. Lamont Primary Health Care Research Centre in Ottawa, Ont, to early career FP-CIs; delineate career expectations; and describe the results in terms of research productivity on the part of new FP-CIs. Conclusion Family physician CI’s achieved a high level of research productivity during their first 5 years, but most did not secure external salary support. It might be unrealistic to expect new FP-CIs to be self-financing by the end of 5 years. This is a career-development program, and supporting new career FP-CIs requires a long-term investment. This understanding is critical to fostering and strengthening sustainable primary care research programs. PMID:24522688

  8. Fostering a "Feeling of Worth" Among Vulnerable HIV Populations: The Role of Linkage to Care Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broaddus, Michelle R; Owczarzak, Jill; Schumann, Casey; Koester, Kimberly A

    2017-10-01

    To address barriers to adequate engagement in medical care among people living with HIV, Wisconsin's AIDS/HIV Program created a new position, the Linkage to Care (LTC) Specialist. Specialists provide intensive, short-term case management and patient navigation services for small caseloads of individuals at high risk of disengaging with medical care. Clients are eligible if they are newly diagnosed with HIV or new to medical care, recently released from incarceration, recently out of care, nonadherent to scheduled medical care visits, or have detectable viral load while in care. Interviews with 30 clients of Specialists were conducted to understand experiences with the program and medical care. Common themes included the ability of Specialists to navigate complex systems of care and support services, the unique role Specialists played in their clients' lives, and the challenges of transitioning out of the program. Although the primary goal of Specialists is to address barriers to medical care, they often adopted a holistic approach that also included housing, financial assistance, and other social determinants of health. Descriptions of the Specialist's role in implementation manuals focus on their functional roles and the services provided. However, clients often discussed the emotional support they received, especially for clients without strong social support networks. Many clients also desired an ongoing relationship with their Specialists even after discharge, but had been able to establish independence and self-efficacy. The LTC Specialists are resource-intensive considering their small caseloads, but fill an important gap in existing, often overtaxed case management systems.

  9. Fostering a supportive moral climate for health care providers: Toward cultural safety and equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel F. Almutairi

    Full Text Available In Western forms of health care delivery around the globe, research tells us that nurses experience excessive workloads as they face increasingly complex needs in the populations they serve, professional conflicts, and alienation from leadership in health care bureaucracies. These problems are practical and ethical as well as cultural. Cultural conflicts can arise when health care providers and the populations they serve come from diverse economic, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. The purpose in this paper is to draw from Almutairi’s research with health care teams in Saudi Arabia to show the complexity of culturally and morally laden interactions between health care providers and patients and their families. Then, I will argue for interventions that promote social justice and cultural safety for nurses, other health care providers, and the individuals, families, and communities they serve. This will include addressing international implications for nursing practice, leadership, policy and research. Keywords: Moral climate, Social justice, Equity, Cultural diversity

  10. Health insurance coverage and use of family planning services among current and former foster youth: implications of the health care reform law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy; Ahrens, Kym; Courtney, Mark

    2013-04-01

    This research uses data from a longitudinal study to examine how two provisions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act could affect health insurance coverage among young women who have aged out of foster care. It also explores how allowing young people to remain in foster care until age twenty-one affects their health insurance coverage, use of family planning services, and information about birth control. We find that young women are more likely to have health insurance if they remain in foster care until their twenty-first birthday and that having health insurance is associated with an increase in the likelihood of receiving family planning services. Our results also suggest that many young women who would otherwise lack health insurance after aging out of foster care will be eligible for Medicaid under the health care reform law. Because having health insurance is associated with use of family planning services, this increase in Medicaid eligibility may result in fewer unintended pregnancies among this high-risk population.

  11. Career satisfaction of Pennsylvanian dentists and dental hygienists and their plans to leave direct patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Brandon

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to explore a number of practice-related dynamics between dentists and dental hygienists, including their career dissatisfaction, plans to leave direct patient care, hiring difficulties, and full-time work. Data come from the 2013 Pennsylvania Health Workforce Surveys, a sample of 5,771 dentists and 6,023 dental hygienists, and logistic regression is used to estimate the relationships between outcome areas - dissatisfaction, plans to leave patient care, and hiring/job outcomes - and a number of explanatory variables, including demographic and practice characteristics. Dentists working in practices that employ hygienists have lower odds of reporting overall dissatisfaction and of leaving patient care in the next 6 years than those that do not employ hygienists. Dental hygienists that work full-time hours across two or more jobs have higher odds of dissatisfaction than those who work full-time in one job only. Part-time work in a single hygienist job is associated with higher odds of leaving the career, relative to having a single, full-time job. Results suggest that employment of dental hygienists is associated with lower career dissatisfaction and extended careers for dentists. However, a number of dentist characteristics are associated with difficulty hiring hygienists, including rural practice, nonwhite race, and solo ownership. Only 37.5 percent of hygienists work in a single, full-time job, an outcome related to lower dissatisfaction and extended careers for hygienists. Characteristics associated with this job outcome include having an associate degree, having a local anesthesia permit, and not working for a solo practice. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  12. Attachment security as a mechanism linking foster care placement to improved mental health outcomes in previously institutionalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2012-01-01

    Children reared in institutions experience elevated rates of psychiatric disorders. Inability to form a secure attachment relationship to a primary caregiver is posited to be a central mechanism in this association. We determined whether the ameliorative effect of a foster care (FC) intervention on internalizing disorders in previously institutionalized children was explained by the development of secure attachment among children placed in FC. Second we evaluated the role of lack of attachment in an institutionalized sample on the etiology of internalizing disorders within the context of a randomized trial. A sample of 136 children (aged 6-30 months) residing in institutions was recruited in Bucharest, Romania. Children were randomized to FC (n = 68) or to care as usual (CAU; n = 68). Foster parents were recruited, trained, and overseen by the investigative team. Attachment security at 42 months was assessed using the Strange Situation Procedure, and internalizing disorders at 54 months were assessed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Girls in FC had fewer internalizing disorders than girls in CAU (OR = 0.17, p = .006). The intervention had no effect on internalizing disorders in boys (OR = 0.47, p = .150). At 42 months, girls in FC were more likely to have secure attachment than girls in CAU (OR = 12.5, p security predicted lower rates of internalizing disorders in both sexes. Development of attachment security fully mediated intervention effects on internalizing disorders in girls. Placement into FC facilitated the development of secure attachment and prevented the onset of internalizing disorders in institutionalized girls. The differential effects of FC on attachment security in boys and girls explained gender differences in the intervention effects on psychopathology. Findings provide evidence for the critical role of disrupted attachment in the etiology of internalizing disorders in children exposed to institutionalization. © 2011 The Authors

  13. Patient-centered boundary mechanisms to foster intercultural partnerships in health care: a case study in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitziger, Martin; Berger Gonzalez, Mónica; Gharzouzi, Eduardo; Ochaíta Santizo, Daniela; Solis Miranda, Regina; Aguilar Ferro, Andrea Isabel; Vides-Porras, Ana; Heinrich, Michael; Edwards, Peter; Krütli, Pius

    2017-08-08

    Up to one half of the population in Africa, Asia and Latin America has little access to high-quality biomedical services and relies on traditional health systems. Medical pluralism is thus in many developing countries the rule rather than the exception, which is why the World Health Organization is calling for intercultural partnerships to improve health care in these regions. They are, however, challenging due to disparate knowledge systems and lack of trust that hamper understanding and collaboration. We developed a collaborative, patient-centered boundary mechanism to overcome these challenges and to foster intercultural partnerships in health care. To assess its impact on the quality of intercultural patient care in a medically pluralistic developing country, we conducted and evaluated a case study. The case study took place in Guatemala, since previous efforts to initiate intercultural medical partnerships in this country were hampered by intense historical and societal conflicts. It was designed by a team from ETH Zurich's Transdisciplinarity Lab, the National Cancer Institute of Guatemala, two traditional Councils of Elders and 25 Mayan healers from the Kaqchikel and Q'eqchi' linguistic groups. It was implemented from January 2014 to July 2015. Scientists and traditional political authorities collaborated to facilitate workshops, comparative diagnoses and patient referrals, which were conducted jointly by biomedical and traditional practitioners. The traditional medical practices were thoroughly documented, as were the health-seeking pathways of patients, and the overall impact was evaluated. The boundary mechanism was successful in discerning barriers of access for indigenous patients in the biomedical health system, and in building trust between doctors and healers. Learning outcomes included a reduction of stereotypical attitudes towards traditional healers, improved biomedical procedures due to enhanced self-reflection of doctors, and improved

  14. Mentoring the Next Generation of Social Workers in Palliative and End-of-Life Care: The Zelda Foster Studies Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Daniel S; Gerbino, Susan; Walls, Jocelyn Warner; Chachkes, Esther; Doherty, Meredith J

    2015-01-01

    As Americans live longer with chronic illnesses, there is a growing need for social workers with the knowledge and skills to deliver quality palliative care to older adults and their families. Nevertheless, there remains a critical shortage of social workers prepared to provide quality palliative and end-of-life care (PELC) and to maintain the field into the next generation. Formal mentorship programs represent an innovative approach to enhancing practice, providing support and guidance, and promoting social work leadership in the field. This article reviews the literature on mentorship as an approach to professional and leadership development for emerging social workers in PELC. The Zelda Foster Studies Program in Palliative and End-of-Life Care bolsters competencies and mentors social workers in PELC over the trajectory of their careers, and enhances the capacity in the field. Findings from the first six years of two components of the ZF Program are examined to illustrate the feasibility, benefits, and challenges of formal mentorship programs. The authors describe the background, structure, and evaluation of the initiative's mentorship programs, and discuss the implications of mentorship in PELC for social work education, practice, and research.

  15. The Family and Medical Leave Act: Questions and Answers for Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euben, Donna R.; Thornton, Saranna R.

    The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) entitles many faculty members to 12 weeks of job-protected unpaid leave each year to take care of a serious health condition or a family obligation such as the birth of a child, the arrival of an adoptive or foster child, or the serious health condition of a spouse, child, or parent. This guidebook is a…

  16. National Medical Care System May Impede Fostering of True Specialization of Radiation Oncologists: Study Based on Structure Survey in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numasaki, Hodaka [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Nishio, Masamichi [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Hokkaido Cancer Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Ikeda, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Sakai Municipal Hospital, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Sekiguchi, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke' s International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kamikonya, Norihiko [Department of Radiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko [Oncology Center, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tago, Masao [Department of Radiology, Teikyo University School of Medicine University Hospital, Mizonokuchi, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Ando, Yutaka [Department of Medical Informatics, Heavy Ion Medical Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tsukamoto, Nobuhiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Terahara, Atsuro [Department of Radiology, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital at Beppu, Oita (Japan); Mitsumori, Michihide [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nishimura, Tetsuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka (Japan); Hareyama, Masato [Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University, Hokkaido (Japan); Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: teshima@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the actual work environment of radiation oncologists (ROs) in Japan in terms of working pattern, patient load, and quality of cancer care based on the relative time spent on patient care. Methods and Materials: In 2008, the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology produced a questionnaire for a national structure survey of radiation oncology in 2007. Data for full-time ROs were crosschecked with data for part-time ROs by using their identification data. Data of 954 ROs were analyzed. The relative practice index for patients was calculated as the relative value of care time per patient on the basis of Japanese Blue Book guidelines (200 patients per RO). Results: The working patterns of RO varied widely among facility categories. ROs working mainly at university hospitals treated 189.2 patients per year on average, with those working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treating 249.1 and those working in university hospitals only treating 144.0 patients per year on average. The corresponding data were 256.6 for cancer centers and 176.6 for other facilities. Geographically, the mean annual number of patients per RO per quarter was significantly associated with population size, varying from 143.1 to 203.4 (p < 0.0001). There were also significant differences in the average practice index for patients by ROs working mainly in university hospitals between those in main and affiliated facilities (1.07 vs 0.71: p < 0.0001). Conclusions: ROs working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treated more patients than the other ROs. In terms of patient care time only, the quality of cancer care in affiliated facilities might be worse than that in university hospitals. Under the current national medical system, working patterns of ROs of academic facilities in Japan appear to be problematic for fostering true specialization of radiation oncologists.

  17. Fostering evidence-based quality improvement for patient-centered medical homes: Initiating local quality councils to transform primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Susan E; Zuchowski, Jessica; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Sapir, Negar; Yano, Elizabeth M; Altman, Lisa; Fickel, Jacqueline J; McDougall, Skye; Dresselhaus, Timothy; Hamilton, Alison B

    Although the patient-centered medical home endorses quality improvement principles, methods for supporting ongoing, systematic primary care quality improvement have not been evaluated. We introduced primary care quality councils at six Veterans Health Administration sites as an organizational intervention with three key design elements: (a) fostering interdisciplinary quality improvement leadership, (b) establishing a structured quality improvement process, and (c) facilitating organizationally aligned frontline quality improvement innovation. Our evaluation objectives were to (a) assess design element implementation, (b) describe implementation barriers and facilitators, and (c) assess successful quality improvement project completion and spread. We analyzed administrative records and conducted interviews with 85 organizational leaders. We developed and applied criteria for assessing design element implementation using hybrid deductive/inductive analytic techniques. All quality councils implemented interdisciplinary leadership and a structured quality improvement process, and all but one completed at least one quality improvement project and a toolkit for spreading improvements. Quality councils were perceived as most effective when service line leaders had well-functioning interdisciplinary communication. Matching positions within leadership hierarchies with appropriate supportive roles facilitated frontline quality improvement efforts. Two key resources were (a) a dedicated internal facilitator with project management, data collection, and presentation skills and (b) support for preparing customized data reports for identifying and addressing practice level quality issues. Overall, quality councils successfully cultivated interdisciplinary, multilevel primary care quality improvement leadership with accountability mechanisms and generated frontline innovations suitable for spread. Practice level performance data and quality improvement project management support

  18. National medical care system may impede fostering of true specialization of radiation oncologists: study based on structure survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numasaki, Hodaka; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Nishio, Masamichi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Koizumi, Masahiko; Tago, Masao; Ando, Yutaka; Tsukamoto, Nobuhiro; Terahara, Atsuro; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Mitsumori, Michihide; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Hareyama, Masato; Teshima, Teruki

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the actual work environment of radiation oncologists (ROs) in Japan in terms of working pattern, patient load, and quality of cancer care based on the relative time spent on patient care. In 2008, the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology produced a questionnaire for a national structure survey of radiation oncology in 2007. Data for full-time ROs were crosschecked with data for part-time ROs by using their identification data. Data of 954 ROs were analyzed. The relative practice index for patients was calculated as the relative value of care time per patient on the basis of Japanese Blue Book guidelines (200 patients per RO). The working patterns of RO varied widely among facility categories. ROs working mainly at university hospitals treated 189.2 patients per year on average, with those working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treating 249.1 and those working in university hospitals only treating 144.0 patients per year on average. The corresponding data were 256.6 for cancer centers and 176.6 for other facilities. Geographically, the mean annual number of patients per RO per quarter was significantly associated with population size, varying from 143.1 to 203.4 (p working mainly in university hospitals between those in main and affiliated facilities (1.07 vs 0.71: p working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treated more patients than the other ROs. In terms of patient care time only, the quality of cancer care in affiliated facilities might be worse than that in university hospitals. Under the current national medical system, working patterns of ROs of academic facilities in Japan appear to be problematic for fostering true specialization of radiation oncologists. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-Term Effects of Pre-Placement Risk Factors on Children's Psychological Symptoms and Parenting Stress among Families Adopting Children from Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Erum; Waterman, Jill; Foster, Jared; Paczkowski, Emilie; Belin, Thomas R.; Miranda, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory longitudinal study examined behavioral outcomes and parenting stress among families with children adopted from foster care, taking into account environmental and biological risk factors. Child internalizing and externalizing problems and parenting stress were assessed in 82 adopted children and their families at 2 months…

  20. Walking Our Talk in the Neighborhoods: Partnerships between Professionals and Natural Helpers. Building Community Partnerships in Child Welfare, Part Three. Family to Family: Tools for Rebuilding Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

    The Family to Family initiative has encouraged states to reconceptualize, redesign, and reconstruct their foster care systems. By 1996, the initiative was being implemented in five states, five Georgia counties, and Los Angeles County, California. This paper describes some of the ways natural helpers can assist professionals achieve the necessary…

  1. Potentials of leaves of Aspilia africana (Compositae in wound care: an experimental evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akah PA

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potentials of the leaves of the haemorrhage plant, Aspilia africana C. D Adams (Compositae in wound care was evaluated using experimental models. A. africana, which is widespread in Africa, is used in traditional medicine to stop bleeding from wounds, clean the surfaces of sores, in the treatment of rheumatic pains, bee and scorpion stings and for removal of opacities and foreign bodies from the eyes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potentials for use of leaves of this plant in wound care. Methods The effect of the methanol extract (ME and the hexane (HF and methanol (MF fractions (obtained by cold maceration and graded solvent extraction respectively on bleeding/clotting time of fresh experimentally-induced wounds in rats, coagulation time of whole rat blood, growth of microbial wound contaminants and rate of healing of experimentally-induced wounds in rats were studied as well as the acute toxicity and lethality (LD50 of the methanol extract and phytochemical analysis of the extract and fractions. Results The extract and fractions significantly (P ME>HF. Also, the extract and fractions caused varying degrees of inhibition of the growth of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as typed strains of Ps. aeruginosa (ATCC 10145 and Staph. aureus (ATCC 12600, and reduced epithelialisation period of wounds experimentally-induced in rats. Acute toxicity and lethality (LD50 test in mice established an i.p LD50 of 894 mg/kg for the methanol extract (ME. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, resins, sterols, terpenoids and carbohydrates. Conclusion The leaves of A. africana possess constituents capable of arresting wound bleeding, inhibiting the growth of microbial wound contaminants and accelerating wound healing which suggest good potentials for use in wound care.

  2. Smartphone text message service to foster hand hygiene compliance in health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbaj, Jad; Toure, Youssoupha; Soto Aladro, Alberto; Boudjema, Sophia; Giorgi, Roch; Dufour, Jean Charles; Brouqui, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    Health care-associated infections are a major worldwide public health issue. Hand hygiene is a major component in the prevention of pathogen transmission in hospitals, and hand hygiene adherence by health care workers is low in many studies. We report an intervention using text messages as reminders and feedback to improve hand hygiene adherence. The study is a historical comparison proof-of-concept study. Eighteen health care workers were monitored during 12 months by a radiofrequency identification system. Afterward we sent 2 types of text messages, congratulation or encouragement, and we studied the evolution of hand hygiene adherence. We recorded 15,723 hand hygiene opportunities, 8,973 before intervention and 6,750 during and after the intervention. Using a multilevel logistic regression analysis, we found a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence during the intervention (odds ratio, 1.68) compared with the historical period. Despite limitations due to the type of study, a text message encouraging personnel to be more vigilant is effective in increasing hand hygiene adherence in health care workers. Text message feedback should be incorporated into multimodal approaches for improving hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effective Early Childhood Care and Education: Successful Approaches and Didactic Strategies for Fostering Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    This research article attempts to determine strategies that can be used to support children's cognitive and social-emotional development in early childhood care and education programs. By synthesizing empirical evidence about pedagogical techniques that promote children's competencies, the article aims to identify those characteristics of programs…

  4. Fostering critical thinking skills: a strategy for enhancing evidence based wellness care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamison Jennifer R

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chiropractic has traditionally regarded itself a wellness profession. As wellness care is postulated to play a central role in the future growth of chiropractic, the development of a wellness ethos acceptable within conventional health care is desirable. This paper describes a unit which prepares chiropractic students for the role of "wellness coaches". Emphasis is placed on providing students with exercises in critical thinking in an effort to prepare them for the challenge of interfacing with an increasingly evidence based health care system. Methods This case study describes how health may be promoted and disease prevented through development of personalized wellness programs. As critical thinking is essential to the provision of evidence based wellness care, diverse learning opportunities for developing and refining critical thinking skills have been created. Three of the learning opportunities are an intrinsic component of the subject and, taken together, contributed over 50% of the final grade of the unit. They include a literature review, developing a client wellness contract and peer evaluation. In addition to these 3 compulsory exercises, students were also given an opportunity to develop their critical appraisal skills by undertaking voluntary self- and unit evaluation. Several opportunities for informal self-appraisal were offered in a structured self-study guide, while unit appraisal was undertaken by means of a questionnaire and group discussion at which the Head of School was present. Results Formal assessment showed all students capable of preparing a wellness program consistent with current thinking in contemporary health care. The small group of students who appraised the unit seemed to value the diversity of learning experiences provided. Opportunities for voluntary unit and self-appraisal were used to varying degrees. Unit evaluation provided useful feedback that led to substantial changes in unit structure

  5. Depressive symptom trajectories among girls in the juvenile justice system: 24-month outcomes of an RCT of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    OpenAIRE

    Harold, Gordon T; Kerr, David C R; van Ryzin, Mark; DeGarmo, David S; Rhoades, Kimberly A; Leve, Leslie D

    2013-01-01

    Youth depression is a significant and growing international public health problem. Youth who engage in high levels of delinquency are at particularly high risk for developing problems with depression. The present study examined the impact of a behavioral intervention designed to reduce delinquency (Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care; MTFC) compared to a group care intervention (GC; i.e., services as usual) on trajectories of depressive symptoms among adolescent girls in the juvenile justi...

  6. Effect of early institutionalization and foster care on long-term white matter development: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Johanna; Zhu, Tong; Stamoulis, Catherine; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-03-01

    Severe neglect in early life is associated with compromises in brain development and associated behavioral functioning. Although early intervention has been shown to support more normative trajectories of brain development, specific improvements in the white matter pathways that underlie emotional and cognitive development are unknown. To examine associations among neglect in early life, early intervention, and the microstructural integrity of white matter pathways in middle childhood. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project is a randomized clinical trial of high-quality foster care as an intervention for institutionally reared children in Bucharest, Romania, from 2000 through the present. During infancy, children were randomly selected to remain in an institution or to be placed in foster care. Those who remained in institutions experienced neglect, including social, emotional, linguistic, and cognitive impoverishment. Developmental trajectories of these children were compared with a group of sociodemographically matched children reared in biological families at baseline and several points throughout development. At approximately 8 years of age, 69 of the original 136 children underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Four estimates of white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean [MD], radial [RD], and axial [AD] diffusivity) for 48 white matter tracts throughout the brain were obtained through diffusion tensor imaging. Significant associations emerged between neglect in early life and microstructural integrity of the body of the corpus callosum (FA, β = 0.01 [P = .01]; RD, β = -0.02 [P = .005]; MD, β = -0.01 [P = .02]) and tracts involved in limbic circuitry (fornix crus [AD, β = 0.02 (P = .046)] and cingulum [RD, β = -0.01 (P = .02); MD, β = -0.01 (P = .049)]), frontostriatal circuitry (anterior [AD, β = -0.01 (P = .02)] and superior [AD, β = -0.02 (P = .02); MD, β = -0.01 (P = .03)] corona

  7. Analyzing Social Spaces: Relational Citizenship for Patients Leaving Mental Health Care Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pols, Jeannette

    2016-01-01

    "Citizenship" is a term from political theory. The term has moved from the relationship between the individual and the state toward addressing the position of 'others' in society. Here, I am concerned with people with long-term mental health problems. I explore the possibilities of ethnographically studying this rather more cultural understanding of citizenship with the use of the concept of relational citizenship, attending to people who leave Dutch institutions for mental health care. Relational citizenship assumes that people become citizens through interactions, whereby they create particular relations and social spaces. Rather than studying the citizen as a particular individual, citizenship becomes a matter of sociality. In this article, I consider what social spaces these relationships create and what values and mechanisms keep people together. I argue that the notion of neighborhood as a form of community, although built implicitly or explicitly into mental health care policy, is no longer the most plausible model to understand social spaces.

  8. Structural characteristics of hospitals and nurse-reported care quality, work environment, burnout and leaving intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Rikard; Smeds Alenius, Lisa; Griffiths, Peter; Runesdotter, Sara; Tishelman, Carol

    2015-03-01

    To investigate whether hospital characteristics not readily susceptible to change (i.e. hospital size, university status, and geographic location) are associated with specific self-reported nurse outcomes. Research often focuses on factors within hospitals (e.g. work environment), which are susceptible to change, rather than on structural factors in their own right. However, numerous assumptions exist about the role of structural factors that may lead to a sense of pessimism and undermine efforts at constructive change. Data was derived from survey questions on assessments of work environment and satisfaction, intention to leave, quality of care and burnout (measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory), from a population-based sample of 11 000 registered nurses in Sweden. Mixed model regressions were used for analysis. Registered nurses in small hospitals were slightly more likely to rank their working environment and quality of nursing care better than others. For example 23% of staff in small hospitals were very satisfied with the work environment compared with 20% in medium-sized hospitals and 21% in large hospitals. Registered nurses in urban areas, who intended to leave their job, were more likely to seek work in another hospital (38% vs. 32%). While some structural factors were related to nurse-reported outcomes in this large sample, the associations were small or of questionable importance. The influence of structural factors such as hospital size on nurse-reported outcomes is small and unlikely to negate efforts to improve work environment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Assessing Restrictiveness: A Closer Look at the Foster Care Placements and Perceptions of Youth With and Without Disabilities Aging Out of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Miranda; Dalton, Lawrence D.; Powers, Laurie E.; Geenen, Sarah; Orozco, Claudia Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the experience of restrictiveness among transition-aged youth with disabilities in foster care. Utilizing a sample of 207 youth, placement types were explored for differences in disability status, race and sex. Further, youth perceptions of restriction around communication, movement around one’s home, and access to the community were examined for youth receiving special education services (SPED), youth receiving developmental disability services (DD), and youth without disabilities. Youth with disabilities were more likely to be placed in more restrictive placement types and had significantly higher levels of perceived restriction around communication, movement, and community when compared to youth without disabilities. Additionally, males with disabilities experienced higher levels of restrictiveness, particularly those who received DD services, while White youth with disabilities also experienced greater community restrictiveness. PMID:24489523

  10. Fostering Future Leadership in Quality and Safety in Health Care through Systems Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Janet M; Stalter, Ann M; Dolansky, Mary A; Lopez, Gloria McKee

    2016-01-01

    There is a critical need for leadership in quality and safety to reform today's disparate spectrum of health services to serve patients in complex health care environments. Nurse graduates of degree completion programs (registered nurse-bachelor of science in nursing [RN-BSN]) are poised for leadership due to their recent education and nursing practice experience. The authors propose that integration of systems thinking into RN-BSN curricula is essential for developing these much needed leadership skills. The purpose of this article is to introduce progressive teaching strategies to help nurse educators achieve the student competencies described in the second essential of the BSN Essentials document (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2009), linking them with the competencies in Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN; L. Cronenwett et al., 2007) using an author-created model for curricular design, the Systems-level Awareness Model. The Systems Thinking Tool (M. A. Dolansky & S. M. Moore, 2013) can be used to evaluate systems thinking in the RN-BSN curriculum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Next-generation Sequencing-based genomic profiling: Fostering innovation in cancer care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo S. Fernandes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: With the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies, DNA sequencing has been increasingly utilized in clinical practice. Our goal was to investigate the impact of genomic evaluation on treatment decisions for heavily pretreated patients with metastatic cancer. METHODS: We analyzed metastatic cancer patients from a single institution whose cancers had progressed after all available standard-of-care therapies and whose tumors underwent next-generation sequencing analysis. We determined the percentage of patients who received any therapy directed by the test, and its efficacy. RESULTS: From July 2013 to December 2015, 185 consecutive patients were tested using a commercially available next-generation sequencing-based test, and 157 patients were eligible. Sixty-six patients (42.0% were female, and 91 (58.0% were male. The mean age at diagnosis was 52.2 years, and the mean number of pre-test lines of systemic treatment was 2.7. One hundred and seventy-seven patients (95.6% had at least one identified gene alteration. Twenty-four patients (15.2% underwent systemic treatment directed by the test result. Of these, one patient had a complete response, four (16.7% had partial responses, two (8.3% had stable disease, and 17 (70.8% had disease progression as the best result. The median progression-free survival time with matched therapy was 1.6 months, and the median overall survival was 10 months. CONCLUSION: We identified a high prevalence of gene alterations using an next-generation sequencing test. Although some benefit was associated with the matched therapy, most of the patients had disease progression as the best response, indicating the limited biological potential and unclear clinical relevance of this practice.

  12. Assessing predictors of intention to prescribe sick leave among primary care physicians using the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarna Nantha, Yogarabindranath; Wee, Lei Hum; Chan, Caryn Mei-Hsien

    2018-01-16

    Providing sickness certification is a decision that primary care physicians make on a daily basis. The majority of sickness certification studies in the literature involve a general assessment of physician or patient behaviour without the use of a robust psychological framework to guide research accuracy. To address this deficiency, this study utilized the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to specifically gauge the intention and other salient predictors related to sickness certification prescribing behaviour amongst primary care physicians. A cross-sectional study was conducted among N = 271 primary care physicians from 86 primary care practices throughout two states in Malaysia. Questionnaires used were specifically developed based on the TPB, consisting of both direct and indirect measures related to the provision of sickness leave. Questionnaire validity was established through factor analysis and the determination of internal consistency between theoretically related constructs. The temporal stability of the indirect measures was determined via the test-retest correlation analysis. Structural equation modelling was conducted to determine the strength of predictors related to intentions. The mean scores for intention to provide patients with sickness was low. The Cronbach α value for the direct measures was good: overall physician intent to provide sick leave (0.77), physician attitude towards prescribing sick leave for patients (0.77) and physician attitude in trusting the intention of patients seeking sick leave (0.83). The temporal stability of the indirect measures of the questionnaire was satisfactory with significant correlation between constructs separated by an interval of two weeks (p sick leave to patients. An integrated behavioural model utilizing the TPB could help fully explain the complex act of providing sickness leave to patients. Findings from this study could assist relevant agencies to facilitate the creation of policies that may help

  13. Perspectives of Youth in Foster Care on Essential Ingredients for Promoting Self-determination and Successful Transition to Adult Life: My Life Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Laurie E; Fullerton, Ann; Schmidt, Jessica; Geenen, Sarah; Oberweiser-Kennedy, Molly; Dohn, JoAnn; Nelson, May; Iavanditti, Rosemary; Blakeslee, Jennifer

    2018-02-01

    Research clearly documents the serious challenges and poor outcomes experienced by many young people exiting foster care, as well as compounded disparities for the high percentage of youth in care who are identified with disabilities and/or mental health challenges. However, very little research has been conducted to specify or validate effective models for improving the transition trajectories of youth exiting care. Evidence suggests the My Life self-determination enhancement model offers a promising approach for supporting youths' self-determined and positive transition to adulthood. The model includes youth-directed, experientially oriented coaching in the application of self-determination skills to achieve youth-identified transition goals, coupled with peer mentoring workshops that provide opportunities for learning, networking and fun. This in depth qualitative study of 10 youth who completed the My Life intervention focused on investigating coaching and mentoring elements and processes that youth participants identify as most important to their success, with the intention of informing the further development of youth-directed approaches to supporting young people who are transitioning to adulthood. Themes emerged around the centrality of youth self-direction, important processes in the coaching relationship, the essential value of experiential activities and self-determination skill development, and peer mentoring experiences that youth identified as fostering their success. Implications are discussed for research and practice in supporting youth exiting foster care.

  14. Impact of a Supportive Housing Program on Housing Stability and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Young Adults in New York City Who Were Aging Out of Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungwoo; Singh, Tejinder P; Gwynn, R Charon

    2017-08-01

    Former foster youth are at increased risk of housing instability and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during the transitional period following foster care. We measured housing stability using sequence analysis and assessed whether a supportive housing program in New York, New York, was effective in improving housing stability and reducing STIs among former foster youth. Matched administrative records identified 895 former foster youth who were eligible for the housing program during 2007-2010. The main outcomes included housing stability (as determined from episodes of homelessness, incarceration, hospitalization, and residence in supportive housing) and diagnosed STI case rates per 1,000 person-years during the 2 years after baseline. Marginal structural models were used to assess impacts of the program on these outcomes. Three housing stability patterns (unstable housing, stable housing, and rare institutional dwelling patterns) were identified. The housing program was positively associated with a pattern of stable housing (odds ratio = 4.4, 95% confidence interval: 2.9, 6.8), and negatively associated with diagnosed STI rates (relative risk = 0.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.2, 0.7). These positive impacts on housing stability and STIs highlight the importance of the supportive housing program for youths aging out of foster care and the need for such programs to continue. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Responses to "Intention to Leave, Anticipated Reasons for Leaving, and 12-Month Turnover of Child Care Center Staff."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Linda; Russell, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Two practitioners address problem of employee turnover in child care centers. The first plan argues for comprehensive wage raises, increased benefits, and low cost options to workers that increase flexibility. The second strategy advocates continuing education opportunities, special mentoring programs, and bonuses or raises paid early in the…

  16. Psychosocial Pathways to Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Risk Among Youth Transitioning Out of Foster Care: Evidence from a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Cari; Simoni, Jane; Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To test the fit of a theoretically driven conceptual model of pathways to STI risk among foster youth transitioning to adulthood. The model included: 1) historical abuse and foster care experiences, 2) mental health and attachment style in late adolescence, and 3) STI risk in young adulthood. Methods We used path analysis to analyze data from a longitudinal study of 732 youth transitioning out of foster care. Covariates included gender, race and an inverse probability weight. We also performed moderation analyses comparing models constrained and unconstrained by gender. Results Thirty percent reported they or a partner had been diagnosed with an STI. Probability of other measured STI risk behaviors ranged from 9% (having sex for money) to 79% (inconsistent condom use). Overall model fit was good (Standardized Root Mean Squared Residual of 0.026). Increased risk of oppositional/delinquent behaviors mediated an association between abuse history and STI risk, via increased inconsistent condom use. There was also a borderline association with having greater than 5 partners. Having a very close relationship with a caregiver and remaining in foster care beyond age 18 decreased STI risk. Moderation analysis revealed better model fit when coefficients were allowed to vary by gender versus a constrained model, but few significant differences in individual path coefficients were found between male and female-only models. Conclusions Interventions/policies that: 1) address externalizing trauma sequelae, 2) promote close, stable substitute caregiver relationships, and 3) extend care to age 21 years have the potential to decrease STI risk in this population. PMID:23859955

  17. Defining a target population at high risk of long-term foster care: barriers to permanency for families of children with serious emotional disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Becci A; Bryson, Stephanie A; McDonald, Tom; Walker, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Long-term foster care (LTFC) is an enduring problem that lacks evidence of effective strategies for practice or policy. This article describes initial activities of a statewide project of the national Permanency Innovations Initiative. The authors sought to: (1) verify the relevance of children's mental health as a predictor of LTFC, (2) describe critical barriers encountered by parents of children with serious emotional disturbances, and (3) identify systems barriers that hinder permanency for this target population.

  18. Engagement with Cognitively-Based Compassion Training is associated with reduced salivary C-reactive protein from before to after training in foster care program adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Thaddeus W W; Negi, Lobsang Tenzin; Dodson-Lavelle, Brooke; Ozawa-de Silva, Brendan; Reddy, Sheethal D; Cole, Steven P; Danese, Andrea; Craighead, Linda W; Raison, Charles L

    2013-02-01

    Children exposed to early life adversity (ELA) have been shown to have elevated circulating concentrations of inflammatory markers that persist into adulthood. Increased inflammation in individuals with ELA is believed to drive the elevated risk for medical and psychiatric illness in the same individuals. This study sought to determine whether Cognitively Based Compassion Training (CBCT) reduced C-reactive protein (CRP) in adolescents in foster care with high rates of ELA, and to evaluate the relationship between CBCT engagement and changes in CRP given prior evidence from our group for an effect of practice on inflammatory markers. It was hypothesized that increasing engagement would be associated with reduced CRP from baseline to the 6-week assessment. Seventy-one adolescents in the Georgia foster care system (31 females), aged 13-17, were randomized to either 6 weeks of CBCT or a wait-list condition. State records were used to obtain information about each participant's history of trauma and neglect, as well as reason for placement in foster care. Saliva was collected before and again after 6 weeks of CBCT or the wait-list condition. Participants in the CBCT group completed practice diaries as a means of assessing engagement with the CBCT. No difference between groups was observed in salivary CRP concentrations. Within the CBCT group, practice sessions during the study correlated with reduced CRP from baseline to the 6-week assessment. Engagement with CBCT may positively impact inflammatory measures relevant to health in adolescents at high risk for poor adult functioning as a result of significant ELA, including individuals placed in foster care. Longer term follow-up will be required to evaluate if these changes are maintained and translate into improved health outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Child-Care in Norway: Use of Parental Leave by Fathers

    OpenAIRE

    Naz, Ghazala

    2011-01-01

    An important feature of parental leave in Norway is that it allows significant sharing of leave between parents. Parents may take 54 weeks of leave and receive 80 per cent of previous earnings or 44 weeks of leave with 100 per cent of earnings, up to a ceiling amount. Nine weeks of total leave are, however, reserved for the mother and six weeks for the father and, as a general rule, these weeks cannot be transferred to the other parent. The remaining parental leave can be shared between paren...

  20. Factors Associated With Care Workers' Intention to Leave Employment in Nursing Homes: A Secondary Data Analysis of the Swiss Nursing Homes Human Resources Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudenz, Clergia; De Geest, Sabina; Schwendimann, René; Zúñiga, Franziska

    2017-07-01

    The emerging care personnel shortage in Swiss nursing homes is aggravated by high turnover rates. As intention to leave is a predictor of turnover, awareness of its associated factors is essential. This study applied a secondary data analysis to evaluate the prevalence and variability of 3,984 nursing home care workers' intention to leave. Work environment factors and care worker outcomes were tested via multiple regression analysis. Although 56% of care workers reported intention to leave, prevalences varied widely between facilities. Overall, intention to leave showed strong inverse relationships with supportive leadership and affective organizational commitment and weaker positive relationships with stress due to workload, emotional exhaustion, and care worker health problems. The strong direct relationship of nursing home care workers' intention to leave with affective organizational commitment and perceptions of leadership quality suggest that multilevel interventions to improve these factors might reduce intention to leave.

  1. "It's like pay or don't have it and now I'm doing without": the voice of transitional uninsured former foster youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszka, Bonnie J; Lindell, Deborah; Killion, Cheryl; Criss, Sam

    2012-02-01

    Twenty-four thousand American youth lose Medicaid entitlements after discharge from foster care annually. The circumstance of being uninsured is a formidable barrier to health care that leaves the youth vulnerable to unmet health care needs. Given that foster youth often develop physical and/or mental health problems as a result of abuse or neglect, continuous access to health care is especially important. This descriptive phenomenology study explores the lived experience of transitional uninsured former foster youth. Nine uninsured former foster youth were recruited from a nonprofit community organization in an urban county and interviewed using semistructured interviews. Four themes identified from the analysis were (a) "Surviving the real world": emancipation without essential documentation; (b) "It's not always going to be fine": managing mental and physical health without health care insurance; (c) "Roadblocks": barriers to securing health care insurance; and (d) "Just not knowing": Medicaid eligible albeit without health care insurance.

  2. Fostering maternal and newborn care in India the Yashoda way: does this improve maternal and newborn care practices during institutional delivery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Varghese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Yashoda program, named after a legendary foster-mother in Indian mythology, under the Norway-India Partnership Initiative was launched as a pilot program in 2008 to improve the quality of maternal and neonatal care at facilities in select districts of India. Yashodas were placed mainly at district hospitals, which are high delivery load facilities, to provide support and care to mothers and newborns during their stay at these facilities. This study presents the results from the evaluation of this intervention in two states in India. METHODS: Data collection methods included in-depth interviews with healthcare providers and mothers and a survey of mothers who had recently delivered within a quasi-experimental design. Fifty IDIs were done and 1,652 mothers who had delivered in the past three months were surveyed during 2010 and 2011. RESULTS: A significantly higher proportion of mothers at facilities with Yashodas (55 percent to 97 percent received counseling on immunization, breastfeeding, family planning, danger signs, and nutrition compared to those in control districts (34 percent to 66 percent. Mothers in intervention facilities were four to five times more likely to receive postnatal checks than mothers in control facilities. Among mothers who underwent cesarean sections, initiation of breastfeeding within five hours was 50 percent higher in intervention facilities. Mothers and families also reported increased support, care and respect at intervention facilities. CONCLUSION: Yashoda as mothers' aide thus seems to be an effective intervention to improve quality of maternal and newborn care in India. Scaling up of this intervention is recommended in district hospitals and other facilities with high volume of deliveries.

  3. Transition Planning for Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenen, Sarah J.; Powers, Laurie E.

    2006-01-01

    The study evaluated the IEPs/Individualized Transition Plans of 45 students who were in special education and foster care, and compared them to the plans of 45 students who were in special education only. Results indicate that the transition plans of foster youth with disabilities were poor in quality, both in absolute terms and in comparison to…

  4. The wellbeing of foster children and their relationship with foster parents and biological parents : a child’s perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, A.M.; van Rooij, F.B.; Bos, H.M.W.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Most Dutch foster children live permanently in foster families. It is often assumed that foster children have ambivalent loyalties and attachments to their birth parents and foster parents and are torn between the two. In this study 59 children between 10 and 18 years placed in long term foster care

  5. Responding to the Needs of Young People Leaving State Care: Law, Practice, and Policy in England and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, John; Stein, Mike

    1995-01-01

    Notes that the challenge for state child welfare services when young people leave care is to prepare them to cope with pressures surrounding this transition. Reviews existing research to explore current practice in England and Northern Ireland, and considers whether recent legislative reform in the two jurisdictions will help develop policy and…

  6. Normalization of EEG activity among previously institutionalized children placed into foster care: A 12-year follow-up of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwert, Ross E; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2016-02-01

    Extreme social and cognitive deprivation as a result of institutional care has profound effects on developmental outcomes across multiple domains for many abandoned or orphaned children. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) examines the outcomes for children originally placed in institutions who were assessed comprehensively and then randomized to foster care (FCG) or care as usual (CAUG) and followed longitudinally. Here we report on the brain electrical activity (electroencephalogram: EEG) of 12-year-old children enrolled in the BEIP. Previous reports suggested improvement in resting EEG activity for the group of children placed in the foster care intervention, particularly those placed before 24 months of age compared to children who were randomized to CAUG or those placed into families after this age. At 12 years, differences between those in the FCG and those in the CAUG persist in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), but not in higher frequency bands (i.e. in the beta band; 15-30 Hz), except in those children placed into the FCG who remained in high quality care environments over the course of the study. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining a stable high quality caregiving environment, particularly for children exposed to early psychosocial deprivation, for promoting healthy brain development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Organization of nursing care in three Nordic countries: relationships between nurses' workload, level of involvement in direct patient care, job satisfaction, and intention to leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Rikard; Smeds Alenius, Lisa; Runesdotter, Sara; Ensio, Anneli; Jylhä, Virpi; Kinnunen, Juha; Strømseng Sjetne, Ingeborg; Tvedt, Christine; Wiberg Tjønnfjord, Maria; Tishelman, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Health care systems in Finland, Norway and Sweden share many similarities, e.g. full-coverage and tax-financed, with predominately public sector hospitals. Despite similarities, there are differences in the working situations for RNs within these Nordic countries. The aim of this study was to analyze associations between RNs' patient workload and level of involvement in direct patient care, their job satisfaction and intention to leave in these countries. A workforce survey was conducted through RN4CAST, an EU 7th framework project. The survey included 118 items derived from validated instruments or tested in prior research. Responses from 1133 RNs at 32 Finnish hospitals, 3752 RNs at 35 Norwegian hospitals, and 11 015 RNs at 71 Swedish hospitals comprise the database, which was analyzed using logistic and odds ratio regressions analyses. We found statistically significant differences in RNs' level of involvement in direct patient care (p direct patient care and intention to leave in Sweden, and more satisfaction among RNs in roles with more direct patient care (OR = 1.16, 1.02 ≤ CI95% ≤ 1.32). Nearly half the Finnish sample report intention to leave, with significantly lower levels in Norway and Sweden (p role of RNs in patient care might potentially diminish intention to leave and increase job satisfaction in these Nordic countries.

  8. Sick leave and depression - determining factors and clinical effect in outpatient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Isaac; Kriston, Levente; Schneider, Frank; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Hegerl, Ulrich; Berger, Mathias; Härter, Martin

    2010-12-30

    Sickness leave is a major source of societal costs in depression treatment. However, very little is known about the rationale behind sick leave and their effects on depressive symptoms. Aim of the paper is to evaluate the effect of sick leave on treatment outcome and the association of sick leave with patient, depression and treatment-related factors. For this we compared patients with sick leave and non-sick leave regarding symptom reduction following 6 weeks of treatment. A total of 118 patients of 41 physicians in a controlled clinical trial with a naturalistic prospective design were analysed. After 8 weeks of treatment no significant differences were found between patients who had or did not have sick leave, in terms of improvement of depressive symptoms. The analyses of physician, patient and illness-related variables regarding their predictive value showed no significant effect. No systematic effect of sick leave and no clear criteria were found that were related to receiving a sick leave certificate. It can be assumed that physicians do not only base the decision of whether to sign a depressive patient off sick on illness-specific factors. For a targeted implementation of sick leave as therapeutic measure predictors for effectiveness should be defined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Double Bind: Primary Caregivers of Children with Special Health Care Needs and Their Access to Leave Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Paul J.; Garfield, Craig F.; Elliott, Marc N.; Vestal, Katherine D.; Klein, David J.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Family leave benefits are a critical tool allowing parents to miss work to care for their ill children. We examined whether access to benefits varies by level of childcare responsibilities among employed parents of children with special health care needs (CSHCN). Methods We conducted telephone interviews with three successive cohorts of employed parents of CSHCN, randomly sampled from a California children’s hospital. At Wave 1 (November 2003 to January 2004) we conducted 372 parent interviews. At Wave 2 (November 2005 to January 2006) we conducted 396 parent interviews. At Wave 3 (November 2007 to December 2008) we conducted 393 parent interviews. We pooled these samples for bivariate and multivariate regression analyses, using wave indicators and sample weights. Results Parents with more childcare responsibilities (primary caregivers) reported less access to sick leave/vacation (65% vs. 82%, Ppaid leave outside of sick leave/vacation (41% vs. 51%, Pleave benefits. Even in the context of part-time employment, however, primary caregivers were just as likely as secondary caregivers both to miss work due to their child’s illness and to report being unable to miss work when they needed to. Conclusions Due in part to employment and gender differences, leave benefits among parents of CSHCN are skewed away from primary caregivers and toward secondary caregivers. Thus, primary caregivers may face particularly difficult choices between employment and childcare responsibilities. Reducing this disparity in access to benefits may improve health for CSHCN and their families. PMID:23477748

  10. Access to leave benefits for primary caregivers of children with special health care needs: a double bind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Paul J; Garfield, Craig F; Elliott, Marc N; Vestal, Katherine D; Klein, David J; Schuster, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Family leave benefits are a key tool that allow parents to miss work to care for their ill children. We examined whether access to benefits varies by level of childcare responsibilities among employed parents of children with special health care needs (CSHCN). We conducted telephone interviews with 3 successive cohorts of employed parents of CSHCN, randomly sampled from a California children's hospital. At Wave 1 (November 2003 to January 2004), we conducted 372 parent interviews. At Wave 2 (November 2005 to January 2006), we conducted 396 parent interviews. At Wave 3 (November 2007 to January 2008), we conducted 393 parent interviews. We pooled these samples for bivariate and multivariate regression analyses by using wave indicators and sample weights. Parents with more childcare responsibilities (primary caregivers) reported less access to sick leave/vacation (65% vs 82%, P paid leave outside of sick leave/vacation (41% vs 51%, P Leave Act benefits (28% vs 44%, P leave benefits. Even in the context of part-time employment, however, primary caregivers were just as likely as secondary caregivers both to miss work due to their child's illness and to report being unable to miss work when they needed to. Due in part to employment and gender differences, leave benefits among parents of CSHCN are skewed away from primary caregivers and toward secondary caregivers. Thus, primary caregivers may face particularly difficult choices between employment and childcare responsibilities. Reducing this disparity in access to benefits may improve the circumstances of CSHCN and their families. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Maltreatment histories of aging out foster youth: A comparison of official investigated reports and self-reports of maltreatment prior to and during out-of-home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlicek, Judy; Courtney, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    This study compared official investigated reports of child maltreatment with retrospective self-reports prior to and during out-of-home care for a sample of foster youth who reached the age of majority in out-of-home care in Illinois. Using matched administrative and self-reported data for 474 youth who completed a baseline interview in the Midwest Evaluation of Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (i.e. the Midwest study) at ages 17-18, and 386 youth who completed a follow up interview at age 19, this study finds that official reports and self-reports of maltreatment prior to and during out-of-home care differ significantly. Findings from this study add insight into measurement discrepancies, and help to inform understanding of the extent of maltreatment experienced by this sub-sample of young people exiting out-of-home care in adulthood. Study findings have implications for independent living policy and practice in child welfare. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Agenda-setting for Canadian caregivers: using media analysis of the maternity leave benefit to inform the compassionate care benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykeman, Sarah; Williams, Allison M

    2014-04-24

    The Compassionate Care Benefit was implemented in Canada in 2004 to support employed informal caregivers, the majority of which we know are women given the gendered nature of caregiving. In order to examine how this policy might evolve over time, we examine the evolution of a similar employment insurance program, Canada's Maternity Leave Benefit. National media articles were reviewed (n = 2,698) and, based on explicit criteria, were analyzed using content analysis. Through the application of Kingdon's policy agenda-setting framework, the results define key recommendations for the Compassionate Care Benefit, as informed by the developmental trajectory of the Maternity Leave Benefit. Recommendations for revising the Compassionate Care Benefit are made.

  13. The lack of paid sick leave as a barrier to cancer screening and medical care-seeking: results from the National Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipins Lucy A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive health care services, such as cancer screening can be particularly vulnerable to a lack of paid leave from work since care is not being sought for illness or symptoms. We first describe the prevalence of paid sick leave by broad occupational categories and then examine the association between access to paid sick leave and cancer testing and medical care-seeking in the U.S. workforce. Methods Data from the 2008 National Health Interview survey were analyzed by using paid sick leave status and other health-related factors to describe the proportion of U.S. workers undergoing mammography, Pap testing, endoscopy, fecal occult blood test (FOBT, and medical-care seeking. Results More than 48 million individuals (38% in an estimated U.S. working population of 127 million did not have paid sick leave in 2008. The percentage of workers who underwent mammography, Pap test, endoscopy at recommended intervals, had seen a doctor during the previous 12 months or had at least one visit to a health care provider during the previous 12 months was significantly higher among those with paid sick leave compared with those without sick leave after controlling for sociodemographic and health-care-related factors. Conclusions Lack of paid sick leave appears to be a potential barrier to obtaining preventive medical care and is a societal benefit that is potentially amenable to change.

  14. Fostering the exchange of real world data across different countries to answer primary care research questions: an UNLOCK study from the IPCRG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, Liza; Williams, Siân; van der Molen, Thys; Thomas, Mike; Correia de Sousa, Jaime; Chavannes, Niels H

    2018-03-08

    There is growing awareness amongst healthcare planners, providers and researchers of the need to make better use of routinely collected health data by translating it into actionable information that improves efficiency of healthcare and patient outcomes. There is also increased acceptance of the importance of real world research that recruits patients representative of primary care populations and evaluates interventions realistically delivered by primary care professionals. The UNLOCK Group is an international collaboration of primary care researchers and practitioners from 15 countries. It has coordinated and shared datasets of diagnostic and prognostic variables for COPD and asthma to answer research questions meaningful to professionals working in primary care over a 6-year period. Over this time the UNLOCK Group has undertaken several studies using data from unselected primary care populations from diverse contexts to evaluate the burden of disease, multiple morbidities, treatment and follow-up. However, practical and structural constraints have hampered the UNLOCK Group's ability to translate research ideas into studies. This study explored the constraints, challenges and successes experienced by the UNLOCK Group and its participants' learning as researchers and primary care practitioners collaborating to answer primary care research questions. The study identified lessons for future studies and collaborations that require data sharing across borders. It also explored specific challenges to fostering the exchange of primary care data in comparison to other datasets such as public health, prescribing or hospital data and mechanisms that may be used to overcome these.

  15. Comparison of sick leave patterns between Norway and Denmark in the health and care sector: a register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Line; Fleten, Nils; Stapelfeldt, Christina M; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Jensen, Chris; Johnsen, Roar; Braaten, Tonje

    2013-11-01

    Sickness absence is of considerable concern in both Norway and Denmark. Labour Force Surveys indicate that absence in Norway is about twice that in Denmark and twice that of the mean reported by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. This study compares absence patterns according to age, percentage of employment, and occupation between municipal employees in the health and care sectors in two municipalities in Norway and Denmark. Data recorded in the personnel registers of the municipalities of Kristiansand, Norway and Aarhus, Denmark were extracted for the years 2004 and 2008, revealing 3498 and 7751 employee-years, respectively. We calculated absence rates together with number of sick leave episodes, and their association with the above-mentioned covariates. Gender-specific comparative descriptive statistics and negative binomial regression analysis were performed. The sickness absence rate in women was 11.3% in Norway (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.2-11.4) and 7.0% in Denmark (95% CI 7.0-7.1) whereas mean number of sick leave episodes among women was 2.4 in Denmark, compared to 2.3 in Norway (p = 0.02). Young employees in Denmark had more sick leave episodes than in Norway. Proportion of absentees was higher in Denmark compared to Norway (p Norway, for whatever reasons, may indicate that more frequent sick leaves episodes prevent higher sick leaves rates.

  16. Reducing Ex-offender Health Disparities through the Affordable Care Act: Fostering Improved Health Care Access and Linkages to Integrated Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacreisha Ejike-King

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite steadily declining incarceration rates overall, racial and ethnic minorities, namely African Americans, Latinos, and American Indians and Alaska Natives, continue to be disproportionately represented in the justice system. Ex-offenders commonly reenter communities with pressing health conditions but encounter obstacles to accessing care and remaining in care. The lack of health insurance coverage and medical treatment emerge as the some of the most reported reentry health needs and may contribute to observed health disparities. Linking ex-offenders to care and services upon release increases the likelihood that they will remain in care and practice successful disease management. The Affordable Care Act (ACA offers opportunities to address health disparities experienced by the reentry population that places them at risk for negative health outcomes and recidivism. Coordinated efforts to link ex-offenders with these newly available opportunities may result in a trajectory for positive health and overall well-being as they reintegrate into society.

  17. Ventilation in day-care centres and sick leave among nursery children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Ibfelt, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    ventilation in DCCs and sick leave among nursery children. Data on child sick leave within an 11 week period was obtained for 635 children attending 20 DCCs. Ventilation measurements included three proxies of ventilation: air exchange rate (ACR) measured with the decay method, ACR measured...... inverse relationship between the number of sick days and ACR measured with the decay method was found for crude and adjusted analysis, with a 12% decrease in number of sick days per 1 h(-1) increase in ACR measured with the decay method. This study suggests a relationship between sick leave among nursery...

  18. Acolhimento familiar: uma alternativa de proteção para crianças e adolescentes Family foster care: a protective alternative for children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rosa do Amaral Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O acolhimento de crianças e adolescentes que vivenciam violação de direitos tem sido discutido no âmbito do desenvolvimento de políticas públicas e no meio acadêmico. Tais discussões visam elaborar diretrizes que garantam o direito à convivência familiar e comunitária e evidenciam um campo em reordenamento. Este artigo contextualiza o acolhimento familiar no cenário nacional, considerando-o como uma medida de proteção possível para crianças e adolescentes em situação de vulnerabilidade. Discute-se também o reflexo de algumas perspectivas teóricas que abordam as relações de vínculo afetivo em situações de acolhimento. Argumenta-se que ao fomentar uma nova cultura de acolhimento são necessárias mudanças nas concepções de infância e juventude, nas significações de vinculação afetiva e nas políticas de assistência à infância e juventude.Foster care of children and adolescents who have had their rights violated is being discussed both in the scientific literature and in agencies involved in the development of public policies. Such discussions, which aim to define some guidelines to guarantee the right to family and community inclusion, expose a field under change. This paper focuses on foster care in the Brazilian context and presents it as one of the possible alternatives for children and adolescents in risk situations. The (misleading influences of some theoretical perspectives that deal with affective bonds in foster care are also discussed. It is argued that a new foster culture requires changes in the conceptions of infancy and youth, in the meanings of affectionate bonds, and in welfare policies for children and adolescents.

  19. Canadians leaving the Canadian health care system to seek bariatric surgery abroad: Examining patient experience with international bariatric tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Hohm, Carly Desiree

    2017-01-01

    Globally, bariatric surgery, commonly known as weight loss surgery, has grown in popularity among obese individuals as a means to addressing their weight-related negative health when more traditional weight loss programs, such as diet and exercise, fail to elicit long term sustained weight loss. In Canada, however, complex barriers related to social, administrative, and other structural factors restrict access to care domestically, leaving some patients turning to surgical options abroad thro...

  20. Caring for elder parents: a comparative evaluation of family leave laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Tony; Gimm, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    As the baby boomer generation ages, the need for laws to enhance quality of life for the elderly and meet the increasing demand for family caregivers will continue to grow. This paper reviews the national family leave laws of nine major OECD countries (Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom) and provides a state-by-state analysis within the U.S. We find that the U.S. has the least generous family leave laws among the nine OECD countries. With the exception of two states (California and New Jersey), the U.S. federal Family Medical Leave Act of 1993 provides no right to paid family leave for eldercare. We survey the current evidence from the literature on how paid leave can impact family caregivers' employment and health outcomes, gender equality, and economic arguments for and against such laws. We argue that a generous and flexible family leave law, financed through social insurance, would not only be equitable, but also financially sustainable. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  1. The Blind Men and the Elephant: Identification of a Latent Maltreatment Construct for Youth in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Joy; Jackson, Yo; Tunno, Angela M.; Hambrick, Erin P.

    2017-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a major public health concern due to its impact on developmental trajectories and consequences across mental and physical health outcomes. Operationalization of child maltreatment has been complicated, as research has used simple dichotomous counts to identification of latent class profiles. This study examines a latent measurement model assessed within foster youth inclusive of indicators of maltreatment chronicity and severity across four maltreatment types: physical, sexual, and psychological abuse, and neglect. Participants were 500 foster youth with a mean age of 12.99 years (SD = 2.95 years). Youth completed survey questions through a confidential audio computer-assisted self-interview program. A two-factor model with latent constructs of chronicity and severity of maltreatment revealed excellent fit across fit indices; however, the latent constructs were correlated .972. A one-factor model also demonstrated excellent model fit to the data (χ2 (16, n = 500) =28.087, p =.031, RMSEA (0.012 – 0.062) =.039, TLI =.990, CFI =.994, SRMR =.025) with a nonsignificant chi-square difference test comparing the one- and two-factor models. Invariance tests across age, gender, and placement type also were conducted with recommendations provided. Results suggest a single-factor latent model of maltreatment severity and chronicity can be attained. Thus, the maltreatment experiences reported by foster youth, though varied and complex, were captured in a model that may prove useful in later predictions of outcome behaviors. Appropriate identification of both the chronicity and severity of maltreatment inclusive of the range of maltreatment types remains a high priority for future research. PMID:28254690

  2. Child Maltreatment, Trauma, and Physical Health Outcomes: The Role of Abuse Type and Placement Moves on Health Conditions and Service Use for Youth in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Yo; Cushing, Christopher C; Gabrielli, Joy; Fleming, Kandace; O'Connor, Bridget M; Huffhines, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relations between abuse types, non-maltreatment-related trauma, and health service utilization in a sample of youth in foster care with and without chronic medical conditions. A total of 213 youth, aged 8-21 years, provided self-report of general trauma and abuse exposure. Medicaid claims for each child were collected from official state databases. Exposure to sexual abuse, neglect, or general trauma but not exposure to physical abuse or psychological abuse increased the rates of medical visits, while only general trauma increased medical hospitalizations.  Trauma types are not equally predictive of health care utilization for youth with chronic health conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Underserved parents, underserved youth: Considering foster parent willingness to foster substance-using adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Kathleen; Kaynak, Övgü; Clements, Irene; Bresani, Elena; White, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents involved with foster care are five times more likely to receive a drug dependence diagnosis when compared to adolescents in the general population. Prior research has shown that substance use is often hidden from providers, negating any chance for treatment and almost guaranteeing poor post-foster care outcomes. There are virtually no studies that examine the willingness (and its determinants) to foster youth with substance abuse problems. The current study conducted a nationally-distributed survey of 752 currently licensed foster care parents that assessed willingness to foster youth overall and by type of drug used, and possible correlates of this decision (e.g., home factors, system factors, and individual foster parent factors such as ratings of perceived difficulty in fostering this population). Overall, willingness to foster a youth involved with alcohol and other drugs (AOD) was contingent upon the types of drugs used. The odds that a parent would foster an AOD-involved youth were significantly increased by being licensed as a treatment foster home, having fostered an AOD-involved youth in the past, having AOD-specific training and past agency-support when needed, and self-efficacy with respect to positive impact. Surprisingly, when religion played a large part in the decision to foster any child, the odds of willingness to foster an AOD-involved youth dropped significantly. These results suggest that a large proportion of AOD-involved youth who find themselves in the foster care system will not have foster families willing to parent them, thereby forcing placement into a variety of congregate care facilities (e.g., residential treatment facilities, group homes). Specific ways in which the system can address these issues to improve placement and permanency efforts is provided. PMID:25878368

  4. Analysis of job satisfaction, burnout, and intent of respiratory care practitioners to leave the field or the job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelledy, D C; Mikles, S P; May, D F; Youtsey, J W

    1992-01-01

    Increased stress, burnout, and lack of job satisfaction may contribute to a decline in work performance, absenteeism, and intent to leave one's job or field. We undertook to determine organizational, job-specific, and personal predictors of level of burnout among respiratory care practitioners (RCPs). We also examined the relationships among burnout, job satisfaction (JS), absenteeism, and RCPs' intent to leave their job or the field. A pilot-tested assessment instrument was mailed to all active NBRC-credentialed RCPs in Georgia (n = 788). There were 458 usable returns (58% response rate). A random sample of 10% of the nonrespondents (n = 33) was then surveyed by telephone, and the results were compared to those of the mail respondents. Variables were compared to burnout and JS scores by correlational analysis, which was followed by stepwise multiple regression analyses to determine the ability of the independent variables to predict burnout and JS scores when used in combination. There were no significant differences between respondents and sampled nonrespondents in burnout scores (p = 0.56) or JS (p = 0.24). Prediction of burnout: The coefficient of multiple correlation, R2, indicated that in combination the independent variables accounted for 61% of the variance in burnout scores. The strongest predictor of burnout was job stress. Other job-related predictors of burnout were size of department, satisfaction with work, satisfaction with co-workers and co-worker support, job independence and job control, recognition by nursing, and role clarity. Personal-variable predictors were age, number of previous jobs held, social support, and intent to leave the field of respiratory care. Prediction of job satisfaction: R2 indicated that, in combination, the independent variables accounted for 63% of the variance observed in satisfaction with work, 36% of the variance observed in satisfaction with pay, 36% of the variance in satisfaction with promotions, 62% of the variance

  5. Survival, Signaling, and Security: Foster Carers' and Residential Carers' Accounts of Self-Harming Practices Among Children and Young People in Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rhiannon E

    2018-05-01

    Research on clinicians' interpretations of self-harming practices has shown that they can often be negative. To date there has been limited consideration of other professionals' narratives, notably those working in social care. This article presents focus group and interview data generated with foster carers ( n = 15) and residential carers ( n = 15) to explore the symbolic meanings ascribed to self-harm among the children and young people they care for. Three repertoires of interpretation are presented: survival, which conceives self-harm as a mechanism for redefining the identity of "looked-after"; signaling, which understands self-harm as a communicative tool for the expression of emotion; and security, which sees self-harming practices as testing the authenticity and safety of the caring relationship. Through their focus on sociocultural narratives, carers position themselves as experts on self-harm due to their intimacy with young people's social worlds. This construction potentially creates distance from health professionals, which is problematic given the current privileging of interprofessional working.

  6. Orphanages run by nuns in Druga Rzeczpospolita (The Second Republic of Poland – Poland between 1918-1939. An outline of the history of foster care (outside the family in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDYTA BARTKOWIAK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available : Child foster care organized by nuns and meant for children deprived of infamily upbringing dates back as far as the 13 century. The prototypes of orphanages run by nuns were medieval hospitals, that is care institutions for all those in need. The beginnings of care/educational work with orphaned and abandoned children are connected with the activity of The Holy Spirit de Saxia male congregation, whose members were called “duchaki” in Poland. Since the 16 century the members of the Sisters of Mercy and Sisters of Charity congregations have specialized in institutional foster care. In nationally sovereign Druga Rzeczpospolita orphanages run by nuns were numerous and they were characterized by relative financial stability, the continuity of educational processes and creativity in finding new solutions to be used in the work with the children who were cared for

  7. Psychoeducation against depression, anxiety, alexithymia and fibromyalgia: a pilot study in primary care for patients on sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Eva O; Svensson, Ralph; Thulesius, Hans O

    2018-06-01

    Feasibility testing of a psychoeducational method -The Affect School and Script Analyses (ASSA) - in a Swedish primary care setting. Exploring associations between psychological, and medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). Pilot study. Three Swedish primary care centers serving 20,000 people. 8 weekly 2-hour sessions with a 5-7 participant group led by two instructors - followed by 10 individual hour-long sessions. Thirty-six patients, 29 women (81%), on sick-leave due to depression, anxiety, or fibromyalgia. Feasibility in terms of participation rates and expected improvements of psychological symptoms and MUPS, assessed by self-report instruments pre-, one-week post-, and 18 months post-intervention. Regression coefficients between psychological symptoms and MUPS. The entire 26-hour psychoeducational intervention was completed by 30 patients (83%), and 33 patients (92%) completed the 16-hour Affect School. One-week post-intervention median test score changes were significantly favorable for 27 respondents, with p 80% participation rates, and clear improvements of self-assessed psychological symptoms and MUPS. The ASSA intervention thus showed adequate feasibility in a Swedish primary care setting. Key Points  A pilot study of a psychoeducational intervention - The Affect School and Script Analyses (ASSA) - was performed in primary care   • The intervention showed feasibility for patients on sick-leave due to depression, anxiety, or fibromyalgia   • 92% completed the 8 weeks/16 hours Affect School and 83% completed the entire 26-hour ASSA intervention   • 9 of 11 self-reported measures improved significantly one-week post intervention   • 7 of 11 self-reported measures improved significantly 18 months post-intervention.

  8. Does the Culture of Modern Day Palliative Care Social Work Leave Room for Leadership?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jason

    2016-04-02

    This paper describes research undertaken as part of an MA study in leadership. It draws on interviews with six high profile leaders at the fore front of end of life care sector in the UK. Its findings and emerging themes offer insights about the opportunities for social work leaders in palliative care in the future and how the profession and palliative care sector address current barriers to taking advantage of such opportunity. The main focus of this paper is leadership related to palliative care social work. However, it relates to much broader themes including the history, politics and culture of this profession and the requirements for leadership on the part of social work in the broader contexts of health and social care.

  9. Consequences Paternity Leave on Allocation of Childcare and Domestic Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of parental leave policies aimed exclusively at fathers is to promote gender equality in the productive and reproductive spheres. The aim of this study is to examine whether the use of paternity leave fosters greater involvement of fathers in the division of tasks within the reproductive sphere, specifi cally child care and housework. Based on data from the survey, ?Social use of parental leave in Spain, 2012?, we have created multivariate models using ordinary least squares regression. The sample used in the analysis consists of 600 fathers who have had at least one child since 2007. The results suggest that paternity leave does encourage greater involvement by fathers in childcare, but the effect is limited, as it is only found for fathers after the birth of their fi rst child.

  10. The Effects of Staff Training on the Types of Interactions Observed at Two Group Homes for Foster Care Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosland, Kimberly A.; Dunlap, Glen; Sager, Wayne; Neff, Bryon; Wilcox, Catherine; Blanco, Alfredo; Giddings, Tamela

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: An extensive literature base exists for behavioral parent training; however, few studies have focused on training direct care staff at group home and residential facilities for children. This study was conducted to determine whether a behavioral staff training program consisting of classroom training and in-home feedback would improve…

  11. Fostering internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baernholdt, Marianne; Drake, Emily; Maron, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    Aim This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of a semester-long exchange program between two Bachelor of Science in Nursing programs in the USA and Denmark. Background Nurses globally need to provide culturally sensitive care for an ethnically diverse population...... learning theory, we developed an exchange program with the objective of enhancing nursing students' cultural competence through knowledge building, attitudes and behaviour development. Lessons learned and implications for educational institutions and policy are discussed. Conclusion In internationalization....... Competencies on how to do so should start in basic nursing programs. A useful strategy is through immersion into another culture through an exchange program. Little is known about successful strategies for two-way or 360° exchange programs between schools from different countries. Guided by experiential...

  12. Integrated mental health care and vocational rehabilitation to improve return to work rates for people on sick leave because of depression and anxiety (the Danish IBBIS trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rie; Hoff, Andreas; Fisker, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    have depression and/or anxiety. There is no clear evidence that treatment alone will provide sufficient support for vocational recovery in this group. Integrated vocational and health care services have shown good effects on return to work in other, similar welfare contexts. The purpose of the IBBIS...... (Integrated Mental Health Care and Vocational Rehabilitation to Individuals on Sick Leave Due to Anxiety and Depression) interventions is to improve and hasten the process of return to employment for people in Denmark on sick leave because of depression and anxiety. METHODS/DESIGN: This three-arm, parallel......-group, randomized superiority trial has been set up to investigate the effectiveness of the IBBIS mental health care intervention and the integrated IBBIS mental health care and IBBIS vocational rehabilitation intervention for people on sick leave because of depression and/or anxiety in Denmark. The trial has...

  13. In search of connection: The foster youth and caregiver relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Storer, Heather L.; Barkan, Susan E.; Stenhouse, Linnea L.; Eichenlaub, Caroline; Mallillin, Anastasia; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    Placement instability is an ongoing challenge for the 125,000 foster youth aged 14 – 18 that are living in foster care, with youth living in approximately 3 placements before aging out of the system. Despite the importance caring adult relationships can play in promoting positive youth development and resiliency, there has been limited inquiry into the characteristics of the foster youth and caregiver relationship. The goal of this paper is to provide a descriptive account of the foster youth...

  14. Leaving care and mental health: outcomes for children in out-of-home care during the transition to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodyer Ian M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There were 59,500 Children in out-of-home care in England in 2008. Research into this population points to poor health and quality of life outcomes over the transition to adult independence. This undesirable outcome applies to mental health, education and employment. This lack of wellbeing for the individual is a burden for health and social care services, suggesting limitations in the current policy approaches regarding the transitional pathway from care to adult independence. Although the precise reasons for these poor outcomes are unclear long term outcomes from national birth cohorts suggest that mental health could be a key predictor for subsequent psychosocial adjustment. Researching the wellbeing of children in out-of-home care has proven difficult due to the range and complexity of the factors leading to being placed in care and the different methods used internationally for recording information. This paper delineates the estimated prevalence of mental health problems for adolescents in the care system, organisational factors, influencing service provision, and pathways through the transition from adolescence to independent young adult life. The extent to which being taken into care as a child moderates adult wellbeing outcomes remains unknown. Whether the care system enhances, reduces or has a null effect on wellbeing and specifically mental health cannot be determined from the current literature. Nonetheless a substantial proportion of young people display resilience and experience successful quality of life outcomes including mental capital. A current and retrospective study of young people transitioning to adult life is proposed to identify factors that have promoted successful outcomes and which would be used to inform policy developments and future longitudinal studies.

  15. Health Risk Behavior in Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Problem Adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore identification of risk behavior is critical. Method A secondary analysis of data from a larger study investigated the health risk behavior of 56 foster youth using the CHIP-AE. Findings Foster youth had some increased risk behavior. Younger adolescents and those in kinship care had less risky behavior. Youth had more risk behavior when: in group homes, parental death, histories of physical or emotional abuse, or history of attempted suicide. Conclusions These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability in foster youth. PMID:19490278

  16. Predictors of foster parents' satisfaction and intent to continue to foster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby, R; Rindfleisch, N; Bean, G

    1999-03-01

    The United States General Accounting Office (United States General Accounting Office [USGAO], 1989) report on out-of-home care affirmed that the foster care system is in crisis. To shed light on some factors that influence retention, the study reported here asked "What factors influence the satisfaction of foster parents?" and "What factors influence the intent of licensed foster parents to continue to foster?" A sample of 539 foster parents in eight urban counties in a large Midwestern state completed questionnaires aimed at addressing these questions. Some of the factors exerting the strongest influence on satisfaction were: feeling competent to handle the children who were placed; wanting to take in children who needed loving parents; no regrets about investment in foster children; foster mother's age; and agency social worker providing information and showing approval for a job well done. An example of factors exerting influence on intent to continue to foster include overall satisfaction, readiness to phone the social worker, number of foster boys in the home, being treated like one needed help oneself, and agency affiliation (private). Efforts to increase the supply of foster homes through recruitment is not enough. The support, training, and professional regard given to parents after they have begun the fostering task is of greater need. Based on analysis of the findings, implications for practice, programming, and policy are offered.

  17. Autonomous home-care nursing staff are more engaged in their work and less likely to consider leaving the healthcare sector: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurits, Erica E M; de Veer, Anke J E; van der Hoek, Lucas S; Francke, Anneke L

    2015-12-01

    The need for home care is rising in many Western European countries, due to the ageing population and governmental policies to substitute institutional care with home care. At the same time, a general shortage of qualified home-care staff exists or is expected in many countries. It is important to retain existing nursing staff in the healthcare sector to ensure a stable home-care workforce for the future. However, to date there has been little research about the job factors in home care that affect whether staff are considering leaving the healthcare sector. The main purpose of the study was to examine how home-care nursing staff's self-perceived autonomy relates to whether they have considered leaving the healthcare sector and to assess the possible mediating effect of work engagement. The questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study involved 262 registered nurses and certified nursing assistants employed in Dutch home-care organisations (mean age of 51; 97% female). The respondents were members of the Dutch Nursing Staff Panel, a nationwide group of nursing staff members in various healthcare settings (67% response rate). The questionnaire included validated scales concerning self-perceived autonomy and work engagement and a measure for considering pursuing an occupation outside the healthcare sector. Logistic regression and mediation analyses were conducted to test associations between self-perceived autonomy, work engagement and considering leaving the healthcare sector. Nursing staff members in home care who perceive more autonomy are more engaged in their work and less likely to have considered leaving the healthcare sector. The positive association between self-perceived autonomy and considering leaving, found among nursing staff members regardless of their level of education, is mediated by work engagement. In developing strategies for retaining nursing staff in home care, employers and policy makers should target their efforts at enhancing nursing staff

  18. Retention of Paid Related Caregivers: Who Stays and Who Leaves Home Care Careers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, A. E.; Matthias, Ruth E.; Kietzman, Kathryn; Furman, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The use of consumer-directed services is expected to grow in coming years, and paying family and friends is a key element of these home-based services. The goal of this study was to understand the careers of these "related workers" (family and friends) and their potential role in the long-term care workforce. Design and Methods:…

  19. A high glycerol-containing leave-on scalp care treatment to improve dandruff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Clive R; Matheson, Jane R; Hoptroff, Michael; Jones, David A; Luo, Yanjun; Baines, Fiona L; Luo, Shengjun

    2014-01-01

    Dandruff is a common cosmetic condition associated with flaky scalp skin and pruritus. It is generally treated with regular use of antifungal-based shampoos. Research into factors underlying the characteristic skin lesions has revealed perturbations in epidermal differentiation and a dramatic deterioration in the associated process of stratum corneum (SC) maturation. These observations suggest that directly addressing the quality of the SC could have a scalp benefit. In this study, the authors investigated the efficacy of a moisturising leave-on lotion (LOL) containing a high concentration of glycerol (10%) and other known skin benefit agents (saturated fatty acid and sunflower seed oil) to reduce dandruff over an 8-week treatment period with 3 applications per week. Results of expert visual grading and biophysical measurements of SC parameters (transepidermal water loss and hydration) revealed a significant reduction in the dandruffcondition over this period, with significant improvement in both SC water barrier function and hydration. These scalp skin benefits were maintained for up to a week following cessation of the treatment. This study indicates that use of a glycerol-rich substantive LOL, designed to directly improve the quality of the SC barrier can have a significant impact on the dandruff condition.

  20. Transformational and abusive leadership practices: impacts on novice nurses, quality of care and intention to leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Fernet, Claude; Lavigne, Geneviève L; Austin, Stéphanie

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the impact of nurse managers exercising transformational vs. abusive leadership practices with novice nurses. In a nursing shortage context, it is important to understand better the factors that potentially influence the retention of nurses in the early stages of their career. A large body of research has found that transformational leadership practices have a positive influence on employee functioning. However, very little research exists about the detrimental impact of abusive leadership practices, much less in a nursing context. A cross-sectional design where 541 nurses from the province of Quebec (Canada) were questioned in the fall of 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by nurses with less than five years of nursing experience. Results from three linear regression analysis indicated that transformational leadership practices potentially lead to high quality care and weak intention to quit the healthcare facilities. Conversely, abusive leadership practices potentially lead to poorer quality care and to strong intention to quit the healthcare facilities and the nursing profession. Paying close attention to the leadership practices of nurse managers could prove effective in improving patient care and increasing the retention of new nurses, which is helpful in resolving the nursing shortage. Our results specifically suggest not only that we promote supportive leadership practices (transformational leadership) but, most of all, that we spread the word that abusive leadership creates working conditions that could be detrimental to the practice of nursing at career start. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Complex trauma and mental health in children and adolescents placed in foster care: findings from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Johanna K P; Briggs, Ernestine C; Kisiel, Cassandra L; Layne, Christopher M; Ake, George S; Ko, Susan J; Gerrity, Ellen T; Steinberg, Alan M; Howard, Michael L; Pynoos, Robert S; Fairbank, John A

    2011-01-01

    Many children in the child welfare system (CWS) have histories of recurrent interpersonal trauma perpetrated by caregivers early in life often referred to as complex trauma. Children in the CWS also experience a diverse range of reactions across multiple areas of functioning that are associated with such exposure. Nevertheless, few CWSs routinely screen for trauma exposure and associated symptoms beyond an initial assessment of the precipitating event. This study examines trauma histories, including complex trauma exposure (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, domestic violence), posttraumatic stress, and behavioral and emotional problems of 2,251 youth (age 0 to 21; M = 9.5, SD = 4.3) in foster care who were referred to a National Child Traumatic Stress Network site for treatment. High prevalence rates of complex trauma exposure were observed: 70.4% of the sample reported at least two of the traumas that constitute complex trauma; 11.7% of the sample reported all 5 types. Compared to youth with other types of trauma, those with complex trauma histories had significantly higher rates of internalizing problems, posttraumatic stress, and clinical diagnoses, and differed on some demographic variables. Implications for child welfare practice and future research are discussed.

  2. Child protection and adult depression: evaluating the long-term consequences of evacuating children to foster care during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavirta, Nina; Santavirta, Torsten

    2014-03-01

    This paper combined data collected from war time government records with survey data including background characteristics, such as factors that affected eligibility, to examine the adult depression outcomes of individuals who were evacuated from Finland to temporary foster care in Sweden during World War II. Using war time government records and survey data for a random sample of 723 exposed individuals and 1321 matched unexposed individuals, the authors conducted least squares adjusted means comparison to examine the association between evacuation and adult depression (Beck Depression Inventory). The random sample was representative for the whole population of evacuees who returned to their biological families after World War II. The authors found no statistically significant difference in depressive symptoms during late adulthood between the two groups; for example, the exposed group had a 0.41 percentage points lower average Beck Depression Inventory score than the unexposed group (p = 0.907). This study provides no support for family disruption during early childhood because of the onset of sudden shocks elevating depressive symptoms during late adulthood. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Fostering Child Development by Improving Care Quality: A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Structural Interventions and Caregiver Trainings in Institutional Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermenau, Katharin; Goessmann, Katharina; Rygaard, Niels Peter; Landolt, Markus A; Hecker, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    Quality of child care has been shown to have a crucial impact on children's development and psychological adjustment, particularly for orphans with a history of maltreatment and trauma. However, adequate care for orphans is often impacted by unfavorable caregiver-child ratios and poorly trained, overburdened personnel, especially in institutional care in countries with limited resources and large numbers of orphans. This systematic review investigated the effects of structural interventions and caregiver trainings on child development in institutional environments. The 24 intervention studies included in this systematic review reported beneficial effects on the children's emotional, social, and cognitive development. Yet, few studies focused on effects of interventions on the child-caregiver relationship or the general institutional environment. Moreover, our review revealed that interventions aimed at improving institutional care settings have largely neglected violence and abuse prevention. Unfortunately, our findings are partially limited by constraints of study design and methodology. In sum, this systematic review sheds light on obstacles and possibilities for the improvement in institutional care. There must be greater efforts at preventing violence, abuse, and neglect of children living in institutional care. Therefore, we advocate for combining attachment theory-based models with maltreatment prevention approaches and then testing them using rigorous scientific standards. By using approaches grounded in the evidence, it could be possible to enable more children to grow up in supportive and nonviolent environments.

  4. Prognostic factors for duration of sick leave due to low-back pain in dutch health care professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, I.A.; Koopman, F.S.; Knol, D.L.; de Kat, E.; Bongers, P.M.; de Vet, H.C.W.; van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Information on prognostic factors for duration of sick leave due to low-back pain (LBP) is growing. In this prospective cohort study prognostic factors for duration of sick leave and course of disability were identified in a very early stage of sick leave due to LBP in an occupational

  5. Why do GPs leave direct patient care and what might help to retain them? A qualitative study of GPs in South West England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, Anna; Terry, Rohini; Fletcher, Emily; Salisbury, Chris; Long, Linda; Richards, Suzanne H; Aylward, Alex; Welsman, Jo; Sims, Laura; Campbell, John L; Dean, Sarah G

    2018-01-01

    Objective To identify factors influencing general practitioners’ (GPs’) decisions about whether or not to remain in direct patient care in general practice and what might help to retain them in that role. Design Qualitative, in-depth, individual interviews exploring factors related to GPs leaving, remaining in and returning to direct patient care. Setting South West England, UK. Participants 41 GPs: 7 retired; 8 intending to take early retirement; 11 who were on or intending to take a career break; 9 aged under 50 years who had left or were intending to leave direct patient care and 6 who were not intending to leave or to take a career break. Plus 19 stakeholders from a range of primary care-related professional organisations and roles. Results Reasons for leaving direct patient care were complex and based on a range of job-related and individual factors. Three key themes underpinned the interviewed GPs’ thinking and rationale: issues relating to their personal and professional identity and the perceived value of general practice-based care within the healthcare system; concerns regarding fear and risk, for example, in respect of medical litigation and managing administrative challenges within the context of increasingly complex care pathways and environments; and issues around choice and volition in respect of personal social, financial, domestic and professional considerations. These themes provide increased understanding of the lived experiences of working in today’s National Health Service for this group of GPs. Conclusion Future policies and strategies aimed at retaining GPs in direct patient care should clarify the role and expectations of general practice and align with GPs’ perception of their own roles and identity; demonstrate to GPs that they are valued and listened to in planning delivery of the UK healthcare; target GPs’ concerns regarding fear and risk, seeking to reduce these to manageable levels and give GPs viable options to support

  6. Positive change following adversity and psychological adjustment over time in abused foster youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Christine E; Lim, Ban Hong Phylice; Parker, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Many foster youth experience maltreatment in their family-of-origin and additional maltreatment while in foster care. Not surprisingly, rates of depression are higher in foster youth than the general population, and peak during ages 17-19 during the stressful transition into adulthood. However, no known studies have reported on whether foster youth perceive positive changes following such adversity, and whether positive change facilitates psychological adjustment over time. The current study examined components of positive change (i.e., compassion for others and self-efficacy) with depression severity from age 17 to 18 as youth prepared to exit foster care. Participants were youth from the Mental Health Service Use of Youth Leaving Foster Care study who endorsed child maltreatment. Components of positive change and severity of abuse were measured initially. Depression was measured initially and every three months over the following year. Latent growth curve modeling was used to examine the course of depression as a function of initial levels of positive change and severity of abuse. Results revealed that decreases in depression followed an inverse quadratic function in which the steepest declines occurred in the first three months and leveled off after that. Severity of abuse was positively correlated with higher initial levels of depression and negatively correlated with decreases in depression. Greater self-efficacy was negatively associated with initial levels of depression and predicted decreases in depression over the year, whereas compassion for others was neither associated with initial depression nor changes in depression. Implications for intervention, theory, and research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. the life experiences of foster parents who nurture foster children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The affected children are placed in the care of related or unrelated .... if they were part of the decision for the removal of the child (Pickin et al, 2011; Samrai .... Foster parents described denial and guilt when a foster child is removed from them.

  8. Helping Foster Children in School: A Guide for Foster Parents, Social Workers and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGarmo, John

    2015-01-01

    "Helping Foster Children in School" explores the challenges that foster children face in schools and offers positive and practical guidance tailored to help the parents, teachers and social workers supporting them. Children in care often perform poorly at school both in terms of their behavior and their academic performance, with many…

  9. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...... and whether parental leave is associated with a signaling cost. The results from this study of Swedish mothers show that lone mothers use more temporary parental leave than partnered mothers. Further, within the group of lone mothers, those with higher socioeconomic status take less temporary parental leave...... than those with lower socioeconomic status, whereas no such differences are found within the group of partnered mothers. One possible interpretation is that signaling costs negatively influence the utilization of temporary parental leave for lone mothers....

  10. The needs of foster children : A Q-sort study on the differences between the psychosocial needs of foster children with and without a history of sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbakkers, Anne; van der Steen, Steffie; Ellingsen, Ingunn T.; Grietens, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Children in family foster care have a specific set of psychosocial needs, stemming from previous caregiving, (traumatic) experiences, and living in a foster family. Foster parents are expected to learn about these needs and incorporate them into their parenting and nurturing. When foster children

  11. Breastfeeding of a medically fragile foster child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Karleen D

    2005-02-01

    A case is presented in which a medically fragile baby was breastfed by her foster mother. As a result, the child's physical and emotional health were improved. The mechanisms whereby human milk improves health are well known. The act of breastfeeding may also have an analgesic and relaxant effect as a result of hormonal influences and skin-to-skin contact. Many foster babies may benefit from human milk or breastfeeding. However, the risk of disease transmission must be minimized. Provision of human milk to all medically fragile foster babies is desirable. Breastfeeding by the foster mother may be applicable in cases in which the child is likely to be in long-term care, the child has been previously breastfed, or the child's mother expresses a desire that the infant be breastfed. However, social barriers must be overcome before breastfeeding of foster babies can become more common.

  12. The Daily Operational Brief: Fostering Daily Readiness, Care Coordination, and Problem-Solving Accountability in a Large Pediatric Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Lane F; Basta, Kathryne C; Dykes, Anne M; Zhang, Wei; Shook, Joan E

    2018-01-01

    At a pediatric health system, the Daily Operational Brief (DOB) was updated in 2015 after three years of operation. Quality and safety metrics, the patient volume and staffing assessment, and the readiness assessment are all presented. In addition, in the problem-solving accountability system, problematic issues are categorized as Quick Hits or Complex Issues. Walk-the-Wall, a biweekly meeting attended by hospital senior administrative leadership and quality and safety leaders, is conducted to chart current progress on Complex Issues. The DOB provides a daily standardized approach to evaluate readiness to provide care to current patients and improvement in the care to be provided for future patients. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Use Patterns of Leave-on Personal Care Products among Swiss-German Children, Adolescents, and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Hungerbühler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to model exposure to ingredients contained in personal care products (PCPs and assess their potential risks to human health, access to reliable PCP use data, including co-use patterns, is essential. A postal questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the use patterns of eight leave-on PCP categories among the German-speaking population of Switzerland (N = 1,196; ages 0–97 years, providing for the first time in Europe PCP use data for children <12 years of age. The majority of respondents (99% reported having used at least one of the investigated PCP categories in the past year. Co-use of two or more PCP categories at the same time was common and more complex amongst adults. Regular use of face cream and body lotion was very high in the youngest group of children aged 0–4 years (more than 79% respondents who may be more vulnerable to certain adverse effects of some PCP ingredients. A comparison with previously collected information on PCP use patterns in Germany and the Netherlands indicates differences in PCP use patterns among European consumers and suggests that surrogate PCP use data from other countries must be used with caution. This work extends the existing knowledge of PCP use patterns and will be useful for new exposure assessments for ingredients contained in PCPs used by the young consumers.

  14. Being a Foster Family in Portugal—Motivations and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisete Diogo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Foster care is an almost absent component in the child care system and scientific research conducted in Portugal foster comprises 3.2%1 of out-of-home care in Portugal. This research aims to contribute to a deeper visibility of the care phenomena, giving specific attention to the foster families themselves. This research adopted a qualitative analytical approach, inspired by Grounded Theory. Foster families’ motivation is rooted in altruism, affection for children, and sensitivity to maltreatment. Personal and professional biography or past contact with out-of-home care can also induce predisposition to become a carer. The experience of being a carer2 is one of traversing through a life of many challenges and rewards. Considering the recognition from the stakeholders, it is a rewarding task. The quality of the service provided and the performance of the care professionals are both key elements to foster care.

  15. Does Leave Work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heleen van Luijn; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2004-01-01

    More and more people have to combine work and care responsibilities, and work part-time or use daycare and after-school care facilities to help them do so. The Work and Care Act, which came into force on 1 December 2001, combined all the existing schemes - such as parental and maternity leave -

  16. Low heart rate variability is associated with extended pain-related sick leave among employed care-seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Ektor-Andersen, John; Bondesson, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    To examine the association between autonomic regulation and length of pain-related sick leave in subjects receiving a cognitive behavioural therapy-based return to work intervention.......To examine the association between autonomic regulation and length of pain-related sick leave in subjects receiving a cognitive behavioural therapy-based return to work intervention....

  17. Conceptualizing the Step-Down for Foster Youth Approaching Adulthood: Perceptions of Service Providers, Caseworkers, and Foster Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlicek, Judy; McMillen, J. Curtis; Fedoravicius, Nicole; McNelly, David; Robinson, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Studies find considerable movement between residential treatment and less restrictive foster home settings, with approximately half of foster youth who are stepped down eventually returning to a higher level of care. Very little is known about the step down for foster youth who are approaching adulthood in locked residential facilities. A qualitative study of stepping down a small sample of foster youth, as perceived by team members delivering a model of treatment foster care, is presented. These findings reveal the dimensions of stepping down foster youth at the onset of adulthood, and highlight the importance of providing foster youth with developmental opportunities to engage in the social roles and tasks of late adolescence and/or early adulthood. Implications for further refining the concept of stepping down from a developmental perspective are discussed. PMID:23878410

  18. Effects of PMTO in foster families with children with behavior problems : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, A.M.; van Rooij, F.B.; Overbeek, G.J.; Oort, F.J.; Arntz, M.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    The present randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of Parent Management Training Oregon for foster parents with foster children (aged 4–12) with severe externalizing behavior problems in long-term foster care arrangements. Foster children’s behavior problems are challenging for

  19. Searching for effective interventions for young foster children under stress : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Andel, Hans W.H.; Grietens, Hans; Strijker, Johan; Van der Gaag, Rutger J.; Knorth, Erik J.

    Foster children experience a lot of stress because of their life histories and changes in their family circumstances, such as foster care placement. It is important that foster parents recognize the early signs of stress in foster children and learn how to act in a non-threatening and understanding

  20. Educational Experiences of Emancipated Foster Youth: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunkard, Cynthia Joyce

    2013-01-01

    The data obtained in this qualitative study focused on the educational experiences of youth formerly in foster care after graduation from high school from the viewpoint of the youth. Data were gathered from interviews from 10 participants. Themes included: (a) How do youth emancipated from foster care perceive their educational experiences? (b)…

  1. Why do GPs leave direct patient care and what might help to retain them? A qualitative study of GPs in South West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, Anna; Terry, Rohini; Fletcher, Emily; Salisbury, Chris; Long, Linda; Richards, Suzanne H; Aylward, Alex; Welsman, Jo; Sims, Laura; Campbell, John L; Dean, Sarah G

    2018-01-10

    To identify factors influencing general practitioners' (GPs') decisions about whether or not to remain in direct patient care in general practice and what might help to retain them in that role. Qualitative, in-depth, individual interviews exploring factors related to GPs leaving, remaining in and returning to direct patient care. South West England, UK. 41 GPs: 7 retired; 8 intending to take early retirement; 11 who were on or intending to take a career break; 9 aged under 50 years who had left or were intending to leave direct patient care and 6 who were not intending to leave or to take a career break. Plus 19 stakeholders from a range of primary care-related professional organisations and roles. Reasons for leaving direct patient care were complex and based on a range of job-related and individual factors. Three key themes underpinned the interviewed GPs' thinking and rationale: issues relating to their personal and professional identity and the perceived value of general practice-based care within the healthcare system; concerns regarding fear and risk, for example, in respect of medical litigation and managing administrative challenges within the context of increasingly complex care pathways and environments; and issues around choice and volition in respect of personal social, financial, domestic and professional considerations. These themes provide increased understanding of the lived experiences of working in today's National Health Service for this group of GPs. Future policies and strategies aimed at retaining GPs in direct patient care should clarify the role and expectations of general practice and align with GPs' perception of their own roles and identity; demonstrate to GPs that they are valued and listened to in planning delivery of the UK healthcare; target GPs' concerns regarding fear and risk, seeking to reduce these to manageable levels and give GPs viable options to support them to remain in direct patient care. © Article author(s) (or their

  2. A randomized controlled trial of support group intervention after breast cancer treatment: results on sick leave, health care utilization and health economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björneklett, Helena Granstam; Rosenblad, Andreas; Lindemalm, Christina; Ojutkangas, Marja-Leena; Letocha, Henry; Strang, Peter; Bergkvist, Leif

    2013-01-01

    More than 50% of breast cancer patients are diagnosed before the age of 65. Returning to work after treatment is, therefore, of interest for both the individual and society. The aim was to study the effect of support group intervention on sick leave and health care utilization in economic terms. Of 382 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer, 191 + 191 patients were randomized to an intervention group or to a routine control group, respectively. The intervention group received support intervention on a residential basis for one week, followed by four days of follow-up two months later. The support intervention included informative-educational sections, relaxation training, mental visualization and non-verbal communication. Patients answered a questionnaire at baseline, two, six and 12 months about sick leave and health care utilization. There was a trend towards longer sick leave and more health care utilization in the intervention group. The difference in total costs was statistically significantly higher in the intervention group after 12 months (p = 0.0036). Costs to society were not reduced with intervention in its present form.

  3. Taking Leave?

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  4. Early identification in primary health care of people at risk for sick leave due to work-related stress - study protocol of a randomized controlled trial (RCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Sandheimer, Christine; Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte; Larsson, Maria E H; Bültmann, Ute; Hange, Dominique; Hensing, Gunnel

    2016-11-25

    Early identification of persons at risk of sickness absence due to work-related stress is a crucial problem for society in general, and primary health care in particular. Tho date, no established method to do this exists. This project's aim is to evaluate whether systematic early identification of work-related stress can prevent sickness absence. This paper presents the study design, procedure and outcome measurements, as well as allocation and baseline characteristics of the study population. The study is a two-armed randomized controlled trial with follow-up at 3, 6 and 12 months. Non-sick-listed employed women and men, aged 18 to 64 years, who had mental and physical health complaints and sought care at primary health care centers (PHCC) were eligible to participate. At baseline work-related stress was measured by the Work Stress Questionnaire (WSQ), combined with feedback at consultation, at PHCC. The preventive intervention included early identification of work-related stress by the WSQ, GP training in the use of WSQ, GP feedback at consultation and finding suitable preventive measures. A process evaluation was used to explore how to facilitate future implementation and structural use of the WSQ at the PHCC. The primary outcome to compare the preventive sick leave intervention by the general practitioner (GP) versus treatment as usual is sick leave data obtained from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency register. Early screening for sick leave due to work-related stress makes it possible not only to identify those at risk for sick leave, but also to put focus on the patient's specific work-related stress problems, which can be helpful in finding suitable preventive measures. This study investigates if use of the WSQ by GPs at PHCCs, combined with feedback at consultation, prevents future sickness absence. ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT02480855 . Registered 20 May 2015.

  5. A Quantitative Risk Assessment of the Skin Sensitization Induction Potential of the Kathon CG Preservative in Rinse-off and Leave-on Personal Care and Cosmetic Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Kevin M; Drechsel, Derek A; Warshaw, Erin M; Fung, Ernest S; Novick, Rachel M; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Monnot, Andrew D

    2018-03-22

    Kathon CG is a commonly used cosmetic-grade preservative that contains active ingredients methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and methylisothiazolinone (MI). The aim of the study was to perform a skin sensitization induction risk assessment of daily exposure to Kathon CG after use of various personal care and cosmetic products. We calculated an estimated daily consumer exposure level for rinse-off and leave-on products using the amount of product applied per application, number of applications per day, a retention factor, the MCI/MI concentration, and body surface area values. We assumed that the products contained the maximum recommended safe concentration of MCI/MI: 15 ppm in rinse-off products and 7.5 ppm in leave-on products. We compared estimated consumer exposure levels with the no expected sensitization induction level for MCI/MI and applied sensitization assessment factors to calculate product-specific margins of safety (MOSs). The MOSs for rinse-off products ranged from 5 to 63, whereas the MOSs for leave-on products ranged from 0.03 to 1.49. Overall, our results provide evidence that some leave-on products containing the maximum recommended safe concentration of Kathon CG may increase the risk of sensitization induction due to exposure to MCI/MI. In contrast, rinse-off products were not associated with a potential increased risk of skin sensitization induction.

  6. Prescribing a sedative antidepressant for patients at work or on sick leave under conditions of routine care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, M; Westram, A

    2010-01-01

    Sedation can be a beneficial effect of medication, but it can also be an unwanted side-effect, especially in patients who have to work. The aim of this study is to analyze whether physicians prescribe sedative antidepressants differently for patients at work vs. those on sick leave. A drug utilization study of mirtazapine was conducted for 12 weeks on 594 depressed outpatients from 227 general practitioners or psychiatrists. There were 319 patients working and 275 patients on sick leave. The two groups were compared regarding sociodemographic variables, illness characteristics, mode and course of treatment. As expected, patients on sick leave were sicker than working patients; they were treated by specialists more often and received higher dosages of mirtazapine. Work status had no influence on dosage after controlling for severity of illness, patient sex, and physician specialty. The overall improvement of depression was similar in both patient groups. Under treatment with mirtazapine, 64.5% of patients on sick leave returned to work, while 2.6% of the patients initially at work went on sick leave by the end of the 12 weeks. Sedation as an undesired side-effect was reported in less than 1%. The rate of sedative polypharmacy declined during treatment with mirtazapine. The results suggest that in routine treatment physicians do not see a need to adjust prescribing of mirtazapine because of its sedative properties to the working status of the patients. The majority of patients on sick leave returned to work. Mirtazapine can help to reduce sedative polypharmacy. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  7. An Examination of the Protective Factors That Facilitate Motivation and Educational Attainment among Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, there are approximately 400,000 foster youth. The state of California accounts for approximately 20% percent of youth placed in the foster care system. As a whole, this population is exposed to a multitude of risk factors while placed in the foster care system and as they emancipate. Re-victimization is not uncommon as youth…

  8. A Critical Analysis of Foster Youth Advisory Boards in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forenza, Brad; Happonen, Robin G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The enactment of the John H. Chafee Foster Care Independence Act brought welcome attention to young people aging out of foster care, and sought to include them in both case planning and policy dialog. Foster Youth Advisory Boards help to promote such inclusion, though the implementation of those boards has not been formally analyzed.…

  9. Seeing the Whole Picture: Views from Diverse Participants on Barriers to Educating Foster Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetlin, Andrea G.; Weinberg, Lois A.; Shea, Nancy M.

    2006-01-01

    Many children in the foster care system are at great risk of academic difficulties and school failure. The purpose of this study was to bring together individuals within the foster care system to discuss the challenges to obtaining an appropriate education for foster youths and how best to provide the supports and structures needed for educational…

  10. Integrated mental health care and vocational rehabilitation to improve return to work rates for people on sick leave because of exhaustion disorder, adjustment disorder, and distress (the Danish IBBIS trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rie; Fisker, Jonas; Hoff, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    that mental health care alone will provide sufficient support for vocational recovery for this group. Integrated vocational and health care services have shown good effects on return to work in other similar welfare contexts. The purpose of the Danish IBBIS (Integreret Behandlings- og Beskæftigelses...... of the current organizational separation of health care interventions and vocational rehabilitation regarding the individual's process of returning to work after sick leave because of exhaustion disorder, adjustment disorder or distress. If the effect on return to work, symptom level, and recurrent sick leave...... is different in the intervention groups, this study can contribute with new knowledge on shared care models and the potential for preventing deterioration in stress symptoms, prolonged sick leave, and recurrent sick leave. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number: NCT02885519...

  11. Foster parenting, human imprinting and conventional handling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the present study indicates that improvements can be made by adopting alternative approaches. Further studies are needed to ascertain how foster parenting and imprinting may be utilized to optimize chick performance, including the long-term consequences of these practices. Keywords: Parental care, Struthio camelus, ...

  12. Matching children with foster carers : A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeijlmans, Kirti; López, Monica; Grietens, Hans; Knorth, Erik J.

    Matching in family foster care is a form of complex decision-making influenced by more than case factors alone. Organizational, contextual, and decision-maker factors also contribute to the process. This scoping review has synthesized the empirical literature on matching decisions in family foster

  13. Determinants of longer job tenure among home care aides: what makes some stay on the job while others leave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Sandra S; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Wardamasky, Sara; Ashley, Alison

    2014-03-01

    An inadequate supply of direct care workers and a high turnover rate in the workforce has resulted in a "care gap" in our long-term care system. As people are increasingly choosing community-based care, retention of home care workers is particularly important. The mixed-method study described herein explored determinants of longer job tenure for home care aides (n = 261). Study participants were followed for 18 months, completing two mail surveys and one telephone interview each. Predictors of longer job tenure included older age, living rurally, lower physical function, higher wages, a greater sense of autonomy on the job, and less frequent feelings of personal accomplishment. Thematic analysis of telephone interviews revealed long-term stayers to be less concerned about low wages and inconsistent hours than those who left their jobs within a year; both groups of workers reported high levels of job satisfaction. Policy implications of study findings are discussed.

  14. In search of connection: The foster youth and caregiver relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Heather L.; Barkan, Susan E.; Stenhouse, Linnea L.; Eichenlaub, Caroline; Mallillin, Anastasia; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Placement instability is an ongoing challenge for the 125,000 foster youth aged 14 – 18 that are living in foster care, with youth living in approximately 3 placements before aging out of the system. Despite the importance caring adult relationships can play in promoting positive youth development and resiliency, there has been limited inquiry into the characteristics of the foster youth and caregiver relationship. The goal of this paper is to provide a descriptive account of the foster youth and caregiver relationship, and explore what qualities and experiences foster youth desire from their caregivers. Qualitative data were gathered from 9 focus groups. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis approaches. Foster youth, caregivers, and child welfare staff described relationships lacking in formative bonds and connection, where youth didn’t “fit in”, and chaotic homes marked by reactivity and judgment. Characteristics of supportive foster homes include a sense of belonging, structure, guidance, and consistency. This research underscores the important role positive relationships can play in foster youth’s feelings of well-being and points to the need for foster parent training to include tangible strategies to develop stronger bonds. PMID:26052173

  15. Poverty among Foster Children: Estimates Using the Supplemental Poverty Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pac, Jessica; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    We use data from the Current Population Survey and the new Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) to provide estimates for poverty among foster children over the period 1992 to 2013. These are the first large-scale national estimates for foster children who are not included in official poverty statistics. Holding child and family demographics constant, foster children have a lower risk of poverty than other children. Analyzing income in detail suggests that foster care payments likely play an important role in reducing the risk of poverty in this group. In contrast, we find that children living with grandparents have a higher risk of poverty than other children, even after taking demographics into account. Our estimates suggest that this excess risk is likely linked to their lower likelihood of receiving foster care or other income supports. PMID:28659651

  16. Lithuania 1940 / Herbert Foster Anderson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Foster Anderson, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Stseenid Leedu ennesõjaaegsest pealinnast Kaunasest briti ärimehe H. Foster Andersoni silme läbi 1940. aastal. Lühikokkuvõte raamatust: Foster Anderson, Herbert. Borderline Russia. London : Cresset press, 1942

  17. Effects of internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy and physical exercise on sick leave and employment in primary care patients with depression: two subgroup analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldo, Viktor; Lundin, Andreas; Hallgren, Mats; Kraepelien, Martin; Strid, Catharina; Ekblom, Örjan; Lavebratt, Catharina; Lindefors, Nils; Öjehagen, Agneta; Forsell, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Depression can negatively impact work capacity, but treatment effects on sick leave and employment are unclear. This study evaluates if internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) or physical exercise (PE), with already reported positive effects on clinical outcome and short-term work ability, has better effects on employment, sick leave and long-term work ability compared with treatment as usual (TAU) for depressed primary care patients (German clinical trials: DRKS00008745). After randomisation and exclusion of patients not relevant for work-related analysis, patients were divided into two subgroups: initially unemployed (total n=118) evaluated on employment, and employed (total n=703) evaluated on long-term sick leave. Secondary outcomes were self-rated work ability and average number of sick days per month evaluated for both subgroups. Assessments (self-reports) were made at baseline and follow-up at 3 and 12 months. For the initially unemployed subgroup, 52.6% were employed after 1 year (response rate 82%). Both PE (risk ratio (RR)=0.44; 95% CI 0.23 to 0.87) and ICBT (RR=0.37; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.84) showed lower rates compared with TAU after 3 months, but no difference was found after 1 year (PE: RR=0.97; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.57; ICBT: RR=1.23; 95% CI 0.72 to 2.13). For those with initial employment, long-term sick leave (response rate 75%) decreased from 7.8% to 6.5%, but neither PE (RR=1.4; 95% CI 0.52 to 3.74) nor ICBT (RR=0.99; 95% CI 0.39 to 2.46) decreased more than TAU, although a temporary positive effect for PE was found. All groups increased self-rated work ability with no differences found. No long-term effects were found for the initially unemployed on employment status or for the initially employed on sick leave. New types of interventions need to be explored. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  18. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    of long-term sick leave. Method Data from 508 employed pregnant women seeking antenatal care was collected by questionnaires from August 2015 to March 2016. The questionnaires, which were filled in at 20 and 32 weeks of gestation, provided information on maternal characteristics, the number of days spent...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  19. Understanding significant processes during work environment interventions to alleviate time pressure and associated sick leave of home care workers--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gunn Robstad; Westgaard, Rolf H

    2013-11-15

    Ergonomic and work stress interventions rarely show long-term positive effect. The municipality participating in this study received orders from the Norwegian Labour Inspectorate due to an identified unhealthy level of time pressure, and responded by effectuating several work environment interventions. The study aim is to identify critical factors in the interaction between work environment interventions and independent rationalization measures in order to understand a potential negative interfering effect from concurrent rationalizations on a comprehensive work environment intervention. The study, using a historic prospective mixed-method design, comprised 6 home care units in a municipality in Norway (138 respondents, response rate 76.2%; 17 informants). The study included quantitative estimations, register data of sick leave, a time line of significant events and changes, and qualitative descriptions of employee appraisals of their work situation gathered through semi-structured interviews and open survey responses. The work environment interventions were in general regarded as positive by the home care workers. However, all units were simultaneously subjected to substantial contextual instability, involving new work programs, new technology, restructurings, unit mergers, and management replacements, perceived by the home care workers to be major sources of stress. Findings suggest that concurrent changes induced through rationalization resulted in negative exposure effects that negated positive work environment intervention effects, causing an overall deteriorated work situation for the home care workers. Establishment and active utilization of communication channels from workers to managers are recommended in order to increase awareness of putative harmful and interruptive effects of rationalization measures.

  20. The Limited English Proficiency Patient Family Advocate Role: Fostering Respectful and Effective Care Across Language and Culture in a Pediatric Oncology Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Stephanie; Hooke, Mary C; Niess, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Patients and families with limited English proficiency (LEP) face a multitude of barriers both inside and outside the hospital walls. These barriers can contribute to difficulty accessing care and understanding/adhering to treatment recommendations, ultimately placing them at higher risk for poorer outcomes than their English-speaking counterparts. The LEP Patient Family Advocate role was created with the aim of improving access, promoting effective communication, and equalizing care for children with cancer from families with LEP. The goal of this mixed methods study was to describe the level of satisfaction and experiences of parents and health care providers who used the LEP Patient Family Advocate while receiving or providing care. Twelve parents and 15 health care providers completed quantitative surveys and an open-ended question about their experiences. High levels of satisfaction were reported. Themes about the role from qualitative responses included its positive effect on communication, trust, and connectedness between parents and staff. Continuity of care and safety were improved, and parents thought the role helped decrease their stress. The LEP Patient Family Advocate has a positive influence on family-centered cultural care. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  1. Assessment of foster carers : their willingness to raise children with special needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijker, Johan; Knorth, Erik J.

    2018-01-01

    A substantial part of children placed out of home in family foster care suffers severe emotional and behavioural problems. These problems can enlarge the risk of a placement breakdown: the stay of a child in a foster family comes prematurely to an end because, for instance, the foster carers are not

  2. Distinct Subgroups of Former Foster Youth during Young Adulthood: Implications for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Mark E.; Hook, Jennifer L.; Lee, JoAnn S.

    2012-01-01

    The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 ("Fostering Connections Act") fundamentally changed the nature of federal support for young people in state care by extending entitlement funding under Title IV-E of the Social Security Act to age 21 beginning in FY2011. While the Fostering Connections Act provides…

  3. 5 CFR 870.303 - Eligibility of foster children under Option C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... biological parent becomes unable to care for the child due to a disability; or (4) The employee, annuitant....303 Eligibility of foster children under Option C. (a) Effective October 30, 1998, foster children are eligible for coverage as family members under Option C. (b) To qualify for coverage as a foster child, the...

  4. Responding to the Needs of Foster Teens in a Rural School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGarmo, John Nelson

    2012-01-01

    As more children are placed under foster care, schools often have difficulty in responding to newly placed foster teens. Foster teens often exhibit both academic and behavioral adjustment issues, leading to disciplinary problems and high failure, and dropout rates. Attachment theory related to placement disruptions, school performance and…

  5. Reducing sibling conflict in maltreated children placed in foster homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, L Oriana; Jimenez, Jessica; Nesci, Cristina; Pearson, Eva; Beller, Sarah; Edwards, Nancy; Levin-Rector, Alison

    2015-02-01

    Sibling aggression among maltreated children placed in foster homes is linked to other externalizing problems and placement disruption. The reduction of sibling conflict and aggression may be achieved via a multicomponent ecologically focused intervention for families in the foster care system. The focus of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of a transtheoretical intervention model targeting sibling pairs and their foster parent that integrates family systems, social learning theory, and a conflict mediation perspective. In this pilot study, sibling pairs (N = 22) and their foster parent were randomized into a three-component intervention (n = 13) or a comparison (n = 9) group. Promoting Sibling Bonds (PSB) is an 8-week prevention intervention targeting maltreated sibling pairs ages 5-11 years placed together in a foster home. The siblings, parent, and joint components were delivered in a program package at the foster agency by a trained two-clinician team. Average attendance across program components was 73 %. Outcomes in four areas were gathered at pre- and postintervention: observed sibling interaction quality (positive and negative) including conflict during play, and foster parent reports of mediation strategies and sibling aggression in the foster home. At postintervention, adjusting for baseline scores and child age, intervention pairs showed higher positive (p conflict during play (p conflict mediation strategies than those in the comparison group (p conflict and promote parental mediation, which together may reduce sibling aggression in the foster home.

  6. Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000867.htm Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... once you leave. This is called a discharge plan. Your health care providers at the hospital will ...

  7. The ‘magnetic forces’ of Swiss acute care hospitals: A secondary data analysis on nurses׳ job satisfaction and their intention to leave their current job

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Biegger

    Full Text Available Aims: (1 To describe nurses׳ job satisfaction and intention to leave their current employer; and (2 to explore the associations between nine aspects of job satisfaction (i.e., motivators and hygiene factors and nurses’ intentions to leave their current employer. Background: Increasing nurse shortages and accelerating personnel turnover are global healthcare issues. Improving nurses׳ job satisfaction and reducing their intentions to leave are crucial to nurse workforce stability. Methods: Secondary analysis of nurse survey data from the Swiss arm of the Nurse Forecasting in Europe (2009/2010 study. Associations between aspects of nurses׳ job satisfaction and intentions to leave were analyzed via multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: Overall, nurses reported being very satisfied with their jobs and with ‘independence at work’, but less satisfied with the possibility for ‘study leave’. A total of 27.4% intended to leave their current jobs, with lower ratings of ‘opportunities for advancement’ as the most relevant factor explaining these intentions. Conclusion: In view of predicted nurse shortages, Swiss acute care hospitals’ might improve their success regarding nurse job satisfaction and retention by offering nursing career models with more opportunities for clinical advancement. Keywords: Nursing, Job satisfaction, Job leaving intention, Acute care hospitals, Switzerland

  8. Childcare and the division of parental leave

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Despite several policies aimed at increasing fathers' participation in the caring of children, Swedish mothers still use the bulk of the paid parental leave which may have several negative consequences for the family e.g. in terms of weaker labor market attachment for the mother. Division of parental leave is likely affected by how parents value the costs associated with parental leave. I investigate whether a reduction in the care burden, or a decreased non-monetary cost, of parental leave t...

  9. Factors influencing Macao nurses' intention to leave current employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai; Luk, Andrew Leung; Leong, Sok Man; Yeung, Siu Ming; Van, Iat Kio

    2009-03-01

    To investigate factors associated with nurses' intention to leave current employment in Macao. The shortage of nursing staff and nurses voluntarily leaving their jobs has continued to be a problem affecting the delivery of health care all over the world. One way to alleviate this shortfall is via recruitment, but this is not always successful. Another way is to reduce the rate at which nurses voluntarily leave their work places. A descriptive survey was conducted and data were collected using a self-reported structured questionnaire. Nurses were recruited in the Health Bureau and one private hospital in Macao. The status of nurses' intention to leave current employment (yes vs. no) was the dependent variable and nurses' predisposing characteristics, organisational environments and five components on job satisfaction outcomes were independent variables. Of 426 nurses, 166 (39.0%) indicated an intention to leave current employment. The results showed that age (p job satisfaction: pay and benefits (p third of the nurses in Macao indicated an intention to leave current employment. This figure may be a cause of concern for the hospital management and highlights the need to implement strategies to improve the communication between nurses and the organisation, to enhance nurse job satisfaction and commitment to the organisation. Our findings outline some issues contributing to this problem and provide the nurse manager with information regarding specific influences on nurses' turnover in Macao. Given the complexity of issues outlined in this analysis, nurse managers should assist their nursing staff to deal with those influences, make efforts to address the nursing shortage that will require additional communications and recognise the needs and values of their staff and empower them to create a better work environment. As a consequence, their commitment to the organisation can be fostered.

  10. Why good placements matter: Pre-placement and placement risk factors associated with mental health disorders in pre-school children in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Thomas; Gafson, Leonie

    2015-07-01

    Pre-school children placed in local authority care show elevated rates of mental health disorders when compared to the general population. This study investigated risk factors for mental health disorders relating to the period prior to entering care and while in care. A representative sample of 43 children in care aged 0-72 months in an inner London borough underwent comprehensive multidimensional assessments. Presence of emotional, behavioural, attachment and adaptive disorders was ascertained. Exposure to two pre-placement risk factors and six placement risk factors was compared between children with and without a disorder. A total of 26 children (60.5%) had at least one mental health disorder. The two pre-placement risk factors, multiple types of maltreatment and entry into care after the age of 6 months, were both significantly associated with mental health disorders. The three placement risk factors of sudden placement moves, multiple placement moves and child-carer alienation showed a significant association with mental health disorders. There was a strong correlation between the number of risk factors and the number of co-morbid mental health disorders per child (r = .67, p school mental health. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. "How Can You Know? You're Not a Foster Child":

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, H.

    2006-01-01

    to give voice to foster children so that their knowledge about "the life as a child in foster care" could find its way to social workers and foster parents as well as politicians, thus influencing, democratizing and qualifying social work with children and youth in foster care. "Børneting" was established......Based on Axel Honneth's Theoty of Recognition and an empirical action research project entitled "Børnetinget" (Children's Parliament), conducted in Denmark by the author, this article discuss dilemmas and possibilities of giving voice to children in foster care. The Børnetinget project aimed...... with a core group of 15 foster children, aged 10-13, and a web-based "foster children's public forum". This article focuses on learning about participation from the Børnetinget experience, both as a model of participatory research practice and for the insights it provides in relation to how we understand...

  12. Protocol for the economic evaluation of a complex intervention to improve the mental health of maltreated infants and children in foster care in the UK (The BeST? services trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deidda, Manuela; Boyd, Kathleen Anne; Minnis, Helen; Donaldson, Julia; Brown, Kevin; Boyer, Nicole R S; McIntosh, Emma

    2018-03-14

    Children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of mental and physical health problems throughout life. This places an enormous burden on individuals, families and society in terms of health services, education, social care and judiciary sectors. Evidence suggests that early intervention can mitigate the negative consequences of child maltreatment, exerting long-term positive effects on the health of maltreated children entering foster care. However, evidence on cost-effectiveness of such complex interventions is limited. This protocol describes the first economic evaluation of its kind in the UK. An economic evaluation alongside the Best Services Trial (BeST?) has been prospectively designed to identify, measure and value key resource and outcome impacts arising from the New Orleans intervention model (NIM) (an infant mental health service) compared with case management (CM) (enhanced social work services as usual). A within-trial economic evaluation and long-term model from a National Health Service/Personal Social Service and a broader societal perspective will be undertaken alongside the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)-Public Health Research Unit (PHRU)-funded randomised multicentre BeST?. BeST? aims to evaluate NIM compared with CM for maltreated children entering foster care in a UK context. Collection of Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and the recent mapping of PedsQL to EuroQol-5-Dimensions (EQ-5D) will facilitate the estimation of quality-adjusted life years specific to the infant population for a cost-utility analysis. Other effectiveness outcomes will be incorporated into a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and cost-consequences analysis (CCA). A long-term economic model and multiple economic evaluation frameworks will provide decision-makers with a comprehensive, multiperspective guide regarding cost-effectiveness of NIM. The long-term population health economic model will be developed to synthesise

  13. Factors influencing nurse managers' intent to stay or leave: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewko, Sarah J; Brown, Pamela; Fraser, Kimberly D; Wong, Carol A; Cummings, Greta G

    2015-11-01

    To identify and report on the relative importance of factors influencing nurse managers' intentions to stay in or leave their current position. Effective nurse managers play an important role in staff nurse retention and in the quality of patient care. The advancing age of nurse managers, multiple job opportunities within nursing and the generally negative perceptions of the manager role can contribute to difficulties in retaining nurse managers. Ninety-five Canadian nurse managers participated in a web survey. Respondents rated the importance of factors related to their intent to leave or stay in their current position for another 2 years. Descriptive, t-test and mancova statistics were used to assess differences between managers intending to stay or leave. For managers intending to leave (n = 28), the most important factors were work overload, inability to ensure quality patient care, insufficient resources, and lack of empowerment and recognition. Managers intending to leave reported significantly lower job satisfaction, perceptions of their supervisor's resonant leadership and higher burnout levels. Organisations wishing to retain existing nurse managers and to attract front-line staff into leadership positions must create and foster an environment that supports nurse managers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Reducing Sibling Conflict in Maltreated Children Placed in Foster Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, L. Oriana; Jimenez, Jessica; Nesci, Cristina; Pearson, Eva; Beller, Sarah; Edwards, Nancy; Levin-Rector, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Sibling aggression among maltreated children placed in foster homes is linked to other externalizing problems and placement disruption. The reduction of sibling conflict and aggression may be achieved via a multicomponent ecologically focused intervention for families in the foster care system. The focus of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of a transtheoretical intervention model targeting sibling pairs and their foster parent that integrates family systems, social learning theory, and a conflict mediation perspective. In this pilot study, sibling pairs (N=22) and their foster parent were randomized into a three-component intervention (n=13) or a comparison (n=9) group. Promoting Sibling Bonds (PSB) is an 8-week prevention intervention targeting maltreated sibling pairs ages 5–11 years placed together in a foster home. The Siblings, Parent, and Joint components were delivered in a program package at the foster agency by a trained two-clinician team. Average attendance across program components was 73%. Outcomes in four areas were gathered at pre-and post-intervention: observed sibling interaction quality (positive and negative) including conflict during play, and foster parent reports of mediation strategies and sibling aggression in the foster home. At post-intervention, adjusting for baseline scores and child age, intervention pairs showed higher positive (p<.001) and negative (p<.05) interaction quality, and lower sibling conflict during play (p <.01) than comparison pairs. Foster parents in the intervention group reported a higher number of conflict mediation strategies than those in the comparison group (p <.001). Foster parents in the intervention group reported lower sibling physical aggression from the older toward the younger child than those in the comparison group (p <.05). Data suggest that the PSB intervention is a promising approach to reduce conflict and promote parental mediation which together may reduce

  15. Fostering Integrity in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    The responsible conduct of research requires that all involved in the research enterprise - researchers, sponsors, reviewers, publishers, and communicators - adhere to a set of integrity principles to protect the public's investment. Given the increasing complexity and globalization of the research enterprise, the National Academies recently re-examined and updated its integrity recommendations for researchers in the report Fostering Integrity in Research, with sponsorship from the National Science Foundation. Major departures from the previous recommendations 25-years earlier are the recognition that practices that were previously classified as merely questionable are indeed detrimental to the responsible conduct of research. Furthermore, the report concludes that there has been insufficient effort to respond to the threats that lapses in research integrity pose to the quality of research products and the reputation of researchers as deserving of the public trust. It recommends the creation of an independent, non-profit entity dedicated to promoting research integrity by serving as a resource and clearing house for expertise, advice, materials, and best practices on fostering research integrity and responding to allegations of research misconduct.

  16. Frontal fibrosing alopecia: possible association with leave-on facial skin care products and sunscreens; a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldoori, N; Dobson, K; Holden, C R; McDonagh, A J; Harries, M; Messenger, A G

    2016-10-01

    Since its first description in 1994, frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) has become increasingly common, suggesting that environmental factors are involved in the aetiology. To identify possible causative environmental factors in FFA. A questionnaire enquiring about exposure to a wide range of lifestyle, social and medical factors was completed by 105 women with FFA and 100 age- and sex-matched control subjects. A subcohort of women with FFA was patch tested to an extended British standard series of allergens. The use of sunscreens was significantly greater in the FFA group compared with controls. Subjects with FFA also showed a trend towards more frequent use of facial moisturizers and foundations but, compared with controls, the difference in frequencies just failed to reach statistical significance. The frequency of hair shampooing, oral contraceptive use, hair colouring and facial hair removal were significantly lower in the FFA group than in controls. Thyroid disease was more common in subjects with FFA than controls and there was a high frequency of positive patch tests in women with FFA, mainly to fragrances. Our findings suggest an association between FFA and the use of facial skin care products. The high frequency of sunscreen use in patients with FFA, and the fact that many facial skin care products now contain sunscreens, raises the possibility of a causative role for sunscreen chemicals. The high frequency of positive patch tests in women with FFA and the association with thyroid disease may indicate a predisposition to immune-mediated disease. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Gamification in Fostering Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Kalinauskas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to analyze gamification, as the method for fostering creativity.Design/methodology/approach – Author analyses the precognitions, which allowed gamification to attract mainstream attention, the diversity of understandings about the phenomenon, and the possible relations between usage of gamified platform and the development of creativity. The paper is based on the comparative analysis of scientific literature and related sources from sociology, business, and entertainment. The engagement is analyzed through the theories of self-determination and the “flow”. Creativity is understood as “any act, idea, or product that changes an existing domain, or that transforms an existing domain into a new one” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996. Gamification is analyzed as “use of game design elements in non-game context” (Deterding, Dixon, Khaled, and Nacke (2011. Findings – Although the gamification is gaining more public attention, there is a lack of studies which would reveal its relations in fostering creativity. One of the main goals of any gamified platform is to raise the engagement of the participant while keeping subject interested in the process or activity. In some cases, there is a relation between “flow” and creativity. However, the strength of this relationship depends from the users of gamified content and the domain of interest.Research limitations / implications – There are very few empirical studies which would support correlation between experiencing the “flow” state and a raise of creativity. This issue requires more surveys, which would ground the idea.Practical implications – By developing further research in usage of gamification while fostering creativity it is possible to determine, whether or not the “creative domains” should apply more measures of gamification in their activities.Value – The article emphasizes on theoretical analysis of gamification and its applicability in fostering creativity

  18. FOSTERING ADOLESCENTS' INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOUR: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engr E. Egbochukwu

    skill training (SST) in fostering interpersonal behaviour among Nigerian adolescents. ..... communication problems (Akinade, 1988, Aremu, 1998, Ojekunle, 1999, .... Restructuring on the Enhancement of Self Esteem of Visually Impaired.

  19. 78 FR 8833 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... creates a new qualifying exigency leave category for parental care. In military caregiver leave, the Final... covered employers to take job- protected, unpaid leave, or to substitute appropriate accrued paid leave... CFR Part 825 The Family and Medical Leave Act; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 25...

  20. Integrated mental health care and vocational rehabilitation to improve return to work rates for people on sick leave because of exhaustion disorder, adjustment disorder, and distress (the Danish IBBIS trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Rie; Fisker, Jonas; Hoff, Andreas; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Eplov, Lene Falgaard

    2017-12-02

    Common mental disorders are important contributors to the global burden of disease and cause negative effects on both the individual and society. Stress-related disorders influence the individual's workability and cause early retirement pensions in Denmark. There is no clear evidence that mental health care alone will provide sufficient support for vocational recovery for this group. Integrated vocational and health care services have shown good effects on return to work in other similar welfare contexts. The purpose of the Danish IBBIS (Integreret Behandlings- og BeskæftigelsesIndsats til Sygemeldte) study is to examine the efficacy of (1) a stepped mental health care intervention with individual stress coaching and/or group-based MBSR and (2) an integrated stepped mental health care with individual stress coaching and/or group-based MBSR and vocational rehabilitation intervention for people on sick leave because of exhaustion disorder, adjustment disorder or distress in Denmark. This three-armed, parallel-group, randomized superiority trial is set up to investigate the effectiveness of a stepped mental health care intervention and an integrated mental health care and vocational rehabilitation intervention for people on sick leave because of exhaustion disorder, adjustment disorder or distress in Denmark. The trial has an investigator-initiated multicenter design. Six hundred and three patients will be recruited from Danish vocational rehabilitation centers in four municipalities and randomly assigned into three groups: (1) IBBIS mental health care integrated with IBBIS vocational rehabilitation, (2) IBBIS mental health care and standard vocational rehabilitation, and (3) standard mental health care and standard vocational rehabilitation. The primary outcome is register-based return to work at 12 months. The secondary outcome measures are self-assessed level of depression (BDI), anxiety (BAI), distress symptoms (4DSQ), work- and social functioning (WSAS), and

  1. Os desafios cotidianos dos trabalhadores em um abrigo para crianças e adolescentes (Daily challenges faced by the workers of a foster care institution for children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agueda Wendhausen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Num país com inúmeros problemas sociais como o Brasil, o abandono de crianças e adolescentes se constitui em problema preocupante, principalmente ao adentrarmos a realidade das chamadas casas de passagem, que lhes servem como abrigo temporário. O artigo é o recorte de um estudo junto a trabalhadores de um abrigo localizado no sul do país. Trata-se de um levantamento de problemas enfrentados por trabalhadores em seu cotidiano junto a crianças abrigadas. A abordagem metodológica foi qualitativa, utilizando-se para coleta dos dados a metodologia do Círculo de Cultura proposto por Paulo Freire. A análise se deu a partir dos “temas geradores” levantados. Emergiram dois temas principais: as necessidades dos trabalhadores em relação ao processo de trabalho e como se sentem em relação ao trabalho com as crianças. Os resultados apontam aspectos do abandono do Estado e do abandono familiar. Constatamos a necessidade da instituição de uma Política Social inclusiva para essa população, já que esse é um dilema enfrentado pelos Abrigos.Abstract: In a country with several social problems such as Brazil, the abandonment of children and adolescents is a matter of concern, especially considering the reality of so-called transition houses, which serve as temporary shelter. This article is an abridged version of a study performed with employees of a foster care institution located in the South region of Brazil. This is a survey of the problems faced in a daily basis by workers regarding the sheltered children. The methodological approach was qualitative, using for data collection the methodology of the Circle of Culture proposed by Paulo Freire. The analysis was based on the “generating issues” that were raised. Two main themes emerged: the needs of workers in relation to the work process and how they feel about working with children. The results reveal certain aspects of the abandonment of the state and of the children

  2. Self-reported chronic pain is associated with physical performance in older people leaving aged care rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira LS

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Leani Souza Máximo Pereira,1,2 Catherine Sherrington,2,3 Manuela L Ferreira,2 Anne Tiedemann,2,3 Paulo H Ferreira,4 Fiona M Blyth,5 Jacqueline CT Close,3,6 Morag Taylor,3,6 Stephen R Lord3 1Department of Physiotherapy, School of Physical Education, Physiotherapy, and Occupational Therapy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 2Musculoskeletal Division, The George Institute for Global Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 3Neuroscience Research Australia, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; 4Discipline of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 5Pain Management and Research Institute, Royal North Shore Hospital, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 6Prince of Wales Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia Background/objectives: The impact of pain on the physical performance of patients in aged care rehabilitation is not known. The study sought to assess 1 the prevalence of pain in older people being discharged from inpatient rehabilitation; 2 the association between self-reported pain and physical performance in people being discharged from inpatient rehabilitation; and 3 the association between self-reported pain and physical performance in this population, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Methods: This was an observational cross-sectional study of 420 older people at two inpatient aged care rehabilitation units. Physical performance was assessed using the Lower Limb Summary Performance Score. Pain was assessed with questions about the extent to which participants were troubled by pain, the duration of symptoms, and the impact of chronic pain on everyday activity. Depression and the number of comorbidities were assessed by questionnaire and medical file audit. Cognition was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination. Results: Thirty percent of participants reported chronic pain (pain

  3. Fostering collective intelligence education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Meza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New educational models are necessary to update learning environments to the digitally shared communication and information. Collective intelligence is an emerging field that already has a significant impact in many areas and will have great implications in education, not only from the side of new methodologies but also as a challenge for education. This paper proposes an approach to a collective intelligence model of teaching using Internet to combine two strategies: idea management and real time assessment in the class. A digital tool named Fabricius has been created supporting these two elements to foster the collaboration and engagement of students in the learning process. As a result of the research we propose a list of KPI trying to measure individual and collective performance. We are conscious that this is just a first approach to define which aspects of a class following a course can be qualified and quantified.

  4. Making tradeoffs between the reasons to leave and reasons to stay employed in long-term care homes: perspectives of licensed nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilton, Katherine S; Boscart, Veronique M; Brown, Maryanne; Bowers, Barbara

    2014-06-01

    Turnover of licensed nursing staff in long-term care (LTC) settings (e.g., nursing homes) is a mounting concern and is associated with poor quality of care and low staff morale. Retention and turnover research in LTC have focused primarily on direct care workers (i.e., nurse aides) leaving the issues largely unexplored for licensed nursing staff (i.e., registered nurses and licensed practical nurses). The main objective of this study was to understand factors that influence nurses' intentions to remain employed at their current job. Qualitative descriptive study. Seven nursing homes in Ontario, Canada. A convenience sample of forty-one licensed LTC nurses. Data were collected through focus groups conducted at each of the participating nursing homes. Focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim. Directed content analysis was used to identify and develop themes. Work conditions were a salient element affecting nurses' intention to stay and included impact of regulations on nurse role flexibility and professional judgment, an underfunded system contributing to insufficient resources and staffing, and a lack of supportive leadership. Factors promoting nurses' willingness to stay included the development of meaningful relationships with residents and staff and opportunities for learning and professional development. Nurses also considered personal and life circumstances (e.g., marital status and seniority) when discussing intention to stay. Nurses in this study weighed positive and negative work-related factors as well as personal circumstances to determine their intent to stay. Developing a more individualized approach to address attrition of licensed nurses in LTC may be the most successful strategy for improving retention of highly skilled staff in this sector. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. On the Sharing of Temporary Parental Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This paper views temporary parental leave (leave from work to take care of a sick child) as a household public good, produced with time inputs of the parents as the only input. Assuming equal productivities in the production of temporary parental leave and equal utility functions of the spouses...

  6. Fostering clinical engagement and medical leadership and aligning cultural values: an evaluation of a general practice specialty trainee integrated training placement in a primary care trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruston, Annmarie; Tavabie, Abdol

    2010-01-01

    To report on the extent to which a general practice specialty trainee integrated training placement (ITP) developed the leadership skills and knowledge of general practice specialty trainees (GPSTRs) and on the potential of the ITP to improve clinical engagement. A case study method was used in a Kent primary care trust (PCT). Sources of data included face-to-face and telephone interviews (three GPSTRs, three PCT clinical supervisors, three general practitioner (GP) clinical supervisors and three Deanery/PCT managers), reflective diaries, documentary sources and observation. Interview data were transcribed and analysed using the constant comparative method. All respondents were positive about the value and success of the ITP in developing the leadership skills of the GPSTRs covering three dimensions: leadership of self, leadership of teams and leadership of organisations within systems. The ITP had enabled GP trainees to understand the context for change, to develop skills to set the direction for change and to collect and apply evidence to decision making. The ITP was described as an effective means of breaking down cultural barriers between general practice and the PCT and as having the potential for improving clinical engagement. The ITP provided a model to enable the effective exchange of knowledge and understanding of differing cultures between GPSTRs, general practice and the PCT. It provided a sound basis for effective, dispersed clinical engagement and leadership.

  7. Foster Youth and Social Support: The First RCT of Independent Living Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Johanna K. P.; Garcia, Antonio R.; Kim, Minseop; Courtney, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Conduct secondary data analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of Massachusetts' Adolescent Outreach Program for Youths in Intensive Foster Care (Outreach) for increasing social support (SS) among enrolled youth. Participants: 194 youth in intensive foster care under the guardianship of the Massachusetts Department of Children and…

  8. Tuition Assistance Programs for Foster Youth Pursuing Postsecondary Education. 50-State Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Emily; Sarubbi, Molly

    2017-01-01

    Many students have concerns about the affordability of college, which may interfere with their potential success. However, foster care alumni have unique needs when making the transition into postsecondary enrollment. Compared to completion rates for the general population, postsecondary education outcomes for youth with foster care experience lag…

  9. Understanding Foster Youth Outcomes: Is Propensity Scoring Better than Traditional Methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study seeks to examine the relationship between foster care and outcomes using multiple comparison methods to account for factors that put foster youth at risk independent of care. Methods: Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, matching, propensity scoring, and comparisons to the general population are used to…

  10. Using Vector and Extended Boolean Matching in an Expert System for Selecting Foster Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Edward A.; Winett, Sheila G.

    1990-01-01

    Describes FOCES (Foster Care Expert System), a prototype expert system for choosing foster care placements for children which integrates information retrieval techniques with artificial intelligence. The use of prototypes and queries in Prolog routines, extended Boolean matching, and vector correlation are explained, as well as evaluation by…

  11. A child brought up in foster family [Dziecko wychowywane w rodzinie zastępczej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta WOSIK-KAWALA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a situation when a family does not care about the child and does not fulfil its educational duties to its child, and even where the support given does not result in an improvement of the situation, then the child may be placed in foster care. This leads to the child’s coexistence in two families: the biological one and foster one. In accordance with the law in force in Poland on family support and the foster care system of 20 September 2012, foster care becomes a supplement to parental care-giving and does not replace it. This article is an attempt to show the complexity of the issues concerning the upbringing of a child in two families. Particular attention is paid to the difficult situation of the child, who periodically, by the court’s decision is sent to foster care and functions in a new unrelated family, while maintaining contact with their biological parents, with whom they share a legal bond. This situation raises a number of difficulties experienced by the child – dilemmas and problems with identification and belonging to the foster or biological family. The temporary nature of foster care, its subsidiary character, causes that nowadays the goal of foster families is not to establish ties with the child similar to those resulting from a parent-like attitude but to support, help in the care and upbringing of the child. The article also highlights the resulting threats to the proper functioning of the child

  12. Fostering employee involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, G P

    1997-11-01

    Every year, the ODA's Economics of Practice Committee, with the help of an independent consulting firm, carries out the Cost of Practice Monitor which tracks the various costs of running a dental practice in Ontario. This article is the result of a joint ODA-Arthur Andersen initiative to provide members with detailed information from the Monitor. Over the next year, there will be a series of articles published under the heading "Best practises for Ontario's Dental Practices." The article featured in this issue focuses on wage expenses in dental practices and how to foster employee involvement as a means of addressing cost-productivity issues. Furthermore, information relating to wage expenses may be used by practitioners to benchmark their practice against the average Ontario dental practice. Appendix C was developed for this purpose. Through benchmarking, the practitioner may gain insight into ways of evaluating their practice and in addressing issues that could improve the management of the practice. For a long time, concepts of best business practises were applied only to manufacturing organizations or large multi-national corporations but experience has demonstrated that these activities are universal to all organizations, including service companies, schools, government and not-for-profit organizations.

  13. Maternity and family leave policies in rural family practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainguy, S; Crouse, B J

    1998-09-01

    To help recruit and retain physicians, especially women, rural family practice groups need to establish policies regarding maternity and other family leaves. Also important are policies regarding paternity leave, adoptive leave, and leave to care for elderly parents. We surveyed members of the American Academy of Family Physicians in rural practice in 1995 to assess the prevalence of leave policies, the degree to which physicians are taking family leave, and the characteristics of ideal policies. Currently, both men and women physicians are taking family leaves of absence, which indicates a need for leave policies. Furthermore, a lack of family leave policies may deter women from entering rural practice.

  14. Attachment Theory, Foster Parents and Diversity Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Michael; Fleming, Ted

    2009-01-01

    relevance to attachment within the biological and foster family. Yet every foster parent has a childhood attachment history that influences their interpersonal relationships in adulthood. The primary concern of the foster parent and their supports is with the foster child. But as a result the foster parent may distract or block reflection on their own attachment history. This presentation will focus on attachment theory and the adult, with particular reference to the foster parent. The pre...

  15. Tracheostomy care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory failure - tracheostomy care; Ventilator - tracheostomy care; Respiratory insufficiency - tracheostomy care ... Before you leave the hospital, health care providers will teach you how ... and suction the tube Keep the air you breathe moist Clean ...

  16. National Foster Care and Adoption Directory Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Administration for Children & ... Menu Home Topics Family-Centered Practice Philosophy and Key Elements of Family-Centered Practice Family- ...

  17. Integrated mental health care and vocational rehabilitation to improve return to work rates for people on sick leave because of depression and anxiety (the Danish IBBIS trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Rie; Hoff, Andreas; Fisker, Jonas; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Eplov, Lene Falgaard

    2017-12-02

    Depression and anxiety are among the largest contributors to the global burden of disease and have negative effects on both the individual and society. Depression and anxiety are very likely to influence the individual's work ability, and up to 40% of the people on sick leave in Denmark have depression and/or anxiety. There is no clear evidence that treatment alone will provide sufficient support for vocational recovery in this group. Integrated vocational and health care services have shown good effects on return to work in other, similar welfare contexts. The purpose of the IBBIS (Integrated Mental Health Care and Vocational Rehabilitation to Individuals on Sick Leave Due to Anxiety and Depression) interventions is to improve and hasten the process of return to employment for people in Denmark on sick leave because of depression and anxiety. This three-arm, parallel-group, randomized superiority trial has been set up to investigate the effectiveness of the IBBIS mental health care intervention and the integrated IBBIS mental health care and IBBIS vocational rehabilitation intervention for people on sick leave because of depression and/or anxiety in Denmark. The trial has an investigator-initiated multicenter design. A total of 603 patients will be recruited from Danish job centers in 4 municipalities and randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: (1) IBBIS mental health care integrated with IBBIS vocational rehabilitation, (2) IBBIS mental health care and standard vocational rehabilitation, and (3) standard mental health care and standard vocational rehabilitation. The primary outcome is register-based return to work at 12 months. The secondary outcome measures are self-assessed level of depression (Beck Depression Inventory II), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory), stress symptoms (Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire), work and social functioning (Work and Social Adjustment Scale), and register-based recurrent sickness absence. This study will provide new knowledge

  18. How the biological children of foster parents accept their new foster siblings and fostering of their parents

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Kristýna

    2015-01-01

    The bachelor thesis discusses how the biological children of foster parents accept their new foster siblings and fostering of their parents from the view of the foster parents. The aim of this work is to find out if and how the biological children accept their new foster siblings, what are their relationships like, what are the problematic aspects of these relationships and how to prevent them.

  19. Fostering Healthy Transitions: Honouring the Healing Power of Stories

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Fergus

    2000-01-01

    Ireland has a long tradition of storytelling. We create our identity through the stories we tell of ourselves in a narrative approach to becomming who we were born to be. This paper uses the story of Fionn Mac Cumhaill as a way of honouring the stories children bring with them when they come into care or live in foster families.

  20. Helping Former Foster Youth Graduate From College: Campus Support Programs in California and Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy; Perez, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    The economic benefits of a college education are well documented; however, data from studies of young people transitioning out of foster care indicate that the college graduation rate for this population is very low. The child welfare system has traditionally done a poor job of encouraging foster youth to pursue postsecondary education. Although…

  1. Family narratives on fostering a child with a history of sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, Susanna; Grietens, Hans; Batstra, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The impact of a history of sexual abuse on foster families has been studied, although never from a multilevel family perspective. Therefore, in Project Iris narratives are collected on the expertise, needs and experiences of family members in foster families concerning the care for a child with a

  2. The needs of foster children and how to satisfy them : A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbakkers, Anne; van der Steen, Steffie; Grietens, Hans

    Family foster care deeply influences the needs of children and how these are satisfied. To increase our knowledge of foster children’s needs and how these are conceptualized, this paper presents a systematic literature review. Sixty- four empirical articles from six databases were reviewed and

  3. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...'s son or daughter, and to care for the newborn child; (2) The placement with the employee of a son or daughter for adoption or foster care, and to care for the newly placed child; (3) To care for the... option only by providing the 60-day notice to all employees of the option the employer intends to...

  4. Foster carer experience in Spain: Analysis of the vulnerabilities of a permanent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López López, Mónica; Del Valle, Jorge F

    2016-05-01

    The voice of foster families is a valuable tool in the development and improvement of foster family services. Regularly evaluating the satisfaction of foster carers can facilitate the early identification of a range of problems that might pose a risk to the placement. This article reports the experience of 200 Spanish foster families (kinship and non-kinship) with foster services in relation to motivation for becoming foster carers, sources of stress and reward, satisfaction with the services and needs. Semi-structured interviews were performed. The aims of the research are principally of a descriptive character, so each group of variables was examined using frequency analysis. The foster carers interviewed demonstrated a high degree of satisfaction with the foster programs, although some areas seem more problematic, such as financial compensation, information provided about the fostered child, contact with the birth family and the sensitivity of professionals. This study reveals several differences with regard to international literature, that are related to particularities of the Spanish child care system. The results may be extremely useful for the implementation of policy changes which could contribute to raised levels of satisfaction for the foster carers, and increased effectiveness of the programs.

  5. Against the odds: foster carers' perceptions of family, commitment and belonging in successful placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, Nicholas; Rostill-Brookes, Helen; Larkin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examines carer attributes associated with placement stability for teenagers growing up in long term foster care, focusing on unexpected placement success. We explored experiences and perceptions relating to family, belonging and commitment in a group of foster carers providing a stable placement for a young person who had not been expected to settle. These placements showed positive outcome, despite factors in the child's history that might have predicted otherwise. Seven foster carers were interviewed following a semi-structured guide, which covered their ideas about their relationship with the child in question, about the foster family, and the child's sense of belonging in foster and birth family. Analysis of carers' accounts of placements which had succeeded 'against the odds' revealed four major themes, described under the headings My Child--emotional bonding, the carers' enlarged view of family and their parental regard for the young person; Jam in the Sandwich--working within a 'compromised space' between Local Authority and birth family; Repair and Rebuild--the craft of fostering including managing the foster/birth family boundary; Sticking with It--resilience, tenacity and maintaining hopefulness. The carers' accounts offer pointers towards the ingredients of successful placements and prompt reflection on how these may be supported and promoted. They also highlight tensions inherent in the foster carer task relating to carers' parental functioning for young people in long-term foster care.

  6. Autonomous home-care nursing staff are more engaged in their work and less likely to consider leaving the healthcare sector: a questionnaire survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurits, E.E.M.; Veer, A.J.E. de; Hoek, L.S. van der; Francke, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The need for home care is rising in many Western European countries, due to the ageing population and governmental policies to substitute institutional care with home care. At the same time, a general shortage of qualified home-care staff exists or is expected in many countries. It is

  7. Autonomous home-care nursing staff are more engaged in their work and less likely to consider leaving the healthcare sector: A questionnaire survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurits, E.E.M.; de Veer, A.J.E.; van der Hoek, L.S.; Francke, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The need for home care is rising in many Western European countries, due to the ageing population and governmental policies to substitute institutional care with home care. At the same time, a general shortage of qualified home-care staffexists or is expected in many countries. It is

  8. Reported Hyperphagia in Foster Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demb, Janet M.

    1991-01-01

    Foster children (age 0-14, n=190) referred for mental health evaluations were compared to a subsample of 10 children identified as hyperphagic. These children displayed hyperactivity and poor impulse control, interpersonal skills, and communication skills. Mothers exhibited a high incidence of drug/alcohol abuse. Hyperphagia should alert…

  9. Fostering Cooperation in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursday, June 25, 2015 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between US National Cancer Institute and three agencies of the Indian government - the Department of Biotechnology, the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Indian National Cancer Institute, a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences to foster cooperation in cancer research.

  10. Fostering Creativity through Personalized Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Mika; Vaidya, Ashwin

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the philosophy of creativity and its enhancement through an undergraduate research experience. In this paper we offer suggestions for infusing the undergraduate mathematics and science curriculum with research experiences as a way of fostering creativity in our students. We refer to the term "research" broadly,…

  11. Paid maternity and paternity leave: rights and choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Claire

    2007-01-01

    From April 2007 onwards, maternity leave will be raised to nine months Paid maternity leave is associated with significant health benefits for babies, including reduced infant mortality The Government proposes to increase paid maternity leave to one year and introduce additional paternity leave by around 2009 The U.K's provision for maternity leave and child care is more generous than the U.S.A. or Australia but less than in the Scandinavian countries

  12. Timely Health Service Utilization of Older Foster Youth by Insurance Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Angelique; Curtis, Amy; Paul, Rajib; Allotey, Prince Addo; Crosby, Shantel

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a policy change for older foster care youth from a fee-for-service (FFS) Medicaid program to health maintenance organization (HMO) providers on the timeliness of first well-child visits (health care physicals). A three-year retrospective study using linked administrative data collected by the Michigan Departments of Human Services and Community Health of 1,657 youth, ages 10-20 years, who were in foster care during the 2009-2012 study period was used to examine the odds of receiving a timely well-child visit within the recommended 30-day time frame controlling for race, age, days from foster care entry to Medicaid enrollment, and number of foster care placements. Youth entering foster care during the HMO period were more likely to receive a timely well-child visit than those in the FFS period (odds ratio, 2.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.84-3.29; p foster care during the FFS period to 29 days for the HMO period. Among the other factors examined, more than 14 days to Medicaid enrollment, being non-Hispanic black and having five or more placements were negatively associated with receipt of a timely first well-child visit. Those youth who entered foster care during the HMO period had significantly greater odds of receiving a timely first well-child visit; however, disparities in access to preventive health care remain a concern for minority foster care youth, those who experience delayed Medicaid enrollment and those who experienced multiple placements. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Cluster-Randomised Trial Evaluating an Intervention for Patients with Stress-Related Mental Disorders and Sick Leave in Primary Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I.M.; Terluin, B.; Marwijk, van H.W.J.; Windt, van der D.A.W.M.; Rijmen, F.; Mechelen, van W.; Stalman, W.A.B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Mental health problems often affect functioning to such an extent that they result in sick leave. The worldwide reported prevalence of mental health problems in the working population is 10%–18%. In developed countries, mental health problems are one of the main grounds for receiving

  14. Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Christoffersen, Mogens; Weise, Hanne

    This artcle considders the political aims for different leave schemes and reviews studies af these schemes. The use of parental leave is sensitive to the financial loss involved in taking leave: a decrease in the benefit payments has had a significant influence on take-up, while, in general, fami......, families'' loss of income is less if leave is taken up by the mothers. Only few fathers participate in parental leave....

  15. Cultivating Resilience in Families Who Foster: Understanding How Families Cope and Adapt Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Cynthia A; Julien-Chinn, Francie J; Geiger, Jennifer M; Hayes Piel, Megan

    2016-12-01

    Families who foster offer essential care for children and youth when their own parents are unable to provide for their safety and well-being. Foster caregivers face many challenges including increased workload, emotional distress, and the difficulties associated with health and mental health problems that are more common in children in foster care. Despite these stressors, many families are able to sustain fostering while maintaining or enhancing functioning of their unit. This qualitative study applied an adaptational process model of family resilience that emerged in previous studies to examine narratives of persistent, long-term, and multiple fostering experiences. Data corroborated previous research in two ways. Family resilience was again described as a transactional process of coping and adaptation that evolves over time. This process was cultivated through the activation of 10 family strengths that are important in different ways, during varied phases. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  16. Fostering Creative Thinking in the Institutional Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    organizational structure, training, leadership development and education, personnel, facilities, and policies foster creative thinking ? These questions will be...in fostering creative thinking at the organizational level across the US Army. This assumption justifies researching if CGSOC fosters creative...creative thinking . Doctrine and policy and organizational structure and personnel will also be grouped to consolidate analysis. While the researcher will

  17. Characteristics of home care workers who leave their jobs: a cross-sectional study of job satisfaction and turnover in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banijamali, Sahar; Jacoby, Daniel; Hagopian, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Attracting and retaining a stable and motivated home care workforce has become a top policy priority. We surveyed 402 former home care workers in Washington State. We compared these "leavers" to current home care workers recently surveyed. Those who left the profession were more highly educated, had higher household income, and were more likely to be White. Those newly employed have better benefits, wages, hours, and career mobility than in their home care jobs. The low status and poor pay of home care workers may result in the inability of the profession to retain those who face better prospects.

  18. Mental Disorders in Foster Children: A Study of Prevalence, Comorbidity, and Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Stine

    2015-01-01

    Children in foster care have often experienced multiple adverse childhood experiences, including maltreatment and the rupture of attachment bonds. Maltreatment and the rupture of attachment bonds make foster children vulnerable to later mental health problems. Register-based studies in Norway indicate that a history of out-of-home care is associated with marginalization in several areas of life, including school dropout, low income, the receipt of disability benefits, and early death. The...

  19. Foster Creative Engineers by PBL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Kolmos, Anette

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, Problem and Project Based Learning (PBL) has been employed by a growing number of educational institutions to foster creative engineers. This paper aims to explore how PBL can develop creativity in engineering education. Accordingly, a qualitative case study was carried out...... with a student satellite project (AAUSAT3) in the department of electronic systems at Aalborg University in Denmark. Multiple methods including interviews and observation were employed. The analysis of the empirical data leads to the findings and discussions that PBL can foster creative engineers by providing...... conditions of problem analysis and solving, the shift from teaching to learning and team based projects. This research therefore contributes to both theory and practice in the PBL setting of engineering education....

  20. Salivary cortisol: a possible biomarker in evaluating stress and effects of interventions in young foster children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Hans W H; Jansen, Lucres M C; Grietens, Hans; Knorth, Erik J; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2014-01-01

    Young foster children undergo an early separation from their caregiver(s) and often experience severe stress before placement. However, a considerable part of the children do not show apparent signs of distress, making it difficult for the foster carer to be aware of the amount of stress in their foster child. Potential evidence for using salivary cortisol levels as a dimension to evaluate the amount of stress in young foster children is reviewed. Moreover, the applicability of salivary cortisol in the evaluation of stress-reducing interventions for young foster children is discussed. A systematic review was performed using the databases Medline, Psychinfo, Embase, Ebscohost, and Academic Search Premier. Nine studies were traced in which salivary cortisol was used to measure stress in children placed in family foster care or in adoptive families. Stress in general but also neglect, early loss of a caregiver, a younger age at first placement, and a higher number of placements were associated with an altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in foster children. Moreover, four studies on the effect of stress-reducing interventions on HPA-axis functioning of young foster children were found. These studies suggest that caregiver-based interventions can actually help to normalize the HPA-axis function in foster children, and that such changes co-occur with improved behavioral functioning. Although the results from the papers discussed in this review suggest that diurnal cortisol with a wake up and a bedtime measurement may be a relevant tool to evaluate stress in young foster children, this cannot yet be concluded from the present studies, because statistical data from the studies on foster care and adoption in this review were not robust and researchers used different methods to collect the salivary cortisol. Still, it is noteworthy that all studies did find the same pattern of reduced levels in relation to chronic stress (caused by maltreatment and

  1. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  2. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...... of leaving home. Results showed that while some differences disappeared when controlling for covariates, others persisted, thus indicating ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns. A strong link between leaving home and marriage was substantiated for Turks, but not for Somalis. The home-leaving patterns...... of Somalis were much more similar to those of Danes. Overall, Turkish descendants were similar to Turkish immigrants but with some differentiation. The analyses identified the existence of ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns but also found evidence of a shift towards less traditional patterns, i...

  3. Engaging Foster Parents in Treatment: A Randomized Trial of Supplementing Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Evidence-based Engagement Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsey, Shannon; Pullmann, Michael D.; Berliner, Lucy; Koschmann, Elizabeth; McKay, Mary; Deblinger, Esther

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of supplementing Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen, Mannarino, & Deblinger, 2006) with evidence-based engagement strategies on foster parent and foster youth engagement in treatment, given challenges engaging foster parents in treatment. A randomized controlled trial of TF-CBT standard delivery compared to TF-CBT plus evidence-based engagement strategies was conducted with 47 children and adolescents in foster care and ...

  4. Fostering Communicative Competence through Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Sipra

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the use of technology in EFL classes to promote communicative competence. It elucidates communicative competence and explicates obstructions in communicative tasks. Moreover, it interprets the use of technology in fostering and supporting the development of communicative competence and explains how it is pragmatic in maintaining learners’ level of motivation and interest in learning a foreign language. The present article identifies the significance and use of mobile phone, camera, computer and internet, tape recorder, projector, and language labs in EFL classes. Besides, it discusses the use of technology as an educational tool in language teaching and learning.

  5. Lives in Motion: A Review of Former Foster Youth in the Context of their Experiences in the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlicek, Judy

    2011-01-01

    In light of the poor prospects facing many former foster youth during the transition to adulthood, it is surprising that so little attention has been given to substitute care contexts during child welfare system involvement. A review of child welfare research finds that many former foster youth go through an alarming number of placement changes and report a high rate of placement into congregate care settings and other unplanned events. Future research should take explicit account of substitute care contexts in designing and carrying out studies examining the adult outcomes of aging out foster care populations. Interventions intended to circumvent high rates of movement in foster care should also be broadened to target multiple aspects of substitute care contexts. PMID:21643470

  6. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  7. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  8. Impact of the parenting style of foster parents on the behaviour problems of foster children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, M J; Salas, M D; Bernedo, I M; García-Martín, M A

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have analysed the effects of the parenting style used by foster carers on children's behaviour problems. This study examines the role played by the quality of the emotional relationship with foster carers and the kind of discipline they use as regard internalizing and externalizing problems among foster children. Participants were 104 foster children (56 boys and 48 girls) and their respective foster families. The Child Behaviour Checklist, the Affect and Communication Scale, and the Rules and Demands Scale were completed by foster parents. A series of linear regression analyses were performed using the stepwise method. The main findings were as follows: an authoritarian parenting style explained the internalizing problems presented by foster children (11% of the variance); criticism/rejection, authoritarian parenting and permissive parenting explained externalizing problems (37% of the variance); and criticism/rejection and authoritarian parenting explained total problems (29% of the variance). These results indicate that criticism/rejection on the part of foster parents, as well as the use of inappropriate parenting styles (authoritarian and permissive), has an important effect in relation to the behaviour problems of foster children. This highlights the key role that foster carers play in terms of tackling the behaviour problems that foster children present. The findings also suggest that preparation for fostering should focus especially on ways of helping foster parents both to acquire positive parenting strategies and to avoid authoritarian and permissive parenting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Foster and Adoptive Parent Perspectives on Needs and Services: a Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Erin R; Jankowski, Mary K; Butcher, Rebecca L; Meister, Catherine; Parton, Rebecca R; Drake, Robert E

    2018-01-01

    Caring for children with complex needs severely stresses foster and adoptive parents, but few studies have examined their perspectives on needs and services. To examine parental views, the authors analyzed four focus groups (n = 27 participants) and one state-wide survey (n = 512 respondents, 42% of 1206 contacted) of foster and adoptive parents in one state. Results highlighted inadequate communication between providers and families, cultural and legal barriers, needs for parent training and preparation, the importance of several types of parent supports, and needs for specialized mental health treatment for the children. Surveyed parents identified children's behavior problems as their top challenge, and over half rated the availability of mental health providers who treat attachment and family as insufficient. The findings suggest specific areas in which state leaders could enhance training and supports for child welfare staff and foster and adoptive parents and improve mental health services for children in foster and adoptive care.

  10. Parent training in foster families with children with behavior problems : Follow-up results from a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, A.M.; van Rooij, F.B.; Overbeek, G.J.; Oort, F.J.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The present randomized controlled trial examined the four months follow-up effectiveness of Parent Management Training Oregon (PMTO) for parents with foster children (aged 4–12) with severe externalizing behavior problems in long-term foster care arrangements. The aim of PMTO, a relative long and

  11. A Phenomenological Study: The Lived Experience of Former Foster Youth Attending a Four-Year College in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dora Yiu Lam

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the lived experience of eight individuals attending a four-year college who were all part of a campus support program for former foster youth. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand and explore the lived experiences of these unique college students that have gone through the foster care system.…

  12. Maternity leave, what about Paternity leave?: child care and social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender and Behaviour. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Child care and our youngest children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D; Adams, G

    2001-01-01

    Studies of child development confirm that experiences with people mold an infant's mind and personality. Caregiving is, therefore, central to development, whether the caregiver is a parent, a grandmother, or a teacher in a child care center. This article uses data from new, national studies of families to examine the state of child care for infants and toddlers. The story it tells is complex, as the authors outline the overlapping impacts that diverse child care settings and home situations have on children. Early exposure to child care can foster children's learning and enhance their lives, or it can leave them at risk for troubled relationships. The outcome that results depends largely on the quality of the child care setting. Responsive caregivers who surround children with language, warmth, and chances to learn are the key to good outcomes. Other quality attributes (like training and staff-to-child ratios) matter because they foster positive caregiving. Diversity and variability are hallmarks of the American child care supply. Both "wonderful and woeful" care can be found in all types of child care but, overall, settings where quality is compromised are distressingly common. Children whose families are not buoyed by good incomes or government supports are the group most often exposed to poor-quality care. Given this balanced but troubling look at the status of child care for infants and toddlers, the authors conclude that there is a mismatch between the rhetoric of parental choice and the realities facing parents of young children in the United States. They call on communities, businesses, foundations, and government to play a larger role in helping parents secure good care for their infants and toddlers.

  14. Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. Flowers and Olea Europea L. Leaves Extract-Based Formulation for Hypertension Care: In Vitro Efficacy and Toxicological Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micucci, Matteo; Angeletti, Andrea; Cont, Massimiliano; Corazza, Ivan; Aldini, Rita; Donadio, Elisa; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2016-05-01

    Olea europaea L. leaves extract (Oe) and Hybiscus sabdariffa L. flowers extract (Hs) have calcium antagonistic properties. Aim of this work was to study the cardiovascular effects of Pres Phytum(®), a nutraceutical formulation containing a mixture of the two extracts and the excipients, and investigate its possible off-target effects, using in vitro biological assays on guinea pig isolated organs. Cardiovascular effects were assessed using guinea pig atria and aorta. The effects of Pres Phytum on spontaneous gastrointestinal, urinary, and respiratory tracts smooth muscle contractility were evaluated. Pres Phytum exerted a vasorelaxant effect (IC50 = 2.38 mg/mL) and a negative chronotropic effect (IC50 = 1.04 mg/mL) at concentrations lower than those producing smooth muscle spontaneous contractility alterations in the other organs. Compared to Pres Phytum, the mixture did not exert negative inotropic activity, while it maintained a negative chronotropic efficacy (IC50 = 1.04 mg/mL). These experimental data suggest a possible nutraceutical use of this food supplement for the management of preclinical hypertension.

  15. the life experiences of foster parents who nurture foster children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this important caregiving role and enhance practice and policy imperatives. ... By contributing and making a positive change on the lives of needy children, foster ... depression. ... children including their physical, social, emotional, psychological, cultural and ..... evidence base of training for foster and treatment foster parents.

  16. Association of Socio-Demographic Factors, Sick-Leave and Health Care Patterns with the Risk of Being Granted a Disability Pension among Psychiatric Outpatients with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Härkänen, Tommi; Tiihonen, Jari; Haukka, Jari

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression ranges among the leading causes of early exit from the labor market worldwide. We aimed to investigate the associations of socio-demographic factors, sickness absence, health care and prescription patterns with the risk of being granted a disability pension in psychiatric outpatients with depression. Methods All non-retired patients aged 18–60 years and living in Sweden 31.12.2005 with at least one psychiatric outpatient care visit due to a depressive episode during 2006 (N = 18034): were followed from 01.01.2007 to 31.12.2010 with regard to granting of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension. Uni- and multivariate Rate Ratios (RR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were estimated for the various risk markers by Poisson Regression. Results During the four years of follow-up, 3044 patients (16.8%) were granted a disability pension, the majority due to mental disorders (2558, 84%). In the multivariate analyses, being female, below 25 or above 45 years of age, with low educational level, living alone, residing outside big cities and being born outside Europe were predictive of a granted disability pension. Frequent in- and outpatient care due to mental disorders, prescription of antidepressants and long sickness absence spells were also associated with an increased risk of disability pension (range of RRs 1.10 to 5.26). Somatic health care was only predictive of disability pension due to somatic disorders. The risk of being granted a disability pension remained at the same level as at the start of follow-up for about 1.5 years, when it started to decrease and to level off at about 20% of the risk at the end of follow-up. Conclusions Identified risk markers should be considered when monitoring individuals with depression and when designing intervention programs. PMID:24963812

  17. Association of socio-demographic factors, sick-leave and health care patterns with the risk of being granted a disability pension among psychiatric outpatients with depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellenor Mittendorfer-Rutz

    Full Text Available Depression ranges among the leading causes of early exit from the labor market worldwide. We aimed to investigate the associations of socio-demographic factors, sickness absence, health care and prescription patterns with the risk of being granted a disability pension in psychiatric outpatients with depression.All non-retired patients aged 18-60 years and living in Sweden 31.12.2005 with at least one psychiatric outpatient care visit due to a depressive episode during 2006 (N = 18,034: were followed from 01.01.2007 to 31.12.2010 with regard to granting of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension. Uni- and multivariate Rate Ratios (RR and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI were estimated for the various risk markers by Poisson Regression.During the four years of follow-up, 3044 patients (16.8% were granted a disability pension, the majority due to mental disorders (2558, 84%. In the multivariate analyses, being female, below 25 or above 45 years of age, with low educational level, living alone, residing outside big cities and being born outside Europe were predictive of a granted disability pension. Frequent in- and outpatient care due to mental disorders, prescription of antidepressants and long sickness absence spells were also associated with an increased risk of disability pension (range of RRs 1.10 to 5.26. Somatic health care was only predictive of disability pension due to somatic disorders. The risk of being granted a disability pension remained at the same level as at the start of follow-up for about 1.5 years, when it started to decrease and to level off at about 20% of the risk at the end of follow-up.Identified risk markers should be considered when monitoring individuals with depression and when designing intervention programs.

  18. Fostering Passion among First Year Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Quamrul H.

    2010-01-01

    Engineering is a complex field of study. Declining enrollment in engineering programs in the United States is of concern and understanding the various factors that contribute to this decline is in order. Fostering a higher level of student engagement with the content may foster passion towards engineering which could increase academic competency…

  19. Ahlstroem Pyropower sold to Foster Wheeler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Representatives of Foster Wheeler Corporation and A. Ahlstroem Oy have signed in the 3rd of October 1995 a contract which transfers the majority of the shares in Ahlstroem Pyropower to the American company Foster Wheeler at a price of some 200 million dollars. The final price will depend on the result of Ahlstroem Pyropower at the end of 1995. (1 fig.)

  20. Development of Learning Virtual Objects as a Strategy to Foster Student Retention in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Yois S. Pascuas Rengifo; César Omar Jaramillo Morales; Fredy Antonio Verástegui González

    2015-01-01

    Rev.esc.adm.neg One of the problems that the Colombian higher education system is facing is the problem of student desertion, shwoing that a great amount of students leave their university studies during the first semesters. For this reason, the National Education Ministry and Universidad de la Amazonia implement a new strategy to foster student retention and graduation through academic levelling. This paper shows eight learning virtual objects from different learning áreas, applying tech...

  1. Family medical leave as a resilience resource for family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanke, Jayme; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

    2009-01-01

    Case managers mobilize family networks to care for patients. Family medical leave can be a resource for case managers who seek to enhance resilience among family caregivers. The Family Medical Leave Act, passed in 1993, was the first U.S. policy to regulate employee leaves from work for family care purposes (29 CFR 825.102). This policy offers family caregivers increased flexibility and equality. Current and emerging policies also can reduce financial strain. The discussion examines how case managers can integrate family medical leave into best-practice models to support patients and family caregivers.

  2. Parental leave for residents and pediatric training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is committed to the development of rational, equitable, and effective parental leave policies that are sensitive to the needs of pediatric residents, families, and developing infants and that enable parents to spend adequate and good-quality time with their young children. It is important for each residency program to have a policy for parental leave that is written, that is accessible to residents, and that clearly delineates program practices regarding parental leave. At a minimum, a parental leave policy for residents and fellows should conform legally with the Family Medical Leave Act as well as with respective state laws and should meet institutional requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education for accredited programs. Policies should be well formulated and communicated in a culturally sensitive manner. The AAP advocates for extension of benefits consistent with the Family Medical Leave Act to all residents and interns beginning at the time that pediatric residency training begins. The AAP recommends that regardless of gender, residents who become parents should be guaranteed 6 to 8 weeks, at a minimum, of parental leave with pay after the infant's birth. In addition, in conformance with federal law, the resident should be allowed to extend the leave time when necessary by using paid vacation time or leave without pay. Coparenting, adopting, or fostering of a child should entitle the resident, regardless of gender, to the same amount of paid leave (6-8 weeks) as a person who takes maternity/paternity leave. Flexibility, creativity, and advanced planning are necessary to arrange schedules that optimize resident education and experience, cultivate equity in sharing workloads, and protect pregnant residents from overly strenuous work experiences at critical times of their pregnancies.

  3. Maternity leave, women's employment, and marital incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J S; Essex, M J; Clark, R; Klein, M H

    2001-09-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the length of women's maternity leave and marital incompatibility, in the context of other variables including the woman's employment, her dissatisfaction with the division of household labor, and her sense of role overload. Length of leave, work hours, and family salience were associated with several forms of dissatisfaction, which in turn predicted role overload. Role overload predicted increased marital incompatibility for experienced mothers but did not for first-time mothers, for whom discrepancies between preferred and actual child care were more important. Length of maternity leave showed significant interactions with other variables, supporting the hypothesis that a short leave is a risk factor that, when combined with another risk factor, contributes to personal and marital distress.

  4. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  5. Substitute Care Providers: Helping Abused and Neglected Children. The User Manual Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kenneth

    This manual for child welfare staff and foster/adoptive parents is intended to provide guidelines for serving abused and neglected children who are in family foster care and adoption. The first section is on substitute care and permanency planning and offers an historical perspective on substitute care and definitions of family foster care and…

  6. "Will they just pack up and leave?" – attitudes and intended behaviour of hospital health care workers during an influenza pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Kieren

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a general consensus that another influenza pandemic is inevitable. Although health care workers (HCWs are essential to the health system response, there are few studies exploring HCW attitudes to pandemic influenza. The aim of this study was to explore HCWs knowledge, attitudes and intended behaviour towards pandemic influenza. Methods Cross-sectional investigation of a convenience sample of clinical and non-clinical HCWs from two tertiary-referral teaching hospitals in Sydney, Australia was conducted between June 4 and October 19, 2007. The self-administered questionnaire was distributed to hospital personal from 40 different wards and departments. The main outcome measures were intentions regarding work attendance and quarantine, antiviral use and perceived preparation. Results Respondents were categorized into four main groups by occupation: Nursing (47.5%, Medical (26.0%, Allied (15.3% and Ancillary (11.2%. Our study found that most HCWs perceived pandemic influenza to be very serious (80.9%, n = 873 but less than half were able to correctly define it (43.9%, n = 473. Only 24.8% of respondents believed their department to be prepared for a pandemic, but nonetheless most were willing to work during a pandemic if a patient or colleague had influenza. The main determinants of variation in our study were occupational factors, demographics and health beliefs. Non-clinical staff were significantly most likely to be unsure of their intentions (OR 1.43, p Conclusion We identified two issues that could undermine the best of pandemic plans – the first, a low level of confidence in antivirals as an effective measure; secondly, that non-clinical workers are an overlooked group whose lack of knowledge and awareness could undermine pandemic plans. Other issues included a high level of confidence in dietary measures to protect against influenza, and a belief among ancillary workers that antibiotics would be protective. All

  7. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  8. Foster parenting, human imprinting and conventional handling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Foster parenting, human imprinting and conventional handling affects survival and early .... bird may subsequently direct its sexual attention to those humans on whom it was imprinted (Bubier et al., ..... The mind through chicks' eyes: memory,.

  9. Why Nannies Leave Their Employing Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn

    The position of nanny as a career option for child care/child development/early childhood education graduates is examined. This study surveyed nannies randomly selected from the 1991 International Nanny Association Directory to determine why nannies leave their employing families. Surveys were mailed to 160 nannies; 62 (39%) nannies responded.…

  10. Fostering Ethical Integrity in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Ruth A; Hartley, Patricia Lynn; Hodges, Patricia J; Hoffpauir, Rebecca Baldwin

    Nursing students bring an array of morals, values, and ethics that may be inconsistent with ethical integrity. This study explored nurse educator perceptions of student ethical integrity and how educators can foster an ethical foundation in students and novice educators. Four major themes influencing ethical integrity emerged: the learning environment, behaviors, ethical principles, and a toolbox of strategies. Strategies for fostering ethical integrity included: modeling ethical integrity, effective communication, grading accuracy, faculty perceptions, and faculty peer mentoring.

  11. The coping strategies of foster parents in Hillbrow, Johannesburg

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    M.A. South Africa is facing a high proportion of children in need of care due to the high escalation of HIV/AIDS related illness. Most of the orphaned children are left with either paternal or maternal families. As a result the families are facing challenges to perform “social, emotional, and educational tasks” and to cope with the additional family members. The study was exploratory and aimed to explore the challenges faced by foster parents, and their coping strategies in Johannesburg. T...

  12. Fostering Reflection through Challenging Practica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Jodi; Sutherby, Linda; Garrow-Oliver, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This article describes challenging practicum situations that provided three early childhood education students with leadership opportunities to promote best practices in child care centers. Using excerpts from student journals and meetings, the article documents students' initial discouragement at practices observed, inspiration through…

  13. RNs and LPNs: emotional exhaustion and intention to leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havaei, Farinaz; MacPhee, Maura; Dahinten, V Susan

    2016-04-01

    To describe and compare registered nurse (RN) and licensed practical nurse (LPN) emotional exhaustion, intention to leave and reasons for leaving. Different skill mix/care delivery models are being used to address nurse shortages and rising health-care costs. Skill mix may include RNs and LPNs. More LPNs are being employed in areas, such as acute care, that have been previously staffed by all RNs. Little is known about nurse outcomes since the introduction of LPNs to acute care settings. This study was a cross-sectional correlational design. A stratified, random sample of acute care nurses completed surveys via Fluidsurveys. The survey was modelled after the RN4CAST nursing workforce survey. For both groups of nurses higher levels of emotional exhaustion were associated with intention to leave and workload was the most frequent reason cited for intention to leave. More RNs than LPNs cited career advancement as a reason to leave, and more LPNs than RNs identified poor salary as a reason to leave. Emotional exhaustion is linked to intention to leave health care. Nurse managers should address work environment factors associated with turnover intentions, such as professional development opportunities and shared decision-making. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  15. Intention to stay and intention to leave: are they two sides of the same coin? A cross-sectional structural equation modelling study among health and social care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan; Bradbury, Joanne; Pit, Sabrina Winona; Ariss, Steven

    2014-01-01

    "Intention to leave" (ITL) has been used interchangeably with the more positive construct "intention to stay" (ITS). The implicit assumption appears to be that both constructs represent different sides of the same coin. This study challenges this assumption. The objectives were (i) to test whether these constructs were similar measures of the same construct, and (ii) to assess the strength of the relationships between ITL and ITS with work-related outcomes. The Workforce Dynamics Questionnaire (WDQ) was administered to 298 staff. The WDQ included two items on ITL and was supplemented with three items on ITS. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used. The response rate was 43%. The correlation between the two constructs was negative and quite high (r=-0.84), indicating potential issues with discriminant validity. However, the constructs behaved differently in relation to job satisfaction and job integration. ITS was a strong predictor (0.95, p<0.001), whereas ITL was not significantly related (0.34, p=0.195) to JS. The direct effects of JI on ITS was 0.30 and on ITL was -0.42. The indirect effects of JI were more contrasting, being 0.56 for ITS and -0.30 for ITL, via job satisfaction. This is the first study amongst British health and social care workers that has demonstrated that ITS and ITL are not measuring the same construct. While there is overlap, care should be taken when using these constructs interchangeably, particularly when measuring these concepts in organizations and when developing retention programs, policies, or activities to modify ITS and ITL.

  16. Fostering successful scientific software communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangerth, W.; Heister, T.; Hwang, L.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    Developing sustainable open source software packages for the sciences appears at first to be primarily a technical challenge: How can one create stable and robust algorithms, appropriate software designs, sufficient documentation, quality assurance strategies such as continuous integration and test suites, or backward compatibility approaches that yield high-quality software usable not only by the authors, but also the broader community of scientists? However, our experience from almost two decades of leading the development of the deal.II software library (http://www.dealii.org, a widely-used finite element package) and the ASPECT code (http://aspect.dealii.org, used to simulate convection in the Earth's mantle) has taught us that technical aspects are not the most difficult ones in scientific open source software. Rather, it is the social challenge of building and maintaining a community of users and developers interested in answering questions on user forums, contributing code, and jointly finding solutions to common technical and non-technical challenges. These problems are posed in an environment where project leaders typically have no resources to reward the majority of contributors, where very few people are specifically paid for the work they do on the project, and with frequent turnover of contributors as project members rotate into and out of jobs. In particular, much software work is done by graduate students who may become fluent enough in a software only a year or two before they leave academia. We will discuss strategies we have found do and do not work in maintaining and growing communities around the scientific software projects we lead. Specifically, we will discuss the management style necessary to keep contributors engaged, ways to give credit where credit is due, and structuring documentation to decrease reliance on forums and thereby allow user communities to grow without straining those who answer questions.

  17. Perspectives of Foster Parents and Social Workers on Foster Placement Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian J.; McQuillan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The potential human and financial costs of foster placement disruption for the children, families, professionals and agencies involved are widely accepted. This service evaluation identified and described perspectives of foster parents and social workers regarding placement disruptions in order to identify the main issues of concern and to derive…

  18. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  19. Family Ties and Leaving Home for College: Recent Findings and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Maureen E.

    1987-01-01

    Recent research with first year college students indicated that emotional closeness to parents was associated with social and intellectual competence during the leaving home period. Secure parental attachment fostered self-confidence, willingness to explore the environment, and the development of social skills. Students describing themselves as…

  20. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  1. Development of an Intervention for Foster Parents of Young Foster Children with Externalizing Behavior: Theoretical Basis and Program Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanschoonlandt, Femke; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Van Holen, Frank; De Maeyer, Skrallan

    2012-01-01

    Foster parents are often faced with serious externalizing behaviors of their foster child. These behavioral problems may induce family stress and are related to less effective parenting and often increase. Foster children with behavioral problems are also more at risk of placement breakdown. An intervention to support foster parents of young…

  2. Optimizing foster family placement for infants and toddlers : A randomized controlled trial on the effect of the Foster Family Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Andel, Hans; Post, Wendy; Jansen, Lucres; Van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Knorth, Erik; Grietens, Hans

    The relationship between foster children and their foster carers comes with many risks and may be very stressful both for parents and children. We developed an intervention (foster family intervention [FFI]) to tackle these risks. The intervention focuses on foster children below the age of 5 years.

  3. Optimizing foster family placement for infants and toddlers: A randomized controlled trial on the effect of the foster family intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, H. Van; Post, W.; Janssen, L.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Knorth, E.; Grietens, H.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between foster children and their foster carers comes with many risks and may be very stressful both for parents and children. We developed an intervention (foster family intervention [FFI]) to tackle these risks. The intervention focuses on foster children below the age of 5 years.

  4. Laboratory-Diagnosed Sexually Transmitted Infections in Former Foster Youth Compared With Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kym R.; Richardson, Laura P.; Courtney, Mark E.; McCarty, Carolyn; Simoni, Jane; Katon, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between having resided in foster care and risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI) during young adulthood. METHODS Multiple regression analyses were performed by using Waves I to III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994–2002) to evaluate the association between foster care status and STI biomarkers and risk behaviors. Female (N = 7563) and male participants (N = 6759) were evaluated separately. Covariates in all models included baseline age, race, ethnicity, parental education level, parental income level, and average neighborhood household income level. RESULTS Female participants who had been in foster care were more likely to have Trichomonas (odds ratio [OR]: 3.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45–7.23) but not gonorrhea or chlamydia and reported increased sexual risk behaviors compared with nonfostered peers. Male participants who had been in foster care were more likely to have both gonorrhea (OR: 14.28 [95% CI: 2.07–98.28]) and chlamydia (OR: 3.07 [95% CI: 1.36–6.96]) but not Trichomonas and did not report a higher risk for most sexual risk behaviors than nonfostered peers. CONCLUSIONS Results suggest that individuals who have been in foster care are at increased risk for STIs during young adulthood. The pattern of exposure may differ between male and female individuals. If findings are confirmed, they suggest that health care providers who work with these youth should adjust their STI screening practices. Child welfare agencies should also consider targeted interventions to reduce STI risk in this population. PMID:20547646

  5. The Impact of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on Former Foster Youth Entering Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe to what degree foster care students perceive that the elements of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affect their academic performance in postsecondary education. In addition, it was the purpose of this study to identify the perceived impacts of internal and external influences on…

  6. Fostering Collaboration with Families of Children with Disabilities: Online Professional Development for K-12 Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Margo; Kingsley, Karla V.; Ovitt, Brigid; Lin, Yi-Ling; Romero Benavidez, Juliette

    2017-01-01

    Technology has reshaped conceptions of professional development by increasing access to information, enabling sustained follow-up efforts, and fostering teacher reflection and collaboration. Drawing on theoretical models of parent involvement and an ethic of caring, this study examined the perceptions and attitudes of educators toward…

  7. Anticipatory child fostering and household economic security in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Bachan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: While there is a rich literature on the practice of child fostering in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about how fostering impacts receiving households, as few studies consider household conditions both before and after fostering. Despite the fact that circumstancessurrounding fostering vary, the literature's key distinction of fostering is often drawn along the simple line of whether or not a household is fostering a child. This paper argues that anticipation of fostering responsibilities, in particular, is a useful dimension to distinguish fostering experiences for receiving households. Objective: This paper examines the relationship between receiving a foster child and subsequent changes in household wealth. Particular emphasis is placed on how these changes are conditioned by differing levels of anticipation of the fostering event. Methods: This study uses data from Tsogolo la Thanzi (TLT, a longitudinal survey in Balaka, Malawi. Using data from 1754 TLT respondents, fixed effects pooled time-series models are estimated to assess whether and how receiving a foster child changes household wealth. Results: This paper demonstrates the heterogeneity of fostering experiences for receiving households.The results show that households that anticipate fostering responsibilities experience a greater increase in household wealth than both households that do not foster and those that are surprised by fostering. Conclusions: Households that anticipate fostering responsibilities exhibit the greatest increase in householdwealth. While fostering households that do not anticipate fostering responsibilities may not experience these gains, there is no evidence to indicate that such households are negatively impacted relative to households that do not foster. This finding suggests that additional childcare responsibilities may not be as detrimental to African households as some researchers have feared.

  8. The Difficult Transition to Adulthood for Foster Youth in the US: Implications for the State as Corporate Parent. Social Policy Report. Volume XXIII, Number I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Although they make up a relatively small proportion of all children in the U.S. foster care system, foster youth approaching adulthood have over the years attracted considerable attention from policymakers. Three times in the past 25 years the Social Security Act has been amended to try to better support the transition to adulthood for foster…

  9. John Foster Dulles, his medical history and its impact on Cold War politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Theodore N; Willett, Christopher G

    2018-01-01

    John Foster Dulles was the United States Secretary of State during the administration of President Dwight D Eisenhower. At the height of the Cold War, Dulles was Eisenhower's emissary, traveling over 450,000 international miles, leading United States foreign policy. In November of 1956, during an international crisis involving the Suez Canal, Dulles became ill and underwent an operation for a perforated colon cancer. During much of his impactful term as Secretary of State, Dulles was being treated for this cancer that ultimately resulted in his death in May of 1959. This paper highlights the medical care of John Foster Dulles and the global events during his illness.

  10. Fostering rigour in accounting for social sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Dwyer, B.; Unerman, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper illuminates how a journal and its editor can initiate and foster a stream of high quality and influential research in a novel area. It does this by analysing Accounting, Organizations and Society's (AOS's) and Anthony Hopwood's nurturing of research into key aspects of accounting for

  11. Strategies for Fostering Creativity Among Business Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings of the study reveal that the respondents agreed that the 20 creativity skill-items are needed by business education graduates. Furthermore, the study also show a no significant difference between the mean rating of opinion of male and female business educators on the strategies for fostering creativity among ...

  12. The Fostering Academics Mentoring Excellence Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Angelique; Riebschleger, Joanne; Wen, Jiebing

    2018-01-01

    Precollege outreach programs improve college access for underrepresented students; however, information on foster youth engagement in precollege programs is virtually nonexistent. This chapter describes the impact of a precollege program on two- and four-year college enrollment and completion rates.

  13. Fostering Adolescents' Interpersonal Behaviour: An Empirical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of enhanced thinking skills (ETS) and social skill training (SST) in fostering interpersonal behaviour among Nigerian adolescents. A pre- and post-test experimental-control group design with a 3x2 factorial matrix was employed for the study. Gender which was used as a moderator variable ...

  14. An Inside Track: Fostering Mathematical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheister, Kelley; Jackson, Christa; Taylor, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Classroom teachers may not initially consider games as opportunities for students to engage in deep mathematical thinking. However, this article reveals how a second grade veteran teacher used Attribute Trains, a game adapted from NCTM Illuminations, to foster his students' thinking related to key ideas within the Standards for Mathematical…

  15. Fostering Self-Regulation in Distributed Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Krista P.; Doolittle, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Although much has been written about fostering self-regulated learning in traditional classroom settings, there has been little that addresses how to facilitate self-regulated learning skills in distributed and online environments. This article will examine some such strategies by specifically focusing on time management. Specific principles for…

  16. Creative Stories: A Storytelling Game Fostering Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukourikos, Antonis; Karampiperis, Pythagoras; Panagopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    The process of identifying techniques for fostering creativity, and applying these theoretical constructs in real-world educational activities, is, by nature, multifaceted and not straightforward, pertaining to several fields such as cognitive theory and psychology. Furthermore, the quantification of the impact of different activities on…

  17. Understanding the Black Foster Child through Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda

    1979-01-01

    Sheds light on the difficulties of one of the most problem-ridden segments of our society's young people--minority foster children--and suggests ways to improve the help that these children receive. Results indicate that a satisfactory rapport could be established with these children with moderate effort and that rewarding therapeutic…

  18. Fostering reflective practice with mobile technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabuenca, Bernardo; Verpoorten, Dominique; Ternier, Stefaan; Westera, Wim; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Tabuenca, B., Verpoorten, D., Ternier, S., Westera, W., & Specht, M. (2012). Fostering reflective practice with mobile technologies. In A. Moore, V. Pammer, L. Pannese, M. Prilla, K. Rajagopal, W. Reinhardt, Th. D. Ullman, & Ch. Voigt (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Awareness and

  19. Dr. Andrew Foster: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnels, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Often compared to Laurent Clerc, Thomas Gallaudet, and Alexander Graham Bell, Dr. Andrew Foster was a deaf African American who founded 32 schools for the deaf in 13 African nations. The 60th anniversary of his arrival in Liberia and Ghana and the 30th anniversary of his tragic death in a Rwanda airplane accident both occur in 2017. Renewed…

  20. How Can Science Education Foster Students' Rooting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Edvin

    2015-01-01

    The question of how to foster rooting in science education points towards a double challenge; efforts to "prevent" (further) uprooting and efforts to "promote" rooting/re-rooting. Wolff-Michael Roth's paper discusses the uprooting/rooting pair of concepts, students' feeling of alienation and loss of fundamental sense of the…

  1. Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training in Fostering Tobacco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the impact of mindfulness training in fostering tobacco cessation among undergraduates in a Nigerian university. It also observed the moderating effect of self-efficacy on the causal link between mindfulness training and tobacco cessation. Participants were 57 students randomly assigned to ...

  2. Employer Provisions for Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenheimer, Joseph R., II

    1989-01-01

    Slightly more than one-third of full-time employees in medium and large firms in private industry were covered by maternity- or paternity-leave policies; days off were usually leave without pay. (Author)

  3. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2002-01-01

    Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'*) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that, since last year, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2002 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they are still participants in the schem...

  4. Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22 B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the ...

  5. Parental leave policies in graduate medical education: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Laura S; Lyon, Sarah; Garza, Rebecca; Butz, Daniel R; Lemelman, Benjamin; Park, Julie E

    2017-10-01

    A thorough understanding of attitudes toward and program policies for parenthood in graduate medical education (GME) is essential for establishing fair and achievable parental leave policies and fostering a culture of support for trainees during GME. A systematic review of the literature was completed. Non-cohort studies, studies completed or published outside of the United States, and studies not published in English were excluded. Studies that addressed the existence of parental leave policies in GME were identified and were the focus of this study. Twenty-eight studies addressed the topic of the existence of formal parental leave policies in GME, which was found to vary across time and ranged between 22 and 90%. Support for such policies persisted across time. Attention to formal leave policies in GME has traditionally been lacking, but may be increasing. Negative attitudes towards parenthood in GME persist. Active awareness of the challenges faced by parent-trainees combined with formal parental leave policy implementation is important in supporting parenthood in GME. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Effects of the KEEP Foster Parent Intervention on Child and Sibling Behavior Problems and Parental Stress During a Randomized Implementation Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joseph M; Roesch, Scott; Walsh, Natalia E; Landsverk, John

    2015-07-01

    Children in foster care are at risk for externalizing behavior problems, which can in turn increase the risk of changes in foster care placement. The KEEP (Keeping Foster Parents Trained and Supported) foster parent training intervention was designed to equip foster parents with strategies for managing externalizing behavior problems. The primary goals of this investigation were to (a) examine the effectiveness of the KEEP intervention in reducing child behavior problems, as delivered by a community agency; (b) determine if the effects of the KEEP intervention generalize to more than one child in the same home; and (c) examine the effectiveness of the KEEP intervention in reducing parental stress associated with child behavior problems. The data from 335 foster and kinship families with children between the ages of 5 and 12 years were analyzed to address these objectives. Families were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. The results indicated that the KEEP intervention was effective in reducing child behavior problems when delivered by a community agency. These results expanded prior research on the KEEP intervention, revealing that the intervention was effective in reducing the behavior problems of more than one child in the same household and in reducing parental stress levels associated with the behavioral issues of the focal child. Thus, the KEEP intervention model holds promise for reducing the behavior problems of children in foster care and reducing stress levels of foster and kinship caregivers as it is disseminated and implemented within similar child welfare settings.

  7. Gender Equality and Social Policy: Implications of a Study of Parental Leave in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Linda

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of parental leave as a social policy designed to eliminate the traditional, gender-based division of labor. Examined whether fathers' taking parental leave equalized women's and men's involvement in the labor market and in child care once the leave was over by analyzing 319 sets of Swedish parents. (Author/ABL)

  8. Parental leave and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhm, C J

    2000-11-01

    This study investigates whether rights to parental leave improve pediatric health. Aggregate data are used for 16 European countries over the 1969 through 1994 period. More generous paid leave is found to reduce deaths of infants and young children. The magnitudes of the estimated effects are substantial, especially where a causal effect of leave is most plausible. In particular, there is a much stronger negative relationship between leave durations and post-neonatal or child fatalities than for perinatal mortality, neonatal deaths, or low birth weight. The evidence further suggests that parental leave may be a cost-effective method of bettering child health.

  9. Development of Learning Virtual Objects as a Strategy to Foster Student Retention in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yois S. Pascuas Rengifo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg One of the problems that the Colombian higher education system is facing is the problem of student desertion, shwoing that a great amount of students leave their university studies during the first semesters. For this reason, the National Education Ministry and Universidad de la Amazonia implement a new strategy to foster student retention and graduation through academic levelling. This paper shows eight learning virtual objects from different learning áreas, applying technological tolos to design didactic interactive and creative environments.

  10. Fostering Creative Problem Solvers in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang

    2016-01-01

    to meet such challenges. This chapter aims to illustrate how to understand: 1) complexity as the nature of professional practice; 2) creative problem solving as the core skill in professional practice; 3) creativity as interplay between persons and their environment; 4) higher education as the context......Recent studies have emphasized issues of social emergence based on thinking of societies as complex systems. The complexity of professional practice has been recognized as the root of challenges for higher education. To foster creative problem solvers is a key response of higher education in order...... of fostering creative problem solvers; and 5) some innovative strategies such as Problem-Based Learning (PBL) and building a learning environment by Information Communication Technology (ICT) as potential strategies of creativity development. Accordingly, this chapter contributes to bridge the complexity...

  11. Identity formation and social maladaptation in foster adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, A K

    1992-01-01

    The literature on identity formation in individuals from socially devalued racial and ethnic groups in the United States is summarized. Implications are discussed for a particular segment of at-risk adolescents--those in foster care residential group homes--who have received little published attention. The majority, in large urban centers, are African-American or Latino. These young people bear a disproportionate burden of such societal problems as unintended pregnancy and childbearing, academic underachievement and early educational discontinuation, substance abuse, and, ultimately, homelessness and more individually and socially costly forms of dependency (criminal justice, welfare, or mental health systems). It is postulated that their social maladaptation is reflective of identity disturbances created by the negative images of African-Americans and Latinos perpetuated by the dominant society and unfiltered by optimal parental racial socialization.

  12. Fostering and managing diversity in schools of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkansah, Nancy T; Youmans, Sharon L; Agness, Chanel F; Assemi, Mitra

    2009-12-17

    Organizational benefits of diversity in the workplace have been well documented. In health professions, however, diversity-related research traditionally has focused on the effect of diversity on health care disparities. Few tools exist describing the benefits of diversity from an organizational standpoint to guide pharmacy administrators and faculty members in nurturing and developing a culture of diversity. Given the scarcity of pharmacy specific data, experience from other academic areas and national/international diversity reports were incorporated into this manuscript to supplement the available pharmacy evidence base. This review summarizes the benefits of diversity from an academic organizational standpoint, discusses the issues administrators and faculty members must consider when developing programs, and provides guidance on best practices in fostering and managing diversity.

  13. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel, Ann P.; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides quasi-experimental evidence on the impact of paid leave legislation on fathers' leave-taking, as well as on the division of leave between mothers and fathers in dual-earner households. Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, which is the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the United States. Our results show that fathers in Califo...

  14. Qualitative Study of Foster Caregivers’ Views on Adherence to Pediatric Appointments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Kennedy, Andrea K.; Sayegh, Caitlin S.

    2016-01-01

    The current study is a qualitative investigation of how foster caregivers, primarily Latinos, view adherence to pediatric appointments with the purpose of identifying how the child welfare system, pediatric clinics, and pediatric health providers serving foster children might promote appointment attendance. Participants in the study had a return appointment at an outpatient pediatric clinic that only served children in the child welfare system. Twenty-eight caregivers (13 related and 15 unrelated) participated in telephone interviews after the date of their scheduled pediatric appointment (32% missed their return appointment). Semistructured interview guides included general questions about what promotes attending the pediatric appointment, what makes it difficult to attend the pediatric appointment, and how pediatric care affects the foster child. Analysis of qualitative data using content analysis identified three themes: (a) multiple methods to attend appointments, which included caregivers’ organizational and problem-solving skills; (b) positive health care experiences, which consisted of caregivers’ personal relationships with providers and staff members and clinic organization; and (c) necessity of pediatric care, which included recognition of the need for health care, especially timely immunizations. All caregivers also reported that appointments reminders would be helpful. Unrelated caregivers more often said that appointment attendance was facilitated by clinic organization compared to related caregivers. Nonadherent caregivers mentioned their need to solve problems to attend appointments or reschedule appointments more than attenders. In summary, caregivers said they valued regular pediatric health care to treat their child’s chronic conditions and prevent illnesses, but they acknowledged that their home lives were hectic and attending scheduled appointments was sometimes difficult. Foster caregivers in this study identified the ideal pediatric

  15. Fostering Nautical Tourism in the Balearic Islands

    OpenAIRE

    María J. Moreno; F. Javier Otamendi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine pillars for fostering nautical tourism based on the beliefs and attitudes that professionals in the sector have towards the particularities and difficulties that the market is going through. To achieve these goals, in-depth interviews structured around 37 questions were carried out with agents of associations and nautical firms, public institutions, and the Chamber of Commerce. The qualitative analysis program NVIVO 11 was used to analyze the content of t...

  16. Fostering hope in the patient with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichwala, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    When a patient is diagnosed with cancer, feelings such as fear, anxiety, and hopelessness can negatively affect a person's frame of mind. Hope can help a patient decrease anxiety and increase quality of life. Nurses should assess hope, provide interventions, be empathetic, listen, and treat patients with dignity to help improve hope and quality of life. This article features how hope can have a positive impact and provides specific information about how nurses can promote and foster hope in patients with cancer.

  17. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children...

  18. Fostering the practice of rooming-in in newborn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh R. Shrivastava

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Practice of rooming-in meant that baby and mother stayed together in the same room day and night in the hospital, right from the time of delivery till the time of discharge. Adoption of rooming-in offers multiple benefits to the newborn, mother, and mother-child as a unit. It is a cost-effective approach wherefewer instruments are required and spares additional manpower. Rooming-in endeavors the opportunity to contribute signifi cantly in the child’s growth, development and survival by assisting in timely initiation of breastfeeding. To ensure universal application of rooming-in in hospitals, a comprehensive and technically sound strategy should be formulated and implemented with active participation of healthcare professionals. Measures such as advocating institutional delivery through outreach awareness activities; adoption of baby-friendly hospital initiative; inculcating a sense of ownership among health professionals, can be strategically enforced for better maternal and child health related outcomes.

  19. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Anne P; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the Unites States. Relative to the pre-treatment mean, fathers of infants in California are 46 percent more likely to be on leave when CA-PFL is available. In households where both parents work, we find suggestive evidence that CA-PFL increases both father-only leave-taking (i.e., father on leave while mother is at work) and joint leave-taking (i.e., both parents on leave at the same time). Effects are larger for fathers of first-born children than for fathers of later-born children.

  20. The Power of Community: How Foster Parents, Teachers, and Community Members Support Academic Achievement for Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Brenda M.

    2016-01-01

    Foster children have been identified as one of the most high-risk groups for academic failure in schools today. However, a small number of foster youth are beating the odds by achieving academically. How are they able to overcome tremendous barriers and succeed? This phenomenological study reports the findings of former foster youth and their P-12…

  1. Leaving machismo behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschen, A; Castano, F

    1999-01-01

    A study, which was conducted in Colombia's five largest cities, determined men's, women's, and health care provider's knowledge, attitudes, and needs regarding sexual and reproductive health services for men. Data were collected through 60 focus groups, 720 surveys of service users and nonusers, 45 interviews with health care staff, and 5 couple's life histories. The study found that, due to the inadequate service facilities offered to men, it was difficult for men to achieve the goal of being responsible about their own and their partner's sexual and reproductive health. Only 9 of the 14 health care facilities surveyed rendered services such as vasectomy, health care promotion or prevention, and educational programs aimed at men. According to providers, one reason for lack of services is the low utilization rate even if such services are available. In addition, existing services focus on disease management rather than preventive protocols. The AVSC will work with health care facilities, the Ministry of Health, and health insurance companies in establishing sexual and reproductive health services for men in Bogota, Cali, and Medellin.

  2. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  3. Parental Leave Policies and Parents' Employment and Leave-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time span is one…

  4. Stress-related mental disorders with sick leave: a minimal intervention in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    1. Introduction As stated in chapter 1, this study is carried out because patients and their care-givers have much to gain by the development and implementation of effective care for patients on sick leave having stress-related mental disorders (SMDs). Most people having SMDs with sick leave consult

  5. Fostering Collaborations towards Integrative Research Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Valentine

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The complex problems associated with global change processes calls for close collaboration between science disciplines to create new, integrated knowledge. In the wake of global change processes, forests and other natural environments have been rapidly changing, highlighting the need for collaboration and integrative research development. Few tools are available to explore the potential for collaborations in research ventures that are just starting up. This study presents a useful approach for exploring and fostering collaborations between academics working in research teams and organizations comprising multiple science disciplines (i.e., multi-disciplinary. The research aim was to reveal potential barriers, common ground, and research strengths between academics working in a new centre focused on forest and climate change research. This aim was based on the premise that raising awareness and working with this acquired knowledge fosters collaborations and integrative research development. An email survey was deployed amongst the academics to obtain: (i their understanding of common themes (e.g., climate change, scale of investigation, woodland/forest health/decline; (ii descriptions of the spatial and temporal scales of their research; and (iii their approach and perceived contributions to climate change research. These data were analysed using a semi-quantitative content analysis approach. We found that the main potential barriers were likely to be related to differences in understanding of the common research themes, whilst similarities and disciplinary strengths provided critical elements to foster collaborations. These findings were presented and discussed amongst the centre academics to raise awareness and create a dialogue around these issues. This process resulted in the development of four additional research projects involving multiple disciplines. The approach used in this study provides a useful methodology of broader benefit to

  6. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2)Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the interest of all parties concerned. This automatic transfer procedure has a number of advantages for participants in the SLS scheme. First, staff members will no longer have to take any administrative steps. Secondly, the new proced...

  7. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  8. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  9. Maternity and parental leave policies at COTH hospitals: an update. Council of Teaching Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philibert, I; Bickel, J

    1995-11-01

    Because residents' demands for parental leave are increasing, updated information about maternity and paternity leave policies was solicited from hospitals that are members of the Council of Teaching Hospitals (COTH) of the AAMC. A 20-item questionnaire, combining forced-choice categories and open-ended questions, was faxed to 405 COTH hospitals in October 1994; 45% responded. A total of 77% of the respondents reported having written policies for maternity and/or parental leave; in 1989, only 52% of COTH hospitals had reported having such policies. Forty-one percent of the 1994 responding hospitals offered dedicated paid maternity leave, with a mean of 42 days allowed. Twenty-five percent of the respondents offered paternity leave, and 15% offered adoption leave. It is encouraging that the majority of the teaching hospitals that responded to the survey had adopted written policies, but the 23% without written policies remain a source of concern. Well-defined policies for maternity, paternity, and adoption leave can reduce stress and foster equity both for trainees requiring leave and for their colleagues.

  10. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... insurance, health benefits, retirement coverage, and leave accrual). (e) The agency shall determine the... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule... reduced leave schedule unless the employee and the agency agree to do so. (b) Leave under § 630.1203(a) (3...

  11. Planning a mentorship initiative for foster parents: Does gender matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay Miller, J; Benner, Kalea; Thrasher, Shawndaya; Pope, Natalie; Dumas, Tamikia; Damron, Larry J; Segress, Melissa; Niu, Chunling

    2017-10-01

    Despite the use of mentoring programs in fields such as business, career training, and youth development, little is known about how mentoring can be used to train and support new foster parents. This paper describes how Concept Mapping was used with current foster parents to develop a conceptual framework suitable to plan a foster parent mentor program. A secondary aim of this study was to explore priority differences in the conceptualization by self-reported gender (foster mothers vs. foster fathers). Participant data was collected via three qualitative brainstorming sessions, and analyzed using non-metric multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis. Findings indicate that foster parents participating in this study conceptualized effective mentor programs via a seven cluster solution. Study results also showed no significant differences in cluster ratings by gender. Implications for practice and program planning are identified, as well as areas for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Therapeutic mentoring: reducing the impact of trauma for foster youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sara B; Pryce, Julia M

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized secondary data analysis to examine therapeutic mentoring (TM) as a service intervention in helping to reduce trauma symptoms in foster youth. Outcomes were compared for mentored (n = 106) and non-mentored (n = 156) foster youth related to experience and symptoms of trauma. Results showed that mentored youth improved significantly in the reduction of trauma symptoms relative to non-mentored youth, suggesting that TM shows promise as an important treatment intervention for foster youth with trauma experiences.

  13. New statement of leave format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the communication of the Standing Concertation Committee published in Weekly Bulletin No. 18-19 of 27 April 2009, the current statement of leave on monthly pay slips has been replaced with the EDH Leave Transactions report that displays the up-to-date situation of individual leave balances at all times. The report is available on EDH. Additionally, the layout of the pay slip has been modernised. The new version of the pay slip will be send out from September 2009 onwards. Finance and Purchasing Department, Personnel Accounting Human Resources Department, Organisation and Procedures General Infrastructure Services Department, Administrative Information Services

  14. Infusing Culture into Practice: Developing and Implementing Evidence-Based Mental Health Services for African American Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Harold Eugene; McBeath, Bowen

    2010-01-01

    The lack of culturally appropriate health and mental health care has contributed to the large number of African American youth and families involved in the child welfare system. This article reviews the consequences of the insufficient access to culturally sensitive, evidence-supported interventions for African American foster youth. The authors…

  15. An Employment Training and Job Placement Program for Foster Youth Making the Transition to Adulthood in Cook County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy; Havlicek, Judy

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study that used administrative data to better understand the need for employment-related services and supports among youth in foster care and how one community-based employment training and job placement program in Chicago is trying to address those needs. Among other things, the report describes the…

  16. Leaves of Absence. School Law Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    This report contains State-by-State statutory summaries on three types of leaves of absence relating to teachers -- sick leave, maternity leave, and sabbatical leave. Only State laws that have specific reference to one of these three types of leaves of absence are included. Not included are those statutes granting boards of education the general…

  17. Parental leave: comparing children's hospitals with Fortune 500 companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A H; Gordon, E J; O'Connor, M E

    1998-07-01

    To identify parental leave policies and availability of support systems for new parents employed by children's hospitals and compare these benefits with those offered by Fortune 500 companies. Telephone or facsimile survey of all (n=118) children's hospitals and pediatric medical centers in the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions 1995 Directory of Members, and 118 geographically matched Fortune 500 companies. Policies for maternity and paternity leave, adoption benefits, and support services for new parents were compared. Ninety-four children's hospitals (80%) and 82 Fortune 500 companies (69%) responded to the survey. No difference in duration of maternity (P>.30) or paternity (P=.12) leave was found. Sixty-two companies (77%) classified maternity leave as short-term disability while 47 hospitals (50%) classified it as sick time (Pleave as short-term disability generally gives better benefits to employees with short duration of service, whereas classifying maternity leave as sick time usually favors employees with longer employment. Companies provided more financial support for adoption expenses (Ppaid or unpaid leave for adoption (P=.14). Hospitals provided more on-site day care (69% vs 42%; Pparental leave benefits than Fortune 500 companies; however, they offer better support systems for parents returning to work after the birth of a child.

  18. Higher Education: Actions Needed to Improve Access to Federal Financial Assistance for Homeless and Foster Youth. Report to the Ranking Member, Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. GAO-16-343

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Government Accountability Office, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Homeless youth and youth in foster care are often unprepared for the transition to adulthood. Given the economic benefits of college, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) was asked to examine the college experiences of these vulnerable youth. GAO examined: (1) college enrollment and completion for foster and homeless youth; (2) the extent to…

  19. Travel fosters tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Neumann, Christof

    2016-07-19

    Ecological variation influences the appearance and maintenance of tool use in animals, either due to necessity or opportunity, but little is known about the relative importance of these two factors. Here, we combined long-term behavioural data on feeding and travelling with six years of field experiments in a wild chimpanzee community. In the experiments, subjects engaged with natural logs, which contained energetically valuable honey that was only accessible through tool use. Engagement with the experiment was highest after periods of low fruit availability involving more travel between food patches, while instances of actual tool-using were significantly influenced by prior travel effort only. Additionally, combining data from the main chimpanzee study communities across Africa supported this result, insofar as groups with larger travel efforts had larger tool repertoires. Travel thus appears to foster tool use in wild chimpanzees and may also have been a driving force in early hominin technological evolution.

  20. Fostering Nautical Tourism in the Balearic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Moreno

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine pillars for fostering nautical tourism based on the beliefs and attitudes that professionals in the sector have towards the particularities and difficulties that the market is going through. To achieve these goals, in-depth interviews structured around 37 questions were carried out with agents of associations and nautical firms, public institutions, and the Chamber of Commerce. The qualitative analysis program NVIVO 11 was used to analyze the content of the gathered data. The findings reveal that the main difficulties are related to normative issues and taxation, illegal supply, and a lack of definition of the nautical tourist profile. This absence of definition causes a vagueness when estimating the total number of nautical tourists that visit a destination. Thus, this affects evaluation of the economic, social, and environmental impact of nautical tourism.