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Sample records for leaves change colors

  1. Why Leaves Change Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    For years, scientists have worked to understand the changes that happen to trees and shrubs in the autumn. Although we don't know all the details, we do know enough to explain the basics and help you to enjoy more fully Nature's multicolored autumn farewell. Three factors influence autumn leaf color-leaf pigments, length of night, and weather, but not quite...

  2. Investigation Of The Color Changing Properties Of Wood Stain Derived From Pinar Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Atılgan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to develop an environmentally friendly wood stain derived pinar (Quercus aucheri leaves and determine the color stability of this stain when exposed to UV light irradiation. Wood stains derived from pinar leaves were prepared from aqueous solution with %3 iron (FeSO4.7H2O , % 5 alum ((KAl(SO42.12H2O, and % 10 vinegar mordant mixtures. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., Turkish oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky and oak (Quercus petraea L. wood specimens were used as staining substrates. After treatment with the stain, the wood panels were exposed to UV light irradiation for periods of 100, 200, and 300 hours and determinated the total color changes was according to ISO 2470 standards. Results showed that wood stain derived from pinar extract provided some color stability after UV irradiation. According to results, Scots pine specimens treated with the pinar extract + iron mixture provided the smallest total color changes. Meanwhile the highest total color change provided on the Scots pine treated with pinar extract+alum mixture.

  3. Fingers that change color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003249.htm Fingers that change color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fingers or toes may change color when they are exposed to cold temperatures or ...

  4. Color Changing Hydrogen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha; Captain, Janine E.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Raissi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Program, one of the most hazardous operation that occurred was the loading of liquid hydrogen (LH2) during fueling operations of the spacecraft. Due to hydrogen's low explosive limit, any amount leaked could lead to catastrophic event. Hydrogen's chemical properties make it ideal as a rocket fuel; however, the fuel is deemed unsafe for most commercial use because of the inability to easily detect the gas leaking. The increased use of hydrogen over traditional fossil fuels would reduce greenhouse gases and America's dependency on foreign oil. Therefore a technology that would improve safety at NASA and in the commercial sector while creating a new economic sector would have a huge impact to NASA's mission. The Chemochromic Detector for sensing hydrogen gas leakage is a color-changing detector that is useful in any application where it is important to know not only the presence but also the location of the hydrogen gas leak. This technology utilizes a chemochromicpigment and polymer matrix that can be molded or spun into rigid or pliable shapes useable in variable temperature environments including atmospheres of inert gas, hydrogen gas, or mixtures of gases. A change in color of the detector material indicates where gaseous hydrogen leaks are occurring. The irreversible sensor has a dramatic color change from beige to dark grey and remains dark grey after exposure. A reversible pigment changes from white to blue in the presence of hydrogen and reverts back to white in the presence of oxygen. Both versions of the sensor's pigments were comprised of a mixture of a metal oxide substrate and a hydro-chromic compound (i.e., the compound that changed color in the presence of hydrogen) and immediately notified the operator of the presence of low levels of hydrogen. The detector can be used in a variety of formats including paint, tape, caulking, injection molded parts, textiles and fabrics, composites, and films. This technology brings numerous

  5. Irradiation application for color removal and purification of green tea leaves extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheorun; Son, J.H.; Lee, H.J.; Byun, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was introduced to develop a new processing method for brighter-colored green tea leaves extract without changes of physiological activities. Dried green tea leaves were purchased and extracted by 70% ethanol solution and irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy with gamma rays. Hunter color L-value increased and a- and b-value decreased by irradiation, resulting in bright yellow from dark brown. There was no difference in radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition effect by irradiation. The irradiation effect in the solution disappeared during storage for 3 weeks at room temperature but vitamin C addition was effective in reducing the color change. Results indicated that irradiation may be a good technology to remove undesirable color in green tea leaves extract

  6. Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Leaf Color Regulation Mechanism in Chimera Hosta "Gold Standard" Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Jinzheng; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Yuelu; Chen, Sixue; Guo, Hongliang; Shi, Lei; Dai, Shaojun

    2016-03-08

    Leaf color change of variegated leaves from chimera species is regulated by fine-tuned molecular mechanisms. Hosta "Gold Standard" is a typical chimera Hosta species with golden-green variegated leaves, which is an ideal material to investigate the molecular mechanisms of leaf variegation. In this study, the margin and center regions of young and mature leaves from Hosta "Gold Standard", as well as the leaves from plants after excess nitrogen fertilization were studied using physiological and comparative proteomic approaches. We identified 31 differentially expressed proteins in various regions and development stages of variegated leaves. Some of them may be related to the leaf color regulation in Hosta "Gold Standard". For example, cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), and chloroplastic elongation factor G (cpEF-G) were involved in pigment-related nitrogen synthesis as well as protein synthesis and processing. By integrating the proteomics data with physiological results, we revealed the metabolic patterns of nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, energy supply, as well as chloroplast protein synthesis, import and processing in various leaf regions at different development stages. Additionally, chloroplast-localized proteoforms involved in nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis and protein processing implied that post-translational modifications were crucial for leaf color regulation. These results provide new clues toward understanding the mechanisms of leaf color regulation in variegated leaves.

  7. Color of illumination during growth affects LHCII chiral macroaggregates in pea plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussakovsky, Eugene E; Shahak, Yosepha; Schroeder, Dana F

    2007-02-01

    To determine whether the color of illumination under which plants are grown, affects the structure of photosynthetic antennae, pea plants were grown under either blue-enriched, red-enriched, or white light. Carotenoid content of isolated chloroplasts was found to be insensitive to the color of illumination during growth, while chlorophyll a/b ratio in chloroplasts isolated from young illuminated leaves showed susceptibility to color. Color of illumination affects the LHCII chiral macroaggregates in intact leaves and isolated chloroplasts, providing light-induced alteration of the handedness of the LHCII chiral macroaggregate, as measured with circular dichroism and circularly polarized luminescence. The susceptibility of handedness to current illumination (red light excitation of chlorophyll fluorescence) is dependent on the color under which the plants were grown, and was maximal for the red-enriched illumination. We propose the existence of a long-term (growth period) color memory, which influences the susceptibility of the handedness of LHCII chiral macroaggregates to current light.

  8. Effect of Drying on the Color of Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.; Padhye, S.; Huisman, W.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Müller, J.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of drying conditions on the color of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) leaves was studied. Tarragon leaves were dried at temperatures of 40 to 90 °C with a constant airflow of 0.6 m/s. The samples were collected at 7%, 10%, 20%, and 30% moisture content wet basis for evaluation of the

  9. Color change, phenotypic plasticity, and camouflage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eStevens

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to change appearance over a range of timescales is widespread in nature, existing in many invertebrate and vertebrate groups. This can include color change occurring in seconds, minutes, and hours, to longer term changes associated with phenotypic plasticity and development. A major function is for camouflage against predators because color change and plasticity enables animals to match their surroundings and potentially reduce the risk of predation. Recently, we published findings (Stevens et al. 2014a showing how shore crabs can change their appearance and better match the background to predator vision in the short term. This, coupled with a number of past studies, emphasizes the potential that animals have to modify their appearance for camouflage. However, the majority of studies on camouflage and color plasticity have focused on a small number of species capable of unusually rapid changes. There are many broad questions that remain about the nature, mechanisms, evolution, and adaptive value of color change and plasticity for concealment. Here, I discuss past work and outline six questions relating to color change and plasticity, as well as major avenues for future work.

  10. The Influence of Natural Color Dyes Procedure of Sirih Leaves at Silk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srie-Sunaryati; Suprih-Hartini; Ernaningsih

    2000-01-01

    Synthetic dyes are usually carcinogenic, thus, it is necessary to use analternative dyes to reduce the application of synthetic dyes. In this work,Sirih leaves (Piper beetle Linn) is studied for natural dyes. Sirih leavesextracted in boiling water until 1/5 of water volume is remaining. Thissolution is then applied as liquor dyeing into 100% silk. The liquor dyeingprocess is categorized into two distinct scheme; i.e., simultaneousmordanting and mordanting after dyeing. Mordant agents used in the work areCaCO 3 , Gambier, mixture CaCO 3 -gambier, AI 2 K 2 (SO 4 ) 3 and FeSO 4 7H 2 O. Heresults show Sirih leaves give brown color into silk, while mordantingprocess produce different shade color for every single mordant agent that areused. Silk's dyeing without mordant gives darker color than simultaneousmordanting, but it given lighter color than mordanting after dyeing. On theother hand, mordanting gives no significance effect to color fastness torubbing and washing. Mordanting also shows no significant effect to colourfastness to light. (author)

  11. Color measurement of tea leaves at different drying periods using hyperspectral imaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chuanqi; Li, Xiaoli; Shao, Yongni; He, Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging technique for nondestructive measurement of color components (ΔL*, Δa* and Δb*) and classify tea leaves during different drying periods. Hyperspectral images of tea leaves at five drying periods were acquired in the spectral region of 380-1030 nm. The three color features were measured by the colorimeter. Different preprocessing algorithms were applied to select the best one in accordance with the prediction results of partial least squares regression (PLSR) models. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were used to identify the effective wavelengths, respectively. Different models (least squares-support vector machine [LS-SVM], PLSR, principal components regression [PCR] and multiple linear regression [MLR]) were established to predict the three color components, respectively. SPA-LS-SVM model performed excellently with the correlation coefficient (rp) of 0.929 for ΔL*, 0.849 for Δa*and 0.917 for Δb*, respectively. LS-SVM model was built for the classification of different tea leaves. The correct classification rates (CCRs) ranged from 89.29% to 100% in the calibration set and from 71.43% to 100% in the prediction set, respectively. The total classification results were 96.43% in the calibration set and 85.71% in the prediction set. The result showed that hyperspectral imaging technique could be used as an objective and nondestructive method to determine color features and classify tea leaves at different drying periods.

  12. Color measurement of tea leaves at different drying periods using hyperspectral imaging technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Xie

    Full Text Available This study investigated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging technique for nondestructive measurement of color components (ΔL*, Δa* and Δb* and classify tea leaves during different drying periods. Hyperspectral images of tea leaves at five drying periods were acquired in the spectral region of 380-1030 nm. The three color features were measured by the colorimeter. Different preprocessing algorithms were applied to select the best one in accordance with the prediction results of partial least squares regression (PLSR models. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS and successive projections algorithm (SPA were used to identify the effective wavelengths, respectively. Different models (least squares-support vector machine [LS-SVM], PLSR, principal components regression [PCR] and multiple linear regression [MLR] were established to predict the three color components, respectively. SPA-LS-SVM model performed excellently with the correlation coefficient (rp of 0.929 for ΔL*, 0.849 for Δa*and 0.917 for Δb*, respectively. LS-SVM model was built for the classification of different tea leaves. The correct classification rates (CCRs ranged from 89.29% to 100% in the calibration set and from 71.43% to 100% in the prediction set, respectively. The total classification results were 96.43% in the calibration set and 85.71% in the prediction set. The result showed that hyperspectral imaging technique could be used as an objective and nondestructive method to determine color features and classify tea leaves at different drying periods.

  13. Genes up-regulated during red coloration in UV-B irradiated lettuce leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Sug; Choung, Myoung-Gun; Kim, Jung-Bong; Hahn, Bum-Soo; Kim, Jong-Bum; Bae, Shin-Chul; Roh, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Cheon, Choong-Ill; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Cho, Kang-Jin

    2007-04-01

    Molecular analysis of gene expression differences between green and red lettuce leaves was performed using the SSH method. BlastX comparisons of subtractive expressed sequence tags (ESTs) indicated that 7.6% of clones encoded enzymes involved in secondary metabolism. Such clones had a particularly high abundance of flavonoid-metabolism proteins (6.5%). Following SSH, 566 clones were rescreened for differential gene expression using dot-blot hybridization. Of these, 53 were found to overexpressed during red coloration. The up-regulated expression of six genes was confirmed by Northern blot analyses. The expression of chalcone synthase (CHS), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) genes showed a positive correlation with anthocyanin accumulation in UV-B-irradiated lettuce leaves; flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3',5'H) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) were expressed continuously in both samples. These results indicated that the genes CHS, F3H, and DFR coincided with increases in anthocyanin accumulation during the red coloration of lettuce leaves. This study show a relationship between red coloration and the expression of up-regulated genes in lettuce. The subtractive cDNA library and EST database described in this study represent a valuable resource for further research for secondary metabolism in the vegetable crops.

  14. Color Changes of UHT Milk During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnja M. Sikimić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study measurements of color parameters of UHT milk were performed, by using a MOM-color 100 photoelectric tristimulus colorimeter. Colors of UHT milk samples containing 3.2% and 1.6% milk fat, processed under industrial conditions, packed in polyethylene terephtalate (PET based packages, and stored for 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days at ambient temperature (20±5°C were examined. Results are shown in four different systems that define measurement of color parameters expressed in: CIE, CIE L*a*b*, Hünter and ANLAB – Adams Nickerson systems. Average value of mean reflectance of UHT milk determined in CIE system statistically is highly significantly changed, (p < 0.01 depending on duration of storaging, percentage of milk fat, as well as on the interaction of the mentioned factors. For the UHT milk with 1.6% milk fat statistically significant (p < 0.05 decrease of psychometric chroma b* occurs after 60 days, and for milk with 3.2% milk fat established on 45th day of storage.

  15. Color preferences change after experience with liked/disliked colored objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Eli D; Schloss, Karen B; Palmer, Stephen E

    2013-10-01

    How are color preferences formed, and can they be changed by affective experiences with correspondingly colored objects? We examined these questions by testing whether affectively polarized experiences with images of colored objects would cause changes in color preferences. Such changes are implied by the ecological valence theory (EVT), which posits that color preferences are determined by people's average affective responses to correspondingly colored objects (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 8877-8882, 2010). Seeing images of strongly liked (and disliked) red and green objects, therefore, should lead to increased (and decreased) preferences for correspondingly colored red and green color patches. Experiment 1 showed that this crossover interaction did occur, but only if participants were required to evaluate their preferences for the colored objects when they saw them. Experiment 2 showed that these overall changes decreased substantially over a 24-h delay, but the degree to which the effect lasted for individuals covaried with the magnitude of the effects immediately after object exposure. Experiment 3 demonstrated a similar, but weaker, effect of affectively biased changes in color preferences when participants did not see, but only imagined, the colored objects. The overall pattern of results indicated that color preferences are not fixed, but rather are shaped by affective experiences with colored objects. Possible explanations for the observed changes in color preferences were considered in terms of associative learning through evaluative conditioning and/or priming of prior knowledge in memory.

  16. Long-term effects of drying conditions on the essential oil and color of tarragon leaves during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Huisman, W.; Muller, J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of storage on the essential oil content and color of French Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) leaves is studied. Tarragon leaves were dried at temperatures 45, 60 and 90 °C with, respectively, the relative humidity levels 17%, 7% and 2.5%. At 60 °C also a relative humidity level of 18%

  17. Metabolic changes associated with ozone injury of bean leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craker, L.E.; Starbuck, J.S.

    1972-07-01

    Metabolic processes in primary leaves of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) were altered by ozone stress. Decreases in levels of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein, and increases in ribonuclease (RNase) and free amine groups were associated with visible oxidant injury to the leaves. It appears that some air pollution injury to plants may result from changes in metabolic processes. 23 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Broiler skin and meat color changes during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, M; Fletcher, D L

    2002-10-01

    The importance of poultry skin and meat color (both absolute and variations in color) in the market place have been well established. It has also been reported that these colors change over time. With the development of computer-assisted vision grading systems, the changes in skin and meat color during and after processing have become important, based on calibrations and assessment values based on color. Four independent experiments were conducted to determine the pattern of color change in broiler skin and meat during processing and storage. Skin color change was measured on subscald (57 C) and semiscald (50 C) breast skin surfaces and on breast and leg meat, on the carcass and following deboning and packaging. A reflectance colorimeter was used to determine lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*) at 20-min intervals for the first 3 h, at 30-min intervals between 3 and 8 h, hourly between 8 and 12 h, and daily up to 8 d postmortem. Results clearly show that color values for both skin and meat changed dramatically for the first 6 h postmortem, after which the changes were less pronounced. The skin from semiscalded birds showed less change than the skin from subscalded birds. These results indicate that on-line vision systems need to take into account the dramatic changes in skin and meat color during the first 6 h postmortem, after which the color changes may be less important.

  19. Color change of composite resins subjected to accelerated artificial aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cremonezzi Tornavoi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: All composite resins presented unacceptable color changes after 382 h of aging and different composite resins with same hue, presented different colors before being subjected to the aging process (B2 and C2 and after (B2. It was also observed color difference within a group of the same composite resin and same hue.

  20. Light induces petal color change in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Yan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Petal color change, a common phenomenon in angiosperms, is induced by various environmental and endogenous factors. Interestingly, this phenomenon is important for attracting pollinators and further reproductive success. Quisqualis indica L. (Combretaceae is a tropical Asian climber that undergoes sequential petal color change from white to pink to red. This color changing process is thought to be a good strategy to attract more pollinators. However, the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms driving this petal color change phenomenon is still underexplored. In this context, we investigated whether changes in pH, pollination, light, temperature or ethylene mediate petal color change. We found that the detected changes in petal pH were not significant enough to induce color alterations. Additionally, pollination and temperatures of 20–30 °C did not alter the rate of petal color change; however, flowers did not open when exposed to constant temperatures at 15 °C or 35 °C. Moreover, the application of ethylene inhibitor, i.e., silver thiosulphate, did not prevent color change. It is worth mentioning here that in our study we found light as a strong factor influencing the whole process of petal color change, as petals remained white under dark conditions. Altogether, the present study suggests that petal color change in Q. indica is induced by light and not by changes in petal pH, pollination, ethylene, or temperature, while extremely low or high temperatures affect flower anthesis. In summary, our findings represent the probable mechanism underlying the phenomenon of petal color change, which is important for understanding flower color evolution.

  1. Change of color in resins by adding layers of color 'enamel'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuente Marin, David; Arce Navarro, Hilda

    2007-01-01

    The quantification of the color change is proposed at the time of employing enamel resin over dentine resin. Six resins color dentin and two color enamel were used. Five discs of resin were built of each resin, with a deameter of 10 mm and a thicjness of 2 mm. The reflectance spectrophotometer Color-Eye ® 7000-A were used, to obtain the values L*, a*, b* of the dentin resin disks and transposition of these with enamel. The conclusion has been that in the color have produced changes clinically detectable when put layers of enamel. The Resin Helio Fill Transparent has been which has produced major changes. Given the two enamel resins, dentin resin Helio Molar 310/B3 has been which has suffered major changes and Helio Fill A2 which has introduced fewer changes. Most resins have decreased the chroma, less the value. (author) [es

  2. Diurnal changes in ocean color in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Robert; Vandermeulen, Ryan; Ladner, Sherwin; Ondrusek, Michael; Kovach, Charles; Yang, Haoping; Salisbury, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Coastal processes can change on hourly time scales in response to tides, winds and biological activity, which can influence the color of surface waters. These temporal and spatial ocean color changes require satellite validation for applications using bio-optical products to delineate diurnal processes. The diurnal color change and capability for satellite ocean color response were determined with in situ and satellite observations. Hourly variations in satellite ocean color are dependent on several properties which include: a) sensor characterization b) advection of water masses and c) diurnal response of biological and optical water properties. The in situ diurnal changes in ocean color in a dynamic turbid coastal region in the northern Gulf of Mexico were characterized using above water spectral radiometry from an AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET -WavCIS CSI-06) site that provides up to 8-10 observations per day (in 15-30 minute increments). These in situ diurnal changes were used to validate and quantify natural bio-optical fluctuations in satellite ocean color measurements. Satellite capability to detect changes in ocean color was characterized by using overlapping afternoon orbits of the VIIRS-NPP ocean color sensor within 100 minutes. Results show the capability of multiple satellite observations to monitor hourly color changes in dynamic coastal regions that are impacted by tides, re-suspension, and river plume dispersion. Hourly changes in satellite ocean color were validated with in situ observation on multiple occurrences during different times of the afternoon. Also, the spatial variability of VIIRS diurnal changes shows the occurrence and displacement of phytoplankton blooms and decay during the afternoon period. Results suggest that determining the temporal and spatial changes in a color / phytoplankton bloom from the morning to afternoon time period will require additional satellite coverage periods in the coastal zone.

  3. Diurnal changes in ocean color sensed in satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Robert; Vandermuelen, Ryan; Soto, Inia; Ladner, Sherwin; Ondrusek, Michael; Yang, Haoping

    2017-07-01

    Measurements of diurnal changes in ocean color in turbid coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico were characterized using above water spectral radiometry from a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (aerosol robotic network-WaveCIS CSI-06) site that can provide 8 to 10 observations per day. Satellite capability to detect diurnal changes in ocean color was characterized using hourly overlapping afternoon orbits of the visual infrared imaging radiometer suite (VIIRS) Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership ocean color sensor and validated with in situ observations. The monthly cycle of diurnal changes was investigated for different water masses using VIIRS overlaps. Results showed the capability of satellite observations to monitor hourly color changes in coastal regions that can be impacted by vertical movement of optical layers, in response to tides, resuspension, and river plume dispersion. The spatial variability of VIIRS diurnal changes showed the occurrence and displacement of phytoplankton blooming and decaying processes. The diurnal change in ocean color was above 20%, which represents a 30% change in chlorophyll-a. Seasonal changes in diurnal ocean color for different water masses suggest differences in summer and winter responses to surface processes. The diurnal changes observed using satellite ocean color can be used to define the following: surface processes associated with biological activity, vertical changes in optical depth, and advection of water masses.

  4. Drying and radial shrinkage characteristics and changes in color ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drying and radial shrinkage characteristics and changes in color and shape of carrots tissues during air drying were studied. Slices dimensions were obtained by computer vision and the color was quantified by chroma, hue, whitening index and total carotenoids contents. The drying time became shorter of 1 h when ...

  5. Determination of Polymers Thermal Degradation by Color Change Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Rojas González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: It has been observed that thermal degradation of thermoplastic polymers, when they are reprocessed by injection, extrusion and extrusion / injection, undergo color changes in the product, although it not has been established as this change occurs. Method: It analyzed the effect on thermal degradation caused by polymer type, processing type, polymer grade, rotation speed of the extrusion screw and number of reprocessing, which is quantified by the color change using an empirical equation, with experimental data obtained by analysis through a microcolor colorimeter. Results: It was found that the color change analysis provides information about progress of the thermal degradation and stability of thermoplastic polymers, which are undergoing to multiple reprocessing events and processes. Conclusions: It was established that this technique can be implemented as a simple and efficient measure of thermoplastic products quality control, according to their color change.

  6. Color change of composite resins subjected to accelerated artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornavoi, Denise Cremonezzi; Agnelli, José Augusto Marcondes; Panzeri, Heitor; Dos Reis, Andréa Cândido

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated artificial aging (AAA) on the color change of composite resins used in dentistry. Three composite resins were evaluated: Two microhybrids and one hybrid of higher viscosity, with different amounts and sizes of filler particles, shades C2 and B2. A total of 54 specimens were obtained (18 for each composite resin), made of a Teflon matrix (15 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height). The color measurements were obtained with a Spectrophotometer, (PCB 6807 BYK Gardner) before and after AAA. Data were submitted to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (α >0.05), ANOVA and Tukey test (α 3). Considering the variable ∆E, it was observed that the color tone C2 was already statistically different for the microhybrid composite resin prior to AAA (P aging the composite resin hybrid of higher viscosity B2 showed the highest color variation rate and microhybrid with zirconium/silica C2 showed the lowest. All composite resins presented unacceptable color changes after 382 h of aging and different composite resins with same hue, presented different colors before being subjected to the aging process (B2 and C2) and after (B2). It was also observed color difference within a group of the same composite resin and same hue.

  7. Effect of Ingested Liquids on Color Change of Composite Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek Afzali, Beheshteh; Ghasemi, Amir; Mirani, Asrin; Abdolazimi, Zahra; Akbarzade Baghban, Alireza; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2015-08-01

    Color change of composite restorations is well known to dentists. However, the effect of commonly consumed drinks on discoloration of composite resins has yet to be determined. This study sought to assess the color change of a nanofilled (Premise) and a flowable composite resin (Premise flowable) following simulated consumption of tea, cola, iron drops and multivitamin syrup. Forty disk-shaped specimens (7 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick) were fabricated from each composite resin. The baseline color values were measured according to the CIE L*a*b* system using digital imaging. The specimens of each restorative material were randomly divided into five groups (eight each) according to the storage media namely tea, cola, iron drops, multivitamin syrup or distilled water (control). The specimens were immersed in staining solutions for three hours daily over a 40-day test period. Following this, the color change values (ΔE*) were calculated. For statistical analyses, the color differences were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (Pcomposite resins (P>0.05). In both composite materials, the difference among the solutions was not significant (P>0.05). Under the tested experimental conditions, both restorative materials were susceptible to discoloration by all four staining solutions. The color change values were not related to the solution or the type of material used.

  8. Color Changing Material for Hydrogen Leak Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Megan E.

    2014-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center scientists developed a hydrogen leak sensor utilizing a combination of chemochromic pigment and polymer that can be molded or fiber spun into rigid or flexible shapes such as tape. The sensor turns a dark color when exposed to hydrogen gas. This sensor has proven to be very effective for pinpointing the exact location of leaks in hydrogen gas lines and fittings at launch pads. Kennedy Space Center exclusively licensed this technology to the University of Central Florida (UCF), who also holds patents that are complimentary to KSC's. UCF has bundled the patents and exclusively licensed the portfolio to HySense Technology LLC, a startup company founded by a UCF professor who supports the UCF Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). HySense has fully developed its product (known as Intellipigment"TM"), and currently has five commercial customers. The company recently won the $100,000 first-place award at the CAT5 innovation competition at the Innovation Concourse of the Southeast: Safety & Manufacturing event in Orlando, FL. Commercial production and sales of this technology by HySense Technology will make this leak sensor widely available for use by NASA, DoD, and industries that utilize hydrogen gas.

  9. Evaluation of induced color changes in chicken breast meat during simulation of pink color defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holownia, K; Chinnan, M S; Reynolds, A E; Koehler, P E

    2003-06-01

    The objective of the study was to establish a pink threshold and simulate the pink defect in cooked chicken breast meat with treatment combinations that would induce significant changes in the color of raw and cooked meat. The subjective pink threshold used in judging pink discoloration was established at a* = 3.8. Samples of three color groups (normal, lighter than normal, and darker than normal) of boneless, skinless chicken breast muscles were selected based on instrumental color values. The in situ changes were induced using sodium chloride, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium erythorbate, and sodium nitrite at two levels: present and not present. Fillets in all treatments were subjected to individual injections, followed by tumbling, cooking, and chilling. Samples were analyzed for color [lightness (L*), red/green axis (a*), yellow/blue axis (b*)] and reflectance spectra. Simulation of the pink defect was achieved in eight of the 16 treatment combinations when sodium nitrite was present and in an additional two treatment combinations when it was absent. Pinking in cooked samples was affected (P meat color. Results confirmed that it was possible to simulate the undesired pinking in cooked chicken white meat when in situ conditions were induced by sodium chloride, sodium tripolyphosphate, and sodium nitrite. The continuation of the simulation study can aid in developing alternative processing methods to eliminate potential pink defects.

  10. Effect of x-ray treatments on pathogenic bacteria, inherent microbiota, color, and texture on parsley leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Barakat S M

    2012-10-01

    This work is a part of systematic studies of the effect of X-ray treatments on fresh produce. The main objective of this investigation was to study the effects of X-ray treatments in reducing the concentration of artificially inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, and Shigella flexneri, and inherent microbiota on parsley leaves. The secondary objective was to study the effects of X-ray treatments on color and texture parameters on treated parsley leaves. The Dip-inoculated method was used to inoculate parsley leaves with a mixture of two or three strains of each tested organism at 10(8) to 10(9) colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL; the inoculated parsley leaves were then air-dried and followed by treatment with different doses of X-ray (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kGy) at 22°C and 55-60% relative humidity. Surviving bacterial populations on parsley leaves were evaluated using a nonselective medium (tryptic soy agar) with a selective medium overlay for each bacterium: E. coli O157:H7 (CT-SMAC agar), L. monocytogenes (MOA), and S. enterica and S. flexneri (XLD). Approximately 5.8, 3.1, 5.7, and 5.2 log CFU reductions of E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, S. enterica, and Shigella flexneri were achieved by treatment with 1.0 kGy X-ray, respectively. Furthermore, the populations of E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, S. enterica, and Shigella flexneri were reduced to less than the detectable limit (1.0 log CFU/g) by treatment with 1.5 kGy X-ray. Treatment with 1.5 kGy X-ray significantly reduced the initial inherent microbiota on parsley leaves, and inherent levels were significantly (p 0.05) in color or texture of control and treated samples with 0.1-1.5 X-ray were observed. The results of investigation indicated that X-ray is an effective technology to eliminate E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, S. enterica, and Shigella flexneri, and to extend the shelf life of parsley leaves.

  11. Color printing enabled by phase change materials on paper substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Kai Ji

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We have coated phase change materials (PCMs on rough and flexible substrates to achieve multicolor changeable devices. The principle of the device is based on an earlier discovery that lights have strong interference effect in PCM films, leading to various colors by reflection. In this work, paper substrates are laminated by parylene layers to protect the device from water before coated with functional PCM films. The PCM-based color printing (PCP on paper is not affected by rough surfaces and shows a similar color appearance as that on smooth surfaces. In particular, the color-printed device can be patterned by UV lithography to display a clear and tunable optical image, and it exhibits a low sensitivity to the angle of view. Such PCP has potential applications for low-cost, disposable, and flexible displays.

  12. Color printing enabled by phase change materials on paper substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hong-Kai; Tong, Hao; Qian, Hang; Liu, Nian; Xu, Ming; Miao, Xiang-Shui

    2017-12-01

    We have coated phase change materials (PCMs) on rough and flexible substrates to achieve multicolor changeable devices. The principle of the device is based on an earlier discovery that lights have strong interference effect in PCM films, leading to various colors by reflection. In this work, paper substrates are laminated by parylene layers to protect the device from water before coated with functional PCM films. The PCM-based color printing (PCP) on paper is not affected by rough surfaces and shows a similar color appearance as that on smooth surfaces. In particular, the color-printed device can be patterned by UV lithography to display a clear and tunable optical image, and it exhibits a low sensitivity to the angle of view. Such PCP has potential applications for low-cost, disposable, and flexible displays.

  13. Conformational changes in spinach (Spinacia oleracea leaves chloroplasts in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Godziemba-Czyż

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the surface area of chloroplasts from intact cells of spinach leaves (\tSpinacia oleracea induced by blue (370—500 nm and red (600- 850 nm light of various intensity (102 - 5x105 erg cm-1s-1 were investigated. The changes are deseribed in terms of mean surface area in , μm2 and frequency of oocurrence of surface size classes. Low intensity blue light caused enlargement of the chloroplast surface (as compared with that in darkness, whereas high intensity light markedly reduced it. Exposure of chloroplasts to red light produces an increase of the surface in proportion to the intensity of the light and irradiation time.

  14. Relationship between leaf optical properties, chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment changes in senescing Acer saccharum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Laura Verena; Ensminger, Ingo

    2016-06-01

    The ability of plants to sequester carbon is highly variable over the course of the year and reflects seasonal variation in photosynthetic efficiency. This seasonal variation is most prominent during autumn, when leaves of deciduous tree species such as sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) undergo senescence, which is associated with downregulation of photosynthesis and a change of leaf color. The remote sensing of leaf color by spectral reflectance measurements and digital repeat images is increasingly used to improve models of growing season length and seasonal variation in carbon sequestration. Vegetation indices derived from spectral reflectance measurements and digital repeat images might not adequately reflect photosynthetic efficiency of red-senescing tree species during autumn due to the changes in foliar pigment content associated with autumn phenology. In this study, we aimed to assess how effectively several widely used vegetation indices capture autumn phenology and reflect the changes in physiology and photosynthetic pigments during autumn. Chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment content of green, yellow, orange and red leaves were measured to represent leaf senescence during autumn and used as a reference to validate and compare vegetation indices derived from leaf-level spectral reflectance measurements and color analysis of digital images. Vegetation indices varied in their suitability to track the decrease of photosynthetic efficiency and chlorophyll content despite increasing anthocyanin content. Commonly used spectral reflectance indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index and photochemical reflectance index showed major constraints arising from a limited representation of gradual decreases in chlorophyll content and an influence of high foliar anthocyanin levels. The excess green index and green-red vegetation index were more suitable to assess the process of senescence. Similarly, digital image analysis revealed that vegetation

  15. Color changes and acrylamide formation in fried potato slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Moyano, Pedro; Kaack, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of browning during deep-fat frying of blanched and unblanched potato chips by using the dynamic method and to find a relationship between browning development and acrylamide formation. Prior to frying, potato slices were blanched in hot water...... at 85degreesC for 3.5 min. Unblanched slices were used as the control. Control and blanched potato slices (Panda variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 120, 150 and 180degreesC until reaching moisture contents of similar to1.8% (total basis) and their acrylamide content and final color...... were measured. Color changes were recorded at different sampling times during frying at the three mentioned temperatures using the chromatic redness parameter a(*). Experimental data of surface temperature, moisture content and color change in potato chips during frying were fit to empirical...

  16. Visual fields and eye morphology support color vision in a color-changing crab-spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, Teresita C; Defrize, Jérémy; Lazzari, Claudio R; Casas, Jérôme

    2012-03-01

    Vision plays a major role in many spiders, being involved in prey hunting, orientation or substrate choice, among others. In Misumena vatia, which experiences morphological color changes, vision has been reported to be involved in substrate color matching. Electrophysiological evidence reveals that at least two types of photoreceptors are present in this species, but these data are not backed up by morphological evidence. This work analyzes the functional structure of the eyes of this spider and relates it to its color-changing abilities. A broad superposition of the visual field of the different eyes was observed, even between binocular regions of principal and secondary eyes. The frontal space is simultaneously analyzed by four eyes. This superposition supports the integration of the visual information provided by the different eye types. The mobile retina of the principal eyes of this spider is organized in three layers of three different types of rhabdoms. The third and deepest layer is composed by just one large rhabdom surrounded by dark screening pigments that limit the light entry. The three pairs of secondary eyes have all a single layer of rhabdoms. Our findings provide strong support for an involvement of the visual system in color matching in this spider. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effect of Mg2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ pre-treatment on the color of yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griselda Patricia Scipioni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of alkaline blanching followed by an immersion in salt solutions of Mg2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ on color preservation of Yerba Maté leaves. The concentration of NaOH in the alkaline solution influenced all of the color parameters. Ion concentration and dipped time influenced only some color parameters. The color parameters of the product obtained with different treatments were different from the control sample (blanched with boiling water instead of alkaline blanching and from the product obtained via industrial processing. The green color in the pre-treated and control samples was more intense (greater values of -a and darker (low values of L and b. Ionic and ash content in the leaves increased with the treatments.

  18. Vibro-fluidized bed heat pump drying of mint leaves with respect to phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and color indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataei Ardestani Seyed Majid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of high porosity and stickiness of mint leaves, they could not be fluidized well during fluidization. In this study, a vibro-fluidized bed dryer assisted heat pump system was designed and fabricated to overcome this problem. The drying experiments were carried out at temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C. The quality of the dehydrated samples was assessed based on color indices, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic content. Drying process primarily occurred in falling rate period. The effective coefficient of moisture transfer of the samples was increased with air temperature and varied from 4.26656×10-11 to 2.95872×10-10 m2 s-1 for heat pump drying (HPD method, and 3.71918×10-11 to 1.29196×10-10 m2 s-1 for none-heat pump drying (NHPD method. The color indices for temperatures of 40 and 50 °C were very close to each other, whereas by increasing temperature to 60 °C, a remarkable loss of green color was observed. The highest phenolic content was found in methanolic extract for HPD at 60 °C, and NHPD at 50 °C contained the lowest amount of phenolic compounds. NHPD treatments showed lower antioxidant activity compared to HPD treatments at the same temperature due to the longer drying times.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Absorption in a Membrane Contactor with Color Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleao, Ines; Portugal, Ana F.; Mendes, Adelio; Gabriel, Joaquim

    2010-01-01

    A pedagogical experiment is described to examine the physical absorption of gases, in this case carbon dioxide, in a hollow fiber membrane contactor (HFMC) where the absorption concentration profile can be followed by a color change. The HFMC is used to teach important concepts and can be used in interesting applications for students, such as…

  20. The color changes on varnish layers after accelerated aging through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The endurance of the protective coating (such as paint and varnish) to external effects is limited and the lifetime of the coating is determined by the type and the severity of the effects to which it is exposed. The effect of a color change on varnish layers can determine the usefulness of the varnish. It is conjectured that ...

  1. Color changes in pork in relation to high pressure treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Kathrine Holmgaard

    treatment and during a six-day storage period was investigated via surface reflectance. Spectroscopic studies (in the form of surface reflectance, UV-vis, and circular dichroism) on the effect of HP treatment on the soluble protein fraction of porcine LD were conducted attempting to explain the color......-denatured ferric myoglobin species was not similar to the heat-denatured pigment, ferrihemochrome, but instead a closely related species sharing features of denatured gobin, ferric iron, and brown color. The reversibility of the pressure-induced changes often observed for various myoglobin forms in solution were...

  2. Tongue color changes within a menstrual cycle in eumenorrheic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Feng Hsieh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tongue color (舌色 shé sè has been used to diagnose abnormal body conditions for thousands of years in traditional Chinese Medicine (中醫 zhōng yī. However, it is not clear whether tongue color alters with physiological changes within a normal menstrual cycle (月經周期 yuè jīng zhōu qī. This study investigated difference in tongue color between the follicular phase and luteal phase in eumenorrheic women. Tongue surface photographs were taken in the follicular phase and the luteal phase of thirty-two volunteers with biphasic basal body temperature. Color values on five areas of the tongue surface were examined and comparisons of color values were made between the two phases according to the red–green–blue (RGB, hue–saturation–brightness (HSB, luminance-a-b (Lab, and cyan–magenta–yellow–black (CMYK models. Based on the RGB model, the values of green and blue in the tip area were larger in the follicular phase than both in the luteal phase. The values of magenta and yellow based in the CMYK model were smaller in the tip area in the follicular phase than that in the luteal phase. The saturation in the tip area was smaller in the follicular phase than that in the luteal phase. Based on the Lab model, b value in the middle area was smaller in the follicular phase than that in the luteal phase. The data revealed that tongue color varied within a eumenorrheic menstrual cycle, suggesting that tongue color differences between the follicular and luteal phases need to be considered while practicing tongue diagnosis (舌診 shé zhěn or performing clinical studies among childbearing women.

  3. Transcriptomics of morphological color change in polychromatic Midas cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Frederico; Jones, Julia C; Franchini, Paolo; Meyer, Axel

    2013-03-13

    Animal pigmentation has received much attention in evolutionary biology research due to its strong implications for adaptation and speciation. However, apart from a few cases the genetic changes associated with these evolutionary processes remain largely unknown. The Midas cichlid fish from Central America are an ideal model system for investigating pigmentation traits that may also play a role in speciation. Most Midas cichlids maintain their melanophores and exhibit a grayish (normal) color pattern throughout their lives. A minority of individuals, however, undergo color change and exhibit a distinctive gold or even white coloration in adulthood. The ontogenetic color change in the Midas cichlids may also shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying pigmentation disorders in humans. Here we use next-generation sequencing (Illumina) RNAseq analyses to compare skin transcriptome-wide expression levels in three distinct stages of color transformation in Midas cichlids. cDNA libraries of scale tissue, for six biological replicates of each group, were generated and sequenced using Illumina technology. Using a combination of three differential expression (DE) analyses we identified 46 candidate genes that showed DE between the color morphs. We find evidence for two key DE patterns: a) genes involved in melanosomal pathways are up-regulated in normally pigmented fish; and b) immediate early and inflammatory response genes were up-regulated in transitional fish, a response that parallels some human skin disorders such as melanoma formation and psoriasis. One of the DE genes segregates with the gold phenotype in a genetic cross and might be associated with incipient speciation in this highly "species-rich" lineage of cichlids. Using transcriptomic analyses we successfully identified key expression differences between different color morphs of Midas cichlid fish. These differentially expressed genes have important implications for our understanding of the molecular

  4. Broader color gamut of color-modulating optical coating display based on indium tin oxide and phase change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhigang; Mou, Shenghong; Zhou, Tong; Cheng, Zhiyuan

    2018-05-01

    A color-modulating optical coating display based on phase change materials (PCM) and indium tin oxide (ITO) is fabricated and analyzed. We demonstrate that altering the thickness of top-ITO in this PCM-based display device can effectively change color. The significant role of the top-ITO layer in the thin-film interference in this multilayer system is confirmed by experiment as well as simulation. The ternary-color modulation of devices with only 5 nano thin layer of phase change material is achieved. Furthermore, simulation work demonstrates that a stirringly broader color gamut can be obtained by introducing the control of the top-ITO thickness.

  5. Radiation detection using the color changes of lilac spodumene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Raquel A.P.; Mello, Ana Carolina S.; Lima, Hestia R.B.R.; Campos, Simara Santos; Souza, Suzana O.

    2009-01-01

    The use of radiation in industrial processes currently offers several advantages in the field of sterilization of medical and pharmaceuticals products, the preservation of food, and a variety of other products widely used in modern society. A dosimetry of confidence is a key parameter for the quality assurance of radiation processing and the irradiated products. This work investigates dosimetric properties in natural spodumene, LiAlSi 2 O 6 , called kunzite, from Minas Gerais State, Brazil. After X irradiation on the samples in powder form was detected a change in color of the crystal where the dose received. This makes a possible viability of this material is applied in research on development of radiation detectors using the change in color of purple spodumene. (author)

  6. Color changes of vienna sausage by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Aoki, Shohei; Sato, Tomotaro

    1978-01-01

    Color change of vienna sausage induced by gamma irradiation was investigated. Discoloration of irradiated vienna sausage was evaluated by use of the color difference meter and sensory test. The discoloration by irradiation was influenced by oxygen contents in packing pouches. In the case of commercial vienna sausage, significant difference from unirradiated control by 99% of probability was recognized at the doses of 1.0 Mrad in nitrogen, 0.5 Mrad in air and 0.3 Mrad in oxygen, respectively. The color change of the specially prepared vienna sausage (40% pork, 40% mutton, 20% beef, and no additional preservatives) was less than that of the commercial one. The absorbance at 540 nm of extracts from vienna sausages with 80% acetone decreased with increasing irradiation dose and oxygen content. While, change in absorbance at 340 nm was practically unaffected by the oxygen concentration. These results suggest that the degradation of nitroso-heme complex by irradiation causes mainly the discoloration of vienna sausage. (auth.)

  7. Pigeons (Columba livia) show change blindness in a color-change detection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbranson, Walter T; Jeffers, Jacob S

    2017-07-01

    Change blindness is a phenomenon whereby changes to a stimulus are more likely go unnoticed under certain circumstances. Pigeons learned a change detection task, in which they observed sequential stimulus displays consisting of individual colors back-projected onto three response keys. The color of one response key changed during each sequence and pecks to the key that displayed the change were reinforced. Pigeons showed a change blindness effect, in that change detection accuracy was worse when there was an inter-stimulus interval interrupting the transition between consecutive stimulus displays. Birds successfully transferred to stimulus displays involving novel colors, indicating that pigeons learned a general change detection rule. Furthermore, analysis of responses to specific color combinations showed that pigeons could detect changes involving both spectral and non-spectral colors and that accuracy was better for changes involving greater differences in wavelength. These results build upon previous investigations of change blindness in both humans and pigeons and suggest that change blindness may be a general consequence of selective visual attention relevant to multiple species and stimulus dimensions.

  8. Neuromorphic optical sensor chip with color change-intensity change disambiguation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, ZhenHong; Mao, Rui; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Titus, Albert H.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a novel, retina-like neuromorphic chip that has an array of two types of retina 'cells' arranged to mimic the fovea structure in certain animals. One of the two retina cell types performs irradiance detection and the other can perform color detection. Together, via the two parallel pathways the retina chip can perform color change intensity change disambiguation (CCICD). The irradiance detection cell has a wide-dynamic detection range that spans almost 3 orders of magnitude. The color detection cell has a buried double junction (BDJ) photodiode as the photoreceptor followed by two parallel logarithmic I-V convertors. The output from this is a color response which has at least a 50nm resolution for wavelengths from 400nm to 900nm. With these two cells, the array can perform color change -intensity change disambiguation (CCICD) to determine if a change in the output of the irradiance pathway is because of irradiance change, color change, or both. This biological retina-like neuromorphic sensor array is implemented in ON-SEMI 0.5μm technology, a standard CMOS fabrication process available at MOSIS.

  9. Color changes kinetics during deep fat frying of carrot slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Fakhreddin

    2018-05-01

    Heat and mass transfer phenomena take place during frying cause physicochemical changes, which affect the colour and surface of the fried products. The effect of frying temperature on the colour changes and heat transfer during deep fat frying of carrot has been investigated. The colour scale parameters redness (a*), yellowness (b*) and lightness (L*), and color change intensity (ΔE) were used to estimate colour changes during frying as a function of oil temperature. L* value of fried carrot decreased during frying. The redness of fried carrot decreased during the early stages of frying, while it increased afterwards (become more red). A first-order kinetic equation was used for each one of the three colour parameters, in which the rate constant is a function of oil temperatures. The results showed that oil temperature has a significant effect on the colour parameters. Different kinetic models were used to fit the experimental data and the results revealed that the quadratic model was the most suitable to describe the color change intensity (ΔE) (R > 0.96). Center temperature of carrot slice increased with increase in oil temperature and time during frying.

  10. Microwave-assisted enhancement of milkweed (Calotropis procera L.) leaves as an eco-friendly source of natural colorants for textile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaan, Muhammad; Iqbal, Naeem; Adeel, Shahid; Azeem, Muhammad; Tariq Javed, M; Raza, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Application of natural colorants to textile fabrics has gained worldwide public acceptance due to the hazardous nature of synthetic dyes. Present study investigated the microwave's mediated extraction of natural colorants from leaves of milkweed (Calotropis procera L.) as well as their application to cotton fabrics assisted with biochemical mordants. Dye extraction from C. procera leaves was carried out in various mediums (alkali and aqueous), and the extracted dye as well as cotton fabrics was irradiated with microwaves for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 min. Effect of various temperature regimes and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations was also evaluated on the color strength of dyed cotton fabrics. The results revealed that extraction of natural colorants was enhanced when microwave radiations were applied for 4 min by using alkali as an extraction medium as compared to aqueous one. Optimum dyeing of cotton fabrics was achieved by using NaCl at a temperature of 55 °C. Among the chemical mordants, iron was effective for better color strength when used as pre- and post-mordant. Among the studied bio-mordants, extract of Acacia nilotica bark significantly improved the color strength and fastness properties as pre-mordant and Curcuma longa tuber as post-mordant. It was concluded that extract of C. procera leaves was a potential source of natural colorants and a high level of dye was obtained upon irradiation of alkali-solubilized extract for 4 min. Application of NaCl at concentration of 3 g/100 mL and temperature treatment of 55 °C significantly improved the color strength of dyed cotton fabrics.

  11. Dimensional Stability of Color-Changing Irreversible Hydrocolloids after Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaledi AAR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Disinfection of dental impressions is a weak point in the dental hygiene chain. In addition, dental office personnel and dental technicians are endangered by cross-contamination. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the dimensional stability of two color-changing irreversible hydrocolloid materials (IH after disinfection with glutaraldehyde. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, impressions were made of a master maxillary arch containing three reference inserts on the occlucal surface of the left and right maxillary second molars and in the incisal surface of the maxillary central incisors. Two types of color-changing irreversible hydrocolloid (tetrachrom, cavex were used. Glutaraldehyde 2% was used in two methods of spraying and immersion to disinfect the impressions. The control group was not disinfected. Casts were made of type IV gypsum. The linear dimensional change of the stone casts was measured with a profile projector. For statistical analysis, Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Witney tests were used (α=0.05. Results: By immersion method, the casts fabricated from tetrachrom were 0.36% larger in the anteroposterior (AP and 0.05% smaller in cross arch (CA dimensions; however, the casts prepared after spraying of tetrachrom were 0.44% larger in the AP and 0.10% smaller in CA dimensions. The casts made from Cavex were 0.05% smaller in the AP and 0.02% smaller in CA dimensions after spraying and 0.01% smaller in the AP and 0.003% smaller in CA dimensions after immersion. Generally there were not significant differences in AP and CA dimensions of the experimental groups compared to the control (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Disinfection of the tested color-changing irreversible hydrocolloids by glutaraldahyde 2% did not compromise the accuracy of the obtained casts.

  12. Heat-induced chemical and color changes of extractive-free Black Locust (Rosinia Pseudoacacia) wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Nicole M. Stark

    2012-01-01

    To investigate chemical and color changes of the polymeric constituents of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) wood during heat treatment, extractive-free wood flour was conditioned to 30% initial moisture content (MC) and heated for 24 h at 120 °C in either an oxygen or nitrogen atmosphere. The color change was measured using the CIELAB color system. Chemical changes...

  13. [Research on quality changes in ginseng stems and leaves before and after frost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Ma, Shuang; Cai, En-Bo; Liu, Shuang-Li; Yang, He; Zhang, Lian-Xue; Wang, Shi-Jie

    2014-08-01

    The present study is to investigate the quality changes of ginseng stems and leaves before and after frost. The contents changes of ginsenoside, free amino acid, and total phenolic compounds, as well as DPPH radical scavenging effect before and after frost were measured. The content of 9 ginsenoside monomer in ginseng stems was decreased except for Rg, and Re after frost, but in ginseng leaves was all decreased. The total content of amino acids was decreased in ginseng stems after frost, while increased in ginseng leaves. The content of phenolic compounds in ginseng stems and leaves were both decreased after frost while the ability of DPPH radical scavenging was improved. The factor of frost has great impact on the quality of ginseng stems and leaves.

  14. Some microbiological, histopathological and biochemical changes in the broiler chicken fed carrot leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Faramawy, A.A.; Soliman, S.M.; Fahmy, M.O.

    2005-01-01

    Ninety 21 day old Arbor Acres chicks arranged into 6 equal groups were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of substitution of 10% yellow corn (YC) with berseem, green carrot leaves without and with digestive enzymatic mixture, untreated dry carrot leaves and treated ones with Aspergillus niger on the intestinal microflora, histopathology of liver and intestine in addition to some biochemical parameters. Replacement of (YC) with green carrot leaves, untreated and treated carrot leaves caused significant (P<0.05) increase in total bacterial count and significant (P<0.05) decrease in Lactobacilli, while the addition of enzyme to the green carrot leaves led to decrease in total bacterial count and increase in Lactobacillus count. The histopathological changes of both intestine and liver were restricted only to both groups of dried carrot leaves. Similarly untreated and treated dry carrot leaves groups were also associated with significant increase in triglyceride, ALT and significant (P<0.05) decrease in cholesterol in serum. From the above mentioned results, it could be concluded that dried carrot leaves, untreated or treated with Aspergillus niger, were unsuitable for broiler chicken feeding since they directly affected bird's gut health causing change in nutrient absorption and considerable decrease in the beneficial bacterial count

  15. Visual search in the real world: Color vision deficiency affects peripheral guidance, but leaves foveal verification largely unaffected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter eKugler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: People with color vision deficiencies report numerous limitations in daily life. However, they use basic color terms systematically and in a similar manner as people with people with normal color vision. We hypothesize that a possible explanation for this discrepancy between color perception and behavioral consequences might be found in the gaze behavior of people with color vision deficiency.Methods: A group of participants with color vision deficiencies and a control group performed several search tasks in a naturalistic setting on a lawn.Results: Search performance was similar in both groups in a color-unrelated search task as well as in a search for yellow targets. While searching for red targets, color vision deficient participants exhibited a strongly degraded performance. This was closely matched by the number of fixations on red objects shown by the two groups. Importantly, once they fixated a target, participants with color vision deficiencies exhibited only few identification errors. Conclusions: Participants with color vision deficiencies are not able to enhance their search for red targets on a (green lawn by an efficient guiding mechanism. The data indicate that the impaired guiding is the main influence on search performance, while foveal identification (verification largely unaffected.

  16. Spectro colorimetric and GC-MS Models, Used to Determine the Changes in the Natural Compounds of the Sea Buck thorn Leaves Sterilized with Ionizing Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minea, R.; Popescu, M.I.; Sima, E.; Dumitrascu, M.; Culea, M.; Manea, St.; Mazilu, E.

    2009-01-01

    Spectro colorimetric and GC-MS methods were developed for the quantitative and quality analyze of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and of some natural compounds extracted from the Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) leaves sterilized by treating them with accelerated electron beams, generated by a linear accelerator. The spectro colorimetric models describe and easy controls the color as it relies on the psycho physics of the color perception and on the simple colorimetric models. Hunter Lab, CIELAB, CIELCH simple colorimetric models are used in developing complex colorimetric models and for the calculation of simple colorimetric models expressed as the total color difference between a sample and a witness, ΔΕ * , ΔΕ C MC, ΔΕ * D IN99, ΔΕ * C IE2000. They provide qualitative data on the deterioration of the active compounds by irradiation. If they are validated by GC-MS methods, they can also provide quantitative data on the radioinduced changes caused to the Sea Buckthorn leaves. The developed GC-MS methods allow the validation of the spectro colorimetric methods for the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the radioinduced changes in the Sea Buckthorn leaves, reducing both the analyze times and the analyze cost, respectively the random errors of the procedures for extraction and derivation applied to samples preparation

  17. Effect of Bleaching on Color Change and Surface Topography of Composite Restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Pruthi, Gunjan; Jain, Veena; Kandpal, H. C.; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Shah, Naseem

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of 15% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent on color change and surface topography of different composite veneering materials (Filtek Z350 (3M ESPE), Esthet X (Dentsply India), and Admira (Voco, Germany). Methods. 30 samples were fabricated for evaluation of color change using CIELAB color system and Gonioreflectometer (GK 311/M, ZEISS). 45 disc-shaped specimens were made for evaluation of surface topography after bleaching (Nupro White Gold; Den...

  18. Color appearance of familiar objects: effects of object shape, texture, and illumination changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkkonen, Maria; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2008-05-26

    People perceive roughly constant surface colors despite large changes in illumination. The familiarity of colors of some natural objects might help achieve this feat through direct modulation of the objects' color appearance. Research on memory colors and color appearance has yielded controversial results and due to the employed methods has often confounded perceptual with semantic effects. We studied the effect of memory colors on color appearance by presenting photographs of fruit on a monitor under various simulated illuminations and by asking observers to make either achromatic or typical color settings without placing demands on short-term memory or semantic processing. In a control condition, we presented photographs of 3D fruit shapes without texture and 2D outline shapes. We found that (1) achromatic settings for fruit were systematically biased away from the gray point toward the opposite direction of a fruit's memory color; (2) the strength of the effect depended on the degree of naturalness of the stimuli; and (3) the effect was evident under all tested illuminations, being strongest for illuminations whose chromaticity was closest to the stimulus chromaticity. We conclude that the visual identity of an object has a measurable effect on color perception, and that this effect is robust under illuminant changes, indicating its potential significance as an additional mechanism for color constancy.

  19. Changes in photosynthetic performance and antioxidative strategies during maturation of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepeduš, Hrvoje; Gaća, Vlatka; Viljevac, Marija; Kovač, Spomenka; Fulgosi, Hrvoje; Simić, Domagoj; Jurković, Vlatka; Cesar, Vera

    2011-04-01

    Different structural and functional changes take place during leaf development. Since some of them are highly connected to oxidative metabolism, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) abundance is required. Most of the reactive oxygen species ROS in plant cells are produced in chloroplasts as a result of highly energetic reactions of photosynthesis. The aim of our study was to examine the changes in concentration of oxidative stress parameters (TBARS - thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances and protein carbonyls) as well as antioxidative strategies during development of maple (Acer platanoides L.) leaves in the light of their enhanced photosynthetic performance. We reveal that biogenesis of the photosynthetic apparatus during maple leaf maturation corresponded with oxidative damage of lipids, but not proteins. In addition, antioxidative responses in young leaves differed from that in older leaves. Young leaves had high values of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity which declined during the maturation process. Developing leaves were characterized by an increase in TBARS level, the content of non-enzymatic antioxidants as well as ascorbate peroxidase activity (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), while the content of protein carbonyls decreased with leaf maturation. Fully developed leaves had the highest lipid peroxidation level accompanied by a maximum in ascorbic acid content and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD, EC1.15.1.1). These observations imply completely different antioxidative strategies during leaf maturation enabling them to perform their basic function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Bidirectional Flower Color and Shape Changes Allow a Second Opportunity for Pollination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willmer, P.; Stanley, D.A.; Steijven, K.; Matthews, I.M.; Nuttman, C.V.

    2009-01-01

    Flowers act as "sensory billboards" with multiple signals (color, morphology, odor) attracting and manipulating potential pollinators [1]. Many use changing signals as indicators that visitation and/or pollination have occurred (2, 3]). Floral color change is commonly used to transmit this

  1. Color change of gemstones by exposure to gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Giovanna L.C. de; Lameiras, Fernando S., E-mail: giovannalarissa17@hotmail.com, E-mail: fsl@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    A gem is appreciated by collectors and, when polished, widely used for jewelry manufacturing. For example, when quartz naturally or artificially acquires a color it becomes a gemstone (smoky quartz, morion, citrine, amethyst, or prasyolite). The presence of chromophore elements in a quartz sample was analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). With a semi-quantitative analysis of the absorption FTIR spectra, it was possible to predict if colorless quartz has the potential to develop color when exposed to ionizing radiation and heat. Specific absorption bands show the presence of chromophore elements in quartz such as aluminum, iron, hydrogen, sodium, or lithium. Considering the ratio of the heights of the absorption bands of these elements, it was possible to predict the color quartz can develop. Samples of irradiated dark and light violet fluorites were analyzed by FTIR and energy-dispersive X-rays spectroscopy. The light violet samples has higher content of calcium relative to fluorine, as well higher content of hydroxyl, probably replacing fluorine in crystal lattice. Hydroxyls cannot be precursors of F color centers, which are the cause of violet color in fluorite, explaining the light violet color of hydroxyl-rich samples. (author)

  2. Color change of gemstones by exposure to gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Giovanna L.C. de; Lameiras, Fernando S.

    2015-01-01

    A gem is appreciated by collectors and, when polished, widely used for jewelry manufacturing. For example, when quartz naturally or artificially acquires a color it becomes a gemstone (smoky quartz, morion, citrine, amethyst, or prasyolite). The presence of chromophore elements in a quartz sample was analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). With a semi-quantitative analysis of the absorption FTIR spectra, it was possible to predict if colorless quartz has the potential to develop color when exposed to ionizing radiation and heat. Specific absorption bands show the presence of chromophore elements in quartz such as aluminum, iron, hydrogen, sodium, or lithium. Considering the ratio of the heights of the absorption bands of these elements, it was possible to predict the color quartz can develop. Samples of irradiated dark and light violet fluorites were analyzed by FTIR and energy-dispersive X-rays spectroscopy. The light violet samples has higher content of calcium relative to fluorine, as well higher content of hydroxyl, probably replacing fluorine in crystal lattice. Hydroxyls cannot be precursors of F color centers, which are the cause of violet color in fluorite, explaining the light violet color of hydroxyl-rich samples. (author)

  3. Effect of Fermentation on Compositional Changes of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawati, AD; Huang, TC; Kusnadi, J.

    2017-04-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh is known as “indigenous cinnamon” with the chemical constituents of its leave’s essential oil are similar to the famous C. cassia inner bark oil. Its oil has long been used as a medicinal plant. Fermentation is one of the processes in tea production, which could change the compound’s composition. This research aims to study the compositional changes of C. osmophloeum leaves during fermentation compared to unfermented leaves and commercial tea leaves. The main bioactive secondary metabolites in C. osmophloeum leaves extract are two flavonol glycosides. Both of this glycosides changed into aglycone during fermentation. By using HPLC and LC-MS analysis the major components and their derivative were identified. The retention time of kaempferol aglycone was 35.21 minute and the concentration showed increased from 0.46 to 46.8 µg. mL-1 after fermentation. There are 3 major groups lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented C. osmophloeum Kaneh leaves, Bacillus coagulans, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Pediococcus pentosaceus, which it plays the key role during the compositional changes of glycosides into aglycone.

  4. The role of unique color changes and singletons in attention capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mühlenen, Adrian; Conci, Markus

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that a sudden color change is typically less salient in capturing attention than the onset of a new object. Von Mühlenen, Rempel, and Enns (Psychological Science 16: 979-986, 2005) showed that a color change can capture attention as effectively as the onset of a new object given that it occurs during a period of temporal calm, where no other display changes happen. The current study presents a series of experiments that further investigate the conditions under which a change in color captures attention, by disentangling the change signal from the onset of a singleton. The results show that the item changing color receives attentional priority irrespective of whether this change goes along with the appearance of a singleton or not.

  5. Color Change for Thermoregulation versus Camouflage in Free-Ranging Lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen R; Cadena, Viviana; Endler, John A; Kearney, Michael R; Porter, Warren P; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2016-12-01

    Animal coloration has multiple functions including thermoregulation, camouflage, and social signaling, and the requirements of each function may sometimes conflict. Many terrestrial ectotherms accommodate the multiple functions of color through color change. However, the relative importance of these functions and how color-changing species accommodate them when they do conflict are poorly understood because we lack data on color change in the wild. Here, we show that the color of individual radio-tracked bearded dragon lizards, Pogona vitticeps, correlates strongly with background color and less strongly, but significantly, with temperature. We found no evidence that individuals simultaneously optimize camouflage and thermoregulation by choosing light backgrounds when hot or dark backgrounds when cold. In laboratory experiments, lizards showed both UV-visible (300-700 nm) and near-infrared (700-2,100 nm) reflectance changes in response to different background and temperature treatments, consistent with camouflage and thermoregulatory functions, respectively, but with no interaction between the two. Overall, our results suggest that wild bearded dragons change color to improve both thermoregulation and camouflage but predominantly adjust for camouflage, suggesting that compromising camouflage may entail a greater potential immediate survival cost.

  6. Photosynthetic acclimation in relation to nitrogen allocation in cucumber leaves in response to changes in irradiance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, G.; Hogewoning, S.W.; Harbinson, J.; Ieperen, van W.

    2011-01-01

    Leaves deep in canopies can suddenly be exposed to increased irradiances following e.g. gap formation in forests or pruning in crops. Studies on the acclimation of photosynthesis to increased irradiance have mainly focused on the changes in photosynthetic capacity (Amax), although actual irradiance

  7. Accelerating Change for Women Faculty of Color in STEM: Policy, Action, and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Cynthia; Gault, Barbara; Yi, Youngmin

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes findings and recommendations from a convening, "Accelerating Change for Women Faculty of Color in STEM: Policy, Action, and Collaboration," that was designed to address the underrepresentation of women of color in STEM academic careers. The convening provided an opportunity for individuals who work in various…

  8. Essential oils from fruits with different colors and leaves of Neomitranthes obscura (DC.) N. Silveira: an endemic species from Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Raquel R; Fernandes, Caio P; Caramel, Otávio P; Tietbohl, Luis A C; Santos, Marcelo G; Carvalho, José C T; Rocha, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Neomitranthes obscura (DC.) N. Silveira is an endemic plant of Brazilian Atlantic Forest and widely spread in the sandbanks of "Restinga de Jurubatiba" National Park. It is popularly known by local population as "camboim-de-cachorro" or "cambuí-preto" and recognized by its black ripe fruits. However, specimens with yellow ripe fruits were localized in the "Restinga de Jurubatiba" National Park. The aim of the present study was to evaluate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from leaves and fruits of N. obscura specimens with different fruit color (black and yellow) by GC and GC-MS. Essential oils from leaves of specimens with black and yellow fruits indicated a predominance of sesquiterpenes (81.1% and 84.8%, resp.). Meanwhile, essential oil from black fruits presented a predominance of monoterpenes (50.5%), while essential oil from yellow fruits had sesquiterpenes (39.9%) as major substances. Despite previous studies about this species, including essential oil extraction, to our knowledge this is the first report on N. obscura fruits with different colors. Our results suggest the occurrence of unless two different varieties for this species.

  9. Essential Oils from Fruits with Different Colors and Leaves of Neomitranthes obscura (DC.) N. Silveira: An Endemic Species from Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Raquel R.; Fernandes, Caio P.; Caramel, Otávio P.; Tietbohl, Luis A. C.; Santos, Marcelo G.; Carvalho, José C. T.; Rocha, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Neomitranthes obscura (DC.) N. Silveira is an endemic plant of Brazilian Atlantic Forest and widely spread in the sandbanks of “Restinga de Jurubatiba” National Park. It is popularly known by local population as “camboim-de-cachorro” or “cambuí-preto” and recognized by its black ripe fruits. However, specimens with yellow ripe fruits were localized in the “Restinga de Jurubatiba” National Park. The aim of the present study was to evaluate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from leaves and fruits of N. obscura specimens with different fruit color (black and yellow) by GC and GC-MS. Essential oils from leaves of specimens with black and yellow fruits indicated a predominance of sesquiterpenes (81.1% and 84.8%, resp.). Meanwhile, essential oil from black fruits presented a predominance of monoterpenes (50.5%), while essential oil from yellow fruits had sesquiterpenes (39.9%) as major substances. Despite previous studies about this species, including essential oil extraction, to our knowledge this is the first report on N. obscura fruits with different colors. Our results suggest the occurrence of unless two different varieties for this species. PMID:23484148

  10. Essential Oils from Fruits with Different Colors and Leaves of Neomitranthes obscura (DC. N. Silveira: An Endemic Species from Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel R. Amaral

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neomitranthes obscura (DC. N. Silveira is an endemic plant of Brazilian Atlantic Forest and widely spread in the sandbanks of “Restinga de Jurubatiba” National Park. It is popularly known by local population as “camboim-de-cachorro” or “cambuí-preto” and recognized by its black ripe fruits. However, specimens with yellow ripe fruits were localized in the “Restinga de Jurubatiba” National Park. The aim of the present study was to evaluate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from leaves and fruits of N. obscura specimens with different fruit color (black and yellow by GC and GC-MS. Essential oils from leaves of specimens with black and yellow fruits indicated a predominance of sesquiterpenes (81.1% and 84.8%, resp.. Meanwhile, essential oil from black fruits presented a predominance of monoterpenes (50.5%, while essential oil from yellow fruits had sesquiterpenes (39.9% as major substances. Despite previous studies about this species, including essential oil extraction, to our knowledge this is the first report on N. obscura fruits with different colors. Our results suggest the occurrence of unless two different varieties for this species.

  11. The effect of memory and context changes on color matches to real objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Sarah R; Olkkonen, Maria

    2015-07-01

    Real-world color identification tasks often require matching the color of objects between contexts and after a temporal delay, thus placing demands on both perceptual and memory processes. Although the mechanisms of matching colors between different contexts have been widely studied under the rubric of color constancy, little research has investigated the role of long-term memory in such tasks or how memory interacts with color constancy. To investigate this relationship, observers made color matches to real study objects that spanned color space, and we independently manipulated the illumination impinging on the objects, the surfaces in which objects were embedded, and the delay between seeing the study object and selecting its color match. Adding a 10-min delay increased both the bias and variability of color matches compared to a baseline condition. These memory errors were well accounted for by modeling memory as a noisy but unbiased version of perception constrained by the matching methods. Surprisingly, we did not observe significant increases in errors when illumination and surround changes were added to the 10-minute delay, although the context changes alone did elicit significant errors.

  12. Imaging plant leaves to determine changes in radioactive contamination status in Fukushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Tanihata, Isao; Saito, Tadashi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Todo, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    The chemical composition of plant leaves often reflects environmental contamination. The authors analyzed images of plant leaves to investigate the regional radioactivity ecology resulting from the 2011 accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, Japan. The present study is not an evaluation of the macro radiation dose per weight, which has been performed previously, but rather an image analysis of the radioactive dose per leaf, allowing the capture of various gradual changes in radioactive contamination as a function of elapsed time. In addition, the leaf analysis method has potential applications in the decontamination of food plants or other materials.

  13. Anatomical and physical changes in leaves during the production of tamales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles, Guillermo; Lascurain, Maite; Davalos-Sotelo, Raymundo; Zarate-Morales, Reyna Paula; Ortega-Escalona, Fernando

    2013-08-01

    Tamale preparation has a long tradition in Mexico. To understand which material properties have been considered important for this purpose throughout the years, a study was conducted of the anatomical, chemical, and mechanical properties of the leaves of four plant species used in tamale preparation in Veracruz, Mexico: Calathea misantlensis, Canna indica, Musa paradisiaca, and Oreopanax capitatus. Four cooking treatments were considered: fresh (F), roasted (soasado, R), steamed (S), and roasted plus steamed (R/S). Chemical, anatomical, and mechanical analyses were conducted before and after each treatment. Leaf samples were tested for tensile strength at both parallel and perpendicular orientation relative to the fibers. Musa paradisiaca had the highest proportion of cellulose, while the remaining species shared similar lower proportions. Leaves were stronger and stiffer in the longitudinal direction of the fibers. Musa paradisiaca leaves had higher values of mechanical strength than the other species. The cooking process that most affected the mechanical properties was steaming. The chemical constituents of the leaves are closely correlated with their physical properties. The treatment that caused the greatest decrease in leaf physical integrity was steaming, while the combination of roasting and steaming showed similar results to those of steaming alone. No evident anatomical changes are produced by any of the treatments. This is one of the few studies comparing physical, chemical, and anatomical characteristics of leaves used for human consumption, before and after cooking.

  14. Seasonal changes in photosynthetic capacity of leaves of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) vines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buwalda, J.G.; Meekings, J.S.; Smith, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    The seasonal trend of photosynthetic capacity of leaves of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa) vines growing in the field was examined, by measuring the response of net photosynthesis (A) to irradiance (PAR) at monthly intervals for leaves that emerged at different stages of the growing season. A climate controlled minicuvette system was used, to ensure constant environmental conditions, apart from the controlled changes in leaf irradiance. Responses of A to irradiance were described using asymptotic exponential curves, providing estimates of the radiation saturated rate of A (A sat ), and the response of A to increasing incident PAR at low PAR levels (ϕ i ). The change in photosynthetic capacity with leaf age was similar for leaves emerging 1, 2, 3 or 4 months after bud burst. At 1 month after leaf emergence, when leaves were fully expanded, Asat was 9–11 μmol CO 2 m −2 s −1 . Maximum photosynthetic capacity was not attained until 3–5 months after leaf emergence, when Asat was 16–17 μmol CO 2 m −2 s −1 . The increasing photosynthetic capacity during 3–5 months after leaf emergence was closely related to concomitant changes in leaf N and chlorophyll contents. The possibility that N import to the leaf was a significant factor limiting the development of photosynthetic capacity is discussed. (author)

  15. Influence of Whitening Gel Application Protocol on Dental Color Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana Marco Ferraz Caneppele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the influence of different whitening protocols on the efficacy of 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP tooth whitening and gel pH and concentration. Material and Methods. Eighty-four enamel/dentin discs from bovine incisors were used. The baseline color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Two sessions of in-office whitening with 35% HP were performed under different protocols: G1: 3 applications of HP (10 min each per session; G2: 1 application of 30 min per session; G3: 1 application of 40 min per session, with no gel replenishment within session for groups 2 and 3. HP titration and pH evaluation at baseline, after 10, 30, and 40 min were also performed. The final color was measured 24 h after the 1st and 2nd whitening sessions. Data were submitted to Repeated Measures ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results. For color evaluation, no differences were observed among groups after two sessions. HP titration showed no drop on concentration after 10, 30, or 40 min. The pH was 5.54 at baseline and 5.41 after 40 min. Conclusion. Replenishment or extended application time of in-office whitening gel does not affect gel pH and concentration, a fact that supports the similar effectiveness of whitening observed among the tested protocols.

  16. Perceived color shift of ceramics according to the change of illuminating light with spectroradiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun-Suk; Yu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Perceived color of ceramics changes by the spectral power distribution of ambient light. This study aimed to quantify the amount of shifts in color and color coordinates of clinically simulated seven all-ceramics due to the switch of three ambient light sources using a human vision simulating spectroradiometer. MATERIALS AND METHODS CIE color coordinates, such as L*, a* and b*,of ceramic specimens were measured under three light sources, which simulate the CIE standard illuminant D65 (daylight), A (incandescent lamp), and F9 (fluorescent lamp). Shifts in color and color coordinate by the switch of lights were determined. Influence of the switched light (D65 to A, or D65 to F9), shade of veneer ceramics (A2 or A3), and brand of ceramics on the shifts was analyzed by a three-way ANOVA. RESULTS Shifts in color and color coordinates were influenced by three factors (P 5.5). When switched to A, CIE a* increased (Δa*: 5.6 to 7.6), however, CIE b* increased (Δb*: 4.9 to 7.8) when switched to F9. CONCLUSION Clinically simulated ceramics demonstrated clinically unacceptable color shifts according to the switches in ambient lights based on spectroradiometric readings. Therefore, shade matching and compatibility evaluation should be performed considering ambient lighting conditions and should be done under most relevant lighting condition. PMID:24049567

  17. A new type of change blindness: smooth, isoluminant color changes are monitored on a coarse spatial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Erin; Clifford, Colin W G

    2013-04-22

    Attending selectively to changes in our visual environment may help filter less important, unchanging information within a scene. Here, we demonstrate that color changes can go unnoticed even when they occur throughout an otherwise static image. The novelty of this demonstration is that it does not rely upon masking by a visual disruption or stimulus motion, nor does it require the change to be very gradual and restricted to a small section of the image. Using a two-interval, forced-choice change-detection task and an odd-one-out localization task, we showed that subjects were slowest to respond and least accurate (implying that change was hardest to detect) when the color changes were isoluminant, smoothly varying, and asynchronous with one another. This profound change blindness offers new constraints for theories of visual change detection, implying that, in the absence of transient signals, changes in color are typically monitored at a coarse spatial scale.

  18. Physiological changes in leaves of mungbean plants infected with Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ahmed

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sequential changes induced by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Chitwood in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek cv. MN95 were studied. Physiological and biochemical changes were recorded 15, 30 and 45 days after nematode inoculation. The changes noted varied with the length of exposure to the nematode. Chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased in nematode-infected plants. Total phenols increased in the leaves compared with the controls for up to 30 days after inoculation. Protein content declined significantly at 30 days after exposure to the nematodes. Amylase activity was enhanced in both the leaves and the stems as compared with the controls. The results suggested that plants responded to the nematode by adopting biochemical strategies to withstand the adverse effects of infection.

  19. Estimation of color modification in digital images by CFA pattern change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang-Hee; Lee, Hae-Yeoun; Lee, Heung-Kyu

    2013-03-10

    Extensive studies have been carried out for detecting image forgery such as copy-move, re-sampling, blurring, and contrast enhancement. Although color modification is a common forgery technique, there is no reported forensic method for detecting this type of manipulation. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for estimating color modification in images acquired from digital cameras when the images are modified. Most commercial digital cameras are equipped with a color filter array (CFA) for acquiring the color information of each pixel. As a result, the images acquired from such digital cameras include a trace from the CFA pattern. This pattern is composed of the basic red green blue (RGB) colors, and it is changed when color modification is carried out on the image. We designed an advanced intermediate value counting method for measuring the change in the CFA pattern and estimating the extent of color modification. The proposed method is verified experimentally by using 10,366 test images. The results confirmed the ability of the proposed method to estimate color modification with high accuracy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The functional morphology of color changing in a spider: development of ommochrome pigment granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, Teresita C; Casas, Jérôme

    2008-03-01

    Studies on the formation of ommochrome pigment granules are very few, despite their generalized occurrence as screening pigments in insect eyes. This is particularly true for ommochrome granules responsible for epidermal coloration. The aims of this study were to characterize the localization of major body pigments in a color changing mimetic spider, Misumena vatia (Thomisidae), and to describe the formation and location of ommochrome pigment granules responsible for the spider's color change from white to yellow. The unpigmented cuticula of this spider is transparent. Both the guanine localized in guanine cells in the opisthosoma and the uric acid localized in epidermis cells in the prosoma are responsible for the white coloration. The bright yellow color is due to the combination of ommochrome pigment granules and the white reflectance from coincident guanine and/or uric acid. The formation of ommochrome pigment granules in epidermis cells proceeds via three distinctive steps. Translucent, UV fluorescent, progranules (type I) are produced by a dense network of endoplasmic reticulum associated with numerous mitochondria and glycogen rosettes. These progranules are present in white spiders only, and regularly distributed in the cytoplasm. The merging of several progranules of type I into a transient state (progranule type II) leads to the formation of granules (type III) characterized by their lack of fluorescence, their spherical sections and their osmophilic-electron-dense contents. They are found in yellow spiders and in the red stripes on the body sides. Their color varies from yellow to red. Thus, white spiders contain only type I granules, yellow tinted spiders contain type II and III granules and bright yellow spiders contain only type III granules. We present a synthetic view of the ontogeny of ommochrome granules. We discuss the physiology of color changing and the nature of the chemical compounds in the different types of granules. Extended studies on the

  1. A method and results of color calibration for the Chang'e-3 terrain camera and panoramic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xin; Li, Chun-Lai; Liu, Jian-Jun; Wang, Fen-Fei; Yang, Jian-Feng; Liu, En-Hai; Xue, Bin; Zhao, Ru-Jin

    2014-12-01

    The terrain camera (TCAM) and panoramic camera (PCAM) are two of the major scientific payloads installed on the lander and rover of the Chang'e 3 mission respectively. They both use a Bayer color filter array covering CMOS sensor to capture color images of the Moon's surface. RGB values of the original images are related to these two kinds of cameras. There is an obvious color difference compared with human visual perception. This paper follows standards published by the International Commission on Illumination to establish a color correction model, designs the ground calibration experiment and obtains the color correction coefficient. The image quality has been significantly improved and there is no obvious color difference in the corrected images. Ground experimental results show that: (1) Compared with uncorrected images, the average color difference of TCAM is 4.30, which has been reduced by 62.1%. (2) The average color differences of the left and right cameras in PCAM are 4.14 and 4.16, which have been reduced by 68.3% and 67.6% respectively.

  2. Rotary motion impairs attention to color change in 4-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavšek, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Continuous color changes of an array of elements appear to stop changing if the array undergoes a coherent motion. This silencing illusion was demonstrated for adults by Suchow and Alvarez (Current Biology, 2011, vol. 21, pp. 140-143). The current forced-choice preferential looking study examined 4-month-old infants' sensitivity to the silencing illusion. Two experimental conditions were conducted. In the dynamic condition, infants were tested with two rotating rings of circular different-colored dots. In one of these rings the dots continuously changed color, whereas in the other ring the dots did not change color. In the static condition, the global rotary motion was eliminated from the targets. Infants preferred looking at the color-changing target in the static condition but not in the dynamic condition; they attended to the color changes in the static condition but failed to detect them in the dynamic condition. This differential looking pattern is consistent with the hypothesis that the silencing illusion can be established during early infancy. A control group of adults also responded to the silencing phenomenon. This substantiates that the stimuli generate a robust illusory effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutritional composition and condensed tannin concentration changes as browse leaves become litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Amanda; Muir, James P; Wolfe, Richard M

    2010-12-01

    The role of condensed tannins (CT) in ruminant nutrition and health makes changes in leaf litter (LL) after abscission of interest. This study compared the effect of different drying methods of green leaves (GL) with that of natural drying of LL on CT, fibre, crude protein (CP) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in nine Texas browse species. Leaves harvested before autumn shedding were oven-dried (OD) or freeze-dried (FD). Where different (P Drying method changed total CT concentration in three species. Where different, fibre fraction concentrations were greater in LL than in GL, regardless of drying method. In some species, CP and P concentrations were lower in LL than in GL, but in five species they did not change (P > 0.05) from GL to LL, with CP concentrations ranging from 63 to 151 g kg(-1) in the latter. Browse LL had high nutritive value and CT concentrations, explaining why browsing ruminants utilise this feed resource. However, changes in nutrient and CT concentrations as leaves become litter in some species mean that information on one is not necessarily applicable to the other. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Color changing block copolymer films for chemical sensing of simple sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyub, Omar B; Sekowski, Jennifer W; Yang, Ta-I; Zhang, Xin; Briber, Robert M; Kofinas, Peter

    2011-10-15

    We investigated the use of functionalized photonic block copolymer films for the detection of glucose. Polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymers were chemically functionalized with 2-(bromomethyl)phenylboronic acid and cast into films that reflect a visible color when exposed to aqueous media. The 2-(bromomethyl)phenylboronic acid functionality can reversibly bind to glucose. When exposed to high concentrations of glucose the polymer responded with a red shift in color. Low concentration exposure of glucose caused the polymer films to blue shift in color. The BCP films also exhibited a selective response to fructose, mannose or galactose, giving a different response depending on which sugar is present. The color of the polymer was tuned to blue, green, yellow or orange by varying the film's crosslink density. The color change can be visually observed without the use of equipment such as a spectrometer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in sick leave among Swedish dental patients after treatment for dental fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakeberg, M; Berggren, U

    1993-03-01

    The most obvious consequence of a genuine dental phobic reaction is the avoidance of necessary dental care. Previous research has indicated that such avoidance results in deterioration of the oral status, which subsequently worsens patients' well-being and quality of life. The authors' previous investigations have shown overt behavioural and social effects by an increased time spent on sick leave compared with the public experience. Self-reports by patients also indicated that the time spent on sick leave was reduced after successful treatment for dental fear. The present investigation assessed the frequency of sick leave days among patients with dental fear and avoidance with regard to successful or unsuccessful treatment for dental fear (subsequent regular dental visit habits). A sub-sample of the fear group was compared with a group of matched controls. Data were collected from the official register of the National Health Insurance Board. It was revealed that the number of sick leave days was significantly reduced after treatment for dental fear among treated patients. This effect was also confirmed by a significant post-treatment difference between treated patients and those who discontinued or never started treatment. When compared with a matched control group, the positive change was further supported by a significant pre-treatment difference and a non-significant post-treatment difference.

  6. Taking Leave?

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  7. Temperature and ontogenetic effects on color change in the larval salamander species Ambystoma barbouri and Ambystoma texanum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, T S; Straus, R; Sih, A [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Temperature has been shown to affect body color in several species of amphibians. The interaction between color and temperature may also change over larval ontogeny, perhaps because of age-related or seasonal changes in selection pressures on color. We quantified the effects of temperature on the color of the salamander sister species Ambystoma barbouri and Ambystoma texanum over larval ontogeny. We found that early-stage larvae responded to cold temperatures with a dark color relative to that of the warm temperature response. Both species then exhibited an ontogenetic shift in larval color, with larvae becoming lighter with age. Interestingly, older larvae showed decreased plasticity in color change to temperature when compared with younger stages. Older A. texanum larvae exhibited a reversal in the direction of color change, with cold temperatures inducing a lighter color relative to warm temperatures. We suggest that the overall pattern of color change (a plastic color response to temperature for young larvae, a progressive lightening of larvae over development, and an apparent loss of color plasticity to temperature over ontogeny) can be plausibly explained by seasonal changes in environmental factors (temperature, ultraviolet radiation) selecting for body color. (author)

  8. Temperature and ontogenetic effects on color change in the larval salamander species Ambystoma barbouri and Ambystoma texanum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, T.S.; Straus, R.; Sih, A.

    2003-01-01

    Temperature has been shown to affect body color in several species of amphibians. The interaction between color and temperature may also change over larval ontogeny, perhaps because of age-related or seasonal changes in selection pressures on color. We quantified the effects of temperature on the color of the salamander sister species Ambystoma barbouri and Ambystoma texanum over larval ontogeny. We found that early-stage larvae responded to cold temperatures with a dark color relative to that of the warm temperature response. Both species then exhibited an ontogenetic shift in larval color, with larvae becoming lighter with age. Interestingly, older larvae showed decreased plasticity in color change to temperature when compared with younger stages. Older A. texanum larvae exhibited a reversal in the direction of color change, with cold temperatures inducing a lighter color relative to warm temperatures. We suggest that the overall pattern of color change (a plastic color response to temperature for young larvae, a progressive lightening of larvae over development, and an apparent loss of color plasticity to temperature over ontogeny) can be plausibly explained by seasonal changes in environmental factors (temperature, ultraviolet radiation) selecting for body color. (author)

  9. Perceived changes in ordinary autobiographical events' affect and visual imagery colorfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Timothy D; Batteson, Tamzin J

    2013-06-01

    We examined the extent to which the perceived changes in visual imagery colorfulness impact on the affect intensity associated with ordinary autobiographical events across time. We garnered support for the hypothesis that recent events become memorial phenomena via an emotion regulation process such that positive events retained their affective pleasantness longer than negative events retained affective unpleasantness because, in part, across 2 weeks the former retained their imagery colorfulness longer than the latter events did. A similar but distinct model was unsupported. We discuss the significance of imagery colorfulness and affect intensity in the context of memory for everyday autobiographical events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinetics of heat-induced color change of a tuna-vegetable mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Erika; Sandoval, Aleida J; Barreiro, José A

    2009-01-01

    Heat induced color change kinetics in a tuna-vegetable mixture was evaluated by measuring color parameter "L" (Hunter-Lab) and 5-hydroxi-methyl-furfural (5-HMF) accumulation. For this purpose small reusable stainless steel TDT cans were used and the kinetic studies performed in a temperature range characteristic of thermal processing of low acid canned foods (110-125°C). The color parameter L was better described by a pseudo zero order while a pseudo first order reaction was found for 5-HMF a...

  11. Biomolecule-to-fluorescent-color encoder: modulation of fluorescence emission via DNA structural changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Ogura, Yusuke; Yamada, Kenji; Ohno, Yuko; Tanida, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A biomolecule-to-fluorescent-color (B/F) encoder for optical readout of biomolecular information is proposed. In the B/F encoder, a set of fluorescence wavelengths and their intensity levels are used for coding of a biomolecular signal. A hybridization chain reaction of hairpin DNAs labeled with fluorescent reporters was performed to generate the fluorescence color codes. The fluorescence is modulated via fluorescence resonance energy transfer, which is controlled by DNA structural changes. The results demonstrate that fluorescent color codes can be configured based on two wavelengths and five intensities using the B/F encoder, and the assigned codes can be retrieved via fluorescence measurements. PMID:25071950

  12. Color change at the push of a buttom; Farbwechsel auf Knopfdruck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortimer, Roger J. [Loughborough Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    Materials with electrically switchable color open up many fascinating application possibilities - from the glare protection on low-cost displays to adaptive camouflage. Electrochromic materials can be electrically switched between different colors back and forth. The effect is based on a change of light absorption by current induced oxidation and reduction processes. Meanwhile electrochromic materials cover the entire color spectrum. In addition, the electrochromic materials are inexpensive and consume little power. This makes them attractive for many applications. However, their response times are still relatively long. The first commercial products include mirrors with automatic anti-glare and aircraft windows that can be darkened electrically.

  13. Change Detection Analysis of Water Pollution in Coimbatore Region using Different Color Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiji, G. Wiselin; Devi, R. Naveena

    2017-12-01

    The data acquired through remote sensing satellites furnish facts about the land and water at varying resolutions and has been widely used for several change detection studies. Apart from the existence of many change detection methodologies and techniques, emergence of new ones continues to subsist. Existing change detection techniques exploit images that are either in gray scale or RGB color model. In this paper we introduced color models for performing change detection for water pollution. Here the polluted lakes are classified and post-classification change detection techniques are applied to RGB images and results obtained are analysed for changes to exist or not. Furthermore RGB images obtained after classification when converted to any of the two color models YCbCr and YIQ is found to produce the same results as that of the RGB model images. Thus it can be concluded that other color models like YCbCr, YIQ can be used as substitution to RGB color model for analysing change detection with regard to water pollution.

  14. [Analysis of dynamic changes of flavonoids and alkaloids during different drying process of Morus alba leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yong-liang; Duan, Jin-ao; Su, Shu-lan; Qian, Ye-fei; Qian, Da-wei; Ouyang, Zhen

    2014-07-01

    To find out dynamic changes of flavonoids and alkaloids in Morus alba leaves by analyzing influence of different drying method and drying degrees, in order to provide evidence for quality evaluation of Morus alba leaves. Different drying methods, programmed temperature methods and constant temperature methods were adopted to dry Morus alba leaves samples respectively. Contents of flavonoids and alkaloids were analyzed by HPLC-PDA and LC-TQ/MS respectively. It's shown obviously that the content of flavonoids were influenced heavily by different drying methods. Methods that suitable for flavonoids were freezing-dried > shade-dried > dried > sun-dried > microwave-dried > infrared-dried; Methods that suitable for alkaloids were freezing-dried > shade-dried > dried > sun-dried > infrared-dried > microwave-dried. The 55 -65 degrees C group was shown to be the lowest in both flavonoids and DNJ while the 85 - 95 degrees C group was shown to be the best for DNJ. For fagomine, the 45 degrees C group was shown to be the lowest concentrations while the 95 - 105 degrees C group was shown to be the highest. Samples with different moisture were shown to be different in content of flavonoids and alkaloids. And samples with 10% moisture contain highest flavonoids while those with 30% - 50% moisture contain lowest flavonoids. Content of DNJ and fagomine raised as moisture decreasing. In addition, the 55 - 65 degrees C group was better than the 95 -105 degrees C one in alkaloids content. The results provide optimal drying methods and condition for drying Morus alba leaves, and foundations for uncovering biochemical transform of Morus alba leaves.

  15. Convective, vacuum and microwave drying kinetics of mallow leaves and comparison of color and ascorbic acid values of three drying methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Alibas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mallow leaves (Malva sylvestris L. with initial moisture of 5.02±0.003 on dry basis (82.5% on wet basis were dried using three different drying methods, microwave, convective and vacuum. The leaves that weigh 75 g each were dried until their moisture fell down to 0.10±0.005 on dry basis (approximately 9% on wet basis. The following drying levels were used in each of the drying processes: 6.67, 8.67, 10, 11.33 W g-1 microwave power density; 50, 75, 100 and 125 °C for convective drying; and 3, 7 kPa at 50 and 75 °C for vacuum drying. Drying periods ranged from 6-10, 26-150 and 38-130 min. for microwave, convective and vacuum drying, respectively. Effective moisture diffisuvities ranged from 2.04403 10-10-3.63996 10-12 m2 s-1, 1.70182 10-11-1.10084 10-10 m2 s-1 and 1.85599 10-11-5.94559 10-10 m2 s-1 for microwave, convective and vacuum drying, respectively. According to ascorbic acid content and color parameters, the best microwave power density was found 10 W g-1 with a drying period of 6.5 min.

  16. Surface roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. I - The Rayleigh-scattering component. II - Error in the retrieved water-leaving radiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Howard R.; Wang, Menghua

    1992-01-01

    The first step in the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) atmospheric-correction algorithm is the computation of the Rayleigh-scattering (RS) contribution, L sub r, to the radiance leaving the top of the atmosphere over the ocean. In the present algorithm, L sub r is computed by assuming that the ocean surface is flat. Calculations of the radiance leaving an RS atmosphere overlying a rough Fresnel-reflecting ocean are presented to evaluate the radiance error caused by the flat-ocean assumption. Simulations are carried out to evaluate the error incurred when the CZCS-type algorithm is applied to a realistic ocean in which the surface is roughened by the wind. In situations where there is no direct sun glitter, it is concluded that the error induced by ignoring the Rayleigh-aerosol interaction is usually larger than that caused by ignoring the surface roughness. This suggests that, in refining algorithms for future sensors, more effort should be focused on dealing with the Rayleigh-aerosol interaction than on the roughness of the sea surface.

  17. Physiologically induced color-pattern changes in butterfly wings: mechanistic and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaki, Joji M

    2008-07-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the butterfly wing color-pattern determination can be facilitated by experimental pattern changes. Here I review physiologically induced color-pattern changes in nymphalid butterflies and their mechanistic and evolutionary implications. A type of color-pattern change can be elicited by elemental changes in size and position throughout the wing, as suggested by the nymphalid groundplan. These changes of pattern elements are bi-directional and bi-sided dislocation toward or away from eyespot foci and in both proximal and distal sides of the foci. The peripheral elements are dislocated even in the eyespot-less compartments. Anterior spots are more severely modified, suggesting the existence of an anterior-posterior gradient. In one species, eyespots are transformed into white spots with remnant-like orange scales, and such patterns emerge even at the eyespot-less "imaginary" foci. A series of these color-pattern modifications probably reveal "snap-shots" of a dynamic morphogenic signal due to heterochronic uncoupling between the signaling and reception steps. The conventional gradient model can be revised to account for these observed color-pattern changes.

  18. Rotary Motion Impairs Attention to Color Change in 4-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavsek, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Continuous color changes of an array of elements appear to stop changing if the array undergoes a coherent motion. This "silencing" illusion was demonstrated for adults by Suchow and Alvarez ("Current Biology", 2011, vol. 21, pp. 140-143). The current forced-choice preferential looking study examined 4-month-old infants' sensitivity to the…

  19. Lipid oxidation and color changes of goose meat stored under vacuum and modified atmosphere conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkusz, A; Haraf, G; Okruszek, A; Werenska-Sudnik, M

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the work was to investigate the color and lipid oxidation changes of goose breast meat packaged in vacuum and modified atmosphere (MA) conditions consisting of 80% O2, 20% CO2, and stored in refrigerated conditions at 4°C. Color stability was monitored by determining total heme pigments concentration; relative concentration of myoglobin, oxymyoglobin, and metmyoglobin; parameters of color L*, a*, b*, and sensory evaluation of the surface color. Lipid stability was measured by determining thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The samples were examined in 24 h after slaughter (unpacked muscles) and on d 4, 7, 9, 11 of storage (muscles packed in vacuum and in MA). Through the time of storage, samples packed in MA had higher TBARS values in comparison to the meat packed in vacuum. For samples packed in two types of atmospheres, the total pigments concentration decreased gradually within 11 d of storage. It was observed that relative metmyoglobin concentration increased whereas relative oxymyoglobin concentration decreased in total heme pigments in the MA stored muscle. The relative concentration of all three myoglobin forms sample packed in vacuum remained unchanged. The color parameters (L*, a*, b*) did not change for 11 d of storage for the vacuum packed meat. The value of the color parameter a* decreased and the value of the color parameters L* and b* increased in the samples packaged in MA. The data prove that if you store goose meat in MA (consisting of 80% O2, 20% CO2) or vacuum, the unchanged surface color is preserved for 9 and 11 day, respectively.Vacuum appears to be a better method as regards the maintaining of lipid stability in goose meat. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Canopy storage capacity and wettability of leaves and needles: The effect of water temperature changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamerus-Iwan, Anna; Błońska, Ewa

    2018-04-01

    The canopy storage capacity (S) is a major component of the surface water balance. We analysed the relationship between the tree canopy water storage capacity and leaf wettability under changing simulated rainfall temperature. We estimated the effect of the rain temperature change on the canopy storage capacity and contact angle of leave and needle surfaces based on two scenarios. Six dominant forest trees were analysed: English oak (Quercus roburL.), common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill), silver fir (Abies alba), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.),and Norway spruce (Picea abies L.). Twigs of these species were collected from Krynica Zdrój, that is, the Experimental Forestry unit of the University of Agriculture in Cracow (southern Poland). Experimental analyses (simulations of precipitation) were performed in a laboratory under controlled conditions. The canopy storage capacity and leaf wettability classification were determined at 12 water temperatures and a practical calculator to compute changes of S and contact angles of droplets was developed. Among all species, an increase of the rainfall temperature by 0.7 °C decreases the contact angle between leave and needle surfaces by 2.41° and increases the canopy storage capacity by 0.74 g g-1; an increase of the rain temperature by 2.7 °C decreases the contact angle by 9.29° and increases the canopy storage capacity by 2.85 g g-1. A decreased contact angle between a water droplet and leaf surface indicates increased wettability. Thus, our results show that an increased temperature increases the leaf wettability in all examined species. The comparison of different species implies that the water temperature has the strongest effect on spruce and the weakest effect on oak. These data indicate that the rainfall temperature influences the canopy storage capacity.

  1. Enzymatic changes in intact leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris following ozone fumigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dass, H C; Weaver, G M

    1972-01-01

    Enzymatic changes in the intact leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Seaway 65 were studied following ozone fumigation. It was found that peroxidase enzyme increased significantly with the ozone treatment in the first 48 h. Similarly, cellulase enzyme showed significant increase 48 h. following ozone treatment. Lactic dehydrogenase activity was not markedly affected by ozone treatment. Disc electrophoretic studies of peroxidase isoenzymes showed that ozone treatment induced a new band of peroxidase. The role of peroxidase, cellulase and lactic dehydrogenase enzymes is discussed in relation to ozone damage and the bronzing disorder in white beans. 22 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  2. Using color histogram normalization for recovering chromatic illumination-changed images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, S C; Tseng, C L; Wu, C C

    2001-11-01

    We propose a novel image-recovery method using the covariance matrix of the red-green-blue (R-G-B) color histogram and tensor theories. The image-recovery method is called the color histogram normalization algorithm. It is known that the color histograms of an image taken under varied illuminations are related by a general affine transformation of the R-G-B coordinates when the illumination is changed. We propose a simplified affine model for application with illumination variation. This simplified affine model considers the effects of only three basic forms of distortion: translation, scaling, and rotation. According to this principle, we can estimate the affine transformation matrix necessary to recover images whose color distributions are varied as a result of illumination changes. We compare the normalized color histogram of the standard image with that of the tested image. By performing some operations of simple linear algebra, we can estimate the matrix of the affine transformation between two images under different illuminations. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm, we divide the experiments into two parts: computer-simulated images and real images corresponding to illumination changes. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is effective for both types of images. We also explain the noise-sensitive skew-rotation estimation that exists in the general affine model and demonstrate that the proposed simplified affine model without the use of skew rotation is better than the general affine model for such applications.

  3. Effect of bleaching on color change and surface topography of composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthi, Gunjan; Jain, Veena; Kandpal, H C; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Shah, Naseem

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of 15% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent on color change and surface topography of different composite veneering materials (Filtek Z350 (3M ESPE), Esthet X (Dentsply India), and Admira (Voco, Germany). Methods. 30 samples were fabricated for evaluation of color change using CIELAB color system and Gonioreflectometer (GK 311/M, ZEISS). 45 disc-shaped specimens were made for evaluation of surface topography after bleaching (Nupro White Gold; Dentsply) using SEM. Statistical analysis. One way ANOVA and Multiple comparison tests were used to analyze the data. Statistical significance was declared if the P value was .05 or less. Results and conclusion. All the specimens showed significant discoloration (ΔE > 3.3) after their immersion in solutions representing food and beverages. The total color change after bleaching as compared to baseline color was significant in Filtek Z350 (P = .000) and Esthet X (P = .002), while it was insignificant for Admira (P = .18). Esthet X showed maximum surface roughness followed by Admira and Filtek Z350. Bleaching was effective in reducing the discoloration to a clinically acceptable value in all the three groups (ΔE < 3.3).

  4. Effect of Bleaching on Color Change and Surface Topography of Composite Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Pruthi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of 15% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent on color change and surface topography of different composite veneering materials (Filtek Z350 (3M ESPE, Esthet X (Dentsply India, and Admira (Voco, Germany. Methods. 30 samples were fabricated for evaluation of color change using CIELAB color system and Gonioreflectometer (GK 311/M, ZEISS. 45 disc-shaped specimens were made for evaluation of surface topography after bleaching (Nupro White Gold; Dentsply using SEM. Statistical analysis. One way ANOVA and Multiple comparison tests were used to analyze the data. Statistical significance was declared if the P value was .05 or less. Results and conclusion. All the specimens showed significant discoloration (ΔE>3.3 after their immersion in solutions representing food and beverages. The total color change after bleaching as compared to baseline color was significant in Filtek Z350 (P=.000 and Esthet X (P=.002, while it was insignificant for Admira (P=.18. Esthet X showed maximum surface roughness followed by Admira and Filtek Z350. Bleaching was effective in reducing the discoloration to a clinically acceptable value in all the three groups (ΔE<3.3.

  5. Color change mechanism of niobium oxide thin film with incidental light angle and applied voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Isao [Course of Information Science and Technology, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Tokai University (Japan); Aoki, Hayata [Course of Electro Photo Optics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University (Japan); Ebisawa, Mizue [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute (Japan); Kuroda, Akihiro [Department of Optical and Imaging Science & Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Tokai University (Japan); Kuroda Consulting Incorporated (Japan); Kuroda, Koichi [Kuroda Consulting Incorporated (Japan); Maeda, Shuichi [Course of Information Science and Technology, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Tokai University (Japan); Course of Electro Photo Optics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University (Japan); Department of Optical and Imaging Science & Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Tokai University (Japan)

    2016-03-31

    Niobium oxide thin layers made by the anodization process showed coloration owing to thin film interference. The reflection spectra depended on both the applied voltage and incident light angle. Large color differences were observed at incident light angles between 5° and 70°, when the applied voltage was over 60 V. In this study, we explored the cause of these results using ellipsometry and goniophotometry to understand the transition of optical constants and the reflection spectra with applied voltage. Finally, we concluded that the coloration of the reflection spectra, which included only a first-order interference peak, exhibits a smaller change because the first order interference peak has a wider half value width than higher order interference peaks. - Highlights: • We investigated color change of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} oxide thin layers with incidental light angle. • The reflection spectra shift to lower wavelength region with increasing incident light angle. • The reflection spectra shift to higher wavelength region with increasing applied voltage. • First-order interference has wider half value width, and exhibits small color change.

  6. Age-related changes of DNA methylation in cotyledonous leaves of Linum usitatissimum under UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berestyana, A.M.; Grodzins'kij, D.M.; Kryipka, G.V.

    2011-01-01

    The age-related changes of DNA methylation in cotyledonous leaves of Linum usitatissimum subjected to UV-B radiation in the interval 4.23-12.69 kJ/m 2 have been studied. The level of methylation is determined by the restriction analysis. Although the study showed no dose-dependence, some methylation spectrum changes in the process of aging of the Linum usitatissimum cotyledonous leaves occurred.

  7. MORPHO-ANATOMICAL CHANGES OF PEQUI LEAVES (Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. EXPOSED TO SIMULATED DRIFT OF GLYPHOSATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lailla Queiroz Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The goal of this research was to examine phytotoxicity and leaf anatomy of pequi plants (Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. exposed to simulated drift of glyphosate. The experimental design was randomized blocks with nine replications. Each experimental unit was composed by one 18-L pot with one plant. The treatments consisted of different doses of glyphosate sprayed: 0 (control, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 g ae ha-1 of glyphosate. Phytotoxicity visual ratings were carried out at 7, 14 and 21 days after spraying (DAS by scores expressed in a percentage scale, within which zero and one hundred represent no symptom and plant death, respectively. Description of symptoms, changes in leaf anatomy and micromorphometric analysis were performed on leaves taken from plant top and middle third at 23 DAS. Poisoning symptoms were wilting, chlorosis followed by necrosis, winding of top leaves and leaf senescence, being intensified with increasing doses. Leaf anatomical changes were detected from the dose of 250 g ha-1. The observed damages consisted of plasmolized cells, epidermal disruption, distorted cells, hyperplasia, cell collapsing, necrotic tissue and accumulation of phenolic compounds.

  8. Do changes in the azimuthal distribution of maize leaves over time affect canopy light absorption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, J.L.; Moulia, B.; Bonhomme, R.

    1999-01-01

    In maize canopies, when modelling the architecture and light regime one usually assumes leaf azimuths are distributed uniformly. Once we had demonstrated azimuthal re-orientation of maize leaves during the vegetative phase, we tested the weight of this hypothesis on the light absorbed daily by the canopy. We thus modelled the three-dimensional (3D) geometry of maize canopies with various plant densities and at different developmental stages using plant digitizing under field conditions. We simulated radiative transfer using a volume-based approach within actual and hypothetical canopies, obtained by simply rearranging leaf azimuths. Simulations indicated that changes to horizontal heterogeneity have little effect on daily light absorption efficiency. It is concluded that changes in leaf azimuths do not have to be taken into account in crop-functioning models. (author) [fr

  9. Color and Surface Chemistry Changes of Pine Wood Flour after Extraction and Delignification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Nicole M. Stark; Yongming Fan

    2014-01-01

    A detailed study was undertaken to examine the color and chemistry changes of pine wood flour when its extractives are removed and when it is delignified. The solvent systems employed were toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot-water (HW), while sodium chlorite/acetic acid were used for delignification (i.e., lignin removal (LR)). Samples were analyzed by...

  10. Managing of the baking bread process based on mathematical model of change crust color dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bitjukov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article a support system of making decision about control of baking process of bread on the basis of estimating the quality ( the colors of the product surface and the mathematical model of the dynamics of change in this indicator is offered.

  11. Visualizing Nanocatalysts in Action from Color Change Reaction to Magnetic Recycling and Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Reuben; Bishop, Alexandra; Glaisher, Samuel; Katz, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    A demonstration to highlight the utility and ease of handling environmentally benign magnetically recoverable nanoparticle catalysts is described. The demonstration offers two powerful visuals. The first is a color change oxidation of tetramethylbenzidine by hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by Fe[subscript 3]O[subscript 4] nanoparticles. The second,…

  12. Biochemical changes and energy content of the mangrove, Rhizophora mucronata, leaves during decomposition

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Ramadhas, V.; Krishnakumari, L.; Royan, J.P.

    Decomposition of Rhizophora mucronata leaves both in the laboratory and in the field resulted in the loss of organic carbon and ash and increase in total nitrogen, organic matter, protein and caloric content. In the decomposed leaves, relatively...

  13. Changes in the reflectance of ex situ leaves: A methodological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, Flavio Jorge; Inoe, Mario Takao

    1992-04-01

    The main aspects of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and detached leaves are presented. An experiment with Eucalipto and Araucaria detached leaves is described, including the description of the methodologies utilized in the collection and storage of the reflectance.

  14. Genomic DNA sequence and cytosine methylation changes of adult rice leaves after seeds space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinming

    In this study, cytosine methylation on CCGG site and genomic DNA sequence changes of adult leaves of rice after seeds space flight were detected by methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) and Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique respectively. Rice seeds were planted in the trial field after 4 days space flight on the shenzhou-6 Spaceship of China. Adult leaves of space-treated rice including 8 plants chosen randomly and 2 plants with phenotypic mutation were used for AFLP and MSAP analysis. Polymorphism of both DNA sequence and cytosine methylation were detected. For MSAP analysis, the average polymorphic frequency of the on-ground controls, space-treated plants and mutants are 1.3%, 3.1% and 11% respectively. For AFLP analysis, the average polymorphic frequencies are 1.4%, 2.9%and 8%respectively. Total 27 and 22 polymorphic fragments were cloned sequenced from MSAP and AFLP analysis respectively. Nine of the 27 fragments from MSAP analysis show homology to coding sequence. For the 22 polymorphic fragments from AFLP analysis, no one shows homology to mRNA sequence and eight fragments show homology to repeat region or retrotransposon sequence. These results suggest that although both genomic DNA sequence and cytosine methylation status can be effected by space flight, the genomic region homology to the fragments from genome DNA and cytosine methylation analysis were different.

  15. Clinical study of color Doppler sonography in Graves' disease blood flow changes after thyroid arteries embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Wenquan; Li Weiduo; Yang Jianyong; Chen Wei; Huang Yonghui; Guo Wenbo; Li Jiaping

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the color doppler image characteristics of thyroid arteries pre- and post-interventional procedure and to assess the clinical efficacy in Gnaves' disease. Methods: 11 from 31 patients diagnosed as Graves' disease undertaken thyroid arteries embolization, were analyzed. Color Doppler sonography was applied to monitor the pre-and post- procedure thyroid size and diameters of thyroid arteries. Power Doppler was used to detect the Vmax, Vmin, RI and blood flow. Results: After thyroid arteries embolization, the size and vascularity of thyroids were reduced. The thyroid arteries showed shrinkage and stoppage blood flow at the embolized site. The changes of RI, blood parameters of Vmax, Vmin and diameters of the thyroid arteries pre- and post-procedure turned out to be statistically significant for clinical restriction. Conclusion: The color Doppler sonography plays an important role for preoperative diagnosis and predicting the prognosis

  16. Forerunners and Laggards in Sweden’s Family Change. Fathers’ uptake of parental leave, 1993-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Li; Andersson, Gunnar; Duvander, Ann-Zofie; Evertsson, Marie

    2018-01-01

    Sweden is often considered a forerunner in family change and developments towards less gendered patterns of family production. In this study, we focus on recent developments towards more gender equal sharing of parental leave in Sweden. This country was the first in the world to introduce a gender-neutral parental leave scheme. The aim was to promote the combination of work and family, mainly by enabling women’s participation in the labor force. With time, the focus of polic...

  17. Changes of chloroplast pigments of maize leaves after space flight in recoverable satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Sherong; Zhu Baoge; Liu Genqi

    2001-01-01

    Dried seeds of maize inbred lines were carried by recoverable satellite flying at an altitude of 175-253 km from sea level. The changes of absorption spectra of acetone extracts and chloroplast pigment contents of maize leaves were studied. It showed that the light-absorption characteristics of space-flight treatment (SP) were quite similar to those of the corresponding ground controls (CK) at the same time of sampling. However, the absorbance of the SP were less than CK at absorption peaks of chlorophyll a and b, respectively. The contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b of SP were significantly reduced, and the reduction of chlorophyll b far exceeded chlorophyll a. The contents of chlorophyll a + b were reduced so much that the total amount of their chloroplast pigments was lowered, but Ca/Cb ratio tended to be higher in comparison with CK

  18. Spatiotemporal phenological changes in fall foliage peak coloration in deciduous forest and the responses to climatic variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.; Wilson, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Plant phenology studies typically focus on the beginning and end of the growing season in temperate forests. We know too little about fall foliage peak coloration, which is a bioindicator of plant response in autumn to environmental changes, an important visual cue in fall associated with animal activities, and a key element in fall foliage ecotourism. Spatiotemporal changes in timing of fall foliage peak coloration of temperate forests and the associated environmental controls are not well understood. In this study, we examined multiple color indices to estimate Land Surface Phenology (LSP) of fall foliage peak coloration of deciduous forest in the northeastern USA using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily imagery from 2000 to 2015. We used long term phenology ground observations to validate our estimated LSP, and found that Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARI) and Plant Senescence Reflectance Index (PSRI) were good metrics to estimate peak and end of leaf coloration period of deciduous forest. During the past 16 years, the length of period with peak fall foliage color of deciduous forest at southern New England and northern Appalachian forests regions became longer (0.3 7.7 days), mainly driven by earlier peak coloration. Northern New England, southern Appalachian forests and Ozark and Ouachita mountains areas had shorter period (‒0.2 ‒9.2 days) mainly due to earlier end of leaf coloration. Changes in peak and end of leaf coloration not only were associated with changing temperature in spring and fall, but also to drought and heat in summer, and heavy precipitation in both summer and fall. The associations between leaf peak coloration phenology and climatic variations were not consistent among ecoregions. Our findings suggested divergent change patterns in fall foliage peak coloration phenology in deciduous forests, and improved our understanding in the environmental control on timing of fall foliage color change.

  19. Effect of Accelerated Aging on Color Change of Direct and Indirect Fiber-Reinforced Composite Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masomeh Hasani Tabatabaei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of artificial accelerated aging (AAA on color change of direct and indirect fiber-reinforced composite (FRC restorations.Materials and Methods: Direct (Z250 and indirect (Gradia composite resins were reinforced with glass (GF and polyethylene fibers (PF based on the manufacturers’ instructions. Forty samples were fabricated and divided into eight groups (n=5. Four groups served as experimental groups and the remaining four served as controls. Color change (∆E and color parameters (∆L*, ∆a*, ∆b* were read at baseline and after AAA based on the CIELAB system. Three-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used for statistical analysis.Results: Significant differences were found in ΔE, ΔL*, Δa* and Δb* among the groups after AAA (P<0.05. Most of the studied samples demonstrated an increase in lightness and a red-yellow shift after AAA.Conclusions: The obtained ∆E values were unacceptable after AAA (∆E≥ 3.3. All indirect samples showed a green-blue shift with a reduction in lightness except for Gradia/PF+ NuliteF.Keywords: Aging; Composite Resins; Color

  20. Oral mucosal color changes as a clinical biomarker for cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, Giuseppe; De Felice, Claudio; Barducci, Alessandro; Chitano, Giovanna; Pignatelli, Antonietta; Grimaldi, Luca; Tramacere, Francesco; Laurini, Ricardo; Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Portaluri, Maurizio

    2012-07-01

    Screening is a key tool for early cancer detection/prevention and potentially saves lives. Oral mucosal vascular aberrations and color changes have been reported in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer patients, possibly reflecting a subclinical extracellular matrix abnormality implicated in the general process of cancer development. Reasoning that physicochemical changes of a tissue should affect its optical properties, we investigated the diagnostic ability of oral mucosal color to identify patients with several types of cancer. A total of 67 patients with several histologically proven malignancies at different stages were enrolled along with a group of 60 healthy controls of comparable age and sex ratio. Oral mucosal color was measured in selected areas, and then univariate, cluster, and principal component analyses were carried out. Lower red and green and higher blue values were significantly associated with evidence of cancer (all Pgreen coordinates. Likewise, the second principal component coordinate of the red-green clusters discriminated patients from controls with 98.2% sensitivity and 95% specificity (cut-off criterion≤0.4547; P=0.0001). The scatterplots of the chrominances revealed the formation of two well separated clusters, separating cancer patients from controls with a 99.4% probability of correct classification. These findings highlight the ability of oral color to encode clinically relevant biophysical information. In the near future, this low-cost and noninvasive method may become a useful tool for early cancer detection.

  1. Prey-induced changes in the accumulation of amino acids and phenolic metabolites in the leaves of Drosera capensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Stork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2012-04-01

    Effect of prey feeding (ants Formica fusca) on the quantitative changes in the accumulation of free amino acids, soluble proteins, phenolic metabolites and mineral nutrients in the leaves of carnivorous plant Drosera capensis was studied. Arginine was the most abundant compound in Drosera leaves, while proline was abundant in ants. The amount of the majority of amino acids and their sum were elevated in the fed leaves after 3 and 21 days, and the same, but with further enhancement after 21 days, was observed in ants. Accumulation of amino acids also increased in young non-fed leaves of fed plants. Soluble proteins decreased in ants, but were not enhanced in fed leaves. This confirms the effectiveness of sundew's enzymatic machinery in digestion of prey and suggests that amino acids are not in situ deposited, but rather are allocated within the plant. The content of total soluble phenols, flavonoids and two selected flavonols (quercetin and kaempferol) was not affected by feeding in Drosera leaves, indicating that their high basal level was sufficient for the plant's metabolism and prey-induced changes were mainly N based. The prey also showed to be an important source of other nutrients besides N, and a stimulation of root uptake of some mineral nutrients is assumed (Mg, Cu, Zn). Accumulation of Ca and Na was not affected by feeding.

  2. A colorimetric method for highly sensitive and accurate detection of iodide by finding the critical color in a color change process using silver triangular nanoplates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiu-Hua; Ling, Jian, E-mail: lingjian@ynu.edu.cn; Peng, Jun; Cao, Qiu-E., E-mail: qecao@ynu.edu.cn; Ding, Zhong-Tao; Bian, Long-Chun

    2013-10-10

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Demonstrated a new colorimetric strategy for iodide detection by silver nanoplates. •The colorimetric strategy is to find the critical color in a color change process. •The colorimetric strategy is more accurate and sensitive than common colorimetry. •Discovered a new morphological transformation phenomenon of silver nanoplates. -- Abstract: In this contribution, we demonstrated a novel colorimetric method for highly sensitive and accurate detection of iodide using citrate-stabilized silver triangular nanoplates (silver TNPs). Very lower concentration of iodide can induce an appreciable color change of silver TNPs solution from blue to yellow by fusing of silver TNPs to nanoparticles, as confirmed by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The principle of this colorimetric assay is not an ordinary colorimetry, but a new colorimetric strategy by finding the critical color in a color change process. With this strategy, 0.1 μM of iodide can be recognized within 30 min by naked-eyes observation, and lower concentration of iodide down to 8.8 nM can be detected using a spectrophotometer. Furthermore, this high sensitive colorimetric assay has good accuracy, stability and reproducibility comparing with other ordinary colorimetry. We believe this new colorimetric method will open up a fresh insight of simple, rapid and reliable detection of iodide and can find its future application in the biochemical analysis or clinical diagnosis.

  3. A colorimetric method for highly sensitive and accurate detection of iodide by finding the critical color in a color change process using silver triangular nanoplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiu-Hua; Ling, Jian; Peng, Jun; Cao, Qiu-E.; Ding, Zhong-Tao; Bian, Long-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Demonstrated a new colorimetric strategy for iodide detection by silver nanoplates. •The colorimetric strategy is to find the critical color in a color change process. •The colorimetric strategy is more accurate and sensitive than common colorimetry. •Discovered a new morphological transformation phenomenon of silver nanoplates. -- Abstract: In this contribution, we demonstrated a novel colorimetric method for highly sensitive and accurate detection of iodide using citrate-stabilized silver triangular nanoplates (silver TNPs). Very lower concentration of iodide can induce an appreciable color change of silver TNPs solution from blue to yellow by fusing of silver TNPs to nanoparticles, as confirmed by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The principle of this colorimetric assay is not an ordinary colorimetry, but a new colorimetric strategy by finding the critical color in a color change process. With this strategy, 0.1 μM of iodide can be recognized within 30 min by naked-eyes observation, and lower concentration of iodide down to 8.8 nM can be detected using a spectrophotometer. Furthermore, this high sensitive colorimetric assay has good accuracy, stability and reproducibility comparing with other ordinary colorimetry. We believe this new colorimetric method will open up a fresh insight of simple, rapid and reliable detection of iodide and can find its future application in the biochemical analysis or clinical diagnosis

  4. Color change of CAD-CAM materials and composite resin cements after thermocycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürdal, Isil; Atay, Ayse; Eichberger, Marlis; Cal, Ebru; Üsümez, Aslihan; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2018-04-24

    The color of resin cements and computer-aided-design and computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD-CAM) restorations may change with aging. The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the influence of thermocycling on the color of CAD-CAM materials with underlying resin cement. Seven different CAD-CAM materials, composite resins and glass-ceramics were cut into 0.7-mm and 1.2-mm thicknesses (n=10) and cemented with a dual-polymerizing resin cement, a light-polymerizing resin cement, and a preheated composite resin (N=420). Color values were measured by using spectrophotometry. Specimens were subjected to thermocycling (5°C and 55°C; 5000 cycles). The measured color difference (ΔE) data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. Normality of data distribution was tested by using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Three-way and 1-way ANOVA followed by the Scheffé post-hoc test and unpaired 2-sample Student t test were computed to determine the significant differences among the tested parameters (α=.05). ΔE values were significantly influenced by the CAD-CAM material (η p 2 =0.85, Pcement (η P 2 =0.03, P=.003) but were not influenced by thickness (P=.179). Significant interactions were present among thickness, cement, and CAD-CAM materials (Pcement showed significantly lower ΔE values than the preheated composite resin (P=.003). Restoration materials and composite resin cement types used for cementation influence the amount of color change due to aging. Copyright © 2018 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Atlantic salmon skin and fillet color changes effected by perimortem handling stress, rigor mortis, and ice storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, U; Misimi, E

    2008-03-01

    The changes in skin and fillet color of anesthetized and exhausted Atlantic salmon were determined immediately after killing, during rigor mortis, and after ice storage for 7 d. Skin color (CIE L*, a*, b*, and related values) was determined by a Minolta Chroma Meter. Roche SalmoFan Lineal and Roche Color Card values were determined by a computer vision method and a sensory panel. Before color assessment, the stress levels of the 2 fish groups were characterized in terms of white muscle parameters (pH, rigor mortis, and core temperature). The results showed that perimortem handling stress initially significantly affected several color parameters of skin and fillets. Significant transient fillet color changes also occurred in the prerigor phase and during the development of rigor mortis. Our results suggested that fillet color was affected by postmortem glycolysis (pH drop, particularly in anesthetized fillets), then by onset and development of rigor mortis. The color change patterns during storage were different for the 2 groups of fish. The computer vision method was considered suitable for automated (online) quality control and grading of salmonid fillets according to color.

  6. Anatomical changes on coffee leaves infected by Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Mateus Rivero Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAlthough poorly studied, the bacterial halo blight is an important disease in the major coffee-producing states of Brazil. External damage and anatomical changes on leaves were measured in seedlings of Coffea arabica cv. Mundo Novo, susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae, by using histological sections obtained at 10 and 20 days after inoculation (DAI. The changes on the epidermis were smaller than the lesions measured in the mesophyll, irrespective of the evaluated colonization period, showing that the internal damage caused by the bacterium represent twice the damage observed externally. From the inoculation site, lysis occurred on the epidermal cells and on the palisade and spongy parenchyma cells, with strong staining of their cellular contents, as well as abnormal intercellular spaces in the palisade parenchyma, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of mesophyll cells and partial destruction of chloroplasts. Additionally, this study revealed the presence of inclusion bodies in epidermal and mesophyll cells. Bacterial masses were found in the apoplast between and within mesophyll cells. Bacteria were also observed in the bundle sheath and vascular bundles and were more pronounced at 20 DAI, not only near the inoculation site but also in distant areas, suggesting displacement through the vascular system. These results can be useful to understand this plant-pathogen interaction.

  7. A bioinspired color-changing polystyrene microarray as a rapid qualitative sensor for methanol and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Wen-Kai; Weng, Hsueh-Ping; Hsu, Jyun-Jheng; Yu, Hsin Her

    2016-01-01

    Polystyrene (PS) microspheres were synthesized by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization and arranged in an array of closely packed, opal-like photonic crystals by slow self-assembly through dip-coating. This periodic array of PS microspheres was then employed as a rapid qualitative sensor for methanol and ethanol. Both solvents could be detected rapidly based on the routes of their reflection coordinates in the chromaticity diagram or directly by the naked eye on the basis of the change in color within 1 min once a solvent sample had been placed on the PS photochromic sensor. This opal-like PS sensor can thus not only be employed as a rapid sensor for methanol and ethanol but can also be used as a powerful tool for the fast screening of illicit drugs and toxic chemicals during forensic investigations. - Highlights: • Opal-like array of polystyrene (PS) microspheres is synthesized by self-assembly. • This periodic PS array is used as a rapid sensor for methanol and ethanol. • Solvents are detected by routes of reflection coordinates in chromaticity diagram. • They are also detected directly by naked eye based on change in color of sensor. • The color change is irreversible for methanol but reversible for ethanol.

  8. Extrinsic Tooth Enamel Color Changes and Their Relationship with the Quality of Water Consumed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Luz Rosário de Sousa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the consumed drinking water may affect oral health. For example, the presence of iron in drinking water can cause aesthetic problems related to changes in dental enamel color. This study assessed the prevalence of extrinsic enamel color changes and their relationship with the quality of the water in the town of Caapiranga/AM-Brazil. Three hundred and forty six residents of the urban area were examined, and they also answered a questionnaire on eating habits and self-perceived oral health. As the initial results indicated an insufficient number of observations for the application of variance analysis (one-way ANOVA, the Student t test was chosen to compare levels of iron content in the water coming from two sources. The change in tooth color had a prevalence of 5.78% (20 people. The majority of the population (n = 261, 75.43% consumed well water. Those who presented extrinsic stains were uncomfortable with the appearance of their teeth (15.09%. We conclude that while there is excess of iron in the water in this region of Brazil, no association between extrinsic stains on the enamel and the level of iron in the water was found. There was a low prevalence of extrinsic stains in Caaparinga, being found only in children and adolescents. In the present study, an association between the presence of stains and the consumption of açai was determined, and those who presented them felt uncomfortable about their aesthetics.

  9. A bioinspired color-changing polystyrene microarray as a rapid qualitative sensor for methanol and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Wen-Kai, E-mail: wkkuo@nfu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China); Weng, Hsueh-Ping, E-mail: sherry.weng7949@gmail.com [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Jyun-Jheng, E-mail: k88520x@gmail.com [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China); Yu, Hsin Her, E-mail: hhyu@nfu.edu.tw [Department of Biotechnology, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China)

    2016-04-15

    Polystyrene (PS) microspheres were synthesized by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization and arranged in an array of closely packed, opal-like photonic crystals by slow self-assembly through dip-coating. This periodic array of PS microspheres was then employed as a rapid qualitative sensor for methanol and ethanol. Both solvents could be detected rapidly based on the routes of their reflection coordinates in the chromaticity diagram or directly by the naked eye on the basis of the change in color within 1 min once a solvent sample had been placed on the PS photochromic sensor. This opal-like PS sensor can thus not only be employed as a rapid sensor for methanol and ethanol but can also be used as a powerful tool for the fast screening of illicit drugs and toxic chemicals during forensic investigations. - Highlights: • Opal-like array of polystyrene (PS) microspheres is synthesized by self-assembly. • This periodic PS array is used as a rapid sensor for methanol and ethanol. • Solvents are detected by routes of reflection coordinates in chromaticity diagram. • They are also detected directly by naked eye based on change in color of sensor. • The color change is irreversible for methanol but reversible for ethanol.

  10. A one-step colorimetric acid-base titration sensor using a complementary color changing coordination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hui Hun; Kim, Si Hyun; Heo, Jun Hyuk; Moon, Young Eel; Choi, Young Hun; Lim, Dong Cheol; Han, Kwon-Hoon; Lee, Jung Heon

    2016-06-21

    We report the development of a colorimetric sensor that allows for the quantitative measurement of the acid content via acid-base titration in a single-step. In order to create the sensor, we used a cobalt coordination system (Co-complex sensor) that changes from greenish blue colored Co(H2O)4(OH)2 to pink colored Co(H2O)6(2+) after neutralization. Greenish blue and pink are two complementary colors with a strong contrast. As a certain amount of acid is introduced to the Co-complex sensor, a portion of greenish blue colored Co(H2O)4(OH)2 changes to pink colored Co(H2O)6(2+), producing a different color. As the ratio of greenish blue and pink in the Co-complex sensor is determined by the amount of neutralization reaction occurring between Co(H2O)4(OH)2 and an acid, the sensor produced a spectrum of green, yellow green, brown, orange, and pink colors depending on the acid content. In contrast, the color change appeared only beyond the end point for normal acid-base titration. When we mixed this Co-complex sensor with different concentrations of citric acid, tartaric acid, and malic acid, three representative organic acids in fruits, we observed distinct color changes for each sample. This color change could also be observed in real fruit juice. When we treated the Co-complex sensor with real tangerine juice, it generated diverse colors depending on the concentration of citric acid in each sample. These results provide a new angle on simple but quantitative measurements of analytes for on-site usage in various applications, such as in food, farms, and the drug industry.

  11. You are what you eat: within-subject increases in fruit and vegetable consumption confer beneficial skin-color changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross D Whitehead

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetable consumption and ingestion of carotenoids have been found to be associated with human skin-color (yellowness in a recent cross-sectional study. This carotenoid-based coloration contributes beneficially to the appearance of health in humans and is held to be a sexually selected cue of condition in other species.Here we investigate the effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on skin-color longitudinally to determine the magnitude and duration of diet change required to change skin-color perceptibly. Diet and skin-color were recorded at baseline and after three and six weeks, in a group of 35 individuals who were without makeup, self-tanning agents and/or recent intensive UV exposure. Six-week changes in fruit and vegetable consumption were significantly correlated with changes in skin redness and yellowness over this period, and diet-linked skin reflectance changes were significantly associated with the spectral absorption of carotenoids and not melanin. We also used psychophysical methods to investigate the minimum color change required to confer perceptibly healthier and more attractive skin-coloration. Modest dietary changes are required to enhance apparent health (2.91 portions per day and attractiveness (3.30 portions.Increased fruit and vegetable consumption confers measurable and perceptibly beneficial effects on Caucasian skin appearance within six weeks. This effect could potentially be used as a motivational tool in dietary intervention.

  12. Phytohormonal regulation of biomass allocation and morphological and physiological traits of leaves in response to environmental changes in Polygonum cuspidatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Sugiura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants plastically change their morphological and physiological traits in response to environmental changes, which are accompanied by changes in endogenous levels of phytohormones. Although roles of phytohormones in various aspects of plant growth and development were elucidated, their importance in the regulation of biomass allocation was not fully investigated. This study aimed to determine causal relationships among changes in biomass allocation, morphological and physiological traits, and endogenous levels of phytohormones such as gibberellins (GAs and cytokinins (CKs in response to environmental changes in Polygonum cuspidatum. Seedlings of P. cuspidatum were grown under two light intensities, each at three nitrogen availabilities. The seedlings grown in high light intensity and high nitrogen availability (HH were subjected to three additional treatments: defoliating half of the leaves (Def, transferral to low nitrogen availability (LowN or low light intensity (LowL. Biomass allocation at the whole-plant level, morphological and physiological traits of each leaf, and endogenous levels of phytohormones in each leaf and shoot apex were measured. Age-dependent changes in leaf traits were also investigated. After the treatments, endogenous levels of GAs in the shoot apex and leaves significantly increased in Def, decreased in LowN, and did not change in LowL compared with HH seedlings. Among all of the seedlings, the levels of GAs in the shoot apex and leaves were strongly correlated with biomass allocation ratio between leaves and roots. The levels of GAs in the youngest leaves were highest, while the levels of CKs were almost consistent in each leaf. The levels of CKs were positively correlated with leaf nitrogen content in each leaf, whereas the levels of GAs were negatively correlated with the total non-structural carbohydrate content in each leaf. These results support our hypothesis that GAs and CKs are key regulatory factors that control

  13. Color changes of esthetic orthodontic ligatures evaluated by orthodontists and patients: a clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Kawabata

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate in vivo changes in the color of esthetic elastomeric ligatures from different manufacturers. Methods: Four widely used commercial brands of elastomeric ligatures were selected and used in 20 adult patients in a split-mouth design. The ligatures were evaluated by orthodontists and patients in a double-blind manner on the day the ligatures were placed (T0 and 30 days after intraoral exposure (T1 by means of a system of staining scores. Groups were compared by Friedman test with p 0.05. Results showed that all brands underwent significant staining when exposed to the intraoral environment. Modular-crystal MorelliTM (Sorocaba, SP, Brazil showed the highest degree of staining with the median reaching the maximum value (3; while the other brands (3M UnitekTM, American OrthodonticsTM and GAC DentsplyTM showed the median equal to 1 (p < 0.001. A large individual variability in the degree of staining was also found for all brands. Conclusions: All four brands of esthetic ligatures showed significant staining, which appeared to be more pronounced for the MorelliTM brand. Changes in color of the elastomeric ligatures were perceived similarly by patients and orthodontists. The industry needs to improve the color stability of esthetic ligatures.

  14. Investigation of functional properties and color changes of corn extrudates enriched with broccoli or olive paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisharat, Ghassan I; Katsavou, Ioanna D; Panagiotou, Nikolaos M; Krokida, Magdalini K; Maroulis, Zacharias B

    2015-12-01

    Following the tendency of replacing common food snacks with healthier food products, extruded snacks with corn flour and broccoli (4-10%) or olive paste (4-8%) were investigated in this study. The effect of material characteristics, including feed moisture content (14-19%), and broccoli or olive paste concentration, and extrusion conditions, including screw speed (150-250 r/min), and extrusion temperature (140-180 ℃), on the functional properties (water absorption index, water solubility index, and oil absorption index), as well as color change (ΔE) of the extruded snacks was studied. Regression analysis showed that screw speed did not significantly influence (p > 0.05) the properties. After mathematical modelling it was found that broccoli and olive paste concentration, as well as temperature increment, caused a decrease in water absorption index (minimum of 5.6 and 6.4 g/g sample, respectively) and an increase in water solubility index (maximum of 18.7 and 10.9 g/100 g sample, respectively), while feed moisture presented opposite tendency. Higher extrusion temperature led to an increment of oil absorption index (approximately to 1.2 and 1 mL/g sample) and decrement of color changes. Finally, feed moisture and broccoli concentration lowered oil absorption index and color of corn/broccoli extrudates, while olive paste concentration caused their increment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. The change in color matches with retinal angle of incidence of the colorimeter beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpern, M; Kitahara, H; Fielder, G H

    1987-01-01

    Differences between W.D.W. chromaticities of monochromatic lights obtained with all colorimeter beams incident on the retina "off-axis" and those found for lights striking the retina normally have been studied throughout the visible spectrum on 4 normal trichromats. The results are inconsistent with: (i) the assumption in Weale's theories of the Stiles-Crawford hue shift that the sets of absorption spectra of the visual pigments catching normally and obliquely incident photons are identical, and (ii) "self-screening" explanations for the change in color with angle of incidence on the retina. The color matching functions of a protanomalous trichromat are inconsistent with the hypothesis that the absorption spectra of the visual pigments catching normally incident photons in his retina are those catching obliquely incident photons in the normal retina.

  16. THE EFFECT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES ON CHANGE IN BLOOD PROFILE IN POSTPARTUM MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Estiyani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postpartum anemia among mothers is a health problem in Indonesia. Consuming Moringa Oleifera is assumed as one of the efforts to deal with anemia. However, lack of the study conducted in the working in the working area of health center of Tlogosari Wetan. Objective: This study was conducted to examine the effect of Moringa Oleifera on blood profile in postpartum mothers. Methods: The study was quasy experimental study with pretest posttest control group design. The sample in this study were all postpartum mothers in the working area of the health center of Tlogosari Wetan. It was 30 respondents recruited by purposive sampling, divided into intervention group (15 respondents who received Moringa leaf capsule and iron tablet; and control group (15 respondents were given iron tablet. Data were analyzed using Independent t-test. Results: Findings showed a significant difference in the mean of hemoglobin level (Intervention group 11.9467; control group 11.0600, hematocrit (Intervention group 38.3867; Control group 33.8133, thrombocyte (Intervention group 3.02536; Control group 2.35805, and erythrocyte (Intervention group 4.30137; Control group 3.78206 with p-value < 0.05. Conclusion: there was a significant effect of Moringa Oleifera on changes in blood profile (hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte, thrombocyte in postpartum mothers in the working area of the health center of Tlogosari Wetan. Thus, it is suggested that Moringa leaves could be used to prevent anemia in postpartum mothers.

  17. Structural changes in leaves and roots are anatomical markers of aluminum sensitivity in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel da Silva de Jesus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity in plants evidences the importance of genotype evaluation to the identification of tolerance markers. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of aluminum stress on the relative water content, membrane damages and anatomical changes, in Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive sunflower cultivars. Sunflower plants [Catissol (Al-tolerant and IAC-Uruguai (Al-sensitive] were grown in nutrient solution (control or nutrient solution containing 0.15 mM of AlCl3 (Al-stress treatment, in a greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a factorial arrangement consisting of four harvest times x two sunflower cultivars x two Al levels, with four replications. The results showed that Al negatively affected the absolute integrity percentage and relative water content only for the IAC-Uruguay cultivar. These results in the stressed leaves of the Al-sensitive cultivar may be due to damage in the xylem structure. In addition, the increase in leaf blade thickness and parenchyma layers, as well as lignification of root tissues, are important traits of IAC-Uruguay plants and may be used as anatomical markers of Al sensitivity in sunflower.

  18. Influence of work-related characteristics and work ability on changing employer or leaving the profession among nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongen, Anne; Robroek, Suzan; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Schouteten, Roel L.J.; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate how work-related characteristics and work ability influence nursing staff decisions to change employer or leave the profession. Background Previous cross-sectional studies have indicated that decreased work ability and unfavourable work-related characteristics are important

  19. Phenological changes in bamboo carbohydrates explain the preference for culm over leaves by giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca during spring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina K Knott

    Full Text Available Seasonal changes in the foodscape force herbivores to select different plant species or plant parts to meet nutritional requirements. We examined whether the search for calorie-rich carbohydrates explained giant panda's selection for bamboo culm over leaves during spring. Leaves and culms were collected from four Phyllostachys bamboos (P. aurea, P. aureosulcata, P. glauca, and P. nuda once per month over 18-27 months. Monthly changes in annual plant part nutrients were examined, and compared to seasonal foraging behaviors of captive giant pandas. Although total fiber was greater (p<0.0001 in culm (85.6 ± 0.5% than leaves (55.3 ± 0.4% throughout the year, culm fiber was at its lowest in spring (79-85% when culm selection by giant pandas exceeded 70% of their overall diet. Culm starch also was greatest (p = 0.044 during spring (5.5 ± 1.1% and 2.5-fold the percentage of starch in leaves (2.2 ± 0.6%. The free sugars in spring culm consisted of a high proportion of glucose (35% and fructose (47%, whereas sucrose made up 42% of the total free sugar content of spring leaves. Bound sugars in culm consisted of 60% glucose and 38% xylose likely representative of hemicellulose. The concentrations of bound sugars (hemicelluloses in spring culms (543.7 ± 13.0 mg/g was greater (p<0.001 than in leaves (373.0 ± 14.8 mg/g. These data help explain a long-standing question in giant panda foraging ecology: why consume the plant part with the lowest protein and fat during the energetically intensive spring breeding season? Giant pandas likely prefer spring culm that contains abundant mono- and polysaccharides made more bioavailable as a result of reduced fiber content. These data suggest that phenological changes in bamboo plant part nutrition drive foraging decisions by giant pandas.

  20. Changes in color and odorant compounds during oxidative aging of Pedro Ximenez sweet wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Margarita; Zea, Luis; Moyano, Lourdes; Medina, Manuel

    2007-05-02

    Pedro Ximenez sweet wines obtained following the typical criaderas and solera method for sherry wines and subjected to oxidative aging for 0, 1.3, 4.2, 7.0, or 11.5 years were studied in terms of color and aroma fraction by using the CIELab method and gas chromatography, respectively. The parameters defining the CIELab color space (a*, b*, and L*) were subjected to a multiple-range test (p 1 that enriched the wines with fruity, fatty, floral, and balsamic notes during the aging process. The changes in color parameters and active odorants were not linearly related to aging time, being especially marked during the first 1.3 years and then less substantial up to the 7 years, the oldest wines exhibiting sensorial properties markedly departing from all others. For the wines aged over 1.3 years (minimum aging), 2,3-butanedione, linalool, and decanal can be used as reliable fingerprints of the older wines' quality.

  1. Structural change of cooper pairs in color superconductivity. Crossover from weak coupling to strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuki, Hiroaki; Hatsuda, Tetsuo [Tokyo Univ., Dept. of Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Itakura, Kazunori [Brookhaven National Laboratory, RIKEN BNL Research Center, Upton, NY (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The two-flavor color superconductivity is studied over a wide range of baryon density with a single model. We pay a special attention to the spatial-momentum dependence of the gap and to the spatial-structure of Cooper pairs. At extremely high baryon density ({approx}O(10{sup 10} {rho}{sub 0}) with {rho}{sub 0} being the normal nuclear matter density), our model becomes equivalent to the usual perturbative QCD treatment and the gap is shown to have a sharp peak near the Fermi surface due to the weak-coupling nature of QCD. On the other hand, the gap is a smooth function of the momentum at lower densities ({approx}O(10{sup 10} {rho}{sub 0})) due to strong color magnetic and electric interactions. To study the structural change of Cooper pairs from high density to lower density, quark correlation in the color superconductor is studied both in the momentum space and in the coordinate space. The size of the Cooper pair is shown to become comparable to the averaged inter-quark distance at low densities. Also, effects of the momentum-dependent running coupling and the antiquark pairing, which are both small at high density, are shown to be non-negligible at low densities. These features are highly contrasted to the standard BCS superconductivity in metals. (author)

  2. Assessment of Color Changes in Vita 3D-Master Shade Guide after Sterilization and Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dashti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:Dental shade guides are commonly used for color determination and should be disinfected and sterilized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the color change of Vita 3D Master shade tabs after disinfection and sterilization. Material and methods:Overall, 98 samples (shade tabs were randomly selected from 14 new, unused Vita 3D sets, including the following shades: 2M1, 3L1.5, 3M1, 3M2, 3M3, 3R1.5 and 4M1. In each set, values of 2, 3 and 4, chroma of 1, 2 and 3 and hue were selected for the comparison of different shades. All tabs were measured using the Vita Easyshade device at baseline. The first group was disinfected with Deconex and the second group was sterilized by autoclaving in a simulated annual application. All the tabs were measured again using the same device. This process was repeated to simulate 2 and 3 years of usage. Statistical analysis was conducted by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA and independent t-test and paired sample t-test. Results:In the disinfected group, we observed significant differences in value and chroma in all periods (p˂0.001. However, hue showed no significant difference after the first year of simulated treatment (p=0.527, though it was significantly different in the second and third simulations (p˂0.001. In the sterilized group, all variables showed a significant difference for each year (p˂0.05. Considering total color difference (ΔE, there was a significant difference between the two groups in the first, second and third simulated years; ΔE increased in the sterilized group more than in the disinfected samples (p˂0.001.  Conclusions:  The color change of shade tabs was significant both after disinfection by a chemical solution and by sterilization through autoclaving. However, although disinfectants may not have a clinically important effect, sterilization should be considered as an interfering factor during color-matching procedure.

  3. Color change in acrylic resin processed in three ways after immersion in water, cola, coffee, mate and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldemarin, Renato Fa; Terra, Priscila C; Pinto, Luciana R; Faot, Fernanda; Camacho, Guilherme B

    2013-01-01

    Denture bases may undergo color change over time induced by pigment accumulation within their body; however there is a lack of information regarding the role of yerba mate tea in this process. This work evaluated the effect of five common beverages, including yerba mate tea, on color changes of acrylic denture base resins processed in three different ways. Three different processing techniques were used (P1--microwave irradiation/microwave activated resin; P2--heat polymerization/conventional heat activated resin and P3--microwave irradiation/conventional heat polymerized resin) to make twenty five resin discs each (3.0 mm thick x 20 mm diameter), totaling seventy-five resin discs. The discs made with each technique were randomly divided into five groups (n = 5) and placed in the following solutions: G1-water; G2-cola; G3-coffee; G4-yerba mate tea; G5-red wine, for 30 days at 37 degrees C. The solutions were renewed every 3 days. Color change on the CIE-L*a*b* scale was measured with a Konica-Minolta CR-10 colorimeter and compared with original L* a* and b* values of each specimen prior to immersion. Data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA, and showed no difference among techniques and significant statistical differences among solutions (p < 0.05). Tukey's post-hoc test showed that the lowest color changes were for water and cola, which were undistinguishable from each other; coffee produced the second lowest color change; yerba mate tea produced second greatest color change, while the greatest color change was produced by red wine. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that almost all the solutions used can change color in acrylic resin, especially yerba mate tea, considered distinguishable by professionals, and red wine, considered distinguishable by patients and clinically unacceptable.

  4. Color-Changing Sensors for Detecting the Presence of Hypergolic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke; Captain, Janine; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Starr, Stanley; DeVor, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Hypergolic fuel sensors were designed to incorporate novel chemochromic pigments into substrates for use in various methods of leak detection. There are several embodiments to this invention that would provide specific visual indication of hypergols used during and after transfer. The ability to incorporate these pigments into various polymer matrices provides a unique opportunity to manufacture nearly any type of sensor shape that is required. The vibrant color change from yellow to black instantaneously shows the worker the presence of hypergols in the area.

  5. Changes of main secondary metabolites in leaves of Ginkgo biloba in response to ozone fumigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xingyuan; HUANG Wei; CHEN Wei; DONG Tian; LIU Changbing; CHEN Zhenju; XU Sheng; RUAN Yanan

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of elevated O3 on the accumulation of main secondary metabolites in leaves of Ginkgo biloba L., four-year-old trees were exposed in open-top chambers with ambient air and the air with twice ambient O3 concentration in Shenyang in 2006.Elevated O3 increased the concentrations of terpenes, but decreased the concentrations of phenolics in G.biloba leaves.The results showed that secondary compounds from G.biloba leaves responded to the elevated O3 exposure in a different way when compared to previous studies which showed elevated O3 increased the concentrations of phenolics but had no effect on the terpenes in leaves of other deciduous trees.Furthermore, reduced synthesis of phenolics may decrease the resistance of G.biloba to O3 and other environmental factors.On the other hand, the induced synthesis of terpenes may enhance the antioxidant abilities in G.biloba leaves at the end of O3 fumigation.

  6. Melanin deposition ruled out as cause of color changes in the red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dainan; Gong, Shiping; Yang, Jiangbo; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Wei, Yufeng

    2018-03-01

    Animal coloration primarily depends on the presence of pigments and the mixing ratio of eumelanin and pheomelanin. The color of red-eared slider's carapace varies with age, from an olive green to a yellow green, and then to a yellow brown in juveniles, generally. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether this color change is related to the difference in melanin expression. Melanin deposition levels were examined in the carapace, skin, eye and muscle of the three color-types using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Moreover, the full-length coding sequence (CDS) of red-eared slider turtle melanin biosynthesis regulatory genes TYR, TYRP1, MITF and SLC24A5 were cloned, sequenced and quantitatively analyzed. Both histological view of melanin deposition and quantitative real-time PCR test of melanin-regulated gene expressions showed that there are significant differences among different tissues of red-eared slider, but no significant difference among different color-types, indicating that melanin deposition is not associated with ontogenetic color change in the carapace of red-eared slider. This study initially explore the melanin deposition and the mRNA expression of melanin biosynthesis regulatory genes in red-eared slider, which serve as a foundation for further insight into the pigmentation patterns and the mechanism of body color change in turtles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Flower color changes in three Japanese hibiscus species: further quantitative variation of anthocyanin and flavonols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Satoshi; Iwashina, Tsukasa; Murakami, Noriaki

    2015-03-01

    One anthocyanin and four flavonols were detected from the petals of Hibiscus hamabo, H. tiliaceus and H. glaber. They were identified as cyanidin 3-0- sambubioside, gossypetin 3-O-glucuronide-8-O-glucoside, quercetin 7-O-rutinoside, gossypetin 3-O-glucoside and gossypetin 8-O-glucuronide by UV spectra, LC-MS, acid hydrolysis and HPLC. The flavonoid composition was essentially the same among the petals ofH. hamabo, H. tiliaceus and H. glaber, and there was little quantitative variation, except for cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside, the content of which in the petals ofH. tiliaceus and H. glaber was much higher than in that of H. hamabo. Flower colors of H. tiliaceus and H. glaber change from yellow to red, and that of H. hamabo changes from yellow to orange. These changes were caused by contents of anthocyanin and flavonols, which increased after flowering of H. hamabo, H. tiliaceus and H. glaber.

  8. Concentration change of radiocaesium in persimmon leaves and fruits. Observation results in 2011 Spring - 2013 Summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    To make dried-fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki), its fresh fruits were generally processed to decrease their water-contents to about 30-50%. During this food process, their radiocaesium concentrations increased without any loss, and, occasionally, the dried-fruits may exceed the food standard level of 100 Bq/kg (edible form). Thus, it is necessary to estimate the radiocaesium concentrations in the products before the fresh fruit harvesting and processing. For this purpose, radiocaesium concentrations in leaves of persimmon trees were monitored with time. The 137 Cs concentrations in the fruits were usually lower than those in the leaves and the concentration ratio was less than 0.4 on a fresh weight basis. The ratio became smaller when closer the harvest season. Thus the concentration of leaves could be a good indicator to estimate the processed persimmon fruits. (author)

  9. Arthritis-related work transitions: a prospective analysis of reported productivity losses, work changes, and leaving the labor force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Monique A M; Cao, Xingshan; Lacaille, Diane; Anis, Aslam H; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2008-12-15

    To prospectively examine arthritis-related productivity losses, work changes, and leaving employment, the relationships among these work transitions, and the factors associated with them. Participants with inflammatory arthritis or osteoarthritis were interviewed at 4 time points, 18 months apart, using a structured questionnaire. At baseline (T1), all participants (n = 490; 381 women, 109 men) were employed. At T2, T3, and T4, the sample decreased to 413, 372, and 349 participants, respectively. Respondents were recruited using community advertising and from rheumatology and rehabilitation clinics. Work transitions considered were productivity losses (absenteeism, job disruptions), work changes (reduced hours, changing jobs), and leaving employment. Also measured were demographic, illness, work context, and psychological variables. Generalized estimation equations modeled predictors of work transitions over time. Although 63.1% of respondents remained employed throughout the study, work transitions were common (reported by 76.5% of participants). Productivity losses, especially job disruptions such as being unable to take on extra work, were the most frequently reported. Work transitions were related to subsequently making other work transitions, including leaving employment. Age, sex, education, activity limitations, control, depression, and arthritis-work spillover were also associated with work transitions. This study sheds light on a process of diverse employment changes that may occur in the lives of many individuals with arthritis. It emphasizes the interrelationships among work transitions, as well as other factors in predicting work transitions, and it provides insight into work changes that may signal impending difficulties with remaining employed.

  10. Effect of light irradiation on tooth whitening: enamel microhardness and color change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Mauricio Neves; Francci, Carlos; Medeiros, Igor Studart; De Godoy Froes Salgado, Nívea Regina; Riehl, Heraldo; Marasca, José Milton; Muench, Antônio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of light exposure associated with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Pola Office, SDI, Melbourne, Vic., Australia) or 15% hydrogen peroxide (BriteSmile, Discus, Culver City, CA, USA) on the microhardness and color changes of bovine enamel. Experimental groups were Britesmile + Light (BL) (15% hydrogen peroxide + plasm arc; 4 x 20 minutes), Britesmile + No Light (BN) (BL, no light), Pola office + Light (PL) (35% hydrogen peroxide + LED; 4 x 8 minutes), and Pola office + No light (PN) (PL, no light). Color changes (DeltaE) and the CIELAB (Commission Internationale de l' Eclairage, L* a* b* color system) parameters (L*, a*, and b*) were assessed with a spectrophotometer before (B), immediately (A), 1 day and 7 days after bleaching. The microhardness was measured before (B) and after (A), the obtained data were submitted to a two-way analysis of variance, and DeltaE were submitted to t-test for each period. Only Pola Office, in which the peroxide is associated with the light, improved DeltaE when evaluated immediately after bleaching (p enamel microhardness was not altered after bleaching for BriteSmile. However, enamel microhardness was reduced after bleaching for Pola Office, 283 MPa (+/-21) and 265 MPa (+/-27), respectively. It was concluded that these two bleaching systems were efficient regardless of the light systems used. However, the 35% hydrogen peroxide altered the enamel microhardness. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Enamel microhardness was affected by a 35% hydrogen peroxide in-office bleaching therapy. Moreover, the in-office bleaching outcome was not improved by using the light associated with systems tested in this study. (J Esthet Restor Dent 21:387-396, 2009).

  11. Tooth color change caused by photosensitizers after photodynamic therapy: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Larissa Menezes; Matos, Felipe de Souza; Correia, Ayla Macyelle de Oliveira; Carvalho, Nayane Chagas; Faria-E-Silva, André Luís; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Ribeiro, Maria Amália Gonzaga

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to perform an in vitro evaluation of the effect of photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) on tooth color change when used in combination with conventional endodontic treatment. Forty extracted human mandibular premolars were accessed and underwent root canal therapy and PDT. Photosensitizers were used in accordance with the experimental groups: MB (n=10) - PDT with Methylene Blue at 0.01%; TB (n=10) - PDT with Toluidine Blue at 0.01%; MG (n=10) - PDT with Malachite Green at 0.01%, at the concentration of 0.1mg/mL; and PC (n=10) - positive control, PDT with Endo-PTC cream stained with Methylene Blue at 25%. The samples were irradiated with 660-nm diode laser by means of a 330-μm-diameter optical fiber cable at a power density of 40mW for 120s. After light curing, the photosensitizers were removed from the specimens with 10mL sodium hypochlorite at 1%. A reflectance spectrometer was used for evaluation of color prior to and 60days after the experimental procedure based on the CIE L*a*b* system. According to ANOVA test, there were statistically significant differences between the experimental groups (p=0.003). Tukey's test showed a significant difference between PC and TB (p=0.008), as well as between MG and TB (p=0.009). However, there was no statistically significant difference between PC, MG (p=0.957) and MB (p=0.103). It was concluded that the use of PDT as an adjuvant to root canal therapy, using different photosensitizers, led to color change in tooth structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A method and results of color calibration for the Chang'e-3 terrain camera and panoramic camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Xin; Li Chun-Lai; Liu Jian-Jun; Wang Fen-Fei; Yang Jian-Feng; Xue Bin; Liu En-Hai; Zhao Ru-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The terrain camera (TCAM) and panoramic camera (PCAM) are two of the major scientific payloads installed on the lander and rover of the Chang'e 3 mission respectively. They both use a Bayer color filter array covering CMOS sensor to capture color images of the Moon's surface. RGB values of the original images are related to these two kinds of cameras. There is an obvious color difference compared with human visual perception. This paper follows standards published by the International Commission on Illumination to establish a color correction model, designs the ground calibration experiment and obtains the color correction coefficient. The image quality has been significantly improved and there is no obvious color difference in the corrected images. Ground experimental results show that: (1) Compared with uncorrected images, the average color difference of TCAM is 4.30, which has been reduced by 62.1%. (2) The average color differences of the left and right cameras in PCAM are 4.14 and 4.16, which have been reduced by 68.3% and 67.6% respectively

  13. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  14. Shear bond strength of metallic and ceramic brackets using color change adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha de Souza Gomes Stumpf

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets using color change adhesives that are supposed to aid in removing excess of bonding material and compare them to a traditional adhesive. METHODS: Ninety metallic and ninety ceramic brackets were bonded to bovine incisors using two color change adhesives and a regular one. A tensile stress was applied by a universal testing machine. The teeth were observed in a microscope after debonding in order to determine the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI. RESULTS: The statistical analysis (ANOVA, Tukey, and Kruskall-Wallis tests demonstrated that the mean bond strength presented no difference when metallic and ceramic brackets were compared but the bond resistance values were significantly different for the three adhesives used. The most common ARI outcome was the entire adhesive remaining on the enamel. CONCLUSIONS: The bond strength was similar for metallic and ceramic brackets when the same adhesive system was used. ARI scores demonstrated that bonding with these adhesives is safe even when ceramic brackets were used. On the other hand, bond strength was too low for orthodontic purposes when Ortho Lite Cure was used.

  15. Proteomics approach reveals mechanism underlying susceptibility of loquat fruit to sunburn during color changing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ji-Mou; Lin, Yong-Xiang; Chen, Yi-Yong; Deng, Chao-Jun; Gong, Hui-Wen; Xu, Qi-Zhi; Zheng, Shao-Quan; Chen, Wei

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate why loquat fruit peels are more sensitive to high temperature and strong sunlight, making them highly susceptible to sunburn, during the color changing period (CCP). Two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) of the fruit peel proteins was performed over three developmental periods, namely green fruit period (GFP), color changing period and yellow ripening period (YRP). Fifty-five protein spots with at least 2-fold differences in abundance were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS. The identified proteins were divided into categories related to heat-shock response, stress response and defense, energy metabolism, photosynthesis and protein biosynthesis. The results showed that expression of proteins related to anaerobic respiration and photorespiration were increased while the proteins related to ROS scavenging, polyamine biosynthesis, defense pathogens and photosynthesis were decreased during CCP under heat stress. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of loquat fruit susceptible to sunburn during CCP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Perspectives on empirical approaches for ocean color remote sensing of chlorophyll in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierssen, Heidi M

    2010-10-05

    Phytoplankton biomass and productivity have been continuously monitored from ocean color satellites for over a decade. Yet, the most widely used empirical approach for estimating chlorophyll a (Chl) from satellites can be in error by a factor of 5 or more. Such variability is due to differences in absorption and backscattering properties of phytoplankton and related concentrations of colored-dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and minerals. The empirical algorithms have built-in assumptions that follow the basic precept of biological oceanography--namely, oligotrophic regions with low phytoplankton biomass are populated with small phytoplankton, whereas more productive regions contain larger bloom-forming phytoplankton. With a changing world ocean, phytoplankton composition may shift in response to altered environmental forcing, and CDOM and mineral concentrations may become uncoupled from phytoplankton stocks, creating further uncertainty and error in the empirical approaches. Hence, caution is warranted when using empirically derived Chl to infer climate-related changes in ocean biology. The Southern Ocean is already experiencing climatic shifts and shows substantial errors in satellite-derived Chl for different phytoplankton assemblages. Accurate global assessments of phytoplankton will require improved technology and modeling, enhanced field observations, and ongoing validation of our "eyes in space."

  17. Shear bond strength of metallic and ceramic brackets using color change adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Aisha de Souza Gomes; Bergmann, Carlos; Prietsch, José Renato; Vicenzi, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    To determine the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets using color change adhesives that are supposed to aid in removing excess of bonding material and compare them to a traditional adhesive. Ninety metallic and ninety ceramic brackets were bonded to bovine incisors using two color change adhesives and a regular one. A tensile stress was applied by a universal testing machine. The teeth were observed in a microscope after debonding in order to determine the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). The statistical analysis (ANOVA, Tukey, and Kruskall-Wallis tests) demonstrated that the mean bond strength presented no difference when metallic and ceramic brackets were compared, but the bond resistance values were significantly different for the three adhesives used. The most common ARI outcome was the entire adhesive remaining on the enamel. The bond strength was similar for metallic and ceramic brackets when the same adhesive system was used. ARI scores demonstrated that bonding with these adhesives is safe even when ceramic brackets were used. On the other hand, bond strength was too low for orthodontic purposes when Ortho Lite Cure was used.

  18. Pathogen-Induced Changes in the Antioxidant Status of the Apoplast in Barley Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Hélène; Carver, Tim L.W.; Foyer, Christine H.

    1998-01-01

    Leaves of two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) isolines, Alg-R, which has the dominant Mla1 allele conferring hypersensitive race-specific resistance to avirulent races of Blumeria graminis, and Alg-S, which has the recessive mla1 allele for susceptibility to attack, were inoculated with B. graminis f. sp. hordei. Total leaf and apoplastic antioxidants were measured 24 h after inoculation when maximum numbers of attacked cells showed hypersensitive death in Alg-R. Cytoplasmic contamination of the apoplastic extracts, judged by the marker enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, was very low (less than 2%) even in inoculated plants. Dehydroascorbate, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and dehydroascorbate reductase were present in the apoplast. Inoculation had no effect on the total foliar ascorbate pool size or the redox state. The glutathione content of Alg-S leaves and apoplast decreased, whereas that of Alg-R leaves and apoplast increased after pathogen attack, but the redox state was unchanged in both cases. Large increases in foliar catalase activity were observed in Alg-S but not in Alg-R leaves. Pathogen-induced increases in the apoplastic antioxidant enzyme activities were observed. We conclude that sustained oxidation does not occur and that differential strategies of antioxidant response in Alg-S and Alg-R may contribute to pathogen sensitivity. PMID:9662553

  19. Change of Bioactive Constituent in Clinacanthus nutans Leaves under Sun Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Sriyana; Aziz, Muhamad Faris Abdul

    2018-03-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans) or locally known as belalai gajah is a folk medicine since ancient time. This research project was established to investigate the effects of under sun drying on the C. nutans bioactive constituent. The drying experiments were conducted using different drying surfaces i.e. perforated, black polythene and white polythene. The fresh and dried leaves were then extracted using a sonicator to evaluate its bioactive constituent. The total phenolic content (TPC) in the C. nutans extracts were determined using Follin Ciocalteu reagent method to represent the bioactive constituent. Drying over the white polythene surface showed the slowest reduction of moisture content as compared to the perforated polythene and black surfaces. Results also showed no significant effect of the drying surfaces on the TPC. However, the TPC in the dried leaves was significantly higher than in the fresh leaves. This may be due to the plant cells response to abiotic stress and the inhibition of oxidation enzymes. Therefore, drying C. nutanc leaves under sun light could be considered in order to preserve the concentration of phenolic compounds and for minimizing energy consumption.

  20. A DIGE analysis of developing poplar leaves subjected to ozone reveals major changes in carbon metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohler, Sacha; Bagard, Matthieu; Oufir, Mouhssin; Planchon, Sébastien; Hoffmann, Lucien; Jolivet, Yves; Hausman, Jean-François; Dizengremel, Pierre; Renaut, Jenny

    2007-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone pollution is described as having major negative effects on plants, compromising plant survival. Carbon metabolism is especially affected. In the present work, the effects of chronic ozone exposure were evaluated at the proteomic level in developing leaves of young poplar plants exposed to 120 ppb of ozone for 35 days. Soluble proteins (excluding intrinsic membrane proteins) were extracted from leaves after 3, 14 and 35 days of ozone exposure, as well as 10 days after a recovery period. Proteins (pI 4 to 7) were analyzed by 2-D DIGE experiments, followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF identification. Additional observations were obtained on growth, lesion formation, and leaf pigments analysis. Although treated plants showed large necrotic spots and chlorosis in mature leaves, growth decreased only slightly and plant height was not affected. The number of abscised leaves was higher in treated plants, but new leaf formation was not affected. A decrease in chlorophylls and lutein contents was recorded. A large number of proteins involved in carbon metabolism were identified. In particular, proteins associated with the Calvin cycle and electron transport in the chloroplast were down-regulated. In contrast, proteins associated with glucose catabolism increased in response to ozone exposure. Other identified enzymes are associated with protein folding, nitrogen metabolism and oxidoreductase activity.

  1. Changing maternity leave policy: short-term effects on fertility rates and demographic variables in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyrian, Jochen René; Fendrich, Konstanze; Lange, Anja; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Zygmunt, Marek; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2010-08-01

    Changes in reproductive behaviour and decreasing fertility rates have recently led to policy actions that attempt to counteract these developments. Evidence on the efficacy of such policy interventions, however, is limited. The present analysis examines fertility rates and demographic variables of a population in Germany in response to new maternity leave regulations, which were introduced in January 2007. As part of a population-based survey of neonates in Pomerania (SNiP), all births in the study region from the period 23 months prior to January 1st, 2007 until 23 months afterwards were examined. Crude Birth Rates (CBR) per month, General Fertility Rates (GFR) per month, parity and sociodemographic variables were compared using bivariate techniques. Logistic regression analysis was performed. No statistically significant difference in the CBR or GFR after Jan. 1st, 2007 was found. There were statistically significant differences in other demographic variables, however. The proportion of mothers who (a) were employed full-time before pregnancy; (b) came from a higher socioeconomic status; and (c) had higher income levels all increased after January 1st, 2007. The magnitude of these effects was higher in multigravid women. Forward stepwise logistic regression found an odds ratio of 1.79 for women with a family income of more than 3000 euro to give birth after the new law was introduced. This is the first analysis of population-based data that examines fertility rates and sociodemographic variables in response to new legal regulations. No short-term effects on birth rates were detected, but there was a differential effect on the subgroup of multigravidae. The focus of this policy was to provide financial support, which is certainly important, but the complexity of having a child suggests that attitudinal and motivational aspects also need to be taken into account. Furthermore, these analyses were only able to evaluate the short-term consequences of the policy

  2. Standard Test Method to Determine Color Change and Staining Caused by Aircraft Maintenance Chemicals upon Aircraft Cabin Interior Hard Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of color change and staining from liquid solutions, such as cleaning or disinfecting chemicals or both, on painted metallic surfaces and nonmetallic surfaces of materials being used inside the aircraft cabin. The effects upon the exposed specimens are measured with the AATCC Gray Scale for Color Change and AATCC Gray Color Scale for Staining. Note 1—This test method is applicable to any colored nonmetallic hard surface in contact with liquids. The selected test specimens are chosen because these materials are present in the majority of aircraft cabin interiors. 1.2This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. Effects of 24-epibrassinolide pre-treatment on UV-B-induced changes in the pigment content of pea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrikova, A.; Vladkova, R.; Stanoeva, D.; Popova, A.; Velitchkova, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, the effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the UV-B-induced changes in the pigment content of pea leaves were studied. Control (non-EBR-treated) and EBR-treated plants were irradiated with UV-B for 3 h and pigment analysis was performed after 24 and 48 h. The results show that EBR spraying of plants 48 h prior to UV-B exposure alleviates its detrimental effect on chlorophyll a and b (Chl a and Chl b) content in comparison with control pea leaves. An increase in carotenoids (Car) and UV-B absorbing compounds was also observed at low dose of UV-B radiation. For the first time, it is shown that UV-B damage effect on control leaves is accompanied by a significant (more than 50%) increase in their pheophytin a (Pheo a) content 48 h after the UV-B exposure and that the EBR pre-treatment prevents the increase of Pheo a content in UV-B irradiated leaves. In addition, it is demonstrated that EBR application modifies UV-B-induced alterations of energy distribution between the main pigment-protein complexes in pea thylakoid membranes

  4. Hourly changes in sea surface salinity in coastal waters recorded by Geostationary Ocean Color Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongjie; Zhang, Jie; Yao, Haiyan; Cui, Tingwei; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Lingjuan; An, Jubai

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we monitored hourly changes in sea surface salinity (SSS) in turbid coastal waters from geostationary satellite ocean color images for the first time, using the Bohai Sea as a case study. We developed a simple multi-linear statistical regression model to retrieve SSS data from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) based on an in situ satellite matched-up dataset (R2 = 0.795; N = 41; Range: 26.4 to 31.9 psμ). The model was then validated using independent continuous SSS measurements from buoys, with the average percentage difference of 0.65%. The model was applied to GOCI images from the dry season during an astronomical tide to characterize hourly changes in SSS in the Bohai Sea. We found that the model provided reasonable estimates of the hourly changes in SSS and that trends in the modeled and measured data were similar in magnitude and direction (0.43 vs 0.33 psμ, R2 = 0.51). There were clear diurnal variations in the SSS of the Bohai Sea, with a regional average of 0.455 ± 0.079 psμ (0.02-3.77 psμ). The magnitude of the diurnal variations in SSS varied spatially, with large diurnal variability in the nearshore, particularly in the estuary, and small variability in the offshore area. The model for the riverine area was based on the inverse correlation between SSS and CDOM absorption. In the offshore area, the water mass of the North Yellow Sea, characterized by high SSS and low CDOM concentrations, dominated. Analysis of the driving mechanisms showed that the tidal current was the main control on hourly changes in SSS in the Bohai Sea.

  5. Image analysis of skin color heterogeneity focusing on skin chromophores and the age-related changes in facial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Kumiko; Masuda, Yuji; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Kawai, Eriko; Hirao, Tetsuji

    2015-05-01

    Heterogeneity with respect to skin color tone is one of the key factors in visual perception of facial attractiveness and age. However, there have been few studies on quantitative analyses of the color heterogeneity of facial skin. The purpose of this study was to develop image evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity focusing on skin chromophores and then characterize ethnic differences and age-related changes. A facial imaging system equipped with an illumination unit and a high-resolution digital camera was used to develop image evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity. First, melanin and/or hemoglobin images were obtained using pigment-specific image-processing techniques, which involved conversion from Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage XYZ color values to melanin and/or hemoglobin indexes as measures of their contents. Second, a spatial frequency analysis with threshold settings was applied to the individual images. Cheek skin images of 194 healthy Asian and Caucasian female subjects were acquired using the imaging system. Applying this methodology, the skin color heterogeneity of Asian and Caucasian faces was characterized. The proposed pigment-specific image-processing techniques allowed visual discrimination of skin redness from skin pigmentation. In the heterogeneity analyses of cheek skin color, age-related changes in melanin were clearly detected in Asian and Caucasian skin. Furthermore, it was found that the heterogeneity indexes of hemoglobin were significantly higher in Caucasian skin than in Asian skin. We have developed evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity by image analyses based on the major chromophores, melanin and hemoglobin, with special reference to their size. This methodology focusing on skin color heterogeneity should be useful for better understanding of aging and ethnic differences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of Degradation Kinetic of Tomato Paste Color in Heat Processing and Modeling of These Changes by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ganjeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Color is an important qualitative factor in tomato products such as tomato paste which is affected by heat processing. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the degradation kinetics of tomato paste color during heat processing by Arrhenius equation and modeling of these changes by response surface methodology (RSM. Considering this purpose, tomato paste was processed at three temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 °C for 25-100 minutes and by three main color indices including L, a and b, a/b ratio, total color difference (TCD, Saturation index (SI and hue angle (HU was analyzed. Degradation kinetics of these parameters was evaluated by Arrhenius equation and their changing trends were modeled by RSM. All parameters except TCA (zero order followed a first order reaction. The b index by highest and TCA and a/b by least activation energies had the maximum and minimum sensitivity to the temperature changes, respectively. Also, TCD and b had the maximum and minimum changing rates, respectively. All responses were influenced by independent parameters (the influence of temperature was more than time and RSM was capable of modeling and predicting these responses. In general, Arrhenius equation was appropriate to evaluate degradation kinetics of tomato paste color changes and RSM was able to estimate independent and interaction effects of time and temperature so that quadratic models were capable to predict these changes by a high accuracy (R2 > 0.95.

  7. Quantitation of chlorophylls and 22 of their colored degradation products in culinary aromatic herbs by HPLC-DAD-MS and correlation with color changes during the dehydration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafeuille, Jean-Louis; Lefèvre, Stéphane; Lebuhotel, Julie

    2014-02-26

    Chlorophylls and their green and olive-brown derivatives were successfully separated from culinary herb extracts by HPLC with photodiode-array and mass spectrometry detection. The method involved a ternary gradient elution and reverse-phase separation conditions capable of resolving 24 different pigments (2 chlorophylls and 22 of their derivatives) of different polarities within 28 min. The method was applied to monitor color changes in 50 samples of culinary aromatic herbs subjected to five different drying treatments. Of the 24 pigments, 14 were key to understanding the differences between the primary degradation pathways of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in culinary herbs during drying processes. A color degradation ladder based on the total molar percentage of all the remaining green pigments was also proposed as a tool to measure the impact of drying treatments on aromatic herb visual aspects.

  8. Seasonal changes and effect of harvest on glucosinolates in Isatis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Tobias; Suter, Kathrin; Hamburger, Matthias

    2008-04-01

    The seasonal fluctuation of glucosinolates in five defined Isatis tinctoria and one Isatis indigotica accessions (first year, rosette stage), grown on field plots under identical conditions, was investigated. Analysis of the intact glucosinolates was carried out with shock frozen, freeze dried leaf samples using a recently developed and validated PLE (pressurized liquid extraction) protocol and ion-pair HPLC coupled with ESI-MS in the negative mode. When comparing the two Isatis species, significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the glucosinolate patterns were observed. Differences among the various Isatis tinctoria accessions were much smaller. We studied the effects of repeated harvesting during the growth season on glucosinolate concentrations and found that repeated harvest did not have a major effect on glucosinolate concentrations of newly grown leaves. Glucosinolates could not be detected in woad leaves submitted to conventional drying.

  9. Cool colored coating and phase change materials as complementary cooling strategies for building cooling load reduction in tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Jiawei; Kumarasamy, Karthikeyan; Zingre, Kishor T.; Yang, Jinglei; Wan, Man Pun; Yang, En-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Cool colored coating and PCM are two complementary passive cooling strategies. • A PCM cool colored coating system is developed. • The coating reduces cooling energy by 8.5% and is effective yearly in tropical Singapore. - Abstract: Cool colored coating and phase change materials (PCM) are two passive cooling strategies often used separately in many studies and applications. This paper investigated the integration of cool colored coating and PCM for building cooling through experimental and numerical studies. Results showed that cool colored coating and PCM are two complementary passive cooling strategies that could be used concurrently in tropical climate where cool colored coating in the form of paint serves as the “first protection” to reflect solar radiation and a thin layer of PCM forms the “second protection” to absorb the conductive heat that cannot be handled by cool paint. Unlike other climate zones where PCM is only seasonally effective and cool paint is only beneficial during summer, the application of the proposed PCM cool colored coating in building envelope could be effective throughout the entire year with a monthly cooling energy saving ranging from 5 to 12% due to the uniform climatic condition all year round in tropical Singapore.

  10. Changes in the essential oil composition of leaves of Echinodorus macrophyllus exposed to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago M. Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth Micheli, Alismataceae, were exposed to different doses of γ-radiation (0.00, 1.00, 3.00, 5.00, 10.00, and 20.00 kGy and the chemical composition of their essential oils was investigated. The extractive process of the essential oil was more favored when the leaves were irradiated. The essential oil components were identified by correlation between GC-FID data and retention parameters obtained from the Kováts method. Moreover, GC-MS analyses of the essential oils were correlated with fragmentation profiles in the NIST standard mass fragmentation data bank. The essential oil of E. macrophyllus contains biologically active constituents of different chemical classes. Acyclic monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes showed increase in concentration when the leaves were exposed to γ-radiation. On the other hand, the component concentrations of some chemical classes were lightly decreased, i.e., for bicyclic monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, carboxylic esters, and carotenoid derivatives.

  11. Fast photo-induced color changes of Ag particles deposited on single-crystalline TiO2 surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y. J.; Liu, W. Z.; Chen, A.; Shi, L.; Liu, X. H.; Zi, J.

    2018-05-01

    It is well known that surface-plasmon enhanced photo-electrochemical effect or photo-thermal effect of metallic particles on a semiconductor substrate or in a suspension may result in color changes. Such character could be potentially applicable to colorimetric sensors, optical filters, and data storage devices. However, usually the response time for color changes is too long to be practically applied. In this letter, we found that the response rate of color changes could be controlled by the annealing condition of the semiconductor substrate, and changes larger than 10% in spectra were observed after only 1-min exposure to light. Furthermore, such fast response was applied to realize wavelength-dependent "write" and "read" applications with high spatial resolution.

  12. Role of wing color and seasonal changes in ambient temperature and solar irradiation on predicted flight efficiency of the Albatross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanalian, M; Throneberry, G; Ali, M; Ben Ayed, S; Abdelkefi, A

    2018-01-01

    Drag reduction of the wings of migrating birds is crucial to their flight efficiency. Wing color impacts absorption of solar irradiation which may affect drag but there is little known in this area. To this end, the drag reduction induced by the thermal effect of the wing color of migrating birds with unpowered flight modes is presented in this study. Considering this natural phenomenon in the albatross as an example of migrating birds, and applying an energy balance for this biological system, a thermal analysis is performed on the wings during the summer and winter to obtain different ranges of air density, viscosity, and wing surface temperature brought about from a range of ambient temperatures and climatic conditions seen in different seasons and to study their effects. The exact shape of the albatross wing is used and nine different wing colors are considered in order to gain a better understanding of the effect different colors' absorptivities make on the change in aerodynamic performances. The thermal effect is found to be more important during the summer than during the winter due to the higher values of solar irradiation and a maximum drag reduction of 7.8% is found in summer changing the wing color from light white to dark black. The obtained results show that albatrosses with darker colored wings are more efficient (constant lift to drag ratio and drag reduction) and have better endurance due to this drag reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Data on internal cDNA amplification and color changes of the proteins derived from Pacific white leg shrimp shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Pan; Shoichiro, Ishizaki; Yuji, Nagashima; Jialong, Gao; Shugo, Watabe

    2018-02-01

    In this article, we report original data on the designation of the primers for full-length cDNA amplification and the internal cDNA amplification of red color-related pigment-binding protein derived from shrimp shell. Data on the color shifts of different soluble proteins under 100 °C 10 min heat treatment and the effects of heating temperatures (from 30 to 100 °C) on the color changes of crude water-soluble proteins are also included in this report. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article "Isolation and cDNA cloning of a novel red color-related pigment-binding protein derived from the shell of shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei " (Chuang et al., 2017) [1].

  14. Data on internal cDNA amplification and color changes of the proteins derived from Pacific white leg shrimp shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Chuang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we report original data on the designation of the primers for full-length cDNA amplification and the internal cDNA amplification of red color-related pigment-binding protein derived from shrimp shell. Data on the color shifts of different soluble proteins under 100 °C 10 min heat treatment and the effects of heating temperatures (from 30 to 100 °C on the color changes of crude water-soluble proteins are also included in this report. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article “Isolation and cDNA cloning of a novel red color-related pigment-binding protein derived from the shell of shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei” (Chuang et al., 2017 [1].

  15. Changes in ABA, IAA and JA levels during calyx, fruit and leaves development in cape gooseberry plants (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Flórez, F; López-Cristoffanini, C; Jáuregui, O; Melgarejo, L M; López-Carbonell, M

    2017-06-01

    Changes in abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) content in developing calyx, fruits and leaves of Physalis peruviana L. plants were analysed. Plant hormones have been widely studied for their roles in the regulation of various aspects related to plant development and, in particular, into their action during development and ripening of fleshly fruits. The obtained evidences suggest that the functions of these hormones are no restricted to a particular development stage, and more than one hormone is involved in controlling various aspects of plant development. Our results will contribute to understand the role of these hormones during growth and development of calyx, fruits and leaves in cape gooseberry plants. This work offers a good, quickly and efficiently protocol to extract and quantify simultaneously ABA, IAA and JA in different tissues of cape gooseberry plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of color-change indicators to quantify passive films on the stainless steel valves of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Cong Qian [School of Materials Science, Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116085 (China); Yang, Shu Kai [School of Materials Science, Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116085 (China); Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, Suzhou 215004 (China); Zhao, Jie, E-mail: jiezhao@dlut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science, Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116085 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • A facile method to evaluate passivation quality by color change indicator. • Two indicators were compared in lab and applied on vales in nuclear power plants. • It shows that the higher value of color change the worse quality of passivation. • Traditional ferroxyl solution is unstable and might impair the vale surface. • The new indicator is more practicable than the ferroxyl test for on-site inspection. - Abstract: The passive film on nuclear-grade stainless steels was evaluated by quantifying its color changes. Coloration reactions were compared by using ferroin and blue dot solutions as indicators on the basis of the measured results in a laboratory. The reactions were then applied on stainless steel valves in a nuclear power plant. The degree of color change indicates the degree of growth of a passive film. The ferroin solution exhibits higher accuracy and more stable than blue dot solution in determining passive film quality. The potentiodynamic polarization curves show that blue dot solution might cause surface damage compared with ferroin solution. The inspection result on stainless steel valves supports our laboratory result. However, stainless steel exhibited a dramatic decrease in sensitivity to blue dot because of the intrinsic instability and high acidity of this solution. Ferroin solution is superior to blue dot solution for stainless steel facilities in a nuclear power plant.

  17. Does Fine Color Discrimination Learning in Free-Flying Honeybees Change Mushroom-Body Calyx Neuroarchitecture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerlandt, Frank M J; Spaethe, Johannes; Rössler, Wolfgang; Dyer, Adrian G

    2016-01-01

    Honeybees learn color information of rewarding flowers and recall these memories in future decisions. For fine color discrimination, bees require differential conditioning with a concurrent presentation of target and distractor stimuli to form a long-term memory. Here we investigated whether the long-term storage of color information shapes the neural network of microglomeruli in the mushroom body calyces and if this depends on the type of conditioning. Free-flying honeybees were individually trained to a pair of perceptually similar colors in either absolute conditioning towards one of the colors or in differential conditioning with both colors. Subsequently, bees of either conditioning groups were tested in non-rewarded discrimination tests with the two colors. Only bees trained with differential conditioning preferred the previously learned color, whereas bees of the absolute conditioning group, and a stimuli-naïve group, chose randomly among color stimuli. All bees were then kept individually for three days in the dark to allow for complete long-term memory formation. Whole-mount immunostaining was subsequently used to quantify variation of microglomeruli number and density in the mushroom-body lip and collar. We found no significant differences among groups in neuropil volumes and total microglomeruli numbers, but learning performance was negatively correlated with microglomeruli density in the absolute conditioning group. Based on these findings we aim to promote future research approaches combining behaviorally relevant color learning tests in honeybees under free-flight conditions with neuroimaging analysis; we also discuss possible limitations of this approach.

  18. Metabolic changes of Vitis vinifera berries and leaves exposed to Bordeaux mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Viviana; Teixeira, António; Bassil, Elias; Blumwald, Eduardo; Gerós, Hernâni

    2014-09-01

    Since the development of Bordeaux mixture in the late 1800's, copper-based fungicides have been widely used against grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) diseases, mainly in organic but also in conventional viticulture; however their intensive use has raised phytotoxicity concerns. In this study, the composition of grape berries and leaves upon Bordeaux mixture treatment was investigated during the fructification season by a metabolomic approach. Four applications of Bordeaux mixture till 3 weeks before harvest were performed following the regular management practices of organic viticulture. Results showed that the copper-based treatment affected the content in sugars, organic acids, lipids and flavan-3-ols of grapes and leaves at specific developmental stages. Nonetheless, the levels of sucrose, glucose and fructose, and of tartaric and malic acids were not significantly affected in mature grapes. In contrast, a sharp decrease in free natural amino acids was observed, together with a reduction in protein content and in mineral nitrogen forms. The treatment with Bordeaux mixture increased by 7-fold the copper levels in tissue extracts from surface-washed mature berries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  20. Colored Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 7 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 30, 2002 during the Southern Fall season in Atlantis Chaos. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.5, Longitude 183.6 East (176.4 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D

  1. Effect of Weathering Time on the Physical - Mechanical Properties and Color Change in Wood Flour/HDPE Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Kord

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of weathering time on the physical and mechanical properties and color change in composite made of wood flour and high density polyethylene (HDPE. For this purpose, wood flour and polyethylene at a weight ratio of 60:40 with coupling agent were compounded in an internal mixer, and the samples were made in injection molding. Then, the weathering process by ultraviolet irradiation and water spray was done on the samples at different times of 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 hours in accelerated weathering apparatus. Finally, the physical and mechanical properties and color measurement of samples were tested, and compared with control samples. Results indicated that the flexural strength, flexural modulus, tensile strength and tensile modulus decreased with an increase in weathering time; however, the water absorption increased. Also, the yellowness of wood plastic samples decreased with an increase in weathering time and due to the lightness and color change increased.

  2. Ornaments in radiation treatment of cultural heritage: Color and UV–vis spectral changes in irradiated nacres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marušić, Katarina; Pucić, Irina; Desnica, Vladan

    2016-01-01

    Cultural heritage objects that are radiation treated in order to stop their biodegradation often contain ornamenting materials that cannot be removed. Radiation may produce unwanted changes to such materials. Nacre is a common ornamenting material so this is an attempt to assess the impact of gamma-radiation on its optical properties. Two types of nacre (yellow and white) were obtained from a museum and subjected to different absorbed doses of Co-60 gamma irradiation under the same conditions. The radiation induced changes of nacres color were investigated with fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS). Colorimetry in CIE Lab space revealed that in both nacres the lightness shifted to darker grey hues at high doses while the color component's (red, green, yellow and blue) behavior depended on the nacre type. Observable changes occurred at doses much above the dose range needed for radiation treatment of cultural heritage objects that are often ornamented with nacre. In UV–vis reflectance spectra of samples irradiated to high doses carbonate radical anion absorption appeared. - Highlights: • Radiation induced changes of nacres color were investigated with FORS. • Nacres darken at high doses while the color component depends on the nacre type. • Observable changes occurred at larger doses than needed for cultural heritage. • For samples irradiated to high doses carbonate radical anion absorption appeared.

  3. Does Fine Color Discrimination Learning in Free-Flying Honeybees Change Mushroom-Body Calyx Neuroarchitecture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank M J Sommerlandt

    Full Text Available Honeybees learn color information of rewarding flowers and recall these memories in future decisions. For fine color discrimination, bees require differential conditioning with a concurrent presentation of target and distractor stimuli to form a long-term memory. Here we investigated whether the long-term storage of color information shapes the neural network of microglomeruli in the mushroom body calyces and if this depends on the type of conditioning. Free-flying honeybees were individually trained to a pair of perceptually similar colors in either absolute conditioning towards one of the colors or in differential conditioning with both colors. Subsequently, bees of either conditioning groups were tested in non-rewarded discrimination tests with the two colors. Only bees trained with differential conditioning preferred the previously learned color, whereas bees of the absolute conditioning group, and a stimuli-naïve group, chose randomly among color stimuli. All bees were then kept individually for three days in the dark to allow for complete long-term memory formation. Whole-mount immunostaining was subsequently used to quantify variation of microglomeruli number and density in the mushroom-body lip and collar. We found no significant differences among groups in neuropil volumes and total microglomeruli numbers, but learning performance was negatively correlated with microglomeruli density in the absolute conditioning group. Based on these findings we aim to promote future research approaches combining behaviorally relevant color learning tests in honeybees under free-flight conditions with neuroimaging analysis; we also discuss possible limitations of this approach.

  4. THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON THE CHEMICAL AND COLOR CHANGE OF BLACK LOCUST (ROBINIA PSEUDOACACIA WOOD FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Chen,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oxygen and moisture content (MC on the chemical and color changes of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia wood during heat treatment. The wood flour was conditioned to different initial MCs and heated for 24 h at a constant temperature of 120ºC in either oxygen or nitrogen atmosphere. The pH values and chromaticity indexes were examined. Diffuse reflectance UV-Vis (DRUV and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra were used to characterize the changes of chromophores upon heating. The study demonstrated that the pH values decreased after heat treatment, and it was lower when the heat treated was in oxygen than in nitrogen. The L* decreased significantly, while a* and b* increased. The total color difference ΔE* increased with increasing initial MC until a plateau was reached after 30% MC. The color change was greater in oxygen than in nitrogen. The hydroxyl groups decreased after heat treatment. The releases of acid and formation of quinoid compounds and carboxylic groups during heat treatment were confirmed. Discoloration of wood is due mainly to the condensation and oxidation reactions, which are accelerated by oxygen. Higher MCs are required to obtain the greatest color change of wood in inert atmosphere.

  5. Do Multidimensional Pain Inventory scale score changes indicate risk of receiving sick leave benefits 1 year after a pain rehabilitation programme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Vanja E; Novo, Mehmed; Sjölund, Bengt H

    2011-01-01

    To study whether scale score changes in the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) can predict which persons disabled by pain will receive sick leave benefits 1 year after completing a pain rehabilitation programme.......To study whether scale score changes in the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) can predict which persons disabled by pain will receive sick leave benefits 1 year after completing a pain rehabilitation programme....

  6. Change in Color and Volatile Composition of Skim Milk Processed with Pulsed Electric Field and Microfiltration Treatments or Heat Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Anupam; Khanal, Dipendra; Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Corredig, Milena; Duizer, Lisa; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2014-04-23

    Non-thermal processing methods, such as pulsed electric field (PEF) and tangential-flow microfiltration (TFMF), are emerging processing technologies that can minimize the deleterious effects of high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization on quality attributes of skim milk. The present study investigates the impact of PEF and TFMF, alone or in combination, on color and volatile compounds in skim milk. PEF was applied at 28 or 40 kV/cm for 1122 to 2805 µs, while microfiltration (MF) was conducted using membranes with three pore sizes (lab-scale 0.65 and 1.2 µm TFMF, and pilot-scale 1.4 µm MF). HTST control treatments were applied at 75 or 95 °C for 20 and 45 s, respectively. Noticeable color changes were observed with the 0.65 µm TFMF treatment. No significant color changes were observed in PEF-treated, 1.2 µm TFMF-treated, HTST-treated, and 1.4 µm MF-treated skim milk ( p ≥ 0.05) but the total color difference indicated better color retention with non-thermal preservation. The latter did not affect raw skim milk volatiles significantly after single or combined processing ( p ≥ 0.05), but HTST caused considerable changes in their composition, including ketones, free fatty acids, hydrocarbons, and sulfur compounds ( p < 0.05). The findings indicate that for the particular thermal and non-thermal treatments selected for this study, better retention of skim milk color and flavor components were obtained for the non-thermal treatments.

  7. Change in Color and Volatile Composition of Skim Milk Processed with Pulsed Electric Field and Microfiltration Treatments or Heat Pasteurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Chugh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-thermal processing methods, such as pulsed electric field (PEF and tangential-flow microfiltration (TFMF, are emerging processing technologies that can minimize the deleterious effects of high temperature short time (HTST pasteurization on quality attributes of skim milk. The present study investigates the impact of PEF and TFMF, alone or in combination, on color and volatile compounds in skim milk. PEF was applied at 28 or 40 kV/cm for 1122 to 2805 µs, while microfiltration (MF was conducted using membranes with three pore sizes (lab-scale 0.65 and 1.2 µm TFMF, and pilot-scale 1.4 µm MF. HTST control treatments were applied at 75 or 95 °C for 20 and 45 s, respectively. Noticeable color changes were observed with the 0.65 µm TFMF treatment. No significant color changes were observed in PEF-treated, 1.2 µm TFMF-treated, HTST-treated, and 1.4 µm MF-treated skim milk (p ≥ 0.05 but the total color difference indicated better color retention with non-thermal preservation. The latter did not affect raw skim milk volatiles significantly after single or combined processing (p ≥ 0.05, but HTST caused considerable changes in their composition, including ketones, free fatty acids, hydrocarbons, and sulfur compounds (p < 0.05. The findings indicate that for the particular thermal and non-thermal treatments selected for this study, better retention of skim milk color and flavor components were obtained for the non-thermal treatments.

  8. Structural color changes in permanent enamel of patients with cleft lip and palate: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulas, Antje; Illge, Christina; Bekes, Katrin; Eckert, Alexander W; Fuhrmann, Robert A W; Hirsch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    White spots are more common in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) than in the normal population. Whether these are due to the cleft itself or concomitant circumstances (e.g., surgical procedures, orthodontic treatments, systemic fluoridation, increased caries risk) remains unclear. This case-control study evaluated both their prevalence in CLP patients versus control subjects and associated risk factors. A total of 73 CLP patients (average age 8.7 years, range 6-18 years, 42 % male) and a control group of 73 age- and gender-matched non-CLP patients were included. Enamel color changes, subsuming mineralization defects (DDE index), mild dental fluorosis (Dean's index), and initial caries (ICDAS score 2), were recorded. Caries index (dmf-t/DMF-T) scores were also recorded to distinguish between high or low caries risk as defined by the Deutsche Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Jugendzahnpflege criteria. Histories of systemic fluoridation, trauma to primary teeth, surgery, and orthodontic treatment were obtained using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis included t test, χ (2) test, and multivariable logistic regression. Enamel color changes were observed three times more often in the CLP group than in the control group (39.7 vs. 12.3 %; p enamel color changes was associated with CLP itself [OR (odds ratio) 3.6; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.3-9.9] and table salt plus tablets combined for systemic fluoridation (OR 2.7, 95 % CI 1.1-6.9). No increased risks were identified for increased caries risk, history of primary-tooth trauma, or history of orthodontic treatment. The higher prevalence of enamel color changes in the CLP group (more than threefold compared to the control group) was not related to previous orthodontic treatments; however, systemic fluoridation (table salt and tablets) constituted a risk factor for the enamel color changes seen in the CLP patients.

  9. Heart rate variability changes during stroop color and word test among genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, Priyanka; Muralikrishnan, Krishnan; Balasubramanian, Kabali; Shanmugapriya

    2015-01-01

    Stress is the reaction of the body to a change that requires physical, mental or emotional adjustments. Individual differences in stress reactivity are a potentially important risk factor for gender-specific health problems in men and women. The Autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system is most commonly affected by stress and is assessed by means of short term heart rate variability (HRV).The present study was undertaken to investigate the difference in the cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System response to mental stress between the genders using HRV as tool. We compared the mean RR interval, Blood pressure and indices of HRV during the StroopColor Word Test (SCWT).Twenty five male (Age 19.52±0.714, BMI 22.73±2 kg/m2) and twenty five female subjects (Age 19.80±0.65, BMI 22.39±1.9) performed SCWT for five minutes. Blood Pressure (SBP p<0.01, DBP p<0.042) & Mean HR (p<0.010) values showed statistically significant difference among the genders. HRV indices like LFms2 (p<0.051), HF nu (p<0.029) and LF/HF ratio (p<0.025, p<0.052) show statistically significant difference among the genders. The response by the cardiovascular system to a simple mental stressor exhibits difference among the genders.

  10. Biodegradation behaviors and color change of composites based on type of bagasse pulp/polylactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam allahdadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, appearance quality and decay resistance of polylactic acid (PLA based green composites made from monoethanolamine (MEA bagasse pulp, alkaline sulfite-anthraquinone (AS bagasse pulp, bleached soda (B S bagasse pulp, unbleached soda (UN S bagasse pulp (UN S bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers (B were investigated. For the investigation of biodegradation behaviors, effect of the white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor on the neat PLA and composites with natural fibers during 30 and 60 days were studied. It is found that when the bagasse fibers were incorporated into composites matrix, percentage weight reduction and stiffness of samples have been increased. Also, the rate of loss mentioned of the composites made from bagasse pulp fibers were superior to the relevant raw bagase fibers. This can be explained by the removal of non-cellulosic components such as lignin and hemicelluloses from the fibers by pulping process. Also, the results indicates the inferior of surface qualities of fabricated composites regarding to neat PLA. Depending on the fiber type, different reductions of the surface qualities were attained. However, the degree of color change of the composites with any type of bagasse pulp fibers were lower compared with composite with raw bagasse fiber. Finally, as compared with the raw bagasse fibers, bagasse pulp fibers have better reinforcing capability.

  11. Lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color changes, and volatile compounds production in irradiated raw pork batters with different fat content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheo Run; Byun, Myung Woo

    2000-01-01

    An emulsion-type product was prepared to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color change, and volatile production in raw pork with different fat content. Lipid oxidation increased with an increase in fat content or irradiation dose. Irradiated batters had higher cholesterol oxides than did non-irradiated batters, and the major cholesterol oxides formed in irradiated pork batters were 7α- and 7β- hydroxycholesterol. Hunter color a- and b-values of raw pork batters were decreased by irradiation regardless of fat content. Irradiation significantly increased the amount of volatile compounds. Although lipid oxidation of high fat products (10 and 15% fat) was higher than that of low fat products (4%), high fat products did not always produce greater amount of volatile compounds in raw pork batters. In summary, irradiation increased lipid and cholesterol oxidation, and volatile compounds production, and had detrimental effects on the color of raw pork batter under aerobic conditions

  12. Redox Conditions and Related Color Change in Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sediments: IODP Site U1334

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, W. E.; Gussone, N. C.; Hathorne, E. C.; Kimoto, K.; Delaney, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    This study was prompted by a 65 m thick brown-green color change in deep-sea sediments of IODP Site U1334 (0-38 Ma, 4799 m water depth) that corresponds to its equatorial crossing (caused by the Northward movement of the pacific plate). Green sediment is a visual indicator of reducing conditions in sediment due to enhanced organic matter deposition and burial. Here we use geochemical redox indicators to characterize the effect of equatorial upwelling on bottom water. The modern redox signal is captured in porewater profiles (nitrate, manganese, iron, sulfate) while trace metal Enrichment Factors (EF) in bulk sediment (manganese, uranium, molybdenum, rhenium) normalized to the detrital component (titanium) record redox state at burial. To measure export productivity we also measure biogenic barium. Porewater profiles reveal suboxic diagenesis; profiles follow the expected sequence of nitrate, manganese oxide, and iron oxide reduction with increasing depth. Constant sulfate (~28 μM) implies anoxia has not occurred. Bulk sediment Mn EF are enriched (EF > 1) throughout the record (Mn EF = 15-200) while U and Mo enrichment corresponds to green color and equatorial proximity (U EF = 4-19; Mo EF = 0-7). Constant Mn enrichment implies continuous oxygenation. Uranium and Mo enrichment near the equator represents suboxic conditions also seen in the porewater. Low Re concentrations (below detection) provide additional evidence against anoxia. A comparison of Mn EF from total digestions to samples treated with an additional reductive cleaning step distinguishes between Mn-oxides and Mn-carbonates, indicating oxygenated and reducing conditions respectively. Mn-carbonate occurrence agrees with U and Mo EF; conditions were more reducing near the equator. Bio-Ba shows significant variability over this interval (22-99 mmol g-1). Our geochemical results indicate that bottom waters became suboxic at the equator as a result of equatorial upwelling-influenced increases in organic

  13. Changes in chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic activity of French bean leaves induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saakov, V.; Lang, M.; Schindler, C.; Stober, F.; Lichtenthaler, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    When exposed to gamma-radiation (12, 8 and 3.5 kGy), the growth of bean seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was stopped and after some hours or days the plants began to wilt in a dose-dependent manner, starting from the leaf rim. The rate of the dark respiration (R) of leaves increased and that of net photosynthesis (P(N)) was strongly reduced. The regulation of stomata opening and closure was lost and the stomatal conductance (g(s)) of the gamma-ray exposed plants was strongly reduced. The reduced P(N) was only partly due to either the partial or almost full stomata closure. Chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence measurements witha two-wavelength fluorometer and a PAM fluorometer showed an increasingly reduced variable fluorescence F(v), lower values of R(fd), of ground fluorescence F0, and of the fluorescence ratios F(v)/F(m) and F(v)/F(o). This indicated a damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. The increasing loss of photosynthetic pigments in the 350 krad exposed plants was also detected via an increase in the fluorescence ratio F690/F730. The performance of the light driven xanthophyll cycle (violaxanthin/zeaxanthin transformation) proceeded in the gamma-ray treated plants only at reduced rates. The gamma-ray damage of plants can best be detected by measurements of stomatal conductance, P(N) and various Chl fluorescence ratios such as R(fd), F(v)/F(o) and F(v)/F(m)

  14. Evaluation of seven different drying treatments in respect to total flavonoid, phenolic, vitamin C content, chlorophyll, antioxidant activity and color of green tea (Camellia sinensis or C. assamica) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanak, Sahar; Rahimmalek, Mehdi; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The effect of seven drying treatments (sun, shade, oven 60 °C, oven 80 °C, oven 100 °C, microwave and freeze-drying) were evaluated with respect total flavonoid (TFC), phenolic (TPC), antioxidant activity, vitamin C and color characteristics of green tea. In general, drying increased antioxidant activity, TPC, TFC and chlorophyll content, while it led to a decrease in vitamin C. The highest TPC (209.17 mg Gallic acid/gdw) and TFC (38.18 mg Quercitin/gdw) were obtained in oven drying at 60 and 100 °C, respectively. Among methods, oven drying at 60 °C revealed the highest radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 167.166 μg/ml), while microwave showed the lowest one (IC50 = 505.5 μg/ml). Similar trend was also observed in reducing power assay. The highest vitamin C (16.36 mg/100gDM) and Chlorophyll a (17.35 mg/l) were obtained in freeze drying. Finally, sun and freeze drying methods were considered as the least and the most desirable drying methods, respectively the final color of green tea leaves.

  15. Family Relationships from Adolescence to Early Adulthood: Changes in the Family System following Firstborns' Leaving Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2011-01-01

    This study charted the course of parent-child and sibling relationships from early adolescence to early adulthood and examined how these relationships changed following firstborns' departure from their parents' home for the first time. Data were drawn from a 10-year longitudinal study of family relationships. Participants included mothers,…

  16. Enhancing the color gamut of white displays using novel deep-blue organic fluorescent dyes to form color-changed thin films with improved efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2012-10-01

    This study used the novel fluorescence based deep-blue-emitting molecule BPVPDA in an organic fluorescent color thin film to exhibit deep blue color with CIE coordinates of (0.13, 0.16). The developed original organic RGB color thin film technology enables the optimization of the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and thin-film-transistor (TFT) LCD display. The color filter structure maintains the same high resolution to obtain a higher level of brightness in comparison with conventional organic RGB color thin film. The image-processing engine is designed to achieve a sharp text image for a TFT LCD with organic color thin films. The organic color thin films structure uses an organic dye dopant in a limpid photoresist. With this technology, the following characteristics can be obtained: 1. high color reproduction of gamut ratio, and 2. improved luminous efficiency with organic color fluorescent thin film. This performance is among the best results ever reported for a color-filter used on TFT-LCD or OLED.

  17. Comparison of Tooth Color Change After Bleaching With Conventional and Different Light-Activated Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Sima; Assadian, Hadi; Mahmoudi Nahavandi, Alireza; Nokhbatolfoghahaei, Hanieh

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The demand for esthetic dental treatments is increasing in recent years mainly due to improved oral hygiene and better maintenance of oral health and teeth in older individuals. Bleaching of discolored anterior teeth is the most popular among esthetic dental treatments. Even individuals with sound teeth and adequate esthetics seek to have whiter teeth in the anterior region. The aim of this study was to evaluate tooth color changes following conventional in-office bleaching techniques compared to light-activated methods using different light sources. Methods: Seventy sound anterior teeth (devoided of caries and/or fracture), extracted for periodontal and orthodontic reasons were selected and allocated to 7 groups: (A) control, (B) conventional bleaching (C) LED-activated bleaching, (D) KTP laser-activated bleaching, (E) diode laser-activated bleaching, (F) Nd:YAG laser-activated bleaching and (G) CO2 laser-activated bleaching. Colorimetric evaluation was carried out before and after treatment using a spectrophotoradiometer. Data were analyzed by one- and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) as well as multiple comparison methods. Results: The results showed that all bleaching procedures were effective in reducing the yellowness index. However, the KTP laser-activated bleaching was significantly more effective than the other techniques in 95% confidence level. It was also seen that CO2 laser activated method has outperformed groups E, F and G and the conventional bleaching without light activation was not effective at all and represented similar results with the control group. Furthermore, the groups E and G had almost the same results in decreasing the yellowness index. Conclusion: The results showed that all bleaching techniques were effective however, the KTP laser-activated bleaching was significantly more efficient, closely followed by the CO2 laser-activated bleaching technique.

  18. Color Doppler evaluation of the ocular arterial flow changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozer, Tulay; Altin, Remzi; Ugurbas, Suat Hayri; Ozer, Yetkin; Mahmutyazicioglu, Kamran; Kart, Levent

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the hemodynamic changes in the extraocular orbital vessels of the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), using color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) technique, and to compare the results with those of healthy control subjects. Methods: Forty-five patients with COPD and 17 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Patients with COPD were classified according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Fifteen patients of stage I COPD (mild airflow limitation), stage II COPD (worsening airflow limitation) or stage III COPD (severe airflow limitation) were enrolled into Group I, II and III, respectively. End tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO 2 ), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ), pulse rate (PR) and respiratory rate (RR) were measured by using capnograph/pulse oximeter in all patients. Measurements were performed in only one randomly chosen eye of each participant. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), and resistance index (RI) were measured in the ophthalmic artery (OA), central retinal artery (CRA), lateral short posterior ciliary artery (LPCA) and medial short posterior ciliary artery (MPCA), using CDU technique. Results: The PSV measurements of the OA were significantly higher in Groups II and III compared to control group (p 2 with PSV (r = 0.53, p < 0.01) and EDV (r = 0.51, p < 0.01) of the OA. Statistically significant correlations were also found for the SpO2 with RI (r = -0.34, p < 0.05) in the OA. Conclusion: We concluded that COPD is associated with impaired retrobulbar hemodynamics, especially in the ophthalmic artery. Moreover, central retinal and posterior ciliary arteries with increased resistance are also found to be affected when compared with healthy control eyes

  19. Experimental Investigation of Surface Color Changes in Vacuum Evaporation Process for Gold-like Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Baojian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the environmental pollution caused by the three wastes during the process of electroplating of gold-like film on stainless steel, in this paper, the "vacuum evaporation and annealing" composite technologies were adopted to evaporate gold-like film in 16 stainless steel 304 substrates, and electronic color cards and color software were also used for analyzing the color and luster of the gold-like film. Experiments shows that the negative pressure, annealing temperature and mass fraction of the double copper alloys have influence on preparation of imitation in assaying the fineness of gold film, the annealing temperature has significant effects on imitation in assaying the fineness of gold film.

  20. Leaving Distress Behind: A Randomized Controlled Study on Change in Emotional Processing in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, Laurent; Pascual-Leone, Antonio; Caspar, Franz; Tissot, Hervé; Keller, Sabine; Rohde, Kristina B; de Roten, Yves; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; Kramer, Ueli

    2017-01-01

    The marked impulsivity and instability of clients suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD) greatly challenge therapists' understanding and responsiveness. This may hinder the development of a constructive therapeutic relationship despite it being of particular importance in their treatment. Recent studies have shown that using motive-oriented therapeutic relationship (MOTR), a possible operationalization of appropriate therapist responsiveness, can enhance treatment outcome for BPD. The overall objective of this study is to examine change in emotional processing in BPD clients following the therapist's use of MOTR. The present paper focuses on N = 50 cases, n = 25 taken from each of two conditions of a randomized controlled add-on effectiveness design. Clients were either allocated to a manual-based psychiatric-psychodynamic 10-session version of general psychiatric management (GPM), a borderline-specific treatment, or to a 10-session version of GPM augmented with MOTR. Emotional states were assessed using the Classification of Affective-Meaning States (Pascual-Leone & Greenberg, 2005) at intake, midtreatment, and in the penultimate session. Across treatment, early expressions of distress, especially the emotion state of global distress, were shown to significantly decrease (p = .00), and adaptive emotions were found to emerge (p emotional variability and stronger outcome predictors in the MOTR condition. The findings indicate initial emotional change in BPD clients in a relatively short time frame and suggest the addition of MOTR to psychotherapeutic treatments as promising. Clinical implications are discussed.

  1. Midday depression of CO/sub 2/ assimilation in leaves of Arbutus unedo L. : diurnal changes in photosynthetic capacity related to changes in temperature and humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raschke, K.; Resemann, A.

    1986-01-01

    Parts of the attached leaves of the sclerophyllous shrub Arbutus unedo were subjected to simulated mediterranean days. Gas exchange was recorded in order to recognize the causes of the midday depression in CO/sub 2/ assimilation. Depressions could be induced in part of a leaf: they were local responses. The CO/sub 2/-saturation curves of photosynthesis, determined during the morning and afternoon maxima of CO/sub 2/ assimilation and during the minimum at midday, established that depressions in CO/sub 2/ assimilation were in one-half of the investigated cases totally caused by reversible reductions in the photosynthetic capacity of the leaves, and in other half almost totally caused by such reductions. There was no correlation between the water loss with the degree of reduction of the photosynthetic capacity. However, depressions occurred if an apparent threshold in the water-vapor pressure difference between leaf and air was exceeded. In another set of experiments, leaves were subjected to variations in temperature and humidity independent of the time of the day, under otherwise constant conditions. Photosynthetic capacity and stomatal conductance proved to be almost insensitive to changes in temperature (in a range extending from 20 to 37/sup 0/C) as long as the water vapor-pressure difference was held constant. If it was not, the rate of photosynthesis began to decline with increasing temperature after a threshold water-vapor pressure difference was exceeded. The position of the resulting apparent temperature optimum of photosynthesis depended on the humidity of the air. The authors suggest that the ability of A. unedo to respond to a dry atmosphere with a reversible reduction of its photosynthetic capacity (by a still unknown mechanism) is the result of a co-evolution with the development of a strong stomatal sensitivity to changes in humidity. 26 references, 14 figures.

  2. Six-month color change and water sorption of 9 new-generation flowable composites in 6 staining solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria ARREGUI

    Full Text Available Abstract Color match and water sorption are two factors that affect restorative materials. Discoloration is essential in the lifespan of restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate color change and water sorption of nine flowable composites at multiple time points over 6 months. 60 samples of each composite were divided into two groups (Color Change and Water Sorption/Solubility. Each Color Change group was divided into six subgroups, which were immersed in distilled water (DW, coffee (CF, Coca-Cola (CC, red wine (RW, tea (TE and orange juice (OJ. The color was measured at the baseline, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks, and 3 and 6 months and color change values (ΔE were calculated. Each Water Sorption [WS]/Solubility [WL] group was tested according to ISO 4049:2009. The data were evaluated using two-way ANOVA, Fisher’s post-hoc test and Pearson’s correlation test. The composite with the lowest ΔE differed for each solution: Filtek™ Bulk Fill in DW (∆E = 0.73 (0.17–1.759; Vertise Flow in CF (∆E = 14.75 (7.91–27.41, in TE (∆E = 7.27 (2.81–24.81 and OJ (∆E = 3.17 (0.87–9.92; Tetric EvoFlow® in CC (∆E = 1.27 (0.45–4.02; and Filtek™ Supreme XTE in RW (∆E = 8.88 (5.23–19.59. RW caused the most discoloration (∆E = 23.62 (4.93–51.36. Vertise Flow showed the highest water sorption (WS = 69.10 ± 7.19. The Pearson test showed statistically significant positive correlations between water sorption and solubility and between water sorption and ∆E; the positive solubility-∆E correlation was not statistically significant. The findings suggest that water sorption is one factor associated with the ability of composites to discolor; however, discoloration is a multifactorial problem.

  3. Six-month color change and water sorption of 9 new-generation flowable composites in 6 staining solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, Maria; Giner, Luis; Ferrari, Marco; Vallés, Marta; Mercadé, Montserrat

    2016-11-28

    Color match and water sorption are two factors that affect restorative materials. Discoloration is essential in the lifespan of restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate color change and water sorption of nine flowable composites at multiple time points over 6 months. 60 samples of each composite were divided into two groups (Color Change and Water Sorption/Solubility). Each Color Change group was divided into six subgroups, which were immersed in distilled water (DW), coffee (CF), Coca-Cola (CC), red wine (RW), tea (TE) and orange juice (OJ). The color was measured at the baseline, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks, and 3 and 6 months and color change values (ΔE) were calculated. Each Water Sorption [WS]/Solubility [WL] group was tested according to ISO 4049:2009. The data were evaluated using two-way ANOVA, Fisher's post-hoc test and Pearson's correlation test. The composite with the lowest ΔE differed for each solution: Filtek™ Bulk Fill in DW (∆E = 0.73 (0.17-1.759)); Vertise Flow in CF (∆E = 14.75 (7.91-27.41)), in TE (∆E = 7.27 (2.81-24.81)) and OJ (∆E = 3.17 (0.87-9.92)); Tetric EvoFlow® in CC (∆E = 1.27 (0.45-4.02)); and Filtek™ Supreme XTE in RW (∆E = 8.88 (5.23-19.59)). RW caused the most discoloration (∆E = 23.62 (4.93-51.36)). Vertise Flow showed the highest water sorption (WS = 69.10 ± 7.19). The Pearson test showed statistically significant positive correlations between water sorption and solubility and between water sorption and ∆E; the positive solubility-∆E correlation was not statistically significant. The findings suggest that water sorption is one factor associated with the ability of composites to discolor; however, discoloration is a multifactorial problem.

  4. Rapid visible color change and physical swelling during water exposure in triethanolamine-metalcone films formed by molecular layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Paul C.; Oldham, Christopher J.; Parsons, Gregory N.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular layer deposition (MLD) of “metalcones,” including alucone, zincone, titanicone, and others, involves self-limiting half-reactions between organic and organometallic (or metal-halide) reactants. Studies have typically focused on metal precursors reacting with ethylene glycol or glycerol to form the films' polymeric O-M-O-(CH x ) y -O-M-O repeat units. The authors report new MLD materials that incorporate tertiary amine groups into the organic linkage. Specifically, reacting triethanolamine (TEA) with either trimethylaluminum or titanium tetrachloride produces TEA-alucone (Al-TEA) and TEA-titanicone (Ti-TEA), respectively, and the amine group leads to unique physical and optical properties. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis confirms that the films have prominent C-H, C-N, and M-O-C peaks, consistent with the expected bond structure. When exposed to vapors, including water, alcohol, or ammonia, the Ti-TEA films changed their visible color within minutes and increased physical thickness by >35%. The Al-TEA showed significantly less response. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and FTIR suggest that HCl generated during MLD coordinates to the amine forming a quaternary ammonium salt that readily binds adsorbates via hydrogen bonding. The visible color change is reversible, and ellipsometry confirms that the color change results from vapor absorption. The unique absorptive and color-changing properties of the TEA-metalcone films point to new possible applications for MLD materials in filtration, chemical absorption, and multifunctional chemical separations/sensing device systems

  5. Rapid visible color change and physical swelling during water exposure in triethanolamine-metalcone films formed by molecular layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, Paul C.; Oldham, Christopher J.; Parsons, Gregory N., E-mail: gnp@ncsu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Molecular layer deposition (MLD) of “metalcones,” including alucone, zincone, titanicone, and others, involves self-limiting half-reactions between organic and organometallic (or metal-halide) reactants. Studies have typically focused on metal precursors reacting with ethylene glycol or glycerol to form the films' polymeric O-M-O-(CH{sub x}){sub y}-O-M-O repeat units. The authors report new MLD materials that incorporate tertiary amine groups into the organic linkage. Specifically, reacting triethanolamine (TEA) with either trimethylaluminum or titanium tetrachloride produces TEA-alucone (Al-TEA) and TEA-titanicone (Ti-TEA), respectively, and the amine group leads to unique physical and optical properties. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis confirms that the films have prominent C-H, C-N, and M-O-C peaks, consistent with the expected bond structure. When exposed to vapors, including water, alcohol, or ammonia, the Ti-TEA films changed their visible color within minutes and increased physical thickness by >35%. The Al-TEA showed significantly less response. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and FTIR suggest that HCl generated during MLD coordinates to the amine forming a quaternary ammonium salt that readily binds adsorbates via hydrogen bonding. The visible color change is reversible, and ellipsometry confirms that the color change results from vapor absorption. The unique absorptive and color-changing properties of the TEA-metalcone films point to new possible applications for MLD materials in filtration, chemical absorption, and multifunctional chemical separations/sensing device systems.

  6. The Effect of Heat Treatment on the chemical and color change of Black Locust (Robinia Pseudoacacia) wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Yongming Fan; Jianmin Gao; Nicole M. Stark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oxygen and moisture content (MC) on the chemical and color changes of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) wood during heat treatment. The wood flour was conditioned to different initial MCs and heated for 24 h at a constant temperature of 120°C in either oxygen or nitrogen atmosphere. The pH values and...

  7. Highly Reversible Electrochemical Insertion of Lithium, Accompanied With a Marked Color Change, Occuring in Microcrystalline Lithium Nickel Oxide Films

    OpenAIRE

    Campet, G.; Portier, J.; Morel, B.; Ferry, D.; Chabagno, J. M.; Benotmane, L.; Bourrel, M.

    1992-01-01

    Thin films of lithium-nickel oxide, whose texture consists of microcrystallites with an average grain size of 50 Å, permit highly reversible electrochemical insertion of lithium ions in Li+ conducting electrolytes. Therefore, the corresponding materials would be of great interest for energy storage applications. In addition, the lithium insertion/extraction reactions in the nickel-based layers are accompanied with a marked color change, making these films of interest for the devel...

  8. Leaving the Faith: How Religious Switching Changes Pathways to Adulthood among Conservative Protestant Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer L; Sutton, April; Fitzgerald, Scott T

    2015-06-01

    Research revealing associations between conservative Protestantism and lower socioeconomic status is bedeviled by questions of causal inference. Religious switching offers another way to understand the causal ordering of religious participation and demographic markers of class position. In this paper, we look at adolescents who change their religious affiliation across four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and then observe their transition to adulthood using four crucial markers - completed educational attainment, age at first marriage, age at first birth, and income at the final wave. Results show that switching out of a conservative Protestant denomination in adolescence can alter some, but not all, of the negative consequences associated with growing up in a conservative Protestant household. Specifically, family formation is delayed among switchers, but early cessation of education is not.

  9. Effects of Fibers on Color and Translucency Changes of Bulk-Fill and Anterior Composites after Accelerated Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Riza Tuncdemir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of glass and polyethylene fibers on the color and translucency change of bulk-fill and anterior composites before and after artificial accelerated aging (AAA. Two types of teflon molds were used to fabricate samples which were 13 mm in diameter and, respectively, 2 mm and 4 mm in height. Polyethylene fiber (PF and glass fiber (GF were incorporated in the middle of the composite samples. Color and translucency changes of each composite were evaluated before and after AAA with spectrophotometer. ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD post hoc statistical analysis were used at a significance level of 0.05. Before AAA (for anterior composites, there were no significant differences in L* and b* parameters among the three groups (p>0.05; there were no significant differences in L* parameter between PF and GF groups or in TP between GF and control groups (p>0.05 (for bulk-fill composites. After AAA, there were no significant differences in L* parameter between GF and control groups, in a* parameter between PF and control groups, in b* parameter among all groups, or in TP parameter between GF and control groups (p>0.05. Fiber reinforcement led to color and TP change in both anterior and bulk-fill resin composites.

  10. The changes of the assimilation pigments content of turf Festuca spp. leaves after application of different nutrition forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hric

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to compare find out of the changes of assimilation pigments content of turf Festuca spp. leaves after application of different nutrition forms under non–irrigated conditions. In period April 2012 – May 2015 (without June 2014 and February 2015 experiment was carried out in warm and dry conditions in area of Nitra (Slovak Republic. Concentration of assimilation pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total carotenoids was determined spectrophotometrically. The experiment was included 10 treatments: 1. Without fertilization, 2. Saltpetre with dolomite, superphosphate, potassium salt, 3. Turf fertilizer NPK 15-3-8 (+ 3MgO + 0.8 Fe + 18S, 4. Slow release fertilizer NPK 14-5-14 (+ 4CaO + 4MgO + 7S, 5. Controlled release fertilizer NPK (S 13-9-18 (+ 6S, 6. Organic fertilizer NPK 5-1-1, 7. Organic fertilizer NPK 3-2-1 and 3 mycorrhizal preparations. The use of inorganic and organic fertilizers resulted in an increase chlorophyll a, b content and total chlorophyll in leaves Festuca spp. More pronounced increase in chlorophyll content was found by the application of the Turf fertilizer. Application of this fertilizer has a statistically significant effect on content of chlorophyll a + b than in the other evaluated treatments without turfs fertilized by Controlled release fertilizer and Organic fertilizer NPK 5-1-1. A statistically significant increase in the total carotenoids concentration was observed after the use of Saltpetre with dolomite, superphosphate, potassium salt and Turf fertilizer as compared to the non-fertilized control.

  11. Cadmium-induced ultramorphological and physiological changes in leaves of two transgenic cotton cultivars and their wild relative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, M.K.; Variath, M.T.; Ali, Shafaqat; Najeeb, U.; Jamil, Muhammad; Hayat, Y.; Dawood, M.; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Zaffar, M.; Cheema, Sardar Alam; Tong, X.H.; Zhu Shuijin

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes cadmium-induced alterations in the leaves as well as at the whole plant level in two transgenic cotton cultivars (BR001 and GK30) and their wild relative (Coker 312) using both ultramorphological and physiological indices. With elevated levels of Cd (i.e. 10, 100, 1000 μM), the mean lengths of root, stem and leaf and leaf width as well as their fresh and dry biomasses linearly decreased over their respective controls. Moreover, root, stem and leaf water absorption capacities progressively stimulated, which were high in leaves followed by roots and stems. BR001 accumulated more cadmium followed by GK30 and Coker 312. Root and shoot cadmium uptakes were significantly and directly correlated with each other as well as with leaf, stem and root water absorption capacities. The ultrastructural modifications in leaf mesophyll cells were triggered with increase in Cd stress regime. They were more obvious in BR001 followed by GK30 and Coker 312. Changes in morphology of chloroplast, increase in number and size of starch grains as well as increase in number of plastoglobuli were the noticed qualitative effects of Cd on photosynthetic organ. Cd in the form of electron dense granules could be seen inside the vacuoles and attached to the cell walls in all these cultivars. From the present experiment, it can be well established that both apoplastic and symplastic bindings are involved in Cd detoxification in these cultivars. Absence of tonoplast invagination reveals that Cd toxic levels did not cause water stress in any cultivars. Additionally, these cultivars possess differential capabilities towards Cd accumulation and its sequestration.

  12. Color and surface chemistry changes of extracted wood flour after heating at 120 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Nicole M. Stark

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of heat on color and surface chemistry of wood flour (WF), unextracted, extracted and delignified samples of commercial WF were heated at 120 °C for 24 h and analyzed by colorimetry, diffuse reflectance visible (DRV), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopies....

  13. "Does Hope Change? Testing a Project-Based Health Intervention among Urban Students of Color"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusevics, Kaija L.; Johnson, Sheri

    2014-01-01

    Hope is positively correlated with educational attainment and health. Interventions based on project-based learning (PBL) may increase youth hope. This study examined how a PBL intervention affected hope among urban students of color. Students in health classes were invited to participate. A PBL health class was implemented in four classrooms. The…

  14. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  15. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  16. Color Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  17. Cryptic color change in a crab spider (Misumena vatia): identification and quantification of precursors and ommochrome pigments by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, Mickaël; Christidès, Jean-Philippe

    2010-04-01

    Mimicry is used widely by arthropods to survive in a hostile environment. Often mimicry is associated with the production of chemical compounds such as pigments. In crab spiders, the change of color is based on a complex physiological process that still is not understood. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the ommochrome pigments and precursors responsible for the color change in the mimetic crab spider Misumena vatia (Thomisidae). A modified high performance reverse phase ion-pair chromatography technique enabled us to separate and quantify the ommochrome pigments, their precursors, and related metabolites in individual spiders. Compounds such as tryptophan, kynurenine, and kynurenic acid occurred only or mainly in white crab spiders. In contrast, compounds such as 3-hydroxy-kynurenine, xanthommatin, and ommatin D occurred only or mainly in yellow crab spiders. Factor analysis ranked the different color forms in accordance with their metabolites. The biochemical results enabled us to associate the different phases of formation of pigment granules with specific metabolites. Yellow crab spiders contain many unknown ommochrome-like compounds not present in white crab spiders. We also found large quantities of decarboxylated xanthommatin, whose role as precursor of new pathways in ommochrome synthesis needs to be assessed. The catabolism of ommochromes, a process occurring when spiders revert from yellow to white, warrants further study.

  18. Color in interior spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Demirörs, Müge Bozbeyli

    1992-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1992. Thesis (Master's) -- -Bilkent University, 1992. Includes bibliographical references leaves 95-99. Color can be approached from different perspectives and disciplines such as, biology, theory, technology, and psychology. This thesis discusses color, from the stand point of interior spaces, which to some extent involves most of these discipli...

  19. Comparing Color Change Value of Three Types of Composite Resins in Distilled Water during the First 24 Hours after Exposure to Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Afkhami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Color change of composite resin restorations is one the most common causes for replacing these restorations, which might occur due to internal and external factors. This research was carried out to study and compare color change value of three types of composite resins in distilled water during the first 24 hours after exposure to light. METHODS: In this laboratory research, 120 samples were prepared from three types of composites (Z350, Z250 and Heliomolar and were divided into 3 groups of 40. Samples with 2 mm thickness and 7 mm diameter were prepared. After assessing the initial color by spectrophotometer, samples were exposed to distilled water for 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours, respectively. Then, the final color was assessed by EasyShade device and the color change value (ΔE was calculated for all samples. Moreover, ΔE<3.3 was clinically acceptable. FINDINGS: In 12h group, Heliomolar composite showed lowest color change value compared with two other composites (Z350=1.385, Z250=1.179 and Heliomolar=0.854 (p<0.05, while no significant difference was observed in other groups. Furthermore, lowest color change value in each composite was observed 1 hour after curing (Z350=0.352, Z250=0.641 and Heliomolar=0.298 and color change value increased 24 hours after curing (Z350=1.888, Z250=1.903 and Heliomolar=1.929. CONCLUSION: Results of the study revealed that color change value of all three composites in distilled water was less than 3.3 after 24 hours and it was clinically acceptable

  20. Seasonal changes of peroxidase and catalase activities in leaves of several arborescent species subject to different industrial air pollutions in Upper Silesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raczek, E.; Stolarek, J.

    1979-01-01

    Year-round investigations of seasonal patterns of peroxidase and catalase activities in leaves of several deciduous and coniferous arborescent species in forests of Upper Silesia subjected to various amounts of industrial gases and dusts were carried out. The samples of leaves of Betula verrucosa EHRH, Quercus robur L., Q. rubra L., Pinus nigra ARNOLD, and P. silvestris L. were collected at different distances from an iron smelting plant. It was found that raising level of the pollution enhances peroxidase activity in leaves and needles. The induction of peroxidase activity by pollutants exhibited seasonal changes specific for the species and was subjected to the effect of temperature of the environment and was also related to the natural resistivity of a given species. In contrast to peroxidase, the patterns of catalase activity changes did not appear to be specifically influenced by industrial air pollutants. 22 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  1. Colorism/Neo-Colorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel

    2017-01-01

    There are numerous aspects to being non-Caucasian that may not be known by Whites. Persons of color suggest folks who are African, South Americans, Native Americans, Biracial, Asians and others. The question is what do these individuals feel relative to their color and facial characteristics. Eugene Robinson suggest that the future favorable color…

  2. The midday depression of CO2 assimilation in leaves of Arbutus unedo L.: diurnal changes in photosynthetic capacity related to changes in temperature and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, K; Resemann, A

    1986-09-01

    experiments, leaves were subjected to variations in temperature and humidity independent of the time of the day, under otherwise constant conditions. Photosynthetic capacity and stomatal conductance proved to be almost insensitive to changes in temperature (in a range extending from 20 to 37° C) as long as the water vapor-pressure difference was held constant. If it was not, the rate of photosynthesis began to decline with increasing temperature after a threshold water-vapor pressure difference was exceeded. The position of the resulting apparent temperature optimum of photosynthesis depended on the humidity of the air. We suggest that the ability of A. unedo to respond to a dry atmosphere with a reversible reduction of its photosynthetic capacity (by a still unknown mechanism) is the result of a co-evolution with the development of a strong stomatal sensitivity to changes in humidity.

  3. Use of image analysis to assess color response on plants caused by herbicide application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif, Ali; Streibig, Jens Carl; Duus, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    by herbicides. The range of color components of green and nongreen parts of the plants and soil in Hue, Saturation, and Brightness (HSB) color space were used for segmentation. The canopy color changes of barley, winter wheat, red fescue, and brome fescue caused by doses of a glyphosate and diflufenican mixture...... for the green and nongreen parts of the plants and soil were different. The relative potencies were not significantly different from one, indicating that visual and image analysis estimations were about the same. The comparison results suggest that image analysis can be used to assess color changes of plants......In herbicide-selectivity experiments, response can be measured by visual inspection, stand counts, plant mortality, and biomass. Some response types are relative to nontreated control. We developed a nondestructive method by analyzing digital color images to quantify color changes in leaves caused...

  4. Dynamic changes of flavonoids in Actinidia valvata leaves at different growing stages measured by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, Qiao-Hui; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Han, Ting; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Peng, Cheng; Xin, Hai-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are a large group of phenolic secondary metabolites havinga wide range of biochemical and pharmacological effects. Quantitative analysis of flavonoid profiles in the genus Actinidia, which has not been intensively conducted, is useful to a better understanding of the pattern and distribution of flavonoids. In the present work, a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed to profile the flavonoids, which was then used to determine the dynamic change of 17 biologically active flavonoids in the leaves of Actinidia valvata at the main growing stages, including glucuronides and acylated di- and triglycosides of flavonoids. The contents of flavonoid triglycosides were significantly higher than other flavonoids. The highest concentrations of kaemperol glycosides were observed in June, while other flavonoids showed highest concentrations in October. On the other hand, the contents of four isorhamnetin glycosides were increased sharply in September to October. The flavonoid profiles seem to be related to temperature, UV-B, and water deficit. Further studies are required to examine the functions of flavonoids in the Actinidia valvata and the underlying molecular mechanisms of actions. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-distance signaling within Coleus x hybridus leaves; mediated by changes in intra-leaf CO2?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlberg, R.; Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.

    2001-01-01

    Rapid long-distance signaling in plants can occur via several mechanisms, including symplastic electric coupling and pressure waves. We show here in variegated Coleus leaves a rapid propagation of electrical signals that appears to be caused by changes in intra-leaf CO2 concentrations. Green leaf cells, when illuminated, undergo a rapid depolarization of their membrane potential (Vm) and an increase in their apoplastic pH (pHa) by a process that requires photosynthesis. This is followed by a slower hyperpolarization of Vm and apoplastic acidification, which do not require photosynthesis. White (chlorophyll-lacking) leaf cells, when in isolated white leaf segments, show only the slow response, but when in mixed (i.e. green and white) segments, the rapid Vm depolarization and increase in pHa propagate over more than 10 mm from the green to the white cells. Similarly, these responses propagate 12-20 mm from illuminated to unilluminated green cells. The fact that the propagation of these responses is eliminated when the leaf air spaces are infiltrated with solution indicates that the signal moves in the apoplast rather than the symplast. A depolarization of the mesophyll cells is induced in the dark by a decrease in apoplastic CO2 but not by an increase in pHa. These results support the hypothesis that the propagating signal for the depolarization of the white mesophyll cells is a photosynthetically induced decrease in the CO2 level of the air spaces throughout the leaf.

  6. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis reveals proteomic changes in leaves of cultivated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) in response to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, He; Yang, Da-Hai; Yao, Heng; Bai, Ge; Zhang, Yi-Han; Xiao, Bing-Guang

    2016-01-15

    Drought is one of the most severe forms of abiotic stresses that threaten the survival of plants, including crops. In turn, plants dramatically change their physiology to increase drought tolerance, including reconfiguration of proteomes. Here, we studied drought-induced proteomic changes in leaves of cultivated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), a solanaceous plant, using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based protein labeling technology. Of identified 5570 proteins totally, drought treatment increased and decreased abundance of 260 and 206 proteins, respectively, compared with control condition. Most of these differentially regulated proteins are involved in photosynthesis, metabolism, and stress and defense. Although abscisic acid (ABA) levels greatly increased in drought-treated tobacco leaves, abundance of detected ABA biosynthetic enzymes showed no obvious changes. In contrast, heat shock proteins (HSPs), thioredoxins, ascorbate-, glutathione-, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-related proteins were up- or down-regulated in drought-treated tobacco leaves, suggesting that chaperones and redox signaling are important for tobacco tolerance to drought, and it is likely that redox-induced posttranslational modifications play an important role in modulating protein activity. This study not only provides a comprehensive dataset on overall protein changes in drought-treated tobacco leaves, but also shed light on the mechanism by which solanaceous plants adapt to drought stress. Copyright © 2015 Yunnan Academy of Tobacco Agricultural Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in sapwood permeability and anatomy with tree age and height in the broad-leaved evergreen species Eucalyptus regnans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Jacqueline R; Attiwill, Peter M

    2007-08-01

    Increases in plant size and structural complexity with increasing age have important implications for water flow through trees. Water supply to the crown is influenced by both the cross-sectional area and the permeability of sapwood. It has been hypothesized that hydraulic conductivity within sapwood increases with age. We investigated changes in sapwood permeability (k) and anatomy with tree age and height in the broad-leaved evergreen species Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. Sapwood was sampled at breast height from trees ranging from 8 to 240 years old, and at three height positions on the main stem of 8-year-old trees. Variation in k was not significant among sampling height positions in young trees. However, k at breast height increased with tree age. This was related to increases in both vessel frequency and vessel diameter, resulting in a greater proportion of sapwood being occupied by vessel lumina. Sapwood hydraulic conductivity (the product of k and sapwood area) also increased with increasing tree age. However, at the stand level, there was a decrease in forest sapwood hydraulic conductivity with increasing stand age, because of a decrease in the number of trees per hectare. Across all ages, there were significant relationships between k and anatomy, with individual anatomical characteristics explaining 33-62% of the variation in k. There was also strong agreement between measured k and permeability predicted by the Hagen-Poiseuille equation. The results support the hypothesis of an increase in sapwood permeability at breast height with age. Further measurements are required to confirm this result at other height positions in older trees. The significance of tree-level changes in sapwood permeability for stand-level water relations is discussed.

  8. Impact of nanohydroxyapatite on enamel surface roughness and color change after orthodontic debonding

    OpenAIRE

    Shabnam Ajami; Hamid Reza Pakshir; Neda Babanouri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this prospective in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of nanohydroxyapatite (nanoHAP) serum on the enamel surface roughness and tooth color stability after orthodontic debonding procedure. Methods The crowns of 30 premolars were embedded in acrylic blocks with a 4 mm × 5-mm-sized window on the middle third of buccal surfaces. Primary roughness values were evaluated by an atomic force microscope (AFM). After bracket debonding, and polishing procedures, the s...

  9. Color change of tourmaline by heat treatment and electron beam irradiation: UV-Visible, EPR, and Mid-IR spectroscopic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneewong, Apichate; Seong, Baek Seok; Shin, Eun Joo; Kim, Jeong Seog; Kajornrith, Varavuth

    2016-01-01

    The color of pink tourmaline gemstone changed to colorless when heating at temperature of 600 °C in air. This colorless tourmaline recovered its pink color when irradiated with an electron beam (e-beam) of 800 kGy. The origin of the color change was investigated in three types of tourmaline gemstones, two pink are from Afghanistan and one green are from Nigeria, by using Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the pink tourmaline with higher Mn concentration (T2, 0.24 wt%) showed characteristic absorption peaks originating from the Mn3+ color center: two absorption bands centered at wavelength of 396 and 520 nm, respectively. Both absorption bands disappeared when heated in air at 600 °C and then reappeared when irradiated with an e-beam at 800 kGy. EPR T2 spectra showed that the color change was related to the valence change of Mn3+ to Mn2+ and vice versa. The pink tourmaline of lower MnO content (T1, 0.08 wt%) also became colorless when heated, but the color was not recovered when the gemstone underwent e-beam irradiation. Instead, a yellow color was obtained. UV-Vis and FTIR spectra indicated that this yellow color originated from a decomposition of the hydroxyl group (-OH) into O- and Ho by the e-beam irradiation. Green tourmaline did not show any color change with either heat treatment or e-beam irradiation.

  10. A Long-lived and Color Changing Oval on Jupiter's NTrZ (at 19ºN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrado-Izagirre, N.; Legarreta, J.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Hueso, R.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Rojas, J. F.; Mendikoa, I.

    2015-12-01

    A long lived oval located in the boundary between the North Tropical Zone and the North Equatorial Band (NEBn) of Jupiter at 19º of planetographic latitude is being observed at least since 2008. At this latitude the mean wind profile of the planet provide winds of around 10 m/s [1]. Since 2012 and using the PVOL image database of Jupiter (http://www.pvol.ehu.es/pvol/) we have tracked it observing and characterizing its changes. In this period of time, it has merged with another oval (in February 2013) and it has changed it color from white to red (in September 2013) and again white. We have also performed some EPIC simulations of the merger between both ovals. Thanks to Hubble Space Telescope data in Septembers 2012, we have also been able to measure its internal rotation while it was white, unfortunately this set of images only have observations in the near infrared (F763M) and in the ultraviolet (F275W). And finally, using HST and PlanetCam (a planetary camera developed in our research team) images, we are trying to measure the color and the altitude-opacity indexes [2] to assess the color change it has suffered. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by the Spanish MICIIN proyect AYA2012-36666 with FEDER support, Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT765-13 and UPV/EHU UFI11/55. [1] García-Melendo & Sanchéz-Lavega., Icarus, 152, 136 (2001). [2] Sánchez-Lavega et al., JGR, 118, 1-21 (2013).

  11. Lipid Oxidation, Color Changes, and Microbiological Quality of Frozen Beef Burgers Incorporated with Shirazi Thyme, Cinnamon, and Rosemary Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hashemi Gahruie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the oxidative stability of beef burgers incorporated with Shirazi thyme, cinnamon, and rosemary extracts was compared with that of BHT-incorporated and antioxidant-free samples. The chemical composition, TBARS, metmyoglobin, pH, color, and microbial and sensory characteristics were evaluated during storage at −18°C for 2 months. The results indicated that Shirazi thyme and cinnamon extracts did not change the colorimetric properties significantly (P BHT > Shirazi thyme > rosemary > control. Finally, the results showed that these plant extracts can be utilized as an alternative to synthetic antioxidants in formulation of burgers.

  12. Effects of surface-finishing protocols on the roughness, color change, and translucency of different ceramic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Gülcan Coşkun; Pekkan, Gürel; Çal, Ebru; Eskitaşçıoğlu, Gürcan; Özcan, Mutlu

    2014-08-01

    Surface-finishing protocols have a mechanical impact on ceramic surfaces that could eventually affect surface topography and light scattering. An optimum protocol is needed to avoid damaging the optical properties of ceramics. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different surface-finishing protocols on the surface roughness, color change, and translucency of ceramic and metal ceramic restorations. Standardized disk-shaped specimens (1.5 × 10 mm, n=128) were fabricated from 3 different ceramic core materials (aluminum oxide [Al2O3]-AL, zirconium oxide [ZrO2]-ZR, lithium disilicate [Li2Si2O5]-LIT), veneered (V) with dentin ceramics (n=32 per group), and placed in the following groups: ALV, ZRV, and LITV. The metal ceramic group acted as the control (n=32). Four different surface-finishing methods were tested. Airborne-particle abrasion with 50 μm Al2O3, polishing with adjustment kit, polishing with adjustment kit plus diamond polishing paste, and autoglazing (n=8 subgroup) were applied on the veneering ceramics. The specimens were analyzed with a profilometer for surface roughness, and color change and translucency were measured with a clinical spectrophotometer. Statistical analyses were performed with 1-way ANOVA and the Tukey honest significant difference tests (α=.05). Specimens treated with the airborne particle abrasion method showed significantly higher mean profilometer for surface roughness values in all groups (P.05). With the diamond polishing paste method, lower surface roughness values were achieved in the ZRV and metal ceramic groups acted as the control groups. Different surface-finishing methods affected the color change of the ceramic systems, except for ZRV. Surface-finishing protocols significantly affected the translucency values of the ALV, LITV, and metal ceramic groups (Pceramics tested. The airborne-particle abrasion protocol created rougher surfaces and decreased translucency, and color change in zirconia was not

  13. Seasonal changes in contents of phenolic compounds and sugar in Rhus, Euonymus and Acer leaves with special reference to anthocyanin formation in autumn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Nariyuki

    1976-01-01

    The seasonal changes in the contents of sugar and phenolic compounds in the leaves of Rhus, Euonymus and two Acer species were examined in order to obtain information on the metabolic process inducing the autumn reddening. The incorporation of radioactivity of glucose-(U-14C) into anthocyanin was also examined. As a result of a preliminary test, the compositions of sugar and phenolic compounds were not altered by the drying treatment, therefore dried material was used. Dried leaves (ca. 2 g) were subject to the extraction with 80% methanol (3 ml, 3 hr) under refluxing. The extraction was repeated twice. Combined extracts (ca. 90 ml) were concentrated to ca. 20 ml at 35 deg C under reduced pressure. The concentrate was repeatedly washed with n-hexane and evaporated to remove the n-hexane. The resulting solution was made up to 30 ml with water, and used for the quantitative analysis. The solutions were fractionated in order to estimate total phenol and flavanol contents. Sugars were extracted from dry leaves (ca. 2 g) by boiling 70% ethanol (20 ml) for 3 hours. D-glucose-(U- 14 C)(280 mCi/mM) and phenylalanine-(U- 14 C)(422 mCi/mM) were fed to the leaves. It was found that antho-cyanin (mainly cyanidin 3-monoglucoside) was produced in the autumnal leaves of all plants examined, and that the red pigment was steadily accumulated in their leaves during the autumn. The sugar accumulated in autumnal Rhus leaves may be rapidly consumed by the formation of phenolic compounds. (Iwakiri, K.)

  14. Changes in multidimensional pain inventory profile after a pain rehabilitation programme indicate the risk of receiving sick leave benefits one year later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Vanja E; Novo, Mehmed; Sjölund, Bengt H.

    2014-01-01

    ,784 patients (709 men and 2,075 women) collected from the Swedish Quality Register for Pain Rehabilitation (SQRP) before and at the end of rehabilitation and compared with independent sick leave data for 1 year later. RESULTS: After rehabilitation there was a significantly decreased share of Dysfunctional...... profiles (DYS) among both men (44% before, 31% after) and women (39% before, 26% after), but an increased share of Adaptive Coper profiles (men 15% before, 24% after, women 14% before, 24% after). The number of patients on full-time sick leave decreased significantly among men (from 57% to 46%) and women......OBJECTIVES: To determine whether coping profile changes after rehabilitation, assessed with the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI), can predict which persons disabled by chronic musculoskeletal pain will be in receipt of sick leave benefits in the long term. METHODS: Study of MPI data from 2...

  15. Influence of Surrounding Colors in the Illuminant-Color Mode on Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuho Fukuda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available On color constancy, we showed that brighter surrounding colors had greater influence than dim colors (Uchikawa, Kitazawa, MacLeod, Fukuda, 2010 APCV. Increasing luminance of a stimulus causes the change in appearance from the surface-color to the illuminant-color mode. However it is unknown whether the visual system considers such color appearance mode of surrounding colors to achieve color constancy. We investigated the influence of surrounding colors that appeared illuminant on color constancy. The stimulus was composed of a central test stimulus and surrounding six colors: bright and dim red, green and blue. The observers adjusted the chromaticity of the test stimulus to be appeared as an achromatic surface. The luminance balance of three bright surrounding colors was equalized with that of the optimal colors in three illuminant conditions, then, the luminance of one of the three bright colors was varied in the range beyond the critical luminance of color appearance mode transition. The results showed that increasing luminance of a bright surrounding color shifted the observers' achromatic setting toward its chromaticity, but this effect diminished for the surrounding color in the illuminant-color mode. These results suggest that the visual system considers color appearance mode of surrounding colors to accomplish color constancy.

  16. Color-Changing Microfiber-Based Multifunctional Window Screen for Capture and Visualized Monitoring of NH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Yuan, Xinxin; Cong, Shan; Chen, Zhigang; Li, Qingwen; Geng, Fengxia; Zhao, Zhigang

    2018-05-02

    Air pollution is one of the most serious issues affecting the world today. Instead of expensive and energy-intensive air filtering devices, a fiber-based transparent air filter coated on a window screen is seen as one of the state-of-the-art filtration technologies to combat the seriously growing problem, delivering the advantages of simplicity, convenience, and high filtering efficiency. However, such a window screen is currently limited to particulate matter (PM) filtration and ineffective with other air pollutants. Here, we report the use of a newfangled type of color-changing fibers, porous Prussian blue analogues (CuHCF)/polymer composite microfibers, for transparent window screens toward air pollutant filtration. To increase pollution filtration, pores and dimples are purposely introduced to the fibers using binary solvent systems through a nonsolvent-induced phase separation mechanism. Such composite microfibers overcome some of the limitations of those previously used fibers and could simultaneously capture PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and NH 3 with high efficiency. More interestingly, a distinct color change is observed upon exposure to air pollutants in such window screens, which provides multifunctional capability of simultaneous pollutant capture and naked eye screening of the pollutant amount. Specifically, in the case of long-term exposure to low-concentration NH 3 , the symbol displayed in such window screens changes from yellow color to brown and the coloration rate is directly controlled by the NH 3 concentration, which may serve as a careful reminder for those people who are repeatedly exposed to low-concentration ammonia gas (referred to as chronic poisoning). In contrast, after short-term exposure to a high concentration of ammonia gas, the yellow symbol immediately becomes blackened, which provides timely information about the risk of acute ammonia poisoning or even ammonia explosion. Further spectroscopic results show that the chromatic behaviors in

  17. Legislative change enabling use of early part-time sick leave enhanced return to work and work participation in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Virta, Lauri J; Kausto, Johanna; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Martimo, Kari-Pekka; Laaksonen, Mikko; Leinonen, Taina; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Burdorf, Alex; Solovieva, Svetlana

    2017-09-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of part-time sick leave at the early (first 12 weeks) stage of work disability due to mental disorder or musculoskeletal disease on sustained return to work (RTW) and overall work participation. Methods In a nation-wide register-based quasi-experimental study, we compared sustained RTW (ie, ≥28 consecutive days at work) and 2-year work participation between the part- and full-time sickness absence (SA) benefit groups (N=1878 in each group) using propensity-score matching. Persons who received partial or full SA benefit due to musculoskeletal diseases or mental disorders between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 were eligible as cases or controls, respectively. Results A higher proportion showed sustained RTW after part- compared to full-time sick leave [absolute risk difference 8.0%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.3-10.9]. Moreover, the proportion of time at work was at a 10.5% higher level in the part- compared to full-time sick leave group. The prevalence of full disability retirement was almost three-fold among the full- compared to part-time sick leave group, whereas partial disability retirement was 4.5-fold more prevalent in the part- compared to full-time sick leave group. Conclusions The use of part-time sick leave during the first three months of SA enhances RTW and overall work participation during two years among persons with mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases. The prescription of part-time sick leave can be recommended at an early stage of work disability.

  18. Evaluation of the impact of initial red wine composition on changes in color and anthocyanin content during bottle storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avizcuri, José-Miguel; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Echávarri, José-Federico; Ferreira, Vicente; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2016-12-15

    Sixteen commercial red wines, selected to cover a different range of color and total polyphenols index (TPI), were stored at 25°C during 6months under controlled and different oxygen additions (0, 1.1, 3.1, 10.6 and 30.4mgL(-1)) during the bottling process. Changes in color and the anthocyanic composition were evaluated using transmittance spectra and UPLC-MS-UV/Vis respectively. Results reveal a general pattern in the evolution of wines. However, different patterns of evolution related to initial wine composition, especially to TPI, were observed. Wines with higher TPI had a lower evolution, whereas wines with lower TPI showed a higher evolution and greater variability in behavior. In general, oxygen seemed to accelerate all changes observed during aging although the oxygen effect was more limited than the effect of the storage time. These results are relevant for wine experts and help explain the evolution of wine at the bottling stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparing Repetition Priming Effects in Words and Arithmetic Equations: Robust Priming Regardless of Color or Response Hand Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailsa Humphries

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that stimulus repetition can lead to reliable behavioral improvements. Although this repetition priming (RP effect has been reported in a number of paradigms using a variety of stimuli including words, objects, and faces, only a few studies have investigated mathematical cognition involving arithmetic computation, and no prior research has directly compared RP effects in a linguistic task with an arithmetic task. In two experiments, we used a within-subjects design to investigate and compare the magnitude of RP, and the effects of changing the color or the response hand for repeated, otherwise identical, stimuli in a word and an arithmetic categorization task. The results show that the magnitude of RP was comparable between the two tasks and that changing the color or the response hand had a negligible effect on priming in either task. These results extended previous findings in mathematical cognition. They also indicate that priming does not vary with stimulus domain. The implications of the results were discussed with reference to both facilitation of component processes and episodic memory retrieval of stimulus–response binding.

  20. Comparing Repetition Priming Effects in Words and Arithmetic Equations: Robust Priming Regardless of Color or Response Hand Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Ailsa; Chen, Zhe; Neumann, Ewald

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that stimulus repetition can lead to reliable behavioral improvements. Although this repetition priming (RP) effect has been reported in a number of paradigms using a variety of stimuli including words, objects, and faces, only a few studies have investigated mathematical cognition involving arithmetic computation, and no prior research has directly compared RP effects in a linguistic task with an arithmetic task. In two experiments, we used a within-subjects design to investigate and compare the magnitude of RP, and the effects of changing the color or the response hand for repeated, otherwise identical, stimuli in a word and an arithmetic categorization task. The results show that the magnitude of RP was comparable between the two tasks and that changing the color or the response hand had a negligible effect on priming in either task. These results extended previous findings in mathematical cognition. They also indicate that priming does not vary with stimulus domain. The implications of the results were discussed with reference to both facilitation of component processes and episodic memory retrieval of stimulus-response binding.

  1. Identification of the compositional changes in Orthosiphon stamineus leaves triggered by different drying techniques using 1 H NMR metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariyani, Raghunath; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Ahmad Azam, Amalina; Abas, Faridah; Shaari, Khozirah

    2017-09-01

    Java tea is a well-known herbal infusion prepared from the leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus (OS). The biological properties of tea are in direct correlation with the primary and secondary metabolite composition, which in turn largely depends on the choice of drying method. Herein, the impact of three commonly used drying methods, i.e. shade, microwave and freeze drying, on the metabolite composition and antioxidant activity of OS leaves was investigated using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate classification and regression analysis tools. A total of 31 constituents comprising primary and secondary metabolites belonging to the chemical classes of fatty acids, amino acids, sugars, terpenoids and phenolic compounds were identified. Shade-dried leaves were identified to possess the highest concentrations of bioactive secondary metabolites such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, luteolin, orthosiphol and apigenin, followed by microwave-dried samples. Freeze-dried leaves had higher concentrations of choline, amino acids leucine, alanine and glutamine and sugars such as fructose and α-glucose, but contained the lowest levels of secondary metabolites. Metabolite profiling coupled with multivariate analysis identified shade drying as the best method to prepare OS leaves as Java tea or to include in traditional medicine preparation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Flavonoid constituents of Dobera glabra leaves: amelioration impact against CCl4-induced changes in the genetic materials in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhateeb, Ahmed; Abdel Latif, Rasha R; Marzouk, Mona M; Hussein, Sameh R; Kassem, Mona E S; Khalil, Wagdy K B; El-Ansari, Mohamed A

    2017-12-01

    Dobera glabra (Forssk.) Poir (Salvadoraceae) is a highly valued tree with diverse importance as special mineral sourced feed and a folkloric tool for forecasting droughts. However, there are no reports on its phytochemical and biological investigations. Phytochemical investigation of D. glabra leaves and its protective potential against CCl 4 inducing changes in the genetic materials. D. glabra extract, DGE (70% MeOH/H 2 O), was applied to polyamide column chromatography, eluting with MeOH/H 2 O of decreasing polarities, followed by preparative chromatographic tools, yielded seven compounds. Three DGE doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg bw/d) were administrated for 8 weeks intragastrically to male albino rats prior treated with CCl 4 (0.5 mL/kg/bw). The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, expression changes of glutamate transporters (GLAST, GLT-1 and SNAT3) mRNA, DNA fragmentation and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were investigated in the liver tissues of these rats. Isorhamnetin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside-7-O-β-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3,7-di-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-β-glucopyranoside, isorhamnetin and kaempferol were identified. DGE (200 mg/kg bw) + CCl 4 exhibited the most significant reduction in ROS levels and DNA fragmentation with 251.3% and141% compared to 523.1% and 273.2% for CCl 4 , respectively. Additionally, it increased significantly the mRNA expression of GLAST, GLT-1 and SNAT3 to 2.16-, 1.72- and 2.09-fold, respectively. Also, GPx activity was increased to 4.8 U/mg protein/min compared to CCl 4 (1.8 U/mg protein/min). Flavonoid constituents, antioxidant effect and genotoxic protection activity of D. glabra were first reported. DGE may be valuable in the treatment and hindrance of hepatic oxidative stress and genotoxicity.

  3. Shift Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  4. Changes in 13C/12C of oil palm leaves to understand carbon use during their passage from heterotrophy to autotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamade, Emmanuelle; Setiyo, Indra Eko; Girard, Sébastien; Ghashghaie, Jaleh

    2009-08-30

    The carbon isotope composition of leaf bulk organic matter was determined on the tropical tree Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (oil palm) in North Sumatra (Indonesia) to get a better understanding of the changes in carbon metabolism during the passage from heterotrophy to autotrophy of the leaves. Leaf soluble sugar (sucrose, glucose and fructose) contents, stomatal conductance and dark respiration, as well as leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen contents, were also investigated. Different growing stages were sampled from leaf rank -6 to rank 57. The mean values for the delta(13)C of bulk organic matter were -29.01 +/- 0.9 per thousand for the leaflets during the autotrophic stage, -27.87 +/- 1.08 per thousand for the petioles and -28.17 +/- 1.09 per thousand for the rachises, which are in the range of expected values for a C(3) plant. The differences in delta(13)C among leaf ranks clearly revealed the changes in the origin of the carbon source used for leaf growth. Leaves were (13)C-enriched at ranks below zero (around -27 per thousand). During this period, the 'spear' leaves were completely heterotrophic and reserves from storage organs were mobilised for the growth of these young emerging leaves. (13)C-depletion was then observed when the leaf was expanding at rank 1, and there was a continuous decrease during the progressive passage from heterotrophy until reaching full autotrophy. Thereafter, the delta(13)C remained more or less constant at around -29.5 per thousand. Changes in sugar content and in delta(13)C related to leaf ranks showed an interesting similarity of the passage from heterotrophy to autotrophy of oil palm leaves to the budburst of some temperate trees or seed germination reported in the literature. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Geometric morphometric analysis of cyclical body shape changes in color pattern variants of Cichla temensis Humboldt, 1821 (Perciformes: Cichlidae demonstrates reproductive energy allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Reiss

    Full Text Available Previously recognized color and pattern variants of adult Cichla temensis in Amazon flood pulse river environments reflect the cycling of individuals through seasonal sexual maturity and spawning. Individuals also vary in shape from blocky to fusiform. To determine if shape differences are related to patterns of fat reserve deposition and utilization, and to quantify the relationship of shape with color and pattern variation and life history status, specimens in each of four previously defined grades of color and pattern variation were compared using geometric morphometric techniques. Progressive shape changes occurred between grades independent of sex and correlated to gonosomatic index (GSI. Thin plate spline deformation visualizations indicate that the observed shape differences are related to fat deposition patterns. The seasonal timing of shape change and its link to color pattern variation, sexual maturity and local water level conditions suggests a relationship between the physiological and behavioral characteristics of C. temensis and the cyclical flood pulse pattern of its habitat.

  6. Observations and theoretical evaluations of color changes of traveling light beams caused by optical rotation phenomena in sugared water and their applications for educational purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumitsu, Seika; Hasegawa, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    Investigations were conducted for the purposes of understanding coloring phenomena to be caused by optical rotation of polarized light beams in sugared water and realizing their applications as educational tools. By allowing polarized laser beams in red, blue or green to travel in sugared water of certain concentrations, changes in their intensities were measured while changing a distance between a pair of polarizing plates in the sugared water. An equation was established for a theoretical value for the angle of rotation for light of any colors (wavelengths) travelling in sugared water of any concentrations. The predicted results exhibited satisfactory matching with the measured values. In addition, the intensities of transmitted laser beams, as well as colors to be observable when a white-color LED torch was employed as a light source, were also become predictable, and the predicted results were well-matched with the observation results.

  7. Herbicide-induced changes in 14CO2 uptake of leaves of some crop and weed species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santakumari, M.; Rama Das, V.S.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of diuron or atrazine on the rate of photosynthetic 14 CO 2 uptake of two each crop (Pisum Sativum and Pennisetum typhoides) and weed species (Amaranthus viridis and Cyperus rotundus) was studied. The results indicated a marked inhibition of 14 CO 2 fixation of leaves within two hours after diuron or atrazine treatment. However the resistant plants were able to exhibit a recovery of the net photosynthetic rate subsequently while the susceptible plants failed to recover. The results suggested that even with fully open stomata and available NADPH, the normal CO 2 fixation was not restored by herbicide treated leaves. (author)

  8. Colors of fruits and vegetables and 3-year changes of cardiometabolic risk factors in adults: Tehran lipid and glucose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, P; Bahadoran, Z; Moslehi, N; Bastan, S; Azizi, F

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to investigate the associations of colors of fruit and vegetable (FV) subgroups, with 3-year changes of cardiometabolic risk factors. This longitudinal study was conducted in the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, between 2006-2008 and 2009-2011, on 1272 adults. Total intake of FV and their subgroups have been assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline (2006-2008) and again at the second examination (2009-2011). Demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical measures were evaluated at baseline and 3 years later. The associations of anthropometric and lipid profile changes with FV subgroups were estimated. The mean age of men and women at baseline was 39.8±12.7 and 37.3±12.1 years, respectively. Mean total intake of FV, red/purple, yellow, green, orange and white FV was 706±337, 185±95, 141±91, 152±77, 141±87 and 22±18 g/day, respectively. In men, 3-year changes of weight (β=-0.13, P=0.01) and waist circumference (β=-0.14, P=0.01) were related to intake of red/purple FV; the yellow group was inversely associated with 3-year changes of total cholesterol (β=-0.09, P=0.03) and High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β=-0.11, P=0.03). Consumption of green and white FV was inversely related to abdominal fat gain, and atherogenic lipid parameters in men (Pfasting serum glucose and total cholesterol (P<0.05); yellow FV was also related to 3-year weight gain (β=-0.11, P=0.01). Various colors of FV subgroups had different effects on cardiometabolic risk factors; higher intake of red/purple FV may be related to lower weight and abdominal fat gain, and yellow, green and white FV may be related to lipid parameters.

  9. Changes in ultraviolet-B and visible optical properties and absorbing pigment concentrations in pecan leaves during a growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadong Qi; Shuju Bai; Gordon M. Heisler

    2003-01-01

    UV-B (280-320 nm) and visible (400-760 nm) spectral reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance; chlorophyll content; UV-B absorbing compound concentration; and leaf thickness were measured for pecan (Carya illinoensis) leaves over a growing season (April-October). Leaf samples were collected monthly from a pecan plantation located on the Southern...

  10. Color Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Pate, Monica; Raclariu, Ana-Maria; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    A transient color flux across null infinity in classical Yang-Mills theory is considered. It is shown that a pair of test `quarks' initially in a color singlet generically acquire net color as a result of the flux. A nonlinear formula is derived for the relative color rotation of the quarks. For weak color flux the formula linearizes to the Fourier transform of the soft gluon theorem. This color memory effect is the Yang-Mills analog of the gravitational memory effect.

  11. Changes in White college students' color-blind racial ideology over 4 years: do diversity experiences make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Helen A; Poteat, V Paul; Lewis, Jioni A; Spanierman, Lisa B

    2014-04-01

    In this longitudinal study, we explored how White students' (N = 857) color-blind racial ideology (CBRI; i.e., beliefs that serve to deny, minimize, and/or distort the existence of racism) changed over time and the factors associated with these patterns of change. Specifically, we investigated whether gender, diversity attitudes (i.e., openness to diversity and interest in social issues), and college diversity experiences (i.e., diversity-related courses/activities and close interracial friendships) predicted patterns of CBRI change. Findings indicated that gender and diversity attitudes were related to initial levels of CBRI, such that women and students who were more open to diversity issues at the beginning of college were more likely to report lower levels of CBRI; gender was also related to a greater decrease in CBRI changes over the college experience. Furthermore, college diversity experiences predicted changes in CBRI over time, such that students who completed a greater number of diversity courses and activities and those who had a greater number of close Black friends showed a significantly greater decrease in CBRI over their 4 years in college; interestingly, students who reported having no Latino friends compared with having some close Latino friends showed a significantly greater decrease in CBRI over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The color changes and tensile properties of oxidized Ti–6A1–2Mo–1.5Cr–2Zr–2Sn–2Nb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Zhiqiang, E-mail: jzq19841102@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Zeng, Weidong, E-mail: zengwd@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Zhang, Yaowu [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Shi, Chunling [Xi’an Aircraft Industry Company LTD, 710089 (China); Quan, Biao; Wu, Jianding [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The oxidized alloy exhibited notable color changes. • The color was mainly attributed to the mixing of titanium oxides. • A corresponding relation between the color and tensile properties was established. • A predicted model was proposed to characterize the diffusion of oxygen. - Abstract: The oxidation of titanium alloy at elevated temperature severely limits its property and service life. It is a common and urgent issue to assess the mechanical property of oxidized titanium component without destroying its structural integrity. In this work, the color changes and tensile properties of oxidized Ti–6A1–2Mo–1.5Cr–2Zr–2Sn–2Nb alloy with initial basket-weave microstructure were investigated in the temperature range of 100–1000 °C. It was found that the oxidized specimens exhibited brilliant and regular color changes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the color changes were mainly attributed to the mixing of colored titanium oxides in the oxidation layer (such as yellow TiO, white TiO{sub 2} and blue Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}). It was also found that mechanical properties were significant influenced by the oxidation treatment. The specimens oxidized below 600 °C exhibited excellent strength and plasticity due to its fine basket-weave microstructure and dense oxidation layer. In the temperature range from 600 to 800 °C, the strength slightly decreased while the plasticity rose a little. The change of mechanical properties during the temperature range was mainly determined by the microstructure change. Eventually, both strength and plasticity decreased sharply when the temperature was over 800 °C, which was mainly caused by the thick oxidation layer with porous and loose microstructure. The fracture mode of tensile specimens also changed from ductile fracture (below 800 °C) to transgranular cleavage fracture (over 800 °C). On the basis of experiments, a corresponding relation between the color changes and tensile properties

  13. The color changes and tensile properties of oxidized Ti–6A1–2Mo–1.5Cr–2Zr–2Sn–2Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Weidong; Zhang, Yaowu; Shi, Chunling; Quan, Biao; Wu, Jianding

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The oxidized alloy exhibited notable color changes. • The color was mainly attributed to the mixing of titanium oxides. • A corresponding relation between the color and tensile properties was established. • A predicted model was proposed to characterize the diffusion of oxygen. - Abstract: The oxidation of titanium alloy at elevated temperature severely limits its property and service life. It is a common and urgent issue to assess the mechanical property of oxidized titanium component without destroying its structural integrity. In this work, the color changes and tensile properties of oxidized Ti–6A1–2Mo–1.5Cr–2Zr–2Sn–2Nb alloy with initial basket-weave microstructure were investigated in the temperature range of 100–1000 °C. It was found that the oxidized specimens exhibited brilliant and regular color changes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the color changes were mainly attributed to the mixing of colored titanium oxides in the oxidation layer (such as yellow TiO, white TiO 2 and blue Ti 2 O 3 ). It was also found that mechanical properties were significant influenced by the oxidation treatment. The specimens oxidized below 600 °C exhibited excellent strength and plasticity due to its fine basket-weave microstructure and dense oxidation layer. In the temperature range from 600 to 800 °C, the strength slightly decreased while the plasticity rose a little. The change of mechanical properties during the temperature range was mainly determined by the microstructure change. Eventually, both strength and plasticity decreased sharply when the temperature was over 800 °C, which was mainly caused by the thick oxidation layer with porous and loose microstructure. The fracture mode of tensile specimens also changed from ductile fracture (below 800 °C) to transgranular cleavage fracture (over 800 °C). On the basis of experiments, a corresponding relation between the color changes and tensile properties was

  14. Change in the color of heat-treated, vacuum-packed broccoli stems and florets during storage: effects of process conditions and modeling by an artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pero, Milad; Askari, Gholamreza; Skåra, Torstein; Skipnes, Dagbjørn; Kiani, Hossein

    2018-02-08

    Vacuum-packed broccoli stems and florets were subjected to heat treatment (60-99 °C) for various time intervals. The activity of peroxidase was measured after processing. Thermally processed samples were then stored at 4 °C for 35 days, and the color of the samples was measured every 7 days. Effects of parameters (heating temperature and duration, storage time) on the color of broccoli were modeled and simulated by an artificial neural network (ANN). Simulations confirmed that stems were predicted to be more prone to changes than florets. More color loss was observed with longer processing or storage combinations. The simulations also confirmed that higher temperatures during heat processing could retard color changes during storage. For stems treated at 80 °C for short durations, color loss was more predominant than both 65 and 99 °C, probably due to the incomplete inactivation of enzymes besides more tissue damage, with increased enzyme access to the substrate. The greenness of both stems and florets during storage can be better preserved at higher temperatures (99 °C) and short times. The simulation results revealed that the ANN method could be used as an effective tool for predicting and analyzing the color values of heat-treated broccoli. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leave schedule is a leave schedule that reduces an employee's usual number of working hours per workweek, or hours per workday. A reduced leave schedule is a change in the employee's schedule for a period of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. 825.202...

  16. Genetic study of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutants with changed shape and/or dentation of leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenova, N.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the morphological differences between normal plants and mutants (due to irradiation) with different shape and/or dentation of leaflets and to evaluate their productivity and genetic potential. Dry seeds have been submitted to gamma irradiation with doses 100 Gy, 150 Gy and 200 Gy.The mutants studies in this research introduce an important source for further investigation of genetics of the mutant traits - dentation of leaflets, shape and especially flowering time that is controlled by genetically determined responses to photo period and temperature. Due to the clear phenotypic expression of the shape and leaves in some plants it is considered that the development of the leaves mutants is and important finding for pea genetics making tham valuable morphological markers for genetic investigations

  17. Changes of the laser-induced blue, green and red fluorescence signatures during greening of etiolated leaves of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stober, F.; Lichtenthaler, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    The UV-laser-induced blue, green and red fluorescence-emission spectra were used to characterize the pigment status of etiolated leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during a 48 h greening period under white light conditions. Upon UV-light excitation (337 nm) leaves not only show a fluorescence emission in the red spectral region between 650 and 800nm (chlorophyll fluorescence with maxima near 690nm and 735 nm), but also in the blue and green regions between 400 to 570 nm with maxima or shoulders near 450 nm (blue) and 530 nm (green). During greening of etiolated leaves the chlorophyll-fluorescence ratio F690/F735 strongly correlated with the total chlorophyll content and the ratio of the chlorophylls to the carotenoids (a+b/x+c). The ratio of the blue to the green fluorescence F450/F530 was also correlated with the total chlorophyll content and the ratio of chlorophylls to total carotenoids (a+b/x+c). Consequently, there also existed a correlation between the chlorophyll-fluorescence ratio F690/F735 and the ratio of the blue to green fluorescence F450/F530. In contrast, the ratios of the blue to red fluorescences F450/F690 and F450/F735 did not show clear relations to the pigment content of the investigated plants. The particular shape of the UV-laser-induced-fluorescence emission spectra of wheat leaves as well as the dependencies of the fluorescence ratios on the pigment content are due to a partial and differential reabsorption of the emitted fluorescences by the photosynthetic pigments

  18. Changes in Air CO2 Concentration Differentially Alter Transcript Levels of NtAQP1 and NtPIP2;1 Aquaporin Genes in Tobacco Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Secchi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aquaporin specific control on water versus carbon pathways in leaves is pivotal in controlling gas exchange and leaf hydraulics. We investigated whether Nicotiana tabacum aquaporin 1 (NtAQP1 and Nicotiana tabacum plasma membrane intrinsic protein 2;1 (NtPIP2;1 gene expression varies in tobacco leaves subjected to treatments with different CO2 concentrations (ranging from 0 to 800 ppm, inducing changes in photosynthesis, stomatal regulation and water evaporation from the leaf. Changes in air CO2 concentration ([CO2] affected net photosynthesis (Pn and leaf substomatal [CO2] (Ci. Pn was slightly negative at 0 ppm air CO2; it was one-third that of ambient controls at 200 ppm, and not different from controls at 800 ppm. Leaves fed with 800 ppm [CO2] showed one-third reduced stomatal conductance (gs and transpiration (E, and their gs was in turn slightly lower than in 200 ppm– and in 0 ppm–treated leaves. The 800 ppm air [CO2] strongly impaired both NtAQP1 and NtPIP2;1 gene expression, whereas 0 ppm air [CO2], a concentration below any in vivo possible conditions and specifically chosen to maximize the gene expression alteration, increased only the NtAQP1 transcript level. We propose that NtAQP1 expression, an aquaporin devoted to CO2 transport, positively responds to CO2 scarcity in the air in the whole range 0–800 ppm. On the contrary, expression of NtPIP2;1, an aquaporin not devoted to CO2 transport, is related to water balance in the leaf, and changes in parallel with gs. These observations fit in a model where upregulation of leaf aquaporins is activated at low Ci, while downregulation occurs when high Ci saturates photosynthesis and causes stomatal closure.

  19. A climate change-induced threat to the ecological resilience of a subtropical monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoyi; Peng, Changhui; Li, Yuelin; Liu, Shizhong; Zhang, Qianmei; Tang, Xuli; Liu, Juxiu; Yan, Junhua; Zhang, Deqiang; Chu, Guowei

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that tropical forests may not be resilient against climate change in the long term, primarily owing to predicted reductions in rainfall and forest productivity, increased tree mortality, and declining forest biomass carbon sinks. These changes will be caused by drought-induced water stress and ecosystem disturbances. Several recent studies have reported that climate change has increased tree mortality in temperate and boreal forests, or both mortality and recruitment rates in tropical forests. However, no study has yet examined these changes in the subtropical forests that account for the majority of China's forested land. In this study, we describe how the monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest has responded to global warming and drought stress using 32 years of data from forest observation plots. Due to an imbalance in mortality and recruitment, and changes in diameter growth rates between larger and smaller trees and among different functional groups, the average DBH of trees and forest biomass have decreased. Sap flow measurements also showed that larger trees were more stressed than smaller trees by the warming and drying environment. As a result, the monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest community is undergoing a transition from a forest dominated by a cohort of fewer and larger individuals to a forest dominated by a cohort of more and smaller individuals, with a different species composition, suggesting that subtropical forests are threatened by their lack of resilience against long-term climate change. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Color change of Blue butterfly wing scales in an air - Vapor ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertész, Krisztián; Piszter, Gábor; Jakab, Emma; Bálint, Zsolt; Vértesy, Zofia; Biró, László Péter

    2013-09-01

    Photonic crystals are periodic dielectric nanocomposites, which have photonic band gaps that forbid the propagation of light within certain frequency ranges. The optical response of such nanoarchitectures on chemical changes in the environment is determined by the spectral change of the reflected light, and depends on the composition of the ambient atmosphere and on the nanostructure characteristics. We carried out reflectance measurements on closely related Blue lycaenid butterfly males possessing so-called "pepper-pot" type photonic nanoarchitecture in their scales covering their dorsal wing surfaces. Experiments were carried out changing the concentration and nature of test vapors while monitoring the spectral variations in time. All the tests were done with the sample temperature set at, and below the room temperature. The spectral changes were found to be linear with the increasing of concentration and the signal amplitude is higher at lower temperatures. The mechanism of reflectance spectra modification is based on capillary condensation of the vapors penetrating in the nanostructure. These structures of natural origin may serve as cheap, environmentally free and biodegradable sensor elements. The study of these nanoarchitectures of biologic origin could be the source of various new bioinspired systems.

  1. Color change of Blue butterfly wing scales in an air – Vapor ambient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertész, Krisztián; Piszter, Gábor; Jakab, Emma; Bálint, Zsolt; Vértesy, Zofia; Biró, László Péter

    2013-01-01

    Photonic crystals are periodic dielectric nanocomposites, which have photonic band gaps that forbid the propagation of light within certain frequency ranges. The optical response of such nanoarchitectures on chemical changes in the environment is determined by the spectral change of the reflected light, and depends on the composition of the ambient atmosphere and on the nanostructure characteristics. We carried out reflectance measurements on closely related Blue lycaenid butterfly males possessing so-called “pepper-pot” type photonic nanoarchitecture in their scales covering their dorsal wing surfaces. Experiments were carried out changing the concentration and nature of test vapors while monitoring the spectral variations in time. All the tests were done with the sample temperature set at, and below the room temperature. The spectral changes were found to be linear with the increasing of concentration and the signal amplitude is higher at lower temperatures. The mechanism of reflectance spectra modification is based on capillary condensation of the vapors penetrating in the nanostructure. These structures of natural origin may serve as cheap, environmentally free and biodegradable sensor elements. The study of these nanoarchitectures of biologic origin could be the source of various new bioinspired systems.

  2. Color change of Blue butterfly wing scales in an air – Vapor ambient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertész, Krisztián, E-mail: kertesz.krisztian@ttk.mta.hu [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Centre for Natural Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, PO Box 49, Hungary(http://www.nanotechnology.hu) (Hungary); Piszter, Gábor [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Centre for Natural Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, PO Box 49, Hungary(http://www.nanotechnology.hu) (Hungary); Jakab, Emma [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Centre for Natural Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, PO Box 17 (Hungary); Bálint, Zsolt [Hungarian Natural History Museum, Baross utca 13, H-1088 Budapest (Hungary); Vértesy, Zofia; Biró, László Péter [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Centre for Natural Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, PO Box 49, Hungary(http://www.nanotechnology.hu) (Hungary)

    2013-09-15

    Photonic crystals are periodic dielectric nanocomposites, which have photonic band gaps that forbid the propagation of light within certain frequency ranges. The optical response of such nanoarchitectures on chemical changes in the environment is determined by the spectral change of the reflected light, and depends on the composition of the ambient atmosphere and on the nanostructure characteristics. We carried out reflectance measurements on closely related Blue lycaenid butterfly males possessing so-called “pepper-pot” type photonic nanoarchitecture in their scales covering their dorsal wing surfaces. Experiments were carried out changing the concentration and nature of test vapors while monitoring the spectral variations in time. All the tests were done with the sample temperature set at, and below the room temperature. The spectral changes were found to be linear with the increasing of concentration and the signal amplitude is higher at lower temperatures. The mechanism of reflectance spectra modification is based on capillary condensation of the vapors penetrating in the nanostructure. These structures of natural origin may serve as cheap, environmentally free and biodegradable sensor elements. The study of these nanoarchitectures of biologic origin could be the source of various new bioinspired systems.

  3. Chemical Storage of Solar Energy Using an Old Color Change Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, L. Gene, Jr.; Spears, Larry G.

    1984-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and typical results are provided for an experiment illustrating the potential of hydrated salts for solar energy storage. The experiment involves a demonstration often used to illustrate the ease with which some transition metal ions can change their coordination numbers. (JN)

  4. RETENSI VANILIN DAN PERUBAHAN WARNA EKSTRAK PEKAT VANILI SELAMA PENYIMPANAN [Vanillin Retention and Color Changes of Concentrated Vanilla Extract During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Sofyaningsih1*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to observe vanillin retention and color changes during storage of concentrated vanilla extract at the low temperature (10°C, room temperature (30°C, and high temperature (55°C for 49 days. The methodology of this research consisted of vanilla curing process, vanilla extraction, evaporation of vanilla extract, formulation of concentrated vanilla extract, and measuring the vanillin retention and color change.The best products of concentrated vanilla extract were made with formula containing 10 ml vanilla extract, 10 ml high fructose syrup (HFS 55% and 3 ml of carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC solution 1% and that made with formula containing 10 ml vanilla extract, 15 ml glucose syrup 75°Brix and 3 ml of CMC solution 1%. The vanillin retention of both formulas had a trend to descrease. The pattern of vanillin retention and color change during storage of both formulas followed linear equations.Thetemperature and period of storage significantly affected the color of concentrated vanilla extract. Both formulas did not show any differences in vanillin retention and color during storage at refrigerator and room temperature.

  5. Color Vision Changes and Effects of High Contrast Visor Use at Simulated Cabin Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person...Morris DS, Kalson NS, Wright AD, Imray CHE, et al. Changes to colour vision on exposure to high altitude. J R Army Med Corps. 2011; 157(1):107-109...4. Richalet JP, Duval-Arnould G, Darnaud B, Keromes A, Rutgers V. Modification of colour vision in the green/red axis in acute and chronic

  6. Evaluation of a standard shade guide for color change after disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, Randall M; Hackman, Steven T; Browning, William D

    2007-09-01

    To determine if surface disinfectants cause a change in the shade perception of a standard Classic Vitapan shade guide. Consistency in shade selection for dental restorations involves many factors, and one of the most important is the shade tabs used in the selection process. Ten shade tabs each of shades B2, D2, C1, and A3.5 were selected from the Classic Vitapan shade guide (Vident). All tabs were measured with the EasyShade shade device (Vident) at baseline. Three tabs of each shade were set aside as controls. The other 7 tabs of each shade were treated with the surface disinfectant Cavicide (Metrex Research) for 480 cycles to simulate a year's usage. After each 480 cycles, all the tabs were again measured with the EasyShade. This process was repeated to simulate 2 and 3 years of use. The data were analyzed to calculate the delta E 2000 for any change. A statistically significant increase was observed in the value (L*) and chroma (C*) after 2 and 3 years of simulated treatments. These changes were not perceptible to the clinician. The authors suggest that 1 standard shade guide be set aside to compare against those in clinical use to determine when they should be replaced.

  7. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  8. Change in color of the hot spring deposits at the Chinoike-Jigoku hot pool, Beppu geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazuthoshi, Oue; Ohsawa, Shinji; Yusa, Yuki [Kyoto University, Beppu (Japan). Beppu Geothermal Research Laboratory, Graduate School of Science

    2002-06-01

    The Chinoike-Jigoku hot pool in Beppu geothermal field, Central Kyushu, Japan, displays a blood-red color due to the hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) deposited at the bottom of the pool. The colors of the deposits collected on 1 October 1990, on 27 March 1995, and on 6 March 1996 were measured with a colorimeter. The results show that the red deposits became yellower in 1995 and 1996 than they were in 1990. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and chemical compositions of the deposits indicate that the discoloration of the Chinoike-Jigoku pool water is caused by an increase in the content of jarosite [KFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]. The temperature of the subsurface thermal water beneath the Chinoike-Jigoku hot pool, as estimated by the anhydrite chemical geothermometer, has declined from 200 to 150{sup o}C over the past 25 years. The Na and Cl concentrations of the hot spring water discharging from Chinoike-Jigoku have decreased, while the SO{sub 4} concentration has increased. The temporal variations in subsurface temperature and dissolved ion concentrations suggest that the mixing ratio between the high-temperature, neutral Na-Cl type water and the relatively low-temperature, acid H-SO{sub 4} type water that form the thermal water of Chinoike-Jigoku has changed over the last 25 years. Hydrothermal studies of jarosite stability have confirmed that the increase in jarosite content in the deposits was caused by a temperature drop of the mixed thermal water beneath Chinoike-Jigoku pool, due to an increase in the contribution of the cooler H-SO{sub 4} water type to the thermal mixture. (author)

  9. Effects of 15% carbamide peroxide and 40% hydrogen peroxide on the microhardness and color change of composite resins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Sadat Hashemi Kamangar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 40% hydrogen peroxide and 15% carbamide peroxide on microhardness and color change of a silorane-based composite resin in comparison with two methacrylate-based composites.Fifty-four disc-shaped specimens (A3 shade were fabricated of Filtek P90 (P90, Filtek Z350XT Enamel (Z350 and Filtek Z250 (Z250 (3MESPE (n=18. The samples of each composite were randomly divided into three subgroups of 6. The control subgroups were immersed in distilled water; the test groups were exposed to Opalescence Boost (OB once; and Opalescence PF (OP (Ultradent for two weeks. Vickers microhardness testing and a spectrophotometric analysis of the color of samples were performed before and after each intervention.The baseline microhardness of P90 was significantly lower than that of the other two composites (P=0.001, but no difference was found between Z250 and Z350 in this respect (P=0.293. Bleaching treatments significantly decreased the microhardness of Z250 and Z350 (P 0.05. No significant difference was detected between the two types of bleaching (P>0.05. After bleaching with OB, ΔE value was measured to be 3.12(1.97, 3.31(1.84 and 3.7(2.11 for P90, Z250 and Z350, respectively. These values were 5.98(2.42, 4.66(2.85 and 4.90(2.78 after bleaching with OP with no significant difference.Bleaching decreased the microhardness of methacrylate-based but not silorane-based composites. Although no significant differences were found in ΔE of composites, ΔE of all groups did not remain in the clinically acceptable range after bleaching except for P90 after bleaching with 40% H2O2 (ΔE < 3.3.

  10. Change in the Chemical Profile of Mangifera indica Leaves after their Metabolism in the Tropidacris collaris Grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rodolfo R; Moraes, Marcilio M; Camara, Claudio A G; Ramos, Clécio S

    2015-11-01

    This present work addresses research on the discovery of new compounds from natural sources. It is based on a study of Mangifera indica leaf metabolism by the Tropidacris collaris grasshopper. We found that the grasshopper hydrolyzed the flavonoid isoquercitrin to quercetin when the O-glycosidic bond was broken and sugar released as a probable energy source for the insect. There was not, however, hydrolysis of the major compound in the leaves, mangiferin, which contains the C-glycosidic bond. All compounds were isolated and their chemical structure determined by UV, IR, MS, 1H and 13C NMR.

  11. [Changes of renal blood flow during organ-associated foot reflexology measured by color Doppler sonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudmeier, I; Bodner, G; Egger, I; Mur, E; Ulmer, H; Herold, M

    1999-06-01

    Using colour Doppler sonography blood flow changes of the right kidney during foot reflexology were determined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised study. 32 healthy young adults (17 women, 15 men) were randomly assigned to the verum or placebo group. The verum group received foot reflexology at zones corresponding to the right kidney, the placebo group was treated on other foot zones. Before, during and after foot reflexology the blood flow of three vessels of the right kidney was measured using colour Doppler sonography. Systolic peak velocity and end diastolic peak velocity were measured in cm/s, and the resistive index, a parameter of the vascular resistance, was calculated. The resistive index in the verum group showed a highly significant decrease (p foot reflexology. There was no difference between men and women and no difference between smokers and non-smokers. Verum and placebo group significantly differed concerning alterations of the resistive index both between the measuring points before versus during foot reflexology (p = 0.002) and those during versus after foot reflexology (p = 0.031). The significant decrease of the resistive index during foot reflexology in the verum group indicates a decrease of flow resistance in renal vessels and an increase of renal blood flow. These findings support the hypothesis that organ-associated foot reflexology is effective in changing renal blood flow during therapy.

  12. Effect of area on color harmony in interior spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Odabaşıoğlu, Seden

    2015-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (Ph.D.): Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2015. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 142-152). The main aim of this study is to examine the effect of area on color harmony in interior spaces. Area in color harmony is the relative amount of different color areas represented as a proportion on which color harmony depends. Colors in the color ...

  13. Changes in the free amino acid composition of Capsicum annuum (pepper) leaves in response to Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) infestation. A comparison with water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio-Ortiz, Victoria; Sellés-Marchart, Susana; Zubcoff-Vallejo, José; Jander, Georg; Casas, José L

    2018-01-01

    Amino acids play a central role in aphid-plant interactions. They are essential components of plant primary metabolism, function as precursors for the synthesis of defense-related specialized metabolites, and are major growth-limiting nutrients for aphids. To quantify changes in the free amino acid content of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) leaves in response to green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) feeding, plants were infested with a low (20 aphids/plant) or a high (200 aphids/plant) aphid density in time-course experiments ranging from 3 hours to 7 days. A parallel experiment was conducted with pepper plants that had been subjected to water stress. Factor Analysis of Mixed Data revealed a significant interaction of time x density in the free amino acid response of aphid-infested leaves. At low aphid density, M. persicae did not trigger a strong response in pepper leaves. Conversely, at high density, a large increase in total free amino acid content was observed and specific amino acids peaked at different times post-infestation. Comparing aphid-infested with water-stressed plants, most of the observed differences were quantitative. In particular, proline and hydroxyproline accumulated dramatically in response to water stress, but not in response to aphid infestation. Some additional differences and commonalities between the two stress treatments are discussed.

  14. Changes of antioxidant potential of pasta fortified with parsley (Petroselinum Crispum mill.) leaves in the light of protein-phenolics interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Pasta is considered as an effective carrier of prohealth ingredients in food fortification. The aim of this study was to examine the changes of antioxidant potential of wheat pasta affected by fortification with powdered parsley leaves. A special attention was paid to effectiveness of fortification in the light of proteinphenolic interactions. To improve antioxidant activity of pasta, part of wheat flour was replaced with powdered parsley leaves from 1% to 4% (w/w). The total phenolics content was determined with Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated using in vitro assays - abilities to scavenge free radicals (ABTS) and to reduce iron (III) (FRAP). Predicted phenolic contents and antioxidant activity were calculated. To determine the protein-phenolics interactions SE-HPLC and SDS-PAGE techniques were used. Fortification of pasta had a positive effect on its phenolic contents and antioxidant properties. The highest phenolics level and antioxidant activity of pasta were obtained by supplementation with 4% of parsley leaves. However, in most cases experimental values were significantly lower than those predicted. The protein profiles obtained after SDS-PAGE differed significantly among control and enriched pasta. Furthermore, the addition of parsley leaves to pasta resulted in increase of peaks areas obtained by SE-HPLC. Results indicate the occurrence of the protein-phenolics interactions in fortified pasta. Overall, the effectiveness of fortification and consequently biological effect is limited by many factors including interactions between phenolics and pasta proteins. In the light of this results the study of potential interaction of bioactive supplements with food matrix should be taken into account during designing new functional food products.

  15. Change in Color and Volatile Composition of Skim Milk Processed with Pulsed Electric Field and Microfiltration Treatments or Heat Pasteurization †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Anupam; Khanal, Dipendra; Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Corredig, Milena; Duizer, Lisa; Griffiths, Mansel W.

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal processing methods, such as pulsed electric field (PEF) and tangential-flow microfiltration (TFMF), are emerging processing technologies that can minimize the deleterious effects of high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization on quality attributes of skim milk. The present study investigates the impact of PEF and TFMF, alone or in combination, on color and volatile compounds in skim milk. PEF was applied at 28 or 40 kV/cm for 1122 to 2805 µs, while microfiltration (MF) was conducted using membranes with three pore sizes (lab-scale 0.65 and 1.2 µm TFMF, and pilot-scale 1.4 µm MF). HTST control treatments were applied at 75 or 95 °C for 20 and 45 s, respectively. Noticeable color changes were observed with the 0.65 µm TFMF treatment. No significant color changes were observed in PEF-treated, 1.2 µm TFMF-treated, HTST-treated, and 1.4 µm MF-treated skim milk (p ≥ 0.05) but the total color difference indicated better color retention with non-thermal preservation. The latter did not affect raw skim milk volatiles significantly after single or combined processing (p ≥ 0.05), but HTST caused considerable changes in their composition, including ketones, free fatty acids, hydrocarbons, and sulfur compounds (p < 0.05). The findings indicate that for the particular thermal and non-thermal treatments selected for this study, better retention of skim milk color and flavor components were obtained for the non-thermal treatments. PMID:28234317

  16. Comparative evaluation of color change between two types of acrylic resin and flexible resin after thermo cycling. An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatim, Nadira A; Al-Tahho, Omar Zeno

    2013-09-01

    Evaluation of the effect of different beverages (tea with sugar, coffee with sugar, and Pepsi), and immersion time cycles (2, 4, and 12 weeks) on color change property, and dimensional change of Vertex Dental BV, Netherlands heat cured acrylic resin, recently modified Vertex Dental BV, Netherlands heat cured acrylic resin with additive (20 % banana oil), and Valplast(®) flexible resin (FR) denture base materials by using artificial saliva cycle. The total samples of this study for color, and dimensional changes were 360 samples, divided into three groups according to the type of the material, Vertex Dental BV, Netherlands heat cured acrylic resin, modified heat cured acrylic resin (Vertex with additive 20 % banana oil), and Valplast(®) FR groups, each group contains 120 samples. The thermal cycling used in this study was as follows: The samples were incubated in distilled water at 37 ± 1 °C for 2 days for conditioning. Then, the samples were immersed in beverage solutions for 10 min daily at 50 ± 1 °C temperature for tea, and coffee with sugar, while for Pepsi at 20 ± 1 °C. Then, the samples were immersed in artificial saliva at 37 ± 1 °C for 5 h, and 10 min. This cycle was repeated three times daily, and then the samples were immersed in distilled water at 22 ± 2 °C room temperature for 8 h at night. This cycle was repeated for 2, 4, and 12 weeks. At the end of each time period, the immersed samples were tested to evaluate the color change property. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and Duncan's multiple range tests were used to analyze the collected data. The results of this study showed that, in comparison between the materials at different times for colors L*a*b* properties, there were significant differences at P ≤ 0.05 except in color b* at 12 weeks, which showed no significant difference at P > 0.05 between materials. And there was a significant difference in dimensional change at P > 0.05 for different beverages

  17. Color Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. The difficulty addressed here is the fact that, because of metamerism, we cannot know with certainty the spectrum that produced a particular color solely on the basis of sensory data. Knowledge of the spectrum is not required to compute additive mixture of colors, but is critical for subtractive (multiplicative) mixture. Therefore, we cannot predict with certainty the multiplicative interactions between colors based solely on sensory data. There are two potential applications of a color algebra: first, to aid modeling phenomena of human visual perception, such as color constancy and transparency; and, second, to provide better models of the interactions of lights and surfaces for computer graphics rendering.

  18. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  19. Photochemical efficiency of adult and young leaves of the neotropical understory shrub Psychotria limonensis (Rubiaceaein response to changes in the light environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Avalos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We explored the short-term adjustment in photochemical efficiency (Fv /Fm in adult and young leaves of the understory neotropical shrub Psychotria limonensis Krause (Rubiaceaein response to rapid changes in the light environment.Leaves were collected from 20 individual plants growing under sun and shade conditions on Gigante Peninsula,Barro Colorado Natural Monument (Republic of Panama,during the wet season of 1996. Leaves were distributed in four sequences of light treatments (AB leaves were expanded under sun and were transferred to shade,BA leaves experienced the opposite transfer,and the controls AA and BB leaves that were expanded and maintained under sun or shade conditions.Adult and young leaves did not differ in overall photochemical efficiency.Instead,differences were found among light environments,for which leaves transferred from shade to sun showed the lowest F v /F m ratios.There was no relationship between photochemical efficiency and leaf temperature.In P.limonensis,understory plants are susceptible of photoinhibition independently of the leaf ontogenetic stage.The approach utilized in this experiment allowed the rapid exploration of this capacity, and could be applied to poorly studied understory species. Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4:839-844.Epub 2005 Jun 24.Se exploró el ajuste a corto plazo en la eficiencia fotosintética (Fv /Fm en hojas jovenes y adultas del arbusto del sotobosque neotropical Psychotria limonensis Krause (Rubiaceaeen respuesta a cambios rápidos de luz ambiental. Las hojas fueron recolectadas de 20 plantas individuales bajo condiciones de sol y sombra en Peninsula Gigante, Monumento Natural Barro Colorado (Panamá,durante la estación lluviosa de 1996.Las hojas fueron distribuidas en una secuencia cuatro tratamientos de luz (AB las hojas fueron expandidas bajo el sol y fueron transferidas a la sombra,BA las hojas experimentaron la transferencia contraria,y las hojas controles AA y BB que fueron expandidas y mantenidas

  20. Color naming

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Ebru

    1998-01-01

    Ankara : Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts, 1998. Thesis (Ph.D) -- Bilkent University, 1998 Includes bibliographical refences. In this study, visual aspects of color and neurophysiological processes involved in the phenomenon, language of color and color models were explained in addition to the discussion of different ideas, orientations and previous works behind the subject of matter. Available color ...

  1. Flexible Spectral Imaging Color Enhancement and Probe-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Minimal Change Esophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittayanon, Rapat; Aumkaew, Surasak; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Wisedopas, Naruemon; Kullavanijaya, Pinit

    2016-07-25

    Although flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE) can facilitate the diagnosis of minimal change esophageal reflux disease (MERD), the complicated diagnostic criteria cause suboptimal inter-observer agreement. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) yields good diagnostic results but its inter-observer agreement has never been explored. This study compares the diagnostic value of magnifying FICE and probe-based CLE (pCLE) for MERD and evaluates the inter-observer agreement of both techniques. Thirty-six patients with suspected MERD and 18 asymptomatic controls were recruited. Magnifying FICE was used for evaluation of distal esophagus. pCLE counted the number of intrapapillary capillary loops (IPCLs) using more than five IPCLs in 500×500 micron area as a criterion for MERD diagnosis. The validity scores and interobserever agreement of both FICE and pCLE were assessed. For FICE vs. pCLE, the accuracy was 79% vs. 87%, sensitivity 94% vs. 97%, specificity 50% vs. 66%, positive predictive value 79% vs. 85%, and negative predictive value 82% vs. 92%. Interobserver agreement of FICE was fair to substantial, whereas pCLE had substantial to almost perfect agreement. Both FICE and pCLE have good operating characteristics and can facilitate the MERD diagnosis. However, among different observers, pCLE is more consistent on MERD diagnosis.

  2. Contribution of spiral artery blood flow changes assessed by transvaginal color Doppler sonography for predicting endometrial pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Kabil Kucur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ive: To investigate the diagnostic value of blood flow measurements in spiral artery by transvaginal color Doppler sonography (CDS in predicting endometrial pathologies.Methods: Ninety-seven patients presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding and requiring endometrial assessment were included in this prospective observational study. Endometrial thickness, structure and echogenicity were recorded. Pulsatility index (PI and resistive index (RI of the spiral artery were measured by transvaginal CDS. Endometrial sampling was performed for all subjects. Sonographic and hystopathologic findings were compared.Results: The histopathological diagnoses were as follows; 39 cases (40.2% endometrial polyp, 9 cases (9.3% endometrial hyperplasia, 10 cases (10.3 submucous myoma, 7 cases (7.2% endometrium cancer, and 32 cases (33% nonspecific findings. The spiral artery PI in endometrium cancer group was highly significantly lower than other groups (p<0.01. The spiral artery RI was also significantly lower in the patients with malignant histology (p<0.05. Conclusion: Endometrial pathologies are associated significantly with endometrial spiral artery Doppler changes.Key words: Spiral artery, Doppler ultrasonography, endometrium

  3. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  4. Ripening-Dependent Changes in Antioxidants, Color Attributes, and Antioxidant Activity of Seven Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Ram Bhandari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the ripening-dependent changes in phytonutrients, seven commercial cultivars (two general and five cherry of tomatoes were cultivated under greenhouse conditions. Fruits were harvested at breaker, turning, pink, light red, and red stages of each cultivar, and antioxidant contents, color attributes, and antioxidant activities were measured. During ripening process, lycopene content increased from the breaker to red stage, while lutein displayed the reverse accumulation pattern, with higher values during the breaker stage. In contrast, β-carotene showed the highest levels of synthesis in pink and light red stages. Furthermore, flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, naringenin, and luteolin also showed similar ripening-dependent changes, with higher quantities in pink and light red stages. Ascorbic acid showed continuously increasing patterns throughout ripening until the red stage, while the accumulation of total phenolics was cultivar-dependent. These results indicate that each antioxidant compound has a unique pattern of accumulation and degradation during the ripening process. “Unicon” exhibited highest total carotenoid (110.27 mg/100 g, total phenol (297.88 mg GAE/100 g and total flavonoid content (273.33 mg/100 g, and consequently highest antioxidant activity (2552.4 μmol TE/100 g compared to other cultivars. Throughout the ripening processes, total phenolics showed the highest correlation with antioxidant activity, followed by β-carotene and total flavonoids. In conclusion, ripening in tomatoes is accompanied by incremental increases in various antioxidant compounds to some extent, as well as by concomitant increases in antioxidant activity.

  5. Exploring transgender legal name change as a potential structural intervention for mitigating social determinants of health among transgender women of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brandon J; Crosby, Richard; Bouris, Alida; Brown, Rayna; Bak, Trevor; Rosentel, Kris; VandeVusse, Alicia; Silverman, Michael; Salazar, Laura

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effects of legal name change on socioeconomic factors, general and transgender-related healthcare access and utilization, and transgender-related victimization in a sample of young transgender women (transwomen) of color. A cross-sectional group comparison approach was used to assess the potential effects of legal name change. A convenience sample of young transwomen enrolled in a no-cost legal name change clinic were recruited to complete a 30-minute interviewer-guided telephone survey including sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors, health and well-being, health care utilization, transgender transition-related health care, and transgender-related victimization. Sixty-five transgender women of color (37 = pre-name change group; 28 = post-name change group) completed the survey. Results indicated that the transwomen in the post-name change group were significantly older than the pre-name change group. In age-adjusted analyses, the post-name change group was significantly more likely to have a higher monthly income and stable housing than the pre-name change group. No significant differences were observed for general healthcare utilization; however, a significantly greater percentage of transwomen in the pre-name change group reported postponing medical care due to their gender identity. In addition, a significantly larger proportion of transwomen in the pre-name change group reported using non-prescribed hormones injected by friends and experiencing verbal harassment by family and friends compared to transwomen in the post-name change group. Findings suggest that legal name change may be an important structural intervention for low-income transwomen of color, providing increased socioeconomic stability and improved access to primary and transition-related health care.

  6. At-line cotton color measurements by portable color spectrophotometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a result of reports of cotton bales that had significant color changes from their initial Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI™) color measurements, a program was implemented to measure cotton fiber color (Rd, +b) at-line in remote locations (warehouse, mill, etc.). The measurement of cotton fiber...

  7. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  8. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  9. Deconvolution of ferredoxin, plastocyanin, and P700 transmittance changes in intact leaves with a new type of kinetic LED array spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klughammer, Christof; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    A newly developed compact measuring system for assessment of transmittance changes in the near-infrared spectral region is described; it allows deconvolution of redox changes due to ferredoxin (Fd), P700, and plastocyanin (PC) in intact leaves. In addition, it can also simultaneously measure chlorophyll fluorescence. The major opto-electronic components as well as the principles of data acquisition and signal deconvolution are outlined. Four original pulse-modulated dual-wavelength difference signals are measured (785-840 nm, 810-870 nm, 870-970 nm, and 795-970 nm). Deconvolution is based on specific spectral information presented graphically in the form of 'Differential Model Plots' (DMP) of Fd, P700, and PC that are derived empirically from selective changes of these three components under appropriately chosen physiological conditions. Whereas information on maximal changes of Fd is obtained upon illumination after dark-acclimation, maximal changes of P700 and PC can be readily induced by saturating light pulses in the presence of far-red light. Using the information of DMP and maximal changes, the new measuring system enables on-line deconvolution of Fd, P700, and PC. The performance of the new device is demonstrated by some examples of practical applications, including fast measurements of flash relaxation kinetics and of the Fd, P700, and PC changes paralleling the polyphasic fluorescence rise upon application of a 300-ms pulse of saturating light.

  10. Food Coloring and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1994-01-01

    The association between the ingestion of tartrazine synthetic food coloring and behavioral change in children referred for assessment of hyperactivity was investigated at the Royal Children’s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  11. Changes in water content and distribution in Quercus ilex leaves during progressive drought assessed by in vivo 1H magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardans, Jordi; Peñuelas, Josep; Lope-Piedrafita, Silvia

    2010-08-24

    Drought is a common stressor in many regions of the world and current climatic global circulation models predict further increases in warming and drought in the coming decades in several of these regions, such as the Mediterranean basin. The changes in leaf water content, distribution and dynamics in plant tissues under different soil water availabilities are not well known. In order to fill this gap, in the present report we describe our study withholding the irrigation of the seedlings of Quercus ilex, the dominant tree species in the evergreen forests of many areas of the Mediterranean Basin. We have monitored the gradual changes in water content in the different leaf areas, in vivo and non-invasively, by 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using proton density weighted (rhow) images and spin-spin relaxation time (T2) maps. Rhow images showed that the distal leaf area lost water faster than the basal area and that after four weeks of similar losses, the water reduction was greater in leaf veins than in leaf parenchyma areas and also in distal than in basal leaf area. There was a similar tendency in all different areas and tissues, of increasing T2 values during the drought period. This indicates an increase in the dynamics of free water, suggesting a decrease of cell membranes permeability. The results indicate a non homogeneous leaf response to stress with a differentiated capacity to mobilize water between its different parts and tissues. This study shows that the MRI technique can be a useful tool to follow non-intrusively the in vivo water content changes in the different parts of the leaves during drought stress. It opens up new possibilities to better characterize the associated physiological changes and provides important information about the different responses of the different leaf areas what should be taken into account when conducting physiological and metabolic drought stress studies in different parts of the leaves during drought stress.

  12. Color Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  13. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  14. Colored operads

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this book is the theory of operads and colored operads, sometimes called symmetric multicategories. A (colored) operad is an abstract object which encodes operations with multiple inputs and one output and relations between such operations. The theory originated in the early 1970s in homotopy theory and quickly became very important in algebraic topology, algebra, algebraic geometry, and even theoretical physics (string theory). Topics covered include basic graph theory, basic category theory, colored operads, and algebras over colored operads. Free colored operads are discussed in complete detail and in full generality. The intended audience of this book includes students and researchers in mathematics and other sciences where operads and colored operads are used. The prerequisite for this book is minimal. Every major concept is thoroughly motivated. There are many graphical illustrations and about 150 exercises. This book can be used in a graduate course and for independent study.

  15. Slow and steady wins the race? Future climate and land use change leaves the imperiled Blanding's turtle (Emydoidea blandingii) behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Christopher M.; Bateman, Brooke L.; Gorzo, Jessica M.; Reid, Brendan; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Peery, M. Zachariah; Heglund, Patricia J.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Pidgeon, Anna M.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change is accompanied by shifts in species distributions, as portions of current ranges become less suitable. Maintaining or improving landscape connectivity to facilitate species movements is a primary approach to mitigate the effects of climate change on biodiversity. However, it is not clear how ongoing changes in land use and climate may affect the existing connectivity of landscapes. We evaluated shifts in habitat suitability and connectivity for the imperiled Blanding's turtle (Emydoidea blandingii) in Wisconsin using species distribution modeling in combination with different future scenarios of both land use change and climate change for the 2050s. We found that climate change had significant effects on both habitat suitability and connectivity, however, there was little difference in the magnitude of effects among different economic scenarios. Under both our low- and high-CO2 emissions scenarios, suitable habitat for the Blanding's turtle shifted northward. In the high-emissions scenario, almost no suitable habitat remained for Blanding's turtle in Wisconsin by the 2050s and there was up to a 100,000-fold increase in landscape resistance to turtle movement, suggesting the landscape essentially becomes impassable. Habitat loss and landscape resistance were exponentially greater in southern versus northern Wisconsin, indicating a strong trailing edge effect. Thus, populations at the southern edge of the range are likely to “fall behind” shifts in suitable habitat faster than northern populations. Given its limited dispersal capability, loss of suitable habitat may occur at a rate far faster than the Blanding's turtle can adjust to changing conditions via shifts in range.

  16. Color metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasson, Raymond.

    1976-06-01

    After a short introduction explaining the reasons why color metallography was adopted, the various operations involved in this technique are described in turn and illustrated by colored photomicrographs. The sample preparation (cutting, covering) and surface preparation (trimming, polishing, finishing) are described briefly. The operations specific to color metallography are then detailed: revelation of the structure of polished surfaces, dye impregnation techniques, optical systems used in macrography, in micrography, different light sources used in microscopy, photographic methods [fr

  17. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    OpenAIRE

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The experiments conducted prove the difference between color categorization by the cognitive processes color discrimination and color memory. In addition, they yield a Color Look-Up Table, which can improve c...

  18. COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Lafon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present specific capabilities and limitations of the use of color digital images in a characterization process. The whole process is investigated, from the acquisition of digital color images to the analysis of the information relevant to various applications in the field of material characterization. A digital color image can be considered as a matrix of pixels with values expressed in a vector-space (commonly 3 dimensional space whose specificity, compared to grey-scale images, is to ensure a coding and a representation of the output image (visualisation printing that fits the human visual reality. In a characterization process, it is interesting to regard color image attnbutes as a set of visual aspect measurements on a material surface. Color measurement systems (spectrocolorimeters, colorimeters and radiometers and cameras use the same type of light detectors: most of them use Charge Coupled Devices sensors. The difference between the two types of color data acquisition systems is that color measurement systems provide a global information of the observed surface (average aspect of the surface: the color texture is not taken into account. Thus, it seems interesting to use imaging systems as measuring instruments for the quantitative characterization of the color texture.

  19. Applying an intelligent model and sensitivity analysis to inspect mass transfer kinetics, shrinkage and crust color changes of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiryousefi, Mohammad Reza; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use image analysis and artificial neural network (ANN) to predict mass transfer kinetics as well as color changes and shrinkage of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes. Two generalized feedforward networks were separately developed by using the operation conditions as inputs. Results based on the highest numerical quantities of the correlation coefficients between the experimental versus predicted values, showed proper fitting. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that among the input variables, frying temperature was the most sensitive to moisture content (MC) and fat content (FC) compared to other variables. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that MC and FC were the most sensitive to frying temperature compared to other input variables. Similarly, for the second ANN architecture, microwave power density was the most impressive variable having the maximum influence on both shrinkage percentage and color changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. H I-SELECTED GALAXIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY. II. THE COLORS OF GAS-RICH GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Andrew A.; Garcia-Appadoo, Diego A.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Disney, Mike J.; Rockosi, Constance M.

    2009-01-01

    We utilize color information for an H I-selected sample of 195 galaxies to explore the star formation histories and physical conditions that produce the observed colors. We show that the H I selection creates a significant offset toward bluer colors that can be explained by enhanced recent bursts of star formation. There is also no obvious color bimodality, because the H I selection restricts the sample to bluer, actively star-forming systems, diminishing the importance of the red sequence. Rising star formation rates are still required to explain the colors of galaxies bluer than g - r< 0.3. We also demonstrate that the colors of the bluest galaxies in our sample are dominated by emission lines and that stellar population synthesis models alone (without emission lines) are not adequate for reproducing many of the galaxy colors. These emission lines produce large changes in the r - i colors but leave the g - r color largely unchanged. In addition, we find an increase in the dispersion of galaxy colors at low masses that may be the result of a change in the star formation process in low-mass galaxies.

  1. Changes in photosynthetic rates and gene expression of leaves during a source-sink perturbation in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, A J; Cramer, M D; Watt, D A

    2008-01-01

    In crops other than sugarcane there is good evidence that the size and activity of carbon sinks influence source activity via sugar-related regulation of the enzymes of photosynthesis, an effect that is partly mediated through coarse regulation of gene expression. In the current study, leaf shading treatments were used to perturb the source-sink balance in 12-month-old Saccharum spp. hybrid 'N19' (N19) by restricting source activity to a single mature leaf. Changes in leaf photosynthetic gas exchange variables and leaf and culm sugar concentrations were subsequently measured over a 14 d period. In addition, the changes in leaf gene response to the source-sink perturbation were measured by reverse northern hybridization analysis of an array of 128 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) related to photosynthetic and carbohydrate metabolism. Sucrose concentrations in immature culm tissue declined significantly over the duration of the shading treatment, while a 57 and 88% increase in the assimilation rate (A) and electron transport rate (ETR), respectively, was observed in the source leaf. Several genes (27) in the leaf displayed a >2-fold change in expression level, including the upregulation of several genes associated with C(4) photosynthesis, mitochondrial metabolism and sugar transport. Changes in gene expression levels of several genes, including Rubisco (EC 4.1.1.39) and hexokinase (HXK; EC 2.7.1.1), correlated with changes in photosynthesis and tissue sugar concentrations that occurred subsequent to the source-sink perturbation. These results are consistent with the notion that sink demand may limit source activity through a kinase-mediated sugar signalling mechanism that correlates to a decrease in source hexose concentrations, which, in turn, correlate with increased expression of genes involved in photosynthesis and metabolite transport. The signal feedback system reporting sink sufficiency and regulating source activity may be a potentially valuable target for

  2. Synthesis of indolo[3,2-b]carbazole-based new colorimetric receptor for anions: A unique color change for fluoride ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Kumar Mahapatra

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel indolocarbazole-based chemosensor 1 containing hydrogen bond donor moieties has been established as a selective colorimetric and fluorometric sensor for F− in CH3CN/H2O (4:1 v/v. Upon the addition of a series of tetrabutylammonium salts to receptor 1 in aqueous CH3CN, only when the counter ion was F− was a significant color change (from light violet to dark orange observed.

  3. Early changes of the pH of the apoplast are different in leaves, stem and roots of Vicia faba L. under declining water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppanapandian, T; Geilfus, C-M; Mühling, K-H; Novák, O; Gloser, V

    2017-02-01

    Changes in pH of the apoplast have recently been discussed as an important factor in adjusting transpiration and water relations under conditions of drought via modulatory effect on abscisic acid (ABA) concentration. Using Vicia faba L., we investigated whether changes in the root, shoot and leaf apoplastic pH correlated with (1) a drought-induced reduction in transpiration and with (2) changes in ABA concentration. Transpiration, leaf water potential and ABA in leaves were measured and correlated with root and shoot xylem pH, determined by a pH microelectrode, and pH of leaf apoplast quantified by microscopy-based in vivo ratiometric analysis. Results revealed that a reduction in transpiration rate in the early phase of soil drying could not be linked with changes in the apoplastic pH via effects on the stomata-regulating hormone ABA. Moreover, drought-induced increase in pH of xylem or leaf apoplast was not the remote effect of an acropetal transport of alkaline sap from root, because root xylem acidified during progressive soil drying, whereas the shoot apoplast alkalized. We reason that other, yet unknown signalling mechanism was responsible for reduction of transpiration rate in the early phase of soil drying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. COLOR STABILITY OF NATURALLY DYED DENIM FABRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUBTIRICA Adriana-Ioana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The desire to colour textiles is as old as spinning and weaving. Natural dyes have been used since thousands of years for their long endurance, soft and elegant colours. But the invention of synthetic dyes has limited the application of natural dyes. The health hazards associated with the use of synthetic dyes and also the increased environmental awareness have revived the use of natural dyes during the recent years. The major performance characteristic of a dye is its ability to maintain the colour in normal use and is known as colorfastness. The study provides information regarding colour fastness properties of naturally dyed denim fabrics. Three vegetable materials were used for dyeing denim fabrics: Punica granatum (bark powder, Indigofera tinctoria (leave powder and Juglans regia (walnut dried shells. The results of the study indicated that using Walnut shells and Punica granatum deeper and more stable shades of colors are obtained in comparison with Indigofera Tinctoria dyed denim samples. All samples highlight a change in color in the sense of fading which has occurred to the highest extent when exposed to artificial light and washing. When tested against water, alkaline and acid perspiration, it is noticed that better results are obtained, and color change appear in a smaller extent.

  5. Colored leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, H.

    1985-01-01

    If leptons are composite and if they contain colored preons, one expects the existence of heavy color-octet fermions with quantum numbers similar to those of ordinary leptons. Such a ''colored lepton'' should decay into a gluon and a lepton, yielding a unique experimental signature. Charged ''colored leptons'' probably have masses of the order of the compositeness scale Λ > or approx. 1 TeV. They may be copiously produced at future multi-TeV e + e - , ep and hadron colliders. ''Colored neutrinos'' may have both Dirac and Majorana masses. They could be much lighter than Λ, possibly as light as 100 GeV or less. In such a case they should be readily produced at the CERN anti pp collider, yielding spectacular monojet and dijet events. They may also be produced at LEP and HERA. (orig.)

  6. What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Color Blindness? Who Is at Risk for Color Blindness? Color Blindness Causes Color Blindness Diagnosis and Treatment How Color Blindness Is Tested What Is Color Blindness? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el daltonismo? Written ...

  7. Influence of air pollution by compounds of fluorine, sulphur and nitrogen on changes of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activity in the leaves of trees and bushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Prysedskyj

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The productive activity of man results in contamination of the environment which causes substantial damage to ecosystems, upsetting their balance, species composition, etc. Within industrial areas, plants suffer significant harm. At the same time, plant organisms play an important role in optimization of the environment, performing sanitary-hygienic, landscaping and aesthetic functions. In this context, we investigated the influence of industrial contamination of air by fluorine, sulphur and nitrogen compounds on the activity of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase in ten types of arboreal and shrub plants which differ in their resistance to air pollution. Our research was conducted on the basis of a full multivariate experiment with two levels of factors. Peroxidase activity was determined by a colorimetric method according to the duration of oxidization of benzidine. For determination of polyphenoloxidase activity we determined the duration of oxidization of p-phenilendiamin according to the change in optical density of the solution. Pollutants have a significant influence on activity of the investigated enzymes in the leaves of the plant species studied, which depends on the resistance of the plants to contamination, and also the composition and concentrations of pollutants. With resistant species (Ligustrum vulgare L., Quercus robur L., Lonicera tatarica L., Eleagnus angustifolia L., Philadelphus coronaria L. peroxidase activity either did not change or rose by 11.2–64.1% compared to the control, depending on the composition of pollutants, their concentrations and the duration of their activity. Polyphenoloxidase activity in these plants did not significantly change in most variants of the experiment, although high concentrations of pollutants resulted in suppression of the activity of this enzyme by 26.1–37.6%. In species with variable tolerance which did not experience damage, peroxidase function did not change. Species sensitive to

  8. leaves extracts as counter stain in gram staining reaction 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    is a stain with color contrasting to the principal stain, making the stained ... technology today, the Gram's staining method remains ... was aimed at employing the use of Henna leaves extract as ... fragrant, white or rose flowers in clusters. It is.

  9. Diurnal changes of net photosynthetic rate (NPR) in leaves of Lonicera japonica Thunb. and the responding mathematical model of NPR to photosynthetic valid radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dafu; Zhang Shengli; Li Dongfang

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The study provided theoretical basis for production practice . [Method] With Lonicera japonica Thunb .as material, diurnal changes of net photosynthetic rate (NPR) in leaves of the plant and the responding mathematical model of NPR to photosynthetic valid radiation were studied using portable photosynthetic determinator system. [Result] Like most of C3 plants, the diurnal changes curve of NPR of Lonicera japonica Thunb .showed double peaks, but there were time difference in reaching the peak value between the study and previous ones . The responding mathematical model of NPR to photosynthetic valid radiation could be described by three mathematic functions, such as logarithm, linearity and binomial, but binomial function was more precise than the others. Light saturation point of Lonicera japonica Thunb. was figured out by binomial equation deduced in the study , and light saturation point was 1 086 .3 μmol/ (m2•s) . [Conclusion] The diurnal changes curve of NPR of Lonicera japonica Thunb .showed double peaks, and the responding mathematical model of NPR to photosynthetic valid radiation could be described by binomial functions

  10. Changes in water content and distribution in Quercus ilex leaves during progressive drought assessed by in vivo 1H magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardans Jordi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drought is a common stressor in many regions of the world and current climatic global circulation models predict further increases in warming and drought in the coming decades in several of these regions, such as the Mediterranean basin. The changes in leaf water content, distribution and dynamics in plant tissues under different soil water availabilities are not well known. In order to fill this gap, in the present report we describe our study withholding the irrigation of the seedlings of Quercus ilex, the dominant tree species in the evergreen forests of many areas of the Mediterranean Basin. We have monitored the gradual changes in water content in the different leaf areas, in vivo and non-invasively, by 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI using proton density weighted (ρw images and spin-spin relaxation time (T2 maps. Results ρw images showed that the distal leaf area lost water faster than the basal area and that after four weeks of similar losses, the water reduction was greater in leaf veins than in leaf parenchyma areas and also in distal than in basal leaf area. There was a similar tendency in all different areas and tissues, of increasing T2 values during the drought period. This indicates an increase in the dynamics of free water, suggesting a decrease of cell membranes permeability. Conclusions The results indicate a non homogeneous leaf response to stress with a differentiated capacity to mobilize water between its different parts and tissues. This study shows that the MRI technique can be a useful tool to follow non-intrusively the in vivo water content changes in the different parts of the leaves during drought stress. It opens up new possibilities to better characterize the associated physiological changes and provides important information about the different responses of the different leaf areas what should be taken into account when conducting physiological and metabolic drought stress studies in

  11. Biochemical changes in the kidney and liver of rats following administration of ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, O S; Akanji, M A

    2011-09-01

    Furtherance to a previous report on the anti-trypanosomal properties of Psidium guajava aqueous leaf extract in rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei, we have evaluated the effects of the daily intraperitoneal administration of P. guajava leaf extract to rats on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and acid phosphatase (ACP) in the kidney, liver and serum. The results obtained revealed that the administration of the extract produced significant increase in the serum activities of AST, ALT, ALP and ACP when compared with the control (p < 0.05). Also AST, ALT and ALP and ACP activities in the tissues of animals administered the extract revealed inconsistent changes (p < 0.05) relative to control. The increase in the serum activity of ALP may be an indicator that there was a likely compromise to the integrity of the plasma membrane as a result of the ethanolic extract administration. This could have caused leakages of the other enzymes investigated, which may explain the corresponding increases in the serum activities of AST, ALT and ACP observed.

  12. Proteomics analysis suggests broad functional changes in potato leaves triggered by phosphites and a complex indirect mode of action against Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sanghyun; Borza, Tudor; Peters, Rick D; Coffin, Robert H; Al-Mughrabi, Khalil I; Pinto, Devanand M; Wang-Pruski, Gefu

    2013-11-20

    Phosphite (salts of phosphorous acid; Phi)-based fungicides are increasingly used in controlling oomycete pathogens, such as the late blight agent Phytophthora infestans. In plants, low amounts of Phi induce pathogen resistance through an indirect mode of action. We used iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics to investigate the effects of phosphite on potato plants before and after infection with P. infestans. Ninety-three (62 up-regulated and 31 down-regulated) differentially regulated proteins, from a total of 1172 reproducibly identified proteins, were identified in the leaf proteome of Phi-treated potato plants. Four days post-inoculation with P. infestans, 16 of the 31 down-regulated proteins remained down-regulated and 42 of the 62 up-regulated proteins remained up-regulated, including 90% of the defense proteins. This group includes pathogenesis-related, stress-responsive, and detoxification-related proteins. Callose deposition and ultrastructural analyses of leaf tissues after infection were used to complement the proteomics approach. This study represents the first comprehensive proteomics analysis of the indirect mode of action of Phi, demonstrating broad effects on plant defense and plant metabolism. The proteomics data and the microscopy study suggest that Phi triggers a hypersensitive response that is responsible for induced resistance of potato leaves against P. infestans. Phosphie triggers complex functional changes in potato leaves that are responsible for the induced resistance against Phytophthora infestans. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Plant Proteomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Color Appearance of the Neon Color Spreading Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Vusić

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As a part of this paper, the influence of various parameters within the target process of graphic reproduction on the color appearance of the neon color spreading effect was investigated. The shift in a color appearance qualitatively is determined through the calculation of changes in perceptual attributes of color, i.e. differences in lightness, chroma and hue. The influence of different media (printed images, and LCD display in the “cross-media” system was examined, as well as the role of the inserted segment color choice and background of the primary stimulus as an element of design solutions. These parameters were evaluated in a variety of ambient conditions and under the observation of three CIE standard light sources and illuminants. It was found that it was mostly the changes of the chroma and lightness. The change in the color hue is the lowest.

  14. Change in Color and Volatile Composition of Skim Milk Processed with Pulsed Electric Field and Microfiltration Treatments or Heat Pasteurization

    OpenAIRE

    Chugh, Anupam; Khanal, Dipendra; Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Corredig, Milena; Duizer, Lisa; Griffiths, Mansel

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal processing methods, such as pulsed electric field (PEF) and tangential-flow microfiltration (TFMF), are emerging processing technologies that can minimize the deleterious effects of high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization on quality attributes of skim milk. The present study investigates the impact of PEF and TFMF, alone or in combination, on color and volatile compounds in skim milk. PEF was applied at 28 or 40 kV/cm for 1122 to 2805 µs, while microfiltration (MF) was c...

  15. Photoinduced color changes in two different qualities of riboflavin in the solid state and in various tablet formulations photoreactivity of biologically active compounds. XX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue-Chu, M; Kristensen, S; Tønnesen, H H

    2009-07-01

    There has been a gradual change in the relative amounts of synthetic and biosynthetic bulk riboflavin (RF) supplied to the overall market over the past years. The two sources of drug substance seem to have different photochemical properties that cannot be readily predicted. Alternating between the two qualities of RF therefore seems to influence the photochemical properties of the final product in a rather unpredictable way. A change in production method introduces the possibility of a change in polymorphic form which may alter the photoreactivity of the substance. The drug substance and tablets become green upon light exposure. The biosynthetic bulk material appears to be less photostable than the synthetic bulk material after inadvertent exposure to radiation or at elevated humidity. The observed color change cannot be explained by the formation of degradation products but is strongly dependent on the humidity level within the drug substance or preparation. The change in color was dramatically increased (by a factor up to 7) when the drug substance was formulated as tablets. Interactions were observed between RF and individual tablet components by mixing and compression at low pressure prior to exposure.

  16. Astringency, bitterness and color changes in dry red wines before and during oak barrel aging: An updated phenolic perspective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Yu; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2018-01-30

    To understand effects of using oak barrels on the astringency, bitterness and color of dry red wines, phenolic reactions in wines before and after barrel aging are reviewed in this paper, which has been divided into three sections. The first section includes an introduction to chemical reactivities of grape-derived phenolic compounds, a summary of the phenolic reactions that occur in dry red wines before barrel aging, and a discussion of the effects of these reactions on wine astringency, bitterness and color. The second section introduces barrel types that determine the oak barrel constituents in wines (primarily oak aldehydes and ellagitannins) and presents reactions between the oak constituents and grape-derived phenolic compounds that may modulate wine astringency, bitterness and color. The final section illustrates the chemical differences between basic oxidation and over-oxidation in wines, discusses oxygen consumption kinetics in wines during barrel aging by comparing different oxygen consumption kinetics observed previously by others, and speculates on the possible preliminary phenolic reactions that occur in dry red wines during oak barrel aging that soften tannins and stabilize pigments via basic oxidation. Additionally, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) addition during barrel aging and suitability of adopting oak barrels for aging wines are briefly discussed.

  17. Minuutit (Colors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulu, Tupou L.; And Others

    This first grade workbook is designed for children in bilingual Inupiat-English programs in the Alaskan villages of Ambler, Kiana, Kobuk, Noorvik, Selawik, and Shungnak. Each page has a captioned black-and-white drawing to be colored. (CFM)

  18. Color tejido

    OpenAIRE

    Rius Tormo, Palmira

    2010-01-01

    Póster presentado en el IX Congreso Nacional del Color, Alicante, 29-30 junio, 1-2 julio 2010. La exposición que se propone tiene como núcleo principal el color y muestra las posibilidades expresivas que aporta a los diferentes materiales. Las 7 obras presentadas buscan la armonía estética y la fuerza simbólica.

  19. Examination of Color-Lighting Control System Using Colored Paper User Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Aida Hiroto; Matsui Kento; Keisuke Soma; Murakami Hiroki; Miki Mistunori

    2016-01-01

    In recent year, Full-Color LED Lighting that can be changed to various color such as red, green, blue has been appeared with development of LED Lighting. By Color-Lighting control, users affected such as concentrating and relaxing. Therefore, Color-lighting control will spread to various place such as home, offices, stations. However color-lighting control affected some disturbance such as daylight, display when Full-Color LED controlled indoors. Also, information devices control get difficul...

  20. Colored tracks of heavy ion particles recorded on photographic color film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuge, K.; Yasuda, N.; Kumagai, H.; Aoki, N.; Hasegawa, A.

    2002-01-01

    A new method to obtain the three-dimensional information on nuclear tracks was developed using color photography. Commercial color films were irradiated with ion beam and color-developed. The ion tracks were represented with color images in which different depths were indicated by different colors, and the three-dimensional information was obtained from color changes. Details of this method are reported, and advantages and limitations are discussed in comparison with a conventional method using a nuclear emulsion

  1. Color and textural quality of packaged wild rocket measured by multispectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Mette Marie; Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Skov, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Green color and texture are important attributes for the perception of freshness of wild rocket. Packaging of green leafy vegetables can postpone senescence and yellowing, but a drawback is the risk of anaerobic respiration leading to loss of tissue integrity and development of an olive-brown color....... The hypothesis underlying this paper is that color and textural quality of packaged wild rocket leaves can be predicted by multispectral imaging for faster evaluation of visual quality of leafy green vegetables in scientific experiments. Multispectral imaging was correlated to sensory evaluation of packaged wild...... rocket quality. CIELAB values derived from the multispectral images and from a spectrophotometer changed during storage, but the data were insufficient to describe variation in sensory perceived color and texture. CIELAB values from the multispectral images allowed for a more detailed determination...

  2. Daytime Changes of Skin Biophysical Characteristics: A Study of Hydration, Transepidermal Water Loss, pH, Sebum, Elasticity, Erythema, and Color Index on Middle Eastern Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firooz, Alireza; Zartab, Hamed; Sadr, Bardia; Bagherpour, Leili Naraghi; Masoudi, Aidin; Fanian, Ferial; Dowlati, Yahya; Ehsani, Amir Hooshang; Samadi, Aniseh

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiation and temperature differs significantly during the day. It is reasonable that biophysical parameters of human skin have periodic daily fluctuation. The objective of this study was to study the fluctuations of various biophysical characteristics of Middle Eastern skin in standardized experimental conditions. Seven biophysical parameters of skin including stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, pH, sebum, elasticity, skin color, and erythema index were measured at three time points (8 a.m., 12 p.m. and 4 p.m.) on the forearm of 12 healthy participants (mean age of 28.4 years) without any ongoing skin disease using the CK MPA 580 device in standard temperature and humidity conditions. A significant difference was observed between means of skin color index at 8 a.m. (175.42 ± 13.92) and 4 p.m. (164.44 ± 13.72, P = 0.025), between the pH at 8 a.m. (5.72 ± 0.48) and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001) and pH at 12 p.m. (5.60 ± 0.48) and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001). Other comparisons between the means of these parameters at different time points resulted in nonsignificant P values. There are daytime changes in skin color index and pH. Skin color index might be higher and cutaneous pH more basic in the early morning compared to later of the day.

  3. Daytime changes of skin biophysical characteristics: A study of hydration, transepidermal water loss, ph, sebum, elasticity, erythema, and color index on middle eastern skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Firooz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiation and temperature differs significantly during the day. It is reasonable that biophysical parameters of human skin have periodic daily fluctuation. The objective of this study was to study the fluctuations of various biophysical characteristics of Middle Eastern skin in standardized experimental conditions. Materials and Methods: Seven biophysical parameters of skin including stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, pH, sebum, elasticity, skin color, and erythema index were measured at three time points (8 a.m., 12 p.m. and 4 p.m. on the forearm of 12 healthy participants (mean age of 28.4 years without any ongoing skin disease using the CK MPA 580 device in standard temperature and humidity conditions. Results: A significant difference was observed between means of skin color index at 8 a.m. (175.42 ± 13.92 and 4 p.m. (164.44 ± 13.72, P = 0.025, between the pH at 8 a.m. (5.72 ± 0.48 and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001 and pH at 12 p.m. (5.60 ± 0.48 and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001. Other comparisons between the means of these parameters at different time points resulted in nonsignificant P values. Conclusion: There are daytime changes in skin color index and pH. Skin color index might be higher and cutaneous pH more basic in the early morning compared to later of the day.

  4. Lipid oxidation, color changes and volatiles production in irradiated pork sausage with different fat content and packaging during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, C.; Lee, J.I.; Ahn, D.U.

    1999-01-01

    Effects of irradiation on lipid oxidation, color and volatiles production in pork sausages with different fat content and packaging were determined. Sausages (with 4.7, 10.5 and 15.8% fat content) were sliced and vacuum-packaged either in oxygen-permeable or impermeable bags, irradiated (0 or 4.5 kGy) and stored at 4°C for 7 days. Lipid oxidation, color and volatiles productions were analyzed at 0, 3 and 7 days of storage. TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values of cooked pork sausages increased with the increase of fat content regardless of storage, irradiation or packaging types. Irradiated samples had higher TBARS than nonirradiated at 0 day but the difference disappeared during storage in both packaging types. Lightness of sausages (Hunter L-value) increased with the increase of fat content and storage time but was not affected by irradiation. In aerobic packaging, irradiation reduced Hunter a-values of pork sausages at 0 day but irradiation effect on a-value disappeared during storage. In vacuum packaging, however, irradiated samples had higher Hunter a-values than nonirradiated samples. Irradiation increased 1-heptene and total volatiles, but the amount of 1-heptene was not associated well with TBARS values of pork sausages. In both irradiated and nonirradiated pork sausages, aerobic packaging produced more volatiles than vacuum packaging during storage. It was concluded that irradiation and fat content had significant effects on lipid oxidation, color and volatiles production of cooked pork sausages during storage but that oxygen availability had a stronger effect than irradiation and fat content

  5. Can color changes alter the neural correlates of recognition memory? Manipulation of processing affects an electrophysiological indicator of conceptual implicit memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyu; Gao, Chuanji; Zhou, Jianshe; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-09-28

    It has been widely shown that recognition memory includes two distinct retrieval processes: familiarity and recollection. Many studies have shown that recognition memory can be facilitated when there is a perceptual match between the studied and the tested items. Most event-related potential studies have explored the perceptual match effect on familiarity on the basis of the hypothesis that the specific event-related potential component associated with familiarity is the FN400 (300-500 ms mid-frontal effect). However, it is currently unclear whether the FN400 indexes familiarity or conceptual implicit memory. In addition, on the basis of the findings of a previous study, the so-called perceptual manipulations in previous studies may also involve some conceptual alterations. Therefore, we sought to determine the influence of perceptual manipulation by color changes on recognition memory when the perceptual or the conceptual processes were emphasized. Specifically, different instructions (perceptually or conceptually oriented) were provided to the participants. The results showed that color changes may significantly affect overall recognition memory behaviorally and that congruent items were recognized with a higher accuracy rate than incongruent items in both tasks, but no corresponding neural changes were found. Despite the evident familiarity shown in the two tasks (the behavioral performance of recognition memory was much higher than at the chance level), the FN400 effect was found in conceptually oriented tasks, but not perceptually oriented tasks. It is thus highly interesting that the FN400 effect was not induced, although color manipulation of recognition memory was behaviorally shown, as seen in previous studies. Our findings of the FN400 effect for the conceptual but not perceptual condition support the explanation that the FN400 effect indexes conceptual implicit memory.

  6. A comparative study on diurnal changes in metabolite levels in the leaves of three crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species, Ananas comosus, Kalanchoë daigremontiana and K. pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Song; Lin, Qin; Nose, Akihiro

    2002-02-01

    A comparative study on diurnal changes in metabolite levels associated with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in the leaves of three CAM species, Ananas comosus (pineapple), a hexose-utilizing species, and Kalanchoë daigremontiana and K. pinnata, two starch-utilizing species, were made. All three CAM species showed a typical feature of CAM with nocturnal malate increase. In the two Kalanchoë species, isocitrate levels were higher than citrate levels; the reverse was the case in pineapple. In the two Kalanchoë species, a small nocturnal citrate increase was found and K. daigremontiana showed a small nocturnal isocitrate increase. Glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P), fructose 6-phosphate (F-6-P) and glucose 1-phosphate (G-1-P) levels in the three CAM species rose rapidly during the first part of the dark period and decreased during the latter part of the dark period. The levels of the metabolites also decreased during the first 3 h of the light period, then, remained little changed through the rest of the light period. Absolute levels of G-6-P, F-6-P and G-1-P were higher in pineapple than in the two Kalanchoë species. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-P(2)) levels in the three CAM species increased during the dark period, then dramatically decreased during the first 3 h of the light period and remained unchanged through the rest of the light period. The extent of nocturnal F-1,6-P(2) increase was far greater in the two Kalanchoë species than in pineapple. Absolute levels of F-1,6-P(2) were higher in the two Kalanchoë species than in pineapple, especially during dark period. Diurnal changes in oxaloacetate (OAA), pyruvate (Pyr) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) levels in the three CAM species were similar.

  7. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...

  8. Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Christoffersen, Mogens; Weise, Hanne

    This artcle considders the political aims for different leave schemes and reviews studies af these schemes. The use of parental leave is sensitive to the financial loss involved in taking leave: a decrease in the benefit payments has had a significant influence on take-up, while, in general, fami......, families'' loss of income is less if leave is taken up by the mothers. Only few fathers participate in parental leave....

  9. Future of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladson, Jack A.; Turner, Laraine B.; Green-Armytage, Paul; Hunt, Robert W. G.

    2002-06-01

    We live in a world in which styles and technologies are nearly the same from place to place, but change daily. This changing global culture is unprecedented, and reinforced by emerging new technologies that affect us all. The Future of Color, examines new technologies, how they will affect the selection and promulgation of color in the near future, and their impact upon us. We examine this topic from many perspectives - technological, business and commercial. Most importantly, as we understand how our world is emerging, we can position ourselves strategically for tomorrow.

  10. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The

  11. Low temperature caused modifications in the arrangement of cell wall pectins due to changes of osmotic potential of cells of maize leaves (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilska-Kos, Anna; Solecka, Danuta; Dziewulska, Aleksandra; Ochodzki, Piotr; Jończyk, Maciej; Bilski, Henryk; Sowiński, Paweł

    2017-03-01

    The cell wall emerged as one of the important structures in plant stress responses. To investigate the effect of cold on the cell wall properties, the content and localization of pectins and pectin methylesterase (PME) activity, were studied in two maize inbred lines characterized by different sensitivity to cold. Low temperature (14/12 °C) caused a reduction of pectin content and PME activity in leaves of chilling-sensitive maize line, especially after prolonged treatment (28 h and 7 days). Furthermore, immunocytohistological studies, using JIM5 and JIM7 antibodies, revealed a decrease of labeling of both low- and high-methylesterified pectins in this maize line. The osmotic potential, quantified by means of incipient plasmolysis was lower in several types of cells of chilling-sensitive maize line which was correlated with the accumulation of sucrose. These studies present new finding on the effect of cold stress on the cell wall properties in conjunction with changes in the osmotic potential of maize leaf cells.

  12. Crescimento, produção de fitomassa e teor de óleo essencial de folhas de capim citronela (Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle em cultivo consorciado com algodoeiro colorido no semiárido mineiro Growth, phytomass yield and essential oil content of leaves of citronella grass [Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle] intercropping with colored cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.C.R. Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o crescimento, a produção e o teor do óleo essencial de dois cortes de capim citronela em cultivo consorciado com algodoeiro colorido no semiárido. Para isso foram utilizados dois sistemas de consórcios (tratamentos: algodão colorido consorciado com capim citronela 3x1 e algodão colorido consorciado com capim citronela 1x1. A variedade de algodão colorido utilizada foi a BRS Rubi e as mudas de capim citronela foram produzidas no Horto de Plantas Medicinais da Unimontes. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com dois tratamentos e 16 repetições. O experimento foi mantido em regime de sequeiro e foi avaliado a altura das plantas de capim citronela. Foram realizadas duas colheitas das folhas de capim citronela, sendo a primeira no momento da colheita da fibra do algodão e a segunda na rebrota do capim, seis meses após. Todas as plantas da parcela foram colhidas e as folhas frescas foram pesadas, no campo, com o auxílio de balança digital. Amostras das folhas colhidas foram retiradas e levadas para secagem em estufa com circulação forçada de ar a 35ºC até atingirem massa constante. Foi verificada a massa seca e posteriormente realizada a extração do óleo essencial pelo método de hidrodestilação em aparelho modificado de Clevenger. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste Skott-Knott (pThe research was performed to evaluate the growth, production and essential oil content of the two harvests of citronella grass in intercropped with colored cotton in semiarid.For this, was used two system consortium (treatments: colored cotton intercropped with citronella grass 3X1 and colored cotton intercropped with citronella grass 1X1. The variety of colored cotton used was BRS Rubi and the citronella grass seedlings were produced in the Medicinal Plants Garden of Unimontes. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with two treatments and 16

  13. Color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-01-01

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken

  14. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  15. Relationship between hemodynamic changes of portal vein and hepatic artery measured by color Doppler ultrasound and FibroScan value in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Xiaofei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo explore the relationship between hemodynamic changes of the portal vein and hepatic artery measured by color Doppler ultrasound and FibroScan value in patients with liver cirrhosis. MethodsA total of 192 patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis who were admitted to our hospital from March 2010 to December 2013, as well as 100 healthy persons, were recruited. The mean portal vein blood flow velocity (PVVmean, hepatic artery pulsatility index (HAPI, and hepatic artery resistance index (HARI were measured by color Doppler ultrasound. FibroScan was also carried out. All data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 13.0. Continuous data were expressed as mean±SD and compared between groups by t-test. ResultsThe HAPI, HARI, and FibroScan value of the patient group were 1.56±024, 0.73±0.05, and 25.38±7.73, respectively, significantly higher than those of the control group (1.36±0.14, 0.65±0.07, and 7.8±3.6 (P<0.05; the PVVmean of the patient group was 14.43±1.86, significantly lower than that of the control group (17.35±0.56 (P<0.05. FibroScan value was positively correlated with HAPI and HARI (r1=0.59, r2=0.66, P<0.001, but negatively correlated with PVVmean (r=-0.64, P<0.001. ConclusionThe liver stiffness assessed by FibroScan and the hemodynamic changes of the portal vein and hepatic artery measured by color Doppler ultrasound are vitally important for evaluating the severity of liver cirrhosis.

  16. Preliminary assessments of portable color spectrophotometer measurements of cotton color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton in the U.S. is classified for color with the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), using the parameters Rd (diffuse reflectance) and +b (yellowness). It has been reported that some cotton bales, especially those transported overseas, appear to have changed significantly in color from their in...

  17. [Study of spectrum drifting of primary colors and its impact on color rendering properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Xiao-dong

    2012-08-01

    LEDs are currently used widely to display text, graphics and images in large screens. With red, green and blue LEDs as three primary colors, color rendition will be realized through color mixing. However, LEDs' spectrum will produce drifts with the changes in the temperature environment. With the changes in the driving current simulating changes in the temperature, the three primary color LEDs' spectral drifts were tested, and the drift characteristics of the three primary colors were obtained respectively. Based on the typical characteristics of the LEDs and the differences between LEDs with different colors in composition and molecular structure, the paper analyzed the reason for the spectrum drifts and the drift characteristics of different color LEDs, and proposed the equations of spectrum drifts. Putting the experimental data into the spectrum drift equations, the paper analyzed the impacts of primary colors on the mixed color, pointed out a way to reduce the chromatic aberration, and provided the theory for engineering application of color LEDs.

  18. Salinity source-induced changes in yield, mineral composition, phenolic acids and flavonoids in leaves of artichoke and cardoon grown in floating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgognone, Daniela; Cardarelli, Mariateresa; Rea, Elvira; Lucini, Luigi; Colla, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    Leaves of artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus (L.) Hegi) and cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis DC) are traditionally used as herbal medicine. Moderate salt stress could enhance antioxidant activity and phytochemicals in leaves. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chloride salts (NaCl, KCl and CaCl2) on biomass production, mineral composition, phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity in leaves of artichoke and cardoon grown in a floating system. In both crops, NaCl and KCl treatments reduced biomass production, while similar values were recorded in CaCl2 and control treatments. In both crops, KCl treatment enhanced total phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity and target polyphenols in leaves harvested at 48, 82 and 105 days after sowing (DAS), while leaf quality was improved by NaCl and CaCl2 treatments only at 82 and 105 DAS. Irrespective of salinity, leaves of cardoon had higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity and target polyphenols than those of artichoke. The results showed that application of KCl can be considered an effective way to produce high-quality leaves of artichoke and cardoon during the whole cropping cycle, although resulting in a 30% reduction in plant biomass. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed

  20. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Imagine shooting a beam of protons of high momentum P through an atomic nucleus. Usually the nuclear interactions prevent the particles from emerging with momentum ∼P. Further, the angular distribution of elastically scattered protons is close to the optical diffraction pattern produced by a black disk. Thus the nucleus acts as a black disk and is not transparent. However, certain high momentum transfer reactions in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus may be completely different. Suppose that the high momentum transfer process leads to the formation of a small-size color singlet wavepacket that is ejected from the nucleus. The effects of gluons emitted by color singlet systems of closely separated quarks and gluons tend to cancel. Thus the wavepacket-nuclear interactions are suppressed, the nucleus becomes transparant and one says that color transparency CT occurs. The observation of CT also requires that the wavepacket not expand very much while it moves through the nucleus. Simple quantum mechanical formulations can assess this expansion. The creation of a small-sized wavepacket is expected in asymptotic perturbative effects. The author reviews the few experimental attempts to observe color transparency in nuclear (e,e'p) and (p,pp) reactions and interpret the data and their implications

  1. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pire, B.; Ralston, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the physics of color transparency and the unexpected energy dependence of recent measurements of high-energy fixed-angle elastic scattering in nuclear targets. The authors point out advantages of using transparency as a tool, introducing two concepts - spin and flavor flow filtering - that may be studied with nuclear targets. The special case of electroproduction is also considered

  2. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  3. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...... of leaving home. Results showed that while some differences disappeared when controlling for covariates, others persisted, thus indicating ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns. A strong link between leaving home and marriage was substantiated for Turks, but not for Somalis. The home-leaving patterns...... of Somalis were much more similar to those of Danes. Overall, Turkish descendants were similar to Turkish immigrants but with some differentiation. The analyses identified the existence of ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns but also found evidence of a shift towards less traditional patterns, i...

  4. Examination of Color-Lighting Control System Using Colored Paper User Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent year, Full-Color LED Lighting that can be changed to various color such as red, green, blue has been appeared with development of LED Lighting. By Color-Lighting control, users affected such as concentrating and relaxing. Therefore, Color-lighting control will spread to various place such as home, offices, stations. However color-lighting control affected some disturbance such as daylight, display when Full-Color LED controlled indoors. Also, information devices control get difficult with information technology develop. I propose Color-Lighting Control System using Colored Paper User Interface(CLC/CPUI. The purpose of CLC/CPUI is that anyone can intuitively control Full-Color LED Lighting. CLC/CPUI uses colored paper as user interface by sensing the paper. CLC/CPUI realizes lighting color that user demanded to do feedback control. I conduct accuracy verification experiment of CLC/CPUI.

  5. Role of color memory in successive color constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

    2008-06-01

    We investigate color constancy for real 2D paper samples using a successive matching paradigm in which the observer memorizes a reference surface color under neutral illumination and after a temporal interval selects a matching test surface under the same or different illumination. We find significant effects of the illumination, reference surface, and their interaction on the matching error. We characterize the matching error in the absence of illumination change as the "pure color memory shift" and introduce a new index for successive color constancy that compares this shift against the matching error under changing illumination. The index also incorporates the vector direction of the matching errors in chromaticity space, unlike the traditional constancy index. With this index, we find that color constancy is nearly perfect.

  6. Selected chemical composition changes in microwave-convective dried parsley leaves affected by ultrasound and steaming pre-treatments - An optimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadan, Magdalena; Rybak, Katarzyna; Wiktor, Artur; Nowacka, Malgorzata; Zubernik, Joanna; Witrowa-Rajchert, Dorota

    2018-01-15

    Parsley leaves contain a high amount of bioactive components (especially lutein), therefore it is crucial to select the most appropriate pre-treatment and drying conditions, in order to obtain high quality of dried leaves, which was the aim of this study. The optimization was done using response surface methodology (RSM) for the following factors: microwave power (100, 200, 300W), air temperature (20, 30, 40°C) and pre-treatment variant (ultrasound, steaming and dipping as a control). Total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity, chlorophyll and lutein contents (using UPLC-PDA) were determined in dried leaves. The analysed responses were dependent on the applied drying parameters and the pre-treatment type. The possibility of ultrasound and steam treatment application was proven and the optimal processing conditions were selected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatial and temporal changes in leaf coloring date of Acer palmatum and Ginkgo biloba in response to temperature increases in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Kyun; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Jeong, Su-Jong; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Jinwon

    2017-01-01

    Understanding shifts in autumn phenology associated with climate changes is critical for preserving forest ecosystems. This study examines the changes in the leaf coloring date (LCD) of two temperate deciduous tree species, Acer palmatum (Acer) and Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo), in response to surface air temperature (Ts) changes at 54 stations of South Korea for the period 1989-2007. The variations of Acer and Ginkgo in South Korea are very similar: they show the same mean LCD of 295th day of the year and delays of about 0.45 days year-1 during the observation period. The delaying trend is closely correlated (correlation coefficient > 0.77) with increases in Ts in mid-autumn by 2.8 days °C-1. It is noted that the LCD delaying and temperature sensitivity (days °C-1) for both tree species show negligible dependences on latitudes and elevations. Given the significant LCD-Ts relation, we project LCD changes for 2016-35 and 2046-65 using a process-based model forced by temperature from climate model simulation. The projections indicate that the mean LCD would be further delayed by 3.2 (3.7) days in 2016-35 (2046-65) due to mid-autumn Ts increases. This study suggests that the mid-autumn warming is largely responsible for the observed LCD changes in South Korea and will intensify the delaying trends in the future.

  8. Chemical characterization and biological activity in young sesame leaves (Sesamum indicum L.) and changes in iridoid and polyphenol content at different growth stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuji, Yushiro; Uchida, Ayumi; Fukahori, Katsunori; Chino, Makoto; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Matsufuji, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Three iridoids (lamalbid (I1), sesamoside (I2) and shanzhiside methyl ester (I3)) and seven polyphenols (cistanoside F (P1), chlorogenic acid (P2), pedalitin-6-O-laminaribioside (P3), pedaliin (P4), isoacteoside (P6), pedalitin (P7) and martynoside (P8)) were identified in young sesame leaves (Sesamum indicum L.) other than the acteoside (P5) reported previously. P3 was a new compound, and I1, I3, P2 and P8 were found in a species of Sesamum for the first time. HPLC analyses revealed that the compounds I1 (0.29–1.75% of dry leaves), I2 (0.38–0.87%), I3 (0.04–1.07%), P4 (0.01–2.05%) and P5 (0.13–4.86%) were present primarily in young sesame leaves and were found in plants cultivated on different farms (plant height, 30–70 cm). Of the identified compounds, P5 and P6 showed high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and in vitro antiglycation activities. Given its content, P5 makes a major contribution to the biological activities of young sesame leaves. The compounds were examined at six different growth stages of plants cultured in a greenhouse to determine the optimum harvest stage and for end-use assessment. P5 accumulated in the leaves during growth, and the content reached a maximum of 12.9% of dry leaves in the 4th stage (plant height, 74.5±9.7 cm), which is one of the highest percentages reported in plants from nature. PMID:29584748

  9. Trajectory Perception and Object Continuity: Effects of Shape and Color Change on 4-Month-Olds' Perception of Object Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Gavin; Slater, Alan M.; Mason, Uschi C.; Spring, Jo; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that infants use object trajectory continuity as a cue to the constant identity of an object, but results are equivocal regarding the role of object features, with some work suggesting that a change in the appearance of an object does not cue a change in identity. In an experiment involving 72 participants, we…

  10. Seasonal Variations in Color Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Nelson, Rolf; Parker, Laura; Heck, Isobel A; Palmer, Stephen E

    2017-08-01

    We investigated how color preferences vary according to season and whether those changes could be explained by the ecological valence theory (EVT). To do so, we assessed the same participants' preferences for the same colors during fall, winter, spring, and summer in the northeastern United States, where there are large seasonal changes in environmental colors. Seasonal differences were most pronounced between fall and the other three seasons. Participants liked fall-associated dark-warm colors-for example, dark-red, dark-orange (brown), dark-yellow (olive), and dark-chartreuse-more during fall than other seasons. The EVT could explain these changes with a modified version of Palmer and Schloss' (2010) weighted affective valence estimate (WAVE) procedure that added an activation term to the WAVE equation. The results indicate that color preferences change according to season, as color-associated objects become more/less activated in the observer. These seasonal changes in color preferences could not be characterized by overall shifts in weights along cone-contrast axes. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  12. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  13. Retrieval of Oceanic Constituents from Ocean Color Using Simulated Annealing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kempeneers, Pieter; Sterckx, Sindy; Debruyn, Walter; De Backer, Steve; Scheunders, Paul; Park, Youngje; Ruddick, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    ...), phytoplankton pigments such as chlorophyll (CHL) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Reversely, optical sensors that measure the water-leaving reflectance spectra allow us to calculate the desired concentration products...

  14. Object color affects identification and repetition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Santacruz, Pilar

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the influence of color on the identification of both non-studied and studied objects. Participants studied black and white and color photos of common objects and memory was assessed with an identification test. Consistent with our meta-analysis of prior research, we found that objects were easier to identify from color than from black and white photos. We also found substantial priming in all conditions, and study-to-test changes in an object's color reduced the magnitude of priming. Color-specific priming effects were large for color-complex objects, but minimal for color-simple objects. The pattern and magnitude of priming effects was not influenced either by the extent to which an object always appears in the same color (i.e., whether a color is symptomatic of an object) or by the object's origin (natural versus fabricated). We discuss the implications of our findings for theoretical accounts of object perception and repetition priming.

  15. The Changes in Color, Soluble Sugars, Organic Acids, Anthocyanins and Aroma Components in “Starkrimson” during the Ripening Period in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulian Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available “Starkrimson” is a traditional apple cultivar that was developed a long time ago and was widely cultivated in the arid region of the northern Wei River of China. However, little information regarding the quality characteristics of “Starkrimson” fruit has been reported in this area. To elucidate these characteristics, the color, soluble sugars, organic acids, anthocyanins and aroma components were measured during the ripening period through the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results indicated that the changes in anthocyanin contents took place later than the changes in the Commission International Eclairage (CIE parameters. Meanwhile, cyanidin 3-galactoside (cy3-gal, fructose, sucrose, glucose and malic acid were the primary organic compounds, and 1-butanol-2-methyl-acetate, 2-hexenal and 1-hexanol were the most abundant aroma components in the skin. Furthermore, rapidly changing soluble sugars and organic acid synchronization took place in the early ripening period, while rapidly changing aroma components occurred later, on the basis of fresh weight. This result suggested that the production of aroma components might be a useful index of apple maturity.

  16. Influence of in-office whitening gel pH on hydrogen peroxide diffusion through enamel and color changes in bovine teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignoly, Christian; Camps, Lila; Susini, Guy; About, Imad; Camps, Jean

    2012-04-01

    To assess the influence of in-office whitening gel pH on whitening efficiency. Hydrogen peroxide diffusion and color changes on bovine teeth were assessed. Three gels with close hydrogen peroxide concentrations but with various pH levels were tested: Zoom 2 (Discus Dental), Opalescence Endo and Opalescence Boost (Ultradent). The pH levels were respectively: 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0. Thirty enamel slices and tooth crowns were used for both studies (n = 10 per group per study). Hydrogen peroxide diffusion through the enamel slices and the tooth crowns was spectrophotometrically recorded every 10 minutes for 1 hour to calculate the diffusion coefficients. Color changes were spectrophotometrically recorded every 10 minutes for 1 hour and quantified in term of CIE-Lab. The hydrogen peroxide diffusion coefficient through enamel ranged from 5.12 +/- 0.82 x 10(-9) cm2 s(-1) for pH 3 to 5.19 +/- 0.92 x 10(-9) cm2 S(-1) for pH 7. Through tooth crowns it ranged from 4.80 +/- 1.75 x 10(-10) cm2 s(-1) for pH 5 to 4.85 +/- 1.82 x 10(-10) cm2 s(-1) for pH 3. After 1 hour, the deltaE varied from 5.6 +/- 4.0 for pH 7 to 7.0 +/- 5.0 for pH 3 on enamel slices and from 3.9 +/- 2.5 for pH 5 to 4.9 +/- 3.5 for pH 7 on tooth crowns. There was no statistically significant difference between groups for both parameters.

  17. Theoretical predictions of the changes in the irradiance and color of light beams traveling in sugared water caused by optical rotation phenomena, and their possible applications for educational purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumitsu, S.; Hasegawa, M.

    2018-05-01

    The coloring phenomena caused by optical rotation of polarized light beams in sugared water can be an appropriate subject for use as an educational tool. In this paper, such coloring phenomena are studied in terms of theory, and the results are compared with experimental results. First, polarized laser beams in red, blue, or green were allowed to travel in sugared water of certain concentrations, and changes in the irradiance of the beams were measured while changing the distance between a pair of polarizing plates arranged in the sugared water. The angle of rotation was then determined for each color. An equation was established for predicting a theoretical value of the angle of rotation for laser beams of specific colors (wavelengths) traveling in sugared water of specific concentrations. The predicted results from the equation exhibited satisfactory agreement with the experimental values obtained from the measurements. In addition, changes in the irradiance of traveling laser beams, as well as the changes in colors observable for white light beams, were also predicted, resulting in good agreement with the observed results.

  18. Bare-part color in female budgerigars changes from brown to structural blue following testosterone treatment but is not strongly masculinized.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie E P Lahaye

    Full Text Available Whereas several studies have shown that experimentally increased levels of the androgenic steroid testosterone can affect female behavior, fewer studies have focused on the activational effects of exogenous testosterone on female morphology. With respect to colorful displays in birds, almost exclusively the effects of testosterone manipulation on female carotenoid-based colorations have been studied. Other color types such as structural colors (i.e. UV, blue and violet colors that result from differential light reflection in the nanostructures of the tissue remain largely unstudied. Here, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of exogenous testosterone on the expression of structural bare-part coloration in female budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus. In this parrot species, bare-part coloration is expressed in the cere, a structure over the beak which is brown in females and structural blue in males. We experimentally increased plasma testosterone levels in testosterone-treated females (T-females compared to controls (C-females and we performed weekly spectrophotometric measurements of the cere for five weeks after implantation and one measurement after ten weeks. We also estimated the extent to which testosterone masculinized female cere color by comparing the experimental females with untreated males. We found significant effects of testosterone on cere color from week four after implantation onwards. T-females expressed significantly bluer ceres than C-females with higher values for brightness and UV reflectance. T-female cere color, however, remained significantly less blue than in males, while values for brightness and UV reflectance were significantly higher in T-females than in males. Our quantitative results show that exogenous testosterone induces the expression of structural blue color in females but does not strongly masculinize female cere coloration. We provide several potential pathways for the action of testosterone on

  19. Paternity leave experiences of NHS doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Hannah; Szram, Joanna

    2013-10-01

    This study assesses NHS doctors' experiences of paternity leave and evaluates whether practices have changed since the introduction of additional paternity leave (APL) in April 2011. An anonymised online survey designed to discover experiences and uptake of APL and ordinary paternity leave (OPL) was distributed to all members of the London Deanery Synapse® network. In total, 364 fathers responded. Their seniority ranged from foundation trainees to consultants. Following the formal introduction of OPL in 2003, the number of fathers taking any paternity leave increased (from 50% to 95.6%). The majority of respondents (76.7%) felt well supported by their employer. Since the introduction of APL, 3% of respondents took additional leave. Reasons for the low uptake of APL included the impracticalities of the law, poor awareness and perceived attitudes and implications for training. Problems with OPL included the inadequate provision of cover and difficulties in timing the leave appropriately.

  20. MODEL PERUBAHAN WARNA KERIPIK BUAH SELAMA PENGGORENGAN VAKUM Model of Fruit Flaky Color Change during Vacuum Frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Jamaluddin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The natural colour of fruit flaky product is one of specific property prefered by consumer. To maintain the natural colourof the fruit flaky during frying, it is necessary to pay attention the characteristic changes of raw material and control the process in order not to have much changes to get the intended colour. The objective of this research is to develop empirically mathematical model of fruit flaky colour changes during vacuum frying process by considering the change of water and sucrose contents in the product. Sample of the research were jack fruits fried in the temperature of 70–100OC, frying duration of 15–60 minutes, and vacuum pressure of 13-23 kPa. The observed parameters are colour (L, colour (a, colour (b, water and sukrose contents before and after frying. The result showed that colour changes (L, a and b were influenced by free water vaporization and sukrose decreasing in product, so empirically, the developed mathematical model of colour changes (L, a and b can be used to predict fruit flaky colour changes during vacuum frying. ABSTRAK Warna alami pada produk keripik buah adalah merupakan salah satu sifat khas yang disukai oleh konsumen, untukmempertahankan warna alami keripik buah agar tidak banyak mengalami perubahan selama dalam penggorengan, perlu diperhatikan perubahan karakteristik bahan baku dan pengendalian proses, agar warna keripik buah yang dihasilkan sesuai dengan yang diinginkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan secara empirik model matematik perubahan warna keripik buah selama dalam proses penggorengan vakum dengan mempertimbangkan ke dalam model perubahan kadar air dan kadar sukrosa di dalam padatan. Sampel penelitian adalah buah nangka digoreng pada suhu70-100 OC, lama penggorengan 15-60 menit dan tekanan vakum 13-23 kPa. Parameter yang diamati adalah warna (L, warna (a, warna (b, kadar air dan kadar sukrosa sebelum dan setelah sampel digoreng. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perubahan warna L, a

  1. Automatic color preference correction for color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Masato; Funayama, Chisato; Tajima, Johji

    2000-12-01

    The reproduction of natural objects in color images has attracted a great deal of attention. Reproduction more pleasing colors of natural objects is one of the methods available to improve image quality. We developed an automatic color correction method to maintain preferred color reproduction for three significant categories: facial skin color, green grass and blue sky. In this method, a representative color in an object area to be corrected is automatically extracted from an input image, and a set of color correction parameters is selected depending on the representative color. The improvement in image quality for reproductions of natural image was more than 93 percent in subjective experiments. These results show the usefulness of our automatic color correction method for the reproduction of preferred colors.

  2. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Breanna J; Drury, Jonathan P; Blumstein, Daniel T; Pauly, Gregory B

    2017-01-01

    Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID) and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes.

  3. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Jonathan P.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Pauly, Gregory B.

    2017-01-01

    Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID) and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes. PMID:28792983

  4. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breanna J Putman

    Full Text Available Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis, and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes.

  5. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...... and whether parental leave is associated with a signaling cost. The results from this study of Swedish mothers show that lone mothers use more temporary parental leave than partnered mothers. Further, within the group of lone mothers, those with higher socioeconomic status take less temporary parental leave...... than those with lower socioeconomic status, whereas no such differences are found within the group of partnered mothers. One possible interpretation is that signaling costs negatively influence the utilization of temporary parental leave for lone mothers....

  6. Perubahan warna basis akrilik setelah penggunaan pasta pembersih gigitiruan rosella (The changes of acrylic base color after using roselle pasta denture cleanser)

    OpenAIRE

    Evan G. Tunggal; Moh. Dharmautama; Eri H. Jubhari

    2015-01-01

    This clinical experimental study was aimed to determine the effect of roselle denture cleanser paste usage on acrylic base color degradation. Acrylic base color degradation was assessed by providing roselle denture cleanser to 5 subjects to be used every day. In month 3, 6 and 9, data collection were performed by a professional photographer and assessed by CIELab system. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon and friedman two ways. Acrylic base color, before and after pasta using, show...

  7. Cognitive aspects of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  8. The evolution of concepts of color vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Barry B

    2008-07-01

    The evolution of ideas about the way we see color was closely linked to physical theories of light. Proponents of both corpuscular and wave theories viewed light as a continuous spectrum. This was not easily reconciled with the fact that, for the human eye, all colors can be matched by mixture of three primaries. Physicists such as Mayer who described trichromatic color matching often assumed that there were just three types of rays in the spectrum. This argument was finally resolved by Thomas Young, who noted that trichromatic color matching was consistent with a continuous spectrum if there were just three receptors in the eye. This kind of conceptual mistake, in this case the confusion of the properties of the visual system with physical properties of light, has been common in the history of color science. As another example, the idea of trichromacy was disputed by those who viewed color sensations as opponent processes, red-green, blue-yellow and black-white. The discovery of color-opponent neurons in the visual pathway has partly resolved this dilemma. Much of the physiological substrate of the way we detect and distinguish colors is now established, but the link between the signals leaving the retina and the way we name and order colors is still poorly defined.

  9. The Disunity of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Matthen, Mohan

    1999-01-01

    What is color? What is color vision? Most philosophers answer by reference to humans: to human color qualia, or to the environmental properties or "quality spaces" perceived by humans. It is argued, with reference to empirical findings concerning comparative color vision and the evolution of color vision, that all such attempts are mistaken. An adequate definition of color vision must eschew reference to its outputs in the human cognition and refer only to inputs: color vision consists in...

  10. Color of bulk-fill composite resin restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutcigil, Çağatay; Barutcigil, Kubilay; Özarslan, Mehmet Mustafa; Dündar, Ayşe; Yilmaz, Burak

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the color stability of novel bulk-fill composite resins. Color measurements of a nanohybrid composite resin (Z550) and 3 bulk-fill composite resins (BLK, AFX, XTF; n = 45) were performed before polymerization. After polymerization, color measurements were repeated and specimens were immersed in distilled water or red wine, or coffee. Color change [CIEDE2000 (ΔE 00 )] was calculated after 24 h, 1 and 3 weeks. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05). Color changes observed after polymerization were significant for all groups. Color changes observed in distilled water for Z550 and AFX were significant. Color changes after stored in red wine and coffee were significant for all groups. Bulk-fill composite resin color change increased over time for all groups in red wine and coffee (P composite resin and bulk-fill composite resins. AFX had the highest color change in distilled water. The color of tested bulk-fill composite resins significantly changed after immersion in beverages and over time. Color change observed with the nanohybrid composite resin after 1 week was stable. Clinicians should keep in mind that tested composite resins may change color when exposed to water and significantly change color immediately after they are polymerized. In addition, the color change continues over time should the patient is a coffee and/or red wine consumer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Hearing Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieryla, Allyson; Diaz Merced, Wanda; Davis, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    In astronomy, the relationship between color and temperature is an important concept. This concept can be demonstrated in a laboratory or seen at telescope when observing stars. A blind/visually-impaired (B/VI) person would not be able to engage in the same observational demonstrations that are typically done to explain this concept. We’ve developed a tool for B/VI students to participate in these types of observational activities. Using an arduino compatible micro controller with and RGB light sensor, we are able to convert filtered light into sound. The device will produce different timbres for different wavelengths of light, which can then be used to distinguish the temperature of an object. The device is handheld, easy to program and inexpensive to reproduce (< $50). It is also fitted to mount on a telescope for observing. The design schematic and code will be open source and available for download.

  12. Ab-initio study on the absorption spectrum of color change sapphire based on first-principles calculations with considering lattice relaxation-effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novita, Mega; Nagoshi, Hikari; Sudo, Akiho; Ogasawara, Kazuyoshi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we performed an investigation on α-Al2O3: V3+ material, or the so-called color change sapphire, based on first-principles calculations without referring to any experimental parameter. The molecular orbital (MO) structure was estimated by the one-electron MO calculations using the discrete variational-Xα (DV-Xα) method. Next, the absorption spectra were estimated by the many-electron calculations using the discrete variational multi-electron (DVME) method. The effect of lattice relaxation on the crystal structures was estimated based on the first-principles band structure calculations. We performed geometry optimizations on the pure α-Al2O3 and with the impurity V3+ ion using Cambridge Serial Total Energy Package (CASTEP) code. The effect of energy corrections such as configuration dependence correction and correlation correction was also investigated in detail. The results revealed that the structural change on the α-Al2O3: V3+ resulted from the geometry optimization improved the calculated absorption spectra. By a combination of both the lattice relaxation-effect and the energy correction-effect improve the agreement to the experiment fact.

  13. Methylation of Brazilein on Secang (Caesalpinia sappan Linn) Wood Extract for Maintain Color Stability to the Changes of pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulma, Zeni; Rahayuningsih, Edia; Dwi Wahyuningsih, Tutik

    2018-01-01

    The stability of natural dyes to the changes of pH is really necessary when the natural dyes are applied either on fabric or food. This research aimed to increase the stability of brazilein, a compound contained within the secang wood extract, to the changes of pH. The methylation process was done by reacting Dimethyl Carbonate (DMC) with the brazilein on the secang wood extract. DMC acts as a substance that substitute hydroxyl group on brazilein. The methylation reaction of brazilein on secang wood extract was operated on a three-necked round-bottomed flask fitted with mercury-sealed stirrer and reflux condenser under 80°C temperature and 250 rpm stirring speed. There were two variables observed in this research; the DMC amount ratio to the amount of secang wood extract and the time of the methylation process. The research showed that at the 1:10 the DMC amount ratio to the amount of wood extract and 8 hours of the methylation process give the better stability of color of the secang wood extract than the variation of the other variables.

  14. Surveillance on Artificial Colors in Different Confectionary Products by

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Arast

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food color additives, which are used to give a good look to foodstuff, are very effective in the consumers’ satisfaction but they can leave toxic effects on body. With respect to their extensive application, the present research aims to examine the condition of the colorings consumed in confectionary products of the city of Qom. Materials and Methods: 398 items of confectionary products were sampled randomly and their types of colorings were analyzed through the Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC method.Results: Fifty-two percent of the samples were free from coloring, 26.7 percent had illegal artificial coloring, and 21.3 contained approved artificial coloring. It was reported that yellow coloring was most consumed.Conclusion: The scientific introduction and replacement of the natural colorings to the public and emphasis on their advantages play a crucial role in the health of society and can increase enthusiasm of producers and consumers.

  15. Using color management in color document processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehab, Smadar

    1995-04-01

    Color Management Systems have been used for several years in Desktop Publishing (DTP) environments. While this development hasn't matured yet, we are already experiencing the next generation of the color imaging revolution-Device Independent Color for the small office/home office (SOHO) environment. Though there are still open technical issues with device independent color matching, they are not the focal point of this paper. This paper discusses two new and crucial aspects in using color management in color document processing: the management of color objects and their associated color rendering methods; a proposal for a precedence order and handshaking protocol among the various software components involved in color document processing. As color peripherals become affordable to the SOHO market, color management also becomes a prerequisite for common document authoring applications such as word processors. The first color management solutions were oriented towards DTP environments whose requirements were largely different. For example, DTP documents are image-centric, as opposed to SOHO documents that are text and charts centric. To achieve optimal reproduction on low-cost SOHO peripherals, it is critical that different color rendering methods are used for the different document object types. The first challenge in using color management of color document processing is the association of rendering methods with object types. As a result of an evolutionary process, color matching solutions are now available as application software, as driver embedded software and as operating system extensions. Consequently, document processing faces a new challenge, the correct selection of the color matching solution while avoiding duplicate color corrections.

  16. Finding text in color images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiangying; Lopresti, Daniel P.; Tasdizen, Tolga

    1998-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of locating and extracting text from WWW images. A previous algorithm based on color clustering and connected components analysis works well as long as the color of each character is relatively uniform and the typography is fairly simple. It breaks down quickly, however, when these assumptions are violated. In this paper, we describe more robust techniques for dealing with this challenging problem. We present an improved color clustering algorithm that measures similarity based on both RGB and spatial proximity. Layout analysis is also incorporated to handle more complex typography. THese changes significantly enhance the performance of our text detection procedure.

  17. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  18. Feasibility of iFlow color-coding technique in quantitative real-time measurement of hemodynamic changes after transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yuzhe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the value of iFlow color-coding technique in quantitative real-time analysis of hemodynamic changes after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Methods A total of 31 patients who were diagnosed with HCC in Shanghai Fifth People′s Hospital from December 2015 to January 2017 were enrolled. No patient underwent surgical operation or ablation. All patients underwent TACE with the same contrast agent, high-pressure injector parameters, and place of angiographic catheter. The iFlow technique was used to generate two-dimensional color-coded images and time-density curve (TDC before and after surgery and measure the opening of the angiographic catheter and the time to peak (TTP of the starting and ending points of the major tumor feeding arteries, as well as the ratio of the areas under the curve (AUC of TDC of tumor tissue and the opening of the angiographic catheter. The paired t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups. Results TTP of the major tumor feeding arteries was 4.64±0.49 s before TACE and 5.97±0.84 s after TACE (t=11.57, P<0.01, and there was a significant difference in AUC between the tumor tissue and the opening of the angiographic catheter (0.53±0.15 vs 0.16±0.12, t=25.85, P<0.01. There was no significant difference in TTP between the opening of the angiographic catheter and the major tumor feeding arteries before and after TACE (P>0.05. Before TACE, the TDC of tumor feeding arteries had a shape of “rapid increase-rapid reduction” with relatively high slope and peak value, while after TACE, the TDC had a shape of “increase-flat-reduction” with reductions in slope and peak value. Conclusion The iFlow technique can perform real-time measurement of TTP and TDC of the region of interest and helps with quantitative evaluation of hemodynamic changes in HCC. Therefore, it can provide objective quantitative indices for evaluating the degree of

  19. Arctic mustard flower color polymorphism controlled by petal-specific downregulation at the threshold of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A Dick

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and interspecific variation in flower color is a hallmark of angiosperm diversity. The evolutionary forces underlying the variety of flower colors can be nearly as diverse as the colors themselves. In addition to pollinator preferences, non-pollinator agents of selection can have a major influence on the evolution of flower color polymorphisms, especially when the pigments in question are also expressed in vegetative tissues. In such cases, identifying the target(s of selection starts with determining the biochemical and molecular basis for the flower color variation and examining any pleiotropic effects manifested in vegetative tissues. Herein, we describe a widespread purple-white flower color polymorphism in the mustard Parrya nudicaulis spanning Alaska. The frequency of white-flowered individuals increases with increasing growing-season temperature, consistent with the role of anthocyanin pigments in stress tolerance. White petals fail to produce the stress responsive flavonoid intermediates in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP, suggesting an early pathway blockage. Petal cDNA sequences did not reveal blockages in any of the eight enzyme-coding genes in white-flowered individuals, nor any color differentiating SNPs. A qRT-PCR analysis of white petals identified a 24-fold reduction in chalcone synthase (CHS at the threshold of the ABP, but no change in CHS expression in leaves and sepals. This arctic species has avoided the deleterious effects associated with the loss of flavonoid intermediates in vegetative tissues by decoupling CHS expression in petals and leaves, yet the correlation of flower color and climate suggests that the loss of flavonoids in the petals alone may affect the tolerance of white-flowered individuals to colder environments.

  20. Tree age-dependent changes in photosynthetic and respiratory CO2 exchange in leaves of micropropagated diploid, triploid and hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärnik, Tiit; Ivanova, Hiie; Keerberg, Olav; Vardja, Rael; Niinemets, Ulo

    2014-06-01

    The growth rate of triploid European aspen (Populus tremula L.) and hybrid aspen (P. tremula × Populus tremuloides Michx.) significantly exceeds that of diploid aspen, but the underlying physiological controls of the superior growth rates of these genotypes are not known. We tested the hypothesis that the superior growth rate of triploid and hybrid aspen reflects their greater net photosynthesis rate. Micropropagated clonal plants varying in age from 2.5 to 19 months were used to investigate the ploidy and plant age interaction. The quantum yield of net CO2 fixation (Φ) in leaves of young 2.5-month-old hybrid aspen was lower than that of diploid and triploid trees. However, Φ in 19-month-old hybrid aspen was equal to that in triploid aspen and higher than that in diploid aspen. Φ and the rate of light-saturated net photosynthesis (ANS) increased with plant age, largely due to higher leaf dry mass per unit area in older plants. ANS in leaves of 19-month-old trees was highest in hybrid, medium in triploid and lowest in diploid aspen. Light-saturated photosynthesis had a broad temperature optimum between 20 and 35 °C. Rate of respiration in the dark (RDS) did not vary among the genotypes in 2.5-month-old plants, and the shape of the temperature response was also similar. RDS increased with plant age, but RDS was still not significantly different among the leaves of 19-month-old diploid and triploid aspen, but it was significantly lower in leaves of 19-month-old hybrid plants. The initial differences in the growth of plants with different ploidy were minor up to the age of 19 months, but during the next 2 years, the growth rate of hybrid aspen exceeded that of triploid plants by 2.7 times and of diploid plants by five times, in line with differences in ANS of 19-month-old plants of these species. It is suggested that differences in photosynthesis and growth became more pronounced with tree aging, indicating that ontogeny plays a key role in the expression of

  1. Cold induced changes in the water balance affect immunocytolocalization pattern of one of the aquaporins in the vascular system in the leaves of maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilska-Kos, Anna; Szczepanik, Jarosław; Sowiński, Paweł

    2016-10-20

    Chilling stress is known to affect the water balance in plants, which often manifests itself in the decrease of the water potential in different organs. Relationships between chilling, assimilate transport and water balance are far from being understood. Although aquaporins play a key role in regulating water balance in plants, especially under stress conditions, the role of individual aquaporins in stress response remains unclear. In this report we show the specific localization within plasma membranes of one of the aquaporins (PIP2;3) in the leaves of two maize inbred lines differing in their chilling-sensitivity. This form of aquaporin has been also observed in thick-walled sieve elements - an additional type of sieve tubes of unclear function found only in monocotyledons. Moderate chilling (about 15°C) caused significant reduction of labelling in these cells accompanied by a steep decrease in the water potential in leaves of chilling-sensitive maize line. Our results suggest that both PIP2;3 and thick-walled sieve tubes may be an unknown element of the mechanism of the response of maize to cold stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Embedding Color Watermarks in Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tung-Lin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust watermarking with oblivious detection is essential to practical copyright protection of digital images. Effective exploitation of the characteristics of human visual perception to color stimuli helps to develop the watermarking scheme that fills the requirement. In this paper, an oblivious watermarking scheme that embeds color watermarks in color images is proposed. Through color gamut analysis and quantizer design, color watermarks are embedded by modifying quantization indices of color pixels without resulting in perceivable distortion. Only a small amount of information including the specification of color gamut, quantizer stepsize, and color tables is required to extract the watermark. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking scheme is computationally simple and quite robust in face of various attacks such as cropping, low-pass filtering, white-noise addition, scaling, and JPEG compression with high compression ratios.

  3. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  4. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  5. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  7. Color center formation in plutonium electrorefining residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.E.; Eller, P.G.; Hobart, D.E.; Eastman, M.P.; McCurry, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Plutonium electrorefining residues containing Pu(III) in KCl exhibit dramatic reversible, light-induced color changes. Similar color changes were observed in Ln-doped (Ln = La, Nd, Gd, and Lu) and undoped KCl samples which were subjected to intense gamma irradiation. Diffuse reflectance electronic and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies were used to show conclusively that Pu(III) is present in both the bleached and unbleached plutonium-bearing residues and the spectacular color changes are the result of color center formation and alternation by visible light. (orig.)

  8. Tuning the color point of a white LED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adhikary, Manashee; Meretska, Maryna; Ladovrechis, K.; Fokkema, Wouter K.; Vissenberg, Gilles; Lagendijk, Ad; Ijzerman, W.L.; Vos, Willem L.

    2018-01-01

    White light is conveniently characterized by a color point that is represented on the color space. Color point of white LED is fixed by the design parameters (e.g. Phosphor type and concentration). When the design parameters are chosen, the color point of the white LED cannot be changed. Here, we

  9. Digital color imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    This collective work identifies the latest developments in the field of the automatic processing and analysis of digital color images.For researchers and students, it represents a critical state of the art on the scientific issues raised by the various steps constituting the chain of color image processing.It covers a wide range of topics related to computational color imaging, including color filtering and segmentation, color texture characterization, color invariant for object recognition, color and motion analysis, as well as color image and video indexing and retrieval. <

  10. Assessment of oxidation of leaves of Ilex paraguariensis (St. Hil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochele Fernanda Molin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the oxidation of leaves of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil, in a process similar to the oxidation of Camellia sinensis, with the purpose of developing new products based on yerba maté. So far, no previous systematic study about the oxidation of yerba maté has been found elsewhere. A Plackett-Burman experimental design was used for the screening of the significant parameters that affected the oxidation. The oxidation was indirectly quantified by following the changes in the product color, water activity, and pH with the time of processing. The factors that most influenced the process were the age of the leaves and the relative humidity of the oxidation chamber. The differences between the treatments were more evident after 3, 6 12 and 24 h of oxidation. The results could contribute to the developing of new products based on I. paraguariensis St. Hil, increasing the profitability of cultivation of this native species.

  11. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  12. The humic acid-induced changes in the water status, chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidant defense systems of wheat leaves with cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozfidan-Konakci, Ceyda; Yildiztugay, Evren; Bahtiyar, Mustafa; Kucukoduk, Mustafa

    2018-07-15

    The using of bio-stimulant in plants grown under stress conditions for enhancing nutrition efficiency and crop quality traits is an effective approach. One of the bio-stimulants, humus material, is defined as humic acid (HA). HA application as a promotion of plant growth to plants grown in the heavy metals-contaminated soils has promised hope in terms of effects on plants but the its limiting effect is the application dose. Therefore, the wheat seedlings were grown in hydroponic culture for 21 d and the various concentrations of humic acid (HA; 750 or 1500 mg L -1 ) were treated alone or in combination with cadmium (Cd) stress (100 or 200 μM) for 7 d. The results showed that after Cd stress treatment, water content (RWC), osmotic potential (Ψ Π ) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters decreased and proline content (Pro) increased for 7 d. In spite of activated peroxidase (POX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), stress induced the toxic levels of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) accumulation. Cd stress triggered lipid peroxidation (TBARS content). HA application successfully eliminated the negative effects of stress on RWC, Ψ Π and photosynthetic parameters. In the presence of HA under stress, the increased activation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and NADPH-oxidase (NOX) enzymes and ascorbate, glutathione and GSH/GSSG ratio observed. Only 750 mg L -1 HA under stress conditions induced the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and dehydroascorbate (DHA) content. After the combined application of HA and Cd stress, the low contents of H 2 O 2 and TBARS maintained in wheat leaves. Hence, HA successfully eliminated the toxicity of Cd stress by modulating the water status, photosynthetic apparatus and antioxidant activity in wheat leaves. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Representing Color Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetverikov, Andrey; Campana, Gianluca; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2017-10-01

    Colors are rarely uniform, yet little is known about how people represent color distributions. We introduce a new method for studying color ensembles based on intertrial learning in visual search. Participants looked for an oddly colored diamond among diamonds with colors taken from either uniform or Gaussian color distributions. On test trials, the targets had various distances in feature space from the mean of the preceding distractor color distribution. Targets on test trials therefore served as probes into probabilistic representations of distractor colors. Test-trial response times revealed a striking similarity between the physical distribution of colors and their internal representations. The results demonstrate that the visual system represents color ensembles in a more detailed way than previously thought, coding not only mean and variance but, most surprisingly, the actual shape (uniform or Gaussian) of the distribution of colors in the environment.

  14. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  15. Memory for color reactivates color processing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D

    2009-11-25

    Memory is thought to be constructive in nature, where features processed in different cortical regions are synthesized during retrieval. In an effort to support this constructive memory framework, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study assessed whether memory for color reactivated color processing regions. During encoding, participants were presented with colored and gray abstract shapes. During retrieval, old and new shapes were presented in gray and participants responded 'old-colored', 'old-gray', or 'new'. Within color perception regions, color memory related activity was observed in the left fusiform gyrus, adjacent to the collateral sulcus. A retinotopic mapping analysis indicated this activity occurred within color processing region V8. The present feature specific evidence provides compelling support for a constructive view of memory.

  16. Natural Colorants: Food Colorants from Natural Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Gregory T; Tang, Peipei; Giusti, M Mónica

    2017-02-28

    The color of food is often associated with the flavor, safety, and nutritional value of the product. Synthetic food colorants have been used because of their high stability and low cost. However, consumer perception and demand have driven the replacement of synthetic colorants with naturally derived alternatives. Natural pigment applications can be limited by lower stability, weaker tinctorial strength, interactions with food ingredients, and inability to match desired hues. Therefore, no single naturally derived colorant can serve as a universal alternative for a specified synthetic colorant in all applications. This review summarizes major environmental and biological sources for natural colorants as well as nature-identical counterparts. Chemical characteristics of prevalent pigments, including anthocyanins, carotenoids, betalains, and chlorophylls, are described. The possible applications and hues (warm, cool, and achromatic) of currently used natural pigments, such as anthocyanins as red and blue colorants, and possible future alternatives, such as purple violacein and red pyranoanthocyanins, are also discussed.

  17. Color Doppler Indices of Orbital Arterial Flow in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients; Are the Changes Related to Chronic Hemodialysis or Chronic Renal Failure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokni Yazdi, Hadi; Faraji, Safoura; Ahmadi, Farokhlegha; Shahmirzae, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial injury is a well-known complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hemodialysis. One of the sites in which early vascular changes may be detected is the retina. Of course, these flow changes may not be detected in ophthalmologic exams, but it seems that color Doppler sonography of retinal arteries may be helpful in these cases. In previous studies on CKD patients who underwent chronic hemodialysis,hemodynamic changes were noted in retinal arteries, but no study has been performed to determine which of the two processes (CKD or chronic hemodialysis) can produce these changes. In this study, we tried to answer this question. Doppler ultrasonography of the orbital vasculature including the ophthalmic artery and the central retinal artery was carried out in 17 patients (34 eyes) with chronic renal failure (CRF) who underwent hemodialysis, 17 patients (34 eyes)with CRF without a history of hemodialysis and 17 normal patients (34 eyes). The peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV) and resistance index were measured excluding hypertensive, diabetic patients and patients with cardiovascular disease. The mean PSV and EDV were lower only in the ophthalmic artery of CRF patients irrespective of the history of hemodialysis (PSV was 35.2 in hemodialysis, 38.8 in CRF and 51.6 in normal patients, P value = 0.001 and EDV was 7.4, 9.4, 11.8, respectively, P value =0.001) with no significant difference in the resistance index of the ophthalmic artery and other parameters [EDV, PSV, Resistance Index (RI)] in the central retinal artery. The mean PSV and DSV in the ophthalmic artery were lower only in the ophthalmic artery of CRF patients regardless of the history of hemodialysis. No significant difference in the resistance index of the ophthalmic artery and other parameters (EDV, PSV) of the central retinal artery were noted between different groups. These findings suggest that microvascular disease and endothelial cell dysfunction of the orbital

  18. P1-15: Categorical Color Perception of LED Illuminant Color for Deuteranomals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeko Oishi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Color information has great value in our everyday lives, but it is not mindful of people with color vision deficiency (CVD. We can choose several color names to categorize a lot of colors around us. Eleven color names (white, black, red, green, yellow, blue, brown, orange, pink, and gray are known as basic color categories, but people with CVD cannot necessarily describe colors as people who are color vision normal (CVN do. Previous studies showed that it was hard for people with CVD to discriminate illuminant color from object color, and their color perception changed largely depending on experimental conditions. In this study we investigated categorical color perception of illuminant color for deuteranomals, using a mixture of light which consists of a red, a green, and a blue LED as a test stimulus. We tested those stimuli with three luminance levels (180 cd/m2, 18 cd/m2, 1.8 cd/m2 and two visual angles (10 deg, 0.5 deg. Subjects were three deuteranomals and three people who are CVN. Our result showed that the categorical color of mild deuteranomals was similar to that of those who were CVN, but that of severe deuteranomals was not. Severe deuteranomals judged more low chromatic colors as achromatic colors than those who were CVN. The smaller visual angle or lower luminance level the test stimulus had, the more deuteranomals confused color. The results suggest that the effect of the Bezold-Brucke phenomenon is greater to deuteranomals than to those who are CVN. Furthermore, deuteranomals use not only chromatic information but also luminance information when they describe color.

  19. On the characteristics of color film dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Tokuhiro; Hiraoka, Eiichi; Furuta, Junichiro

    1978-01-01

    Practical applicability of dosimetric color films available as Nitto Radocolor in commerce have been examined. The characteristics for dosimetry were studied using gamma-rays from Co-60 sources. The films can be stored without any deterioration unless they are exposed directly to sunlight or ultraviolet light. The dosage is easily estimated by comparing the irradiation-changed color of the film with a given standardized color chart. The dosage can be determined within an accuracy of 40% by the use of the printed color chart (Color Standard) supplied Nitto Co. and within an accuracy of 20% by the use of a color chart with color films which has been prepared by the present study. (auth.)

  20. Sensory Drive, Color, and Color Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Trevor D

    2017-08-01

    Colors often appear to differ in arbitrary ways among related species. However, a fraction of color diversity may be explained because some signals are more easily perceived in one environment rather than another. Models show that not only signals but also the perception of signals should regularly evolve in response to different environments, whether these primarily involve detection of conspecifics or detection of predators and prey. Thus, a deeper understanding of how perception of color correlates with environmental attributes should help generate more predictive models of color divergence. Here, I briefly review our understanding of color vision in vertebrates. Then I focus on opsin spectral tuning and opsin expression, two traits involved in color perception that have become amenable to study. I ask how opsin tuning is correlated with ecological differences, notably the light environment, and how this potentially affects perception of conspecific colors. Although opsin tuning appears to evolve slowly, opsin expression levels are more evolutionarily labile but have been difficult to connect to color perception. The challenge going forward will be to identify how physiological differences involved in color vision, such as opsin expression levels, translate into perceptual differences, the selection pressures that have driven those differences, and ultimately how this may drive evolution of conspecific colors.

  1. Do parents leave a smaller carbon footprint?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason F.; Thunström, Linda

    Do parents leave a smaller carbon footprint? While becoming a parent is transformational as one focuses more on the future, the time constraints are more binding right now. Using a unique data set that allows us to compare CO2 emissions from Swedish two-adult households with and without children......, we find becoming a Swedish parent causes a person to leave a larger carbon ootprint—due to changes in transportation patterns and food consumption choices....

  2. Industrial Color Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Georg A

    2010-01-01

    This unique book starts with a short historical overview of the development of the theories of color vision and applications of industrial color physics. The three dominant factors producing color - light source, color sample, and observer - are described in detail. The standardized color spaces are shown and related color values are applied to characteristic color qualities of absorption as well as of effect colorants. The fundamentals of spectrometric and colorimetric measuring techniques together with specific applications are described. Theoretical models for radiative transfer in transparent, translucent, and opaque layers are detailed; the two, three, and multi-flux approximations are presented for the first time in a coherent formalism. These methods constitute the fundamentals not only for the important classical methods, but also modern methods of recipe prediction applicable to all known colorants. The text is supplied with 52 tables, more than 200 partially colored illustrations, an appendix, and a...

  3. Color: Physics and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Pupa

    Unless we are colorblind, as soon as we look at something, we know what color it is. Simple, isn't it? No, not really. The color we see is rarely just determined by the physical color, that is, the wavelength of visible light associated with that color. Other factors, such as the illuminating light, or the brightness surrounding a certain color, affect our perception of that color. Most striking, and useful, is understanding how the retina and the brain work together to interpret the color we see, and how they can be fooled by additive color mixing, which makes it possible to have color screens and displays. I will show the physical origin of all these phenomena and give live demos as I explain how they work. Bring your own eyes! For more information: (1) watch TED talk: ``Color: Physics and Perception'' and (2) read book: PUPA Gilbert and W Haeberli ``Physics in the Arts'', ISBN 9780123918789.

  4. Formation of radiation images using photographic color film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuge, Ken'ichi; Kobayashi, Takaharu; Hasegawa, Akira; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Kumagai, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    A new method to reveal the three-dimensional information of nuclear tracks in a nuclear emulsion layer was developed by the use of color photography. The tracks were represented with a color image in which different depths were indicated by different colors, and the three-dimensional information was obtained from color changes. We present the procedure for a self-made photographic coating and the development formula that can represent the color tracks clearly. (author)

  5. Environmental plasticity of Pinot noir grapevine leaves: A trans-European study of morphological and biochemical changes along a 1,500-km latitudinal climatic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Antonella; Csepregi, Kristóf; Neugart, Susanne; Zipoli, Gaetano; Večeřová, Kristýna; Jakab, Gábor; Jug, Tjaša; Llorens, Laura; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Martínez-Lüscher, Johann; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación; Ranieri, Annamaria; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Schreiner, Monika; Teszlák, Péter; Tittmann, Susanne; Urban, Otmar; Verdaguer, Dolors; Jansen, Marcel A K; Hideg, Éva

    2017-11-01

    A 2-year study explored metabolic and phenotypic plasticity of sun-acclimated Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir leaves collected from 12 locations across a 36.69-49.98°N latitudinal gradient. Leaf morphological and biochemical parameters were analysed in the context of meteorological parameters and the latitudinal gradient. We found that leaf fresh weight and area were negatively correlated with both global and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, cumulated global radiation being a stronger correlator. Cumulative UV radiation (sumUVR) was the strongest correlator with most leaf metabolites and pigments. Leaf UV-absorbing pigments, total antioxidant capacities, and phenolic compounds increased with increasing sumUVR, whereas total carotenoids and xanthophylls decreased. Despite of this reallocation of metabolic resources from carotenoids to phenolics, an increase in xanthophyll-cycle pigments (the sum of the amounts of three xanthophylls: violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin) with increasing sumUVR indicates active, dynamic protection for the photosynthetic apparatus. In addition, increased amounts of flavonoids (quercetin glycosides) and constitutive β-carotene and α-tocopherol pools provide antioxidant protection against reactive oxygen species. However, rather than a continuum of plant acclimation responses, principal component analysis indicates clusters of metabolic states across the explored 1,500-km-long latitudinal gradient. This study emphasizes the physiological component of plant responses to latitudinal gradients and reveals the physiological plasticity that may act to complement genetic adaptations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Color models of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.; Nelson, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The evidence for a three-valued 'color' degree of freedom in hadron physics is reviewed. The structure of color models is discussed. Consequences of color models for elementary particle physics are discussed, including saturation properties of hadronic states, π 0 →2γ and related decays, leptoproduction, and lepton pair annihilation. Signatures are given which distinguish theories with isolated colored particles from those in which color is permanently bound. (Auth.)

  7. The weight of color

    OpenAIRE

    Brunberg, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the weight of color, with the focus lying on the symbolic significance ofcolor. Exploring whether color in itself conveys symbolic significance and is the symbolicsignificance of color permanent, or is it an after construction? It will be looking at differentareas such as what makes us humans able to perceive colors in the first place, beginning withan insight at some of the foundations in the area of color theory. Mentioning experiments ondecomposed white light, that cont...

  8. Photoresponsive Smart Coloration Electrochromic Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Tae Gwang; Kim, Donghyuk; Kim, Yong Ho; Park, Minkyu; Hyun, Seungmin; Han, Seung Min

    2017-08-01

    Electrochromic devices have been widely adopted in energy saving applications by taking advantage of the electrode coloration, but it is critical to develop a new electrochromic device that can undergo smart coloration and can have a wide spectrum in transmittance in response to input light intensity while also functioning as a rechargeable energy storage system. In this study, a photoresponsive electrochromic supercapacitor based on cellulose-nanofiber/Ag-nanowire/reduced-graphene-oxide/WO 3 -composite electrode that is capable of undergoing "smart" reversible coloration while simultaneously functioning as a reliable energy-storage device is developed. The fabricated device exhibits a high coloration efficiency of 64.8 cm 2 C -1 and electrochemical performance with specific capacitance of 406.0 F g -1 , energy/power densities of 40.6-47.8 Wh kg -1 and 6.8-16.9 kW kg -1 . The electrochromic supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycle reliability, where 75.0% and 94.1% of its coloration efficiency and electrochemical performance is retained, respectively, beyond 10 000 charge-discharge cycles. Cyclic fatigue tests show that the developed device is mechanically durable and suitable for wearable electronics applications. The smart electrochromic supercapacitor system is then integrated with a solar sensor to enable photoresponsive coloration where the transmittance changes in response to varying light intensity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Wood Colorization through Pressure Treating: The Potential of Extracted Colorants from Spalting Fungi as a Replacement for Woodworkers’ Aniline Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C. Robinson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular colorants produced by Chlorociboria aeruginosa, Scytalidium cuboideum, and Scytalidium ganodermophthorum, three commonly utilized spalting fungi, were tested against a standard woodworker’s aniline dye to determine if the fungal colorants could be utilized in an effort to find a naturally occurring replacement for the synthetic dye. Fungal colorants were delivered in two methods within a pressure treater—the first through solubilization of extracted colorants in dichloromethane, and the second via liquid culture consisting of water, malt, and the actively growing fungus. Visual external evaluation of the wood test blocks showed complete surface coloration of all wood species with all colorants, with the exception of the green colorant (xylindein from C. aeruginosa in liquid culture, which did not produce a visible surface color change. The highest changes in external color came from noble fir, lodgepole pine, port orford cedar and sugar maple with aniline dye, cottonwood with the yellow colorant in liquid culture, lodgepole pine with the red colorant in liquid culture, red alder and Oregon maple with the green colorant in dichloromethane, and sugar maple and port orford cedar with the yellow colorant in dichloromethane. The aniline dye was superior to the fungal colorants in terms of internal coloration, although none of the tested compounds were able to completely visually color the inside of the test blocks.

  10. Seahawk: An Advanced Cubesat Mission for Sustained Ocean Color Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John M.; Jeffrey, Hazel; Gorter, Hessel; Anderson, Pamela; Clark, Craig; Holmes, Alan; Feldman, Gene C.; Pratt, Frederick S.

    2016-01-01

    Sustained ocean color monitoring is vital to understanding the marine ecosystem. It has been identified as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV) and is a vital parameter in understanding long-term climate change. Furthermore, observations can be beneficial in observing oil spills, harmful algal blooms and the health of fisheries. Space-based remote sensing, through MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS instruments, have provided a means of observing the vast area covered by the ocean which would otherwise be impossible using ships alone. However, the large pixel size makes measurements of lakes, rivers, estuaries and coastal zones difficult. Furthermore, retirement of a number of widely used and relied upon ocean observation instruments, particularly MERIS and SeaWiFS, leaves a significant gap in ocean color observation opportunities. This paper presents an overview of the SeaHawk mission, a collaborative effort between Clyde Space Ltd., the University of North Carolina Wilmington, Cloudland Instruments, and Goddard Spaceflight Center, funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. The goal of the project is to enhance the ability to observe ocean color in high temporal and spatial resolution through use of a low-cost, next-generation ocean color sensor flown aboard a CubeSat. The final product will be 530 times smaller (0.0034 vs 1.81cu m) and 115 time less massive (3.4 vs 390.0 kg) but with a ground resolution 10 times better whilst maintaining a signal/noise ratio 50 that of SeaWiFs. This paper will describe the objectives of the mission, outline the payload specification and the spacecraft platform to support it.

  11. Does Leave Work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heleen van Luijn; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2004-01-01

    More and more people have to combine work and care responsibilities, and work part-time or use daycare and after-school care facilities to help them do so. The Work and Care Act, which came into force on 1 December 2001, combined all the existing schemes - such as parental and maternity leave -

  12. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  13. Coloring mixed hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Voloshin, Vitaly I

    2002-01-01

    The theory of graph coloring has existed for more than 150 years. Historically, graph coloring involved finding the minimum number of colors to be assigned to the vertices so that adjacent vertices would have different colors. From this modest beginning, the theory has become central in discrete mathematics with many contemporary generalizations and applications. Generalization of graph coloring-type problems to mixed hypergraphs brings many new dimensions to the theory of colorings. A main feature of this book is that in the case of hypergraphs, there exist problems on both the minimum and th

  14. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  15. Characteristics of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Arctic outflow in the Fram Strait: Assessing the changes and fate of terrigenous CDOM in the Arctic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granskog, M.A.; Stedmon, C.A.; Dodd, P.A.; Amon, R.M.W.; Pavlov, A.K.; de Steur, L.; Hansen, E.

    2012-01-01

    Absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured together with salinity, delta O-18, and inorganic nutrients across the Fram Strait. A pronounced CDOM absorption maximum between 30 and 120 m depth was associated with river and sea ice brine enriched water,

  16. Preferred skin color enhancement for photographic color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2011-01-01

    Skin tones are the most important colors among the memory color category. Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the color preference of skin color reproduction. Several methods to morph skin colors to a smaller preferred skin color region has been reported in the past. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to further improve the result of skin color enhancement. An ellipsoid skin color model is applied to compute skin color probabilities for skin color detection and to determine a weight for skin color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers determined through psychophysical experiments were applied for color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers for dark, medium, and light skin colors are applied to adjust skin colors differently. Skin colors are morphed toward their preferred color centers. A special processing is applied to avoid contrast loss in highlight. A 3-D interpolation method is applied to fix a potential contouring problem and to improve color processing efficiency. An psychophysical experiment validates that the method of preferred skin color enhancement effectively identifies skin colors, improves the skin color preference, and does not objectionably affect preferred skin colors in original images.

  17. A laboratory evaluation of color video monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, P.L.

    1993-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video monitors used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than to identify intruders. There is a growing interest in the identification function of security video systems for both access control and insider protection. Because color video technology is rapidly changing and because color information is useful for identification purposes, Sandia National Laboratories established a program to evaluate the newest relevant color video equipment. This report documents the evaluation of an integral component, color monitors. It briefly discusses a critical parameter, dynamic range, details test procedures, and evaluates the results

  18. A laboratory evaluation of color video monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, P.L.

    1993-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video monitors used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than to identify intruders. There is a growing interest in the identification function of security video systems for both access control and insider protection. Because color video technology is rapidly changing and because color information is useful for identification purposes, Sandia National Laboratories established a program to evaluate the newest relevant color video equipment. This report documents the evaluation of an integral component, color monitors. It briefly discusses a critical parameter, dynamic range, details test procedures, and evaluates the results.

  19. Characteristics of color memory for natural scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Kinjiro; Uchikawa, Keiji; Kuriki, Ichiro

    2002-08-01

    To study the characteristics of color memory for natural images, a memory-identification task was performed with differing color contrasts; three of the contrasts were defined by chromatic and luminance components of the image, and the others were defined with respect to the categorical colors. After observing a series of pictures successively, subjects identified the pictures using a confidence rating. Detection of increased contrasts tended to be harder than detection of decreased contrasts, suggesting that the chromaticness of pictures is enhanced in memory. Detecting changes within each color category was more difficult than across the categories. A multiple mechanism that processes color differences and categorical colors is briefly considered. 2002 Optical Society of America

  20. Drought-induced changes in nitrogen partitioning between cyanide and nitrate in leaves and stems in sorghum grown at elevated CO2 are age dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Möench] is the world’s fifth most important crop, grown for forage, grain, and as a biofuel. Fast growing and drought tolerant, it is considered a climate-change-ready crop. Two free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments at Maricopa, Arizona, USA showed that, like othe...

  1. Working Memory Is Related to Perceptual Processing: A Case from Color Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth C.; Beilock, Sian L.; Shevell, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    We explored the relation between individual differences in working memory (WM) and color constancy, the phenomenon of color perception that allows us to perceive the color of an object as relatively stable under changes in illumination. Successive color constancy (measured by first viewing a colored surface under a particular illumination and…

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... away without suffering an eye injury. However, the natural protective mechanisms of the eye – such as the ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... this month in the New England Journal of Medicine. Unfortunately, this kind of injury is all too ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... 2018 By Dan T. Gudgel Do you know what the difference is between ophthalmologists and optometrists? A ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir ... Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without ...

  8. Facts About Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... color? Normal Human Retina What color is a strawberry? Most of us would say red, but do ... light and shorter wavelength corresponds to blue light. Strawberries and other objects reflect some wavelengths of light ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive ... Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ...

  11. The Difference between Anxiolytic and Anxiogenic Effects Induced by Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Changes in Associative Learning and Memory Based on Color Preference and the Cause of Parkinson-Like Behaviors in Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    Full Text Available We describe an interdisciplinary comparison of the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in terms of their disturbance of light, dark and color preferences and the occurrence of Parkinson-like behavior in zebrafish through computer visual tracking, data mining, and behavioral and physiological analyses. We found that zebrafish in anxiolytic and anxious states, which are induced by acute and chronic repeated alcohol exposure, respectively, display distinct emotional reactions in light/dark preference tests as well as distinct learning and memory abilities in color-enhanced conditional place preference (CPP tests. Additionally, compared with the chronic alcohol (1.0% treatment, acute alcohol exposure had a significant, dose-dependent effect on anxiety, learning and memory (color preference as well as locomotive activities. Acute exposure doses (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% generated an "inverted V" dose-dependent pattern in all of the behavioral parameters, with 1.0% having the greatest effect, while the chronic treatment had a moderate effect. Furthermore, by measuring locomotive activity, learning and memory performance, the number of dopaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and the change in the photoreceptors in the retina, we found that acute and chronic alcohol exposure induced varying degrees of Parkinson-like symptoms in zebrafish. Taken together, these results illuminated the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying the changes associated with learning and memory and the cause of potential Parkinson-like behaviors in zebrafish due to acute and chronic alcohol exposure.

  12. The Difference between Anxiolytic and Anxiogenic Effects Induced by Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Changes in Associative Learning and Memory Based on Color Preference and the Cause of Parkinson-Like Behaviors in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Xu; Li, Yi-Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Di; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    We describe an interdisciplinary comparison of the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in terms of their disturbance of light, dark and color preferences and the occurrence of Parkinson-like behavior in zebrafish through computer visual tracking, data mining, and behavioral and physiological analyses. We found that zebrafish in anxiolytic and anxious states, which are induced by acute and chronic repeated alcohol exposure, respectively, display distinct emotional reactions in light/dark preference tests as well as distinct learning and memory abilities in color-enhanced conditional place preference (CPP) tests. Additionally, compared with the chronic alcohol (1.0%) treatment, acute alcohol exposure had a significant, dose-dependent effect on anxiety, learning and memory (color preference) as well as locomotive activities. Acute exposure doses (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) generated an "inverted V" dose-dependent pattern in all of the behavioral parameters, with 1.0% having the greatest effect, while the chronic treatment had a moderate effect. Furthermore, by measuring locomotive activity, learning and memory performance, the number of dopaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and the change in the photoreceptors in the retina, we found that acute and chronic alcohol exposure induced varying degrees of Parkinson-like symptoms in zebrafish. Taken together, these results illuminated the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying the changes associated with learning and memory and the cause of potential Parkinson-like behaviors in zebrafish due to acute and chronic alcohol exposure.

  13. Estimating chlorophyll content from Eucalyptus dunnii leaves by reflectance values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alexandre Lopes Dranski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate photosynthetic pigments contents from leaves of Eucalyptus dunni Maiden based on values of reflectance spectra of red, green and blue colors obtained with a digital color analyzer. We collected fifty leaves from the lower third of the crown of twenty trees including young as well as mature leaves. From each leaf an area of 14 cm2 of the leaf blade was cut in which we measured reflectance values on the red, green and blue spectra with a portable digital colorimeter, obtained relative index of chlorophyll with a SPAD – 502 and determined the content of the chlorophyll a, b, and a + b by classic method of solvent extraction. We submitted the data to multiple linear regression and nonlinear analysis at 5% of error probability. It was evaluated the occurrence of multicollinearity. The negative exponential model resulted in good fit when data from red spectrum was used for chlorophyll a, green spectrum for chlorophyll b and a + b, making possible correlation coefficients between the estimated values and the extracted above 0.85. Except for the chlorophyll a content, the accuracy in estimates of photosynthetic pigments were higher than estimated by the chlorophyll meter, even with linearity between methods. Therefore, it is possible to estimate photosynthetic pigments on E. dunni leaves through values of red and green wavelengths from a digital color analyser.

  14. Color and experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief review of the color hypothesis and the motivations for its introduction, the experimental tests arare discussed. It is assumed that colored states have not been produced at present energies and only experimental tests which apply below the color threshold, when color is a ''hidden symmetry,'' are discussed. Some of these tests offer the possibility of distinguishing between quark models with fractional and integral quark charges. (auth)

  15. Color ordering in QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster, Theodor

    2013-01-01

    We derive color decompositions of arbitrary tree and one-loop QCD amplitudes into color ordered objects called primitive amplitudes. Furthermore, we derive general fermion flip and reversion identities spanning the null space among the primitive amplitudes and use them to prove that all color ordered tree amplitudes of massless QCD can be written as linear combinations of color ordered tree amplitudes of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory.

  16. Gapless Color-Flavor-Locked Quark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alford, Mark; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2004-01-01

    In neutral cold quark matter that is sufficiently dense that the strange quark mass M_s is unimportant, all nine quarks (three colors; three flavors) pair in a color-flavor locked (CFL) pattern, and all fermionic quasiparticles have a gap. We argue that as a function of decreasing quark chemical...... potential mu or increasing M_s, there is a quantum phase transition from the CFL phase to a new ``gapless CFL phase'' in which only seven quasiparticles have a gap. The transition occurs where M_s^2/mu is approximately equal to 2*Delta, with Delta the gap parameter. Gapless CFL, like CFL, leaves unbroken...... a linear combination Qtilde of electric and color charges, but it is a Qtilde-conductor with a nonzero electron density. These electrons and the gapless quark quasiparticles make the low energy effective theory of the gapless CFL phase and, consequently, its astrophysical properties are qualitatively...

  17. The Cool Colors Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, second from left, a sample from the Cool Colors Project, a roof product ) (Jeff Chiu - AP) more Cool Colors make the front page of The Sacramento Bee (3rd highest circulation newspaper in California) on 14 August 2006! Read the article online or as a PDF. The Cool Colors Project

  18. Developmental Color Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Rosslyn; Little, Angela C.

    1975-01-01

    A sample of 107 subjects including kindergarteners, fifth graders, high school sophomores, parents of kindergarteners, and master artists were presented with a 108-item color perception test to investigate surface color perception at these age levels. A set of surface color perception rules was generated. (GO)

  19. Computing color categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to develop a coherent framework for understanding, modeling, and computing color categories. The main assumption is that the structure of color category systems originates from the statistical structure of the perceived color environment. This environment can be modeled as

  20. Computational Cognitive Color Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftcioglu, O.; Bittermann, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehension of aesthetical color characteristics based on a computational model of visual perception and color cognition are presented. The computational comprehension is manifested by the machine’s capability of instantly assigning appropriate colors to the objects perceived. They form a scene

  1. ColorTracker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzheu, Stefanie; Lee, S.; Herneoja, Aulikki; Österlund, Toni; Markkanen, Piia

    2016-01-01

    With the work-in-progress research project ColorTracker we explore color as a formal design tool. This project-based paper describes a novel software application that processes color composition of a place and transcribes the data into three-dimensional geometries for architectural design. The

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far ... Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored ...

  3. Characteristics of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Arctic outflow in the Fram Strait: Assessing the changes and fate of terrigenous CDOM in the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Granskog, M.A.; Stedmon, C.A.; Dodd, P.A.; Amon, R.M.W.; Pavlov, A.K.; de Steur, L.; Hansen, E.

    2012-01-01

    Absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured together with salinity, delta O-18, and inorganic nutrients across the Fram Strait. A pronounced CDOM absorption maximum between 30 and 120 m depth was associated with river and sea ice brine enriched water, characteristic of the Arctic mixed layer and upper halocline waters in the East Greenland Current (EGC). The lowest CDOM concentrations were found in the Atlantic inflow. We show that the salinity-CDOM relati...

  4. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    OpenAIRE

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12–14% of the ge...

  5. Comparative proteomic analysis of oil palm leaves infected with Ganoderma boninense revealed changes in proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and immunity and defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery Daim, Leona Daniela; Ooi, Tony Eng Keong; Ithnin, Nalisha; Mohd Yusof, Hirzun; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2015-08-01

    The basidiomycete fungal pathogen Ganoderma boninense is the causative agent for the incurable basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm. This disease causes significant annual crop losses in the oil palm industry. Currently, there is no effective method for disease control and elimination, nor is any molecular marker for early detection of the disease available. An understanding of how BSR affects protein expression in plants may help identify and/or assist in the development of an early detection protocol. Although the mode of infection of BSR disease is primarily via the root system, defense-related genes have been shown to be expressed in both the root and leafs. Thus, to provide an insight into the changes in the global protein expression profile in infected plants, comparative 2DE was performed on leaf tissues sampled from palms with and without artificial inoculation of the Ganoderma fungus. Comparative 2DE revealed that 54 protein spots changed in abundance. A total of 51 protein spots were successfully identified by LC-QTOF MS/MS. The majority of these proteins were those involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism as well as immunity and defense. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A Review of the Characteristics of Small-Leaved Lime (Tilia cordata Mill. and Their Implications for Silviculture in a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanguy De Jaegere

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tilia cordata Mill. is a minor European broadleaved species with a wide but scattered distribution. Given its scarcity and low value in the wood market, it has received little attention from researchers and forest managers. This review summarizes the main aspects of T. cordata ecology and growth. Its main limiting factor is its need for warm summer temperatures to ensure successful seed production. It has a height growth pattern relatively similar to that of Acer pseudoplatanus L., with a slight delay in the early stages. Yield tables report great productivity, especially in eastern Europe. T. cordata used to be a major species in Europe, in contrast to its present distribution, but it is very likely to receive renewed interest in the future. Indeed, with the potential change of competition between species in some regions and the need for important diversification in others, T. cordata may play an important role in forest adaptation to climate change, especially owing to its wide ecological tolerance and its numerous ecosystem services. It is necessary to increase our knowledge about its regeneration and its responses to environmental and silvicultural factors, to establish clear management recommendations.

  7. Scanning Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1988-01-01

    A confocal color laser microscope which utilizes a three color laser light source (Red: He-Ne, Green: Ar, Blue: Ar) has been developed and is finding useful applications in the semiconductor field. The color laser microscope, when compared to a conventional microscope, offers superior color separation, higher resolution, and sharper contrast. Recently some new functions including a Focus Scan Memory, a Surface Profile Measurement System, a Critical Dimension Measurement system (CD) and an Optical Beam Induced Current Function (OBIC) have been developed for the color laser microscope. This paper will discuss these new features.

  8. Development of colored alumilite dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Yagi, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Yokoo, Noriko [Radiation Application Development Association, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    In the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), in-vessel components such as blanket and divertor, which are installed in the vacuum vessel of the ITER, are maintained by remote handling equipment (RH equipment). The RH equipment for maintenance is operated under sever environmental conditions, such as high temperature (50{approx}100 degC), high gamma-ray radiation ({approx}1 kGy/h) in an atmosphere of inert gas or vacuum; therefore many components of the RH equipment must have a suitable radiation resistance efficiency for long time operation (10{approx}100 MGy). Typical components of the RH equipment have been extensively tested under an intensive gamma-ray radiation. Monitoring of the radiation dose of the components of the RH equipment is essential to control the operation period of the RH equipment considering radiation resistance. However, the maximum measurable radiation dose of the conventional dosimeters, such as ionization chamber, liquid, glass and plastic dosimeters are limited to be approximately 1MGy which is too low to monitor the RH equipment for the ITER. In addition, these conventional dosimeters do not involve sufficient radiation resistance against the high gamma-ray radiation as well as are not easy handling and low cost. Based on the above backgrounds, a new dosimeter with bleaching of an azo group dye to be applied to a radiation monitor has been developed for high gamma-ray radiation use. The colored alumilite dosimeter is composed of the azo group dye (-N=N-) in an anodic oxidation layer of aluminum alloy (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). It can monitor the radiation dose by measuring the change of the bleaching of azo dye in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer due to gamma-ray irradiation. The degree of bleaching is measured as the change of hue (color) and brightness based on the Munsell's colors with a three dimensional universe using spectrophotometer. In the tests, the dependencies such as colors, anodized layer thickness, type of azo

  9. Employer Provisions for Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenheimer, Joseph R., II

    1989-01-01

    Slightly more than one-third of full-time employees in medium and large firms in private industry were covered by maternity- or paternity-leave policies; days off were usually leave without pay. (Author)

  10. Characterization of Angle Dependent Color Travel of Printed Multi-Color Effect Pigment on Different Color Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirica Karlovits

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Color-travel pigments, which exhibit much more extensive color change as well provide angle-dependent optical effect can be used in many industrial products. In present paper the multi-color effect pigment printed on three different foils with different background color (black, silver and transparent was investigated. The pigment was based on synthetically produced transparent silicon dioxide platelets coated with titanium dioxide. CIEL*a*b* values and reflection of prints were measured by multi-angle spectrophotometer at constant illumination at an angle of 45º and different viewing angles (-15º, 15°, 25º, 45º, 75º and 110º were used. The measurements of printed multi-color pigment showed that CIEL*a*b* color coordinates varied to great extents, depending on detection angles as well on color of the printing substrate. The study revealed that pigmnet printed on black background obtained significant change in color. The study has also shown that when viewing angle increases, the reflection curves decreases.

  11. Harnessing color vision for visual oximetry in central cyanosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changizi, Mark; Rio, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Central cyanosis refers to a bluish discoloration of the skin, lips, tongue, nails, and mucous membranes, and is due to poor arterial oxygenation. Although skin color is one of its characteristic properties, it has long been realized that by the time skin color signs become visible, oxygen saturation is dangerously low. Here we investigate the visibility of cyanosis in light of recent discoveries on what color vision evolved for in primates. We elucidate why low arterial oxygenation is visible at all, why it is perceived as blue, and why it can be so difficult to perceive. With a better understanding of the relationship between color vision and blood physiology, we suggest two simple techniques for greatly enhancing the clinician's ability to detect cyanosis and other clinical color changes. The first is called "skin-tone adaptation", wherein sheets, gowns, walls and other materials near a patient have a color close to that of the patient's skin, thereby optimizing a color-normal viewer's ability to sense skin color modulations. The second technique is called "biosensor color tabs", wherein adhesive tabs with a color matching the patient's skin tone are placed in several spots on the skin, and subsequent skin color changes have the effect of making the initially-invisible tabs change color, their hue and saturation indicating the direction and magnitude of the skin color shift.

  12. Laser-evoked coloration in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, H.Y.; Rosseinsky, David; Lim, G.C.

    2005-01-01

    Laser-evoked coloration in polymers has long been a major aim of polymer technology for potential applications in product surface decoration, marking personalised images and logos. However, the coloration results reported so far were mostly attributed to laser-induced thermal-chemical reactions. The laser-irradiated areas are characterized with grooves due to material removal. Furthermore, only single color was laser-induced in any given polymer matrix. To induce multiple colors in a given polymer matrix with no apparent surface material removal is most desirable and challenging and may be achieved through laser-induced photo-chemical reactions. However, little public information is available at present. We report that two colors of red and green have been produced on an initially transparent CPV/PVA samples through UV laser-induced photo-chemical reactions. This is believed the first observation of laser-induced multiple-colors in the given polymer matrix. It is believed that the colorants underwent photo-effected electron transfer with suitable electron donors from the polymers to change from colorless bipyridilium Bipm 2+ to the colored Bipm + species. The discovery may lead to new approaches to the development of laser-evoked multiple coloration in polymers

  13. In-Orbit Vicarious Calibration for Ocean Color and Aerosol Products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Menghua

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that, to accurately retrieve the spectrum of the water-leaving radiance and derive the ocean color products from satellite sensors, a vicarious calibration procedure, which performs...

  14. Relating color working memory and color perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Sarah R; Flombaum, Jonathan I

    2014-11-01

    Color is the most frequently studied feature in visual working memory (VWM). Oddly, much of this work de-emphasizes perception, instead making simplifying assumptions about the inputs served to memory. We question these assumptions in light of perception research, and we identify important points of contact between perception and working memory in the case of color. Better characterization of its perceptual inputs will be crucial for elucidating the structure and function of VWM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2002-01-01

    Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'*) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that, since last year, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2002 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they are still participants in the schem...

  16. Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22 B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the ...

  17. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo eUccula

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e. who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g. color, shape or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.

  18. For fashion and health (coloring of gems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Iwao

    1998-01-01

    Artificial coloration of colorless jewel grade diamonds can be made by fast neutron irradiation using a research reactor or high energy electron beam bombardment by a linear accelerator. The irradiated color diamonds are from blue to green. After irradiation, the blue-green diamonds change color to yellow or orange by subsequent annealing using an electric furnace. The colored diamond hue depends on the treatment conditions. Fancy hue can be produced under some suitable conditions. Some special absorption bands in the spectrum obtained by a spectrophotometer can discriminate artificially colored diamonds from natural fancy color diamonds. Diamonds become to be radioactive immediately after irradiation by a reactor, but the radioactivity decay rapidly and become safe after a month. Some imported gems without diamond as blue topaz etc. are sometimes discovered to be radioactive artificially. Cultured pearls are covered by 0.4 mm thick nacreous layer on the pearl nucleus made of fresh-water unionidae thick shell. White pearls turn color to silver by 60 Co γ-ray irradiation. The pearl nucleus contained Mn turns color to brown by irradiation and absorbs red light from reflection on the surface, whereas the nacreous layer is little color change by irradiation because of small quantity of Mn and remains the luster. White pearls turn beautiful blue-silver of like natural color pearls seemingly, by γ-ray irradiation in suitable solution. Cubic zirconia made from ZrO 2 is a man-made colorless crystal looked like a diamond. The crystals turn color to orange by irradiation. (J.P.N)

  19. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  20. Coloring of Topaz After Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, S.; Helal, A.I.; Gomaa, M.A.M.; Abou-Salem, L.I.; Nafie, H.; Badawi, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Raw topaz stone samples are subjected to irradiation by neutrons from the Egyptian research reactor and by γ rays from a gamma source. Changes in the color of the stones are observed which can be attributed to the formation of defects in the structure of the stones. The defects can absorb certain wave length which is observed as a change in the stone color .The absorption of light is investigated by an optical spectrophotometer technique at different irradiation and heating conditions. Raman studies of topaz stones showed a relation between the color changes with changes in the intensities of the band of scattered peaks corresponding to OH group stretching modes of vibration.Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) technique is used to study the behavior of defect concentration in topaz in two states; pure and irradiated stones by neutrons and γ. It has been shown that positrons are trapped in imperfect locations in topaz samples and their mean lifetime can be influenced by changes in the concentration of such defects.

  1. Parental leave and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhm, C J

    2000-11-01

    This study investigates whether rights to parental leave improve pediatric health. Aggregate data are used for 16 European countries over the 1969 through 1994 period. More generous paid leave is found to reduce deaths of infants and young children. The magnitudes of the estimated effects are substantial, especially where a causal effect of leave is most plausible. In particular, there is a much stronger negative relationship between leave durations and post-neonatal or child fatalities than for perinatal mortality, neonatal deaths, or low birth weight. The evidence further suggests that parental leave may be a cost-effective method of bettering child health.

  2. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    of long-term sick leave. Method Data from 508 employed pregnant women seeking antenatal care was collected by questionnaires from August 2015 to March 2016. The questionnaires, which were filled in at 20 and 32 weeks of gestation, provided information on maternal characteristics, the number of days spent...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  3. Maternal Employment Effects of Paid Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Bergemann, Annette; Riphahn, Regina T.

    2015-01-01

    We study the short, medium, and longer run employment effects of a substantial change in the parental leave benefit program in Germany. In 2007, a means-tested parental leave transfer program that had paid benefits for up to two years was replaced by an earnings related transfer which paid benefits for up to one year. The reform generated winners and losers with heterogeneous response incentives. We find that the reform speeds up the labor market return of both groups of mothers after benefit...

  4. An insect with selective control of egg coloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Paul K; Guerra-Grenier, Eric; Després-Einspenner, Marie-Lyne; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Boivin, Guy; Brodeur, Jacques

    2015-08-03

    The color and patterning of animal eggs has important consequences for offspring survival. There are examples of between-species and polymorphic differences in egg coloration in birds and amphibians [1-3], as well as cases of birds and insects whose nutritional status or age can cause within-individual variation in egg pigmentation [4-6]. However, no studies to date have demonstrated that individual animals can selectively control the color of their eggs. Here, we show that individual females of the predatory stink bug Podisus maculiventris can control the pigmentation of their eggs during oviposition, as a response to environmental conditions. The color of egg masses produced by individual females can range from pale yellow to dark black/brown. Females tend to lay darker eggs, which are more resistant to UV radiation, on the upper surface of leaves where UV exposure is highest in nature. Conversely, they lay lighter eggs on the undersides of leaves. However, egg color is not determined by the intensity of UV radiation falling on the surface where they are laid. Rather, female stink bugs appear to use a visual assessment of oviposition substrate reflectance to determine egg color. Unexpectedly, biochemical analyses revealed that the egg pigment is not melanin, the most ubiquitous light-absorbing pigment in animals. Our study offers the first example of an animal able to selectively control the color of its eggs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Urban trees and light-colored surfaces as a climate change strategy: Results from the US and potential in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, H.; Sathaye, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the impact of two strategies in an urban environment for effecting substantial energy savings. They are the use of light colored materials on roofing and other flat surfaces, and the planting of additional trees. The lighter colored roofing materials will reflect more solar heat, resulting in lowered air conditioning costs. The additional trees will provide more shading, thereby increasing comfort, and will act as an aid in dropping the ambient temperature by means of evapotranspiration through the leaf systems. Both of these effects will reduce the direct energy inputs leading to air conditioning loads in an urban setting, and indirectly they will have an impact on urban smog though the lowered ambient temperature. The authors also discuss the applications of these ideas in developing countries, where often building energy costs can consume half of developed electrical capacity, and which tend to be in warmer climates. The density of many major urban areas in developing countries make the use of trees much harder to implement.

  6. The Sorghum Gene for Leaf Color Changes upon Wounding (P Encodes a Flavanone 4-Reductase in the 3-Deoxyanthocyanidin Biosynthesis Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kawahigashi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon wounding or pathogen invasion, leaves of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] plants with the P gene turn purple, whereas leaves with the recessive allele turn brown or tan. This purple phenotype is determined by the production of two 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, apigeninidin and luteolinidin, which are not produced by the tan-phenotype plants. Using map-based cloning in progeny from a cross between purple Nakei-MS3B (PP and tan Greenleaf (pp cultivars, we isolated this gene, which was located in a 27-kb genomic region around the 58.1 Mb position on chromosome 6. Four candidate genes identified in this region were similar to the maize leucoanthocyanidin reductase gene. None of them was expressed before wounding, and only the Sb06g029550 gene was induced in both cultivars after wounding. The Sb06g029550 protein was detected in Nakei-MS3B, but only slightly in Greenleaf, in which it may be unstable because of a Cys252Tyr substitution. A recombinant Sb06g029550 protein had a specific flavanone 4-reductase activity, and converted flavanones (naringenin or eriodictyol to flavan-4-ols (apiforol or luteoforol in vitro. Our data indicate that the Sb06g029550 gene is involved in the 3-deoxyanthocyanidin synthesis pathway.

  7. Laser color recording unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  8. Tentative characterization of precursor compounds and co-factors of pigment formation in production of 'wu mi' from Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Mingcong; Fan, Yihui; Huang, Weiping; Wang, Li; Li, Yan; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang

    2018-10-01

    Vaccinium bracteatum leaves (VBTL) are traditionally used in China to dye rice grains, which assume a deep blue color, named 'Wu mi'. Information on the mechanism of pigment formation is limited. In this study, CIELAB color space parameters were used to represent the color of 'Wu mi'. Precursor compounds of pigments formed during the dyeing process were identified by UPLC Q-TOF MS analysis. The changes in co-factors for pigment formation in VBTL were measured at different growth stages. The L ∗ and b ∗ values of dyed rice increased as the leaves aged, whereas a ∗ values showed irregular changes. Six compounds were tentatively identified as pigment precursors by UPLC Q-TOF MS analysis. The pH and β-glucosidase activity at different growth stages of VBTL were indicated to be crucial co-factors for pigment formation. A tentative hypothesis is presented that iridoid glycosides are hydrolyzed by acids and β-glucosidases to form a dialdehyde structure that binds covalently with amino residues of lysine side chains in rice protein molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Color constancy by characterization of illumination chromaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkanen, Jarno T.

    2011-05-01

    Computational color constancy algorithms play a key role in achieving desired color reproduction in digital cameras. Failure to estimate illumination chromaticity correctly will result in invalid overall colour cast in the image that will be easily detected by human observers. A new algorithm is presented for computational color constancy. Low computational complexity and low memory requirement make the algorithm suitable for resource-limited camera devices, such as consumer digital cameras and camera phones. Operation of the algorithm relies on characterization of the range of possible illumination chromaticities in terms of camera sensor response. The fact that only illumination chromaticity is characterized instead of the full color gamut, for example, increases robustness against variations in sensor characteristics and against failure of diagonal model of illumination change. Multiple databases are used in order to demonstrate the good performance of the algorithm in comparison to the state-of-the-art color constancy algorithms.

  10. Rotation Invariant Color Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Swapna Borde; Udhav Bhosle

    2013-01-01

    The new technique for image retrieval using the color features extracted from images based on LogHistogram is proposed. The proposed technique is compared with Global color histogram and histogram ofcorners .It has been observed that number of histogram bins used for retrieval comparison of proposedtechnique (Log Histogram)is less as compared to Global Color Histogram and Histogram of corners. Theexperimental results on a database of 792 images with 11 classes indicate that proposed method (L...

  11. Colored fused filament fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Haichuan; Lefebvre, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Filament fused fabrication is the method of choice for printing 3D models at low cost, and is the de-facto standard for hobbyists, makers and schools. Unfortunately, filament printers cannot truly reproduce colored objects. The best current techniques rely on a form of dithering exploiting occlusion, that was only demonstrated for shades of two base colors and that behaves differently depending on surface slope. We explore a novel approach for 3D printing colored objects, capable of creating ...

  12. Tuning the Colors of the Dark Isomers of Photochromic Boron Compounds with Fluoride Ions: Four-State Color Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellerup, Soren K; Rao, Ying-Li; Amarne, Hazem; Wang, Suning

    2016-09-02

    Combining a three-coordinated boron (BMes2) moiety with a four-coordinated photochromic organoboron unit leads to a series of new diboron compounds that undergo four-state reversible color switching in response to stimuli of light, heat, and fluoride ions. Thus, these hybrid diboron systems allow both convenient color tuning/switching of such photochromic systems, as well as visual fluoride sensing by color or fluorescent emission color change.

  13. Full color camouflage in a printable photonic blue-colored polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moirangthem, M.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.

    2018-01-01

    A blue reflective photonic polymer coating which can be patterned in full color, from blue to red, by printing with an aqueous calcium nitrate solution has been fabricated. Color change in the cholesteric liquid-crystalline polymer network over the entire visible spectrum is obtained by the use of

  14. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel, Ann P.; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides quasi-experimental evidence on the impact of paid leave legislation on fathers' leave-taking, as well as on the division of leave between mothers and fathers in dual-earner households. Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, which is the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the United States. Our results show that fathers in Califo...

  15. Realtime Color Stereovision Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Formwalt, Bryon

    2000-01-01

    .... This research takes a step forward in real time machine vision processing. It investigates techniques for implementing a real time stereovision processing system using two miniature color cameras...

  16. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Anne P; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the Unites States. Relative to the pre-treatment mean, fathers of infants in California are 46 percent more likely to be on leave when CA-PFL is available. In households where both parents work, we find suggestive evidence that CA-PFL increases both father-only leave-taking (i.e., father on leave while mother is at work) and joint leave-taking (i.e., both parents on leave at the same time). Effects are larger for fathers of first-born children than for fathers of later-born children.

  17. Behind School Doors: The Impact of Hostile Racial Climates on Urban Teachers of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Rita

    2018-01-01

    Despite recruitment efforts, teachers of Color are underrepresented and leaving the teaching force at faster rates than their White counterparts. Using Critical Race Theory to analyze and present representative qualitative narratives from 218 racial justice-oriented, urban teachers of color, this article affirms that urban schools--despite serving…

  18. Coping Strategies for Students of Color in a Predominantly White College: Voices from the Alumni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Faith; Burrell, Marcia; Hampton, Bonita

    2011-01-01

    University students in general experience stressful situations once they leave home and begin to adjust to the new life on a college campus with its related academic and social demands. However, students of color often have the additional burden of coping with race-related stress. Data from a focus group interview with 18 alumni of color, found…

  19. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and "real" colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstis, Stuart; Vergeer, Mark; Van Lier, Rob

    2012-09-06

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The color of the afterimage depends on two adapting colors, those both inside and outside the test. Here, we further explore this phenomenon and show that the color-contour interactions shown for afterimage colors also occur for "real" colors. We argue that similar mechanisms apply for both types of stimulation.

  20. Alterações anatômicas em folhas e raízes de Jatropha curcas L. cultivadas sob estresse salino Anatomical changes in the leaves and roots of Jatropha curcas L. cultivated under saline stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemima Manço de Melo

    2011-09-01

    transferred to pots with a capacity of 5 liters, the test was conducted in a greenhouse. After 21 days of germination, the plants were subjected to the following saline treatments: 25; 50; 75; 100; 150 and 200 mM NaCl, and the control (0 mM NaCl in a randomized design with five replicates per treatment. At the end of the 32 days of treatment, the third leaf and roots measuring approximately 5 cm in length, were collected and fixed in FAA 50. Transverse sections from the leaves middle portion and the middle region of the root were cut and stained with safrablau. Were observed the reduction in xylem and phloem leaf cells and changes in their distribution as a function of increasing concentrations of salt in the solution. In roots it was observed that the high salt concentration increased xylem cells and endoderm lignification and reduced diameter and number of vessel elements. Thus, the species studied has considerable anatomical changes in leaves and roots when grown under high salt concentrations.

  1. Encyclopedia of color science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of color to all fields of science and technology, including artistic and historical aspects of color. Many topics are discussed in this timely reference, including an introduction to the science of color, and entries on the physics, chemistry and perception of color. Color is described as it relates to optical phenomena of color and continues on through colorants and materials used to modulate color and also to human vision of color. The measurement of color is provided as is colorimetry, color spaces, color difference metrics, color appearance models, color order systems and cognitive color. Other topics discussed include industrial color, color imaging, capturing color, displaying color and printing color. Descriptions of color encodings, color management, processing color and applications relating to color synthesis for computer graphics are included in this work. The Encyclo...

  2. Characteristics of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Arctic outflow in Fram Strait: assessing the changes and fate of terrigenous CDOM in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granskog, M.A.; Stedmon, Colin; Dodd, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured together with salinity, δ18O, and inorganic nutrients across the Fram Strait. A pronounced CDOM absorption maximum between 30 and 120 m depth was associated with river and sea ice brine enriched water, characteristic...... of the Arctic mixed layer and upper halocline waters in the East Greenland Current (EGC). The lowest CDOM concentrations were found in the Atlantic inflow. We show that the salinity-CDOM relationship is not suitable for evaluating conservative mixing of CDOM. The strong correlation between meteoric water...... and CDOM is indicative of the riverine/terrigenous origin of CDOM in the EGC. Based on CDOM absorption in Polar Water and comparison with an Arctic river discharge weighted mean, we estimate that a 49–59% integrated loss of CDOM absorption across 250–600 nm has occurred. A preferential removal...

  3. Distilling two-center-interference information during tunneling of aligned molecules with orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F.; Chen, Y. J.; Xin, G. G.; Liu, J.; Fu, L. B.

    2017-12-01

    When electrons tunnel through a barrier formed by the strong laser field and the two-center potential of a diatomic molecule, a double-slit-like interference can occur. However, this interference effect can not be probed directly right now, as it is strongly coupled with other dynamical processes during tunneling. Here, we show numerically and analytically that orthogonally polarized two-color (OTC) laser fields are capable of resolving the interference effect in tunneling, while leaving clear footprints of this effect in photoelectron momentum distributions. Moreover, this effect can be manipulated by changing the relative field strength of OTC fields.

  4. Integrated color face graphs for plant accident display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Fumio

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated man-machine interface that uses cartoon-like colored graphs in the form of faces, that, through different facial expressions, display a plant condition. This is done by drawing the face on a CRT by nonlinearly transforming 31 variables and coloring the face. This integrated color graphics technique is applied to display the progess of events in the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. Human visual perceptive characteristics are investigated in relation to the perception of the plant accident process, the naturality in face color change, and the consistency between facial expressions and colors. This paper concludes that colors used in an integrated color face graphs must be completely consistent with emotional feelings perceived from the colors. (author)

  5. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  6. Millennial Teachers of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, Mary E., Ed.

    2018-01-01

    "Millennial Teachers of Color" explores the opportunities and challenges for creating and sustaining a healthy teaching force in the United States. Millennials are the largest generational cohort in American history, with approximately ninety million members and, of these, roughly 43 percent are people of color. This book, edited by…

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  8. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  9. On color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1989-10-01

    A quantum mechanical treatment of high momentum transfer nuclear processes is presented. Color transparency, the suppression of initial and final state interaction effects, is shown to arise from using the closure approximation. New conditions for the appearance of color transparency are derived

  10. Color and magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.R.

    1976-01-01

    Schwinger's conjecture that the color degree of freedom of a quark is equivalent to its degree of freedom of taking different magnetic charges provides a plausible motivation for extending color to leptons. Leptons are just quarks with zero magnetic charges. It is shown that baryon number and lepton number can be replaced by fermion number and magnetic charge

  11. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  12. The Color of Lobsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Arjan van

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of 13C-enriched carotenoids. Carotenoids are natural colorants, ranging in color from pale yellow to deep purple, with important biological functions. Carotenoids in the human diet have a beneficial health effect, playing a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. To

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the FDA? Check the FDA's database of approved contact lenses . Related Stories Prevent Infection ...

  14. Perceptually optimal color reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Blommaert, F.J.J.; Ridder, de H.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    1998-01-01

    What requirements do people place on optimal color reproduction of real-life scenes? We suggest that when people look at images containing familiar categories of objects, two primary factors shape their subjective impression of how optimal colors are reproduced: perceived naturalness and perceived

  15. Image color reduction method for color-defective observers using a color palette composed of 20 particular colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a color enhancement method that uses a color palette especially designed for protan and deutan defects, commonly known as red-green color blindness. The proposed color reduction method is based on a simple color mapping. Complicated computation and image processing are not required by using the proposed method, and the method can replace protan and deutan confusion (p/d-confusion) colors with protan and deutan safe (p/d-safe) colors. Color palettes for protan and deutan defects proposed by previous studies are composed of few p/d-safe colors. Thus, the colors contained in these palettes are insufficient for replacing colors in photographs. Recently, Ito et al. proposed a p/dsafe color palette composed of 20 particular colors. The author demonstrated that their p/d-safe color palette could be applied to image color reduction in photographs as a means to replace p/d-confusion colors. This study describes the results of the proposed color reduction in photographs that include typical p/d-confusion colors, which can be replaced. After the reduction process is completed, color-defective observers can distinguish these confusion colors.

  16. Color Constancy by Deep Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, Z.; Gevers, T.; Hu, N.; Lucassen, M.P.; Xie, X.; Jones, M.W.; Tam, G.K.L.

    2015-01-01

    Computational color constancy aims to estimate the color of the light source. The performance of many vision tasks, such as object detection and scene understanding, may benefit from color constancy by estimating the correct object colors. Since traditional color constancy methods are based on

  17. Color quarks and octonions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guersey, F.

    1974-01-01

    A mathematical framework based on octonions is developed for the description of the color quark scheme in which quarks are unobservable, the color SU(3) is exact, and only color singlets correspond to observable hadrons. The fictitious Hilbert space in which quarks operate is taken to be a space of vectors with octonion components. This space admits as a gauge group an exact SU(3) identified with the color SU/sub C/(3). Because of the nonassociativity of the underlying algebra, nonsinglet representations of SU/sub C/(3) are unobservable, while the subspace of color singlets satisfies associativity along with conditions for observability. Octonion quark fields satisfy the commutation relations of parafermions of order 3, leading to the correct SU(6) multiplets for hadrons. (U.S.)

  18. Color evaluation of computer-generated color rainbow holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yile; Wang, Hui; Wu, Qiong

    2013-01-01

    A color evaluation approach for computer-generated color rainbow holography (CGCRH) is presented. Firstly, the relationship between color quantities of a computer display and a color computer-generated holography (CCGH) colorimetric system is discussed based on color matching theory. An isochromatic transfer relationship of color quantity and amplitude of object light field is proposed. Secondly, the color reproduction mechanism and factors leading to the color difference between the color object and the holographic image that is reconstructed by CGCRH are analyzed in detail. A quantitative color calculation method for the holographic image reconstructed by CGCRH is given. Finally, general color samples are selected as numerical calculation test targets and the color differences between holographic images and test targets are calculated based on our proposed method. (paper)

  19. Parental Leave Policies and Parents' Employment and Leave-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time span is one…

  20. Revisiting "Color Names and Color Notions": a contemporary examination of the language and attitudes of skin color among young black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, JeffriAnne

    2010-01-01

    Employing the pioneering work of Charles Parrish as a basis of comparison, this study serves as a follow-up to “Color Names and Color Notions” by deconstructing the contemporary language and attitudes surrounding skin color. Nine focus groups with 58 black women between the ages of 18 and 25 reveal that the color names and color notions offered were consistent with many of the terms and stereotypes that Parrish found, thereby indicating that there has been no change in colorist ideology among African Americans. Participants discussed 40 color names regularly employed to describe light, medium, and dark skin tones. The terms and attitudes associated with light skin tones were generally negative; conversely, the terms and attitudes associated with dark skin tones were derogatory. The language and beliefs connected to medium skin tones indicate that colorism operates as a three-tiered structure rather than the traditionally situated binary paradigm.