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Sample records for leaves accumulate high

  1. Characterization of 68Zn uptake, translocation, and accumulation into developing grains and young leaves of high Zn-density rice genotype*

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    Wu, Chun-yong; Feng, Ying; Shohag, Md. Jahidul Islam; Lu, Ling-li; Wei, Yan-yan; Gao, Chong; Yang, Xiao-e

    2011-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for humans, but Zn deficiency has become serious as equally as iron (Fe) and vitamin A deficiencies nowadays. Selection and breeding of high Zn-density crops is a suitable, cost-effective, and sustainable way to improve human health. However, the mechanism of high Zn density in rice grain is not fully understood, especially how Zn transports from soil to grains. Hydroponics experiments were carried out to compare Zn uptake and distribution in two different Zn-density rice genotypes using stable isotope technique. At seedling stage, IR68144 showed higher 68Zn uptake and transport rate to the shoot for the short-term, but no significant difference was observed in both genotypes for the long-term. Zn in xylem sap of IR68144 was consistently higher, and IR68144 exhibited higher Zn absorption ratio than IR64 at sufficient (2.0 µmol/L) or surplus (8.0 µmol/L) Zn supply level. IR64 and IR68144 showed similar patterns of 68Zn accumulation in new leaves at seedling stage and in developing grains at ripening stage, whereas 68Zn in new leaves and grains of IR68144 was consistently higher. These results suggested that a rapid root-to-shoot translocation and enhanced xylem loading capacity may be the crucial processes for high Zn density in rice grains. PMID:21528496

  2. The accumulation and elimination of 89Sr in tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongxi; Wang Shouxiang; Chen Chuanqun; Sun Zhiming; Hu Bingmin; Huang Dan

    1995-01-01

    The 89 Sr was added to the tea tree-soil system by different ways. The 89 Sr in the system through the over-ground part of tea tree, was much more than that through soil. The 89 Sr concentration in older leaves was higher than in shoot for a definite treatment. The accumulation elimination law of 89 Sr in leaves varied with the treatments. For the treatment through the over-ground part, the 89 Sr concentration in older leaves and shoot was monotonously decreased with time increasing. But for the treatment through soil the 89 Sr concentration in shoot was increased to reach a peak value, and then decreased slowly; while the 89 Sr concentration in older leaves increased quickly in a period, then increased slowly to attain a saturated value. In addition, the concentration factor of 89 Sr in older leaves and shoot were determined

  3. Iron deficiency stimulates anthocyanin accumulation in grapevine apical leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramanico, Leila; Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella

    2017-10-01

    Iron chlorosis is a diffuse disorder affecting Mediterranean vineyards. Beside the commonly described symptom of chlorophyll decrease, an apex reddening was recently observed. Secondary metabolites, such as anthocyanins, are often synthetized to cope with stresses in plants. The present work aimed to evaluate grapevine responses to iron deficiency, in terms of anthocyanin metabolism (reflectance spectrum, total anthocyanin content, HPLC profile and gene expression) in apical leaves of Cabernet sauvignon and Sangiovese grown in hydroponic conditions. Iron supply interruption produced after one month an increasing of anthocyanin content associated to a more stable profile in both cultivars. In Cabernet sauvignon, the higher red pigment accumulation was associated to a lower intensity of chlorotic symptoms, while in Sangiovese, despite the activation of the metabolism, the lower anthocyanin accumulation was associated to a stronger decrease in chlorophyll concentration. Gene expression data showed a significant increase of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The effects on the expression of structural and transcription factor genes of phenylpropanoid pathway were cultivar dependent. F3H, F3'H, F3'5'H and LDOX genes, in Cabernet sauvignon, and AOMT1 and AOMT genes, in Sangiovese, were positively affected by the treatment in response to iron deficiency. All data support the hypothesis of an anthocyanin biosynthesis stimulation rather than a decreased degradation of them due to iron chlorosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Accumulation of Flavonoid Glycosides and UFGT Gene Expression in Mulberry Leaves (Morus alba L.) before and after Frost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Yiling; Fan, Jingyi; Wang, Dujun; Gong, Xiaohui; Ouyang, Zhen

    2017-08-01

    In order to determine the molecular mechanism underlying the influence of frost on chemical changes in mulberry leaves, the UFGT activity, expression level, and accumulation of flavonoid glycosides in mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) were studied. The expression of UFGT gene was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and the UFGT activity, accumulation of flavonoid glycosides was studied by high performance liquid chromatography. Then, the correlation between the expression level of UFGT, the UFGT activity, and the flavonoid glycosides accumulation with temperature was explored. The accumulation of isoquercitrin and astragalin is significantly positively correlated with UFGT gene expression and UFGT activity. On the contrary, the average temperature was significantly negatively correlated with the level of UFGT gene expression and UFGT activity. The results show that after frost, low temperature can induce the expression of UFGT gene in mulberry leaves, resulting in the accumulation of flavonoid glycosides. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  5. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Molecular Signatures of Luteoloside Accumulation in Senescing Leaves of Lonicera macranthoides

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    Zexiong Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lonicera macranthoides is an important medicinal plant widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Luteoloside is a critical bioactive compound in L. macranthoides. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying luteoloside biosynthesis are still largely unknown. In this work, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was employed to determine the luteoloside contents in leaves, stems, and flowers at different developmental stages. Results showed that senescing leaves can accumulate large amounts of luteoloside, extremely higher than that in young and semi-lignified leaves and other tissues. RNA-Seq analysis identified that twenty-four differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs associated with luteoloside biosynthesis were significantly up-regulated in senescing leaves, which are positively correlated with luteoloside accumulation. These DEGs include phenylalanine ammonia lyase 2, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase 2, thirteen 4-coumarate-CoA ligases, chalcone synthase 2, six flavonoid 3′-monooxygenase (F3′H and two flavone 7-O-β-glucosyltransferase (UFGT genes. Further analysis demonstrated that two F3′Hs (CL11828.Contig1 and CL11828.Contig2 and two UFGTs (Unigene2918 and Unigene97915 might play vital roles in luteoloside generation. Furthermore, several transcription factors (TFs related to flavonoid biosynthesis including MYB, bHLH and WD40, were differentially expressed during leaf senescence. Among these TFs, MYB12, MYB75, bHLH113 and TTG1 were considered to be key factors involved in the regulation of luteoloside biosynthesis. These findings provide insights for elucidating the molecular signatures of luteoloside accumulation in L. macranthoides.

  6. Study of distribution and differential accumulation of trace elements in plant leaves using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Mutsuo; Takada, Jitsuya; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Katayama, Koshi.

    1983-01-01

    Plant leaves were collected from geologically different forests three times from April to May, from August to September, and from October to November. Although the concentration of inorganic elements showed the constant distribution pattern in the same trees, the distribution pattern was peculiar to plant species and elements. Ia and halogen groups were prominent in herbaceous plants, while IIa group, except for Ba accumulated into pteridophyta, was prominent in woody plants. Of the transition metal elements, Mn was highly accumulated in Tea senensis. The high concentration of Mn was more marked in Araliaceae than in Tea senensis. Specific high concentrations of Fe and Co were noted in Ecephorbiaceae, Zn and Cd in Aquifoliaceae, and Al, rare earth elements and Ra in Gleichenia japonica and Dicranopteris dichotome. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Cadmium accumulation and antioxidative defenses in leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn (Zea Mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ) seedlings were grown in four cadmium (Cd) concentration levels (0 - 1 mg/l) in a hydroponic system to analyze the antioxidant enzyme system, Cd concentration in the shoots and roots of plants, proline contents, growth responses and chlorophyll contents in the leaves of ...

  8. Betacyanin accumulation and guaiacol peroxidase activity in Beta vulgaris L. leaves following copper stress

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    Janet M. León Morales

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of copper stress on betacyanin accumulation and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOD activity in leaves of different age was evaluated in red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. Crosby Egyptian plants. In hydroponic culture, plants were treated with 0.3 μM (control, 50 μM, 100 μM, and 250 μM of CuSO4 for 6 days. Copper was taken up and accumulated in old roots but was not translocated to leaves. However in young leaves, the increase of lipid peroxidation and reduction of growth were evident from day 3 of copper exposure; whereas in old leaves, the lipid peroxidation and growth were the same from either copper-treated or control plants. In response to copper exposure, the betacyanin accumulation was evident in young leaves by day 3, and continued to increase until day 6. Betacyanin only were accumulated in old leaves until day 6, but the contents were from 4 to 5 times lower than those observed in young leaves at the same copper concentrations. GPOD activity increased 3.3- and 1.4-fold in young and old leaves from day 3 of copper treatment respectively, but only in the young leaves was sustained at the same level until day 6. Old roots shown betacyanin in the control plants, but the betacyanin level and growth were reduced with the copper exposure. In contrast, young roots emerged by copper effect also accumulated copper and showed the highest betacyanin content of all plant parts assayed. These results indicate that betacyanin accumulation and GPOD activity are defense responses to copper stress in actively growing organs.

  9. The influence of light quality on the accumulation of flavonoids in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves.

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    Fu, Bo; Ji, Xiaoming; Zhao, Mingqin; He, Fan; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Yiding; Liu, Pengfei; Niu, Lu

    2016-09-01

    Flavonoids are important secondary metabolites in plants regulated by the environment. To analyze the effect of light quality on the accumulation of flavonoids, we performed a rapid analysis of flavonoids in extracts of tobacco leaves using UHPLC-QTOF. A total of 12 flavonoids were detected and identified in tobacco leaves, which were classified into flavonoid methyl derivatives and flavonoid glycoside derivatives according to the groups linked to the flavonoid core. Correlation analysis was further conducted to investigate the effect of different wavelengths of light on their accumulation. The content of flavonoid methyl derivatives was positively correlated with the proportions of far-red light (FR; 716-810nm) and near-infrared light (NIR; 810-2200nm) in the sunlight spectrum and negatively correlated with the proportion of ultraviolet (UV-A; 350-400nm) and the red/far-red ratio (R/FR). By contrast, the content of flavonoid glycoside derivatives was positively correlated with the proportion of UV-A and the R/FR, and negatively correlated with FR and NIR. The results indicated that light quality with higher proportions of FR and NIR increases the activity of flavonoid methyltransferases but suppresses the activity of flavonoid glycoside transferases. While a high proportion of UV-A and a high R/FR can increase flavonoid glycoside transferase activity but suppress flavonoid methyltransferase activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Inter-relationships between light and respiration in the control of ascorbic acid synthesis and accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Carlos G; Yu, Jianping; Gómez, Facundo; Fernández, Laura; McIntosh, Lee; Foyer, Christine H

    2006-01-01

    The effects of growth irradiance and respiration on ascorbic acid (AA) synthesis and accumulation were studied in the leaves of wild-type and transformed Arabidopsis thaliana with modified amounts of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) protein. Plants were grown under low (LL; 50 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)), intermediate (IL; 100 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)), or high (HL; 250 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)) light. Increasing growth irradiance progressively elevated leaf AA content and hence the values of dark-induced disappearance of leaf AA, which were 11, 55, and 89 nmol AA lost g(-1) fresh weight h(-1), from LL-, IL-, and HL-grown leaves, respectively. When HL leaves were supplied with L-galactone-1,4-lactone (L-GalL; the precursor of AA), they accumulated twice as much AA and had double the maximal L-galactone-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (L-GalLDH) activities of LL leaves. Growth under HL enhanced dehydroascorbate reductase and monodehydroascorbate reductase activities. Leaf respiration rates were highest in the HL leaves, which also had higher amounts of cytochrome c and cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) activities, as well as enhanced capacity of the AOX and CCO electron transport pathways. Leaves of the AOX-overexpressing lines accumulated more AA than wild-type or antisense leaves, particularly at HL. Intact mitochondria from AOX-overexpressing lines had higher AA synthesis capacities than those from the wild-type or antisense lines even though they had similar L-GalLDH activities. AOX antisense lines had more cytochrome c protein than wild-type or AOX-overexpressing lines. It is concluded that regardless of limitations on L-GalL synthesis by regulation of early steps in the AA synthesis pathway, the regulation of L-GalLDH activity via the interaction of light and respiratory controls is a crucial determinant of the overall ability of leaves to produce and accumulate AA.

  11. Prey-induced changes in the accumulation of amino acids and phenolic metabolites in the leaves of Drosera capensis L.

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    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Stork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2012-04-01

    Effect of prey feeding (ants Formica fusca) on the quantitative changes in the accumulation of free amino acids, soluble proteins, phenolic metabolites and mineral nutrients in the leaves of carnivorous plant Drosera capensis was studied. Arginine was the most abundant compound in Drosera leaves, while proline was abundant in ants. The amount of the majority of amino acids and their sum were elevated in the fed leaves after 3 and 21 days, and the same, but with further enhancement after 21 days, was observed in ants. Accumulation of amino acids also increased in young non-fed leaves of fed plants. Soluble proteins decreased in ants, but were not enhanced in fed leaves. This confirms the effectiveness of sundew's enzymatic machinery in digestion of prey and suggests that amino acids are not in situ deposited, but rather are allocated within the plant. The content of total soluble phenols, flavonoids and two selected flavonols (quercetin and kaempferol) was not affected by feeding in Drosera leaves, indicating that their high basal level was sufficient for the plant's metabolism and prey-induced changes were mainly N based. The prey also showed to be an important source of other nutrients besides N, and a stimulation of root uptake of some mineral nutrients is assumed (Mg, Cu, Zn). Accumulation of Ca and Na was not affected by feeding.

  12. Environmental and genetic factors associated with solanesol accumulation in potato leaves

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    Raymond Campbell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Solanesol is a high value 45-carbon, unsaturated, all-trans-nonaprenol isoprenoid. Recently solanesol has received particular attention because of its utility, both in its own right and as a precursor in the production of numerous compounds used in the treatment of disease states. Solanesol is found mainly in solanaceous crops such as potato, tomato, tobacco and pepper where it accumulates in the foliage. There is considerable potential to explore the extraction of solanesol from these sources as a valuable co-product. In this study we have characterised the genetic variation in leaf solanesol content in a biparental, segregating diploid potato population. We demonstrate that potato leaf solanesol content is genetically controlled and identify several quantitative trait loci associated with leaf solanesol content. Transient over-expression of genes from the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP and mevalonic acid (MVA pathways, either singly or in combination, resulted in enhanced accumulation of solanesol in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, providing insights for genetically engineering the pathway. We also demonstrate that in potato, leaf solanesol content is enhanced by up to six-fold on exposure to moderately elevated temperature and show corresponding changes in expression patterns of MEP and MVA genes. Our combined approaches offer new insights into solanesol accumulation and strategies for developing a bio-refinery approach to potato production.

  13. When and Why Dropouts Leave High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Elizabeth; Glennie, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Teens may leave school because of academic failure, disciplinary problems, or employment opportunities. In this article, the authors test whether the reasons dropouts leave school differ by grade level and age. We compare dropout rates and reasons across grade levels and ages for all high school students, ethnic groups, and gender groups. Across…

  14. Accumulation of Trace Metal Elements (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in Surface Sediment via Decomposed Seagrass Leaves: A Mesocosm Experiment Using Zostera marina L.

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    Shinya Hosokawa

    Full Text Available Accumulation of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the sediment of seagrass ecosystems was examined using mesocosm experiments containing Zostera marina (eelgrass and reference pools. Lead was approximately 20-fold higher in the surface sediment in the eelgrass pool than in eelgrass leaves and epiphytes on the eelgrass leaves, whereas zinc and cadmium were significantly lower in the surface sediment than in the leaves, with intermediate concentrations in epiphytes. Copper concentrations were similar in both the surface sediment and leaves but significantly lower in epiphytes. Carbon and nitrogen contents increased significantly with increasing δ13C in surface sediments of both the eelgrass and reference pools. Copper, Zn, Cd, and Pb also increased significantly with increasing δ13C in the surface sediment in the eelgrass pool but not in the reference pool. By decomposition of eelgrass leaves with epiphytes, which was examined in the eelgrass pool, copper and lead concentrations increased more than 2-fold and approximately a 10-fold, whereas zinc and cadmium concentrations decreased. The high copper and lead concentrations in the surface sediment result from accumulation in decomposed, shed leaves, whereas zinc and cadmium remobilized from decomposed shed leaves but may remain at higher concentrations in the leaves than in the original sediments. The results of our mesocosm study demonstrate that whether the accumulation or remobilization of trace metals during the decomposition of seagrass leaves is trace metal dependent, and that the decomposed seagrass leaves can cause copper and lead accumulation in sediments in seagrass ecosystems.

  15. Carbon Accumulation during Photosynthesis in Leaves of Nitrogen- and Phosphorus-Stressed Cotton.

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    Radin, J W; Eidenbock, M P

    1986-11-01

    Leaves of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) accumulate considerable dry mass per unit area during photosynthesis. The percentage of C in that accumulated dry mass was estimated as the regression coefficient (slope) of a linear regression relating C per unit area to total dry mass per unit area. Plants were grown on full nutrients or on N- or P-deficient nutrient solutions. In the fully nourished controls, the mass that accumulated over a 9-hour interval beginning at dawn contained 38.6% C. N and P stress increased the C concentration of accumulated mass to 49.7% and 45.1%, respectively. Nutrient stress also increased the starch concentration of accumulated mass, but starch alone could not account for the differences in C concentration. P stress decreased the estimated rate of C export from source leaves, calculated as the difference between C assimilation and C accumulation. The effect of P stress on apparent export was very sensitive to the C concentration used in the calculation, and would not have been revealed with an assumption of unchanged C concentration in the accumulated mass.

  16. Production and accumulation of UV-B [ultra violet] absorbing compounds in UV-B irradiated leaves of rice, Oryza SativaL.: effects of varying UV-B doses on leaf damage, phenolic content and HPLC [high performance liquid chromatography] peak I area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caasi-Lit, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of varying UV-B doses on leaf damage, phenolic content and HPLC peak 1 area were studied using 65-d-old plants of the UV-B tolerant rice cultivar, M202, and the UV-B susceptible rice cultivar, Dular. Results showed that the production and accumulation of UV-B- absorbing compounds in rice leaves were affected by leaf position and levels (dose) of UV-B and time or duration of UV-B irradiation or exposure. The youngest terminal leaves showed the least damage when exposed to medium and high UV-B doses. The production of these absorptive compounds as represented by relative phenolic and HPLC peak 1 were significantly higher in younger leaves and lower in older or senescing leaves. M202 showed significantly higher amounts of peak 1 area and relative phenolic compared to UV-B susceptible rice cultivar, Dular. The results also confirmed the strong relationship of overall damage rating and area of HPLC peak 1. The development of UV-B symptoms in the susceptible cultivar was hastened when a high UV-B treatment was applied. Peak 1 area did not accumulate in the UV-B susceptible Dular at any given UV-B dose

  17. THE ABILITY OF LEAVES AND RHIZOMES OF AQUATIC PLANTS TO ACCUMULATE MACRO- AND MICRONUTRIENTS

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    Agnieszka Edyta Parzych

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The samples of macrophytes and bottom sediments originated from the littoral zone of the Słupia River were collected in summer 2013. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of the accumulation of leaves and rhizomes of Glyceria maxima, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia and Phalaris arundinacea for macro- and micronutrients. The largest quantities of macroelements were found in the leaves of the examined species, and microelements dominated the rhizomes of most examined macrophytes except for Mn in P.australis and T.latifolia. The obtained results show that N and K dominated in the leaves of P.arundinacea, P and Mg in the leaves of P.australis, and Ca in the leaves of G.maxima. The largest quantities of N, P and K were cumulated in the rhizomes of P.arundinacea, while Mg and Ca in the rhizome of T.latifolia. The leaves of aquatic plants accumulated from 1354.9 mmolc·kg-1 (T.latifolia to 1844.0 mmolc·kg-1 (P.arundinacea, and rhizomes from 985.8 mmolc·kg-1 (G.maxima to 1335.2 mmolc·kg-1 (P.arundinacea of all the analyzed components. In these species of macrophytes lower accumulated value of the sum of macro- and microelements were found in the rhizomes. The share of nitrogen was 42.4–59.8% of this amount, phosphorus 4.3–8.6%, potassium 22.8–35.1%, calcium from 2,6% to 12.4%, magnesium 3.0–7.5%, and heavy metals were from 0.6% (G.maxima to 1.2% (T.latifolia in leaves and from 2.2% (T.latifolia to 8.7% (G.maxima in rhizomes.

  18. Proline accumulation in water-stressed barley leaves in relation to translocation and the nitrogen budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tully, R.E.; Hanson, A.D.; Nelsen, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    Mobilization of N from leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) during water stress, and the role of proline as a mobilized species, were examined in plants at the three-leaf stage. The plants responded to water stress by withdrawing about 25% of the total reduced N from the leaf blades via phloem translocation. Most of this N loss was during the first 2 days while translocation of 14 C-photosynthate out of the stressed blade still remained active. Free proline accumulation in the blade was initially slow, and became more rapid during the 2nd day of stress. Although a major free amino acid, proline accounted for only about 5% of the total N(soluble + insoluble) retained in severely stressed blades. When the translocation pathway in water-stressed leaves was interrupted just below the blade by a heat girdle, a cold jacket, or by blade excision, N loss from the blade was prevented and proline began to accumulate rapidly on 1st day of stress. Little free proline accumulated in the blades until after the ability to translocate was lost. Proline was, however, probably not a major species of N translocated during stress, because proline N accumulation in heat-girdled stressed leaves was five times slower than the rate of total N export from intact blades

  19. Free proline accumulation in leaves of cultivated plant species under water deficit conditions

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    Hanna Bandurska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water deficit caused by soil drought on the content of free proline as well as the degree of cell membrane damages in the leaves of three cultivated plant species having different farm usefulness and water requirements have been studied. The used pIants were: poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd., 'Regina' and 'Cortez' grown for decorative purposes, a green vegetable of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, subvar. cymosa, 'Colonel' and 'Marathon' and a cereal plant of barley (the wild form Hordeum spontaneumm and Hordeum vulgaree 'Maresi'. The examined species differed in the size of the experienced stress. the Iargest RWC reduction was found iii broccoli leaves, while somewhat smaller - in barley. In poinsettia leaves, the reduction of RWC level was not large or did not occur at all. The accumulation of free proline in the species under study was also variable. The largest amount of this amino acid tended to accumulate in broccoli leaves, whereas the increase of its level took place only at a strong dehydration of tissues. The increase of proline level was smaller in barley leaves than in broccoli, but that was found already at a smalI dehydration of tissues. In poinsettia leaves, a several f`old increase of proline level was found at the early stage of the stress. The level of that amino acid gradually increased at consecutive times and did not depend on tissue dehydration. Damage of cell membranes amounted to 8.5-9.5% in barley leaves, about 3% in brocolli and to 0-2.6% in poinsettia. The role of proline in prevention of leaf dehydration and in alleviation of dehydration effects in the studied species has been discussed.

  20. Accumulation of Cs, Sr into leaves and grain of winter wheat under act of N, Zn, Li, Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzinsky, D.; Tkatchuk, K.; Zhmurko, N.; Bogdan, T.; Guralchuk, Zh.

    1998-01-01

    The experiments were carried out on cv Lutencens 7 winter wheat grown on grey forest soil. In order to study the influence of nitrogen on Cs and Sr accumulation, a background of P60 K60 added in autumn different doses of nitrogen (30, 60, 120 kg/ha) were applied in spring. The influence of micronutrients on Cs and Sr accumulation was studied by adding 3 kg/ha Zn and 2 kg/ha Li to the soil under ploughing on background of N60 P60 K60. Besides the foliar application with 0.05% Na 2 SO 4 was carried out. Cation content (Cs, Sn, Zn, Li, Na) in soil and plant organs was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Cs, Sr content in control plant leaves made up 15.0 and 21.0 mg per g of dry matter at the early stages of plant development. As the plants aged, the content of those elements in the leaves decreased strongly (3-4 times). At early stages of plant development, nitrogen caused an 8.9-11% increase in the Cs content of the leaves. At the stages of heading to grain filling, the Cs content increase was only observed at a high nitrogen dose, whereas low nitrogen doses had no effected on Cs accumulation in leaves. In should be noted that nitrogen (N60 and N120) decreased the Cs content in grain by 32-33%. As for the Sr content of grain, this was 3 to 4-fold less than that of Cs. Nitrogen had no effected on the Sr content of grain. Zn and Li addition to soil as well as foliar nutrition with Na had a different effect on the Cs and Sr content of winter wheat leaves and grain. Addition of Li decreased the Cs and Sr content of old leaves by 13% and 25% respectively. Addition of Zn and Na decreased the Sr content of old leaves but had no effect on the Cs content. Zn, Na and Li reduced the Sr content in grain also, viz. by 16,11 and 7% respectively. Thus the research has demonstrated the possibility of regulating Cs and Sr accumulation in the above-ground organs of winter wheat plants

  1. Accumulation of fluorine in the leaves of trees and shrubs growing in industrial territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadov, G G; Alekperov, S A; Mamedov, G G

    1977-01-01

    Measurements were made to compare the concentration of fluorine in various plants in the vicinity of an aluminum plant, a glass plant and a chemical plant. The accumulation of fluorine was higher in the leaves of plants near the aluminum and glass industry than in the vicinity of another chemical industry. The fluorine concentration was found to be highest in spring. Pines and poplars were the most sensitive of the species tested.

  2. Heavy metal accumulation in leaves and beans of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in major cacao growing regions in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Arévalo-Hernández, Cesar O; Baligar, Virupax C; He, Zhenli L

    2017-12-15

    Peru is one of the leading exporters of organic cacao beans in the world. However, the accumulation of heavy metals in cacao beans represents a problem for cocoa bean export and chocolate quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in cacao leaves and cocoa beans in three major cacao growing regions of Peru. The study was conducted in cacao plantations of 10 to 15years old in three regions of Peru: North (Regions of Tumbes, Piura, Cajamarca, and Amazonas); Center (Regions of Huánuco and San Martin) and South (Junin and Cuzco). Samples of leaf and cacao beans were collected from 70 cacao plantations, and the nature of cacao clone or genotype sampled was recorded. The concentrations of heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in leaves and beans were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Overall, concentrations of heavy metals were below the critical limits; however, the presence of high levels of Cd in cacao grown in Amazonas, Piura, and Tumbes regions is of primary concern. Plantations of cacao with different cacao clones show differences in Cd accumulation both in leaves and cocoa beans. Therefore, it is promising to screen low Cd accumulator cacao genotypes for safe production of cacao on lightly to moderately Cd contaminated soils. Also, synergism between Zn and Cd present both in plant and soil suggests that Zn has a direct effect on Cd accumulation in cacao. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Microcystin accumulation and potential effects on antioxidant capacity of leaves and fruits of Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobac, Damjana; Tokodi, Nada; Kiprovski, Biljana; Malenčić, Djordje; Važić, Tamara; Nybom, Sonja; Meriluoto, Jussi; Svirčev, Zorica

    2017-01-01

    Surface water, often used for irrigation purposes, may sometimes be contaminated with blooming cyanobacteria and thereby may contain their potent and harmful toxins. Cyanotoxins adversely affect many terrestrial plants, and accumulate in plant tissues that are subsequently ingested by humans. Studies were undertaken to (1) examine the bioaccumulation of microcystins (MCs) in leaves and fruits of pepper Capsicum annuum and (2) examine the potential effects of MCs on antioxidant capacity of these organs. Plants were irrigated with water containing MCs for a period of 3 mo. Data showed that MCs did not accumulate in leaves; however, in fruits the presence of the MC-LR (0.118 ng/mg dry weight) and dmMC-LR (0.077 ng/mg dry weight) was detected. The concentrations of MC-LR in fruit approached the acceptable guideline values and tolerable daily intake for this toxin. Lipid peroxidation levels and flavonoids content were significantly enhanced in both organs of treated plants, while total phenolic concentrations were not markedly variable between control and treated plants. Significant decrease in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity was noted for both organs. The levels of superoxide anion in fruits and hydroxyl radical in leaves were markedly reduced. Data suggest that exposure to MCs significantly reduced antioxidant capacity of experimental plants, indicating that MCs affected antioxidant systems in C. annuum.

  4. The influence of nitrogen - urea fertilization to leaves and chloride chlorocholine on the accumulation Cs-137 in spring wheat crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrynczuk, B.; Weber, R.

    1998-01-01

    In pot experiments were studied effects of using nitrogen urea solution to leaves and use chloride chlorocholine on the Cs-137 accumulation in spring wheat crops. The Cs-137 contamination was conducted from soil and through leaves. It has been found that use nitrogen fertilization as urea solution spray and in addition use chloride chlorocholine caused an increase of Cs-137 concentration in grain from the contaminated soil. Accumulation of Cs-137 in spring wheat grain is 2-4 times higher coming from the contaminated leaves in blooming phase in comparison to the grain of plants contaminated in spread phase. The urea solution fertilization used on leaves and addition chloride chlorocholine did not influence the Cs-137 accumulation in grain when the plants were contaminated in the early growing phase. The Cs-137 contamination brought on the plants after using chloride chlorocholine in subsequent growing phases passed early into spring wheat grain. (author)

  5. Interaction of Nickel and Manganese in Accumulation and Localization in Leaves of the Ni Hyperaccumulators Alyssum murale and Alyssum corsicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadhurst, C.; Tappero, R; Maugel, T; Erbe, E; Sparks, D; Chaney, R

    2009-01-01

    The genus Alyssum contains >50 Ni hyperaccumulator species; many can achieve >2.5% Ni in dry leaf. In soils with normal Mn levels, Alyssum trichome bases were previously observed to accumulate Ni and Mn to high levels. Here we report concentration and localization patterns in A. murale and A. corsicum grown in soils with nonphytotoxic factorial additions of Ni and Mn salts. Four leaf type subsets based on size and age accumulated Ni and Mn similarly. The greatest Mn accumulation (10 times control) was observed in A. corsicum with 40 mmol Mn kg-1 and 40 mmol Ni kg-1 added to potting soil. Whole leaf Ni concentrations decreased as Mn increased. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of whole fresh leaves showed localized in distinct high-concentration Mn spots associated with trichomes, Ni and Mn distributions were strongly spatially correlated. Standard X-ray fluorescence point analysis/mapping of cryofractured and freeze-dried samples found that Ni and Mn were co-located and strongly concentrated only in trichome bases and in cells adjacent to trichomes. Nickel concentration was also strongly spatially correlated with sulfur. Results indicate that maximum Ni phytoextraction by Alyssum may be reduced in soils with higher phytoavailable Mn, and suggest that Ni hyperaccumulation in Alyssum species may have developed from a Mn handling system.

  6. The Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Compounds Accumulation in Leaves of Various Kinds of Kalanchoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. SAZHINA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of actual problems of modern pharmacology is creation of new medicines on the basis of vegetable raw materials. In this plan some succulents present a great interest in particular some kinds of the genus Kalanchoe, such as Kalanchoe pinnata (K.pinnata and Kalanchoe Daigremontiana (K.daigremontiana. Their leaves contain useful mineral salts, organic acids and the numerous phenolic compounds (PC. Education and accumulation of these PC depends on genetic features of a plant and numerous factors of environment. Besides, these representatives of a secondary metabolism cause biological, including antioxidant activity (AOA of this or that species of a plant, that is ability its component to inhibit oxidizing free radical processes. Use of modern methods of antioxidant properties research for plant extracts or juice of this or that plant allow to study and reveal their medicinal value at higher level.In the present work the comparative analysis of measurement results of the total phenols content and their activity in leave juice of various kinds of Kalanchoe (Kalanchoe L. is carried out by ammetric and chemiluminescence methods for the purpose of identification among them the most active producers of phenol metabolites. Objects of research were juice samples of 34 kinds of the genus Kalanchoe, grown up in a succulent collection in Timiryazev Institute of plant physiology RAS (Moscow, Russia. Among the studied samples two most active from the point of view of their antioxidant properties Kalanchoe kinds: K.scapigera and K.rhombopilosa are revealed. Both methods show considerably higher values of the phenol metabolite content in leave juice of these plants and their AOA in comparison with K.pinnata and K.daigremontiana. For possible expansion for use of specified types of Kalanchoe as sources of biologically active compounds, additional researches of biochemical structure, antibacterial, antimicrobic and other properties of these plant components is

  7. Expression of zinc and cadmium responsive genes in leaves of willow (Salix caprea L.) genotypes with different accumulation characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konlechner, Cornelia; Türktaş, Mine; Langer, Ingrid; Vaculík, Marek; Wenzel, Walter W.; Puschenreiter, Markus; Hauser, Marie-Theres

    2013-01-01

    Salix caprea is well suited for phytoextraction strategies. In a previous survey we showed that genetically distinct S. caprea plants isolated from metal-polluted and unpolluted sites differed in their zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) tolerance and accumulation abilities. To determine the molecular basis of this difference we examined putative homologues of genes involved in heavy metal responses and identified over 200 new candidates with a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) screen. Quantitative expression analyses of 20 genes in leaves revealed that some metallothioneins and cell wall modifying genes were induced irrespective of the genotype's origin and metal uptake capacity while a cysteine biosynthesis gene was expressed constitutively higher in the metallicolous genotype. The third and largest group of genes was only induced in the metallicolous genotype. These data demonstrate that naturally adapted woody non-model species can help to discover potential novel molecular mechanisms for metal accumulation and tolerance. -- Highlights: ► The transcriptional Zn/Cd response of the willow Salix caprea was quantified. ► Two genotypes from a highly contaminated and a control environment were compared. ► In addition to candidate genes an SSH library revealed over 200 metal induced genes. ► Constitutive upregulation and isolate-specific induction of genes were revealed. ► Willows adapt to environmental Zn/Cd contamination on the transcriptional level. -- Expression analyzes reveal different responses to Cd and Zn exposure of S. caprea genotypes with different heavy metal accumulation abilities

  8. The linear accumulation of atmospheric mercury by vegetable and grass leaves: Potential biomonitors for atmospheric mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Sen; Ci, Zhijia; Kong, Xiangrui; Wang, Zhangwei

    2013-09-01

    One question in the use of plants as biomonitors for atmospheric mercury (Hg) is to confirm the linear relationships of Hg concentrations between air and leaves. To explore the origin of Hg in the vegetable and grass leaves, open top chambers (OTCs) experiment was conducted to study the relationships of Hg concentrations between air and leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The influence of Hg in soil on Hg accumulation in leaves was studied simultaneously by soil Hg-enriched experiment. Hg concentrations in grass and vegetable leaves and roots were measured in both experiments. Results from OTCs experiment showed that Hg concentrations in leaves of the four species were significantly positively correlated with those in air during the growth time (p  0.05). Thus, Hg in grass leaves is mainly originated from the atmosphere, and grass leaves are more suitable as potential biomonitors for atmospheric Hg pollution. The effect detection limits (EDLs) for the leaves of alfalfa and ryegrass were 15.1 and 22.2 ng g(-1), respectively, and the biological detection limit (BDL) for alfalfa and ryegrass was 3.4 ng m(-3).

  9. Regulation of photosynthesis by end-product accumulation in leaves of plants storing starch, sucrose, and hexose sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, E E; Huber, S C

    1992-08-01

    demonstrate the possibility of the occurrence of end-product inhibition of photosynthesis in a large number of crop plants. The long-term inhibition of photosynthesis in girdled leaves is not confined to stomatal responses since the A(max) declined up to 50%. The inhibition of A(max) by girdling was strongest in starch storers, but starch itself cannot be directly responsible, because the starchless mutant of N. sylvestris was also strongly inhibited. Similarly, the inhibition cannot be attributed to hexose sugars either, because soybean, cotton, and cucumber are among the plants most strongly inhibited although they do not maintain a large hexose pool. Spinach, a sucrose storer, showed the least inhibition in both girdled and excised leaf systems, which indicates that sucrose is probably not directly responsible for the end-product inhibition of photosynthesis. The occurrence of strong end-product inhibition appears to be correlated with high acid-invertase activity in fully expanded leaves. The inhibition may be related to the nature of soluble sugar metabolism in the extrachloroplastic compartment and may be caused by a metabolite that has different rates of accumulation and turnover in sucrose storers and other plants.

  10. The accumulation of two neolignan in the leaves, stems, and flower of red betel ( Piper crocatum Ruiz and Pav.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartini, Y S; Nugroho, L

    2017-01-01

    Organ for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolite is not always a place for its biosynthesis, even the same compound was synthesized in the different organs in different plants. Neolignan is a secondary metabolite, known as an imunostimulant, synthesized through shikimic acid pathway with the important precursor is chorismic acid. The compound was known to be accumulated in the roots, stems and leaves of Piper regnellii with the concentration varies depending on the type of neolignan. It has been investigated the accumulation of two compound neolignans (Pc-1 and Pc-2) isolated from the methanol extract of red betel leaf ( Piper crocatum Ruiz and Pav.) in the leaves, stems, and flowers of red betel. Chromatographic methods used was Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Chromatogram of GC-MS showed that the Pc-1 with purity of 100%, m/z 460.3 could be detected at the minute of 29.986, while the Pc-2 with purity of 96.681%, m/z 418.3 was detected at the minute of 29.495. The research was then continued to investigate the existence and accumulation of both compounds in leaves, stems, and flowers of red betel. The GC-MS chromatogram shows that Pc-1 and Pc-2 could be detected in the leaves, stem and flower with various concentration among plant organs. Moreover, leaves contained the highest concentration of Pc-1 and Pc-2 compared to other plant organs. (paper)

  11. The accumulation of two neolignan in the leaves, stems, and flower of red betel (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartini, Y. S.; Nugroho, L.

    2017-05-01

    Organ for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolite is not always a place for its biosynthesis, even the same compound was synthesized in the different organs in different plants. Neolignan is a secondary metabolite, known as an imunostimulant, synthesized through shikimic acid pathway with the important precursor is chorismic acid. The compound was known to be accumulated in the roots, stems and leaves of Piper regnellii with the concentration varies depending on the type of neolignan. It has been investigated the accumulation of two compound neolignans (Pc-1 and Pc-2) isolated from the methanol extract of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav.) in the leaves, stems, and flowers of red betel. Chromatographic methods used was Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Chromatogram of GC-MS showed that the Pc-1 with purity of 100%, m/z 460.3 could be detected at the minute of 29.986, while the Pc-2 with purity of 96.681%, m/z 418.3 was detected at the minute of 29.495. The research was then continued to investigate the existence and accumulation of both compounds in leaves, stems, and flowers of red betel. The GC-MS chromatogram shows that Pc-1 and Pc-2 could be detected in the leaves, stem and flower with various concentration among plant organs. Moreover, leaves contained the highest concentration of Pc-1 and Pc-2 compared to other plant organs.

  12. Differences in accumulation of PAHs and metals on the leaves of Tilia x euchlora and Pyrus calleryana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venera A. Jouraeva; David L. Johnson; John P. Hassett; David J. Nowak

    2002-01-01

    The accumulation of substances associated with PM2.5 [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals] on leaves of Pyrus calleryana (pear) and Tiliaxeuchlora (linden) along an urban road was investigated. These species have similar leaf morphology and were exposed to the identical environmental conditions...

  13. Lead and cadmium in leaves of deciduous trees in Beijing, China: Development of a metal accumulation index (MAI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yanju; Zhu Yongguan; Ding Hui

    2007-01-01

    Lead and cadmium uptake was investigated for common deciduous street trees in Beijing in this study. Species having Cd accumulation included Populus tomentosa, Sophora japonica and Catalpa speciosa. P. tomentosa had the highest ratios between leaf and soil Cd (0.848), followed by S. japonica (0.536), C. speciosa (0.493), Paulownia tomentosa (0.453) and Juglans regia (0.415). Pb levels were high in leaves of C. speciosa, J. regia and Pa. tomentosa. S. japonica had the highest ratio between leaf Pb and soil Pb (0.146), followed by Pa. tomentosa (0.143), Ginko biloba (0.103) and C. speciosa (0.095). A predictive foliar metal accumulation index (MAI) was developed and C. speciosa was calculated to have the highest MAI value (53.8). This suggests that C. speciosa would be a good choice for planting in areas of Beijing where soil contamination with Cd and Pb may be a problem. - Catalpa speciosa had the highest MAI value

  14. The effects of moderately high temperature on zeaxanthin accumulation and decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru; Kramer, David M; Cruz, Jeffrey A; Struck, Kimberly R; Sharkey, Thomas D

    2011-09-01

    Moderately high temperature reduces photosynthetic capacities of leaves with large effects on thylakoid reactions of photosynthesis, including xanthophyll conversion in the lipid phase of the thylakoid membrane. In previous studies, we have found that leaf temperature of 40°C increased zeaxanthin accumulation in dark-adapted, intact tobacco leaves following a brief illumination, but did not change the amount of zeaxanthin in light-adatped leaves. To investigate heat effects on zeaxanthin accumulation and decay, zeaxanthin level was monitored optically in dark-adapted, intact tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana leaves at either 23 or 40°C under 45-min illumination. Heated leaves had more zeaxanthin following 3-min light but had less or comparable amounts of zeaxanthin by the end of 45 min of illumination. Zeaxanthin accumulated faster at light initiation and decayed faster upon darkening in leaves at 40°C than leaves at 23°C, indicating that heat increased the activities of both violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) and zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZE). In addition, our optical measurement demonstrated in vivo that weak light enhances zeaxanthin decay relative to darkness in intact leaves of tobacco and Arabidopsis, confirming previous observations in isolated spinach chloroplasts. However, the maximum rate of decay is similar for weak light and darkness, and we used the maximum rate of decay following darkness as a measure of the rate of ZE during steady-state light. A simulation indicated that high temperature should cause a large shift in the pH dependence of the amount of zeaxanthin in leaves because of differential effects on VDE and ZE. This allows for the reduction in ΔpH caused by heat to be offset by increased VDE activity relative to ZE.

  15. [Analysis and assessment of atmospheric pollution based on accumulation characterization of heavy metals in Platanus acerifolia leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Fang, Yan-Ming; Wang, Shun-Chang; Xie, Ying; Wang, Cheng-Run

    2014-03-01

    The present work was aimed to evaluate the heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere of Huainan City. We measured and clustered the accumulation of six heavy metals in Platanus acerifolia leaves in 20 sampling fields with six types of environmental conditions, and analyzed the EF value of heavy metal enrichment in the leaves. The results showed that the accumulations in Platanus acerifolia leaves varied according to different types of metals, following the order of Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd. Environmental conditions also had great influence on the accumulation of heavy metals. Cd and Cu were mostly found in cement plant and mine, respectively, and Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn were significant higher in main road, compared with other environmental conditions. The average values of EF for all the metals expect Cr in scenic and village area were over 1. The average values of EF for all the metals in mine, power plant, main road and cement plant were above 3. The overall pollution condition of heavy metals in Huainan City followed the order of Cd > Cu > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cr.

  16. Pre-harvest UV-C irradiation triggers VOCs accumulation with alteration of antioxidant enzymes and phytohormones in strawberry leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanqun; Luo, Zisheng; Charles, Marie Thérèse; Rolland, Daniel; Roussel, Dominique

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the biological and physiological effects of pre-harvest ultraviolet (UV)-C treatment on growing plants. However, little is known about the involvement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their response to this treatment. In this study, strawberry plants were exposed to three different doses of UV-C radiation for seven weeks (a low dose: 9.6kJm -2 ; a medium dose: 15kJm -2 ; and a high-dose: 29.4kJm -2 ). Changes in VOC profiles were investigated and an attempt was made to identify factors that may be involved in the regulation of these alterations. Principle compounds analysis revealed that VOC profiles of UV-C treated samples were significantly altered with 26 VOCs being the major contributors to segregation. Among them, 18 fatty acid-derived VOCs accumulated in plants that received high and medium dose of UV-C treatments with higher lipoxygenase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. In treated samples, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and peroxidase was inhibited, resulting in a reduced antioxidant capacity and higher lipid peroxidation. Simultaneously, jasmonic acid level was 74% higher in the high-dose group while abscisic acid content was more than 12% lower in both the medium and high-dose UV-C treated samples. These results indicated that pre-harvest UV-C treatment stimulated the biosynthesis of fatty acid-derived VOCs in strawberry leaf tissue by upregulating the activity of enzymes of the LOX biosynthetic pathway and downregulating antioxidant enzyme activities. It is further suggested that the mechanisms underlying fatty acid-derived VOCs biosynthesis in UV-C treated strawberry leaves are associated with UV-C-induced changes in phytohormone profiles. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Dual mechanisms regulating glutamate decarboxylases and accumulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves exposed to multiple stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xin; Chen, Yiyong; Zhang, Lingyun; Fu, Xiumin; Wei, Qing; Grierson, Don; Zhou, Ying; Huang, Yahui; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin

    2016-03-29

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. It has multiple positive effects on mammalian physiology and is an important bioactive component of tea (Camellia sinensis). GABA generally occurs at a very low level in plants but GABA content increases substantially after exposure to a range of stresses, especially oxygen-deficiency. During processing of tea leaves, a combination of anoxic stress and mechanical damage are essential for the high accumulation of GABA. This is believed to be initiated by a change in glutamate decarboxylase activity, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the present study we characterized factors regulating the expression and activity of three tea glutamate decarboxylase genes (CsGAD1, 2, and 3), and their encoded enzymes. The results suggests that, unlike the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, there are dual mechanisms regulating the accumulation of GABA in tea leaves exposed to multiple stresses, including activation of CsGAD1 enzymatic activity by calmodulin upon the onset of the stress and accumulation of high levels of CsGAD2 mRNA induced by a combination of anoxic stress and mechanical damage.

  18. Essential Oil from Myrica rubra Leaves Potentiated Antiproliferative and Prooxidative Effect of Doxorubicin and its Accumulation in Intestinal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrož, Martin; Hanušová, Veronika; Skarka, Adam; Boušová, Iva; Králová, Věra; Langhasová, Lenka; Skálová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Essential oil from the leaves of Myrica rubra, a subtropical Asian fruit tree traditionally used in folk medicines, has a significant antiproliferative effect in several intestinal cancer cell lines. Doxorubicin belongs to the most important cytostatics used in cancer therapy. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of defined essential oil from M. rubra leaves on efficacy, prooxidative effect, and accumulation of doxorubicin in cancer cell lines and in non-cancerous cells. For this purpose, intestinal adenocarcinoma CaCo2 cells were used. Human fibroblasts (periodontal ligament) and a primary culture of rat hepatocytes served as models of non-cancerous cells. The results showed that the sole essential oil from M. rubra has a strong prooxidative effect in cancer cells while it acts as a mild antioxidant in hepatocytes. Combined with doxorubicin, the essential oil enhanced the antiproliferative and prooxidative effects of doxorubicin in cancer cells. At higher concentrations, synergism of doxorubicin and essential oil from M. rubra was proved. In non-cancerous cells, the essential oil did not affect the toxicity of doxorubicin and the doxorubicin-mediated reactive oxygen species formation. The essential oil increased the intracellular concentration of doxorubicin and enhanced selectively the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. Taken together, essential oil from M. rubra leaves could be able to improve the doxorubicin efficacy in cancer cells due to an increased reactive oxygen species production, and the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Flavonoid Accumulation Plays an Important Role in the Rust Resistance of Malus Plant Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfen Lu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cedar-apple rust (Gymnosporangium yamadai Miyabe is a fungal disease that causes substantial injury to apple trees and results in fruit with reduced size and quality and a lower commercial value. The molecular mechanisms underlying the primary and secondary metabolic effects of rust spots on the leaves of Malus apple cultivars are poorly understood. Using HPLC, we found that the contents of flavonoid compounds, especially anthocyanin and catechin, were significantly increased in rust-infected symptomatic tissue (RIT. The expression levels of structural genes and MYB transcription factors related to flavonoid biosynthesis were one- to seven-fold higher in the RIT. Among these genes, CHS, DFR, ANS, FLS and MYB10 showed more than a 10-fold increase, suggesting that these genes were expressed at significantly higher levels in the RIT. Hormone concentration assays showed that the levels of abscisic acid (ABA, ethylene (ETH, jasmonate (JA and salicylic acid (SA were higher in the RIT and were consistent with the expression levels of McNCED, McACS, McLOX and McNPR1, respectively. Our study explored the complicated crosstalk of the signal transduction pathways of ABA, ETH, JA and SA; the primary metabolism of glucose, sucrose, fructose and sorbitol; and the secondary metabolism of flavonoids involved in the rust resistance of Malus crabapple leaves.

  20. Metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids in chlorotic leaves of 'Honeycrisp' apple (Malus domestica Borkh) with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huicong; Ma, Fangfang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2010-07-01

    Metabolite profiles and activities of key enzymes in the metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids were compared between chlorotic leaves and normal leaves of 'Honeycrisp' apple to understand how accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates affects the metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids. Excessive accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates and much lower CO(2) assimilation were found in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves, confirming feedback inhibition of photosynthesis in chlorotic leaves. Dark respiration and activities of several key enzymes in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, ATP-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, citrate synthase, aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were significantly higher in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. However, concentrations of most organic acids including phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), pyruvate, oxaloacetate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate and fumarate, and activities of key enzymes involved in the anapleurotic pathway including PEP carboxylase, NAD-malate dehydrogenase and NAD-malic enzyme were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. Concentrations of soluble proteins and most free amino acids were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. Activities of key enzymes in nitrogen assimilation and amino acid synthesis, including nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, ferredoxin and NADH-dependent glutamate synthase, and glutamate pyruvate transaminase were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. It was concluded that, in response to excessive accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates, glycolysis and TCA cycle were up-regulated to "consume" the excess carbon available, whereas the anapleurotic pathway, nitrogen assimilation and amino acid synthesis were down-regulated to reduce the overall rate of amino acid and protein synthesis.

  1. Diverging temperature responses of CO2 assimilation and plant development explain the overall effect of temperature on biomass accumulation in wheat leaves and grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Nicholas C; Parent, Boris

    2017-01-09

    There is a growing consensus in the literature that rising temperatures influence the rate of biomass accumulation by shortening the development of plant organs and the whole plant and by altering rates of respiration and photosynthesis. A model describing the net effects of these processes on biomass would be useful, but would need to reconcile reported differences in the effects of night and day temperature on plant productivity. In this study, the working hypothesis was that the temperature responses of CO 2 assimilation and plant development rates were divergent, and that their net effects could explain observed differences in biomass accumulation. In wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants, we followed the temperature responses of photosynthesis, respiration and leaf elongation, and confirmed that their responses diverged. We measured the amount of carbon assimilated per "unit of plant development" in each scenario and compared it to the biomass that accumulated in growing leaves and grains. Our results suggested that, up to a temperature optimum, the rate of any developmental process increased with temperature more rapidly than that of CO 2 assimilation and that this discrepancy, summarised by the CO 2 assimilation rate per unit of plant development, could explain the observed reductions in biomass accumulation in plant organs under high temperatures. The model described the effects of night and day temperature equally well, and offers a simple framework for describing the effects of temperature on plant growth. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  2. Deuterium accumulation in tungsten at high fluences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zibrov, Mikhail [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); FOM Institute DIFFER, De Zaale 20, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Balden, Martin; Matej, Matej [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bystrov, Kirill; Morgan, Thomas [FOM Institute DIFFER, De Zaale 20, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-07-01

    The data on the deuterium (D) retention in tungsten (W) at high fluences (≥ 10{sup 27} D/m{sup 2}) are scarce and the existing results are contradictory. Since retention in W is known to be flux-dependent, the laboratory experiments addressing this issue should be carried out in reactor-relevant conditions (high fluxes of low-energy ions). In this work the samples made of polycrystalline W were exposed to D plasmas in the linear plasma generator Pilot-PSI at temperatures ranging from 360 K to 1140 K to fluences in the range of 0.3-8.7 x 10{sup 27} D/m{sup 2}. It was observed that at exposure temperatures of 360 K and 580 K the D retention was only slightly dependent on the ion fluence. In addition, the presence of blister-like structures was found after the exposures, and their density and size distributions were also only weakly dependent on the fluence. In the case of exposure at 1140 K no surface modifications of the samples after plasma exposure were detected and the concentrations of retained D were very small. At all temperatures used the total amounts of retained D were smaller compared to those obtained by other researchers at lower ion flux densities, which indicates that the incident ion flux may play an important role in the total D retention in W.

  3. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Tea Leaves and Potential Health Risk Assessment: A Case Study from Puan County, Guizhou Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruidong; Chen, Rong; Peng, Yishu; Wen, Xuefeng; Gao, Lei

    2018-01-01

    This study features a survey of the concentrations of aluminum (Al) and heavy metals (Mn, Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn) in tea leaves and the corresponding cultivation soils (0–30 cm), carried out in Puan County (Guizhou Province, China). The average concentrations of Al, Mn, Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn in the soil were 106 × 103, 214, 20.9, 0.09, 0.12, 17.5, 121, 27.8, 131.2, and 64 mg·kg−1, respectively. The heavy metals’ pollution indexes in the soil can be ranked as follows: Cu > Cr > Hg > As > Ni > Zn > Pb > Mn > Cd. The soil was moderately polluted by Cu because of the high geochemical background value of Cu in the area. The potential environment risk index (RI) showed that 7.69% out of the total sample sites were within the moderate level. Moreover, the ranges of Al, Mn, Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn concentrations in young tea leaves were 250–660, 194–1130, 0.107–0.400, 0.012–0.092, 0.014–0.085, 0.073–0.456, 0.33–1.26, 6.33–14.90, 14.90–26.10, and 35.8–50.3 mg·kg−1, respectively. While in mature tea leaves, they were 4300–10,400, 536–4610, 0.560–1.265, 0.040–0.087, 0.043–0.089, 0.189–0.453, 0.69–2.91, 3.43–14.20, 6.17–16.25, and 9.1–20.0 mg·kg−1, respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of Pb, Cu, As, Hg, Cd, and Cr in young tea leaves and mature tea leaves were all lower than the standard limit values (5.0, 30, 2.0, 0.3, 1.0, and 5.0 mg·kg−1 for Pb, Cu, As, Hg, Cd, and Cr, respectively) in China. Besides, the accumulation ability of tea leaves to Mn was the strongest, and the average bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Mn in mature tea leaves was 12.5. In addition, the average target hazard quotients (THQ) were all less than one for the young tea leaves and the average aggregate risk hazard index (HI) to adults was 0.272, indicating that there was not a potential health risk for adults through the consumption of the infusions brewed by young tea leaves. However, for mature tea

  4. Study of arsenic accumulation in rice and evaluation of protective effects of Chorchorus olitorius leaves against arsenic contaminated rice induced toxicities in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosen, Saeed Mohammed Imran; Das, Dipesh; Kobi, Rupkanowar; Chowdhury, Dil Umme Salma; Alam, Md Jibran; Rudra, Bashudev; Bakar, Muhammad Abu; Islam, Saiful; Rahman, Zillur; Al-Forkan, Mohammad

    2016-10-14

    In the present study, we investigated the arsenic accumulation in different parts of rice irrigated with arsenic contaminated water. Besides, we also evaluated the protective effects of Corchorus olitorius leaves against arsenic contaminated rice induced toxicities in animal model. A pot experiment was conducted with arsenic amended irrigation water (0.0, 25.0, 50.0 and 75.0 mg/L As) to investigate the arsenic accumulation in different parts of rice. In order to evaluate the protective effects of Corchorus olitorius leaves, twenty Wistar albino rats were divided into four different groups. The control group (Group-I) was supplied with normal laboratory pellets while groups II, III, and IV received normal laboratory pellets supplemented with arsenic contaminated rice, C. olitorius leaf powder (4 %), arsenic contaminated rice plus C. olitorius leaf powder (4 %) respectively. Different haematological parameters and serum indices were analyzed to evaluate the protective effects of Corchorus olitorius leaves against arsenic intoxication. To gather more supportive evidences of Corchorus olitorius potentiality against arsenic intoxication, histopathological analysis of liver, kidney, spleen and heart tissues was also performed. From the pot experiment, we have found a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase of arsenic accumulation in different parts of rice with the increase of arsenic concentrations in irrigation water and the trend of accumulation was found as root > straw > husk > grain. Another part of the experiment revealed that supplementation of C. olitorius leaves with arsenic contaminated rice significantly (p rice induced toxicities. Arsenic accumulation in different parts of rice increased dose-dependently. Hence, for irrigation purpose arsenic contaminated water cannot be used. Furthermore, arsenic contaminated rice induced several toxicities in animal model, most of which could be minimized with the food supplementation of Corchorus olitorius

  5. Low energy current accumulator for high-energy proton rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.

    1977-01-01

    Building current in high-energy p-p colliding beam machines is most appropriately done in a low-energy (small circumference) current accumulator. Three significant factors favor such a procedure: First, large rings tend to be susceptible to unstable longitudinal density oscillations. These can be avoided by pumping up the beam in the accumulator. When the current stack is injected into the storage ring, potentially harmful instability is essentially neutralized. Second, high-field magnets characteristic of future high energy proton rings are designed with superconducting coils within the iron magnetic shield. This means coil construction and placement errors propagate rapidly within the beam aperture. An intermediate ''stacking ring'' allows the minimum use of the superconducting ring aperture. Finally, the coils are vulnerable to radiation heating and possible magnet quenching. By minimizing beam manipulaion in the superconducting environment and using only the central portion of the beam aperture, coil vulnerability can be put at a minimum

  6. The peculiarities of 137Cs accumulation by plants of meadow phytocenosis and content of photosynthetic pigments and protein in the plant leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaponenko, V.; Kravchenko, V.; Matsko, V.

    1994-01-01

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the problem of resistance of different plant systems, including photosynthesis, in conditions of increased background radiation and radioactive soil contamination was investigated. The dynamics of pigments and proteins in the leaves of meadow phytocenosis at different contamination levels of Polesski State was studied. The reverse correlation was discovered between the coefficients of radionuclide accumulation by plants and the specific radioactivity of soil. A prevailing decrease in concentration of chlorophyll 'b' as compared to chlorophyll 'a' was discovered as well as a decrease in both green pigments as compared to carotenoids at the end of vegetation. At the lowest specific 137 Cs radioactivity in fresh leaf tissues of Agropyron repens L. the content of pigments in leaves was biggest. A positive correlation between specific radioactivity of overground phytomass (Bq/kg) and protein concentration in leaves was revealed. An analogous relationship has appeared too for one year old and two year old needles of Pinus Silvestris L. (author)

  7. Deregulation of sucrose-controlled translation of a bZIP-type transcription factor results in sucrose accumulation in leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Thalor

    Full Text Available Sucrose is known to repress the translation of Arabidopsis thaliana AtbZIP11 transcript which encodes a protein belonging to the group of S (S--stands for small basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP-type transcription factor. This repression is called sucrose-induced repression of translation (SIRT. It is mediated through the sucrose-controlled upstream open reading frame (SC-uORF found in the AtbZIP11 transcript. The SIRT is reported for 4 other genes belonging to the group of S bZIP in Arabidopsis. Tobacco tbz17 is phylogenetically closely related to AtbZIP11 and carries a putative SC-uORF in its 5'-leader region. Here we demonstrate that tbz17 exhibits SIRT mediated by its SC-uORF in a manner similar to genes belonging to the S bZIP group of the Arabidopsis genus. Furthermore, constitutive transgenic expression of tbz17 lacking its 5'-leader region containing the SC-uORF leads to production of tobacco plants with thicker leaves composed of enlarged cells with 3-4 times higher sucrose content compared to wild type plants. Our finding provides a novel strategy to generate plants with high sucrose content.

  8. Deregulation of sucrose-controlled translation of a bZIP-type transcription factor results in sucrose accumulation in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalor, Sunil Kumar; Berberich, Thomas; Lee, Sung Shin; Yang, Seung Hwan; Zhu, Xujun; Imai, Ryozo; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2012-01-01

    Sucrose is known to repress the translation of Arabidopsis thaliana AtbZIP11 transcript which encodes a protein belonging to the group of S (S--stands for small) basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP)-type transcription factor. This repression is called sucrose-induced repression of translation (SIRT). It is mediated through the sucrose-controlled upstream open reading frame (SC-uORF) found in the AtbZIP11 transcript. The SIRT is reported for 4 other genes belonging to the group of S bZIP in Arabidopsis. Tobacco tbz17 is phylogenetically closely related to AtbZIP11 and carries a putative SC-uORF in its 5'-leader region. Here we demonstrate that tbz17 exhibits SIRT mediated by its SC-uORF in a manner similar to genes belonging to the S bZIP group of the Arabidopsis genus. Furthermore, constitutive transgenic expression of tbz17 lacking its 5'-leader region containing the SC-uORF leads to production of tobacco plants with thicker leaves composed of enlarged cells with 3-4 times higher sucrose content compared to wild type plants. Our finding provides a novel strategy to generate plants with high sucrose content.

  9. Highly Oxygenated Flavonoids from the Leaves of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shafiullah Shajib

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. is an annual herb of the family Solanaceae, which grows abundantly in the weedy lands of Bangladesh . This plant possesses analgesic, antibacterial, anti-anxiety and hepatoprotective properties, and produces various phenolic compounds including flavonoids. The present study afforded determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and for the first time, the isolation and characterization of highly oxygenated flavonoids, e.g., 3,3' ,5,6,7,8-hexamethoxy- 4',5'-methylenedioxyflavone (1, 3,3' ,4' ,5',5,6,7,8-octamethoxyflavone (2, exoticin, 6,7,4',5'-dimethylenedioxy-3,5,3'-trimethoxyflavone (3 and ( 3,3' ,4',5,5',8-hexamethoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone (4 from the leaves of N. plumbaginifolia . All these flavonoids are rather rare natural products, and only found in a few genera, e.g.,Polygonum and Murraya. The structures of the isolated flavonoids were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, e.g., UV, 1H, 13C NMR, DEPT, HSQC, HMBC and MS.

  10. The Effects of Gouge Accumulation on High Speed Rock Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbery, M. R.; Chester, F. M.; Chester, J. S.; Saber, O.

    2016-12-01

    Previous experiments demonstrate that a significant reduction in the coefficient of sliding friction typically occurs as sliding velocity approaches seismic slip rates and that weakening may reflect flash heating of surface contacts. Experiments also show differences in the weakening behavior of bare rock and gouge-lined surfaces across different rock types. We conducted high-speed velocity-step (VS) experiments on ground surfaces of granite (Westerly) and quartzite (Sioux) using a double-direct shear (DDS) configuration, with a sliding area of 75cm2, to investigate the effects of gouge generation and accumulation on frictional weakening behavior. Sliding surface temperatures were measured using a high-speed infrared camera. Experiments were conducted at 7-9 MPa normal stress and achieved VS from 1 mm/s up to 1 m/s at high acceleration (100g) over a small distance ( 2 mm), and with sustained high-speed sliding for 30 mm. Successive experiments were run without disassembling the blocks or disturbing the sliding surfaces to generate and accumulate gouge for cumulative displacements up to 0.5 m. Locally high temperatures were observed correlating to corrugated structures within the gouge. For VS tests on bare granite, we observed an abrupt decrease in the coefficient of friction from 0.7 at quasi-static slip rates to 0.5 at m/s slip rates, and a typical weakening distance, dc, of 3 mm. This observation is consistent with rotary shear experiments conducted at similar displacements, accelerations, and sliding velocities. With the accumulation of gouge along the sliding surface, dc progressively increases to 2 cm. In contrast, VS tests on bare quartzite produce an abrupt increase in friction, from 0.65 to 0.7 within 1 mm of slip, followed by gradual weakening for the duration of high-speed sliding. With the accumulation of quartz gouge, similar behavior is observed, but with a slightly greater magnitude of strengthening. The results for quartzite are unlike those

  11. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiong, Jingwen; Mcdonald, Glenn K.; Genc, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Summary: High expression of zinc (Zn)-regulated, iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) genes increases root Zn uptake in dicots, leading to high accumulation of Zn in shoots. However, none of the ZIP genes tested previously in monocots could enhance shoot Zn accumulation. In this report...... were also generated to further understand the functions of HvZIP7 in metal transport. HvZIP7 is strongly induced by Zn deficiency, primarily in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, and its protein was localized in the plasma membrane. These properties are similar to its closely related homologs...... in dicots. Overexpression of HvZIP7 in barley plants increased Zn uptake when moderately high concentrations of Zn were supplied. Significantly, there was a specific enhancement of shoot Zn accumulation, with no measurable increase in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd). HvZIP7 displays...

  12. Abscisic Acid-Induced H2O2 Accumulation Enhances Antioxidant Capacity in Pumpkin-Grafted Cucumber Leaves under Ca(NO3)2 Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Sheng; Gao, Pan; Li, Lin; Yuan, Yinghui; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2016-01-01

    With the aim to clarifying the role of the ABA/H2O2 signaling cascade in the regulating the antioxidant capacity of grafted cucumber plants in response to Ca(NO3)2 stress, we investigated the relationship between ABA-mediated H2O2 production and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings. The results showed that both ABA and H2O2 were detected in pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings in response to Ca(NO3)2 treatment within 0.5 h in the leaves and peaked at 3 and 6 h after Ca(NO3)2 treatment, respectively, compared to the levels under control conditions. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD) in pumpkin-grafted cucumber leaves gradually increased over time and peaked at 12 h of Ca(NO3)2 stress. Furthermore, in the leaves of pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings, the H2O2 generation, the antioxidant enzyme activities and the expression of SOD, POD and cAPX were strongly blocked by an inhibitor of ABA under Ca(NO3)2 stress, but this effect was eliminated by the addition of exogenous ABA. Moreover, the activities and gene expressions of these antioxidant enzymes in pumpkin-grafted leaves were almost inhibited under Ca(NO3)2 stress by pretreatment with ROS scavengers. These results suggest that the pumpkin grafting-induced ABA accumulation mediated H2O2 generation, resulting in the induction of antioxidant defense systems in leaves exposed to Ca(NO3)2 stress in the ABA/H2O2 signaling pathway. PMID:27746808

  13. 5 CFR 630.301 - Annual leave accrual and accumulation-Senior Executive Service, Senior-Level, and Scientific and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... leave accrual rate of 1 full day (8 hours) for each biweekly pay period for additional categories of..., the minimum rate of the rate range (excluding locality pay) must be at least equal to the minimum rate...), and the maximum rate of the rate range (excluding locality pay) must be at least equal to the rate for...

  14. Responses of wild watermelon to drought stress: accumulation of an ArgE homologue and citrulline in leaves during water deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, S; Miyake, C; Kohchi, T; Fujii, S; Uchida, M; Yokota, A

    2000-07-01

    Wild watermelon from the Botswana desert had an ability to survive under severe drought conditions by maintaining its water status (water content and water potential). In the analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis of leaf proteins, seven spots were newly induced after watering stopped. One with the molecular mass of 40 kilodaltons of the spots was accumulated abundantly. The cDNA encoding for the protein was cloned based on its amino-terminal sequence and the amino acid sequence deduced from the determined nucleotide sequences of the cDNA exhibited homology to the enzymes belong to the ArgE/DapE/Acy1/Cpg2/YscS protein family (including acetylornithine deacetylase, carboxypeptidase and aminoacylase-1). This suggests that the protein is involved in the release of free amino acid by hydrolyzing a peptidic bond. As the drought stress progressed, citrulline became one of the major components in the total free amino acids. Eight days after withholding watering, although the lower leaves wilted significantly, the upper leaves still maintained their water status and the content of citrulline reached about 50% in the total free amino acids. The accumulation of citrulline during the drought stress in wild watermelon is an unique phenomenon in C3-plants. These results suggest that the drought tolerance of wild watermelon is related to (1) the maintenance of the water status and (2) a metabolic change to accumulate citrulline.

  15. Accumulation and distribution of 137Cs in the organic matter of soil during decomposition of forest dead leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokhanson, K.J.; Dolgilevich, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The samples of dead leaves, litter, and soil were taken in 1996 in the forest area located in the Ovruch district of the Zhytomyr region, Ukraine and where ground depositions of 137 Cs range from 100 to 590 kBq/m 2 . Radiocaesium activity of all organic fractions of litter decreased in comparison with radioactivity of the same fractions of dead leaves. Only hydrochloric acid hydrolysate of hemicellulose had a very big radioactivity reached 12-32% of radioactivity of samples. Apparently, hydrochloric acid extracted exchangeable 137 Cs (11-17%) and joined one with mineral substances. Organic matter content in the soil layer at a depth of 6-12 cm was 3,4%, the main organic fraction components were residues after hydrolysis and humus substances extracted by sodium pyrophosphate - 52.2 and 28.8%, respectively. In the same soil layer, radiocaesium activity was 0.63 kBg/kg

  16. Distribution of assimilates derived from canopy leaves at different milky stage of intergeneric high-yielding hybrid rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jianjun

    1997-01-01

    Distribution characteristics of assimilates derived from 14 C-glucose fed on different canopy leaves of the high-yielding intergeneric hybrid rice Yuanyou 1 and GER-1, intra-varietal 3-line hybrid rice Shanyou 63, maternal and paternal parents of intergeneric hybrid rice at various ripening stage from flowering stage to late milky stage were studied with pot experiments under greenhouse in 1993 and 1994 in Guangzhou. The results indicates that there exists a significant difference in exportation of radioactivity from the leaf fed, partitioning of radioactivity exported into different organs and importation accumulation percent of total radioactivity in the rice panicle Yuanyou 1 has a high average exportation percent, importation accumulation percent and a stable and sustainable grain-filling process, which results in a high seed-setting rate with large spikelet population

  17. Isolation, structural elucidation, MS profiling, and evaluation of triglyceride accumulation inhibitory effects of benzophenone C-glucosides from leaves of Mangifera indica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Han, Lifeng; Ge, Dandan; Liu, Xuefeng; Liu, Erwei; Wu, Chunhua; Gao, Xiumei; Wang, Tao

    2013-02-27

    Seventy percent ethanol-water extract from the leaves of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) was found to show an inhibitory effect on triglyceride (TG) accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. From the active fraction, six new benzophenone C-glucosides, foliamangiferosides A(3) (1), A(4) (2), C(4) (3), C(5) (4), C(6) (5), and C(7) (6) together with 11 known benzophenone C-glucosides (7-17) were obtained. In this paper, isolation, structure elucidation (1-6), and MS fragment cleavage pathways of all 17 isolates were studied. 1-6 showed inhibitory effects on TG and free fatty acid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells at 10 μM.

  18. Space and place in researching male early high school leaving in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Space and place in researching male early high school leaving in Orange Farm Township. ... South African Journal of Education ... I reflect on the methodological processes underpinning a dissertation that investigated male learners' reasons for leaving high school early and the strategies they employed to negotiate ...

  19. Massive accumulation of highly polluted sedimentary deposits by river damming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palanques, Albert, E-mail: albertp@icm.csic.es [Institute of Marine Sciences (CSIC), Passeig Maritim de la Barceloneta, 37-49, Barcelona 08003 (Spain); Grimalt, Joan [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18, Barcelona 08034 (Spain); Belzunces, Marc; Estrada, Ferran; Puig, Pere; Guillén, Jorge [Institute of Marine Sciences (CSIC), Passeig Maritim de la Barceloneta, 37-49, Barcelona 08003 (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Uncontrolled dumping of anthropogenic waste in rivers regulated by dams has created contaminated deposits in reservoirs that have remained unidentified for decades. The Flix Reservoir is located in the Ebro River, the second largest river flowing into the NW Mediterranean, has been affected by residue dumping from a chlor-alkali electrochemical plant for decades. High-resolution seismic profiles, bathymetric data, surficial sediment samples and sediment cores were obtained in the Flix Reservoir to study the characteristics of the deposit accumulated by this dumping. These data were used to reconstruct the waste deposit history. Since the construction of the Flix Dam in 1948, more than 3.6 × 10{sup 5} t of industrial waste has accumulated in the reservoir generating a delta-like deposit formed by three sediment lobes of fine-grained material highly contaminated by Hg, Cd, Zn and Cr (max: 640, 26, 420 and 750 mg kg{sup −1}, respectively). This contamination was associated with the Hg that was used for the cathode in the electrochemical plant from 1949 and with the production of phosphorite derivatives from 1973. After the construction of two large dams only a few kilometres upstream during the 1960s, the solids discharged from the industrial complex became the main sediment source to the Flix Reservoir. The deposit has remained in the reservoir forming a delta that obstructs about 50% of the river water section. Its stability only depended on the flow retention by the Flix Dam. At present, this contaminated waste deposit is being removed from the water reservoir as it is a cause of concern for the environment and for human health downriver. - Highlights: • A delta-like anthropogenic deposit prograded into the reservoir behind the Flix dam. • More than 3.6 × 10{sup 5} t of anthropogenic waste was accumulated in less than 4 decades. • A waste deposit with extreme levels of Hg and Cd was trapped in the Flix Reservoir. • The main pollution was related to

  20. Determination of high molecular mass compounds from Amazonian plant's leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Denilson Soares de; Pereira, Alberto dos Santos; Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler de; Simoneit, Bernd R.T.

    2003-01-01

    The fractions of dichloromethane extracts of leaves from andiroba (Carapa guianensis - Meliaceae), caapi (Banisteriopsis caapi - Malpighiaceae), cocoa (Theobroma cacao - Sterculiaceae), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa - Lecytidaceae), cupuacu (Theobroma grandiflorum - Sterculiaceae), marupa (Simaruba amara - Simaroubaceae) and rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis - Euphorbiaceae), were analyzed by HT-HRGC and HT-HRGC-MS. Esters of homologous series of fatty acids and long chain alcohols, phytol, amyrines and tocopherols were characterized. The characterization of the compounds was based mainly in mass spectra data and in addition by usual spectrometric data ( 1 H and 13 C NMR, IR). (author)

  1. Accumulation of Pb and Mn on Road Side Leaves, Analysis from Mauri Por to Hawks bay Road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, M.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate measurements of the heavy-metal contents in polluted areas are required to assess the potential ecological risks in these areas. Chemical and biological indicators are of interest when they provide information about the concentration and accumulation of heavy metals in the environment. These studies were conducted in order to investigate heavy-metal accumulation and the effect on Conocarpus (Conocarpus Erectus) on roadside trees. The total content of Pb and Mn was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, AAS. The present results showed variations that indicate both the concerned species have the highest concentration in all the sampling areas near the road. According to the results present study, the average concentration of Pb and Mn are 10.576+3.482 micro g/gm and 91.977+ 30.030 micro g/gm respectively. The results showed that the plant demonstrated a physiological response to the heavy-metal pollution, which suggests that roadside plants are indicators of heavy-metal accumulation and the effect on the environment. (author)

  2. Phosphorus application reduces aluminum toxicity in two Eucalyptus clones by increasing its accumulation in roots and decreasing its content in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Weichao; Kang, Yachao; Hou, Wenjuan; Hu, Houzhen; Luo, Wenji; Wei, Jie; Wang, Linghui; Zhang, Boyu

    2018-01-01

    Under acidic conditions, aluminum (Al) toxicity is an important factor limiting plant productivity; however, the application of phosphorus (P) might alleviate the toxic effects of Al. In this study, seedlings of two vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'G9' and E. grandis × E. urophylla 'DH32-29'were subjected to six treatments (two levels of Al stress and three levels of P). Under excessive Al stress, root Al content was higher, whereas shoot and leaf Al contents were lower with P application than those without P application. Further, Al accumulation was higher in the roots, but lower in the shoots and leaves of G9 than in those of DH32-29. The secretion of organic acids was higher under Al stress than under no Al stress. Further, under Al stress, the roots of G9 secreted more organic acids than those of DH32-29. With an increase in P supply, Al-induced secretion of organic acids from roots decreased. Under Al stress, some enzymes, including PEPC, CS, and IDH, played important roles in organic acid biosynthesis and degradation. Thus, our results indicate that P can reduce Al toxicity via the fixation of elemental Al in roots and restriction of its transport to stems and leaves, although P application cannot promote the secretion of organic acid anions. Further, the higher Al-resistance of G9 might be attributed to the higher Al accumulation in and organic acid anion secretion from roots and the lower levels of Al in leaves.

  3. Phosphorus application reduces aluminum toxicity in two Eucalyptus clones by increasing its accumulation in roots and decreasing its content in leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichao Teng

    Full Text Available Under acidic conditions, aluminum (Al toxicity is an important factor limiting plant productivity; however, the application of phosphorus (P might alleviate the toxic effects of Al. In this study, seedlings of two vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'G9' and E. grandis × E. urophylla 'DH32-29'were subjected to six treatments (two levels of Al stress and three levels of P. Under excessive Al stress, root Al content was higher, whereas shoot and leaf Al contents were lower with P application than those without P application. Further, Al accumulation was higher in the roots, but lower in the shoots and leaves of G9 than in those of DH32-29. The secretion of organic acids was higher under Al stress than under no Al stress. Further, under Al stress, the roots of G9 secreted more organic acids than those of DH32-29. With an increase in P supply, Al-induced secretion of organic acids from roots decreased. Under Al stress, some enzymes, including PEPC, CS, and IDH, played important roles in organic acid biosynthesis and degradation. Thus, our results indicate that P can reduce Al toxicity via the fixation of elemental Al in roots and restriction of its transport to stems and leaves, although P application cannot promote the secretion of organic acid anions. Further, the higher Al-resistance of G9 might be attributed to the higher Al accumulation in and organic acid anion secretion from roots and the lower levels of Al in leaves.

  4. Space and place in researching male early high school leaving in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    question the school systems' organisational components (Coleman, 1988), curriculum .... 2001:379) because of the value placed on a high-school certificate. Early school ..... Male early high school leaving in Orange Farm Township: A hidden.

  5. Accumulation of defence-related transcripts and cloning of a chitinase mRNA from pea leaves (Pisum sativum L.) inoculated with Ascochyta pisi Lib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vad, Knud; de Neergaard, Eigil; Madriz-Ordeñana, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    The race specific resistance of pea to Ascochyta pisi Lib. was shown to be exhibited as a hypersensitive response associated with the production of polyphenolic substances in epidermal and mesophyll cells. The levels of transcripts representing a pathogenesis-related (PR) protein (chitinase......) and an enzyme of phytoalexin biosynthesis (chalcone synthase) were shown to accumulate more rapidly during the hypersensitive response than during lesion development in the compatible interaction. A full-length (1143 bp) cDNA sequence of a pea chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) (coding for an approx. 34 500 Da protein......) was deduced by combining the overlapping sequences of three clones obtained following PCR amplification of cDNA prepared from mRNA isolated 24 h after inoculation of pea leaves with Ascochyta pisi. The combined sequences were identified as a class I chitinase corresponding to the basic A1-chitinase enzyme...

  6. SR-XRF imaging of Cs highly accumulated in vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Izumi; Oda, Nahoko; Terada, Yasuko

    2011-01-01

    Accumulation of Cs in vegetables was studied with regard to the remediation of radioactive Cs from a nuclear plant accident in Fukushima. It was found that Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brassica campestris var. perviridis, and Lactuca sativa accumulated Cs to a level of more than 10000 ppm (dry weight) when they were cultivated in 1 mM Cs solution. Two-dimensional distributions of Cs were revealed by SR-XRF imaging showing a homogeneous distribution of Cs in the plant bodies. (author)

  7. P1 epigenetic regulation in leaves of high altitude maize landraces: effect of UV-B radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Pablo Rius

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available P1 is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor that regulates the accumulation of a specific group of flavonoids in maize floral tissues, such as flavones and phlobaphenes. P1 is also highly expressed in leaves of maize landraces adapted to high altitudes and higher levels of UV-B radiation. In this work, we analyzed the epigenetic regulation of the P1 gene by UV-B in leaves of different maize landraces. Our results demonstrate that DNA methylation in the P1 proximal promoter, intron1 and intron2 is decreased by UV-B in all lines analyzed; however, the basal DNA methylation levels are lower in the landraces than in B73, a low altitude inbred line. DNA demethylation by UV-B is accompanied by a decrease in H3 methylation at Lys 9 and 27, and by an increase in H3 acetylation. smRNAs complementary to specific regions of the proximal promoter and of intron 2 3' end are also decreased by UV-B; interestingly, P1 smRNA levels are lower in the landraces than in B73 both under control conditions and after UV-B exposure, suggesting that smRNAs regulate P1 expression by UV-B in maize leaves. Finally, we investigated if different P1 targets in flower tissues are also regulated by this transcription factor in response to UV-B. Some targets analyzed show an induction in maize landraces in response to UV-B, with higher basal expression levels in the landraces than in B73; however, not all the transcripts analyzed were found to be regulated by UV-B in leaves.

  8. Highly Oxygenated Flavonoids from the Leaves of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Solanaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Shafiullah Shajib; Bidyut Kanti Datta; Md. Hossain Sohrab; Mohammad Abdur Rashid; Lutfun Nahar; Satyajit Dey Sarker

    2017-01-01

    Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. is an annual herb of the family Solanaceae, which grows abundantly in the weedy lands of Bangladesh . This plant possesses analgesic, antibacterial, anti-anxiety and hepatoprotective properties, and produces various phenolic compounds including flavonoids. The present study afforded determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and for the first time, the isolation and characterization of highly oxygenated flavonoids, e.g., 3,3' ,5,6,7,8-hexamethoxy- 4...

  9. Space and Place in Researching Male Early High School Leaving in Orange Farm Township

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingma, Vangile

    2013-01-01

    I reflect on the methodological processes underpinning a dissertation that investigated male learners' reasons for leaving high school early and the strategies they employed to negotiate everyday life. A qualitative case study was conducted with nine male early high school leavers between the ages of 18 and 25, as well as 12 stakeholders involved…

  10. Acclimation responses to high light by Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae) leaves at different stages of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzavara, A K; Rocha, J S; Lourenço, G; Sanada, K; Medri, C; Bianchini, E; Pimenta, J A; Stolf-Moreira, R; Oliveira, H C

    2017-09-01

    The re-composition of deforested environments requires the prior acclimation of seedlings to full sun in nurseries. Seedlings can overcome excess light either through the acclimation of pre-existing fully expanded leaves or through the development of new leaves that are acclimated to the new light environment. Here, we compared the acclimation capacity of mature (MatL, fully expanded at the time of transfer) and newly expanded (NewL, expanded after the light shift) leaves of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae) seedlings to high light. The seedlings were initially grown under shade and then transferred to full sunlight. MatL and NewL were used for chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange analyses, pigment extraction and morpho-anatomical measurements. After the transfer of seedlings to full sun, the MatL persisted and acclimated to some extent to the new light condition, since they underwent alterations in some morpho-physiological traits and maintained a functional electron transport chain and positive net photosynthesis rate. However, long-term exposure to high light led to chronic photoinhibition in MatL, which could be related to the limited plasticity of leaf morpho-anatomical attributes. However, the NewL showed a high capacity to use the absorbed energy in photochemistry and dissipate excess energy harmlessly, attributes that were favoured by the high structural plasticity exhibited by these leaves. Both the maintenance of mature, photosynthetically active leaves and the production of new leaves with a high capacity to cope with excess energy were important for acclimation of G. ulmifolia seedlings. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Control of ascorbic acid synthesis and accumulation and glutathione by the incident light red/far red ratio in Phaseolus vulgaris leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Carlos G; Tambussi, Eduardo A; Diego, Fanello; Foyer, Christine H

    2009-01-05

    The effects of red/far red (R/FR) ratios on leaf ascorbate (AA) and glutathione (GSH) accumulation were examined in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Growth under low R/FR ratios resulted in a "shade" phenotype and much lower leaf AA and GSH contents than high (R/FR) ratios. Photosynthesis rates were unaffected by changes in the R/FR ratio but leaf respiration rates, pyridine nucleotide pools and antioxidant enzyme activities were decreased under the low R/FR regime. The GSH pool changed slowly in response to altered R/FR ratios but leaf ascorbate acclimated over a single photoperiod. We conclude that light quality signals, particularly R/FR ratios, are important regulators of antioxidant synthesis and accumulation. These acclimatory changes are an early response to changing light environment.

  12. Critical parameters in cost-effective alkaline extraction for high protein yield from leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Leaves are potential resources for feed or food, but their applications are limited due to a high proportion of insoluble protein and inefficient processing. To overcome these problems, parameters of alkaline extraction were evaluated using green tea residue (GTR). Protein extraction could be

  13. Predictive modeling of crystal accumulation in high-level waste glass melters processing radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyáš, Josef; Gervasio, Vivianaluxa; Sannoh, Sulaiman E.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2017-11-01

    The effectiveness of HLW vitrification is limited by precipitation/accumulation of spinel crystals [(Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn)(Fe, Cr)2O4] in the glass discharge riser of Joule-heated ceramic melters during idling. These crystals do not affect glass durability; however, if accumulated in thick layer, they can clog the melter and prevent discharge of molten glass into canisters. To address this problem, an empirical model was developed that can predict thicknesses of accumulated layers as a function of glass composition. This model predicts well the accumulation of single crystals and/or small-scale agglomerates, but, excessive agglomeration observed in high-Ni-Fe glass resulted in an under-prediction of accumulated layers, which gradually worsen over time as an increased number of agglomerates formed. Accumulation rate of ~53.8 ± 3.7 µm/h determined for this glass will result in ~26 mm thick layer in 20 days of melter idling.

  14. High-Level Culturability of Epiphytic Bacteria and Frequency of Biosurfactant Producers on Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Adrien Y.; Do, Paulina T.; Sbodio, Adrian; Suslow, Trevor V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To better characterize the bacterial community members capable of biosurfactant production on leaves, we distinguished culturable biosurfactant-producing bacteria from nonproducers and used community sequencing to compare the composition of these distinct cultured populations with that from DNA directly recovered from leaves. Communities on spinach, romaine, and head lettuce leaves were compared with communities from adjacent samples of soil and irrigation source water. Soil communities were poorly described by culturing, with recovery of cultured representatives from only 21% of the prevalent operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (>0.2% reads) identified. The dominant biosurfactant producers cultured from soil included bacilli and pseudomonads. In contrast, the cultured communities from leaves are highly representative of the culture-independent communities, with over 85% of the prevalent OTUs recovered. The dominant taxa of surfactant producers from leaves were pseudomonads as well as members of the infrequently studied genus Chryseobacterium. The proportions of bacteria cultured from head lettuce and romaine leaves that produce biosurfactants were directly correlated with the culture-independent proportion of pseudomonads in a given sample, whereas spinach harbored a wider diversity of biosurfactant producers. A subset of the culturable bacteria in irrigation water also became enriched on romaine leaves that were irrigated overhead. Although our study was designed to identify surfactant producers on plants, we also provide evidence that most bacteria in some habitats, such as agronomic plant surfaces, are culturable, and these communities can be readily investigated and described by more classical culturing methods. IMPORTANCE The importance of biosurfactant production to the bacteria that live on waxy leaf surfaces as well as their ability to be accurately assessed using culture-based methodologies was determined by interrogating epiphytic populations by

  15. High Intensity Effects in the SNS Accumulator Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Jeffrey A.; Cousineau, Sarah M.; Danilov, Viatcheslav; Plum, Michael A.; Shishlo, Andrei P.

    2008-01-01

    Currently operating at 0.5 MW beam power on target, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is already the world's most powerful pulsed neutron source. However, we are only one third of the way to full power. As we ramp toward full power, the control of the beam and beam loss in the ring will be critical. In addition to practical considerations, such as choice of operating point, painting scheme, RF bunching, and beam scattering, it may be necessary to understand and mitigate collective effects due to space charge, impedances, and electron clouds. At each stage of the power ramp-up, we use all available resources to understand and to minimize beam losses. From the standpoint of beam dynamics, the losses observed so far under normal operating conditions have not involved collective phenomena. We are now entering the intensity regime in which this may change. In dedicated high intensity beam studies, we have already observed resistive wall, extraction kicker impedance-driven, and electron cloud activities. The analysis and simulation of this data are important ongoing activities at SNS. This paper discusses the status of this work, as well as other considerations necessary to the successful full power operation of SNS.

  16. High Accumulation and Subcellular Distribution of Thallium in Green Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L. Var. Capitata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zengping; He, Libin; Xiao, Tangfu; Márton, László

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of thallium (Tl) in brassicaceous crops is widely known, but both the uptake extents of Tl by the individual cultivars of green cabbage and the distribution of Tl in the tissues of green cabbage are not well understood. Five commonly available cultivars of green cabbage grown in the Tl-spiked pot-culture trials were studied for the uptake extent and subcellular distribution of Tl. The results showed that all the trial cultivars mainly concentrated Tl in the leaves (101∼192 mg/kg, DW) rather than in the roots or stems, with no significant differences among cultivars (p = 0.455). Tl accumulation in the leaves revealed obvious subcellular fractionation: cell cytosol and vacuole > cell wall > cell organelles. The majority (∼ 88%) of leaf-Tl was found to be in the fraction of cytosol and vacuole, which also served as the major storage site for other major elements such as Ca and Mg. This specific subcellular fractionation of Tl appeared to enable green cabbage to avoid Tl damage to its vital organelles and to help green cabbage tolerate and detoxify Tl. This study demonstrated that all the five green cabbage cultivars show a good application potential in the phytoremediation of Tl-contaminated soils.

  17. Elevated rates of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus accumulation in a highly impacted mangrove wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Eyre, Bradley D.; Santos, Isaac R.; Machado, Wilson; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Smoak, Joseph M.; Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Sanders, Luciana; Marotta, Humberto; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-04-01

    The effect of nutrient enrichment on mangrove sediment accretion and carbon accumulation rates is poorly understood. Here we quantify sediment accretion through radionuclide tracers to determine organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) accumulation rates during the previous 60 years in both a nutrient-enriched and a pristine mangrove forest within the same geomorphological region of southeastern Brazil. The forest receiving high nutrient loads has accumulated OC, TN, and TP at rates that are fourfold, twofold, and eightfold respectively, higher than those from the undisturbed mangrove. Organic carbon and TN stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) reflect an increased presence of organic matter (OM) originating with either phytoplankton, benthic algae, or another allochthonous source within the more rapidly accumulated sediments of the impacted mangrove. This suggests that the accumulation rate of OM in eutrophic mangrove systems may be enhanced through the addition of autochthonous and allochthonous nonmangrove material.

  18. Isolation of high-quality total RNA from leaves of Myrciaria dubia "CAMU CAMU".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Juan Carlos Castro; Reátegui, Alina Del Carmen Egoavil; Flores, Julián Torres; Saavedra, Roberson Ramírez; Ruiz, Marianela Cobos; Correa, Sixto Alfredo Imán

    2013-01-01

    Myrciaria dubia is a main source of vitamin C for people in the Amazon region. Molecular studies of M. dubia require high-quality total RNA from different tissues. So far, no protocols have been reported for total RNA isolation from leaves of this species. The objective of this research was to develop protocols for extracting high-quality total RNA from leaves of M. dubia. Total RNA was purified following two modified protocols developed for leaves of other species (by Zeng and Yang, and by Reid et al.) and one modified protocol developed for fruits of the studied species (by Silva). Quantity and quality of purified total RNA were assessed by spectrophotometric and electrophoretic analysis. Additionally, quality of total RNA was evaluated with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). With these three modified protocols we were able to isolate high-quality RNA (A260nm/A280nm >1.9 and A260nm/A230nm >2.0). Highest yield was produced with the Zeng and Yang modified protocol (384±46µg ARN/g fresh weight). Furthermore, electrophoretic analysis showed the integrity of isolated RNA and the absence of DNA. Another proof of the high quality of our purified RNA was the successful cDNA synthesis and amplification of a segment of the M. dubia actin 1 gene. We report three modified protocols for isolation total RNA from leaves of M. dubia. The modified protocols are easy, rapid, low in cost, and effective for high-quality and quantity total RNA isolation suitable for cDNA synthesis and polymerase chain reaction.

  19. High performance thin layer chromatography fingerprint analysis of guava (Psidium guajava) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, M.; Darusman, L. K.; Rafi, M.

    2017-05-01

    High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint analysis is commonly used for quality control of medicinal plants in term of identification and authentication. In this study, we have been developed HPTLC fingerprint analysis for identification of guava (Psidium guajava) leaves raw material. A mixture of chloroform, acetone, and formic acid in the ratio 10:2:1 was used as the optimum mobile phase in HPTLC silica plate and with 13 bands were detected. As reference marker we chose gallic acid (Rf = 0.21) and catechin (Rf = 0.11). The two compound were detected as pale black bands at 366 nm after derivatization with sulfuric acid 10% v/v (in methanol) reagent. Validation of the method was met within validation criteria, so the developed method could be used for quality control of guava leaves.

  20. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal aperture size in intact leaves: accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, P.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    At various times after pulse-labeling broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaflets with 14CO2, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents, whereas those from rinsed peels contained only symplastic contents. Sucrose (Suc)-specific radioactivity peaked (111 GBq mol-1) in palisade cells at 20 min. In contrast, the 14C content and Suc-specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO2 incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum Suc-specific radioactivity (204 GBq mol-1) and a high Suc influx rate (0.05 pmol stoma-1 min-1). These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple Suc pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived Suc in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by approximately 3 micrometers. Factors expected to enhance Suc accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic Suc concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll Suc efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism

  1. Combined low temperature-high light effects on gas exchange properties of jojoba leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto, F; Bongi, G

    1989-12-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis [Link] Schneider) is an important crop in desert climates. A relatively high frequency of periods of chilling and high photon flux density (PFD) in this environment makes photoinhibition likely, resulting in a reduction of assimilation capacity in overwintering leaves. This could explain the low net photosynthesis found in shoots from the field (4-6 micromoles per square meter per second) when compared to greenhouse grown plants (12-15 micromoles per square meter per second). The responses of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to changes in absorbed PFD and in substomatal partial pressure of CO(2) were measured on jojoba leaves recovering from chilling temperature (4 degrees C) in high or low PFD. No measurable gas exchange was found immediately after chilling in either high or low PFD. For leaves chilled in low PFD, the original quantum yield was restored after 24 hours. The time course of recovery from chilling in high PFD was much longer. Quantum yield recovered to 60% of its original value in 72 hours but failed to recover fully after 1 week. Measurements of PSII chlorophyll fluorescence at 77 K showed that the reduced quantum yield was caused by photoinhibition. The ratio of variable to maximal fluorescence fell from a control level of 0.82 to 0.41 after the photoinhibitory treatment and recovery was slow. We also found a large increase in net assimilation rate and little closure of stomata as CO(2) was increased from ambient partial pressure of 35 to 85 pascals. For plants grown in full light, the increase in net assimilation rate was 100%. The photosynthetic response at high CO(2) concentration may constitute an ecological advantage of jojoba as a crop in the future.

  2. Combined Low Temperature-High Light Effects on Gas Exchange Properties of Jojoba Leaves 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto, Francesco; Bongi, Guido

    1989-01-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis [Link] Schneider) is an important crop in desert climates. A relatively high frequency of periods of chilling and high photon flux density (PFD) in this environment makes photoinhibition likely, resulting in a reduction of assimilation capacity in overwintering leaves. This could explain the low net photosynthesis found in shoots from the field (4-6 micromoles per square meter per second) when compared to greenhouse grown plants (12-15 micromoles per square meter per second). The responses of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to changes in absorbed PFD and in substomatal partial pressure of CO2 were measured on jojoba leaves recovering from chilling temperature (4°C) in high or low PFD. No measurable gas exchange was found immediately after chilling in either high or low PFD. For leaves chilled in low PFD, the original quantum yield was restored after 24 hours. The time course of recovery from chilling in high PFD was much longer. Quantum yield recovered to 60% of its original value in 72 hours but failed to recover fully after 1 week. Measurements of PSII chlorophyll fluorescence at 77 K showed that the reduced quantum yield was caused by photoinhibition. The ratio of variable to maximal fluorescence fell from a control level of 0.82 to 0.41 after the photoinhibitory treatment and recovery was slow. We also found a large increase in net assimilation rate and little closure of stomata as CO2 was increased from ambient partial pressure of 35 to 85 pascals. For plants grown in full light, the increase in net assimilation rate was 100%. The photosynthetic response at high CO2 concentration may constitute an ecological advantage of jojoba as a crop in the future. PMID:16667220

  3. Moringa Leaves Prevent Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Guinea Pigs by Reducing the Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almatrafi, Manal Mused; Vergara-Jimenez, Marcela; Murillo, Ana Gabriela; Norris, Gregory H; Blesso, Christopher N; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2017-06-22

    To investigate the mechanisms by which Moringa oleifera leaves (ML) modulate hepatic lipids, guinea pigs were allocated to either control (0% ML), 10% Low Moringa (LM) or 15% High Moringa (HM) diets with 0.25% dietary cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. After 6 weeks, guinea pigs were sacrificed and liver and plasma were collected to determine plasma lipids, hepatic lipids, cytokines and the expression of genes involved in hepatic cholesterol (CH) and triglyceride (TG) metabolism. There were no differences in plasma lipids among groups. A dose-response effect of ML was observed in hepatic lipids (CH and TG) with the lowest concentrations in the HM group ( p < 0.001), consistent with histological evaluation of lipid droplets. Hepatic gene expression of diglyceride acyltransferase-2 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, as well as protein concentrations interleukin (IL)-1β and interferon-γ, were lowest in the HM group ( p < 0.005). Hepatic gene expression of cluster of differentiation-68 and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c were 60% lower in both the LM and HM groups compared to controls ( p < 0.01). This study demonstrates that ML may prevent hepatic steatosis by affecting gene expression related to hepatic lipids synthesis resulting in lower concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides and reduced inflammation in the liver.

  4. Moringa Leaves Prevent Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Guinea Pigs by Reducing the Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almatrafi, Manal Mused; Vergara-Jimenez, Marcela; Murillo, Ana Gabriela; Norris, Gregory H.; Blesso, Christopher N.; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms by which Moringa oleifera leaves (ML) modulate hepatic lipids, guinea pigs were allocated to either control (0% ML), 10% Low Moringa (LM) or 15% High Moringa (HM) diets with 0.25% dietary cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. After 6 weeks, guinea pigs were sacrificed and liver and plasma were collected to determine plasma lipids, hepatic lipids, cytokines and the expression of genes involved in hepatic cholesterol (CH) and triglyceride (TG) metabolism. There were no differences in plasma lipids among groups. A dose-response effect of ML was observed in hepatic lipids (CH and TG) with the lowest concentrations in the HM group (p < 0.001), consistent with histological evaluation of lipid droplets. Hepatic gene expression of diglyceride acyltransferase-2 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, as well as protein concentrations interleukin (IL)-1β and interferon-γ, were lowest in the HM group (p < 0.005). Hepatic gene expression of cluster of differentiation-68 and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c were 60% lower in both the LM and HM groups compared to controls (p < 0.01). This study demonstrates that ML may prevent hepatic steatosis by affecting gene expression related to hepatic lipids synthesis resulting in lower concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides and reduced inflammation in the liver. PMID:28640194

  5. Moringa Leaves Prevent Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Guinea Pigs by Reducing the Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Mused Almatrafi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the mechanisms by which Moringa oleifera leaves (ML modulate hepatic lipids, guinea pigs were allocated to either control (0% ML, 10% Low Moringa (LM or 15% High Moringa (HM diets with 0.25% dietary cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. After 6 weeks, guinea pigs were sacrificed and liver and plasma were collected to determine plasma lipids, hepatic lipids, cytokines and the expression of genes involved in hepatic cholesterol (CH and triglyceride (TG metabolism. There were no differences in plasma lipids among groups. A dose-response effect of ML was observed in hepatic lipids (CH and TG with the lowest concentrations in the HM group (p < 0.001, consistent with histological evaluation of lipid droplets. Hepatic gene expression of diglyceride acyltransferase-2 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, as well as protein concentrations interleukin (IL-1β and interferon-γ, were lowest in the HM group (p < 0.005. Hepatic gene expression of cluster of differentiation-68 and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c were 60% lower in both the LM and HM groups compared to controls (p < 0.01. This study demonstrates that ML may prevent hepatic steatosis by affecting gene expression related to hepatic lipids synthesis resulting in lower concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides and reduced inflammation in the liver.

  6. Urea increased nickel and copper accumulation in the leaves of Egeria densa (Planch.) Casp. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. during short-term exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleva, Maria; Borisova, Galina; Chukina, Nadezhda; Kumar, Adarsh

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, two fresh water plant species Egeria densa (Planch.) Casp. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. were subjected to separate and combined action of urea (2mМ) and metals (Ni and Cu, 10μM) to investigate the phytoremediation potential of these two submerged macrophytes during short-term experiments (48h). Both submerged macrophytes demonstrated high accumulative potential for Ni and Cu (average bioconcentration factors were 2505 for Ni and 3778 for Cu). The urea (2 mM) was not significantly toxic for studied plant species. Futhermore, urea worked as an additional source of nitrogen and stimulated some metabolic processes such as the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments, soluble proteins, non-enzymatic antioxidants, and activated some enzymes. Adding urea to the metals increased their accumulation in both macrophytes (on average by 35% for Ni and 15% for Cu). Combined action of urea and Ni did not have a significant effect on antioxidant response, but caused a sharp increase of urease activity (4 folds on an average) in both plants. The copper exerted a stronger toxic effect on both studied macrophytes compared to nickel. Adding urea to copper in some cases diminished the toxic action of this metal. Study concludes that the responses of E. densa and C. demersum to urea and metal action (separate and combined) were depended on the type of pollutant and the activity of antioxidant defence system. Therefore, the studied aquatic macrophytes found to be potential phytoremediators of water bodies, the addition of an organic nitrogen source in the form of urea in environmentally relevant concentration will increase the efficiency of phytoextraction of metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictive modeling of crystal accumulation in high-level waste glass melters processing radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyáš, Josef; Gervasio, Vivianaluxa; Sannoh, Sulaiman E.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2017-11-01

    The effectiveness of high-level waste vitrification at Hanford's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant may be limited by precipitation/accumulation of spinel crystals [(Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn)(Fe, Cr)2O4] in the glass discharge riser of Joule-heated ceramic melters during idling. These crystals do not affect glass durability; however, if accumulated in thick layers, they can clog the melter and prevent discharge of molten glass into canisters. To address this problem, an empirical model was developed that can predict thicknesses of accumulated layers as a function of glass composition. This model predicts well the accumulation of single crystals and/or small-scale agglomerates, but excessive agglomeration observed in high-Ni-Fe glass resulted in an underprediction of accumulated layers, which gradually worsened over time as an increased number of agglomerates formed. The accumulation rate of ∼53.8 ± 3.7 μm/h determined for this glass will result in a ∼26 mm-thick layer after 20 days of melter idling.

  8. High-Affinity Accumulation of Chloroquine by Mouse Erythrocytes Infected with Plasmodium berghei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Coy D.; Yunis, Norman G.; Chevli, Rekha; Gonzalez, Yolanda

    1974-01-01

    Washed erythrocytes infected with chloroquine-susceptible (CS) or with chloroquine-resistant (CR) P. berghei were used in model systems in vitro to study the accumulation of chloroquine with high affinity. The CS model could achieve distribution ratios (chloroquine in cells: chloroquine in medium) of 100 in the absence of substrate. 200—300 in the presence of 10 mM pyruvate or lactate, and over 600 in the presence of 1 mM glucose or glycerol. In comparable studies of the CR model, the distribution ratios were 100 in the absence of substrate and 300 or less in the presence of glucose or glycerol. The presence of lactate stimulated chloroquine accumulation in the CR model, whereas the presence of pyruvate did not. Lactate production from glucose and glycerol was undiminished in the CR model, and ATP concentrations were higher than in the CS model. Cold, iodoacetate, 2,4-dinitrophenol, or decreasing pH inhibited chloroquine accumulation in both models. These findings demonstrate substrate involvement in the accumulation of chloroquine with high affinity. In studies of the CS model, certain compounds competitively inhibited chloroquine accumulation, while others did not. This finding is attributable to a specific receptor that imposes structural constraints on the process of accumulation. For chloroquine analogues, the position and length of the side chain, the terminal nitrogen atom of the side chain, and the nitrogen atom in the quinoline ring are important determinants of binding to this receptor. PMID:4600044

  9. Heavy metal accumulations in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) leaves and cocoa beans grown at three main cacao growing regions of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peru is one of the leading exporters of organic cocoa beans in the world. However, the accumulation of heavy metals in cacao beans represents a considerable quality problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in cacao plants grown at three dif...

  10. High accumulation of cobalt-60 by the particular organ or part of some species in mollusca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Katsuhiko

    1981-01-01

    A large amounts of samples in marine Cephalopoda and Tridacna were sampled in north west pacific ocean, near Japan. The samples were separated into organs or parts for determination of Co-60 concentration. A peculiar accumulation of Co-60 by the branchial heart of Octopus was also recognized in field condition, but it had become apparent that branchial heart of squid had not same ability. Liver of Cephalopoda had the ability to highly accumulate the Co-60 and specific activity of squid was one order highter than Octopus. The concentration of Cobalt-60 in visceral muss kidney of Tridacna maxima lineally increased with increasing shell length but that in other soft parts was kept constant. After examination of the other papers it was assumed that Co-60 highly accumulated in these organs was transfered by the food chain. (author)

  11. Space and place in researching male early high school leaving in Orange Farm Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vangile Bingma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I reflect on the methodological processes underpinning a dissertation that investigated male learners' reasons for leaving high school early and the strategies they employed to negotiate everyday life. A qualitative case study was conducted with nine male early high school leavers between the ages of 18 and 25, as well as 12 stakeholders involved in the Orange Farm Township, south of Johannesburg. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, document reviews, and observations. Narrative analysis revealed complications related to the notions of space and place of the potential participants and the researcher. In the first place, the difficulty was not in identifying participants, but in establishing rapport to the extent that they agreed to participate in the research. Assumptions about space and place gave rise to expectations that had to be managed, and consequently the researcher had to rethink the methodological choices. In particular, participants' perceived real social positions and their relation to different social spaces had to be negotiated. It is suggested that relatively novice researchers, researching male early high school leaving in familiar spaces, can mitigate complications of space, place and stigma during fieldwork by using multiple sources of data and strategic, flexible interviewing techniques.

  12. Influence of environmental factors on mineral elements transport and accumulation in leaves and fruits of kiwifruit plants [Actinidia deliciosa (A.Chev.) C.F.Liang et A.R.Ferguson; Basilicata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanaro, G.; Dichio, B.; Palese, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the effect of light availability on actinidia leaf and fruit N, P, K, Ca and Mg accumulation is reported. At fruit-set, exposed and shaded treatments were imposed. Fruit and leaf transpiration was measured using a portable gas exchanges analyser (ADC-LCA4). Sap flow was monitored on whole canes using the Dynagage Sap-Flow (heat balance method). Transpiration of exposed leaves was on average 66% higher than the one of shaded leaves. Sap flow of exposed canes was on average 53 g mE-2 per day; the shadow treatment determined a 60% decrease of sap flow. These differences affected the accumulation of those minerals, notably calcium, which are transported mainly via xylem. Fruit calcium content reached approximately 40 mg fruitE-1 in exposed fruits, while in the shaded ones it was 23 mg fruitE-1. Our results suggest that a greater light availability can promote calcium accumulation. Therefore, the accurate training system management, favouring light interception by canopy and fruits, could be a tool for fruit quality improvement [it

  13. Effects of high ammonium level on biomass accumulation of common duckweed Lemna minor L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguo; Yang, Chuang; Tang, Xiaoyu; Gu, Xinjiao; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; Ma, Danwei

    2014-12-01

    Growing common duckweed Lemna minor L. in diluted livestock wastewater is an alternative option for pollutants removal and consequently the accumulated duckweed biomass can be used for bioenergy production. However, the biomass accumulation can be inhibited by high level of ammonium (NH4 (+)) in non-diluted livestock wastewater and the mechanism of ammonium inhibition is not fully understood. In this study, the effect of high concentration of NH4 (+) on L. minor biomass accumulation was investigated using NH4 (+) as sole source of nitrogen (N). NH4 (+)-induced toxicity symptoms were observed when L. minor was exposed to high concentrations of ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) after a 7-day cultivation. L. minor exposed to the NH4 (+)-N concentration of 840 mg l(-1) exhibited reduced relative growth rate, contents of carbon (C) and photosynthetic pigments, and C/N ratio. Ammonium irons were inhibitory to the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments and caused C/N imbalance in L. minor. These symptoms could further cause premature senescence of the fronds, and restrain their reproduction, growth and biomass accumulation. L. minor could grow at NH4 (+)-N concentrations of 7-84 mg l(-1) and the optimal NH4 (+)-N concentration was 28 mg l(-1).

  14. Enrichments of methanotrophic-heterotrophic cultures with high poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulation capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Xiaowei; Zhou, Jiti; Zhang, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Methanotrophic-heterotrophic communities were selectively enriched from sewage sludge to obtain a mixed culture with high levels of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulation capacity from methane. Methane was used as the carbon source, N 2 as sole nitrogen source, and oxygen and Cu content were varied. Copper proved essential for PHB synthesis. All cultures enriched with Cu could accumulate high content of PHB (43.2%-45.9%), while only small amounts of PHB were accumulated by cultures enriched without Cu (11.9%-17.5%). Batch assays revealed that communities grown with Cu and a higher O 2 content synthesized more PHB, which had a wider optimal CH 4 :O 2 range and produced a high PHB content (48.7%) even though in the presence of N 2 . In all methanotrophic-heterotrophic communities, both methanotrophic and heterotrophic populations showed the ability to accumulate PHB. Although methane was added as the sole carbon source, heterotrophs dominated with abundances between 77.2% and 85.6%. All methanotrophs detected belonged to type II genera, which formed stable communities with heterotrophs of different PHB production capacities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. [Characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley genotypes with high nitrogen utilization efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Li, Ting-Xuan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Ji, Lin

    2014-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted under low (125 mg x kg-1) and normal (250 mg x kg(-1)) nitrogen treatments. The nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency of 22 barley cultivars were investigated, and the characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley were analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency were different for barley under two nitrogen levels. The maximal values of grain yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index were 2.87, 2.91 and 2.47 times as those of the lowest under the low nitrogen treatment. Grain yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index of barley genotype with high nitrogen utilization efficiency were significantly greater than low nitrogen utilization efficiency, and the parameters of high nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype were 82.1%, 61.5% and 50.5% higher than low nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype under the low nitrogen treatment. Dry matter mass and nitrogen utilization of high nitrogen utilization efficiency was significantly higher than those of low nitrogen utilization efficiency. A peak of dry matter mass of high nitrogen utilization efficiency occurred during jointing to heading stage, while that of nitrogen accumulation appeared before jointing. Under the low nitrogen treatment, dry matter mass of DH61 and DH121+ was 34.4% and 38.3%, and nitrogen accumulation was 54. 8% and 58.0% higher than DH80, respectively. Dry matter mass and nitrogen accumulation seriously affected yield before jointing stage, and the contribution rates were 47.9% and 54.7% respectively under the low nitrogen treatment. The effect of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation on nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain was the largest during heading to mature stages, followed by sowing to jointing stages, with the contribution rate being 29.5% and 48.7%, 29.0% and 15.8%, respectively. In conclusion, barley genotype with high

  16. Cytological and ultrastructural preservation in Eocene Metasequoia leaves from the Canadian high Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenhut, K.; Vann, D.R.; LePage, B.A. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Earth & Environmental Science

    2004-06-01

    The ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy of 45-million-year-old mummified leaves of Metasequoia extracted from the Upper Coal member of the Buchanan Lake Formation in Napartulik on Axel Heiberg Island revealed the preservation of intact chloroplasts and chloroplast components. Abundant tanniferous cell inclusions may indicate that the 3-mo period of constant daylight during the Arctic summer induced high concentrations of tannins in the leaf tissues, which may have arrested microbial degradation of the litter. Quantified differences in the extent of chloroplast preservation through a vertical section of the lignite suggest that short-term shifts in the depositional environment took place, perhaps influencing the exposure of the leaf tissues to conditions that would either promote or inhibit decomposition.

  17. Cytological and ultrastructural preservation in Eocene Metasequoia leaves from the Canadian High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenhut, Karimah; Vann, David R; Lepage, Ben A

    2004-06-01

    The ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy of 45-million-year-old mummified leaves of Metasequoia extracted from the Upper Coal member of the Buchanan Lake Formation in Napartulik on Axel Heiberg Island revealed the preservation of intact chloroplasts and chloroplast components. Abundant tanniferous cell inclusions may indicate that the 3-mo period of constant daylight during the Artic summer induced high concentrations of tannins in the leaf tissues, which may have arrested microbial degradation of the litter. Quantified differences in the extent of chloroplast preservation through a vertical section of the lignite suggest that short-term shifts in the depositional environment took place, perhaps influencing the exposure of the leaf tissues to conditions that would either promote or inhibit decomposition.

  18. Increased accumulation of cuticular wax and expression of lipid transfer protein in response to periodic drying events in leaves of tree tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kimberly D; Teece, Mark A; Smart, Lawrence B

    2006-01-01

    Cuticular wax deposition and composition affects drought tolerance and yield in plants. We examined the relationship between wax and dehydration stress by characterizing the leaf cuticular wax of tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca L. Graham) grown under periodic dehydration stress. Total leaf cuticular wax load increased after each of three periods of dehydration stress using a CH2Cl2 extraction process. Overall, total wax load increased 1.5- to 2.5-fold, but composition of the wax was not altered. Homologous series of wax components were classified into organic groups; n-hentriacontane was the largest component (>75%) with alcohols and fatty acids representing drying event. Leaves excised from plants subjected to multiple drying events were more resistant to water loss compared to leaves excised from well-watered plants, indicating that there is a negative relationship between total wax load and epidermal conductance. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are thought to be involved in the transfer of lipids through the extracellular matrix for the formation of cuticular wax. Using northern analysis, a 6-fold increase of tree tobacco LTP gene transcripts was observed after three drying events, providing further evidence that LTP is involved in cuticle deposition. The simplicity of wax composition and the dramatic wax bloom displayed by tree tobacco make this an excellent species in which to study the relationship between leaf wax deposition and drought tolerance.

  19. Fungal colonization and decomposition of leaves and stems of Salix arctica on deglaciated moraines in high-Arctic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osono, Takashi; Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Hirose, Dai; Uchida, Masaki; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Fungal colonization, succession, and decomposition of leaves and stems of Salix arctica were studied to estimate the roles of fungi in the decomposition processes in the high Arctic. The samples were collected from five moraines with different periods of development since deglaciation to investigate the effects of ecosystem development on the decomposition processes during the primary succession. The total hyphal lengths and the length of darkly pigmented hyphae increased during decomposition of leaves and stems and were not varied with the moraines. Four fungal morphotaxa were frequently isolated from both leaves and stems. The frequencies of occurrence of two morphotaxa varied with the decay class of leaves and/or stems. The hyphal lengths and the frequencies of occurrence of fungal morphotaxa were positively or negatively correlated with the contents of organic chemical components and nutrients in leaves and stems, suggesting the roles of fungi in chemical changes in the field. Pure culture decomposition tests demonstrated that the fungal morphotaxa were cellulose decomposers. Our results suggest that fungi took part in the chemical changes in decomposing leaves and stems even under the harsh environment of the high Arctic.

  20. Leucine Biosynthesis Is Involved in Regulating High Lipid Accumulation in Yarrowia lipolytica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhoven, Eduard J.; Kim, Young-Mo; Wei, Siwei; Nicora, Carrie D.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Scott E.; Metz, Thomas O.; Nielsen, Jens; Lee, Sang Yup

    2017-06-20

    ABSTRACT

    The yeastYarrowia lipolyticais a potent accumulator of lipids, and lipogenesis in this organism can be influenced by a variety of factors, such as genetics and environmental conditions. Using a multifactorial study, we elucidated the effects of both genetic and environmental factors on regulation of lipogenesis inY. lipolyticaand identified how two opposite regulatory states both result in lipid accumulation. This study involved comparison of a strain overexpressing diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGA1) with a control strain grown under either nitrogen or carbon limitation conditions. A strong correlation was observed between the responses on the transcript and protein levels. Combination ofDGA1overexpression with nitrogen limitation resulted in a high level of lipid accumulation accompanied by downregulation of several amino acid biosynthetic pathways, including that of leucine in particular, and these changes were further correlated with a decrease in metabolic fluxes. This downregulation was supported by the measured decrease in the level of 2-isopropylmalate, an intermediate of leucine biosynthesis. Combining the multi-omics data with putative transcription factor binding motifs uncovered a contradictory role for TORC1 in controlling lipid accumulation, likely mediated through 2-isopropylmalate and a Leu3-like transcription factor.

    IMPORTANCEThe ubiquitous metabolism of lipids involves refined regulation, and an enriched understanding of this regulation would have wide implications. Various factors can influence lipid metabolism, including the environment and genetics. We demonstrated, using a multi-omics and multifactorial experimental setup, that multiple factors affect lipid accumulation in the yeastYarrowia lipolytica. Using integrative analysis, we identified novel interactions between nutrient restriction and genetic factors

  1. Anti-obesity and hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of Murraya koenigii (L leaves in high fatty diet rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin V. Tembhurne

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic and anti-obesity activities of of Murraya koenigii leaves. Method: The study was performed in high fatty diet induced obesity rats. After 15 days baseline period the treatments animals were received ethanolic extract of Murraya koenigii leaves (300 and 500 mg/kg in high fatty diet rats. All the treatments were given for one month. On 30th day all the fasted animals received an intraperitoneal injection of glucose (1 g/kg for glucose tolerance test. At the end of study body weight, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood glucose level were measured. Results: The results demonstrate clearly that repeated oral administration of Murraya koenigii leaves evoked a potent anti-hyperglycaemic activity in high fat diet obese rats. Postprandial hyperglycaemic peaks were significantly lower in plant-treated experimental groups. In other hand, high fatty diet group increased the both total cholesterol and triglycerides levels as compared to control group. While administration of Murraya koenigii leaves significantly decreased in both cholesterol as well as triglycerides. Conclusions: We can conclude that Murraya koenigii leaves evokes potent anti-hyperglycaemic and anti-obesity effects. This fact could support their use by the diabetes patient for controlling body weight as well as maintains the glycemic level.

  2. Heat accumulation during high repetition rate ultrafast laser interaction: Waveguide writing in borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haibin; Eaton, Shane M; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R

    2007-01-01

    During high repetition rate (>200 kHz) ultrafast laser waveguide writing, visible heat modified zones surrounding the formed waveguide occur as a result of heat accumulation. The radii of the heat-modified zones increase with the laser net fluence, and were found to correlate with the formation of low-loss and cylindrically symmetric optical waveguides. A numerical thermal model based on the finite difference method is applied here to account for cumulative heating and diffusion effects. The model successfully shows that heat propagation and accumulation accurately predict the radius of the 'heat modified' zones observed in borosilicate glass waveguides formed across a wide range of laser exposure conditions. Such modelling promises better control of thermal effects for optimizing the fabrication and performance of three-dimensional optical devices in transparent materials

  3. Influence of muscle fiber type composition on early fat accumulation under high-fat diet challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ning; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Yee, Grace M; Kitajima, Yoichiro; Katagiri, Sayaka; Kojima, Motoyasu; Anzai, Keizo; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Hamilton, James A

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether differences in muscle fiber types affect early-stage fat accumulation, under high fat diet challenge in mice. Twelve healthy male C57BL/6 mice experienced with short-term (6 weeks) diet treatment for the evaluation of early pattern changes in muscular fat. The mice were randomly divided into two groups: high fat diet (n = 8) and normal control diet (n = 4). Extra- and intra-myocellular lipid (EMCL and IMCL) in lumbar muscles (type I fiber predominant) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle (type II fiber predominant) were determined using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Correlation of EMCL, IMCL and their ratio between TA and lumbar muscles was evaluated. EMCL increased greatly in both muscle types after high fat diet. IMCL in TA and lumbar muscles increased to a much lower extent, with a slightly greater increase in TA muscles. EMCLs in the 2 muscles were positively correlated (r = 0.84, p = 0.01), but IMCLs showed a negative relationship (r = -0.84, p = 0.01). In lumbar muscles, high fat diet significantly decreased type I fiber while it increased type II fiber (all p≤0.001). In TA muscle, there was no significant fiber type shifting (p>0.05). Under short-time high fat diet challenge, lipid tends to initially accumulate extra-cellularly. In addition, compared to type II dominant muscle, Type I dominant muscle was less susceptible to IMCL accumulation but more to fiber type shifting. These phenomena might reflect compensative responses of skeletal muscle to dietary lipid overload in order to regulate metabolic homeostasis.

  4. NO accumulation alleviates H2 O2 -dependent oxidative damage induced by Ca(NO3 )2 stress in the leaves of pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Shu, Sheng; Xu, Qing; An, Ya-Hong; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shi-Rong

    2017-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), two important signaling molecules, are stimulated in plants by abiotic stresses. In this study, we investigated the role of NO and its interplay with H 2 O 2 in the response of self-grafted (S-G) and salt-tolerant pumpkin-grafted (Cucurbita maxima × C. moschata) cucumber seedlings to 80 mM Ca(NO 3 ) 2 stress. Endogenous NO and H 2 O 2 production in S-G seedlings increased in a time-dependent manner, reaching maximum levels after 24 h of Ca(NO 3 ) 2 stress. In contrast, a transient increase in NO production, accompanied by H 2 O 2 accumulation, was observed at 2 h in rootstock-grafted plants. N w -Nitro-l-Arg methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), tungstate, an inhibitor of nitrate reductase (NR), and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethy-limidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), a scavenger of NO, were found to significantly inhibit NO accumulation induced by salt stress in rootstock-grafted seedlings. H 2 O 2 production was unaffected by these stress conditions. Ca(NO 3 ) 2 stress-induced NO accumulation was blocked by pretreatment with an H 2 O 2 scavenger (dimethylthiourea, DMTU) and an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium, DPI). In addition, maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm), as well as the activities and transcript levels of antioxidant enzymes, were significantly decreased by salt stress in rootstock grafted seedlings after pretreatment with these above inhibitors; antioxidant enzyme transcript levels and activities were higher in rootstock-grafted seedlings compared with S-G seedlings. These results suggest that rootstock grafting could alleviate the oxidative damage induced by Ca(NO 3 ) 2 stress in cucumber seedlings, an effect that may be attributable to the involvement of NO in H 2 O 2 -dependent antioxidative metabolism. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Induction of embryogenic callus and plantlet regeneration from young leaves of high yielding mature oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeedum, I.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Callus induction and plantlet regeneration from young leaves of high-yielding mature oil palm were carried out using 10-year and 20-year-old trees from Thepa Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources,Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, and Trang Agricultural College, respectively. Culture media used in this experiment were Murashige and Skoog (1962 and Oil Palm supplemented with various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA or 2,4- dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D or dicamba (Di and antioxidants.Young leaves from 6th to 11st frond were excised, sterilized, cut into 5x5 mm pieces and cultured in the dark at 26±4ºC or 28±0.5ºC for 3 months. The results revealed that MS medium with 200 mg/l ascorbic acid (As and 1 mg/l Di (MS-AsDi gave the highest callus induction percentage (7.93 after culture for 3 months at 28±0.5ºC. Leaf segments from 6th - 8th frond yielded callus forming percentage at 10% (averaged from 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/l Di containing MS medium. Ascorbic acid as an antioxidant at concentration of 200 mg/l supplemented in MS medium in the presence of 2.5 mg/l Di produced the highest callus induction percentage (11.2 and number of nodules (7.06. A high percentage of embryogenic callus formation (66.67 was obtained when the calli were transferred to the same medium component supplemented with 0.5 mg/l Di and 1,000 mg/l casein hydrolysate (CH (MS-AsDiCH. Haustorial-staged embryos were observed to be isolated as an individual embryo and germinated on MS medium without plant growth regulator (MS-free. Development of root could be classified into two distinct types, fibrous and tap root.

  6. Caffeoylquinic Acids Generated In Vitro in a High-Anthocyanin-Accumulating Sweet potato Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Konczak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of phenolic compounds has been monitored in a suspension culture of anthocyanin-accumulating sweet potato cell line grown under the conditions of modified Murashige and Skoog high-anthocyanin production medium (APM over a period of 24 days. Tissue samples extracted with 15% acetic acid were analysed using HPLC at a detection wavelength of 326 nm. Among others, the following derivatives of caffeoylquinic acids were detected: 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid. Their total amount reached a maximum of 110 mg/gFW between the 4th and the 15th day of culture growth on APM. The major compound of the phenolic mixture was 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid with maximum accumulation level of 80 mg/100 gFW. The potential effects of targeted phenolic compounds on the nutraceutical qualities of in vitro produced anthocyanin-rich extracts are discussed.

  7. Chemicals to enhance microalgal growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinheng eYu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic microalgae have attracted significant attention as they can serve as important sources for cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products, industrial materials and even biofuel biodiesels. However, current productivity of microalga-based processes is still very low, which has restricted their scale-up application. In addition to various efforts in strain improvement and cultivation optimization, it was proposed that the productivity of microalga-based processes can also be increased using various chemicals to trigger or enhance cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts. Herein, we summarized recent progresses in applying chemical triggers or enhancers to improve cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts in algal cultures. Based on their enhancing mechanisms, these chemicals can be classified into four categories:chemicals regulating biosynthetic pathways, chemicals inducing oxidative stress responses, phytohormones and analogues regulating multiple aspects of microalgal metabolism, and chemicals directly as metabolic precursors. Taken together, the early researches demonstrated that the use of chemical stimulants could be a very effective and economical way to improve cell growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts in large-scale cultivation of microalgae.

  8. Rapid Sediment Accumulation Results in High Methane Effluxes from Coastal Sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Egger

    Full Text Available Globally, the methane (CH4 efflux from the ocean to the atmosphere is small, despite high rates of CH4 production in continental shelf and slope environments. This low efflux results from the biological removal of CH4 through anaerobic oxidation with sulfate in marine sediments. In some settings, however, pore water CH4 is found throughout the sulfate-bearing zone, indicating an apparently inefficient oxidation barrier for CH4. Here we demonstrate that rapid sediment accumulation can explain this limited capacity for CH4 removal in coastal sediments. In a saline coastal reservoir (Lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands, we observed high diffusive CH4 effluxes from the sediment into the overlying water column (0.2-0.8 mol m-2 yr-1 during multiple years. Linear pore water CH4 profiles and the absence of an isotopic enrichment commonly associated with CH4 oxidation in a zone with high rates of sulfate reduction (50-170 nmol cm-3 d-1 both suggest that CH4 is bypassing the zone of sulfate reduction. We propose that the rapid sediment accumulation at this site (~ 13 cm yr-1 reduces the residence time of the CH4 oxidizing microorganisms in the sulfate/methane transition zone (< 5 years, thus making it difficult for these slow growing methanotrophic communities to build-up sufficient biomass to efficiently remove pore water CH4. In addition, our results indicate that the high input of organic matter (~ 91 mol C m-2 yr-1 allows for the co-occurrence of different dissimilatory respiration processes, such as (acetotrophic methanogenesis and sulfate reduction in the surface sediments by providing abundant substrate. We conclude that anthropogenic eutrophication and rapid sediment accumulation likely increase the release of CH4 from coastal sediments.

  9. Best of both worlds: simultaneous high-light and shade-tolerance adaptations within individual leaves of the living stone Lithops aucampiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Katie J; George, Rachel; Fearn, Brian; Quick, W Paul; Davey, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    "Living stones" (Lithops spp.) display some of the most extreme morphological and physiological adaptations in the plant kingdom to tolerate the xeric environments in which they grow. The physiological mechanisms that optimise the photosynthetic processes of Lithops spp. while minimising transpirational water loss in both above- and below-ground tissues remain unclear. Our experiments have shown unique simultaneous high-light and shade-tolerant adaptations within individual leaves of Lithops aucampiae. Leaf windows on the upper surfaces of the plant allow sunlight to penetrate to photosynthetic tissues within while sunlight-blocking flavonoid accumulation limits incoming solar radiation and aids screening of harmful UV radiation. Increased concentration of chlorophyll a and greater chlorophyll a:b in above-ground regions of leaves enable maximum photosynthetic use of incoming light, while inverted conical epidermal cells, increased chlorophyll b, and reduced chlorophyll a:b ensure maximum absorption and use of low light levels within the below-ground region of the leaf. High NPQ capacity affords physiological flexibility under variable natural light conditions. Our findings demonstrate unprecedented physiological flexibility in a xerophyte and further our understanding of plant responses and adaptations to extreme environments.

  10. Influence of cadmium stress on root exudates of high cadmium accumulating rice line (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huijie; Yu, Haiying; Li, Tingxuan; Zhang, Xizhou

    2018-04-15

    A hydroponic experiment with two different cadmium (Cd) accumulating rice lines of Lu527-8 (the high Cd accumulating rice line) and Lu527-4 (the normal rice line) was carried out to explore the links among Cd stress, root exudates and Cd accumulation. The results showed that (1) Cd stress increased quantities of organic acids, but had no effect on composition in root exudates of the two rice lines. In Cd treatments, the contents of every detected organic acid in root exudates of Lu527-8 were 1.76-2.43 times higher than those of Lu527-4. Significant positive correlations between organic acids contents and Cd contents in plants were observed in both rice lines, except that malic acid was only highly relevant to Lu527-8, but not to Lu527-4. (2) Both composition and quantities of amino acids in root exudates changed a lot under Cd stress and this change differed in two rice lines. In control, four amino acids (glutamic acid, glycine, tyrosine and histidine) were detected in two rice lines. Under Cd stress, eight amino acids in Lu527-8 and seven amino acids in Lu527-4 could be detected, among which phenylalanine was only secreted by Lu527-8 and alanine, methionine and lysine were secreted by both rice lines. The contents of those four newly secreted amino acids from Lu527-8 increased significantly with the increase of Cd dose and each had a high-positive correlation with Cd contents, but the same change did not appear in Lu527-4. The difference between two rice lines in secretion of organic acids and amino acids may be related to their different Cd uptake properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Confined recrystallization of high-purity aluminium during accumulative roll bonding of aluminium laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekhonin, Paul; Beausir, Benoît; Scharnweber, Juliane; Oertel, Carl-Georg; Hausöl, Tina; Höppel, Heinz Werner; Brokmeier, Heinz-Günter; Skrotzki, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium laminates consisting of high-purity aluminium and commercially pure aluminium have been produced by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) at ambient temperature for up to 10 cycles. To study the microstructure and texture development of the high-purity aluminium layers with regard to the shrinking layer thickness during ARB, microstructure and texture investigations were carried out by electron backscatter diffraction and neutron and X-ray diffraction, respectively. While the commercially pure aluminium layers develop an ultrafine-grained microstructure, partial discontinuous recrystallization occurs in the high-purity layers. The texture of the high-purity layers mainly consists of Cube and “Tilted Cube” (tilted with respect to the transverse direction) components. The experimental results are discussed with respect to confined recrystallization in the ARB aluminium laminates.

  12. A high glycerol-containing leave-on scalp care treatment to improve dandruff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Clive R; Matheson, Jane R; Hoptroff, Michael; Jones, David A; Luo, Yanjun; Baines, Fiona L; Luo, Shengjun

    2014-01-01

    Dandruff is a common cosmetic condition associated with flaky scalp skin and pruritus. It is generally treated with regular use of antifungal-based shampoos. Research into factors underlying the characteristic skin lesions has revealed perturbations in epidermal differentiation and a dramatic deterioration in the associated process of stratum corneum (SC) maturation. These observations suggest that directly addressing the quality of the SC could have a scalp benefit. In this study, the authors investigated the efficacy of a moisturising leave-on lotion (LOL) containing a high concentration of glycerol (10%) and other known skin benefit agents (saturated fatty acid and sunflower seed oil) to reduce dandruff over an 8-week treatment period with 3 applications per week. Results of expert visual grading and biophysical measurements of SC parameters (transepidermal water loss and hydration) revealed a significant reduction in the dandruffcondition over this period, with significant improvement in both SC water barrier function and hydration. These scalp skin benefits were maintained for up to a week following cessation of the treatment. This study indicates that use of a glycerol-rich substantive LOL, designed to directly improve the quality of the SC barrier can have a significant impact on the dandruff condition.

  13. Protein and Carbohydrate Accumulation in Normal and High-Lysine Barley in Spike Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mather, D.E; Giese, Nanna Henriette

    1984-01-01

    Spikes of barley cv. Bomi and high-lysine mutants Riso 1508 and Riso 56 were cultured on liquid media at varying N and sucrose levels. Bomi accumulated N in response to increasing N levels in the medium and a higher level was reached than in spikes of intact plants. The distribution of N in salt......-soluble, hordein, and non-protein N fractions appeared to be normal. Endosperm dry weight and starch were lower than in intact plants and declined at higher N levels. A linear relationship was observed between starch content and the concentration of sucrose in the endosperm water. Uptake of culture medium...

  14. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter: Summary of 2017 experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-01-11

    A full-scale, transparent mock-up of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Project High Level Waste glass melter riser and pour spout has been constructed to allow for testing with visual feedback of particle settling, accumulation, and resuspension when operating with a controlled fraction of crystals in the glass melt. Room temperature operation with silicone oil and magnetite particles simulating molten glass and spinel crystals, respectively, allows for direct observation of flow patterns and settling patterns. The fluid and particle mixture is recycled within the system for each test.

  15. Leucine Biosynthesis Is Involved in Regulating High Lipid Accumulation in Yarrowia lipolytica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerkhoven, Eduard J.; Kim, Young-Mo; Wei, Siwei

    2017-01-01

    correlation was observed between the responses on the transcript and protein levels. Combination of DGA1 overexpression with nitrogen limitation resulted in a high level of lipid accumulation accompanied by downregulation of several amino acid biosynthetic pathways, including that of leucine in particular......, and these changes were further correlated with a decrease in metabolic fluxes. This downregulation was supported by the measured decrease in the level of 2-isopropylmalate, an intermediate of leucine biosynthesis. Combining the multi-omics data with putative transcription factor binding motifs uncovered...

  16. Characteristic of nitrous oxide production in partial denitrification process with high nitrite accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rui; Peng, Yongzhen; Cao, Shenbin; Wang, Shuying; Niu, Meng

    2016-03-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) production during the partial denitrification process with nitrate (NO3(-)-N) to nitrite (NO2(-)-N) transformation ratio of 80% was investigated in this study. Results showed that N2O was seldom observed before complete depletion of NO3(-)-N, but it was closely related to the reduction of NO2(-)-N rather than NO3(-)-N. High COD/NO3(-)-N was in favor of N2O production in partial denitrification with high NO2(-)-N accumulation. It was seriously enhanced at constant acidic pH due to the free nitrous acid (FNA) inhibition. However, the N2O production was much lower at initial pH of 5.5 and 6.5 due to the pH increase during denitrification process. Significantly, the pH turning point could be chosen as a controlled parameter to denote the end of NO3(-)-N reduction, which could not only achieve high NO2(-)-N accumulation but also decrease the N2O production significantly for practical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Impact of Bundled High Performance Human Resource Practices on Intention to Leave: Mediating Role of Emotional Exhaustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, Jeevan; Rani, Roomi; Gandotra, Rupali

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating effect of emotional exhaustion (EE) in between bundled high-performance human resource practices (HPHRPs) and intention to leave (ITL) in the education sector. Design/methodology/approach: A survey questionnaire method was used to collect data from a sample of 514 teachers working in…

  18. Acúmulo e efeitos fitotóxicos do flúor em folhas de boldo-gambá e capim-cidreira utilizadas para chás Fluorine accumulation and its phytotoxic effects in blue coleus and lemongrass leaves used for tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara Viana Campos

    2010-07-01

    accumulation than blue coleus. No visible symptoms were observed in leaves of either species, although changes in turgidity of the epidermal cells, cuticle rupture and trichome and stomata deformation were observed through scanning electron microscopy. The high contents of fluoride in leaves of C. citratus and P. neochilus and the absence of visual toxicity symptoms reveal that these species are tolerant to the pollutant. Washing the leaves in water is inefficient to remove fluoride. Differences in accumulation and release of fluorine are related to the morpho-anatomical characteristics of the species studied.

  19. Heterologous expression of AtMYB12 in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) leads to high flavonol accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lännenpää, Mika

    2014-08-01

    Overexpression of Arabidopsis AtMYB12 transcription factor greatly increases the total phenolic and flavonol content in transgenic kale leaves. Flavonoids are a diverse group of plant secondary metabolites exhibiting a number of health-promoting effects. There has been a growing interest to develop biotechnological methods for the enhanced production of flavonoids in crop plants. AtMYB12 is an Arabidopsis transcription factor which specifically activates flavonol synthesis and its overexpression has led to increased flavonol accumulation in several transgenic plants. In the present study, AtMYB12 was overexpressed in a commercial cultivar of kale and the transgenic plants were tested both in in vitro and in semi-field conditions in cages under natural light. Using this method, a severalfold increase in both total phenolics content and flavonol accumulation was achieved. This study provides a reliable and efficient transformation protocol for kale and suggests the potential of this flavonol-enriched vegetable for the production of kaempferol.

  20. Antihyperlipidemic effect of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms leaves in high-fat-diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Miyako; Kondo, Momoko; Shimizu, Taro; Saito, Tetsuo; Sato, Shinji; Hirayama, Masao; Konishi, Tetsuya; Nishida, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor for a variety of obesity-related diseases. Recently, the effects of functional foods have been investigated on lipid metabolism as a means to reduce lipid content in the blood, liver and adipose tissues associated with carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity. Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms (AS) is a medicinal herb possessing a wide spectra of functions including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fatigue actions. Despite much research being focused on the cortical roots of AS, little information is available regarding its leaves, which are also expected to promote human health, for example by improving abnormal lipid metabolism. Here, we explored whether AS leaves affect lipid metabolism in mice fed a high-fat diet. The administration of AS to BALB/c mice fed a high-fat diet significantly decreased plasma triglycerides (TG). CPT activity in the liver of these mice was significantly enhanced by AS treatment. These findings indicate that AS leaves have the potential to alleviate increase in plasma TG levels due to high-fat diet intake in mice, possibly by increasing mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, especially via CPT activation. Consequently, daily intake of AS leaves could promote beneficial health effects including the prevention of metabolic syndrome. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. [Simultaneous determination of eleven components in Ginkgo biloba leaves by high performance liquid chromatography method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jin-Li; Yang, Biao; Li, Meng-Xuan; Meng, Zhao-Qing; Ma, Shi-Ping; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Ding, Gang; Huang, Wen-Zhe; Xiao, Wei

    2017-03-01

    To study Ginkgo biloba leaves in different producing area, we establish an HPLC method for the simultaneously determination of seven flavonoids glycosides and four biflavonoids in G. biloba leaves. The analysis was performed on an Agilent ZORBAX SB-C₁₈ column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) wich acetonitrile, and 0.4% phosphoric acid as mobile phase at flow rate of 1 mL•min⁻¹ in a gradient edution, and the detection was carried out at 254 nm.The calibration curves of the seven flavonoids glycosides and four biflavonoids had a good linearitiy with good recoveries. The established HPLC method is simple, rapid, accurate, reliable, and sensitive, and can be applied to the identification and quality control of G. biloba leaves. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Promotion of flavonoid biosynthesis in leaves and calli of ornamental crabapple (Malus sp.) by high carbon to nitrogen ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Huihua; Zhang, Jie; Song, Tingting; Tian, Ji; Yao, Yuncong

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that play important roles in plant physiology. Despite numerous studies examined the effects of available carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) on flavonoid biosynthesis, the mechanism of C/N interactive effects on flavonoid metabolism is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the composition of flavonoids and the expression levels of flavonoid-related genes in leaves and calli of crabapple (Malus sp.) cultivars with different leaf colors grown on media with different C/N ratios. Our results show that high C/N ratios induce anthocyanin pigmentation in leaves of the ever-red cultivar 'Royalty' and the spring-red cultivar 'Prairifire,' as well as in three types of calli derived from the ever-green cultivar 'Spring Snow,' but not in the leaves of the ever-green cultivar 'Flame.' This phenomenon therefore correlated with anthocyanin content in these different samples. In addition, high C/N ratios in the growth media resulted in an increase in the concentration of flavones and flavonols in the leaves of the three crabapple cultivars. The transcript levels of the general flavonoid pathway genes [from chalcone synthase (CHS) to uridine diphosphat-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT) and flavonol synthase (FLS)] increased in response to high C/N ratios, and this in turn was correlated with the concentration of anthocyanins, flavones and flavonols in the leaves and calli. Expression of the late flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), UFGT and FLS in particular, was more strongly influenced by C/N ratios than other structural genes, and the increased expression of the structural genes under high C/N ratios coincided with a coordinated increase in transcript levels of a MYB transcription factor, MYB10. These results are likely to be useful for future generation of plants with an optimized flavonoid/anthocyanin content or desirable organ coloration.

  3. Promotion of flavonoid biosynthesis in leaves and calli of ornamental crabapple (Malus spp. by high carbon to nitrogen ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihua eWan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that play important roles in plant physiology. Despite numerous studies examined the effects of available carbon (C or nitrogen (N on flavonoid biosynthesis, the mechanism of C/N interactive effects on flavonoid metabolism is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the composition of flavonoids and the expression levels of flavonoid-related genes in leaves and calli of crabapple (Malus spp. cultivars with different leaf colors grown on media with different C/N ratios. Our results show that high C/N ratios induce anthocyanin pigmentation in leaves of the ever-red cultivar ‘Royalty’ and the spring-red cultivar ‘Prairifire’, as well as in three types of calli derived from the ever-green cultivar ‘Spring Snow’, but not in the leaves of the ever-green cultivar ‘Flame’. This phenomenon therefore correlated with anthocyanin content in these different samples. In addition, high C/N ratios in the growth media resulted in an increase in the concentration of flavones and flavonols in the leaves of the three crabapple cultivars. The transcript levels of the general flavonoid pathway genes [from chalcone synthase (CHS to uridine diphosphate (UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT and flavonol synthase (FLS] increased in response to high C/N ratios, and this in turn was correlated with the concentration of anthocyanin, flavone and flavonol in the leaves and calli. Expression of the late flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS, UFGT and FLS in particular, was more strongly influenced by C/N ratios than other structural genes, and the increased expression of the structural genes under high C/N ratios coincided with a coordinated increase in transcript levels of a MYB transcription factor, MYB10. These results are likely to be useful for future generation of plants with an optimized flavonoid/anthocyanin content or desirable organ coloration.

  4. High intratumoral accumulation of stealth liposomal doxorubicin in sarcomas--rationale for combination with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koukourakis, M.I.; Koukouraki, S.; Giatromanolaki, A.; Kakolyris, S.; Georgoulias, V.; Velidaki, A.; Archimandritis, S.; Karkavitsas, N.N.

    2000-01-01

    Sarcomas are radioresistant tumors, the only curative therapy being radical surgical resection. Stealth liposomal doxorubicin (Caelyx) is a novel drug formulation that allows prolonged circulation and high intratumoral concentration. This study investigates the concurrent use of radiotherapy with Caelyx in a cohort of 7 patients with locally advanced or recurrent sarcoma. Radiotherapy was given as a standard fractionation regimen to a total dose of 70 Gy. Caelyx was given as a 30-min infusion at a dose of 25 mg/m 2 every 2 weeks. Scintigraphic imaging with Caelyx- 99m Tc-DTPA showed an increased (2.8 +/- 0.9 times higher) intratumoral drug accumulation compared to the surrounding healthy tissue. The regimen was well tolerated without any severe hematological or systemic toxicity. 'In field' radiation toxicity was not increased. Complete response was observed in 4/7 cases. It is concluded that combined chemo-radiotherapy with stealth liposomal doxorubicin for locally advanced sarcomas is feasible and promising, the benefit expected from the unique ability of the stealth liposomes to accumulate selectively in the tumoral tissue

  5. High-throughput sequencing of microbial community diversity in soil, grapes, leaves, grape juice and wine of grapevine from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Jie; Wu, Yun; Yan, Yin-Zhuo; Zou, Wan; Xue, Jie; Ma, Wen-Rui; Wang, Wei; Tian, Ge; Wang, Li-Ye

    2018-01-01

    In this study Illumina MiSeq was performed to investigate microbial diversity in soil, leaves, grape, grape juice and wine. A total of 1,043,102 fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) reads and 2,422,188 high quality bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were used for taxonomic classification, revealed five fungal and eight bacterial phyla. At the genus level, the dominant fungi were Ascomycota, Sordariales, Tetracladium and Geomyces in soil, Aureobasidium and Pleosporaceae in grapes leaves, Aureobasidium in grape and grape juice. The dominant bacteria were Kaistobacter, Arthrobacter, Skermanella and Sphingomonas in soil, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Kaistobacter in grape and grapes leaves, and Oenococcus in grape juice and wine. Principal coordinate analysis showed structural separation between the composition of fungi and bacteria in all samples. This is the first study to understand microbiome population in soil, grape, grapes leaves, grape juice and wine in Xinjiang through High-throughput Sequencing and identify microorganisms like Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus spp. that may contribute to the quality and flavor of wine.

  6. High-throughput sequencing of microbial community diversity in soil, grapes, leaves, grape juice and wine of grapevine from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yin-zhuo; Zou, Wan; Ma, Wen-rui; Wang, Wei; Tian, Ge; Wang, Li-ye

    2018-01-01

    In this study Illumina MiSeq was performed to investigate microbial diversity in soil, leaves, grape, grape juice and wine. A total of 1,043,102 fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) reads and 2,422,188 high quality bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were used for taxonomic classification, revealed five fungal and eight bacterial phyla. At the genus level, the dominant fungi were Ascomycota, Sordariales, Tetracladium and Geomyces in soil, Aureobasidium and Pleosporaceae in grapes leaves, Aureobasidium in grape and grape juice. The dominant bacteria were Kaistobacter, Arthrobacter, Skermanella and Sphingomonas in soil, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Kaistobacter in grape and grapes leaves, and Oenococcus in grape juice and wine. Principal coordinate analysis showed structural separation between the composition of fungi and bacteria in all samples. This is the first study to understand microbiome population in soil, grape, grapes leaves, grape juice and wine in Xinjiang through High-throughput Sequencing and identify microorganisms like Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus spp. that may contribute to the quality and flavor of wine. PMID:29565999

  7. Effects of exposure to high glucose on primary cultured hippocampal neurons: involvement of intracellular ROS accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Zhang, Hong; Gu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Mengren

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies showed that hyperglycemia is the main trigger of diabetic cognitive impairment and can cause hippocampus abnormalities. The goal of this study is to explore the effects of different concentrations of high glucose for different exposure time on cell viability as well as intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of primary cultured hippocampal neurons. Hippocampal neurons were exposed to different concentrations of high glucose (50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mM) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Cell viability and nuclear morphology were evaluated by MTT and Hoechst assays, respectively. Intracellular ROS were monitored using the fluorescent probe DCFH-DA. The results showed that, compared with control group, the cell viability of all high glucose-treated groups decreased significantly after 72 h and there also was a significant increase of apoptotic nuclei in high glucose-treated groups from 72 to 96 h. Furthermore, 50 mM glucose induced a peak rise in ROS generation at 24 h and the intracellular ROS levels of 50 mM glucose group were significantly higher than the corresponding control group from 6 to 72 h. These results suggest that hippocampal neurons could be injured by high glucose exposure and the neuronal injury induced by high glucose is potentially mediated through intracellular ROS accumulation.

  8. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  9. Seasonal dependence of pigments number in Alhagi pseudalgahi leaves forming in conditions of high radiarion phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orujova, J.R.; Dzhafarov, E.S.

    2006-01-01

    number of carotinoids, while in spring season there aren't observed appreciable changes. Both in spring, and autumn seasons in high-formation leaves number of chlorophyllum a is roughly two times lower than control in radiated plants. As regards chlorophylum b, dependently on season, here isn't observed any change

  10. Insect Attraction versus Plant Defense: Young Leaves High in Glucosinolates Stimulate Oviposition by a Specialist Herbivore despite Poor Larval Survival due to High Saponin Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites used in plant defense. For insects specialized on Brassicaceae, such as the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), glucosinolates act as “fingerprints” that are essential in host plant recognition. Some plants in the genus Barbarea (Brassicaceae) contain, besides glucosinolates, saponins that act as feeding deterrents for P. xylostella larvae, preventing their survival on the plant. Two-choice oviposition tests were conducted to study the preference of P. xylostella among Barbarea leaves of different size within the same plant. P. xylostella laid more eggs per leaf area on younger leaves compared to older ones. Higher concentrations of glucosinolates and saponins were found in younger leaves than in older ones. In 4-week-old plants, saponins were present in true leaves, while cotyledons contained little or no saponins. When analyzing the whole foliage of the plant, the content of glucosinolates and saponins also varied significantly in comparisons among plants that were 4, 8, and 12 weeks old. In Barbarea plants and leaves of different ages, there was a positive correlation between glucosinolate and saponin levels. This research shows that, in Barbarea plants, ontogenetical changes in glucosinolate and saponin content affect both attraction and resistance to P. xylostella. Co-occurrence of a high content of glucosinolates and saponins in the Barbarea leaves that are most valuable for the plant, but are also the most attractive to P. xylostella, provides protection against this specialist herbivore, which oviposition behavior on Barbarea seems to be an evolutionary mistake. PMID:24752069

  11. Insect attraction versus plant defense: young leaves high in glucosinolates stimulate oviposition by a specialist herbivore despite poor larval survival due to high saponin content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R Badenes-Perez

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites used in plant defense. For insects specialized on Brassicaceae, such as the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, glucosinolates act as "fingerprints" that are essential in host plant recognition. Some plants in the genus Barbarea (Brassicaceae contain, besides glucosinolates, saponins that act as feeding deterrents for P. xylostella larvae, preventing their survival on the plant. Two-choice oviposition tests were conducted to study the preference of P. xylostella among Barbarea leaves of different size within the same plant. P. xylostella laid more eggs per leaf area on younger leaves compared to older ones. Higher concentrations of glucosinolates and saponins were found in younger leaves than in older ones. In 4-week-old plants, saponins were present in true leaves, while cotyledons contained little or no saponins. When analyzing the whole foliage of the plant, the content of glucosinolates and saponins also varied significantly in comparisons among plants that were 4, 8, and 12 weeks old. In Barbarea plants and leaves of different ages, there was a positive correlation between glucosinolate and saponin levels. This research shows that, in Barbarea plants, ontogenetical changes in glucosinolate and saponin content affect both attraction and resistance to P. xylostella. Co-occurrence of a high content of glucosinolates and saponins in the Barbarea leaves that are most valuable for the plant, but are also the most attractive to P. xylostella, provides protection against this specialist herbivore, which oviposition behavior on Barbarea seems to be an evolutionary mistake.

  12. Accuracy assessment of high resolution satellite imagery orientation by leave-one-out method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, Maria Antonia; Crespi, Mattia; Fratarcangeli, Francesca; Giannone, Francesca; Realini, Eugenio

    Interest in high-resolution satellite imagery (HRSI) is spreading in several application fields, at both scientific and commercial levels. Fundamental and critical goals for the geometric use of this kind of imagery are their orientation and orthorectification, processes able to georeference the imagery and correct the geometric deformations they undergo during acquisition. In order to exploit the actual potentialities of orthorectified imagery in Geomatics applications, the definition of a methodology to assess the spatial accuracy achievable from oriented imagery is a crucial topic. In this paper we want to propose a new method for accuracy assessment based on the Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation (LOOCV), a model validation method already applied in different fields such as machine learning, bioinformatics and generally in any other field requiring an evaluation of the performance of a learning algorithm (e.g. in geostatistics), but never applied to HRSI orientation accuracy assessment. The proposed method exhibits interesting features which are able to overcome the most remarkable drawbacks involved by the commonly used method (Hold-Out Validation — HOV), based on the partitioning of the known ground points in two sets: the first is used in the orientation-orthorectification model (GCPs — Ground Control Points) and the second is used to validate the model itself (CPs — Check Points). In fact the HOV is generally not reliable and it is not applicable when a low number of ground points is available. To test the proposed method we implemented a new routine that performs the LOOCV in the software SISAR, developed by the Geodesy and Geomatics Team at the Sapienza University of Rome to perform the rigorous orientation of HRSI; this routine was tested on some EROS-A and QuickBird images. Moreover, these images were also oriented using the world recognized commercial software OrthoEngine v. 10 (included in the Geomatica suite by PCI), manually performing the LOOCV

  13. Elevated air movement enhances stomatal sensitivity to abscisic acid in leaves developed at high relative air humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dália R.A. Carvalho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High relative air humidity (RH ≥ 85% during growth leads to stomata malfunctioning, resulting in water stress when plants are transferred to conditions of high evaporative demand. In this study, we hypothesized that an elevated air movement (MOV 24 h per day, during the whole period of leaf development would increase abscisic acid concentration ([ABA] enhancing stomatal functioning. Pot rose ‘Toril’ was grown at moderate (61% or high (92% RH combined with a negligible MOV or with a continuous MOV of 0.92 m s-1. High MOV reduced stomatal pore length and aperture in plants developed at high RH. Moreover, stomatal function improved when high MOV-treated plants were subjected to leaflet desiccation and ABA feeding. Endogenous concentration of ABA and its metabolites in the leaves was reduced by 35% in high RH, but contrary to our hypothesis this concentration was not significantly affected by high MOV. Interestingly, in detached leaflets grown at high RH, high MOV increased stomatal sensitivity to ABA since the amount of exogenous ABA required to decrease the transpiration rate was significantly reduced. This is the first study to show that high MOV increases stomatal functionality in leaves developed at high RH by reducing the stomatal pore length and aperture and enhancing stomatal sensitivity to ABA rather than increasing leaf [ABA].

  14. Intraspecific variation in cadmium tolerance and accumulation of a high-biomass tropical tree Averrhoa carambola L.: implication for phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zi-yun; Shu, Wen-sheng; Liao, Bin; Wan, Cai-yun; Li, Jin-tian

    2011-06-01

    Averrhoa carambola L., a high-biomass tropical tree, has recently been shown to be a strong accumulator of cadmium (Cd) and has great potential for Cd phytoextraction. In the present study, field studies and a controlled-environment experiment were combined to establish the extent of variation in Cd tolerance and accumulation at the cultivar level using 14 to 19 cultivars of A. carambola. The results indicated that all cultivars tested could accumulate Cd at high but different levels, and that Cd tolerance also varied greatly between these cultivars. It is confirmed that the high Cd tolerance and accumulation capacity are species-level and constitutional traits in A. carambola. However, no correlation was detected between tolerance index and accumulation of Cd in different cultivars, suggesting that the two traits are independent in this woody Cd accumulator. More importantly, cultivar Wuchuan Sweet (WCT) was shown to have the highest Cd-extraction potential; it yielded a high shoot biomass of 30 t ha(-1) in 230 d, and extracted 330 g ha(-1) Cd in the aerial tissues grown in Cd-contaminated field soil, which accounted for 12.8% of the total soil Cd in the top 20 cm of the soil profile.

  15. Leaving School — learning at SEA: Regular high school education alongside polar research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    Against the background of unsatisfactory results from the international OECD study PISA (Program for International Student Assessment), Germany is facing a period of intense school reforms. Looking back at a tradition of school culture with too few changes during the last century, quick and radical renewal of the school system is rather unlikely. Furthermore students are increasingly turning away from natural sciences [1]. The AWI aims at providing impulses for major changes in the schooling system and is offering solid science education not only for university students but also for a larger audience. All efforts towards this goal are interconnected within the project SEA (Science & Education @ the AWI). With the school-term of 2002/03 the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research started HIGHSEA (High school of SEA). The program is the most important component of SEA. Each year 22 high school students (grade 10 or 11) are admitted to HIGHSEA spending their last three years of school not at school but at the institute. Four subjects (biology as a major, chemistry, math and English as accessory subjects) are combined and taught fully integrated. Students leave their school for two days each week to study, work and explore all necessary topics at the AWI. All of the curricular necessities of the four subjects have been rearranged in their temporal sequencing thus enabling a conceptual formulation of four major questions to be dealt with in the course of the three-year program [2]. Students are taught by teachers of the cooperation schools as well as by scientists of the AWI. Close links and intense cooperation between both groups are the basis of fundamental changes in teaching and learning climate. We are organizing expeditions for every group of HIGHSEA-students (e. g. to the Arctic or to mid-Atlantic seamounts). For each student expedition we devise a "real" research question. Usually a single working group at the AWI has a special interest in the

  16. Taking Leave?

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  17. Evaluation of the cases of benign disease with high accumulation on the examination of [sup 18]F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazumi, Shinichi; Enomoto, Kazuo; Fukunaga, Toru (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1993-12-01

    In this study 39 cases of abdominal benign disease were examined by PET using [sup 18]F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and 11 cases of them (i.e. 4 cases of liver abscess, 1 of pelvic abscess, 1 of omental abscess, 2 of chronic pancreatitis, 1 of inflammatory pseudotumor of liver, 1 of retroperitoneal leiomyoma and 1 of solid and cystic tumor of pancreas) which showed as high accumulation of FDG as malignant lesion were investigated of their clinical and pathological feature. We used Ci/Cp ratio as index to express the accumulation of FDG in the lesion, which was calculated from radioactivities of the lesion (Ci) and the plasma (Cp) at 60 mins after injection of FDG. The Ci/Cp ratio of the 11 cases was 3.64[+-]0.77. The pathological feature of the 9 inflammatory cases was high accumulation of inflammatory cells and that of the 2 benign tumor cases was solid proliferation of tumor cells. The serum of the 9 inflammatory cases showed high CRP value. It was considered that the high accumulation of FDG in inflammatory lesions was due to piles of FDG uptake of the many inflammatory cells, while the 2 benign tumors of high accumulation were considered that the tumor cell had as high glucose metabolism as malignancies. (author).

  18. Study to find the best extraction solvent for use with guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) for high antioxidant efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jongkwon; Lee, Soojung; Elam, Marcus L; Johnson, Sarah A; Kang, Jonghoon; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2014-03-01

    The effects of guava leaves extracted using solvents of water, ethanol, methanol, and different concentrations of hydroethanolic solvents on phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and antioxidant properties have been investigated. The antioxidant capability was assessed based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical-scavenging abilities, reducing power, and nitric oxide-and nitrate-scavenging activities. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant ability of guava leaf extracts has a strong relationship with phenolic compound content rather than flavonoid content. Phenolic compound content of water extracted guava leaves was higher compared to pure ethanol and methanol extracts. However, phenolic compound content extracted using hydroethanolic solvent was higher than water, whereas 50% hydroethanolic was observed to be the most effective solvent showing high antioxidant ability.

  19. Genotypic response of detached leaves versus intact plants for chlorophyll fluorescence parameters under high temperature stress in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Fernández, Juan Olivares; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The genotypic response of wheat cultivars as affected by two methods of heat stress treatment (treatment of intact plants in growth chambers versus treatment of detached leaves in test tubes) in a temperature controlled water bath were compared to investigate how such different methods of heat...... to high temperatures. Further, the results suggest that genetic factors associated with cultivar differences are different for the two methods of heat treatment........ The responses of the same cultivars to heat stress were compared between the two methods of heat treatment. The results showed that in detached leaves, all of the fluorescence parameters remained almost unaffected in control (20°C at all durations tested), indicating that the detachment itself did not affect...

  20. Accumulation Characteristics of Pb by Zea Mays of Different Genotyoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Rong-lin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine the characteristics of lead(Pb accumulation by different maize genotypes, two low accumulation genotypes(Quchen 11, Quchen 3 and two high accumulation maize genotypes(Jingfeng 8, Xuyu 1446 were used in a field experiment under Pb stress(2 000 mg·kg-1. The following parameters were measured including the change of plant biomass , Pb contents in different plant parts, total Pb uptake,Pb accumulation and translocation of different maize varieties,soil pH value and available Pb contents in soils. The results showed that: (1Compared with the control, the Pb stress caused a decrease at differnet levels on the biomass of roots, stems, leaves and grains of the four maize genotypes. The plant biomass decreased by 9.65%~20.46%. And the decrease level on the plant biomass of the low accumulation maize genotypes was less than the high accumulation maize genotypes. (2The Pb contents were found highest in the roots(95.39~121.02 mg·kg-1, followed by the leaves(25.56~43.21 mg·kg-1 and stems(14.06~25.41 mg·kg-1, and lest in the grains(2.52~5.38 mg·kg-1. Moreover, the Pb contents in roots were higher of low accumulation maize genotypes than high accumulation maize genotypes. In contrast, the Pb contents in the stems, leaves and grains were less of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes. The total Pb accumulation of maize was 4.46~7.94 mg per plant, and which was significant less of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes. (3For the four maize genotypes, both the accumulation factor and translocation factor of Pb were less than 1, and were smaller of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes. (4The pH values in soils were 6.60~6.82, which were significant higher of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes, the available Pb contents in soils were 969.86~1 116.15 mg·kg-1。

  1. New seminal variety of Stevia rebaudiana: Obtaining fractions with high antioxidant potential of leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA G. MILANI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the composition and antioxidant potential of leaves of a new variety of Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia UEM-13. Stevia leaves of UEM-13 contain rebaudioside A as the main glycoside, while most wild Stevia plants contain stevioside. Furthermore can be multiplied by seed, which reduces the cost of plant culture techniques as other clonal varieties are multiplied by buds, requiring sophisticated and expensive seedling production systems. Ethanol and methanol were used in the extraction to determine the bioactive compounds. The methanolic extract was fractionated sequentially with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and isobutanol, and the highest concentration of phenolic compounds and flavonoids was obtained in the ethyl acetate fraction (524.20 mg galic acid equivalent/g; 380.62 µg quercetin equivalent/g. The glycoside content varied greatly among the fractions (0.5% - 65.3%. Higher antioxidant potential was found in the methanol extract and the ethyl acetate fraction with 93.5% and 97.32%, respectively. In addition to being an excellent source for obtaining of extracts rich in glycoside, this new variety can also be used as raw material for the production of extracts or fractions with a significant amount of antioxidant activity and potential to be used as additives in food.

  2. New seminal variety of Stevia rebaudiana: Obtaining fractions with high antioxidant potential of leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Paula G; Formigoni, Maysa; Dacome, Antonio S; Benossi, Livia; Costa, Cecília E M DA; Costa, Silvio C DA

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the composition and antioxidant potential of leaves of a new variety of Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia UEM-13). Stevia leaves of UEM-13 contain rebaudioside A as the main glycoside, while most wild Stevia plants contain stevioside. Furthermore can be multiplied by seed, which reduces the cost of plant culture techniques as other clonal varieties are multiplied by buds, requiring sophisticated and expensive seedling production systems. Ethanol and methanol were used in the extraction to determine the bioactive compounds. The methanolic extract was fractionated sequentially with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and isobutanol, and the highest concentration of phenolic compounds and flavonoids was obtained in the ethyl acetate fraction (524.20 mg galic acid equivalent/g; 380.62 µg quercetin equivalent/g). The glycoside content varied greatly among the fractions (0.5% - 65.3%). Higher antioxidant potential was found in the methanol extract and the ethyl acetate fraction with 93.5% and 97.32%, respectively. In addition to being an excellent source for obtaining of extracts rich in glycoside, this new variety can also be used as raw material for the production of extracts or fractions with a significant amount of antioxidant activity and potential to be used as additives in food.

  3. ACUMULAÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES EM FOLHAS DE MILHETO E DOS CAPINS BRAQUIÁRIA E MOMBAÇA NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION IN LEAVES OF MILLET, BRACHIARIA AND GUINEAGRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Joaquim Braga Pereira Braz

    2007-09-01

    >Pennisetum glaucum, brachiaria (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, and guineagrass (Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça are important grasses cultivated on cerrado soil of the Center-Western region of Brazil, and are used mainly for pasture, cover crops, silage, dry hay and seed production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accumulation over time of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe in the leaves of these grasses after emergence. The grasses were grown on a dystrophic dark-red latosolo (Oxysol/Hapludox at Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, Santo Antonio de Goiás, GO. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications, on plots 6.0 m wide by 20 m long. At planting, 400 kg/ha of 5-30-15 commercial-formula fertilizer was used. Sowing occurred in December, 2001 and during crop development nine leave samples were taken on different days after sowing for chemical analysis. Nutrient accumulation (Y was determined and data were adjusted as a function of days after emergence (X by a quadratic exponential regression model: Y= a exp(bx + cx2. Of the three grass species, millet accumulated the largest amounts of nutrients in leaves in the least time, followed by Panicum. Among macronutrients, higher accumulation occurred for N and K and lower for P. Among micronutrients, Fe accumulated the largest amounts.

    KEY-WORDS: Gramineae; mineral nutrition; Brachiaria brizantha; Pennisetum glaucum; Panicum maximum.

  4. Carbon partitioning and export from mature cotton leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, D.L.; Grange, R.I.

    1991-01-01

    The partitioning of carbon in intact, mature cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves was examined by steady-state 14 CO 2 labeling. Plants were exposed to dark periods of varying lengths, followed by similar illuminated labeling periods. These treatments produced leaves with a range of starch and soluble sugar contents, carbon exchange, and carbon export rates. Export during the illuminated periods was neither highly correlated with photosynthesis nor was export during the illuminated periods significantly different among the treatments. In contrast, the rate of subsequent nocturnal carbon export from these leaves varied widely and was found to be highly correlated with leaf starch content at the end of the illumination period and with nocturnal leaf respiration. Leaves which had accumulated the highest levels of starch (about 275 micrograms per square centimeter) by the end of the illumination period exhibited nocturnal export rates very similar to those during the daylight hours. Leaves which accumulated starch to only 50 to 75 micrograms per square centimeter virtually ceased nocturnal carbon export. For leaves with starch accumulations of between 50 and 275 micrograms per square centimeter, nocturnal export was directly proportional to leaf starch at the end of the illumination period. After the nocturnal export rate was established, it continued at a constant rate throughout the night even though leaf starch and sucrose contents declined

  5. Carbon partitioning and export from mature cotton leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, D L; Grange, R I

    1991-01-01

    The partitioning of carbon in intact, mature cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves was examined by steady-state (14)CO(2) labeling. Plants were exposed to dark periods of varying lengths, followed by similar illuminated labeling periods. These treatments produced leaves with a range of starch and soluble sugar contents, carbon exchange, and carbon export rates. Export during the illuminated periods was neither highly correlated with photosynthesis nor was export during the illuminated periods significantly different among the treatments. In contrast, the rate of subsequent nocturnal carbon export from these leaves varied widely and was found to be highly correlated with leaf starch content at the end of the illumination period (r = 0.934) and with nocturnal leaf respiration (r = 0.954). Leaves which had accumulated the highest levels of starch (about 275 micrograms per square centimeter) by the end of the illumination period exhibited nocturnal export rates very similar to those during the daylight hours. Leaves which accumulated starch to only 50 to 75 micrograms per square centimeter virtually ceased nocturnal carbon export. For leaves with starch accumulations of between 50 and 275 micrograms per square centimeter, nocturnal export was directly proportional to leaf starch at the end of the illumination period. After the nocturnal export rate was established, it continued at a constant rate throughout the night even though leaf starch and sucrose contents declined.

  6. Enhancement of lipid accumulation by oleaginous yeast through phosphorus limitation under high content of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangfeng; Luo, Huijuan; Mu, Tianshuai; Shen, Yi; Yuan, Ming; Liu, Jia

    2018-04-18

    Low concentrations of acetic acid were used as carbon source to cultivate Cryptococcus curvatus MUCL 29819 for lipid production under high content of ammonia. Phosphorus limitation combined with initial pH regulation (pH = 6) weakened inhibition of free ammonia and promoted lipid accumulation. In batch cultivation, the produced lipid content and yield was 30.3% and 0.92 g/L, higher than those under unlimited condition (18.3% and 0.64 g/L). The content of monounsaturated fatty acid also increased from 37.3% (unlimited condition) to 45.8% (phosphorus-limited condition). During sequencing batch cultivation (SBC), the lipid content reached up to 51.02% under phosphorus-limited condition while only 31.88% under unlimited condition, which can be explained by the higher conversion efficiency of the carbon source to lipid. The total energy consumption including lipid extraction, transesterification and purification was 7.47 and 8.33 GJ under phosphorus-limited and unlimited condition, respectively. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. High hydrostatic pressure leads to free radicals accumulation in yeast cells triggering oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravim, Fernanda; Mota, Mainã M; Fernandes, A Alberto R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2016-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a unicellular organism that during the fermentative process is exposed to a variable environment; hence, resistance to multiple stress conditions is a desirable trait. The stress caused by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) in S. cerevisiae resembles the injuries generated by other industrial stresses. In this study, it was confirmed that gene expression pattern in response to HHP displays an oxidative stress response profile which is expanded upon hydrostatic pressure release. Actually, reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration level increased in yeast cells exposed to HHP treatment and an incubation period at room pressure led to a decrease in intracellular ROS concentration. On the other hand, ethylic, thermic and osmotic stresses did not result in any ROS accumulation in yeast cells. Microarray analysis revealed an upregulation of genes related to methionine metabolism, appearing to be a specific cellular response to HHP, and not related to other stresses, such as heat and osmotic stresses. Next, we investigated whether enhanced oxidative stress tolerance leads to enhanced tolerance to HHP stress. Overexpression of STF2 is known to enhance tolerance to oxidative stress and we show that it also leads to enhanced tolerance to HHP stress. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Use of a highly sensitive two-dimensional luminescence imaging system to monitor endogenous bioluminescence in plant leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor-Henry Michel

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All living organisms emit spontaneous low-level bioluminescence, which can be increased in response to stress. Methods for imaging this ultra-weak luminescence have previously been limited by the sensitivity of the detection systems used. Results We developed a novel configuration of a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD for 2-dimensional imaging of light emission from biological material. In this study, we imaged photon emission from plant leaves. The equipment allowed short integration times for image acquisition, providing high resolution spatial and temporal information on bioluminescence. We were able to carry out time course imaging of both delayed chlorophyll fluorescence from whole leaves, and of low level wound-induced luminescence that we showed to be localised to sites of tissue damage. We found that wound-induced luminescence was chlorophyll-dependent and was enhanced at higher temperatures. Conclusions The data gathered on plant bioluminescence illustrate that the equipment described here represents an improvement in 2-dimensional luminescence imaging technology. Using this system, we identify chlorophyll as the origin of wound-induced luminescence from leaves.

  9. Amelioration of High Cholesterol Diet Caused Lipids Accumulation in Hepatic Cells by Rutin and Ascorbic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulaziz M. Aleisa

    2013-01-01

    Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) has become a very common metabolic disorder. It refers to a group of conditions where excess fats are deposited in hepatic cells. Several approaches have been considered for the management of NAFLD including dietary changes, which were reported to suppress hepatic lipids accumulation in previous studies. The present study was designed to investigate the possible synergistic effects of Rutin (RT) and Ascorbic Acid (AA) against lipids accumulation in he...

  10. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2002-01-01

    Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'*) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that, since last year, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2002 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they are still participants in the schem...

  11. Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22 B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the ...

  12. Degradation of Dye Wastewater by Pulsed High-Voltage Discharge Combined with Spent Tea Leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Yang Li; Yang Gang; Zhang Yanzong; Zhang Xiaohong; Deng Shihuai

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of methylene blue (MB) was performed using the pulsed discharge process (PDP) combined with spent tea leaves (STLs). The effects of STL dosage, concentration of initial solution, and pH were analyzed in the combined treatment. Results showed that the combined treatment was effective for dye wastewater degradation; when the dosage of STLs was 3.2 g/L, the degradation efficiency reached 90% after 15 min treatment, and STLs showed a good repeatability. The degradation rate decreased with increasing initial MB concentration but not related to the solution pH in the combined treatment. Fourier-transform infrared spectra and N 2 adsorption suggested that the number of acidic and basic groups in the STL surface increased after the treatment, but the surface area and pore volume remained unchanged. (plasma technology)

  13. Anti-obesity effects of tea from Mangifera indica L. leaves of the Ubá variety in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Natalia Medina; Toledo, Renata C Lopes; Moreira, Maria E Castro; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Benjamin, Laércio Dos Anjos; de Queiroz, José H; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha

    2017-07-01

    Due to the high content of bioactive compounds, herbal teas are being investigated as adjuvant in chronic disease management. Studies have shown that mango leaf tea contain mangiferin, total phenolics and antioxidants, compounds with many functional properties. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the anti-obesity effects of tea from Mangifera indica L. leaves, Ubá variety (TML), in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). For this, adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n=8): the control group (fed AIN-93 diet), obese group (fed a HFD) and treated group (fed a HFD and supplemented with TML for 8 weeks). We analysed biometric measures and serum biochemical parameters of metabolic control, inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers, histomorphometry of visceral adipose tissue and mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PPAR-γ), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). The consumption of TML (24.7±2.1mL/day) exerted antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, increasing total antioxidant capacity and interleukin-10 serum concentrations, reduced abdominal fat accumulation, upregulated PPAR-γ and LPL and downregulated FAS expression. Our data suggest that TML has therapeutic potential in treating obesity and related diseases through regulating the expression of transcriptional factors and enzymes associated with adipogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. High-density carrier-accumulated and electrically stable oxide thin-film transistors from ion-gel gate dielectric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Mami N; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Miwa, Kazumoto; Okada, Hiromi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ono, Shimpei

    2015-12-18

    The use of indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) has paved the way for high-resolution uniform displays or integrated circuits with transparent and flexible devices. However, achieving highly reliable devices that use IGZO for low-temperature processes remains a technological challenge. We propose the use of IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an ionic-liquid gate dielectric in order to achieve high-density carrier-accumulated IGZO TFTs with high reliability, and we discuss a distinctive mechanism for the degradation of this organic-inorganic hybrid device under long-term electrical stress. Our results demonstrated that an ionic liquid or gel gate dielectric provides highly reliable and low-voltage operation with IGZO TFTs. Furthermore, high-density carrier accumulation helps improve the TFT characteristics and reliability, and it is highly relevant to the electronic phase control of oxide materials and the degradation mechanism for organic-inorganic hybrid devices.

  15. HIV populations are large and accumulate high genetic diversity in a nonlinear fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldarelli, Frank; Kearney, Mary; Palmer, Sarah; Stephens, Robert; Mican, JoAnn; Polis, Michael A; Davey, Richard T; Kovacs, Joseph; Shao, Wei; Rock-Kress, Diane; Metcalf, Julia A; Rehm, Catherine; Greer, Sarah E; Lucey, Daniel L; Danley, Kristen; Alter, Harvey; Mellors, John W; Coffin, John M

    2013-09-01

    HIV infection is characterized by rapid and error-prone viral replication resulting in genetically diverse virus populations. The rate of accumulation of diversity and the mechanisms involved are under intense study to provide useful information to understand immune evasion and the development of drug resistance. To characterize the development of viral diversity after infection, we carried out an in-depth analysis of single genome sequences of HIV pro-pol to assess diversity and divergence and to estimate replicating population sizes in a group of treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals sampled at single (n = 22) or multiple, longitudinal (n = 11) time points. Analysis of single genome sequences revealed nonlinear accumulation of sequence diversity during the course of infection. Diversity accumulated in recently infected individuals at rates 30-fold higher than in patients with chronic infection. Accumulation of synonymous changes accounted for most of the diversity during chronic infection. Accumulation of diversity resulted in population shifts, but the rates of change were low relative to estimated replication cycle times, consistent with relatively large population sizes. Analysis of changes in allele frequencies revealed effective population sizes that are substantially higher than previous estimates of approximately 1,000 infectious particles/infected individual. Taken together, these observations indicate that HIV populations are large, diverse, and slow to change in chronic infection and that the emergence of new mutations, including drug resistance mutations, is governed by both selection forces and drift.

  16. Ecological strategies of Al-accumulating and non-accumulating functional groups from the cerrado sensu stricto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The cerrado's flora comprises aluminum-(Al accumulating and non-accumulating plants, which coexist on acidic and Al-rich soils with low fertility. Despite their existence, the ecological importance or biological strategies of these functional groups have been little explored. We evaluated the leaf flushing patterns of both groups throughout a year; leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Al, total flavonoids and polyphenols; as well as the specific leaf area (SLA on young and mature leaves within and between the groups. In Al-accumulating plants, leaf flushed throughout the year, mainly in May and September; for non-accumulating plants, leaf flushing peaked at the dry-wet seasons transition. However, these behaviors could not be associated with strategies for building up concentrations of defense compounds in leaves of any functional groups. Al-accumulating plants showed low leaf nutrient concentrations, while non-accumulating plants accumulated more macronutrients and produced leaves with high SLA since the juvenile leaf phase. This demonstrates that the increase in SLA is slower in Al-accumulating plants that are likely to achieve SLA values comparable to the rest of the plant community only in the wet season, when sunlight capture is important for the growth of new branches.

  17. Ecological strategies of Al-accumulating and non-accumulating functional groups from the cerrado sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcelo C de; Bueno, Paula C P; Morellato, Leonor P C; Habermann, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The cerrado's flora comprises aluminum-(Al) accumulating and non-accumulating plants, which coexist on acidic and Al-rich soils with low fertility. Despite their existence, the ecological importance or biological strategies of these functional groups have been little explored. We evaluated the leaf flushing patterns of both groups throughout a year; leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Al, total flavonoids and polyphenols; as well as the specific leaf area (SLA) on young and mature leaves within and between the groups. In Al-accumulating plants, leaf flushed throughout the year, mainly in May and September; for non-accumulating plants, leaf flushing peaked at the dry-wet seasons transition. However, these behaviors could not be associated with strategies for building up concentrations of defense compounds in leaves of any functional groups. Al-accumulating plants showed low leaf nutrient concentrations, while non-accumulating plants accumulated more macronutrients and produced leaves with high SLA since the juvenile leaf phase. This demonstrates that the increase in SLA is slower in Al-accumulating plants that are likely to achieve SLA values comparable to the rest of the plant community only in the wet season, when sunlight capture is important for the growth of new branches.

  18. Effects of puerarin on lipid accumulation and metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zheng

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD, and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, carnitine acyltransferase (CAT and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2 was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases.

  19. New Green Tea Cultivar 'Yumewakaba' which Quality is High on Aroma and Taste by Slight Half Fermentation of Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Hiroshi; Honda, Yusuke; Nakajima, Kenta; Sasaki, Koji; Kobayashi, Akira; Tanaka, Eri; Kume, Nobuo; Sakai, Takashi; Shimazaki, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Iwao; Okano, Nobuo; Kyougoku, Hideo; Funakoshi, Shouji; Kitada, Kaichi; Fuchinoue, Yasumoto; Tanaka, Mankichi

    New green tea cultivar‘Yumewakaba’has been bred at the Green Tea and Local Products Laboratory of Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center. The clone was crossed between‘Yabukita’and Saitama No.9’in 1968. Local adaptability, tolerance to bark split frost injury, and Blister blight were tested at 17 prefectural tea experiment stations from 1994 to 2002. It was registered as ‘Norin No.53’and named ‘Yumewakaba’in 20The characteristics of the cultivar are as follows The shape of the cultivar is erect type, and spread of tea bush is the same as‘Yabukita’.The size of mature leaves are smaller than those of ‘Yabukita’. Immature leaves are lustrougreen and soft. The rooting ability of nursery plants are high and taking roots after planting is good. The plucking time of the first crop of this cultivar in Saitama is 1 or 2 days later than that of ‘Yabukita’.‘Yumewakaba’is middle budding cultivar. The yield of 1st or 2nd crop is the same that of‘Yabukita. ‘Yumewakaba’is resistance to cold drought and bark split frost injury. Thlevel of resistance to freezing injur y is stronger than that of ‘Yabukita’ The damage Anthracnose is less than that of ‘Yabukita. The appearance is better than that of ‘Yabukita’, and the quality of liquor is the same as ‘Yabukita’. The quality of processed goods from slightly half fermented leaves of this cultivar is high on the aroma and the taste. ‘Yumewakaba’is suitable for northern tea producing areas, and cool semi-mountainousareas.

  20. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter: Summary of FY2016 experiements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Fowley, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Miller, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Five experiments were completed with the full-scale, room temperature Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) high-level waste (HLW) melter riser test system to observe particle flow and settling in support of a crystal tolerant approach to melter operation. A prototypic pour rate was maintained based on the volumetric flow rate. Accumulation of particles was observed at the bottom of the riser and along the bottom of the throat after each experiment. Measurements of the accumulated layer thicknesses showed that the settled particles at the bottom of the riser did not vary in thickness during pouring cycles or idle periods. Some of the settled particles at the bottom of the throat were re-suspended during subsequent pouring cycles, and settled back to approximately the same thickness after each idle period. The cause of the consistency of the accumulated layer thicknesses is not year clear, but was hypothesized to be related to particle flow back to the feed tank. Additional experiments reinforced the observation of particle flow along a considerable portion of the throat during idle periods. Limitations of the system are noted in this report and may be addressed via future modifications. Follow-on experiments will be designed to evaluate the impact of pouring rate on particle re-suspension, the influence of feed tank agitation on particle accumulation, and the effect of changes in air lance positioning on the accumulation and re-suspension of particles at the bottom of the riser. A method for sampling the accumulated particles will be developed to support particle size distribution analyses. Thicker accumulated layers will be intentionally formed via direct addition of particles to select areas of the system to better understand the ability to continue pouring and re-suspend particles. Results from the room temperature system will be correlated with observations and data from the Research Scale Melter (RSM) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  1. Compression and radiation of high-power short rf pulses. I. Energy accumulation in direct-flow waveguide compressors

    KAUST Repository

    Sirenko, Kostyantyn; Pazynin, Vadim L.; Sirenko, Yu K.; Bagci, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Proper design of efficient requires precise understanding of the physics pertinent to energy accumulation and exhaust processes in resonant waveguide cavities. In this paper, practically for the first time these highly non-monotonic transient processes are studied in detail using a rigorous time-domain approach. Additionally, influence of the geometrical design and excitation parameters on the compressor's performance is quantified in detail.

  2. Carbon storage and long-term rate of accumulation in high-altitude Andean peatlands of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Hribljan; D.J. Cooper; J. Sueltenfuss; E.C. Wolf; K.A. Heckman; Erik Lilleskov; R.A. Chimner

    2015-01-01

    The high-altitude (4,500+ m) Andean mountain range of north-western Bolivia contains many peatlands. Despite heavy grazing pressure and potential damage from climate change, little is known about these peatlands. Our objective was to quantify carbon pools, basal ages and long-term peat accumulation rates in peatlands in two areas of the arid puna ecoregion of Bolivia:...

  3. High Accumulation and In Vivo Recycling of the New Antimalarial Albitiazolium Lead to Rapid Parasite Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Sharon; Taudon, Nicolas; Maynadier, Marjorie; Tran Van Ba, Christophe; Margout, Delphine; Bordat, Yann; Fraisse, Laurent; Wengelnik, Kai; Cerdan, Rachel; Bressolle-Gomeni, Françoise; Vial, Henri J

    2017-08-01

    Albitiazolium is the lead compound of bisthiazolium choline analogues and exerts powerful in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activities. Here we provide new insight into the fate of albitiazolium in vivo in mice and how it exerts its pharmacological activity. We show that the drug exhibits rapid and potent activity and has very favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Pharmacokinetic studies in Plasmodium vinckei -infected mice indicated that albitiazolium rapidly and specifically accumulates to a great extent (cellular accumulation ratio, >150) in infected erythrocytes. Unexpectedly, plasma concentrations and the area under concentration-time curves increased by 15% and 69% when mice were infected at 0.9% and 8.9% parasitemia, respectively. Albitiazolium that had accumulated in infected erythrocytes and in the spleen was released into the plasma, where it was then available for another round of pharmacological activity. This recycling of the accumulated drug, after the rupture of the infected erythrocytes, likely extends its pharmacological effect. We also established a new viability assay in the P. vinckei -infected mouse model to discriminate between fast- and slow-acting antimalarials. We found that albitiazolium impaired parasite viability in less than 6 and 3 h at the ring and late stages, respectively, while parasite morphology was affected more belatedly. This highlights that viability and morphology are two parameters that can be differentially affected by a drug treatment, an element that should be taken into account when screening new antimalarial drugs. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Effects of Enzymatically Synthesized Glycogen and Exercise on Abdominal Fat Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shohei; Honda, Kazuhisa; Morinaga, Ryoji; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The combination of diet and exercise is the first choice for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. We previously reported that enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG) suppresses abdominal fat accumulation in obese rats. However, the effect of the combination of ESG and exercise on abdominal fat accumulation has not yet been investigated. Our goal in this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of dietary ESG and its combination with exercise on abdominal fat accumulation in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Male ICR mice were assigned to four groups: HFD, HFD containing 20% ESG, HFD with exercise, HFD containing 20% ESG with exercise. Treadmill exercise was performed for 3 wk (25 m/min, 30 min/d, 3 d/wk) after 5-d adaption to running at that speed. Both ESG and exercise significantly reduced the weights of abdominal adipose tissues. In addition, the combination of ESG and exercise significantly suppressed abdominal fat accumulation, suggesting that ESG and exercise showed an additive effect. Exercise significantly increased the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related genes such as lipoprotein lipase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta; factor-delta (PPARδ), carnitin palmitoyltransferase b, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and uncoupling protein-3 in the gastrocnemius muscle. On the other hand, dietary ESG significantly decreased the mRNA levels of PPARδ and ATGL in the gastrocnemius muscle. These results suggest that the combined treatment of ESG and exercise effectively suppresses abdominal fat accumulation in HFD-fed mice by different mechanisms.

  5. Do perceived high performance work systems influence the relationship between emotional labour, burnout and intention to leave? A study of Australian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Timothy; Casimir, Gian; Djurkovic, Nick; Leggat, Sandra G; Stanton, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this article was to explore the relationships between perceived high performance work systems, emotional labour, burnout and intention to leave among nurses in Australia. Previous studies show that emotional labour and burnout are associated with an increase in intention to leave of nurses. There is evidence that high performance work systems are in association with a decrease in turnover. There are no previous studies that examine the relationship between high performance work systems and emotional labour. A cross-sectional, correlational survey. The study was conducted in Australia in 2008 with 183 nurses. Three hypotheses were tested with validated measures of emotional labour, burnout, intention to leave, and perceived high performance work systems. Principal component analysis was used to examine the structure of the measures. The mediation hypothesis was tested using Baron and Kenny's procedure and the moderation hypothesis was tested using hierarchical regression and the product-term. Emotional labour is positively associated with both burnout and intention to leave. Burnout mediates the relationship between emotional labour and intention to leave. Perceived high performance work systems negatively moderates the relationship between emotional labour and burnout. Perceived high performance work systems not only reduces the strength of the negative effect of emotional labour on burnout but also has a unique negative effect on intention to leave. Ensuring effective human resource management practice through the implementation of high performance work systems may reduce the burnout associated with emotional labour. This may assist healthcare organizations to reduce nurse turnover. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Comparative polygenic analysis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and tolerance to high ethanol levels of cell proliferation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago M Pais

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to accumulate ≥17% ethanol (v/v by fermentation in the absence of cell proliferation. The genetic basis of this unique capacity is unknown. Up to now, all research has focused on tolerance of yeast cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. Comparison of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation in 68 yeast strains showed a poor correlation, but higher ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation clearly increased the likelihood of superior maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to identify the polygenic basis of these two complex traits using segregants from a cross of a haploid derivative of the sake strain CBS1585 and the lab strain BY. From a total of 301 segregants, 22 superior segregants accumulating ≥17% ethanol in small-scale fermentations and 32 superior segregants growing in the presence of 18% ethanol, were separately pooled and sequenced. Plotting SNP variant frequency against chromosomal position revealed eleven and eight Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs for the two traits, respectively, and showed that the genetic basis of the two traits is partially different. Fine-mapping and Reciprocal Hemizygosity Analysis identified ADE1, URA3, and KIN3, encoding a protein kinase involved in DNA damage repair, as specific causative genes for maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. These genes, as well as the previously identified MKT1 gene, were not linked in this genetic background to tolerance of cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. The superior KIN3 allele contained two SNPs, which are absent in all yeast strains sequenced up to now. This work provides the first insight in the genetic basis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity in yeast and reveals for the first time the importance of DNA damage repair in yeast ethanol tolerance.

  7. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation in cultivars of a high-biomass tropical tree (Averrhoa carambola) and its potential for phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J T; Liao, B; Lan, C Y; Ye, Z H; Baker, A J M; Shu, W S

    2010-01-01

    Averrhoa carambola is a high-biomass tropical tree that has been identified as a Cd accumulator. In the present study, field survey, pot, and hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of Cd tolerance and accumulation in cultivars of A. carambola as well as its potential for phytoextraction. In the field survey, it was found that concentrations of Cd in aerial tissues of A. carambola varied greatly among sites and cultivars. The Cd bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and Cd removals by the field-grown A. carambola differed significantly among sites but not among cultivars. Nonetheless, all four carambola cultivars investigated were able to accumulate considerably high concentrations of Cd in their shoots, which indicated that the 4-yr-old carambola stands could remove 0.3 to 51.8% of the total Cd content in the top 20-cm soil layer. When cultured in Cd-spiked soils, the carambola cultivar Hua-Di always showed higher Cd tolerance than the other cultivars; however, this tendency was not confirmed by hydroponic experiment. The Cd BCFs of cultivar Thailand grown in soils with 6 and 12 mg Cd kg(-1) were highest among cultivars, whereas this trend was reversed at 120 mg Cd kg(-1) treatment. Nevertheless, the pot- and hydroponics-grown carambola cultivars generally showed higher capacities to tolerate and accumulate Cd, compared with the control species. The present results indicate that a strong ability to tolerate and accumulate Cd seems to be a trait at the species level in A. carambola, although some degree of variances in both Cd tolerance and accumulation exists among cultivars.

  8. Depressor effect of the young leaves of Polygonum hydropiper Linn. in high-salt induced hypertensive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Sankar; Yahiro, Eiji; Uehara, Yoshinari; Kuroda, Rieko; Hirano, Yoshio; Nagata, Kaori; Miura, Shinichiro; Saku, Keijiro; Urata, Hidenori

    2018-06-01

    A novel chymase inhibitor has been reported to have depressor effect in salt-induced hypertension. Therefore, we examined the hypothesis that chymase inhibitory dried young leaves of Polygonum hydropiper (PPH) or young leaves extract of Polygonum hydropiper (PHE) could reduce salt-induced hypertension. In this study, 8-wk old wild-type mice were allocated into three experiments and experiment I included groups, I- normal water drinking, II- high salt (2% NaCl) water (HSW) drinking, and III- HSW plus PPH (500 mg kg -1 , orally) for 12-wk. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured at baseline and weekly up to wk-12. In experiment II, mice were given HSW for 12-wk followed by 8-wk treatment with PPH plus HSW (62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mg kg -1 for groups I, II, III and IV, respectively). BP and HR were measured at baseline and monthly until wk-12, following weekly for 8-wk. Experiment III comprised of four groups of mice for 12-wk HSW and 8-wk treatment with PHE plus HSW (2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg kg -1 for groups I-IV, respectively). BP and HR were measured at baseline and monthly up to wk-12, following weekly for 8-wk. Significant reduction in BP and HR were observed in mice treated with PPH (500 mg kg -1 ) compared to HSW control. PPH reduced BP and HR dose dependently in hypertensive mice and the higher dose showed maximum reduction. PHE at its maximum dose (20 mg kg -1 ) significantly suppressed BP and HR. Over all, we found that the young leaves of Polygonum hydropiper suppressed salt-induced hypertension. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. High-field penning-malmberg trap: confinement properties and use in positron accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, J.H.

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation reports on the development of the 60 kG cryogenic positron trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and compares the trap`s confinement properties with other nonneutral plasma devices. The device is designed for the accumulation of up to 2{times}10{sup 9} positrons from a linear-accelerator source. This positron plasma could then be used in Bhabha scattering experiments. Initial efforts at time-of-flight accumulation of positrons from the accelerator show rapid ({approximately}100 ms) deconfinement, inconsistent with the long electron lifetimes. Several possible deconfinement mechanisms have been explored, including annihilation on residual gas, injection heating, rf noise from the accelerator, magnet field curvature, and stray fields. Detailed studies of electron confinement demonstrate that the empirical scaling law used to design the trap cannot be extrapolated into the parameter regime of this device. Several possible methods for overcoming these limitations are presented.

  10. Estimation of erosion-accumulative processes at the Inia River’s mouth near high-rise construction zones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sineeva Natalya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study relevance is due to the increasing man-made impact on water bodies and associated land resources within the urban areas, as a consequence, by a change in the morphology and dynamics of Rivers’ canals. This leads to the need to predict the development of erosion-accumulation processes, especially within the built-up urban areas. Purpose of the study is to develop programs on the assessment of erosion-accumulation processes at a water body, a mouth area of the Inia River, in the of perspective high-rise construction zone of a residential microdistrict, the place, where floodplain-channel complex is intensively expected to develop. Results of the study: Within the velocities of the water flow comparing, full-scale measured conditions, and calculated from the model, a slight discrepancy was recorded. This allows us to say that the numerical model reliably describes the physical processes developing in the River. The carried out calculations to assess the direction and intensity of the channel re-formations, made us possible to conclude, there was an insignificant predominance of erosion processes over the accumulative ones on the undeveloped part of the Inia River (the processes activity is noticeable only in certain areas (by the coasts and the island. Importance of the study: The study on the erosion-accumulation processes evaluation can be used in design decisions for the future high-rise construction of this territory, which will increase their economic efficiency.

  11. Estimation of erosion-accumulative processes at the Inia River's mouth near high-rise construction zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sineeva, Natalya

    2018-03-01

    Our study relevance is due to the increasing man-made impact on water bodies and associated land resources within the urban areas, as a consequence, by a change in the morphology and dynamics of Rivers' canals. This leads to the need to predict the development of erosion-accumulation processes, especially within the built-up urban areas. Purpose of the study is to develop programs on the assessment of erosion-accumulation processes at a water body, a mouth area of the Inia River, in the of perspective high-rise construction zone of a residential microdistrict, the place, where floodplain-channel complex is intensively expected to develop. Results of the study: Within the velocities of the water flow comparing, full-scale measured conditions, and calculated from the model, a slight discrepancy was recorded. This allows us to say that the numerical model reliably describes the physical processes developing in the River. The carried out calculations to assess the direction and intensity of the channel re-formations, made us possible to conclude, there was an insignificant predominance of erosion processes over the accumulative ones on the undeveloped part of the Inia River (the processes activity is noticeable only in certain areas (by the coasts and the island)). Importance of the study: The study on the erosion-accumulation processes evaluation can be used in design decisions for the future high-rise construction of this territory, which will increase their economic efficiency.

  12. Plastic litter accumulation on high-water strandline of urban beaches in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. The inadequate recycling and poor management of waste in developing countries has resulted in considerable quantities of plastic contaminating beaches. Though India has long coastline of 5,420 km along the mainland with 43 % of sandy beaches, data on litter accumulation, particularly the plastics, which are one of the most common and persistent pollutants in marine environment, are scanty. The abundance and distribution of plastic litter was quantitatively assessed in four sandy beaches in Mumbai, India, bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. Triplicates of 2 × 2 m (4 m(2)) quadrats were sampled in each beach with a total of 72 quadrats. Overall, average abundance of 11.6 items m(-2) (0.25-282.5 items m(-2)) and 3.24 g m(-2) (0.27-15.53 g m(-2)) plastic litter was recorded in Mumbai beaches. Plastic litter accumulation significantly varied temporally and spatially at p = 0.05. Significantly higher plastic litter accumulation was recorded in Juhu beach. Furthermore, the highest abundance by weight was recorded in November and May numerically. More than 80 % of plastic particles were within the size range of 5-100 mm both by number and weight. Moreover, coloured plastics were predominant with 67 % by number of items and 51 % by weight. Probably, the intense use of beaches for recreation, tourism, and religious activities has increased the potential for plastic contamination in urban beaches in Mumbai.

  13. Leaving School and Its Outcomes on Health-related Fitness Among Drop-out Algerian High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zerf

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Schools are ideal venues for the implementation of healthy behaviors allied to the levels of physical activities as the physical and mental health correlate to psychosocial well-being of scholars. Whereas, this advantage is not reliable with dropout students. Support through psychological studies via time structure unconnected to self-efficacy relative to self-physical activity motivation among this social class, especially with the economic crisis as challenges imposed for Algerian society, concerning the high unemployment rates in line with high school dropouts. Method. This controlled study tested 104 high-school Male adolescent students aged around 17 years for academic years 2015–2016 and those under 18 years for academic years 2016–2017. Built on the ALPHA-Fitness test battery accompanied by questionnaire relevant to their physical and social time for both years. Results. Based on the design, the tests practised and the statistical processes applied within the search limitation, the results support, on one hand, the benefits of school venue as an ideal implementation of health and levels of physical activities and well-being among our scholars, and on the other, we confirmed the leaving school as a negative time trend via dropout students, poorly correlate with times physically and socially inactive. This study inspected that inactive lifestyle relate to body image disorders and disturbances concomitant to energy-expending relative to missing recreational time and sporting endeavours. Conclusions. Leaving school in the Algerian communities is a stress-related biological pathway that links physical disorders and depression virtual to social time structure proceeded to manage the relevant tasks, goals and objectives. Indicated in similar as best when individuals are clear about what it is they are expected to achieve.

  14. Simultaneous Analysis of Ursolic Acid and Oleanolic Acid in Guava Leaves Using QuEChERS-Based Extraction Followed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chang; Liao, Yiyi; Fang, Chunyan; Tsunoda, Makoto; Zhang, Yingxia; Song, Yanting; Deng, Shiming

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method of QuEChERS-based extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the simultaneous determination of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) in guava leaves. The QuEChERS-based extraction parameters, including the amount of added salt, vortex-assisted extraction time, and absorbent amount, and the chromatographic conditions were investigated for the analysis of UA and OA in guava leaves. Under the optimized conditions, the m...

  15. Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of Dichrostachys Cinerea W and Arn leaves by a thin layer chromatography, high performance thin layer chromatography and column chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    M Vijayalakshmi; K Periyanayagam; K Kavitha; K Akilandeshwari

    2013-01-01

    Background: The leaves of Dichrostachys cinerea are used as laxative, diuretic, painkiller. It is also used in the treatment of gonorrhoea, boils, oedema, gout, veneral diseases and nasopharyngeal affections, etc. Materials and Methods: The Phytochemical investigation of ethanolic extract of D. cinerea leaves were performed by standard chemical tests, thin layer chromatography (TLC) by using various solvent systems, and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPTLC). Two compounds were...

  16. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter. Preliminary settling and resuspension testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-01

    The full-scale, room-temperature Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) High-Level Waste (HLW) melter riser test system was successfully operated with silicone oil and magnetite particles at a loading of 0.1 vol %. Design and construction of the system and instrumentation, and the selection and preparation of simulant materials, are briefly reviewed. Three experiments were completed. A prototypic pour rate was maintained, based on the volumetric flow rate. Settling and accumulation of magnetite particles were observed at the bottom of the riser and along the bottom of the throat after each experiment. The height of the accumulated layer at the bottom of the riser, after the first pouring experiment, approximated the expected level given the solids loading of 0.1 vol %. More detailed observations of particle resuspension and settling were made during and after the third pouring experiment. The accumulated layer of particles at the bottom of the riser appeared to be unaffected after a pouring cycle of approximately 15 minutes at the prototypic flow rate. The accumulated layer of particles along the bottom of the throat was somewhat reduced after the same pouring cycle. Review of the time-lapse recording showed that some of the settling particles flow from the riser into the throat. This may result in a thicker than expected settled layer in the throat.

  17. Accumulation effects in modulation spectroscopy with high-repetition-rate pulses: Recursive solution of optical Bloch equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Vladimir Al.; Pullerits, Tõnu

    2017-10-01

    Application of the phase-modulated pulsed light for advance spectroscopic measurements is the area of growing interest. The phase modulation of the light causes modulation of the signal. Separation of the spectral components of the modulations allows to distinguish the contributions of various interaction pathways. The lasers with high repetition rate used in such experiments can lead to appearance of the accumulation effects, which become especially pronounced in systems with long-living excited states. Recently it was shown that such accumulation effects can be used to evaluate parameters of the dynamical processes in the material. In this work we demonstrate that the accumulation effects are also important in the quantum characteristics measurements provided by modulation spectroscopy. In particular, we consider a model of quantum two-level system driven by a train of phase-modulated light pulses, organized in analogy with the two-dimensional spectroscopy experiments. We evaluate the harmonics' amplitudes in the fluorescent signal and calculate corrections appearing from the accumulation effects. We show that the corrections can be significant and have to be taken into account at analysis of experimental data.

  18. High-Cost Patients Had Substantial Rates Of Leaving Medicare Advantage And Joining Traditional Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Momotazur; Keohane, Laura; Trivedi, Amal N; Mor, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Medicare Advantage payment regulations include risk-adjusted capitated reimbursement, which was implemented to discourage favorable risk selection and encourage the retention of members who incur high costs. However, the extent to which risk-adjusted capitation has succeeded is not clear, especially for members using high-cost services not previously considered in assessments of risk selection. We examined the rates at which participants who used three high-cost services switched between Medicare Advantage and traditional Medicare. We found that the switching rate from 2010 to 2011 away from Medicare Advantage and to traditional Medicare exceeded the switching rate in the opposite direction for participants who used long-term nursing home care (17 percent versus 3 percent), short-term nursing home care (9 percent versus 4 percent), and home health care (8 percent versus 3 percent). These results were magnified among people who were enrolled in both Medicare and Medicaid. Our findings raise questions about the role of Medicare Advantage plans in serving high-cost patients with complex care needs, who account for a disproportionately high amount of total health care spending. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  19. [Effects of nitrogen application level on soil nitrate accumulation and ammonia volatilization in high-yielding wheat field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Yu, Zhenwen; Yu, Wenming; Shi, Yu; Zhou, Zhongxin

    2006-09-01

    The study showed that during the period from sowing to pre-wintering, the soil nitrate in high-yielding wheat field moved down to deeper layers, and accumulated in the layers below 140 cm. An application rate of 96-168 kg N x hm(-2) increased the nitrate content in 0-60 cm soil layer and the wheat grain yield and its protein content, and decreased the proportion of apparent N loss to applied N and the ammonia volatilization loss from basal nitrogen. Applying 240 kg N x hm(-2) promoted the downward movement of soil nitrate and its accumulation in deeper layers, increased the proportion of apparent N loss to applied N and the ammonia volatilization loss from basal nitrogen, had no significant effect on the protein content of wheat grain, but decreased the grain yield. The appropriate application rate of nitrogen on high-yielding wheat field was 132-204 kg N x hm(-2).

  20. HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF CAFFEIC ACID AND ROSMARINIC ACID FROM THE LEAVES OF Orthosiphon stamineus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amzad Hossain

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the studies performed on extraction of Orthosiphon stamineus, Benth by using different solvent for the identification and quantification of the caffeic acid derivatives such as caffeic acid  and rosmarinic acid which confers to the leaves of this plant with remarkable pharmaceutical properties. High performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC allows the identification and the quantification of more than 20 samples in the same chromatographic run. The analysis of the samples requires 15-30 min compared with more than 2 h using a typical HPLC method. Using the techniques of the HPTLC and the UV-VIS spectra we have found that the extraction of this herb plant contain, the caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid ranging between 0.029% up to 0.506% and up to 0.24% to 2.24% respectively.     Keywords: Caffice acid derivatives, quantification, Malaysian Orthosiphon stamineus, HPTLC

  1. Essential oil composition, phytotoxic and antifungal activities of Ruta chalepensis L. leaves from High Atlas Mountains (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouajaj, Sana; Romane, Abderrahmane; Benyamna, Abdennaji; Amri, Ismail; Hanana, Mohsen; Hamrouni, Lamia; Romdhane, Mehrez

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at the determination of chemical composition of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation, and to evaluate their phytotoxic and antifungal activities. Leaves of Ruta chalepensis L. were collected from the region of Tensift Al Haouz (High Atlas Mountains) Marrakech, Morocco. The essential oil (oil yield is 0.56%) was analysed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Twenty-two compounds were identified and accounted for 92.4% of the total oil composition. The major components were undecan-2-one (49.08%), nonan-2-one (33.15%), limonene (4.19%) and decanone (2.71%). Antifungal ability of essential oils was tested by disc agar diffusion against five plant pathogenic fungi: Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium pseudograminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium polyphialidicum. The oils were also tested in vitro for herbicidal activity by determining their influence on the germination and the shoot and root growth of two weed species, Triticum durum and Phalaris canariensis L.

  2. Morphology-Property relationship of high density Polyethylene/Hevea Brasiliensis Leaves/Imperata cylindrica hybrid composite: Impact strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, A. R.; Muhammad, A.; Roslan, A.

    2017-09-01

    This research studies about the Hevea Brasiliensis Leaves and Imperata Cylindrica that was used as filler in High Density Polyethylene (HDPE). The fillers content were varied in the composite by 5 wt%, 15 wt% and 25 wt% respectively. This polymer composite are being studied by using Impact Test and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The analysis show that the impact strength value increased when the percent of bio filler used is low. The result between pure HDPE and the composites shows an outcome of significant changes in impact energy values, while the values between different composite change slightly. A composite that contained 5 wt% of fillers is the better energy absorber than 15 wt% and 25 wt% according to impact testing. In addition, the morphology studies on the composite sample show that the bio-filler was successfully embedded. Overall, these finding suggest that HBL and IC can be an alternative filler to be incorporated in polymer matrix.

  3. Compression and radiation of high-power short rf pulses. I. Energy accumulation in direct-flow waveguide compressors

    KAUST Repository

    Sirenko, Kostyantyn

    2011-01-01

    Proper design of efficient requires precise understanding of the physics pertinent to energy accumulation and exhaust processes in resonant waveguide cavities. In this paper, practically for the first time these highly non-monotonic transient processes are studied in detail using a rigorous time-domain approach. Additionally, influence of the geometrical design and excitation parameters on the compressor\\'s performance is quantified in detail.

  4. Consumption of a high-fat diet, but not regular endurance exercise training, regulates hypothalamic lipid accumulation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Melissa L; Omran, Simin Fallah; Weir, Jacquelyn; Meikle, Peter J; Watt, Matthew J

    2012-09-01

    Obesity is characterised by increased storage of fatty acids in an expanded adipose tissue mass and in peripheral tissues such as the skeletal muscle and liver, where it is associated with the development of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance also develops in the central nervous system with high-fat feeding. The capacity for hypothalamic cells to accumulate/store lipids, and the effects of obesity remain undefined. The aims of this study were (1) to examine hypothalamic lipid content in mice with increased dietary fat intake and in obese ob/ob mice fed a low-fat diet, and (2) to determine whether endurance exercise training could reduce hypothalamic lipid accumulation in high-fat fed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a low- (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks; ob/ob mice were maintained on a chow diet. HFD-exercise (HFD-ex) mice underwent 12 weeks of high-fat feeding with 6 weeks of treadmill exercise training (increasing from 30 to 70 min day(-1)). Hypothalamic lipids were assessed by unbiased mass spectrometry. The HFD increased body mass and hepatic lipid accumulation, and induced glucose intolerance, while the HFD-ex mice had reduced body weight and improved glucose tolerance. A total of 335 lipid molecular species were identified and quantified. Lipids known to induce insulin resistance, including ceramide (22%↑), diacylglycerol (25%↑), lysophosphatidylcholine (17%↑), cholesterol esters (60%↑) and dihexosylceramide (33%↑), were increased in the hypothalamus of HFD vs. LFD mice. Hypothalamic lipids were unaltered with exercise training and in the ob/ob mice, suggesting that obesity per se does not alter hypothalamic lipids. Overall, hypothalamic lipid accumulation is regulated by dietary lipid content and is refractory to change with endurance exercise training.

  5. Helium accumulation and bubble formation in FeCoNiCr alloy under high fluence He+ implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Tong, Y.; Li, H.; Wang, J.; Zhao, Y. L.; Hu, Alice; Kai, J. J.

    2018-04-01

    Face-centered cubic (FCC) high-entropy alloys (HEA), as emerging alloys with equal-molar or near equal-molar constituents, show a promising radiation damage resistance under heavy ion bombardment, making them potential for structural material application in next-generation nuclear reactors, but the accumulation of light helium ions, a product of nuclear fission reaction, has not been studied. The present work experimentally studied the helium accumulation and bubble formation at implantation temperatures of 523 K, 573 K and 673 K in a homogenized FCC FeCoNiCr HEA, a HEA showing excellent radiation damage resistance under heavy ion irradiation. The size and population density of helium bubbles in FeCoNiCr samples were quantitatively analyzed through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the helium content existing in bubbles were estimated from a high-pressure Equation of State (EOS). We found that the helium diffusion in such condition was dominated by the self-interstitial/He replacement mechanism, and the corresponding activation energy in FeCoNiCr is comparable with the vacancy migration energy in Ni and austenitic stainless steel but only 14.3%, 31.4% and 51.4% of the accumulated helium precipitated into helium bubbles at 523 K, 573 K and 673 K, respectively, smaller than the pure Ni case. Importantly, the small bubble size suggested that FeCoNiCr HEA has a high resistance of helium bubble formation compared with Ni and steels.

  6. Dose accumulation of multiple high dose rate prostate brachytherapy treatments in two commercially available image registration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Joel; Yuen, Johnson; Howie, Andrew; Bece, Andrej; Bucci, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether deformable image registration (DIR) is required for dose accumulation of multiple high dose rate prostate brachytherapy (HDRPBT) plans treated with the same catheter pattern on two different CT datasets. DIR was applied to 20 HDRPBT patients' planning CT images who received two treatment fractions on sequential days, on two different CT datasets, with the same implant. Quality of DIR in Velocity and MIM image registration systems was assessed by calculating the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and mean distance to agreement (MDA) for the prostate, urethra and rectum contours. Accumulated doses from each system were then calculated using the same DIR technique and dose volume histogram (DVH) parameters compared to manual addition with no DIR. The average DSC was found to be 0.83 (Velocity) and 0.84 (MIM), 0.80 (Velocity) and 0.80 (MIM), 0.80 (Velocity) and 0.81 (MIM), for the prostate, rectum and urethra contours, respectively. The average difference in calculated DVH parameters between the two systems using dose accumulation was less than 1%, and there was no statistically significant difference found between deformably accumulated doses in the two systems versus manual DVH addition with no DIR. Contour propagation using DIR in velocity and MIM was shown to be at least equivalent to inter-observer contouring variability on CT. The results also indicate that dose accumulation through manual addition of DVH parameters may be sufficient for HDRPBT treatments treated with the same catheter pattern on two different CT datasets. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Growth of sugarcane under high input conditions in tropical Australia. 1. Radiation use, biomass accumulation and partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, M.J.; Wood, A.W.; Muchow, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    There is little detailed information on yield accumulation in sugarcane under high-input conditions, which can be used to quantify the key physiological parameters contributing to yield variation. Sugarcane is grown under plant and ratoon crop conditions. This study analysed canopy development, radiation interception and biomass accumulation of two contrasting cultivars of sugarcane under irrigation during the same season under plant and ratoon crop conditions. Over the 15 month season, 11 crop samplings were conducted. Biomass partitioning to stalk was also measured to determine to what extent differences in partitioning between cultivars under ratoon and plant crop conditions contribute to differential productivity. The key findings were: (1) The ratoon crop accumulated biomass more quickly than the plant crop during the first 100 days of growth due to higher stalk number, faster canopy development and greater radiation interception. For similar reasons, cultivar Q138 had higher early biomass production than cultivar Q117 in the plant crop, (2) Early differences in biomass accumulation due to crop class became negligible at about 220 days because maximum RUE of the plant crop (1.72 +/- 0.01 g MJ -1 ) was 8% higher than in the first ratoon crop (1.59 +/- 0.08 g MJ -1 ). The higher maximum RUE in the plant crop was consistent with a higher crop growth rate (35.1 +/- 2.3 versus 31.0 +/- 3.4 g m -2 d -1 ) during the Linear phase of biomass accumulation. (3) Biomass accumulation, which ceased about 300 days after planting/ratooning and 140 days before final harvest, attained similar levels of 53-58 t ha -1 in all four crops. (4) The plateau in biomass was associated with loss of live millable stalks, and not a cessation in the growth rate of individual stalks. The crops continued to intercept radiation while on the biomass plateau, so that average RUEs at final harvest were much lower than the maximum values. (5) There was no effect of crop class or cultivar on the

  8. Evaluation of phenolic content, total flavonoid and survey of antioxidant activity of leaves of Ficus carica and Pterocarya fraxinifolia trees using spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatograph methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Jafari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, to evaluate the antioxidant activity of leaf Pterocarya fraxinifolia (Juglandaceae and Ficus carica (Moraceae extract were carried out by spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography methods. The leaves of P. fraxinifolia and F. carica were collected from Whitney and Shast Kalate (Golestan, Noor (Mazandaran and Asalem (Guilan forests in Iran. Methanolc extract was used in different experiments. The phenolic compounds (gallic acid, coumaric acid and quercetin were also measured by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method.The maximum IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity (595.12±21.4 μg ml-1 were observed in P. fraxinifolia leaves. According to the inhibition time, phenolic compound (gallic acid, coumaric acid and quercetin in F. carica leaves and gallic acid and coumaric acid were detected of Pterocarya leaves methanol extracts. The maximum amount of gallic acid (78.93 and coumaric acid (8.14 in extracts Pterocarya leaves Asalem and the lowest gallic acid (8.56 and coumaric acid (0.89 milligrams per gram was observed in Ficus leaf of Noor forest. Based on the standard chromatogram retention time of gallic acid (2.383, coumaric acid (3.817 and quercetin (7.217 mg/g was reported. This study showed that soil factors, such as potassium, sodium, phosphorus and nitrogen compounds with antioxidant phenolic extracts of the leaves of both plants there is a significant correlation.

  9. Carbon storage and long-term rate of accumulation in high-altitude Andean peatlands of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Hribljan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 The high-altitude (4,500+ m Andean mountain range of north-western Bolivia contains many peatlands. Despite heavy grazing pressure and potential damage from climate change, little is known about these peatlands. Our objective was to quantify carbon pools, basal ages and long-term peat accumulation rates in peatlands in two areas of the arid puna ecoregion of Bolivia: near the village of Manasaya in the Sajama National Park (Cordillera Occidentale, and in the Tuni Condoriri National Park (Cordillera Real. (2 We cored to 5 m depth in the Manasaya peatland, whose age at 5 m was ca. 3,675 yr. BP with a LARCA of 47 g m-2 yr-1. However, probing indicated that the maximum depth was 7–10 m with a total estimated (by extrapolation carbon stock of 1,040 Mg ha-1. The Tuni peat body was 5.5 m thick and initiated ca. 2,560 cal. yr. BP. The peatland carbon stock was 572 Mg ha-1 with a long-term rate of carbon accumulation (LARCA of 37 g m-2 yr-1. (3 Despite the dry environment of the Bolivian puna, the region contains numerous peatlands with high carbon stocks and rapid carbon accumulation rates. These peatlands are heavily used for llama and alpaca grazing.

  10. Anaerobic granule-based biofilms formation reduces propionate accumulation under high H2 partial pressure using conductive carbon felt particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Heng; Wang, Cuiping; Yan, Kun; Wu, Jing; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun

    2016-09-01

    Syngas based co-digestion is not only more economically attractive than separate syngas methanation but also able to upgrade biogas and increase overall CH4 amount simultaneously. However, high H2 concentration in the syngas could inhibit syntrophic degradation of propionate, resulting in propionate accumulation and even failure of the co-digestion system. In an attempt to reduce propionate accumulation via enhancing both H2 interspecies transfer (HIT) and direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) pathways, layered granule-based biofilms induced by conductive carbon felt particles (CCFP) was employed. The results showed that propionate accumulation was effectively reduced with influent COD load up to 7gL(-1)d(-1). Two types of granule-based biofilms, namely biofilm adhered to CCFP (B-CCFP) and granules formed by self-immobilization (B-SI) were formed in the reactor. Clostridium, Syntrophobacter, Methanospirillum were possibly involved in HIT and Clostridium, Geobacter, Anaerolineaceae, Methanosaeta in DIET, both of which might be responsible for the high-rate propionate degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Atmospheric mercury accumulation between 5900 and 800 calibrated years BP in the high arctic of Canada recorded by Peat Hummocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givelet, N.; Roos-Barraclough, F.; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first comprehensive long-term record of preanthropogenic rates of atmospheric mercury accumulation in dated peat deposits for the High Arctic of Canada. Geochemical studies of two peat hummocks from Bathurst Island, Nunavut reveal substantial inputs from soil dust...... (titanium), marine aerosols (bromine), and mineral-water interactions (uranium). Mercury, however, was supplied to these peat mounds exclusively by atmospheric deposition. Mercury concentration measurements and age dating of the peat profiles indicate rather constant natural "background" mercury flux of ca....... 1 microgram per square meter per year from 5900 to 800 calibrated years BP. These values are well within the range of the mercury fluxes reported from other Arctic locations, but also by peat cores from southern Canada that provide a record of atmospheric Hg accumulation extending back 8000 years...

  12. RNA-Seq transcriptomic analysis of the Morus alba L. leaves exposed to high-level UVB with or without dark treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qijie; Yu, Jiaojiao; Zhu, Wei; Yang, Bingxian; Li, Yaohan; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Jingkui

    2018-03-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation induces oxidative stress in plant cells due to the generation of excessive reactive oxygen species. Morus alba L. (M. abla) is an important medicinal plant used for the treatment of human diseases. Also, its leaves are widely used as food for silkworms. In our previous research, we found that a high level of UVB irradiation with dark incubation led to the accumulation of secondary metabolites in M. abla leaf. The aim of the present study was to describe and compare M. alba leaf transcriptomics with different treatments (control, UVB, UVB+dark). Leaf transcripts from M. alba were sequenced using an Illumina Hiseq 2000 system, which produced 14.27Gb of data including 153,204,462 paired-end reads among the three libraries. We de novo assembled 133,002 transcripts with an average length of 1270bp and filtered 69,728 non-redundant unigenes. A similarity search was performed against the non-redundant National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) protein database, which returned 41.08% hits. Among the 20,040 unigenes annotated in UniProtKB/SwissProt database, 16,683 unigenes were assigned 102,232 gene ontology terms and 6667 unigenes were identified in 287 known metabolic pathways. Results of differential gene expression analysis together with real-time quantitative PCR tests indicated that UVB irradiation with dark incubation enhanced the flavonoid biosynthesis in M. alba leaf. Our findings provided a valuable proof for a better understanding of the metabolic mechanism under abiotic stresses in M. alba leaf. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Plantago maxima leaves extract inhibits adipogenic action of a high-fat diet in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Nemereshina, Olga N; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Gritsenko, Viktor A; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the content of biologically active compounds producing an antioxidant effect in Plantago maxima and their influence on main mechanisms of dietary obesity development. Biologically active compounds in P. maxima were tested using paper chromatography. In in vivo experiment, high-fat-fed Wistar rats obtained P. maxima water extract for 3 months. Morphometric parameters, weight gain, serum adipokines, and cytokines, as well as oxidative stress biomarkers in rats’ tissues were evaluated. Gut microflora was also examined. Plantago maxima leaves used in the experiment contained significant amount of flavonoids, iridoids, phenol carboxylic acids, and tannins and ascorbic acid. Our in vivo experiment data demonstrate that P. maxima water extract prevents excessive adiposity in a diet-induced model. P. maxima consumption reduced serum leptin (twofold), macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (sevenfold), tumornecrosis factor-α (25%), and interleukine-6 (26%) levels. P. maxima water extract decreased adipose tissue oxidative stress biomarkers in rats fed a high-fat diet. In addition, increased bacterial growth in the diet-induced obesity model was reversed by the P. maxima extract treatment. Plantago maxima water extract possessed antiadipogenic, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant activity, and normalized gut microflora in a rat model of diet-induced excessive adiposity due to a high content of biologically active compounds.

  14. Evaluation of 19 cases of benign lesions with high accumulation of tracer on 18F-FDG PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Quanshi; Wu Hubing; Wang Mingfang; Huang Zuhan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To review PET images of benign lesions with high accumulation of 18 F-FDG and to analyse the possibility of FDG PET imaging for differentiating the benign from the malignant. Methods: 18 F-FDG PET imaging was performed on 19 patients with benign diseases including 13 cases of active tuberculosis and 6 cases of other benign diseases. Positive pathologic or bacteriological results were obtained for all the patients. PET images were evaluated with standardized uptake value (SUV), lesion shapes , and radioactivity distribution. CT or MRI and histopathologic findings also were reviewed. Results: 1) Thirteen patients with active tuberculosis showed high uptake of 18 F-FDG. The SUV was 3.1±1.8. But radioactivity distribution in some lesions was not uniform and there were defect areas in the lesions. Histopathologic findings proved that the defect areas were induced by caseous necrosis. Seven cases of pulmonary tuberculosis showed two or multiple stripe and funicular high accumulation and other lesions displayed high uptake in sheet or irregular shape; 1 case of scrofula and 1 case of splenetic tuberculosis showed defect areas in the lesions; the other scrofula case showed focal intense uptake. Two of lumbar tuberculosis showed intense uptake in the lumbar vertebra, and one of the two cases complicated with the cold abscess showed bilateral high accumulation in the shape of sheet along musculus psoas major. In the peritoneal tuberculosis case, PET images showed diffuse incrassation and intense uptake in peritoneum and mesentery. CT findings revealed that the peritoneum and mesentery thickened. 2) Pulmonary abscess, pulmonary cryptococcus granuloma, cerebral cryptococcus granuloma, pulmonary inflammatory pseudotumor, leiomyoma, and breast adenoma all showed high accumulation in the shapes of nodule or mass. Mean SUV was 4.5±3.1. CT or MRI findings were the same as on PET images shape. Histopathologic work-up did not find necrosis in the lesions. Conclusions

  15. The influence of high fat diets with different ketogenic ratios on the hippocampal accumulation of creatine - FTIR microspectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczen, A.; Setkowicz, Z.; Janeczko, K.; Sandt, Ch.; Borondics, F.; Chwiej, J.

    2017-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was the determination and comparison of anomalies in creatine (Cr) accumulation occurring within CA3 and DG areas of hippocampal formation as a result of two high-fat, carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diets (KD) with different ketogenic ratio (KR). To reach this goal, Fourier transformed infrared microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation source (SRFTIR microspectroscopy) was applied for chemical mapping of creatine absorption bands, occurring around 1304, 1398 and 2800 cm- 1. The samples were taken from three groups of experimental animals: control group (N) fed with standard laboratory diet, KD1 and KD2 groups fed with high-fat diets with KR 5:1 and 9:1 respectively. Additionally, the possible influence on the phosphocreatine (PhCr, the high energetic form of creatine) content was evaluated by comparative analysis of chemical maps obtained for creatine and for compounds containing phosphate groups which manifest in the spectra at the wavenumbers of around 1240 and 1080 cm- 1. Our results showed that KD2 strongly modifies the frequency of Cr inclusions in both analyzed hippocampal areas. Statistical analysis, performed with Mann-Whitney U test revealed increased accumulation of Cr within CA3 and DG areas of KD2 fed rats compared to both normal rats and KD1 experimental group. Moreover, KD2 diet may modify the frequency of PhCr deposits as well as the PhCr to Cr ratio.

  16. Isolation of Flavonoids From Wild Aquilaria sinensis Leaves by an Improved Preparative High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mao-Xun; Liang, Yao-Guang; Chen, He-Ru; Huang, Yong-Fang; Gong, Hai-Guang; Zhang, Tian-You; Ito, Yoichiro

    2018-01-01

    Four flavonoids including apigenin-7,4'-dimethylether, genkwanin, quercetin, and kaempferol were isolated in a preparative or semi-preparative scale from the leaves of wild Aquilaria sinensis using an improved preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography apparatus. The separations were performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of hexane-ethyl acetate, methanol-water at suitable volume ratios. The obtained fractions were analyzed by HPLC, and the identification of each target compound was carried out by ESI-MS and NMR. The yields of the above four target flavonoids were 4.7, 10.0, 11.0 and 4.4%, respectively. All these four flavonoids exhibited nitrite scavenging activities with the clearance rate of 12.40 ± 0.20%, 5.84 ± 0.03%, 28.10 ± 0.17% and 5.19 ± 0.11%, respectively. Quercetin was originally isolated from the Thymelaeaceae family, while kaempferol was isolated from the Aquilaria genus for the first time. In cytotoxicity test these two flavonoids exhibited moderate inhibitory activities against HepG2 cells with the IC50 values of 12.54 ± 1.37 and 38.63 ± 4.05 μM, respectively. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. No seasonal accumulation of resistant P. falciparum when high-dose chloroquine is used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2009-01-01

    increase of pfcrt 76T if the high doses of CQ commonly used are effective. METHODS AND FINDINGS: P. falciparum parasite density, age, sex, the proportion of chloroquine resistance associated haplotypes pfcrt 76T and P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 86Y were assessed in 988 samples collected from...... to become the dominant P.falciparum type in Guinea-Bissau. This is most likely due to the efficacy of high-dose chloroquine as used in Guinea-Bissau, combined with a loss of fitness associated with pfcrt 76T.......BACKGROUND: Potentially chloroquine resistant P. falciparum, identified by the 76T haplotype in the chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt 76T), are highly prevalent throughout Africa. In Guinea-Bissau, normal and double dose chloroquine have respective efficacies of 34% and 78% against P...

  18. A straw chambers' tracker for the high rate experiment 835 at the Fermilab accumulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnasco, S.; Dughera, G.; Giraudo, G.; Govi, G.; Marchetto, F.; Menichetti, E.; Pastrone, N.; Rumerio, P.; Trapani, P. P.

    1998-02-01

    Two layers of proportional drift tubes (aluminum mylar straws) are staggered in two cylindrical light chambers to measure charged particles' azimuthal angle. To stand the high rates (˜10 kHz/ cm2) and minimize the pile-up of the high luminosity experiment 835 at FNAL, a fast ASIC Amplifier-Shaper-Discriminator (ASD-8B) was chosen. The front-end electronics, designed exclusively with SMD components, was mounted on the downstream end plug of each chamber to avoid oscillations and noise. Design, construction and operational performances of these detectors are presented.

  19. The influence of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer forms on micronutrient retranslocation and accumulation in grains of winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barunawati, Nunun; Giehl, Ricardo F Hettwer; Bauer, Bernhard; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2013-01-01

    The fortification of cereal grains with metal micronutrients is a major target to combat human malnutrition of Fe and Zn. Based on recent studies showing that N fertilization can promote Fe and Zn accumulation in cereal grains, we investigated here the influence of nitrate- or ammonium-based N fertilization on the accumulation of Fe, Zn, and Cu as well as metal chelator pools in flag leaves and grains of winter wheat. Fertilization with either N form increased the concentrations of N and of the metal chelator nicotianamine (NA) in green leaves, while 2'-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) remained unaffected. Despite the differential response to N fertilization of NA and DMA levels in flag leaves, N fertilization remained without any significant effect on the net export of these metals during flag leaf senescence, which accounted for approximately one third of the total Fe, Zn, or Cu content in leaves. The significant increase in the accumulation of Fe, Zn, and Cu found in the grains of primarily ammonium-fertilized plants was unrelated to the extent of metal retranslocation from flag leaves. These results indicate that an increased N nutritional status of flag leaves promotes the accumulation of Fe, Zn, and Cu in flag leaves, which is accompanied by an increased pool of NA but not of DMA. With regard to the far higher concentrations of DMA relative to NA in leaves and leaf exudates, DMA may be more relevant for the mobilization and retranslocation of these metals in high-yielding wheat production.

  20. Responses of epidermal cell turgor pressure and photosynthetic activity of leaves of the atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides (Bromeliaceae) after exposure to high humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Craig E; Rux, Guido; Herppich, Werner B

    2013-01-01

    It has been well-established that many epiphytic bromeliads of the atmospheric-type morphology, i.e., with leaf surfaces completely covered by large, overlapping, multicellular trichomes, are capable of absorbing water vapor from the atmosphere when air humidity increases. It is much less clear, however, whether this absorption of water vapor can hydrate the living cells of the leaves and, as a consequence, enhance physiological processes in such cells. The goal of this research was to determine if the absorption of atmospheric water vapor by the atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides results in an increase in turgor pressure in leaf epidermal cells that subtend the large trichomes, and, by using chlorophyll fluorescence techniques, to determine if the absorption of atmospheric water vapor by leaves of this epiphyte results in increased photosynthetic activity. Results of measurements on living cells of attached leaves of this epiphytic bromeliad, using a pressure probe and of whole-shoot fluorescence imaging analyses clearly illustrated that the turgor pressure of leaf epidermal cells did not increase, and the photosynthetic activity of leaves did not increase, following exposure of the leaves to high humidity air. These results experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, that the absorption of water vapor following increases in atmospheric humidity in atmospheric epiphytic bromeliads is mostly likely a physical phenomenon resulting from hydration of non-living leaf structures, e.g., trichomes, and has no physiological significance for the plant's living tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Constructing the integral concept on the basis of the idea of accumulation: suggestion for a high school curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouropatov, Anatoli; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2013-07-01

    Students have a tendency to see integral calculus as a series of procedures with associated algorithms and many do not develop a conceptual grasp giving them the desirable versatility of thought. Thus, instead of a proceptual view of the symbols in integration, they have, at best, a process-oriented view. On the other hand, it is not surprising that many students find concepts such as the integral difficult when they are unable to experience these processes directly in the classroom. With a view towards improving this situation, constructing the integral concept on the basis of the idea of accumulation has been proposed (Educ Stud Math. 1994;26:229-274; Integral as accumulation: a didactical perspective for school mathematics; Thessaloniki: PME; 2009. p. 417-424). In this paper, we discuss a curriculum that is based on this idea and a design for curriculum materials that are intended to develop an improved cognitive base for a flexible proceptual understanding of the integral and integration in high school. The main focus is on how we (mathematics teachers and mathematics educators) might teach the integral concept in order to help high school students to construct meaningful knowledge alongside acquiring technical abilities.

  2. Active Uptake of Amino Acids by Leaves of an Epiphytic Vascular Plant, Tillandsia paucifolia (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, L P; Davis, J P; O'dell, S J; Arditti, J; Stephens, G C; Benzing, D H

    1987-03-01

    Specialized epidermal trichomes on the leaves of the epiphyte, Tillandsia paucifolia (Bromeliaceae) accumulate amino acids from solution. Simultaneous net uptake of 17 amino acids was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Uptake occurs against concentration gradients at least as high as 10(4).

  3. Active Uptake of Amino Acids by Leaves of an Epiphytic Vascular Plant, Tillandsia paucifolia (Bromeliaceae) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Leslie Paul; Davis, James P.; O'Dell, Stephen J.; Arditti, Joseph; Stephens, Grover C.; Benzing, David H.

    1987-01-01

    Specialized epidermal trichomes on the leaves of the epiphyte, Tillandsia paucifolia (Bromeliaceae) accumulate amino acids from solution. Simultaneous net uptake of 17 amino acids was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Uptake occurs against concentration gradients at least as high as 104. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16665307

  4. Rapid sediment accumulation results in high methane effluxes from coastal sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egger, M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372629199; Lenstra, W.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411295977; Jong, Dirk; Meysman, Filip; Sapart, C.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31400596X; van der Veen, C.; Röckmann, Thomas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838233; Gonzalez, Santiago; Slomp, C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/159424003

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the methane (CH4) efflux from the ocean to the atmosphere is small, despite high rates of CH4 production in continental shelf and slope environments. This low efflux results from the biological removal of CH4 through anaerobic oxidation with sulfate in marine sediments. In some settings,

  5. Atomic physics and synchrotron radiation: The production and accumulation of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.M.; Meron, M.; Agagu, A.; Jones, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation can be used to produce highly-charged ions, and to study photoexcitation and photoionization for ions of virtually any element in the periodic table. To date, with few exceptions, atomic physics studies have been limited to rare gases and a few metal vapors, and to photoexcitation energies in the VUV region of the electromagnetic spectrum. These limitations can now be overcome using photons produced by high-brightness synchrotron storage rings, such as the x-ray ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven. Furthermore, calculations indicate that irradiation of an ion trap with an intense energetic photon beam will result in a viable source of highly-charged ions that can be given the name PHOBIS: the PHOton Beam Ion Source. Promising results, which encourage the wider systematic use of synchrotron radiation in atomic physics research, have been obtained in recent experiments on VUV photoemission and the production and storage of multiply-charged ions. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Nitrogen accumulation and partitioning in a High Arctic tundra ecosystem from extreme atmospheric N deposition events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Sonal, E-mail: S.Choudhary@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Management School, University of Sheffield, Conduit Road, Sheffield S10 1FL (United Kingdom); Blaud, Aimeric [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Osborn, A. Mark [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Press, Malcolm C. [School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M15 6BH (United Kingdom); Phoenix, Gareth K. [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fate of N from extreme deposition in High Arctic tundra and are presenting the results from the whole ecosystem {sup 15}N labelling experiment. In 2010, we simulated N depositions at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g N m{sup −2} yr{sup −1}, applied as {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup 15}NO{sub 3} in Svalbard (79{sup °}N), during the summer. Separate applications of {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} and {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} were also made to determine the importance of N form in their retention. More than 95% of the total {sup 15}N applied was recovered after one growing season (~ 90% after two), demonstrating a considerable capacity of Arctic tundra to retain N from these deposition events. Important sinks for the deposited N, regardless of its application rate or form, were non-vascular plants > vascular plants > organic soil > litter > mineral soil, suggesting that non-vascular plants could be the primary component of this ecosystem to undergo measurable changes due to N enrichment from extreme deposition events. Substantial retention of N by soil microbial biomass (70% and 39% of {sup 15}N in organic and mineral horizon, respectively) during the initial partitioning demonstrated their capacity to act as effective buffers for N leaching. Between the two N forms, vascular plants (Salix polaris) in particular showed difference in their N recovery, incorporating four times greater {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} than {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +}, suggesting deposition rich in nitrate will impact them more. Overall, these findings show that despite the deposition rates being extreme in statistical terms, biologically they do not exceed the capacity of tundra to sequester pollutant N during the growing season. Therefore, current and future extreme events

  7. Nitrogen accumulation and partitioning in a High Arctic tundra ecosystem from extreme atmospheric N deposition events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, Sonal; Blaud, Aimeric; Osborn, A. Mark; Press, Malcolm C.; Phoenix, Gareth K.

    2016-01-01

    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fate of N from extreme deposition in High Arctic tundra and are presenting the results from the whole ecosystem "1"5N labelling experiment. In 2010, we simulated N depositions at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g N m"−"2 yr"−"1, applied as "1"5NH_4"1"5NO_3 in Svalbard (79"°N), during the summer. Separate applications of "1"5NO_3"− and "1"5NH_4"+ were also made to determine the importance of N form in their retention. More than 95% of the total "1"5N applied was recovered after one growing season (~ 90% after two), demonstrating a considerable capacity of Arctic tundra to retain N from these deposition events. Important sinks for the deposited N, regardless of its application rate or form, were non-vascular plants > vascular plants > organic soil > litter > mineral soil, suggesting that non-vascular plants could be the primary component of this ecosystem to undergo measurable changes due to N enrichment from extreme deposition events. Substantial retention of N by soil microbial biomass (70% and 39% of "1"5N in organic and mineral horizon, respectively) during the initial partitioning demonstrated their capacity to act as effective buffers for N leaching. Between the two N forms, vascular plants (Salix polaris) in particular showed difference in their N recovery, incorporating four times greater "1"5NO_3"− than "1"5NH_4"+, suggesting deposition rich in nitrate will impact them more. Overall, these findings show that despite the deposition rates being extreme in statistical terms, biologically they do not exceed the capacity of tundra to sequester pollutant N during the growing season. Therefore, current and future extreme events may represent a major source of eutrophication. - Highlights: • High Arctic tundra demonstrated a

  8. Fenugreek Seed Extract Inhibit Fat Accumulation and Ameliorates Dyslipidemia in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds (AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high fat diet- (HFD- induced obese rats. Female Wistar rats were fed with HFD ad libitum, and the rats on HFD were treated orally with AqE-TFG or orlistat ((HFD for 28 days + AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg or orlistat (10 mg/kg from day 8 to 28, respectively. Treatment with AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in body weight gain, body mass index (BMI, white adipose tissue (WAT weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, lipids, leptin, lipase, and apolipoprotein-B levels and elevation in adiponectin levels. AqE-TFG improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. AqE-TFG treatment reduced the hepatic and cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and elevated the antioxidant enzyme (glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT levels. In addition, liver and uterine WAT lipogenic enzyme (fatty acid synthetase (FAS and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activities were restored towards normal levels. These findings demonstrated the preventive effect of AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, due to inhibition of impaired lipid digestion and absorption, in addition to improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism, enhancement of insulin sensitivity, increased antioxidant defense, and downregulation of lipogenic enzymes.

  9. Inhibition of Coenzyme Qs Accumulation in Engineered Escherichia coli by High Concentration of Farnesyl Diphosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoudi, Mojtaba; Omid Yeganeh, Negar; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein; Shariati, Parvin; Hajhosseini, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 ) is an isoprenoid component used widely in nutraceutical industries. Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) is a responsible enzyme for biosynthesis of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), a key precursor for CoQs production. This research involved investigating the effect of FPPS over-expression on CoQs production in engineered CoQ 10 -producing Escherichia coli (E. coli). Methods: Two CoQ 10 -producing strains, as referred to E. coli Ba and E. coli Br, were transformed by the encoding gene for FPPS (ispA) under the control of either the trc or P BAD promoters. Results: Over-expression of ispA under the control of P BAD promoter led to a relative increase in CoQ 10 production only in recombinant E. coli Br although induction by arabinose resulted in partial reduction of CoQ 10 production in both recombinant E. coli Ba and E. coli Br strains. Over-expression of ispA under the control of stronger trc promoter, however, led to a severe decrease in CoQ 10 production in both recombinant E. coli Ba and E. coli Br strains, as reflected by reductions from 629±40 to 30±13 and 564±28 to 80±14 μg/g Dried Cell Weight (DCW), respectively. The results showed high level of FPP reduces endogenous CoQ 8 production as well and that CoQs are produced in a complimentary manner, as the increase in production of one decreases the production of the other. Conclusion: The reduction in CoQ 10 production can be a result of Dds inhibition by high FPP concentration. Therefore, more effort is needed to verify the role of intermediate metabolite concentration and to optimize production of CoQ 10 . PMID:26306151

  10. Low cycle fatigue: high cycle fatigue damage accumulation in a 304L austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehericy, Y.

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of a Low Cycle Fatigue pre-damage on the subsequent fatigue limit of a 304L stainless steel. The effects of hardening and severe roughness (grinding) have also been investigated. In a first set of tests, the evolution of the surface damage induced by the different LCF pre-cycling was characterized. This has permitted to identify mechanisms and kinetics of damage in the plastic domain for different surface conditions. Then, pre-damaged samples were tested in the High Cycle Fatigue domain in order to establish the fatigue limits associated with each level of pre-damage. Results evidence that, in the case of polished samples, an important number of cycles is required to initiate surface cracks ant then to affect the fatigue limit of the material but, in the case of ground samples, a few number of cycles is sufficient to initiate cracks and to critically decrease the fatigue limit. The fatigue limit of pre-damaged samples can be estimated using the stress intensity factor threshold. Moreover, this detrimental effect of severe surface conditions is enhanced when fatigue tests are performed under a positive mean stress (author)

  11. Digital Biomass Accumulation Using High-Throughput Plant Phenotype Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Md Matiur; Ahsan, Md Asif; Gillani, Zeeshan; Chen, Ming

    2017-09-01

    Biomass is an important phenotypic trait in functional ecology and growth analysis. The typical methods for measuring biomass are destructive, and they require numerous individuals to be cultivated for repeated measurements. With the advent of image-based high-throughput plant phenotyping facilities, non-destructive biomass measuring methods have attempted to overcome this problem. Thus, the estimation of plant biomass of individual plants from their digital images is becoming more important. In this paper, we propose an approach to biomass estimation based on image derived phenotypic traits. Several image-based biomass studies state that the estimation of plant biomass is only a linear function of the projected plant area in images. However, we modeled the plant volume as a function of plant area, plant compactness, and plant age to generalize the linear biomass model. The obtained results confirm the proposed model and can explain most of the observed variance during image-derived biomass estimation. Moreover, a small difference was observed between actual and estimated digital biomass, which indicates that our proposed approach can be used to estimate digital biomass accurately.

  12. Methane accumulation and forming high saturations of methane hydrate in sandy sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T.; Waseda, A. [JAPEX Research Center, Chiba (Japan); Fujii, T. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Chiba (Japan). Upstream Technology Unit

    2008-07-01

    Methane supplies for marine gas hydrates are commonly attributed to the microbial conversion of organic materials. This study hypothesized that methane supplies were related to pore water flow behaviours and microscopic migration in intergranular pore systems. Sedimentology and geochemistry analyses were performed on sandy core samples taken from the Nankai trough and the Mallik gas hydrate test site in the Mackenzie Delta. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of geologic and sedimentolic controls on the formation and preservation of natural gas hydrates. Grain size distribution curves indicated that gas hydrate saturations of up to 80 per cent in pore volume occurred throughout the hydrate-dominant sand layers in the Nankai trough and Mallik areas. Water permeability measurements showed that the highly gas hydrate-saturated sands have a permeability of a few millidarcies. Pore-space gas hydrates occurred primarily in fine and medium-grained sands. Core temperature depression, core observations, and laboratory analyses of the hydrates confirmed the pore-spaces as intergranular pore fillings. Results of the study suggested that concentrations of gas hydrates may require a pore space large enough to occur within a host sediments, and that the distribution of porous and coarser-grained sandy sediments is an important factor in controlling the occurrence of gas hydrates. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  13. High-fructose corn syrup-55 consumption alters hepatic lipid metabolism and promotes triglyceride accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Kaitlin; Lateef, Sundus; Benedito, Vagner A; Tou, Janet C

    2017-01-01

    High-fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) has been suggested to be more lipogenic than sucrose, which increases the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidemia. The study objectives were to determine the effects of drinking different sugar-sweetened solutions on hepatic gene expression in relation to liver fatty acid composition and risk of NAFLD. Female rats were randomly assigned (n=7 rats/group) to drink water or water sweetened with 13% (w/v) HFCS-55, sucrose or fructose for 8 weeks. Rats drinking HFCS-55 solution had the highest (P=.03) hepatic total lipid and triglyceride content and histological evidence of fat infiltration. Rats drinking HFCS-55 solution had the highest hepatic de novo lipogenesis indicated by the up-regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and the highest (Ptriglyceride-rich lipoprotein from the liver was increased as shown by up-regulation of gene expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in rats drinking sucrose, but not HFCS-55 solution. The observed lipogenic effects were attributed to the slightly higher fructose content of HFCS-55 solution in the absence of differences in macronutrient and total caloric intake between rats drinking HFCS-55 and sucrose solution. Results from gene expression and fatty acid composition analysis showed that, in a hypercaloric state, some types of sugars are more detrimental to the liver. Based on these preclinical study results, excess consumption of caloric sweetened beverage, particularly HFCS-sweetened beverages, should be limited. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Accumulation of catechins in tea in relation to accumulation of mRNA from genes involved in catechin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eungwanichayapant, P D; Popluechai, S

    2009-02-01

    Catechins are a group of polyphenols found in tea (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) at high levels. They are beneficial for health. From the study on accumulation of catechins in shoots and mature leaves of a tea cultivar, Oolong No. 17, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), it was found that the amounts of most catechins in the shoots were higher than those in the mature leaves, with an exception of catechins gallate (CG) that was found in trace amounts in both the shoots and mature leaves. mRNA accumulation of genes involved in catechin synthesis was studied using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that the mRNA accumulation of the genes were higher in the shoots than in the mature leaves. These genes included genes of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1 (PAL1; EC 4.3.1.5), chalcone synthase (CHS; EC 2.3.1.74), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR; EC 1.1.1.219), leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LCR; EC 1.17.1.3), and flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H; EC 1.14.11.9).

  15. EGb761, an extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves, reduces insulin resistance in a high-fat-fed mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-na Cong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available EGb761, a standardized and well-defined product extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves, has beneficial effects on the treatment of multiple diseases, including diabetes and dyslipidemia. However, it is still unclear whether EGb761 can increase insulin sensitivity. The objectives of the present study are to evaluate the effects of EGb761 on insulin sensitivity in an obese and insulin-resistant mouse model, established through chronic feeding of C57BL/6J mice with a high-fat diet (HFD, and to explore potential mechanisms. Mice fed with HFD for 18 weeks (starting from 4 weeks of age developed obesity, dyslipidemia (as indicated by biochemical measurements of blood glucose, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, and free fatty acids (FFA, and insulin resistance (as determined by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index, compared to control mice fed with a standard laboratory chow. Oral treatment of the HFD-fed mice with EGb761, at low (100 mg/kg, medium (200 mg/kg, or high (400 mg/kg doses, via oral gavage (once daily for 8 weeks (starting from 26 weeks of age dose-dependently enhanced glucose tolerance in OGTT, and decreased both the insulin levels (by 29%, 55%, and 70%, respectively, and the HOMA-IR index values (by 50%, 69%, and 80%, respectively. EGb761 treatment also ameliorated HFD-induced obesity, dyslipidemia, and liver injury, as indicated by decreases in body weight (by 4%, 11%, and 16%, respectively, blood TC levels (by 23%, 32%, and 37%, respectively, blood TG levels (by 17%, 23%, and 33%, respectively, blood FAA levels (by 35%, 38%, and 46%, respectively, and liver index (liver weight/body weight values (by 12.8%, 25%, and 28%, respectively in the low, medium, and high EGb761 dose groups, respectively. In further mechanism studies, EGb761 was found to protect hepatic insulin receptor β and insulin receptor substrate 1 from HFD-induced degradation, and to keep the AMP

  16. Pectin penta-oligogalacturonide reduces cholesterol accumulation by promoting bile acid biosynthesis and excretion in high-cholesterol-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ru-Gang; Sun, Yan-Di; Hou, Yu-Ting; Fan, Jun-Gang; Chen, Gang; Li, Tuo-Ping

    2017-06-25

    Haw pectin penta-oligogalacturonide (HPPS) has important role in improving cholesterol metabolism and promoting the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids (BA) in mice fed high-cholesterol diet (HCD). However, the mechanism is not clear. This study aims to investigate the effects of HPPS on cholesterol accumulation and the regulation of hepatic BA synthesis and transport in HCD-fed mice. Results showed that HPPS significantly decreased plasma and hepatic TC levels but increased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) levels, compared to HCD. BA analysis showed that HPPS markedly decreased hepatic and small intestine BA levels but increased the gallbladder BA levels, and finally decreased the total BA pool size, compared to HCD. Studies of molecular mechanism revealed that HPPS promoted hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1), and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) expression but did not affect ATB binding cassette transporter G5/G8 (ABCG5/8) expression. HPPS inactivated hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and target genes expression, which resulted in significant increase of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1) and sterol 12α-hydroxylase (CYP8B1) expression, with up-regulations of 204.2% and 33.5% for mRNA levels, respectively, compared with HCD. In addition, HPPS markedly enhanced bile salt export pump (BSEP) expression but didn't affect the sodium/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) expression. In conclusion, the study revealed that HPPS reduced cholesterol accumulation by promoting BA synthesis in the liver and excretion in the feces, and might promote macrophage-to-liver reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) but did not liver-to-fecal RCT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cesium accumulation in native trees from the Brazilian Cerrado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, E.J.D.; Miranda, M.V.F.E.S.; Santos, T.O.; Cantinha, R.S.; Fernandes, E.A.D.N.

    2016-01-01

    Even considered not essential for plants, cesium may cycle within forest ecosystems. Taking into account the lack of knowledge on the distribution of this chemical element in Brazilian ecosystems, this work encompasses the unexpected cesium accumulation in native plant leaves from Cerradao, a Brazilian hotspot of world biodiversity. Some trees were Cs accumulators, achieving mass fractions in leaves 700 times higher (up to 12.7 mg kg -1 ) when compared to other Brazilian native tree leaves from the Atlantic Forest. In fact, such trace element accumulation in leaves was not previously noticed for Brazilian ecosystems despite the intra- and inter-species variability observed in Cerrado tree leaves. (author)

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Compounds In Extract and Fraction of Star Fruit (Averrhoa carambola L. Leaves Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Yunarto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L. is potential as raw material for medicine, native in tropic areas, including Indonesia. According to other study report, starfruit leaves containing flavonoids apigenin and quercetin as potential anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents. The raw material for the drug in Indonesia mostly obtained through imports from other countries. In order to support the independence of traditional medicine raw materials, it is important to standardize the quality of traditional medicine raw materials, in this case is star fruit leaves by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method. The sample used is star fruit leaves extract obtained from maceration process using ethanol 70%; water fraction, ethyl acetate and hexane fractions obtained from fractionation process of the ethanolic extract. Physical parameters analyzed in sample include appearance, color, odor, taste, extract yield, water content, loss of drying, total ash content, residual solvent. Chemical parameters analyzed include apigenin and quercetin contents. The results shows that star fruit leaves used in this study meet the standards of Indonesian Herbal Pharmacopoeia with highest apigenin and quercetin content are in ethyl acetate fraction.

  19. Mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) as environmental contamination biomonitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Santos, Suzana O.; Fonseca, Cassia K.L.; Paiva, Ana Claudia de; Silva, Waldecy A. da, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: suzirecifeusa@hotmail.com, E-mail: cassia.kellen@hotmail.com, E-mail: acpaiva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: waldecy@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Sometimes, plants growing in contaminated sediments by trace metals can not avoid absorption of these metals, but only to limit its translocation, so that the accumulated metals in their tissues will have different levels of concentrations. Some trace metals (copper, zinc, manganese, among others) are essential for plants, although they are toxic at high concentrations, damaging its growth, production or quality. The aim of this work from is to verify the presence of metals such as copper, manganese and iron in mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) collected in some beaches of the Northeast of Brazil (such as: Maceio, Sao Jose da Coroa Grande, Japaratinga, Croa do Gore, Ponta das Pedras). Leaves' metals content (extracted by adding acids) were determined by a fast sequential atomic absorption spectrometer (SpectrAA-220FS/VARIAN). The results showed that there are more Fe and Mn in mangrove leaves than in other metals comparing with all study areas (Fe > Mn > Co > Zn > Cu). (author)

  20. Mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) as environmental contamination biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Santos, Suzana O.; Fonseca, Cassia K.L.; Paiva, Ana Claudia de; Silva, Waldecy A. da

    2015-01-01

    Sometimes, plants growing in contaminated sediments by trace metals can not avoid absorption of these metals, but only to limit its translocation, so that the accumulated metals in their tissues will have different levels of concentrations. Some trace metals (copper, zinc, manganese, among others) are essential for plants, although they are toxic at high concentrations, damaging its growth, production or quality. The aim of this work from is to verify the presence of metals such as copper, manganese and iron in mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) collected in some beaches of the Northeast of Brazil (such as: Maceio, Sao Jose da Coroa Grande, Japaratinga, Croa do Gore, Ponta das Pedras). Leaves' metals content (extracted by adding acids) were determined by a fast sequential atomic absorption spectrometer (SpectrAA-220FS/VARIAN). The results showed that there are more Fe and Mn in mangrove leaves than in other metals comparing with all study areas (Fe > Mn > Co > Zn > Cu). (author)

  1. Small heterodimer partner (SHP deficiency protects myocardia from lipid accumulation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hun Ohn

    Full Text Available The small heterodimer partner (SHP regulates fatty acid oxidation and lipogenesis in the liver by regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ expression. SHP is also abundantly expressed in the myocardium. We investigated the effect of SHP expression on myocardia assessing not only heart structure and function but also lipid metabolism and related gene expression in a SHP deletion animal model. Transcriptional profiling with a microarray revealed that genes participating in cell growth, cytokine signalling, phospholipid metabolism, and extracellular matrix are up-regulated in the myocardia of SHP knockout (KO mice compared to those of wild-type (WT mice (nominal p value < 0.05. Consistent with these gene expression changes, the left ventricular masses of SHP KO mice were significantly higher than WT mice (76.8 ± 20.5 mg vs. 52.8 ± 6.8 mg, P = 0.0093. After 12 weeks of high fat diet (HFD, SHP KO mice gained less weight and exhibited less elevation in serum-free fatty acid and less ectopic lipid accumulation in the myocardium than WT mice. According to microarray analysis, genes regulated by PPARγ1 and PPARα were down-regulated in myocardia of SHP KO mice compared to their expression in WT mice after HFD, suggesting that the reduction in lipid accumulation in the myocardium resulted from a decrease in lipogenesis regulated by PPARγ. We confirmed the reduced expression of PPARγ1 and PPARα target genes such as CD36, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase by SHP KO after HFD.

  2. Accumulated metal speciation in earthworm populations with multigenerational exposure to metalliferous soils: cell fractionation and high-energy synchrotron analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Jane; Charnock, John; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Kille, Peter; Morgan, A John; Hodson, Mark E

    2009-09-01

    Predicting metal bioaccumulation and toxicity in soil organisms is complicated by site-specific biotic and abiotic parameters. In this study we exploited tissue fractionation and digestion techniques, combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), to investigate the whole-body and subcellular distributions, ligand affinities, and coordination chemistry of accumulated Pb and Zn in field populations of the epigeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus inhabiting three contrasting metalliferous and two unpolluted soils. Our main findings were (i) earthworms were resident in soils with concentrations of Pb and Zn ranging from 1200 to 27,000 mg kg(-1) and 200 to 34,000 mg kg(-1), respectively; (ii) Pb and Zn primarily accumulated in the posterior alimentary canal in nonsoluble subcellular fractions of earthworms; (iii) site-specific differences in the tissue and subcellular partitioning profiles of populations were observed, with earthworms from a calcareous site partitioning proportionally more Pb to their anterior body segments and Zn to the chloragosome-rich subcellular fraction than their acidic-soil inhabiting counterparts; (iv) XAS indicated that the interpopulation differences in metal partitioning between organs were not accompanied by qualitative differences in ligand-binding speciation, because crystalline phosphate-containing pyromorphite was a predominant chemical species in the whole-worm tissues of all mine soil residents. Differences in metal (Pb, Zn) partitioning at both organ and cellular levels displayed by field populations with protracted histories of metal exposures may reflect theirinnate ecophysiological responses to essential edaphic variables, such as Ca2+ status. These observations are highly significant in the challenging exercise of interpreting holistic biomarker data delivered by "omic" technologies.

  3. Accumulation of soluble sugars in peel at high temperature leads to stay-green ripe banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaotang; Pang, Xuequn; Xu, Lanying; Fang, Ruiqiu; Huang, Xuemei; Guan, Peijian; Lu, Wangjin; Zhang, Zhaoqi

    2009-01-01

    Bananas (Musa acuminata, AAA group) fail to develop a yellow peel and stay green when ripening at temperatures >24 degrees C. The identification of the mechanisms leading to the development of stay-green ripe bananas has practical value and is helpful in revealing pathways involved in the regulation of chlorophyll (Chl) degradation. In the present study, the Chl degradation pathway was characterized and the progress of ripening and senescence was assessed in banana peel at 30 degrees C versus 20 degrees C, by monitoring relevant gene expression and ripening and senescence parameters. A marked reduction in the expression levels of the genes for Chl b reductase, SGR (Stay-green protein), and pheophorbide a oxygenase was detected for the fruit ripening at 30 degrees C, when compared with fruit at 20 degrees C, indicating that Chl degradation was repressed at 30 degrees C at various steps along the Chl catabolic pathway. The repressed Chl degradation was not due to delayed ripening and senescence, since the fruit at 30 degrees C displayed faster onset of various ripening and senescence symptoms, suggesting that the stay-green ripe bananas are of similar phenotype to type C stay-green mutants. Faster accumulation of high levels of fructose and glucose in the peel at 30 degrees C prompted investigation of the roles of soluble sugars in Chl degradation. In vitro incubation of detached pieces of banana peel showed that the pieces of peel stayed green when incubated with 150 mM glucose or fructose, but turned completely yellow in the absence of sugars or with 150 mM mannitol, at either 20 degrees C or 30 degrees C. The results suggest that accumulation of sugars in the peel induced by a temperature of 30 degrees C may be a major factor regulating Chl degradation independently of fruit senescence.

  4. Multivariate characterization of elements accumulated in King Bolete Boletus edulis mushroom at lowland and high mountain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J; Kunito, T; Kubota, R; Bielawski, L; Frankowska, A; Falandysz, Justyna J; Tanabe, S

    2008-12-01

    Based on ICP-MS, ICP-OES, HG-AAS, CV-AAS and elementary instrumental analysis of King Bolete collected from four sites of different soil bedrock geochemistry considered could be as mushroom abundant in certain elements. King's Bolete fruiting bodies are very rich in K (> 20 mg/g dry weight), rich in Ca, Mg, Na, Rb and Zn (> 100 microg/g dw), and relatively also rich in Ag, Cd, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mn and Se (> 10 microg/g dw). The caps of King Bolete when compared to stipes around two-to three-fold more abundant are in Ag, Cd, Cs, Cu, Hg, K, Mg, Mo, N, Rb, Se and Zn. King Bolete collected at the lowland and mountain sites showed Ag, Ba, Co, Cr, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo and Na in caps in comparable concentrations, and specimens from the mountain areas accumulated more Cd and Sb. Elements such as Al, Pb and Rb occurred at relatively elevated concentration in King Bolete picked up at the metal ores-rich region of the Sudety Mountains. Because of high bioconcentration potential King Bolete at the background sites accumulate in fruiting bodies great concentrations of problematic elements such as Cd, Pb and Hg, i.e. up to nearly 20, 3 and 5 microg/g dw, on the average, respectively. The interdependence among determined mineral elements examined were using the principal components analysis (PCA) method. The PCA explained 56% of the total variance. The metals tend to cluster together (Ba, Cd, Cs, Cr, Ga, Rb, Se, Sr and V; K and Mg; Cu and Mo). The results provided useful environmental and nutritional background level information on 26 minerals as the composition of King Bolete from the sites of different bedrock soil geochemistry.

  5. TFH cells accumulate in mucosal tissues of humanized-DRAG mice and are highly permissive to HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Atef; Majji, Sai; Peachman, Kristina; Jagodzinski, Linda; Kim, Jiae; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Wijayalath, Wathsala; Merbah, Melanie; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Alving, Carl R.; Casares, Sofia; Rao, Mangala

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T follicular helper cells (TFH) in germinal centers are required for maturation of B-cells. While the role of TFH-cells has been studied in blood and lymph nodes of HIV-1 infected individuals, its role in the mucosal tissues has not been investigated. We show that the gut and female reproductive tract (FRT) of humanized DRAG mice have a high level of human lymphocytes and a high frequency of TFH (CXCR5+PD-1++) and precursor-TFH (CXCR5+PD-1+) cells. The majority of TFH-cells expressed CCR5 and CXCR3 and are the most permissive to HIV-1 infection. A single low-dose intravaginal HIV-1 challenge of humanized DRAG mice results in 100% infectivity with accumulation of TFH-cells mainly in the Peyer’s patches and FRT. The novel finding of TFH-cells in the FRT may contribute to the high susceptibility of DRAG mice to HIV-1 infection. This mouse model thus provides new opportunities to study TFH-cells and to evaluate HIV-1 vaccines. PMID:26034905

  6. Everything moves on: referral trends to a leavers' group in a high secure hospital and trial leave progress of group graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adshead, Gwen; Pyszora, Natalie; Wilson, Claire; Gopie, Ramesh; Thomas, Deryk; Smith, Julia; Glorney, Emily; Moore, Estelle; Tapp, James

    2017-04-01

    Moving on from high secure psychiatric care can be a complex and potentially stressful experience, which may hinder progression. A leavers' group in a UK high secure hospital is offered to support patients with this transition. The aims of this study are to investigate characteristics of patients referred for the leavers' group and compare outcomes for leavers' group graduates with those for patients who never attended a leavers' group for any reason. A retrospective quasi-experimental design was applied to data extracted from various records sources - within and outside the high security hospital. About one-fifth of patients who left the hospital on trial leave during the study were referred to the leavers' group (N = 109). Referred patients were significantly more likely to have either been admitted from another high-security hospital or transferred from prison for treatment and have a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia. Patients not referred had a significantly higher rate of previously refusing to participate in groups. There was a tendency for rate of return from trial leave for group graduates to be lower than that of patients who did not attend the leavers' group, but this just failed to reach statistical significance (rate ratio [RR] = 1.04; CI 0.97-1.11). A leavers' group appeared to be a valued therapy option for people who had spent a long time in high secure psychiatric care, or those who continued to require hospital treatment beyond prison tariffs. There was a low return rate from trial leave, which made the evaluation of this outcome difficult. A detailed study into both the reasons for return from trial leave and successes would provide further information on ideal preparation for moving on. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. 5 CFR 630.304 - Accumulation limitation for part-time employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accumulation limitation for part-time... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave § 630.304 Accumulation limitation for part-time employees. A part-time employee may accumulate not more than 240 or 360 hours' annual leave on the same basis that a full...

  8. Quercetin Isolated from Toona sinensis Leaves Attenuates Hyperglycemia and Protects Hepatocytes in High-Carbohydrate/High-Fat Diet and Alloxan Induced Experimental Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of diabetes mellitus is related to oxidant stress induced by a high carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HFD. Quercetin, as a major bioactive component in Toona sinensis leaves (QTL, is a natural antioxidant. However, the exact mechanism by which QTL ameliorate diabetes mellitus is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the hypoglycemic effects and hepatocytes protection of QTL on HFD and alloxan induced diabetic mice. Intragastric administration of QTL significantly reduced body weight gain, serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels compared to those of diabetic mice. Furthermore, it significantly attenuated oxidative stress, as determined by lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide content, and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and as a result attenuated liver injury. QTL also significantly suppressed the diabetes-induced activation of the p65/NF-κB and ERK1/2/MAPK pathways, as well as caspase-9 and caspase-3 levels in liver tissues of diabetic mice. Finally, micrograph analysis of liver samples showed decreased cellular organelle injury in hepatocytes of QTL treated mice. Taken together, QTL can be viewed as a promising dietary agent that can be used to reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus and its secondary complications by ameliorating oxidative stress in the liver.

  9. Leaving School — learning at SEA: Regular high school education alongside polar research, not only during IPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, S.

    2006-12-01

    Against the background of unsatisfactory results from the international OECD study PISA (Program for International Student Assessment), Germany is facing a period of intense school reforms. Looking back at a tradition of school culture with too few changes during the last century, quick and radical renewal of the school system is rather unlikely. Furthermore students are increasingly turning away from natural sciences. The AWI aims at providing impulses for major changes in the schooling system and is offering solid science education not only for university students but also for a much younger audience. All efforts towards this goal are interconnected within the project SEA (Science & Education @ the AWI). Fife years ago the AWI started HIGHSEA (High school of SEA). Each year 22 high school students (grade 11) are admitted to HIGHSEA spending their last three years of school not at school but at the institute. Four subjects (biology as a major, chemistry, math and English as accessory subjects) are combined and taught fully integrated. Students leave their schools for two days each week to study, work and explore all necessary topics at the AWI. All of the curricular necessities of the four subjects are being met. After rearrangement of the temporal sequencing conceptual formulation of four major questions around AWI-topics was possible. Students are taught by teachers of the cooperating schools as well as by scientists of the AWI. Close links and intense cooperation between all three groups are the basis of fundamental changes in teaching and learning climate. For each group of students we organize a short research expedition: in August 2005 we worked in the high Arctic, in January and February 2006 we performed measurements at two eastern Atlantic seamounts. Even if the amount of data coming from these expeditions is comparatively small they still contribute to ongoing research projects of the oceanographic department. The first two groups of students finished

  10. Photoinduced Field-Effect Passivation from Negative Carrier Accumulation for High-Efficiency Silicon/Organic Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaolang; Yang, Zhenhai; Wu, Sudong; Zhu, Juye; Guo, Wei; Sheng, Jiang; Ye, Jichun; Cui, Yi

    2017-12-26

    Carrier recombination and light management of the dopant-free silicon/organic heterojunction solar cells (HSCs) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) are the critical factors in developing high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. However, the traditional passivation technologies can hardly provide efficient surface passivation on the front surface of Si. In this study, a photoinduced electric field was induced in a bilayer antireflective coating (ARC) of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) films, due to formation of an accumulation layer of negative carriers (O 2 - species) under UV (sunlight) illumination. This photoinduced field not only suppressed the silicon surface recombination but also enhanced the built-in potential of HSCs with 84 mV increment. In addition, this photoactive ARC also displayed the outstanding light-trapping capability. The front PEDOT:PSS/Si HSC with the saturated O 2 - received a champion PCE of 15.51% under AM 1.5 simulated sunlight illumination. It was clearly demonstrated that the photoinduced electric field was a simple, efficient, and low-cost method for the surface passivation and contributed to achieve a high efficiency when applied in the Si/PEDOT:PSS HSCs.

  11. Effects of mean tensile stresses on high-cycle fatigue life and strain accumulation in some reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, P.; Chow, J.G.Y.

    1977-05-01

    An assessment has been made of the effects of mean tensile stresses on the high-cycle fatigue behavior of solution-treated Type 304 stainless steel, normalized and tempered 2 1 / 4 Cr-1Mo steel, Incoloy-800H, and low-carbon Incoloy-800. Mean stresses are usually detrimental to fatigue strength, especially at high temperatures and stress levels, where significant creep can occur during fatigue cycling. Depending on the magnitudes of the alternating and mean stresses, failure may be creep or fatigue controlled. Strain accumulation is also affected by these stress levels and possibly, also, by the cyclic work-hardening characteristics of the material. It is shown that the Goodman Law for estimating mean stress effects is inadequate, since it does not account for time-dependent deformation. An alternative expression not having such a limitation was, therefore, derived and this relates the alternating and mean stresses to the time to failure. Based on limited metallographic observations of fatigue striations in the 2 1 / 4 Cr-1Mo steel an estimate was made of the crack propagation rate. It was found that a crack of critical size could, under certain conditions, propagate through most of the specimen diameter in a matter of seconds. This presents a more significant safety problem than the case for a crack extending under low-cycle conditions since preventative measures probably could not be implemented before the crack had grown to a large size

  12. High-Level Accumulation of Exogenous Small RNAs Not Affecting Endogenous Small RNA Biogenesis and Function in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Wan-xia; Neil A Smith; ZHOU Chang-yong; WANG Ming-bo

    2014-01-01

    RNA silencing is a fundamental plant defence and gene control mechanism in plants that are directed by 20-24 nucleotide (nt) small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA). Infection of plants with viral pathogens or transformation of plants with RNA interference (RNAi) constructs is usually associated with high levels of exogenous siRNAs, but it is unclear if these siRNAs interfere with endogenous small RNA pathways and hence affect plant development. Here we provide evidence that viral satellite RNA (satRNA) infection does not affect siRNA and miRNA biogenesis or plant growth despite the extremely high level of satRNA-derived siRNAs. We generated transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants that no longer develop the speciifc yellowing symptoms generally associated with infection by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Y-satellite RNA (Y-Sat). We then used these plants to show that CMV Y-Sat infection did not cause any visible phenotypic changes in comparison to uninfected plants, despite the presence of high-level Y-Sat siRNAs. Furthermore, we showed that the accumulation of hairpin RNA (hpRNA)-derived siRNAs or miRNAs, and the level of siRNA-directed transgene silencing, are not signiifcantly affected by CMV Y-Sat infection. Taken together, our results suggest that the high levels of exogenous siRNAs associated with viral infection or RNAi-inducing transgenes do not saturate the endogenous RNA silencing machineries and have no signiifcant impact on normal plant development.

  13. Slip-accumulation patterns and earthquake recurrences along the Talas-Fergana Fault - Contributions of high-resolution geomorphic offsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, M.; Dubois, C.; Fleury, J.; Abdrakhmatov, K.; Pousse, L.; Baikulov, S.; Vezinet, A.

    2017-12-01

    In the western Tien-Shan Range, the largest intracontinental strike-slip fault is the Karatau-Talas Fergana Fault system. This dextral fault system is subdivided into two main segments: the Karatau fault to the north and the Talas-Fergana fault (TFF) to the south. Kinematics and rates of deformation for the TFF during the Quaternary period are still debated and are poorly constrained. Only a few paleoseismological investigations are availabe along the TFF (Burtman et al., 1996; Korjenkov et al., 2010) and no systematic quantifications of the dextral displacements along the TFF has been undertaken. As such, the appraisal of the TFF behavior demands new tectonic information. In this study, we present the first detailed analysis of the morphology and the segmentation of the TFF and an offset inventory of morphological markers along the TFF. To discuss temporal and spatial recurrence patterns of slip accumulated over multiple seismic events, our study focused on a 60 km-long section of the TFF (Chatkal segment). Using tri-stereo Pleiades satellite images, high-resolution DEMs (1*1 m pixel size) have been generated in order to (i) analyze the fine-scale fault geometry and (ii) thoroughly measure geomorphic offsets. Photogrammetry data obtained from our drone survey on high interest sites, provide higher-resolution DEMs of 0.5 * 0.5 m pixel size.Our remote sensing mapping allows an unprecedented subdivision - into five distinct segments - of the study area. About 215 geomorphic markers have been measured and offsets range from 4.5m to 180 m. More than 80% of these offsets are smaller than 60 m, suggesting landscape reset during glacial maximum. Calculations of Cumulative Offset Probability Density (COPD) for the whole 60 km-long section as well as for each segments support distinct behavior from a segment to another and thus variability in slip-accumulation patterns. Our data argue for uniform slip model behavior along this section of the TFF. Moreover, we excavated a

  14. Development of a Novel, Sensitive, Selective, and Fast Methodology to Determine Malondialdehyde in Leaves of Melon Plants by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa E. Yonny

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early production of melon plant (Cucumis melo is carried out using tunnels structures, where extreme temperatures lead to high reactive oxygen species production and, hence, oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA is a recognized biomarker of the advanced oxidative status in a biological system. Thus a reliable, sensitive, simple, selective, and rapid separative strategy based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-(+ESI-MS/MS was developed for the first time to measure MDA, without derivatization, in leaves of melon plants exposed to stress conditions. The detection and quantitation limits were 0.02 μg·L−1 and 0.08 μg·L−1, respectively, which was demonstrated to be better than the methodologies currently reported in the literature. The accuracy values were between 96% and 104%. The precision intraday and interday values were 2.7% and 3.8%, respectively. The optimized methodology was applied to monitoring of changes in MDA levels between control and exposed to thermal stress conditions melon leaves samples. Important preliminary conclusions were obtained. Besides, a comparison between MDA levels in melon leaves quantified by the proposed method and the traditional thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS approach was undertaken. The MDA determination by TBARS could lead to unrealistic conclusions regarding the oxidative stress status in plants.

  15. Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for the Quantification and Optimization for Extracting 10 Kinds of Carotenoids in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Xie, Jianming; Yu, Jihua; Lv, Jian; Zhang, Junfeng; Wang, Xiaolong; Wang, Cheng; Tang, Chaonan; Zhang, Yingchun; Dawuda, Mohammed Mujitaba; Zhu, Daiqiang; Ma, Guoli

    2017-09-27

    Carotenoids are considered to be crucial elements in many fields and, furthermore, the significant factor in pepper leaves under low light and chilling temperature. However, little literature focused on the method to determinate and extract the contents of carotenoid compositions in pepper leaves. Therefore, a time-saving and highly sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for separation and quantification of 10 carotenoids was developed, and an optimized technological process for carotenoid composition extraction in pepper leaves was established for the first time. Our final method concluded that six xanthophylls eluted after about 9-26 min. In contrast, four carotenes showed higher retention times after nearly 28-40 min, which significantly shortened time and improved efficiency. Meanwhile, we suggested that 8 mL of 20% KOH-methanol solution should be added to perform saponification at 60 °C for 30 min. The ratio of solid-liquid was 1:8, and the ultrasound-assisted extraction time was 40 min.

  16. Potential accumulation of contaminated sediments in a reservoir of a high-Andean watershed: Morphodynamic connections with geochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, María. Teresa; Müllendorff, Daniel; Pastén, Pablo; Pizarro, Gonzalo E.; Paola, Chris; Escauriaza, Cristián.

    2015-05-01

    Rapid changes due to anthropic interventions in high-altitude environments, such as the Altiplano region in South America, require new approaches to understand the connections between physical and geochemical processes. Alterations of the water quality linked to the river morphology can affect the ecosystems and human development in the long term. The future construction of a reservoir in the Lluta River, located in northern Chile, will change the spatial distribution of arsenic-rich sediments, which can have significant effects on the lower parts of the watershed. In this investigation, we develop a coupled numerical model to predict and evaluate the interactions between morphodynamic changes in the Lluta reservoir, and conditions that can potentially desorb arsenic from the sediments. Assuming that contaminants are mobilized under anaerobic conditions, we calculate the oxygen concentration within the sediments to study the interactions of the delta progradation with the potential arsenic release. This work provides a framework for future studies aimed to analyze the complex connections between morphodynamics and water quality, when contaminant-rich sediments accumulate in a reservoir. The tool can also help to design effective risk management and remediation strategies in these extreme environments. This article was corrected on 15 JUNE 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  17. Korean Pine Nut Oil Attenuated Hepatic Triacylglycerol Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean pine nut oil (PNO has been reported to influence weight gain and lipid metabolism. We examined whether PNO replacement in a high-fat diet (HFD can ameliorate HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Five-week-old male C57BL mice were fed control diets containing 10% of the energy from fat from PNO or soybean oil (SBO (PC, SC or HFDs with 45% of the energy from fat, with 10% from PNO or SBO and 35% from lard (PHFD, SHFD, for 12 weeks. Body weight gain and amount of white adipose tissue were lower in PHFD (10% and 18% lower, respectively compared with SHFD. Hepatic triacylglycerol (TG level was significantly lower in PHFD than the SHFD (26% lower. PNO consumption upregulated hepatic ACADL mRNA levels. The hepatic PPARG mRNA level was lower in the PC than in the SC. Expression of the sirtuin (SIRT 3 protein in white adipose tissue was down-regulated in the SHFD and restored in the PHFD to the level in the lean control mice. SIRT 3 was reported to be upregulated under conditions of caloric restriction (CR and plays a role in regulating mitochondrial function. PNO consumption resulted in lower body fat and hepatic TG accumulation in HFD-induced obesity, which seemed to be associated with the CR-mimetic response.

  18. Justifying a Set of Basic Characteristics of High Temperature Cold Accumulators in Their Designing for the Ground-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Khromov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ground-based systems use a wide variety of heat-emitting equipment. For temperature control of equipment and facilities, the thermal management systems (TMS are included in the ground-based systems. However, in operation, the off-nominal situations with increased heat emission are possible. To avoid overheating of equipment or environment in facilities, where equipment is placed, is possible through completing a set of TMS by high-temperature cold accumulators (CA.When filling CA by thermal accumulating materials (TAM with change in phase at the temperature level exceeding the ambient temperature, CA integration in TMS is simplified and the need to increase the cooling capacity of the sources of its cold is eliminated. Among the known multiple-cycle TAMs with change in phase "melting-solidification" in a set of characteristics, the most promising are crystal hydrates of salts and their systems, as well as paraffin, especially clean. However, advantages and disadvantages of these classes of TAM are different and disable us to develop a generic version of the CA design.The objective of this work is to identify a set of the main characteristics that significantly affect the CA efficiency. To achieve the goal is used a mathematical simulation of heat exchange and phase change processes, using CA with intermediate coolant as an example. Simulation is based on generation and solution of the system of equations of a thermal balance for the coolant circulating through the inner tube of CA container. The system of equations is solved using Excel tools.Varying values of studied characteristics and generalization of results allowed to us define a following set: TAM thermal conductivity, temperature difference in the coolant – TAM system, TAM container dimensions. The results can be applied when developing a CA, as a part of the "TMS-CA heat generation facility" of the ground-based systems with a specified heat absorption capacity at given temperature

  19. Low-carbohydrate diets reduce lipid accumulation and arterial inflammation in guinea pigs fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jose O; DeOgburn, Ryan; Ratliff, Joseph; Su, Randy; Smyth, Joan A; Volek, Jeff S; McGrane, Mary M; Dardik, Alan; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2010-04-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets (LCD) efficiently induce weight loss and favorably affect plasma lipids, however, the effect of LCD on atherosclerosis is still argued. To evaluate the effect of LCD on the prevention of atherosclerosis. Twenty guinea pigs were fed either a LCD or a low-fat diet (LFD) in combination with high-cholesterol (0.25g/100g) for 12 weeks. The percentage energy of macronutrient distribution was 10:65:25 for carbohydrate:fat:protein for the LCD, and 55:20:25 for the LFD. Plasma lipids were measured using colorimetric assays. Plasma and aortic oxidized (oxLDL) were quantified using ELISA methods. Inflammatory cytokines were measured in aortic homogenates using an immunoassay. H&E stained sections of aortic sinus and Schultz stained sections of carotid arteries were examined. LDL cholesterol was lower in the LCD compared to the LFD group (71.9+/-34.8 vs. 81.7+/-26.9mg/dL; p=0.039). Aortic cholesterol was also lower in the LCD (4.98+/-1.3mg/g) compared to the LFD group (6.68+/-2.0mg/g); p<0.05. The Schultz staining method confirmed less aortic cholesterol accumulation in the LCD group. Plasma oxLDL did not differ between groups, however, aortic oxLDL was 61% lower in the LCD compared to the LFD group (p=0.045). There was a positive correlation (r=0.63, p=0.03) between oxLDL and cholesterol concentration in the aorta of LFD group, which was not observed in LCD group (r=-0.05, p=0.96). Inflammatory markers were reduced in guinea pigs from the LCD group (p<0.05) and they were correlated with the decreases in oxLDL in aorta. These results suggest that LCD not only decreases lipid deposition, but also prevents the accumulation of oxLDL and reduces inflammatory cytokines within the arterial wall and may prevent atherosclerosis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of Genes Associated with Chlorophyll Accumulation in Flower Petals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmiya, Akemi; Hirashima, Masumi; Yagi, Masafumi; Tanase, Koji; Yamamizo, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white) petals (very low chlorophyll content), pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content), and leaves (high chlorophyll content) of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The expression of many genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes, in particular Mg-chelatase, was lower in non-green petals than in leaves. Non-green petals also showed higher expression of genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, including STAY-GREEN gene and pheophytinase. These data suggest that the absence of chlorophylls in carnation petals may be caused by the low rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis and high rate of degradation. Similar results were obtained by the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. In carnation, most genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were expressed at similar levels in pale-green petals and leaves, whereas the expression of chlorophyll catabolic genes was higher in pale-green petals than in leaves. Therefore, we hypothesize that the difference in chlorophyll content between non-green and pale-green petals is due to different levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Our study provides a basis for future molecular and genetic studies on organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation. PMID:25470367

  1. The relationship between lipid accumulation product, visceral adiposity index and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan ZHANG

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the correlation between lipid accumulation product (LAP, visceral adiposity index (VAI and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP in adults, and explore whether to use such correlation as indications is superior to the traditional body fat index based on body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR and waist-height ratio (WHtR. Methods  The present work was a cross-sectional study involving 501 healthy adults (321 males and 180 females from the community of Chongqing Municipality. Anthropometric indexes [height, weight, WC, hip circumference (HC], blood pressure (BP, fasting lipid profile and levels of fasting and post-load glucose, insulin and hs-CRP were measured, and BMI, WHR, WHtR, fasting insulin resistant homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR, LAP and VAI were calculated. The correlations between hs-CRP and other variables were analyzed. Results  Following the elevation of titer of the hs-CRP, LAP, VAI, BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, BP, glucose level, HOMA-IR, insulin, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and apolipoprotein B (ApoB increased (P<0.05, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1 levels declined (P<0.0001. Pearson's correlation analysis demonstrated that hs-CRP was correlated with all variances (P<0.01 except for total cholesterol (TC (P=0.181 and LDL -C (P=0.325. According to forward stepwise multiple regression analysis with hs-CRP as the dependent variance, WC was the only variance entering the regression model. Conclusion  LAP, VAI levels are correlated with hs-CRP level but not the major determinant factors of hs-CRP. WC is stronger than other variances in the association with hs-CRP in adults, and is still an independent predictor of inflammation.

  2. Accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen in the developing seeds of high protein mutant lines of Triticum Aestivum (L.) produced by the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir Ali, N.; Nabulsi, I.

    1993-03-01

    Accumulation patterns of dry matter and nitrogen in the developing seeds of nine mutant lines produced by the IAEA and their mother Triticum Aestivum (L.) line were studied. The experiments lasted 2 years under rain fed conditions. Significant differences were found among the lines in dry matter and nitrogen rates, and periods of accumulation, whereas no significant differences were found in the final seed weight of the lines. The highest rates of accumulation for dry matter and nitrogen were accompanied with the shortest period of accumulation in two late flowering mutant lines. However, these two lines were the lowest in their yield per plot. The other mutant lines achieved the high nitrogen percentage in their seeds through the relative reduction in dry matter accumulation rate compared to their mother line rather than through higher rate of nitrogen accumulation. This study revealed some of the potential reasons behind the higher percentage of protein in the seeds of the mutant lines under investigation. (author). 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Simultaneous Analysis of Ursolic Acid and Oleanolic Acid in Guava Leaves Using QuEChERS-Based Extraction Followed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang; Liao, Yiyi; Fang, Chunyan; Zhang, Yingxia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method of QuEChERS-based extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the simultaneous determination of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) in guava leaves. The QuEChERS-based extraction parameters, including the amount of added salt, vortex-assisted extraction time, and absorbent amount, and the chromatographic conditions were investigated for the analysis of UA and OA in guava leaves. Under the optimized conditions, the method showed good linearity over a range of 1–320 μg mL−1, with correlation coefficients above 0.999. The limits of detection of UA and OA were 0.18 and 0.36 μg mL−1, respectively. The intraday and interday precision were below 1.95 and 2.55%, respectively. The accuracies of the UA and OA determinations ranged from 97.4 to 111.4%. The contents of UA and OA in the guava leaf samples were 2.50 and 0.73 mg g−1, respectively. These results demonstrate that the developed method is applicable to the simultaneous determination of UA and OA in guava leaves. PMID:28781908

  4. High nitrate to phosphorus regime attenuates negative effects of rising pCO2 on total population carbon accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Krug

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing rise in atmospheric pCO2 and consequent increase in ocean acidification have direct effects on marine calcifying phytoplankton, which potentially alters carbon export. To date it remains unclear, firstly, how nutrient regime, in particular by coccolithophores preferred phosphate limitation, interacts with pCO2 on particulate carbon accumulation; secondly, how direct physiological responses on the cellular level translate into total population response. In this study, cultures of Emiliania huxleyi were full-factorially exposed to two different N:P regimes and three different pCO2 levels. Cellular biovolume and PIC and POC content significantly declined in response to pCO2 in both nutrient regimes. Cellular PON content significantly increased in the Redfield treatment and decreased in the high N:P regime. Cell abundance significantly declined in the Redfield and remained constant in the high N:P regime. We hypothesise that in the high N:P regime severe phosphorous limitation could be compensated either by reduced inorganic phosphorous demand and/or by enzymatic uptake of organic phosphorous. In the Redfield regime we suggest that enzymatic phosphorous uptake to supplement enhanced phosphorous demand with pCO2 was not possible and thus cell abundance declined. These hypothesised different physiological responses of E. huxleyi among the nutrient regimes significantly altered population carrying capacities along the pCO2 gradient. This ultimately led to the attenuated total population response in POC and PIC content and biovolume to increased pCO2 in the high N:P regime. Our results point to the fact that the physiological (i.e. cellular PIC and POC response to ocean acidification cannot be linearly extrapolated to total population response and thus carbon export. It is therefore necessary to consider both effects of nutrient limitation on cell physiology and their consequences for population size when predicting the influence of

  5. Increases in alcohol and marijuana use during the transition out of high school into emerging adulthood: The effects of leaving home, going to college, and high school protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Helene Raskin; McMorris, Barbara J; Catalano, Richard F; Fleming, Charles B; Haggerty, Kevin P; Abbott, Robert D

    2006-11-01

    This study examined the effects of leaving home and going to college on changes in the frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, and marijuana use shortly after leaving high school. We also examined how protective factors in late adolescence predict post-high school substance use and moderate the effects of leaving home and going to college. Data came from subjects (N = 319; 53% male) interviewed at the end of 12th grade and again approximately 6 months later, as part of the Raising Healthy Children project. Leaving home and going to college were significantly related to increases in the frequency of alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking from high school to emerging adulthood but not to changes in marijuana use. Having fewer friends who used each substance protected against increases in the frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, and marijuana use. Higher religiosity protected against increases in alcohol-and marijuana-use frequency. Higher parental monitoring protected against increases in heavy episodic drinking and moderated the effect of going to college on marijuana use. Lower sensation seeking lessened the effect of going to college on increases in alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking. To prevent increases in substance use in emerging adulthood, interventions should concentrate on strengthening prosocial involvement and parental monitoring during high school. In addition, youths with high sensation seeking might be targeted for added intervention.

  6. Ginger Essential Oil Ameliorates Hepatic Injury and Lipid Accumulation in High Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Syuan; Lee, Wan-Ching; Lin, Yu-En; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Shih-Hang; Panyod, Suraphan; Chu, Yung-Lin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-03-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective efficacy and mechanism of action of ginger essential oil (GEO) against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mice were maintained on either a control diet or high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with GEO (12.5, 62.5, and 125 mg/kg) or citral (2.5 and 25 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. We demonstrated that GEO and its major component (citral) lowered HFD-induced obesity in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by anti-hyperlipidemic effects by reducing serum free fatty acid, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. Moreover, liver histological results showed that administration of 62.5 and 125 mg/kg GEO and 25 mg/kg citral significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation. Further assessment by Western blotting and investigation of the lipid metabolism revealed that hepatic protein expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) were down-regulated by GEO and citral, indicating that GEO and citral suppressed HFD-stimulated lipid biosynthesis and oxidative stress. Furthermore, GEO and citral effectively enhanced the antioxidant capacities and reduced inflammatory response in mouse liver, which exerted protective effects against steatohepatitis. Collectively, GEO and citral exhibited potent hepatoprotective effects against NAFLD induced by HFD in obese mice. Thus, GEO might be an effective dietary supplement to ameliorate NAFLD-related metabolic diseases, and citral could play a vital role in its management.

  7. Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Christoffersen, Mogens; Weise, Hanne

    This artcle considders the political aims for different leave schemes and reviews studies af these schemes. The use of parental leave is sensitive to the financial loss involved in taking leave: a decrease in the benefit payments has had a significant influence on take-up, while, in general, fami......, families'' loss of income is less if leave is taken up by the mothers. Only few fathers participate in parental leave....

  8. Preparative isolation and purification of hainanmurpanin, meranzin, and phebalosin from leaves of Murraya exotica L. using supercritical fluid extraction combined with consecutive high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rongwei; Shen, Jie; Liu, Xiaojing; Zou, Yong; Xu, Xinjun

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a consecutive preparation method for the isolation and purification of hainanmurpanin, meranzin, and phebalosin from leaves of Murraya exotica L. The process involved supercritical fluid extraction with CO 2 , solvent extraction, and two-step high-speed countercurrent chromatography. Pressure, temperature, and the volume of entrainer were optimized as 27 MPa, 52°C, and 60 mL by response surface methodology in supercritical fluid extraction with CO 2 , and the yield of the crude extracts was 7.91 g from 100 g of leaves. Subsequently, 80% methanol/water was used to extract and condense the three compounds from the crude extracts, and 4.23 g of methanol/water extracts was obtained. Then, a two-step high-speed countercurrent chromatography procedure was developed for the isolation of the three target compounds from methanol/water extracts, including conventional high-speed countercurrent chromatography for further enrichment and consecutive high-speed countercurrent chromatography for purification. The yield of concentrates from high-speed countercurrent chromatography was 2.50 g from 4.23 g of methanol/water extracts. Finally, the consecutive high-speed countercurrent chromatography produced 103.2 mg of hainanmurpanin, 244.7 mg of meranzin, and 255.4 mg of phebalosin with purities up to 97.66, 99.36, and 98.64%, respectively, from 900 mg of high-speed countercurrent chromatography concentrates in one run of three consecutive sample loadings without exchanging a solvent system. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Abscisic Acid Accumulation in Spinach Leaf Slices in the Presence of Penetrating and Nonpenetrating Solutes 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, Robert A.; Zeevaart, Jan A. D.

    1985-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulated in detached, wilted leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv Savoy Hybrid 612) and reached a maximum level within 3 to 4 hours. The increase in ABA over that found in detached turgid leaves was approximately 10-fold. The effects of water stress could be mimicked by the use of thin slices of spinach leaves incubated in the presence of 0.6 molar mannitol, a compound which causes plasmolysis (loss of turgor). About equal amounts of ABA were found both in the leaf slices and in detached leaves, whereas 2 to 4 times more ABA accumulated in the medium than in the slices. When spinach leaf slices were incubated with ethylene glycol, a compound which rapidly penetrates the cell membrane causing a decrease in the osmotic potential of the tissue and only transient loss of turgor, no ABA accumulated. Ethylene glycol was not inhibitory with respect to ABA accumulation. Spinach leaf slices incubated in both ethylene glycol and mannitol had ABA levels similar to those found when slices were incubated with mannitol alone. Increases similar to those found with mannitol also occurred when Aquacide III, a highly purified form of polyethylene glycol, was used. Aquacide III causes cytorrhysis, a situation similar to that found in wilted leaves. Thus, it appears that loss of turgor is essential for ABA accumulation. When spinach leaf slices were incubated with solutes which are supposed to disturb membrane integrity (KHSO3, 2-propanol, or KCl) no increase in ABA was observed. These data indicate that, with respect to the accumulation of ABA, mannitol caused a physical stress (loss of turgor) rather than a chemical stress (membrane damage). PMID:16664022

  10. Abscisic Acid accumulation in spinach leaf slices in the presence of penetrating and nonpenetrating solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, R A; Zeevaart, J A

    1985-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulated in detached, wilted leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv Savoy Hybrid 612) and reached a maximum level within 3 to 4 hours. The increase in ABA over that found in detached turgid leaves was approximately 10-fold. The effects of water stress could be mimicked by the use of thin slices of spinach leaves incubated in the presence of 0.6 molar mannitol, a compound which causes plasmolysis (loss of turgor). About equal amounts of ABA were found both in the leaf slices and in detached leaves, whereas 2 to 4 times more ABA accumulated in the medium than in the slices. When spinach leaf slices were incubated with ethylene glycol, a compound which rapidly penetrates the cell membrane causing a decrease in the osmotic potential of the tissue and only transient loss of turgor, no ABA accumulated. Ethylene glycol was not inhibitory with respect to ABA accumulation. Spinach leaf slices incubated in both ethylene glycol and mannitol had ABA levels similar to those found when slices were incubated with mannitol alone. Increases similar to those found with mannitol also occurred when Aquacide III, a highly purified form of polyethylene glycol, was used. Aquacide III causes cytorrhysis, a situation similar to that found in wilted leaves. Thus, it appears that loss of turgor is essential for ABA accumulation.When spinach leaf slices were incubated with solutes which are supposed to disturb membrane integrity (KHSO(3), 2-propanol, or KCl) no increase in ABA was observed. These data indicate that, with respect to the accumulation of ABA, mannitol caused a physical stress (loss of turgor) rather than a chemical stress (membrane damage).

  11. Capacity of the aquatic fern (Salvinia minima Baker) to accumulate high concentrations of nickel in its tissues, and its effect on plant physiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, Ignacio I.; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Talavera-May, Carlos; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M., E-mail: jorgesm@cicy.mx

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We document the capacity of an aquatic fern to hyper-accumulate Ni. • Effects of high Ni concentrations uptake on plant performance is documented. • High concentration of Ni in tissues damage photosynthesis. • Damage is related to carboxylation mechanisms than to electron transfer efficiency. • S. minima is a good candidate for remediation of water bodies contaminated with Ni. - Abstract: An experiment was designed to assess the capacity of Salvinia minima Baker to uptake and accumulate nickel in its tissues and to evaluate whether or not this uptake can affect its physiology. Our results suggest that S. minima plants are able to take up high amounts of nickel in its tissues, particularly in roots. In fact, our results support the idea that S. minima might be considered a hyper-accumulator of nickel, as it is able to accumulate 16.3 mg g{sup −1} (whole plant DW basis). Our results also showed a two-steps uptake pattern of nickel, with a fast uptake of nickel at the first 6 to 12 h of being expose to the metal, followed by a slow take up phase until the end of the experiment at 144 h. S. minima thus, may be considered as a fern useful in the phytoremediation of residual water bodies contaminated with this metal. Also from our results, S. minima can tolerate fair concentrations of the metal; however, at concentrations higher than 80 μM Ni (1.5 mg g{sup −1} internal nickel concentration), its physiological performance can be affected. For instance, the integrity of cell membranes was affected as the metal concentration and exposure time increased. The accumulation of high concentrations of internal nickel did also affect photosynthesis, the efficiency of PSII, and the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, although at a lower extent.

  12. Chemistry of plants which accumulate metals. [Hybanthus floribundus; Polycarpia glabra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farago, M E; Clark, A J; Pitt, M J

    1975-01-01

    Information on the accumulation of metals in plants is reviewed. The authors report some of their investigations of the metal accumulating plants Hybanthus floribundus and Polycarpia glabra. In general, nickel levels in the aerial parts of plants are quite low, however a number of plants have been cited as nickel tolerant. The leaves of the Hybanthus plant have large epidermal cells and ridges of large cells which continue along the leaf stem and on to the main stem of the bush. It was found that nickel could be located in these large cells. The presence of nickel in the ridge cells was confirmed by an electron probe technique using a scanning electron microscope. These same areas showed high concentration of pectins. In studying the Polycarpia species, two zinc complexes were found to accumulate in the flowers and stems. 22 references.

  13. Accumulation of Radiocesium in Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiura, Y.; Takenaka, C.; Kanasashi, T. [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, 464-8601, Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture (Japan); Deguchi, S. [School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture, 464-8601 (Japan); Matsuda, Y. [Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu City, Mie Prefecture, 514-0102 (Japan); Ozawa, H. [Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Koriyama City Fukushima Prefecture, 963-0112 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    1. Introduction: After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) had deposited on forests in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to comprehend radiocesium circulation in forest ecosystem, it is important to understand about properties of {sup 137}Cs accumulation of each plant species. In addition, {sup 137}Cs accumulator plants would be candidates of phyto-remediation, which is a remediation method using plants to remove pollutants from environment. We aimed to find {sup 137}Cs accumulator plants and to clarify the accumulate mechanisms. 2. Materials and Methods: We collected soil and plant samples at 22 points in Fukushima Prefecture more than once a year from May 2011 to October 2013. Surface (0-5 cm) soils were collected at the same site as the plant sampling. The soil samples were air-dried for 2-3 weeks and then passed through a 2 mm sieve. Foliar samples were washed with tap water to remove soil particles and rinsed with deionized water for {sup 137}Cs and other elements analysis. The samples were dried at 80 deg. C for 48 hr and ground with a mill mixer. {sup 137}Cs activities in soil and plant samples were determined by means of high-purity Ge detector (HPGe). The elements concentrations of the plant samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after wet digestion with HNO{sub 3}. 3. Results and Discussion: As a whole trend, evergreen tree species such as Camellia japonica and Cryptomeria japonica contained {sup 137}Cs at high concentration due to the deposited {sup 137}Cs on old leaves and foliar absorption. The activities in leaves of deciduous tree species were lower than those in evergreen trees. However, we confirmed that a deciduous tree species, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides, collected in 2012 and 2013 accumulated {sup 137}Cs, whereas that collected in 2011 did not accumulate {sup 137}Cs. The {sup 137}Cs concentration of E. sciadophylloides in 2012 and 2013 were higher than those of

  14. Arsenic accumulation by edible aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falinski, K A; Yost, R S; Sampaga, E; Peard, J

    2014-01-01

    Edible aquatic macrophytes grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soil and sediment were investigated to determine the extent of As accumulation and potential risk to humans when consumed. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) and Diplazium esculentum (warabi) are two aquatic macrophytes grown and consumed in Hawaii. Neither has been assessed for potential to accumulate As when grown in As-contaminated soil. Some former sugarcane plantation soils in eastern Hawaii have been shown to have concentrations of total As over 500 mg kg(-1). It was hypothesized that both species will accumulate more As in contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. N. officinale and D. esculentum were collected in areas with and without As-contaminated soil and sediment. High soil As concentrations averaged 356 mg kg(-1), while low soil As concentrations were 0.75 mg kg(-1). Average N. officinale and D. esculentum total As concentrations were 0.572 mg kg(-1) and 0.075 mg kg(-1), respectively, corresponding to hazard indices of 0.12 and 0.03 for adults. Unlike previous studies where watercress was grown in As-contaminated water, N. officinale did not show properties of a hyperaccumulator, yet plant concentrations in high As areas were more than double those in low As areas. There was a slight correlation between high total As in sediment and soil and total As concentrations in watercress leaves and stems, resulting in a plant uptake factor of 0.010, an order of magnitude higher than previous studies. D. esculentum did not show signs of accumulating As in the edible fiddleheads. Hawaii is unique in having volcanic ash soils with extremely high sorption characteristics of As and P that limit release into groundwater. This study presents a case where soils and sediments were significantly enriched in total As concentration, but the water As concentration was below detection limits. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Effects of life cycle and leaves location on gene expression and glycoside biosynthesis pathway in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaheri, Matin; Adibrad, Elaheh; Safavi, Seyed Mehdi; Kahrizi, Danial; Soroush, Ali; Muhammadi, Saare; Ghorbani, Tayebeh; Sabzevari, Ali; Ansarypour, Zahra; Rahmanian, Elham

    2018-02-10

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is One of the most important biologically sourced and low-calorie sweeteners that known as "Sweet Weed". It contains steviol glycosides that they are about 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose. Tissue culture is the best method with high efficiency that can overcome to problems of traditional methods, and it is the most useful tools for studying stress tolerance mechanisms under in vitro conditions to obtain drought tolerance. In the present research, we investigated the impact of life cycle, leaves location and the harvesting time on expression of UGT74G1 and UGT76G1 as well as steviol glycosides accumulation. The highest gene expression of both UGT74G1 and UGT76G1 (207.677 and 208.396 Total Lab unit, respectively) was observed in young leaves in the second vegetative year. Also, the highest amount of stevioside accumulation (13.04) was due to the old leaves in vegetative stage which had significant differences with other effects whereas the lowest accumulation (7.47) was seen at young leaves at vegetative stage. Interestingly, the highest level of rebaudioside a production (15.74) was occurred at the young leaves at vegetative stage. There was significant differences between life cycle and leaves location on steviol glycoside production in stevia.

  16. Effect of high relative humidity on dried Plantago lanceolata L. leaves during long-term storage: effects on chemical composition, colour and microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Sándor; Tóth, László; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Braun, Mihály; Emri, Tamás; Vasas, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    Modern phytotherapy and quality assurance requires stability data on bioactive metabolites to identify and minimise decomposing factors during processing and storage. A compound's stability in a complex matrix can be different from the stability of the purified compound. To test the stability of iridoids and acteoside and quantify changes in colour and microbiological quality in a common herbal tea, dried P. lanceolata leaves during exposure to high-humidity air. To test the contribution of fungi to metabolite decomposition. Dried P. lanceolata leaves were exposed to atmospheres of different relative humidity (75, 45 and 0%) for 24 weeks. Changes in aucubin and catalpol concentration were determined by CE-MEKC, and those in acteoside on TLC. Colour and chlorophyll-like pigments were measured by different spectrophotometric methods. The number of fungi was monitored; 10 strains were isolated from the plant drug, and their ability to decompose the analytes of interest was tested. During incubation at 75% relative humidity (RH), aucubin, catalpol and acteoside concentrations decreased by 95.7, 97.0 and 70.5%, respectively. Strong shifts were detected in CIELAB parameters a* and b* (browning) as a result of conversion of chlorophyll to pheophytin. Intensive microbial proliferation was also observed. Changes at 45 or 0% RH were typically insignificant. Seven of the 10 isolated fungal strains could decompose both iridoids, and five could decompose acteoside in vitro. It was shown that exposure to water results in loss of bioactive molecules of P. lanceolata dried leaves, and that colonising fungi are the key contributors to this loss. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Accurate evaluation of subband structure in a carrier accumulation layer at an n-type InAs surface: LDF calculation combined with high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Inaoka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption on an n-type InAs surface often induces a gradual formation of a carrier-accumulation layer at the surface. By means of high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy (PES, Betti et al. made a systematic observation of subbands in the accumulation layer in the formation process. Incorporating a highly nonparabolic (NP dispersion of the conduction band into the local-density-functional (LDF formalism, we examine the subband structure in the accumulation-layer formation process. Combining the LDF calculation with the PES experiment, we make an accurate evaluation of the accumulated-carrier density, the subband-edge energies, and the subband energy dispersion at each formation stage. Our theoretical calculation can reproduce the three observed subbands quantitatively. The subband dispersion, which deviates downward from that of the projected bulk conduction band with an increase in wave number, becomes significantly weaker in the formation process. Accurate evaluation of the NP subband dispersion at each formation stage is indispensable in making a quantitative analysis of collective electronic excitations and transport properties in the subbands.

  18. Metabolomics analysis reveals the metabolic and functional roles of flavonoids in light-sensitive tea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qunfeng; Liu, Meiya; Ruan, Jianyun

    2017-03-20

    As the predominant secondary metabolic pathway in tea plants, flavonoid biosynthesis increases with increasing temperature and illumination. However, the concentration of most flavonoids decreases greatly in light-sensitive tea leaves when they are exposed to light, which further improves tea quality. To reveal the metabolism and potential functions of flavonoids in tea leaves, a natural light-sensitive tea mutant (Huangjinya) cultivated under different light conditions was subjected to metabolomics analysis. The results showed that chlorotic tea leaves accumulated large amounts of flavonoids with ortho-dihydroxylated B-rings (e.g., catechin gallate, quercetin and its glycosides etc.), whereas total flavonoids (e.g., myricetrin glycoside, epigallocatechin gallate etc.) were considerably reduced, suggesting that the flavonoid components generated from different metabolic branches played different roles in tea leaves. Furthermore, the intracellular localization of flavonoids and the expression pattern of genes involved in secondary metabolic pathways indicate a potential photoprotective function of dihydroxylated flavonoids in light-sensitive tea leaves. Our results suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and the antioxidation effects of flavonoids help chlorotic tea plants survive under high light stress, providing new evidence to clarify the functional roles of flavonoids, which accumulate to high levels in tea plants. Moreover, flavonoids with ortho-dihydroxylated B-rings played a greater role in photo-protection to improve the acclimatization of tea plants.

  19. Leaving the Parental Nest: Adjustment Problems, Attachment Representations, and Social Support during the Transition from High School to Military Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra; Kivenson-Baron, Inbal

    2011-01-01

    Adjustment to the transition from high school to military service in Israel was examined in a longitudinal study with a sample of 120 late-adolescent girls. During their senior year in high school (Time 1) the young women were administered the Adult Attachment Interview. Their coping and adjustment to the new environment were assessed (at two…

  20. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  1. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...... of leaving home. Results showed that while some differences disappeared when controlling for covariates, others persisted, thus indicating ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns. A strong link between leaving home and marriage was substantiated for Turks, but not for Somalis. The home-leaving patterns...... of Somalis were much more similar to those of Danes. Overall, Turkish descendants were similar to Turkish immigrants but with some differentiation. The analyses identified the existence of ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns but also found evidence of a shift towards less traditional patterns, i...

  2. Highly selective fusion and accumulation of hybrid liposomes into primary effusion lymphoma cells along with induction of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towata, Tomomi [Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Sojo University, 4-22-1 Ikeda, Kumamoto 860-0082 (Japan); Division of Hematopoiesis, Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Komizu, Yuji [Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Sojo University, 4-22-1 Ikeda, Kumamoto 860-0082 (Japan); Suzu, Shinya [Division of Hematopoiesis, Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Ueoka, Ryuichi, E-mail: ueoka@life.sojo-u.ac.jp [Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Sojo University, 4-22-1 Ikeda, Kumamoto 860-0082 (Japan); Okada, Seiji, E-mail: okadas@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Division of Hematopoiesis, Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan)

    2010-03-12

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by human herpes virus-8 infection, and is generally resistant to chemotherapy. Hybrid liposomes, composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and polyoxyethylene (21) dodecyl ether (C{sub 12}(EO){sub 21}) (HL-21), were rapidly accumulated in the membrane of PEL cells. HL-21 also increased membrane fluidity of PEL cells, and induced caspase-3 activation along with cell death. These results suggest that HL-21 should be an effective and attractive regent for PEL treatment.

  3. The influence of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer forms on micronutrient retranslocation and accumulation in grains of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunun eBarunawati

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fortification of cereal grains with metal micronutrients is a major target to combat human malnutrition of Fe and Zn. Based on recent studies showing that N fertilization can promote Fe and Zn accumulation in cereal grains, we investigated here the influence of nitrate- or ammonium-based N fertilization on the accumulation of Fe, Zn and Cu as well as metal chelator pools in flag leaves and grains of winter wheat. Fertilization with either N form increased the concentrations of N and of the metal chelator nicotianamine (NA in green leaves, while 2’-deoxymugineic acid (DMA remained unaffected. Despite the differential response to N fertilization of NA and DMA levels in flag leaves, N fertilization remained without any significant effect on the net export of these metals during flag leaf senescence, which accounted for approx. one third of the total Fe, Zn or Cu content in leaves. The significant increase in the accumulation of Fe, Zn and Cu found in the grains of primarily ammonium-fertilized plants was unrelated to the extent of metal retranslocation from flag leaves. These results indicate that an increased N nutritional status of flag leaves promotes the accumulation of Fe, Zn and Cu in flag leaves, which is accompanied by an increased pool of NA but not of DMA. With regard to the far higher concentrations of DMA relative to NA in leaves and leaf exudates, DMA may be more relevant for the mobilization and retranslocation of these metals in high-yielding wheat production.

  4. Accumulated energy determination in salts rocks irradiated by means of thermoluminescence techniques: application to the high level radioactive wastes repositories analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dies, J.; Ortega. J.; Tarrasa. F.; Cuevas, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report summarizes the study carried out to develop the radiation effects on salt rocks in order to repository the high level radioactive wastes. The study is structured into 3 main aspects: 1.- Analysis of irradiation experiences in Haw project of Pet ten reactor. 2.- Irradiation of salt sample of CESAR industrial irradiator. 3.- Correlation study between the accumulated energy, termoluminescence answer and the defect concentration

  5. HIGH PERCENTAGE OF RARE EARTH ELEMENT CONNECTION WITH THE ACCUMULATION SEDIMENT AS RESPONSE LONGSHORE CURRENTS IN THE BELITUNG WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyuzar Ilahude

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study area is geographically located in the West coast of Belitung island at coordinates 105o48'00" - 106o06' 00" E and 06o46'00" - 06o50' 00" S. The beach and coastal area is influenced by wave energy from the West and North directions The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the zone of sediment accumulation of empirical approaches on oceanography parameter containing rare earth elements. The approach used is to predict the shore wave energy using wave prediction curve deep waters to obtain the energy flux of the wave at each point of reference. Sediments containing rare earth elements tend to lead to the south as a result of the movement of longshore currents. Regional coastal area of the western part of the island of Belitung, especially in the southern part of the estuary of the river Tanjung Pandan is estimated to be a zone of sediment accumulation. The movement of sediment caused by wave energy from the north led to sedimentation evolved significantly in the south which is thought to contain rare earths minerals derived from land. This sedimentation process takes place on a seasonal basis, which allegedly took place in the west. The movement of sediment to the south of the mouth of the Cerucuk River it is predicted that rare earth elements were supplied from these rivers tend to settle in the southern part of the estuary Cerucuk throughout the year.

  6. Redistribution of boron in leaves reduces boron toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert J; Fitzpatrick, Kate L

    2009-11-01

    High soil boron (B) concentrations lead to the accumulation of B in leaves, causing the development of necrotic regions in leaf tips and margins, gradually extending back along the leaf. Plants vary considerably in their tolerance to B toxicity, and it was recently discovered that one of the tolerance mechanisms involved extrusion of B from the root. Expression of a gene encoding a root B efflux transporter was shown to be much higher in tolerant cultivars. In our current research we have shown that the same gene is also upregulated in leaves. However, unlike in the root, the increased activity of the B efflux transporter in the leaves cannot reduce the tissue B concentration. Instead, we have shown that in tolerant cultivars, these transporters redistribute B from the intracellular phase where it is toxic, into the apoplast which is much less sensitive to B. These results provide an explanation of why different cultivars with the same leaf B concentrations can show markedly different toxicity symptoms. We have also shown that rain can remove a large proportion of leaf B, leading to significant improvements of growth of both leaves and roots.

  7. High-intensity interval training improves VO2peak, maximal lactate accumulation, time trial and competition performance in 9?11-year-old swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Heilemann, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 5-week HIIT versus high-volume training (HVT) in 9?11-year-old swimmers on competition performance, 100 and 2,000?m time (T 100?m and T 2,000?m), VO2peak and rate of maximal lactate accumulation (La...

  8. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Alleviates Extracellular Matrix Accumulation in High Glucose-Induced Renal Fibroblasts through mTOR Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Extracellular matrix accumulation contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Although AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK has been found to inhibit extracellular matrix synthesis by experiments in vivo and vitro, its role in alleviating the deposition of extracellular matrix in renal interstitial fibroblasts has not been well defined. Methods: Currently, we conducted this study to investigate the effects of AMPK on high glucose-induced extracellular matrix synthesis and involved intracellular signaling pathway by using western blot in the kidney fibroblast cell line (NRK-49f. Results: Collagen IV protein levels were significantly increased by high glucose in a time-dependent manner. This was associated with a decrease in Thr72 phosphorylation of AMPK and an increase in phosphorylation of mTOR on Ser2448. High glucose-induced extracellular matrix accumulation and mTOR activation were significantly inhibited by the co-treatment of rAAV-AMPKα1312 (encoding constitutively active AMPKα1 whereas activated by r-AAV-AMPKα1D157A (encoding dominant negative AMPKα1. In cultured renal fibroblasts, overexpression of AMPKα1D157A upregulated mTOR signaling and matrix synthesis, which were ameliorated by co-treatment with the inhibitor of mTOR, rapamycin. Conclusion: Collectively, these findings indicate that AMPK exerts renoprotective effects by inhibiting the accumulation of extracellular matrix through mTOR signaling pathway.

  9. Effect of transpiration on plant accumulation and translocation of PPCP/EDCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodgen, Laurel K.; Ueda, Aiko; Wu, Xiaoqin; Parker, David R.; Gan, Jay

    2015-01-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation in arid and hot climates where plant transpiration is high may affect plant accumulation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, carrot, lettuce, and tomato plants were grown in solution containing 16 PPCP/EDCs in either a cool-humid or a warm-dry environment. Leaf bioconcentration factors (BCF) were positively correlated with transpiration for chemical groups of different ionized states (p < 0.05). However, root BCFs were correlated with transpiration only for neutral PPCP/EDCs (p < 0.05). Neutral and cationic PPCP/EDCs showed similar accumulation, while anionic PPCP/EDCs had significantly higher accumulation in roots and significantly lower accumulation in leaves (p < 0.05). Results show that plant transpiration may play a significant role in the uptake and translocation of PPCP/EDCs, which may have a pronounced effect in arid and hot climates where irrigation with treated wastewater is common. - Highlights: • Leaf accumulation of PPCP/EDCs is related on plant transpiration. • Cationic and neutral PPCP/EDCs have similar leaf and root accumulation. • Anionic PPCP/EDCs have greater root accumulation and lesser leaf accumulation. • PPCP/EDCs are extensively metabolized in plant tissue and hydroponic solution. - High plant transpiration in arid and hot areas may lead to increased foliar accumulation of PPCP/EDCs from treated wastewater irrigation

  10. Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii (Stapf) Diels leaves halt high-fructose induced metabolic syndrome: Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, T O; Aliyu, H; Tanimu, M A; Muhammad, R M; Ibitoye, O B

    2016-11-04

    Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii is widely used in the management and treatment of diabetes and obesity in Nigeria. This study evaluates the effect of aqueous leaf extract of D. cumminsii on high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Seventy male rats were randomized into seven groups. All rats were fed with high-fructose diet for 9 weeks except groups A and C rats, which received control diet. In addition to the diet treatment, groups A and B rats received distilled water for 3 weeks starting from the seventh week of the experimental period. Rats in groups C-F orally received 400, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight of aqueous leaf extract of D. cumminsii respectively, while group G received 300mg/kg bodyweight of metformin for 3 weeks starting from the seventh week. There was significant (phigh-fructose diet-mediated increase in body weight, body mass index, abdominal circumference, blood glucose, insulin, leptin and insulin resistance by aqueous leaf extract of D. cumminsii. Conversely, high-fructose diet-mediated decrease in adiponectin was reversed by the extract. Increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, cardiac index and coronary artery index were significantly lowered by the extract, while high-fructose diet mediated decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased by the extract. Tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 levels increased significantly in high-fructose diet-fed rats, which were significantly reversed by the extract. High-fructose mediated-decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reduced were significantly reversed by aqueous leaf extract of D. cumminsii. Conversely, elevated levels of malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl and fragmented DNA were significantly lowered by the

  11. Dissecting molecular and physiological response mechanisms to high solar radiation in cyanic and acyanic leaves: a case study on red and green basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattini, Massimiliano; Sebastiani, Federico; Brunetti, Cecilia; Fini, Alessio; Torre, Sara; Gori, Antonella; Centritto, Mauro; Ferrini, Francesco; Landi, Marco; Guidi, Lucia

    2017-04-01

    Photosynthetic performance and the expression of genes involved in light signaling and the biosynthesis of isoprenoids and phenylpropanoids were analysed in green ('Tigullio', TIG) and red ('Red Rubin', RR) basil. The aim was to detect the physiological and molecular response mechanisms to high sunlight. The attenuation of blue-green light by epidermal anthocyanins was shown to evoke shade-avoidance responses with consequential effects on leaf morpho-anatomical traits and gas exchange performance. Red basil had a lower mesophyll conductance, partially compensated by the less effective control of stomatal movements, in comparison with TIG. Photosynthesis decreased more in TIG than in RR in high sunlight, because of larger stomatal limitations and the transient impairment of PSII photochemistry. The methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway promoted above all the synthesis and de-epoxidation of violaxanthin-cycle pigments in TIG and of neoxanthin and lutein in RR. This enabled the green leaves to process the excess radiant energy effectively, and the red leaves to optimize light harvesting and photoprotection. The greater stomatal closure observed in TIG than in RR was due to enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) glucose ester deglucosylation and reduced ABA oxidation, rather than to superior de novo ABA synthesis. This study shows a strong competition between anthocyanin and flavonol biosynthesis, which occurs at the level of genes regulating the oxidation of the C2-C3 bond in the dihydro-flavonoid skeleton. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Induction of wound-periderm-like tissue in Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. (Crassulaceae) leaves as a defence response to high UV-B radiation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Luana Beatriz dos Santos; Moreira, Nattacha dos Santos; Leal-Costa, Marcos Vinícius; Costa, Sônia Soares; Tavares, Eliana Schwartz

    2015-10-01

    UV-B radiation can be stressful for plants and cause morphological and biochemical changes. Kalanchoe pinnata is a CAM leaf-succulent species distributed in hot and dry regions, and is rich in flavonoids, which are considered to be protective against UV-B radiation. This study aims to verify if K. pinnata has morphological or anatomical responses as a strategy in response to high UV-B levels. Kalanchoe pinnata plants of the same age were grown under white light (control) or white light plus supplemental UV-B radiation (5 h d(-1)). The plants were treated with the same photoperiod, photosynthetically active radiation, temperature and daily watering system. Fragments of the middle third of the leaf blade and petiole were dehydrated and then embedded in historesin and sectioned in a rotary microtome. Sections were stained with toluidine blue O and mounted in Entellan®. Microchemical analyses by optical microscopy were performed on fresh material with Sudan III, Sudan IV and phloroglucinol, and analysed using fluorescence microscopy. Supplemental UV-B radiation caused leaf curling and the formation of brown areas on the leaves. These brown areas developed into a protective tissue on the adaxial side of the leaf, but only in directly exposed regions. Anatomically, this protective tissue was similar to a wound-periderm, with outer layer cell walls impregnated with suberin and lignin. This is the first report of wound-periderm formation in leaves in response to UV-B radiation. This protective tissue could be important for the survival of the species in desert regions under high UV-B stress conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TFtransgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  14. Effect-directed analysis via hyphenated high-performance thin-layer chromatography for bioanalytical profiling of sunflower leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Móricz, Ágnes M; Ott, Péter G; Yüce, Imanuel; Darcsi, András; Béni, Szabolcs; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2018-01-19

    High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled with effect-directed analysis was used for non-targeted screening of sunflower leaf extract for components exhibiting antioxidant, antibacterial and/or cholinesterase enzyme inhibitory effects. The active compounds were characterized by HPTLC-electrospray ionization-high resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and HPTLC-Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART)-MS/MS. The latter ambient ionization technique (less soft than ESI) resulted in oxidation and fragmentation products and characteristic fragment ions. NMR spectroscopy after targeted isolation via preparative normal phase flash chromatography and semi-preparative reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography supported the identification of two diterpenes to be (-)-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid and 15-α-angeloyloxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid. Both compounds found to be multi-potent as they inhibited acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase and showed antibacterial effects against Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Aliivibrio fischeri bacteria. Kaurenoic acid was also active against the Gram-negative pepper pathogenic Xanthomonas euvesicatoria bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of Heavy Metals in Leaves of Mangifera Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER PC

    ABSTRACT. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium and zinc in leaves of Mangifera indica (Mango), Psidium ... alarm, in some cases, trace heavy metals may accumulate to an ... leaves when released can lead to serious ... shown that it can interact with different hormonal .... 17, 2012. Cadmium Exposure and Bone Mineral.

  16. Summer survival of Phytophthora ramorum in California bay laurel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth J. Fichtner; David M. Rizzo; Shannon C. Lynch; Jennifer Davidson; Gerri Buckles; Jennifer Parker

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death manifests as non-lethal foliar lesions on bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), which support sporulation and survival of Phytophthora ramorum in forest ecosystems. Infected bay laurel leaves are more likely to abscise than uninfected leaves, resulting in an accumulation of inoculum at the forest floor. The pathogen survives the dry...

  17. The Duration of Paid Parental Leave and Children's Scholastic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qian; Nordström Skans, Oskar

    2009-01-01

    We study how the duration of paid parental leave affects the accumulation of cognitive skills among children. We use a reform which extended parental leave benefits from 12 to 15 months for Swedish children born after August 1988 to evaluate the effects of prolonged parental leave on children's test scores and grades at age 16. We show that, on average, the reform had no effect on children's scholastic performance. However, we do find positive effects for children of well-educated mothers, a ...

  18. Optimisation of phenolics recovery from Vitex agnus-castus Linn. leaves by high-pressure and temperature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lataoui, Mohammed; Seffen, Mongi; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Converti, Attilio; Perego, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    To optimise recovery of phenolics from Vitex agnus-castus Linn., a non-conventional high-pressure (2-24 bar) and temperature (100-180°C) extraction method was used under nitrogen atmosphere with methanol as a solvent. Optimal temperature was between 100 and 140°C, and optimal extraction time was about one half that of conventional solid/liquid extraction at room temperature. Final yields of total polyphenols, total flavonoids, o-diphenols and anthocyanins extraction were 2.0, 3.0, 2.5 and 11-fold those obtained by conventional extraction.

  19. Biomonitoring of PAHs by using Quercus ilex leaves: Source diagnostic and toxicity assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Flavia; Claudia, Lancellotti; MariaVittoria, Prati; Giulia, Maisto; Anna, Alfani

    2011-03-01

    Quercus ilex L. leaves were sampled at nineteen urban sites and two remote sites in order to evaluate PAH contamination degree. One-, two- and three-year-old leaves were collected and leaf lipid content was measured to investigate the influence of leaf age and lipids in PAH accumulation. Some PAH diagnostic ratios, such as Ant/Ant + Phen, Flt/Flt + Pyr, B[a]A/B[a]A + Crys and IP/IP + B[g,h,i]P, were calculated. The results suggest that Q. ilex leaves are effective biomonitors of PAH air contamination: in fact, a great PAH accumulation in leaves from the urban areas, until 30-time higher compared to those from the remote sites, has been observed. At each site, the similar total PAH concentrations in leaves of different age, probably due to a canopy effect, indicate an ability of all leaf age classes to monitor local PAH concentrations in air, remarking practical implications for air biomonitoring. The findings suggest that PAH adsorption in Q. ilex leaves does not result limited by leaf lipid content. Moreover, this study demonstrates the source-diagnostic potential of Q. ilex leaves, because, in particular, the Flt/Flt + Pyr and IP/IP + B[g,h,i]P ratios indicate vehicular traffic as the main source of PAHs in the urban areas and wood combustion in the remote areas. Moreover, to distinguish biomass combustion source, a promising tracer PAH as DB[a,h]A could be used. The high contribution of DB[a,h]A to total PAH concentrations at the remote sites determines a high carcinogenic potential in this area, similar to that calculated for the urban area where the carcinogenic PAH concentrations in absolute values are often higher.

  20. High CO/sub 2/ partial pressure effects on dark and light CO/sub 2/ fixation and metabolism in Vicia faba leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coudret, A.; Ferron, F.; Laffray, D.

    1985-01-01

    Stomatal opening on Vicia faba can be induced by high CO/sub 2/ partial pressures (10.2%) in dark as well as in light. Stomatal aperture was measured in both cases with a hydrogen porometer. The distribution of /sup 14/C among early products of photosynthesis was studied. Comparisons are made with carboxylations occurring when stomata were open in the dark with CO/sub 2/-free air and in light with 0.034% CO/sub 2/. Results showed that in high CO/sub 2/ partial pressure in light, less radioactivity was incorporated in Calvin cycle intermediates and more in sucrose. ..beta.. carboxylations and photorespiration seemed to be inhibited. In the dark in both CO/sub 2/ conditions, /sup 14/C incorporation was found in malate and aspartate but also in serine and glycerate in high CO/sub 2/ conditions. In light these changes in metabolic pathways may be related with the deleterious effects recorded on leaves after long-term expositions to high partial pressure of CO/sub 2/.

  1. Pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation alleviates the negative effects of postanthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrates remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2012-01-01

    The potential role of pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation in alleviating the negative effects of post-anthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrate remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat was investigated. The treatments included no heat-stress (CC), heat stress at pre...... had much higher starch content, and caused less modified B-type starch granule size indicators than the CH plants. Our results indicated that, compared with the non-acclimated plants, the pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation effectively enhanced carbohydrate remobilization from stems to grains...

  2. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  3. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  4. [Disability leave and sick leave in Spain. 2016 legislative update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; Terradillos-García, María Jesús; Capdevila-García, Luisa M; Ramírez-Íñiguez de la Torre, María Victoria; Aguilar-Jiménez, Encarna; Aguado-Benedí, María José; López-González, Angel Arturo; Torres-Alberich, José Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    In Spanish, the concepts of discapacidad (disability leave) and incapacidad (sick leave) jointly refer to the impairment of a person due to injuries, diseases or deficiencies that limit their activity in a social, personal or occupational field. However, this common link does not imply that both concepts are the same. Statistical data from INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística: Statistic National Institute) show that Spain had in 2015 3.85 million persons with a disability (59.8% were women). Statistical data from 2015 from INSS (Instituto Nacional de Seguridad Social: Social Security National Institute) show high levels in the number of processes and in workers affected by temporary sick leave, with social costs to the social security system. Both concepts have been updated: about disability leave, Law 39/2006 adjusted terminology by avoiding the use of concepts with discriminating or pejorative connotation. Regarding sick leave, the Ley General de Seguridad Social (General Social Security Law)has been amended and came into effect in January, 2016. It is necessary to know and distinguish these aspects for a better administrative management, and a more oriented information to the affected patient.

  5. High levels of heavy metal accumulation in dental calculus of smokers: a pilot inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaprak, E; Yolcubal, I; Sinanoğlu, A; Doğrul-Demiray, A; Guzeldemir-Akcakanat, E; Marakoğlu, I

    2017-02-01

    Various trace elements, including toxic heavy metals, may exist in dental calculus. However, the effect of environmental factors on heavy metal composition of dental calculus is unknown. Smoking is a major environmental source for chronic toxic heavy metal exposition. The aim of this study is to compare toxic heavy metal accumulation levels in supragingival dental calculus of smokers and non-smokers. A total of 29 supragingival dental calculus samples were obtained from non-smoker (n = 14) and smoker (n = 15) individuals. Subjects with a probability of occupational exposure were excluded from the study. Samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in terms of 26 metals and metalloids, including toxic heavy metals. Toxic heavy metals, arsenic (p 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the elementary composition of dental calculus may be affected by environmental factors such as tobacco smoke. Therefore, dental calculus may be utilized as a non-invasive diagnostic biological material for monitoring chronic oral heavy metal exposition. However, further studies are required to evaluate its diagnostic potential. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Soil carbon accumulation in a Populus spp. plantation supplied with high atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagomarsino A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in the experimental area POPFACE (Tuscania, Viterbo, where a poplar short rotation forest (SRF was treated with 550 ppm of atmospheric CO2 for six years. The experimental plots (Control and FACE were divided in two halves, one of which was treated with nitrogen fertilization. The general aim of this research was to quantify the impact of the two rotation cycles, the CO2 enrichment and the nitrogen fertilization on: i soil organic matter fractions more relevant for microbial metabolism; ii microbial C mineralization activity and iii the ecosystem capacity to store C in the soil. On soil samples collected from 2000 to 2004, the soil Organic C (TOC, the total extractable C (TEC and several labile C fractions (MBC, WSC, ExC were analysed. The microbial mineralization activity was also analysed. In comparison with the previous culture crop, the plantation increased the organic C storage in soil by about 23% in the second rotation cycle. Under elevated CO2, the increase of above- and belowground productivity supported a greater accumulation of labile C in soil, favouring a microbial C immobilization process. Fertilization treatment induced short-term changes in the soil C content, without overall modifications in the second rotation cycle.

  7. Effect of methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum leaves on neointimal foam cell infiltration in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Adel A.; Zakaria, Zaiton; Othman, Faizah; Das, Srijit; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Raj, Santhana; Nordin, Nor-Anita MM

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown the beneficial effects of aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum (P.s) on atherosclerosis. The first stage in atherosclerosis is the formation of foam cell. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the methanol extract of P.s on fatty streaks by calculating neointimal foam cell infiltration in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet. Thirty six male New Zealand white rabbits were divided equally into six groups: (i) C: control group fed normal rabbit chow; (ii) CH: cholesterol diet (1 % cholesterol); (iii) PM1: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (62.5 mg/kg); (iv) PM2: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (125 mg/kg); (v) PM3: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (250 mg/kg); (vi) SMV group fed 1 % cholesterol supplemented with Simvistatin drug (1.2 mg/kg). All animals were treated for 10 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the rabbits were fasted and sacrificed and the aortic tissues were collected for histological studies to measure the area of the neointimal foam cell infiltration using software. The thickening of intima ratio of atherosclerosis and morphological changes by scanning electron microscope were measured. The results showed that the atherosclerotic group had significantly bigger area of fatty streak compared to the control group. The area of fatty streak in the abdominal aorta was significantly reduced in the treatment groups which were similar with the SMV group. Similarly, there was a reduction in the number of foam cell in the treatment groups compared to the atherosclerotic group as seen under scanning microscope. In conclusion, histological study demonstrated that the methanol extract of the P.s could reduce the neointimal foam cell infiltration in the lumen of the aorta and the atherosclerotic lesion. PMID:27366140

  8. High-protein diets prevent steatosis and induce hepatic accumulation of monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Caraballo, Sonia C.; Comhair, Tine M.; Houten, Sander M.; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Koehler, S. Eleonore

    2014-01-01

    The hallmark of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is steatosis of unknown etiology. To test how dietary protein decreases steatosis, we fed female C57BL/6 J mice low-fat (8 en%) or high-fat (42 en%) combined with low-protein (11 en%), high-protein (HP; 35 en%) or extra-high-protein (HPX; 58 en%)

  9. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...... and whether parental leave is associated with a signaling cost. The results from this study of Swedish mothers show that lone mothers use more temporary parental leave than partnered mothers. Further, within the group of lone mothers, those with higher socioeconomic status take less temporary parental leave...... than those with lower socioeconomic status, whereas no such differences are found within the group of partnered mothers. One possible interpretation is that signaling costs negatively influence the utilization of temporary parental leave for lone mothers....

  10. The carbon isotope ratios and contents of mineral elements in leaves of Chinese medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhifang; Sun Guchou; Wang Wei

    1989-01-01

    Leaf carbon isotope ratios and 13 kinds of mineral elements were measured on 36 species of common Chinese medicinal plants in a subtropical monsoon forest of Ding Hu Shan in Guangdong Province. The .delta.13C value were from -26.4 to -32.6%, indicating that all of the species belonged the photosynthetic C3 types. The relative lower value of δ13C was observed in the life form of shrubs. The contents of 7 elements (N, P, K, Ca, Na Mg, Si) were dependent upon the species, life form, medicinal function and medicinal part. Herb type medicine and the used medicinal part of leaves or whole plant showed higher levels of above elements than the others. Among the nine groups with different medicinal functions, it was found that more nitrogen was in the leaves of medicinal plants for hemophthisis, hypertension and stomachic troubles, more phosphorus and potassium were in the leaves for cancer and snake bite medicines, but more calcium and magnesium were in the leaves for curing rheumatics. Ferric, aluminium and manganese were the main composition of microelements in leaves. There were higher content of ferric in leaves for hemophthisis medicine, higher zinc in leaves for cold and hypertension medicine, and higher Cup in leaves of stomachic medicine. It was suggested that the pattern of mineral elements in leaves of Chinese medicinal plants reflected the different properties of absorption and accumulation. Some additional effect due to the high content of certain element might be associated with the main function of that medicine

  11. Age dependence of the accumulation of organochlorine pollutants in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a remote high mountain lake (Redo, Pyrenees)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, I.; Grimalt, J.O.; Ventura, M.; Catalan, J.; Rosseland, B.O.

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDT were examined in the muscle of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a high mountain lake located in the Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain) that was used as a model of these lacustrine environments. Results indicate that fish age is the main factor of variability among specimens in this population that is subjected to atmospheric inputs of the organochlorine compounds (OC). Increases of 2- and 20-fold between fish aged 1 year and 15 years old are found. The observed pattern cannot be explained in terms of fish size, condition factor, or muscle lipid content. Higher molecular weight compounds (higher lipophilicity) are better correlated with fish age than low molecular weight compounds. A transformation from 4,4'-DDT to 4,4'-DDE occurs in fish after ingestion; this results in amplified age-dependent signals, especially in male specimens. In contrast, PCB congener no. 180 has lower age dependence than the general OC group, which could be due to its high hydrophobicity (log K ow > 7). In any case, selective accumulation of hydrophobic compounds is already observed among younger fish (age, 1 year). Due to this effect, the relative OC composition does not reflect the main OC pollutants in the lake waters. - Trout in high mountain lakes display age-dependent accumulation of certain organochlorine pollutants

  12. Age dependence of the accumulation of organochlorine pollutants in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a remote high mountain lake (Redo, Pyrenees)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, I. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Grimalt, J.O. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)]. E-mail: jgoqam@cid.csic.es; Ventura, M. [Limnology Group (CSIC-UB), Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Acces Cala St. Francesc, 14, Blanes 17300, Catalonia (Spain); Catalan, J. [Limnology Group (CSIC-UB), Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Acces Cala St. Francesc, 14, Blanes 17300, Catalonia (Spain); Rosseland, B.O. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), P.O.B. 173 Kjelsaas, N-0411 Oslo (Norway); Institute for Biology and Nature Conservation, The Agricultural University of Norway (NLH) (Norway)

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDT were examined in the muscle of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a high mountain lake located in the Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain) that was used as a model of these lacustrine environments. Results indicate that fish age is the main factor of variability among specimens in this population that is subjected to atmospheric inputs of the organochlorine compounds (OC). Increases of 2- and 20-fold between fish aged 1 year and 15 years old are found. The observed pattern cannot be explained in terms of fish size, condition factor, or muscle lipid content. Higher molecular weight compounds (higher lipophilicity) are better correlated with fish age than low molecular weight compounds. A transformation from 4,4'-DDT to 4,4'-DDE occurs in fish after ingestion; this results in amplified age-dependent signals, especially in male specimens. In contrast, PCB congener no. 180 has lower age dependence than the general OC group, which could be due to its high hydrophobicity (log K{sub ow} > 7). In any case, selective accumulation of hydrophobic compounds is already observed among younger fish (age, 1 year). Due to this effect, the relative OC composition does not reflect the main OC pollutants in the lake waters. - Trout in high mountain lakes display age-dependent accumulation of certain organochlorine pollutants.

  13. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Recent Snow Accumulation Across the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide Using Ultra-High Frequency Radar and Shallow Firn Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, D. G.; Rupper, S.; Forster, R. R.; Miège, C.; Brewer, S.; Koenig, L.

    2017-12-01

    increasing the number of high resolution accumulation records available in these data-sparse regions. An increased understanding of the variability in magnitude and past rates of surface mass balance can provide better constraints on sea level projections and more precise context for present-day and future observations in these regions.

  14. Trace Element Concentrations in Tree Leaves and Lichen Collected Along a Metal Pollution Gradient Near Olkusz (Southern Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska, Marta; Klimek, Beata

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the metal pollution in the vicinity of the Bukowno smelter near Olkusz in southern Poland. Birch and oak leaves, pine needles and a lichen Hypogymnia physodes, overgrowing pine bark were collected at stands at different distances from the smelter and analysed for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) content. Concentrations of metals in the lichen were usually higher than in the tree leaves/needles and decreased with distance from the smelter, apart from the Cu content. The strongest correlation was noticed between Cd and Pb concentrations, which indicates a common pollution source (the smelter). Our results show that birch leaves can be potentially useful as a bioindicator of Zn air pollution since this species was shown to accumulate high amounts of zinc, related to environmental pollution with that metal, in their leaves.

  15. Analysis of Free Amino Acids in Different Extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus Leaves by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Combined with Solid-Phase Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaei, Armaghan; Halim, Nor Hidayah Ab; Zakaria, Norhidayah; Ismail, Zhari

    2017-10-01

    Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) Benth is a medicinal plant and native in Southeast Asia. Previous studies have shown that OS leaves possess antioxidant, cytotoxic, diuretic, antihypertensive, and uricosuric effects. These beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of primary and secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, amino acids, and flavonoids. To develop and validate an high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD) method combined with solid-phase extraction that involves precolumn derivatization with O -phthaladehyde for simultaneous analysis of free amino acids in OS leaves extracts. OS leaves were extracted with water (OS-W), ethanol (OS-E), methanol (OS-M), 50% ethanol (OS-EW), and 50% methanol (OS-MW). The extracts were treated by C18 cartridge before derivatization, resulting in great improvement of separation by Zorbox Eclipse XDB-C 18 column. The HPLC-DAD method was successfully developed and validated for analyzing the contents of free amino acids in OS extracts. The results showed that l-aspartic acid with 0.93 ± 0.01 nmol/mg was the major free amino acid in OS-W extract. However, in OS-E, OS-M, OS-EW, and OS-MW, l-glutamic acid with 3.53 ± 0.16, 2.17 ± 0.10, 4.01 ± 0.12, and 2.49 ± 0.12 nmol/mg, respectively, was the major free amino acid. Subsequently, l-serine, which was detected in OS-W, OS-E, and OS-M, was the minor free amino acid with 0.33 ± 0.02, 0.12 ± 0.01, and 0.06 ± 0.01 nmol/mg, respectively. However, l-threonine with 0.26 ± 0.02 and 0.19 ± 0.08 nmol/mL in OS-EW and OS-MW, respectively, had the lowest concentration compared with other amino acid components. All validation parameters of the developed method indicate that the method is reliable and efficient to simultaneously determine the free amino acids content for routine analysis of OS extracts. The HPLC-DAD method combined with solid phase extraction was successfully developed and validated for simultaneous determination and

  16. Accumulation of Rutin and Betulinic Acid and Expression of Phenylpropanoid and Triterpenoid Biosynthetic Genes in Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shicheng; Park, Chang Ha; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Yang, Jingli; Sung, Gyoo Byung; Park, Nam Il; Kim, Soonok; Park, Sang Un

    2015-09-30

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is used in traditional Chinese medicine and is the sole food source of the silkworm. Here, 21 cDNAs encoding phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and 21 cDNAs encoding triterpene biosynthetic genes were isolated from mulberry. The expression levels of genes involved in these biosynthetic pathways and the accumulation of rutin, betulin, and betulinic acid, important secondary metabolites, were investigated in different plant organs. Most phenylpropanoid and triterpene biosynthetic genes were highly expressed in leaves and/or fruit, and most genes were downregulated during fruit ripening. The accumulation of rutin was more than fivefold higher in leaves than in other organs, and higher levels of betulin and betulinic acid were found in roots and leaves than in fruit. By comparing the contents of these compounds with gene expression levels, we speculate that MaUGT78D1 and MaLUS play important regulatory roles in the rutin and betulin biosynthetic pathways.

  17. Multiplying Forest Garden Systems with biochar based organic fertilization for high carbon accumulation, improved water storage, nutrient cycling, and increased food diversity and farm productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Lucht, Wolfgang; Gerten, Dieter; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    10 years). Besides covering the set-up costs, farmers received and continue to receive carbon payments for each survived tree during the first three years. Based on a voluntary carbon credit price of 35 USD per t CO2, the annual income of the farmers increase by 6 to 13% depending on their poverty level. After this initial period of three years, the income from tree crops (fruits, nuts, medicine, essential oil, silk, perfume, honey, timber, animal fodder) exceeds by far the (catalyzer) carbon credits (average crop income for the 25,000 trees including secondary mixed cropping > 150,000 USD). The trees will accumulate carbon for 15 to 75 years depending on the tree species. While trunk wood will be used for construction timber and thus continue to sequester carbon for probably 50 years. While part of the wood will be used for cooking, at least 50% of the tree biomass will be pyrolyzed to biochar to produce organic biochar-based fertilizers and for using the pyrolysis heat for the production of essential oil, pasteurization and fruit or tea leaves drying. Compared to the barren terraces, sparsely covered with grasses and prone to erosion, the forest garden system with organic biochar-based fertilizer, continuous soil cover, mulching, leaf litter fall, root growth and root exudates, rotating cover crops and animal pasture, soil organic carbon (SOC) is expected to increase annually. Therefore, for each participating farmer at least one land spot is GIS marked for soil organic carbon analysis to be executed every five years and to calculate and certify soil organic carbon increases for additional or bonus carbon credits. In our presentation we will show and document the establishment of the forest garden systems, and discuss the link between local carbon sequestration and global carbon markets, the carbon calculation and certification procedures, and the challenge for multiplying such systems inter-regional and internationally.

  18. Starch accumulation during hydroponic growth of spinach and basil plants under carbon dioxide enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbrook, G P; Hansen, J; Wallick, K; Zinnen, T M [North Illinois University, de Kalb, IL (USA). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1993-04-01

    The effects of CO[sub 2] enrichment, photoperiod duration, and inorganic phosphate levels on growth and starch accumulaton by spinach and basil plants were studied in a commercial hydroponic facility. During a 3-week growth period, both species exhibited increased whole-plant fresh weight as a result of an increase in atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration from 400 to 1500 mul/1. However, basil leaves exhibited a 1.5- to 2-fold greater increase in specific leaf weight (SLW), and accumulated starch to much greater levels than did leaves of spinach. At 1500 mul CO[sub 2]/1, starch accounted for up to 38% of SLW with basil compared to [lt] 10% of SLW with spinach. The maximum ratio of starch/chlorophyll was 55.0 in basil leaves vs 8.0 in spinach leaves. High ratio values were associated with the appearance of chlorotic symptoms in leaves of basil grown under CO[sub 2] enrichment, whereas spinach did not exhibit chlorosis. Increasing inorganic phosphate concentrations from 0.7 to 1.8 mM in the hydroponic medium did not appreciably affect leaf starch accumulation in either species. Starch accumulation in basil leaves was not consistently related to the duration of the photoperiod. However, photoperiod-induced changes in leaf starch levels were much greater in basil than spinach. The results clearly indicate that different horticultural crops can show diverse responses to CO[sub 2] enrichment, and thus highlight the need to develop individual growth strategies to optimize production quality of each species.

  19. Analysis of dynamic accumulative damage about the lining structure of high speed railway’s tunnel based on ultrasonic testing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang-qiu; Zhang, Huojun; Xie, Wen-xi

    2017-08-01

    Based on the similar material model test of full tunnel, the theory of elastic wave propagation and the testing technology of intelligent ultrasonic wave had been used to research the dynamic accumulative damage characteristics of tunnel’s lining structure under the dynamic loads of high speed train. For the more, the dynamic damage variable of lining structure of high speed railway’s tunnel was obtained. The results shown that the dynamic cumulative damage of lining structure increases nonlinearly with the times of cumulative vibration, the weakest part of dynamic cumulative damage is the arch foot of tunnel. Much more attention should be paid to the design and operation management of high speed railway’s tunnel.

  20. Effects of salinity on growth and organic solutes accumulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-27

    Mar 27, 2013 ... accumulation on the leaves and stem, and free amino acids in the roots, leaves and stems. Plants showed a ... with soil salinity, which has increased due to excessive fertilization ... The salts effects in plants has been studied, and its must be of ... To adapt and survive in these adverse conditions, the plants ...

  1. Relationship between Protein Accumulation Regulation and Yield Formation in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lihua; LI Jie; LIU Lijun; ZU Wei

    2006-01-01

    Three different genotypes soybeans were adopted in this experiment under three fertilizer levels.The object of this study was to investigate protein accumulation regulation of soybean cultivars under the condition of different nutrient levels, and their effects on soybean yield and quality, and to provide theoretical evidence for breed, cultivation and agricultural production, also man-powered controllable locations. The concentration of N in the leaves declined after seedling stage, then increased again at stage of early flowering, and started to decrease up to leaf senescence, declined rapidly from seed-filling season to stage of yellow ripeness. The concentration of N in the stems and pod walls declined with growth stage. High seed protein genotypes exhibited higher N assimilating and partitioning during whole growth stages. Pod walls were media of N partitioning. Protein was accumulated mainly during the later period of reproductive growth stage up to harvest, so plant growth after stage of yellow ripeness could not be neglected.

  2. Heavy metal accumulation in Pelargonium hortorum: Effects on growth and development

    OpenAIRE

    Orroño, DI; Lavado, RS

    2009-01-01

    Ornamental plants have been proposed for growing in heavy metal (HM) contaminated soils, and also for phytoremediation. We evaluated (1) biomass production and (2) HM accumulation in Pelargonium hortorum. Plants were grown for 16 weeks on HM (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc) enriched soils. Treatments were i) control, non-enriched soil, ii) medium concentration treatment, and iii) high concentration treatment. Four destructive harvests were carried out, and roots, stems, leav...

  3. Cell wall metabolism and hexose allocation contribute to biomass accumulation in high yielding extreme segregants of a Saccharum interspecific F2 population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Ching Man; Zhang, Jisen; Jones, Tyler C; Nagai, Chifumi; Ming, Ray

    2017-10-11

    Sugarcane is an emerging dual-purpose biofuel crop for energy and sugar production, owing to its rapid growth rate, high sucrose storage in the stems, and high lignocellulosic yield. It has the highest biomass production reaching 1.9 billion tonnes in 2014 worldwide. To improve sugarcane biomass accumulation, we developed an interspecific cross between Saccharum officinarum 'LA Purple' and Saccharum robustum 'MOL5829'. Selected F1 individuals were self-pollinated to generate a transgressive F2 population with a wide range of biomass yield. Leaf and stem internodes of fourteen high biomass and eight low biomass F2 extreme segregants were used for RNA-seq to decipher the molecular mechanism of rapid plant growth and dry weight accumulation. Gene Ontology terms involved in cell wall metabolism and carbohydrate catabolism were enriched among 3274 differentially expressed genes between high and low biomass groups. Up-regulation of cellulose metabolism, pectin degradation and lignin biosynthesis genes were observed in the high biomass group, in conjunction with higher transcript levels of callose metabolic genes and the cell wall loosening enzyme expansin. Furthermore, UDP-glucose biosynthesis and sucrose conversion genes were differentially expressed between the two groups. A positive correlation between stem glucose, but not sucrose, levels and dry weight was detected. We thus postulated that the high biomass sugarcane plants rapidly convert sucrose to UDP-glucose, which is the building block of cell wall polymers and callose, in order to maintain the rapid plant growth. The gene interaction of cell wall metabolism, hexose allocation and cell division contributes to biomass yield.

  4. Preparative isolation and purification of seven compounds from Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves by two-step high-speed counter-current chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Zhuoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven compounds from Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves were first successfully achieved by two-step high-speed counter-current chromatography with two-phase solvent system composed of n-butanol-ethyl acetate-water (1:6:9, v/v/v and n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:5:3:5, v/v/v/v/. The critical experimental parameters of first-step separation were optimized with response surface methodology as follows: flow rate was 1.1 mL/min, revolution speed was 800 rpm and temperature was 30°C. Under the optimal conditions, around 5.0 mg of salicylic acid, 13.6 mg of rutin, 5.5 mg of genistein were obtained in 100 mg crude sample. Then, 9.2 mg of potengriffioside A, 4.7 mg of kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, 3.0 mg of steppogenin and 2.5 mg of emodin were obtained by second-step separation. The purities of the seven compounds determined by UPLC were 96.2%, 93.8%, 95.4%, 94.3%, 98.0%, 94.1% and 90.8%, respectively. Their chemical structures were identified by electron spray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS and 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Furthermore, compound steppogenin and genistein were first reported from Hibiscus mutabilis L. The purification method was simple, efficient and evaded tedious separation process.

  5. Simultaneous measurement of proline and related compounds in oak leaves by high-performance ligand-exchange chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for environmental stress studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oufir, Mouhssin; Schulz, Nadine; Sha Vallikhan, Patan Shaik; Wilhelm, Eva; Burg, Kornel; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Hoffmann, Lucien; Guignard, Cedric

    2009-02-13

    A mass spectrometer was coupled to high-performance ligand-exchange liquid chromatography (HPLEC) for simultaneous analysis of stress associated solutes such as proline, hydroxyproline, methylproline, glycine betaine and trigonelline extracted from leaves of drought stressed oaks and an internal standard namely N-acetylproline. Methanol/chloroform/water extracts were analyzed using an Aminex HPX-87C column and specifically quantified by the positive ion mode of an electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The recovery of N-acetyl proline added to oak leaf extracts ranged from 85.2 to 122.1% for an intra-day study. Standard calibration curves showed good linearity in the measured range from 0.3125 to 10micromolL(-1) with the lowest correlation coefficient of 0.99961 for trigonelline. The advantages of this alternative procedure, compared to previously published methods using fluorescence or amperometric detections, are the simultaneous and direct detection of osmoprotectants in a single chromatographic run, a minimal sample preparation, a good specificity and reduced limits of quantification, ranging from 0.1 to 0.6micromolL(-1). Fifty-six days of water deficit exposure resulted in increased foliar free proline levels (2.4-fold, P<0.001, 155micromolg(-1) FW) and glycine betaine contents (2.5-fold, P<0.05, 175micromolg(-1) FW) of drought stressed oak compared to control.

  6. High throughput sequencing of small RNA component of leaves and inflorescence revealed conserved and novel miRNAs as well as phasiRNA loci in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sangeeta; Zheng, Yun; Kudapa, Himabindu; Jagadeeswaran, Guru; Hivrale, Vandana; Varshney, Rajeev K; Sunkar, Ramanjulu

    2015-06-01

    Among legumes, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the second most important crop after soybean. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles by regulating target gene expression important for plant development and tolerance to stress conditions. Additionally, recently discovered phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs), a new class of small RNAs, are abundantly produced in legumes. Nevertheless, little is known about these regulatory molecules in chickpea. The small RNA population was sequenced from leaves and flowers of chickpea to identify conserved and novel miRNAs as well as phasiRNAs/phasiRNA loci. Bioinformatics analysis revealed 157 miRNA loci for the 96 highly conserved and known miRNA homologs belonging to 38 miRNA families in chickpea. Furthermore, 20 novel miRNAs belonging to 17 miRNA families were identified. Sequence analysis revealed approximately 60 phasiRNA loci. Potential target genes likely to be regulated by these miRNAs were predicted and some were confirmed by modified 5' RACE assay. Predicted targets are mostly transcription factors that might be important for developmental processes, and others include superoxide dismutases, plantacyanin, laccases and F-box proteins that could participate in stress responses and protein degradation. Overall, this study provides an inventory of miRNA-target gene interactions for chickpea, useful for the comparative analysis of small RNAs among legumes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. TFH cells accumulate in mucosal tissues of humanized-DRAG mice and are highly permissive to HIV-1

    OpenAIRE

    Allam, Atef; Majji, Sai; Peachman, Kristina; Jagodzinski, Linda; Kim, Jiae; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Wijayalath, Wathsala; Merbah, Melanie; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Alving, Carl R.; Casares, Sofia; Rao, Mangala

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T follicular helper cells (TFH) in germinal centers are required for maturation of B-cells. While the role of TFH-cells has been studied in blood and lymph nodes of HIV-1 infected individuals, its role in the mucosal tissues has not been investigated. We show that the gut and female reproductive tract (FRT) of humanized DRAG mice have a high level of human lymphocytes and a high frequency of TFH (CXCR5+PD-1++) and precursor-TFH (CXCR5+PD-1+) cells. The majority of TFH-cells expressed CCR...

  8. Effects of dietary heme iron and exercise training on abdominal fat accumulation and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumura, Masanori; Takagi, Shoko; Oya, Hana; Tamura, Shohei; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    Animal by-products can be recycled and used as sources of essential nutrients. Water-soluble heme iron (WSHI), a functional food additive for supplementing iron, is produced by processing animal blood. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of 3% WSHI and exercise training for 4 weeks on the accumulation of abdominal fat and lipid metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet. Exercise-trained mice had significantly less perirenal adipose tissue, whereas WSHI-fed mice tended to have less epididymal adipose tissue. In addition, total weight of abdominal adipose tissues was significantly decreased in the Exercise + WSHI group. Dietary WSHI significantly increased the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. WSHI-fed mice also tended to show increased mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase in their epididymal adipose tissue. Dietary WSHI also significantly decreased the mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation-related enzymes in the liver, but did not influence levels in the Gastrocnemius muscle. Exercise training did not influence the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related enzymes in the epididymal adipose tissue, liver or the Gastrocnemius muscle. These findings suggest that the accumulation of abdominal fat can be efficiently decreased by the combination of dietary WSHI and exercise training in mice fed high-fat diet. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Ultra-low specific on-resistance high-voltage vertical double diffusion metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor with continuous electron accumulation layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Da; Luo Xiao-Rong; Wei Jie; Tan Qiao; Zhou Kun; Wu Jun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    A new ultra-low specific on-resistance (R on,sp ) vertical double diffusion metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (VDMOS) with continuous electron accumulation (CEA) layer, denoted as CEA-VDMOS, is proposed and its new current transport mechanism is investigated. It features a trench gate directly extended to the drain, which includes two PN junctions. In on-state, the electron accumulation layers are formed along the sides of the extended gate and introduce two continuous low-resistance current paths from the source to the drain in a cell pitch. This mechanism not only dramatically reduces the R on,sp but also makes the R on,sp almost independent of the n-pillar doping concentration (N n ). In off-state, the depletion between the n-pillar and p-pillar within the extended trench gate increases the N n , and further reduces the R on,sp . Especially, the two PN junctions within the trench gate support a high gate–drain voltage in the off-state and on-state, respectively. However, the extended gate increases the gate capacitance and thus weakens the dynamic performance to some extent. Therefore, the CEA-VDMOS is more suitable for low and medium frequencies application. Simulation indicates that the CEA-VDMOS reduces the R on,sp by 80% compared with the conventional super-junction VDMOS (CSJ-VDMOS) at the same high breakdown voltage (BV). (paper)

  10. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  11. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  12. Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Reclaimed Mine Soil and their Accumulation and Distribution in Eucalyptus Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Subodh Kumar; Rana, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    The metal contamination in reclaimed mine soil (RMS) of Jharia coal field, Dhanbad (India) using various contamination indices and their accumulation in tissues of Eucalyptus hybrid were assessed. In RMS, metal concentrations were found higher (202%-533%) than control soil (CS) with major contribution of Co and Mn followed by Zn, Cu and Pb. Principal component analysis (PCA) of metals present in RMS was carried out to assess their origin in RMS. The contamination factor (CF) values in RMS indicated moderate to very high level of pollution (ranged between 2.02 and 5.33). Higher accumulation of Pb in barks (three times), Zn in leaves (4.5 times), Mn in leaves (19 times), and Cu in roots (1.4 times) was found in trees growing on RMS than CS. The study concluded that different tree tissues accumulate varied concentration of heavy metals in RMS and thus for biomonitoring of metals, specific tissues has to be selected.

  13. Nickel-accumulating plant from Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severne, B C; Brooks, R R

    1972-01-01

    A small shrub Hybanthus floribundus (Lindl.) F. Muell. Violaceae growing in Western Australia accumulates nickel and cobalt to a very high degree. Values of up to 23% nickel in leaf ash may represent the highest relative accumulation of a metal on record. The high accumulation of nickel poses interesting problems in plant physiology and plant biochemistry. 9 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  14. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    the solids mounds. The mounds were scanned after tank supernatant was removed. 4. Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds. This sampler was designed and built to remove small sections of the mounds to evaluate concentrations of the stainless steel solids at different special locations. 5. Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler in appropriate locations over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank where mixing is poor. These devices and techniques were effective to estimate the movement, location, and concentrations of the solids representing heavier particles and could perform well at a larger scale The experiment contained two campaigns with each comprised of ten cycles to fill and empty the scaled staging tank. The tank was filled without mixing, but emptied, while mixing, in seven batches; the first six were of equal volumes of 13.1 gallons each to represent the planned fullscale batches of 145,000 gallons, and the last, partial, batch of 6.9 gallons represented a full-scale partial batch of 76,000 gallons that will leave a 72-inch heel in the staging tank for the next cycle. The sole difference between the two campaigns was the energy to mix the scaled staging tank, i.e., the nozzle velocity and jet rotational speed of the two jet pumps. Campaign 1 used 22.9 ft/s, at 1.54 rpm based on past testing and Campaign 2 used 23.9 ft/s at 1.75 rpm, based on visual observation of minimum velocity that allowed fast settling solids, i.e., sand and stainless steel, to accumulate on the scaled tank bottom.

  15. Gallic Acid Alleviates Hypertriglyceridemia and Fat Accumulation via Modulating Glycolysis and Lipolysis Pathways in Perirenal Adipose Tissues of Rats Fed a High-Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Wei Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the ameliorative effect of gallic acid (GA on hypertriglyceridemia and fat accumulation in perirenal adipose tissues of high-fructose diet (HFD-induced diabetic rats. The previous results showed that orally administered GA (30 mg/kg body weight for four weeks significantly reduced the levels of plasma glucose and triglyceride (TG in HFD rats. GA also markedly decreased the perirenal adipose tissues weight of HFD rats in present study (p < 0.05. Western blot assay indicated that GA restored expression of insulin signaling-related proteins, such as insulin receptor (IR, protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-ζ, and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4 in the perirenal adipose tissues of HFD rats. Moreover, GA enhanced expression of glycolysis-related proteins, such as phosphofructokinase (PFK and pyruvate kinase (PK, and increased the expression of lipolysis-related proteins, such as adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, which is involved in lipolysis in the perirenal adipose tissues of HFD rats. This study revealed that GA may alleviate hypertriglyceridemia and fat accumulation through enhancing glycolysis and lipolysis pathways in perirenal adipose tissues of HFD rats. These findings also suggest the potential of GA in preventing the progression of diabetes mellitus (DM complications.

  16. BL153 Partially Prevents High-Fat Diet Induced Liver Damage Probably via Inhibition of Lipid Accumulation, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to investigate whether a magnolia extract, named BL153, can prevent obesity-induced liver damage and identify the possible protective mechanism. To this end, obese mice were induced by feeding with high fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal as fat and the age-matched control mice were fed with control diet (10% kcal as fat for 6 months. Simultaneously these mice were treated with or without BL153 daily at 3 dose levels (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg by gavage. HFD feeding significantly increased the body weight and the liver weight. Administration of BL153 significantly reduced the liver weight but without effects on body weight. As a critical step of the development of NAFLD, hepatic fibrosis was induced in the mice fed with HFD, shown by upregulating the expression of connective tissue growth factor and transforming growth factor beta 1, which were significantly attenuated by BL153 in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanism study revealed that BL153 significantly suppressed HFD induced hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress and slightly prevented liver inflammation. These results suggest that HFD induced fibrosis in the liver can be prevented partially by BL153, probably due to reduction of hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and oxidative stress.

  17. Understanding the paradox of selenium contamination in mercury mining areas: high soil content and low accumulation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Feng, Xinbin; Jiang, Chengxin; Li, Qiuhua; Liu, Yi; Gu, Chunhao; Shang, Lihai; Li, Ping; Lin, Yan; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2014-05-01

    Rice is an important source of Se for billions of people throughout the world. The Wanshan area can be categorized as a seleniferous region due to its high soil Se content, but the Se content in the rice in Wanshan is much lower than that from typical seleniferous regions with an equivalent soil Se level. To investigate why the Se bioaccumulation in Wanshan is low, we measured the soil Se speciation using a sequential partial dissolution technique. The results demonstrated that the bioavailable species only accounted for a small proportion of the total Se in the soils from Wanshan, a much lower quantity than that found in the seleniferous regions. The potential mechanisms may be associated with the existence of Hg contamination, which is likely related to the formation of an inert Hg-Se insoluble precipitate in soils in Wanshan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phase transformations of high-purity PbI{sub 2} nanoparticles synthesized from lead-acid accumulator anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malevu, T.D., E-mail: malevutd@ufs.ac.za; Ocaya, R.O.; Tshabalala, K.G.

    2016-09-01

    High-purity hexagonal lead iodide nanoparticles have been synthesized from a depleted sealed lead acid battery anode. The synthesized product was found to consist of the rare 6R polytype form of PbI{sub 2} that is thought to have good potential in photovoltaic applications. We investigate the effects of annealing time and post-melting temperature on the structure and optical properties using 1.5418 Å CuKα radiation. Photoluminescence measurements were done under 150 W/221 nm wavelength xenon excitation. Phase transformation was observed through XRD peaks when annealing time increased from 0.5–5 h. The nanoparticle grain size and inter-planar distance appeared to be independent of annealing time. PL measurements show three broad peaks in a range of 400 nm to 700 nm that are attributed to excitonic, donor–acceptor pair and luminescence bands from the deep levels.

  19. Acyl-ACP thioesterases from castor (Ricinus communis L.): an enzymatic system appropriate for high rates of oil synthesis and accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Alicia; Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Muro-Pastor, Alicia M; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2010-06-01

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases are enzymes that terminate the intraplastidial fatty acid synthesis in plants by hydrolyzing the acyl-ACP intermediates and releasing free fatty acids to be incorporated into glycerolipids. These enzymes are classified in two families, FatA and FatB, which differ in amino acid sequence and substrate specificity. In the present work, both FatA and FatB thioesterases were cloned, sequenced and characterized from castor (Ricinus communis) seeds, a crop of high interest in oleochemistry. Single copies of FatA and FatB were found in castor resulting to be closely related with those of Jatropha curcas. The corresponding mature proteins were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli for biochemical characterization after purification, resulting in high catalytic efficiency of RcFatA on oleoyl-ACP and palmitoleoyl-ACP and high efficiencies of RcFatB for oleoyl-ACP and palmitoyl-ACP. The expression profile of these genes displayed the highest levels in expanding tissues that typically are very active in lipid biosynthesis such as developing seed endosperm and young expanding leaves. The contribution of these two enzymes to the synthesis of castor oil is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. SARM1 deletion restrains NAFLD induced by high fat diet (HFD) through reducing inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhen-Guo; An, Xu-Sheng

    2018-04-06

    SARM1 (Sterile alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein 1) is the recently identified TIR domain-containing cytosolic protein, which is involved in toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling transduction. In the present study, the role of SARM1 in high fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression was explored. We found that SARM1 was expressed highly in fatty liver. And SARM1-knockout (KO) reduced steatohepatitis and metabolic disorders induced by HFD. SARM1-deletion decreased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in HFD-fed mice. Additionally, inflammatory response caused by HFD was alleviated by SARM1-deletion through inactivating TLR4/7/9 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways. Of note, SARM1-deletion also reduced the expressions of inflammation-associated molecules in hypothalamus of HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, HFD administration led to oxidative stress in liver of mice, while being decreased in SARM1-KO mice. Moreover, SARM1-ablation improved lipid dyslipidemia by suppressing the mRNA levels of genes, linked to glycolysis, lipogenesis and transcriptional regulation. Insulin resistance was also attenuated by SARM1-deficiency through enhancing the activation of liver Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1)/FOXO1 pathways in HFD-fed mice. Also, SARM1-knockout improved neuropeptide Y (NPY), Pro-Opiomelanocortins (POMC), Agouti-related Protein (AGRP) and Cocaine-and-Amphetamine Responsive Transcript 1 (CART1) expressions in hypothalamus of mice after HFD administration. In vitro, we found that the reduction of inflammatory response, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia induced by SARM1-knockout in primary hepatocytes after fructose stimulation was largely attributed to its suppression to TLR4/7/9. Together, the findings demonstrated that SARM1 might be an effective target for developing effective therapeutic strategies against NAFLD. Copyright © 2018

  1. Watch out for the leaves!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Now that autumn is here, dead leaves falling from the trees form a colourful carpet that is pleasing to the eye. However, the reality is less pleasant for pedestrians, since these leaves increase the risk of slipping and falling, especially when the ground is wet.   These conditions are also hazardous for two- and four-wheeled vehicles, whose grip on the ground can be severely reduced, thereby increasing the risk of them skidding out of control. Cyclists are among the most vulnerable road users when faced with these hazards. It is therefore essential to be alert to the dangers, which can be lessened by taking a few simple precautions such as moderating your speed and wearing suitable shoes. We also invite you to notify the Service Desk if you notice a road or pavement where there is a high concentration of dead leaves. The CERN Roads and Drainage Service will then ensure that the leaves are cleared in order to reduce the risk of accidents in the area.

  2. Simultaneous determination of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin accumulated human breast cancer cells, by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Cao, Jiang; Weng, Jian-Hua; Zeng, Su

    2005-09-01

    Quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin are the most important constituents in ginkgo flavonoids. A simple, rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to simultaneously determine quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin absorped by human breast cancer cells. Cells were treated with ginkgo flavonols and then lysed with Triton-X 100. The flavonols in the samples were measured by RP-HPLC with a C18 column after a simple extraction with a mixture of ether and acetone. The mobile phase contained phosphate buffer (pH 2.0; 10 mM) tetrahydrofuran, methanol and isopropanol (65:15:10:20, v/v/v/v). The ultraviolet detector was operated at 380 nm. The calibration curve was linear from 0.1 to 1.0 microM (r > 0.999) for each flavonol. The mean extraction efficiency was about 70%. The recovery of the assay was between 98.9 and 100.6%. The limit of detection was 0.01 microM for quercetin and kaempferol and 0.05 microM for isorhamnetin. The limit of quantitation was 0.1 microM (R.S.D.method was applied to quantify quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin in human breast cancer Bcap37 and Bcap37/MDR1 cells.

  3. Enhanced energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater by sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and algal lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Yu; Liu, Bing-Feng; Kong, Fanying; Zhao, Lei; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2014-04-01

    A two-stage process of sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and microalgal cultivation was applied to enhance the energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater. Ethanol fermentation bacterium Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 was used as hydrogen producer, and the energy conversion efficiency and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency reached 18.6% and 28.3% in dark fermentation. Acetate was the main soluble product in dark fermentative effluent, which was further utilized by microalga Scenedesmus sp. R-16. The final algal biomass concentration reached 1.98gL(-1), and the algal biomass was rich in lipid (40.9%) and low in protein (23.3%) and carbohydrate (11.9%). Compared with single dark fermentation stage, the energy conversion efficiency and COD removal efficiency of two-stage system remarkably increased 101% and 131%, respectively. This research provides a new approach for efficient energy production and wastewater treatment using a two-stage process combining dark fermentation and algal cultivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Turning palm leaves into wood: Opportunities for Egypt's rural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Bedouin women weave handmade baskets, hats, and lamps using dried palm leaves. ... palm tree leaves into hardwood and high-quality wooden products, ... of wood and open doors to job opportunities for rural communities.

  5. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  6. Grass leaves as potential hominin dietary resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Oliver C C; Koppa, Abigale; Henry, Amanda G; Leichliter, Jennifer N; Codron, Daryl; Codron, Jacqueline; Lambert, Joanna E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2018-04-01

    Discussions about early hominin diets have generally excluded grass leaves as a staple food resource, despite their ubiquity in most early hominin habitats. In particular, stable carbon isotope studies have shown a prevalent C 4 component in the diets of most taxa, and grass leaves are the single most abundant C 4 resource in African savannas. Grass leaves are typically portrayed as having little nutritional value (e.g., low in protein and high in fiber) for hominins lacking specialized digestive systems. It has also been argued that they present mechanical challenges (i.e., high toughness) for hominins with bunodont dentition. Here, we compare the nutritional and mechanical properties of grass leaves with the plants growing alongside them in African savanna habitats. We also compare grass leaves to the leaves consumed by other hominoids and demonstrate that many, though by no means all, compare favorably with the nutritional and mechanical properties of known primate foods. Our data reveal that grass leaves exhibit tremendous variation and suggest that future reconstructions of hominin dietary ecology take a more nuanced approach when considering grass leaves as a potential hominin dietary resource. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Metallothionein expression in chloroplasts enhances mercury accumulation and phytoremediation capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Oscar N; Alvarez, Derry; Torres, Cesar; Roman, Laura; Daniell, Henry

    2011-06-01

    Genetic engineering to enhance mercury phytoremediation has been accomplished by expression of the merAB genes that protects the cell by converting Hg[II] into Hg[0] which volatilizes from the cell. A drawback of this approach is that toxic Hg is released back into the environment. A better phytoremediation strategy would be to accumulate mercury inside plants for subsequent retrieval. We report here the development of a transplastomic approach to express the mouse metallothionein gene (mt1) and accumulate mercury in high concentrations within plant cells. Real-time PCR analysis showed that up to 1284 copies of the mt1 gene were found per cell when compared with 1326 copies of the 16S rrn gene, thereby attaining homoplasmy. Past studies in chloroplast transformation used qualitative Southern blots to evaluate indirectly transgene copy number, whereas we used real-time PCR for the first time to establish homoplasmy and estimate transgene copy number and transcript levels. The mt1 transcript levels were very high with 183,000 copies per ng of RNA or 41% the abundance of the 16S rrn transcripts. The transplastomic lines were resistant up to 20 μm mercury and maintained high chlorophyll content and biomass. Although the transgenic plants accumulated high concentrations of mercury in all tissues, leaves accumulated up to 106 ng, indicating active phytoremediation and translocation of mercury. Such accumulation of mercury in plant tissues facilitates proper disposal or recycling. This study reports, for the first time, the use of metallothioneins in plants for mercury phytoremediation. Chloroplast genetic engineering approach is useful to express metal-scavenging proteins for phytoremediation. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Differential Accumulation of Mercury and Selenium in Brown Trout Tissues of a High-Gradient Urbanized Stream in Colorado, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, S J; Nimmo, D R; Carsella, J S; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M; Turner, J A; Gregorich, J M; Heuvel, B D Vanden; Nehring, R B; Foutz, H P

    2016-02-01

    Total mercury (THg) and selenium (Se) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry in 11 internal and external tissues and stomach contents from 23 brown trout, Salmo trutta, of a 22.9-km reach of a high-gradient stream (upper Fountain Creek) in Colorado, USA, impacted by coal-fired power plants, shale deposits, and urbanization. Trout and water were sampled from four sites ranging from 2335 to 1818 m elevation. Lengths, weights, and ages of fish between pairs of the four sites were not significantly different. The dry weight (dw) to wet weight (ww) conversion factor for each tissue was calculated with egg-ovary highest at 0.379 and epaxial muscle fourth highest at 0.223. THg and Se in stomach contents indicated diet and not ambient water was the major source of Hg and Se bioaccumulated. Mean THg ww in kidney was 40.33 µg/kg, and epaxial muscle second highest at 36.76 µg/kg. None of the tissues exceeded the human critical threshold for Hg. However, all 23 trout had at least one tissue type that exceeded 0.02 mg/kg THg ww for birds, and four trout tissues exceeded 0.1 mg/kg THg ww for mammals, indicating that piscivorous mammals and birds should be monitored. Se concentrations in tissues varied depending on ww or dw listing. Mean Se dw in liver was higher than ovary at the uppermost site and the two lower sites. Liver tissue, in addition to egg-ovary, should be utilized as an indicator tissue for Se toxicity.

  9. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  10. Substantial replacement of lactose with fat in a high-lactose milk replacer diet increases liver fat accumulation but does not affect insulin sensitivity in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantophlet, A J; Gerrits, W J J; Vonk, R J; van den Borne, J J G C

    2016-12-01

    In veal calves, the major portion of digestible energy intake originates from milk replacer (MR), with lactose and fat contributing approximately 45 and 35%, respectively. In veal calves older than 4 mo, prolonged high intakes of MR may lead to problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, ultimately resulting in sustained insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and impaired animal performance. The contribution of each of the dietary energy sources (lactose and fat) to deteriorated glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance is currently unknown. Therefore, an experiment was designed to compare the effects of a high-lactose and a high-fat MR on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in veal calves. Sixteen male Holstein-Friesian calves (120±2.8kg of BW) were assigned to either a high-lactose (HL) or a high-fat (HF) MR for 13 consecutive weeks. After at least 7 wk of adaptation, whole-body insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic clamps, respectively. Postprandial blood samples were collected to assess glucose, insulin, and triglyceride responses to feeding, and 24-h urine was collected to quantify urinary glucose excretion. At the end of the trial, liver and muscle biopsies were taken to assess triglyceride contents in these tissues. Long-term exposure of calves to HF or HL MR did not affect whole-body insulin sensitivity (averaging 4.2±0.5×10 -2 [(mg/kg∙min)/(μU/mL)]) and insulin secretion. Responses to feeding were greater for plasma glucose and tended to be greater for plasma insulin in HL calves than in HF calves. Urinary glucose excretion was substantially higher in HL calves (75±13g/d) than in HF calves (21±6g/d). Muscle triglyceride content was not affected by treatment and averaged 4.5±0.6g/kg, but liver triglyceride content was higher in HF calves (16.4±0.9g/kg) than in HL calves (11.2±0.7g/kg), indicating increased hepatic fat accumulation. We conclude that

  11. High resolution beam line of the U400M cyclotron and RIB accumulation and cooling in the K4 storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodin, A.M.; Sidorchuk, S.I.; Stepantsov, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    The high resolution beam line ACCULINNA put into operation on a primary beam line of the JINR U400M cyclotron is discussed in the framework of the TREBLE project. The capability of the beam line for producing radioactive ion beams is demonstrated by means of nuclear fragmentation of the primary 14 N beam, with the energy of 51 MeV · A, on the 170 mg/cm 2 carbon target. Characteristics of the obtained 6 He, 8 He and 8 B radioactive beams are presented. A scheme of accumulation and cooling on the orbit of the storage ring K4 is proposed for a low intensity radioactive beam obtained from this beam line. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  12. Elevated CO2-mitigation of high temperature stress associated with maintenance of positive carbon balance and carbohydrate accumulation in Kentucky bluegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yali; Yu, Jingjin; Huang, Bingru

    2014-01-01

    Elevated CO2 concentration may promote plant growth while high temperature is inhibitory for C3 plant species. The interactive effects of elevated CO2 and high temperatures on C3 perennial grass growth and carbon metabolism are not well documented. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) plants were exposed to two CO2 levels (400 and 800 μmol mol-1) and five temperatures (15/12, 20/17, 25/22, 30/27, 35/32°C, day/night) in growth chambers. Increasing temperatures to 25°C and above inhibited leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn) and shoot and root growth, but increased leaf respiration rate (R), leading to a negative carbon balance and a decline in soluble sugar content under ambient CO2. Elevated CO2 did not cause shift of optimal temperatures in Kentucky bluegrass, but promoted Pn, shoot and root growth under all levels of temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C) and mitigated the adverse effects of severe high temperatures (30 and 35°C). Elevated CO2-mitigation of adverse effects of high temperatures on Kentucky bluegrass growth could be associated with the maintenance of a positive carbon balance and the accumulation of soluble sugars and total nonstructural carbohydrates through stimulation of Pn and suppression of R and respiratory organic acid metabolism.

  13. Japanese tea leaves: a possible biological standard reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuwa, Keiichiro; Notsu, Kenji; Tsunoda, Kin-ichi; Kato, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yuko.

    1978-01-01

    Japanese Tea Leaves, prepared by pulverizing with an agate ball mill and sieving with a Saran fiber sieve (50 mesh) were assessed as a possible biological standard reference material for elemental analysis. The metal content of the tea leaves was determined independently at two laboratories using atomic absorption and flame emission spectrometry. Neutron activation analysis was also performed to determine the content (21 elements) of Tea Leaves. For some elements the result from the various methods were compared. The characteristics of Tea Leaves are discussed and the elemental composition is compared to that of Orchard Leaves (NBS SRM, 1571). The most significant characteristic of Tea Leaves was the high manganese content. (auth.)

  14. Proteomics analysis of high lipid-producing strain Mucor circinelloides WJ11: an explanation for the mechanism of lipid accumulation at the proteomic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Zan, Xinyi; Zhao, Lina; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2016-02-11

    The oleaginous fungus, Mucor circinelloides, is attracting considerable interest as it produces oil rich in γ-linolenic acid. Nitrogen (N) deficiency is a common strategy to trigger the lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms. Although a simple pathway from N depletion in the medium to lipid accumulation has been elucidated at the enzymatic level, global changes at protein levels upon N depletion have not been investigated. In this study, we have systematically analyzed the changes at the levels of protein expression in M. circinelloides WJ11, a high lipid-producing strain (36 %, lipid/cell dry weight), during lipid accumulation. Proteomic analysis demonstrated that N depletion increased the expression of glutamine synthetase, involved in ammonia assimilation, for the supply of cellular nitrogen but decreased the metabolism of amino acids. Upon N deficiency, many proteins (e.g., fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, enolase, pyruvate kinase) involved in glycolytic pathway were up-regulated while proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (e.g., isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinyl-CoA ligase, succinate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase) were down-regulated, indicating this activity was retarded thereby leading to a greater flux of carbon into fatty acid biosynthesis. Moreover, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, transaldolase and transketolase, which participate in the pentose phosphate pathway, were up-regulated, leading to the increased production of NADPH, the reducing power for fatty acid biosynthesis. Furthermore, protein and nucleic acid metabolism were down-regulated and some proteins involved in energy metabolism, signal transduction, molecular chaperone and redox homeostasis were up-regulated upon N depletion, which may be the cellular response to the stress produced by the onset of N deficiency. N limitation increased those expressions of the proteins involved in ammonia assimilation but decreased that

  15. [Role of mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway in photoprotection in Rumex K-1 leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Long; Zhang, Li-Tao; Zhang, Zi-Shan; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2012-07-01

    Taking Rumex K-1 leaves as test materials, this paper studied the role of mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway in photoprotection under different light intensities. Under low light intensity (200 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)), and after treated with salicylhydroxamic acid to inhibit the AOX pathway, the leaf actual photochemical efficiency of PS II, linear electron transport rate of photosynthesis, and photosynthetic O2 evolution rate all decreased significantly while the non-Q(B) reducing reaction center had a significant increase, indicating that under low light, the photoinhibition was aggravated while the scavenging enzymes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased, which avoided the over-accumulation of ROS and partially alleviated the photoinhibition of Rumex K-1 leaves. Under high light intensity (800 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)), the inhibition of AOX pathway caused more severe photoinhibition, and the increased activities of ROS scavenging enzymes were insufficient to prevent the over-accumulation of ROS. This study demonstrated that AOX pathway played an important role in the photoprotection in Rumex K-1 leaves under both high and low light intensities, and the role of AOX pathway in photoprotection under high light could be irreplaceable by the other photoprotection pathways in chloroplast.

  16. Bladder accumulated dose in image-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer and its relation to urinary toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariaee, Roja; Hamarneh, Ghassan; Brown, Colin J.; Gaudet, Marc; Aquino-Parsons, Christina; Spadinger, Ingrid

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate locally accumulated dose to the bladder in multi-fraction high-dose-date (HDR) image-guided intracavitary brachytherapy (IG-ICBT) for cervical cancer, and study the locally-accumulated dose parameters as predictors of late urinary toxicity. A retrospective study of 60 cervical cancer patients who received five HDR IG-ICBT sessions was performed. The bladder outer and inner surfaces were segmented for all sessions and a bladder-wall contour point-set was created in MATLAB. The bladder-wall point-sets for each patient were registered using a deformable point-set registration toolbox called coherent point drift (CPD), and the fraction doses were accumulated. Various dosimetric and volumetric parameters were calculated using the registered doses, including r{{\\text{D}}n \\text{c{{\\text{m}}\\text{3}}}} (minimum dose to the most exposed n-cm3 volume of bladder wall), r V n Gy (wall volume receiving at least m Gy), and r\\text{EQD}{{2}n \\text{c{{\\text{m}}\\text{3}}}} (minimum equivalent biologically weighted dose to the most exposed n-cm3 of bladder wall), where n  =  1/2/5/10 and m  =  3/5/10. Minimum dose to contiguous 1 and 2 cm3 hot-spot volumes was also calculated. The unregistered dose volume histogram (DVH)-summed equivalent of r{{\\text{D}}n \\text{c{{\\text{m}}3}}} and r\\text{EQD}{{2}n \\text{c{{\\text{m}}3}}} parameters (i.e. s{{\\text{D}}n \\text{c{{\\text{m}}\\text{3}}}} and s\\text{EQD}{{2}n \\text{c{{\\text{m}}3}}} ) were determined for comparison. Late urinary toxicity was assessed using the LENT-SOMA scale, with toxicity Grade 0-1 categorized as Controls and Grade 2-4 as Cases. A two-sample t-test was used to identify the differences between the means of Control and Case groups for all parameters. A binomial logistic regression was also performed between the registered dose parameters and toxicity grouping. Seventeen patients were in the Case and 43 patients in the Control group. Contiguous

  17. Cyp1a1(-/-) male mice: protection against high-dose TCDD-induced lethality and wasting syndrome, and resistance to intrahepatocyte lipid accumulation and uroporphyria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Shigeyuki; Dalton, Timothy P.; Sinclair, Peter R.; Gorman, Nadia; Wang, Bin; Smith, Andrew G.; Miller, Marian L.; Shertzer, Howard G.; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2004-01-01

    To study liver toxicity and uroporphyrin (URO) accumulation and urinary excretion, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent ligand for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), is often used as the prototype. In this study, we asked the question how important is the role of CYP1A1 in causing TCDD toxicity. Using a single large intraperitoneal dose of TCDD (200 μg/kg) and following the response over an 8-week period, we found this dose: (a) was lethal in less than 4 weeks to Cyp1a1(+/+) males but not to Cyp1a1(-/-) males or to females of either genotype; (b) caused a wasting syndrome in Cyp1a1(+/+) but not Cyp1a1(-/-) mice; (c) resulted in thymic atrophy, regardless of gender or genotype; (d) decreased spleen size and caused leukocytopenia in males but not females of either genotype; (e) caused hepatocyte hypertrophy in Cyp1a1(+/+) more so than in Cyp1a1(-/-) mice; (f) increased intrahepatocyte lipids and total liver fat content in Cyp1a1(+/+) more than Cyp1a1(-/-) males and females; and (g) caused uroporphyria in Cyp1a1(+/+) males much more than Cyp1a1(+/+) females, or in Cyp1a1(-/-) mice. Contrary to Cyp1a2(-/-) knockout mice that exhibited 15 times less accumulation of TCDD in liver than Cyp1a1/1a2(+/+) wild-type mice, Cyp1a1(-/-) mice did not show this altered TCDD distribution - indicating that CYP1A2 but not CYP1A1 is the major hepatic TCDD-binding 'sink'. Our data demonstrate that CYP1A1 contributes to high-dose TCDD-induced toxicity, uroporphyria, and lethality

  18. Effects of Ghrelin on Triglyceride Accumulation and Glucose Uptake in Primary Cultured Rat Myoblasts under Palmitic Acid-Induced High Fat Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to study the effects of acylated ghrelin on glucose and triglyceride metabolism in rat myoblasts under palmitic acid- (PA- induced high fat conditions. Rat myoblasts were treated with 0, 10−11, 10−9, or 10−7 M acylated ghrelin and 0.3 mM PA for 12 h. Triglyceride accumulation was determined by Oil-Red-O staining and the glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase-peroxidase enzymatic method, and glucose uptake was determined by isotope tracer. The glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 were assessed by RT-PCR and western blot. Compared to 0.3 mM PA, ghrelin at 10−9 and 10−7 M reduced triglyceride content (5.855 ± 0.352 versus 5.030 ± 0.129 and 4.158 ± 0.254 mM, P<0.05 and prevented PA-induced reduction of glucose uptake (1.717 ± 0.264 versus 2.233 ± 0.333 and 2.333 ± 0.273 10−2 pmol/g/min, P<0.05. The relative protein expression of p-AMPKα/AMPKα, UCP3, and p-ACC under 0.3 mM PA was significantly reduced compared to controls (all P<0.05, but those in the 10−9 and 10−7 M ghrelin groups were significantly protected from 0.3 mM PA (all P<0.05. In conclusion, acylated ghrelin reduced PA-induced triglyceride accumulation and prevented the PA-induced decrease in glucose uptake in rat myoblasts. These effects may involve fatty acid oxidation.

  19. Accumulation of Kaempferitrin and Expression of Phenyl-Propanoid Biosynthetic Genes in Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shicheng Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus is cultivated worldwide for its fiber; however, the medicinal properties of this plant are currently attracting increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of kaempferitrin, a compound with many biological functions, in different kenaf organs. We found that phenylalanine ammonia lyase (HcPAL was more highly expressed in stems than in other organs. Expression levels of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (HcC4H and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (Hc4CL were highest in mature leaves, followed by stems and young leaves, and lowest in roots and mature flowers. The expression of chalcone synthase (HcCHS, chalcone isomerase (HcCHI, and flavone 3-hydroxylase (HcF3H was highest in young flowers, whereas that of flavone synthase (HcFLS was highest in leaves. An analysis of kaempferitrin accumulation in the different organs of kenaf revealed that the accumulation of this compound was considerably higher (>10-fold in leaves than in other organs. On the basis of a comparison of kaempferitrin contents with the expression levels of different genes in different organs, we speculate that HcFLS plays an important regulatory role in the kaempferitrin biosynthetic pathway in kenaf.

  20. Accumulation of kaempferitrin and expression of phenyl-propanoid biosynthetic genes in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shicheng; Li, Xiaohua; Cho, Dong Ha; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2014-10-23

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is cultivated worldwide for its fiber; however, the medicinal properties of this plant are currently attracting increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of kaempferitrin, a compound with many biological functions, in different kenaf organs. We found that phenylalanine ammonia lyase (HcPAL) was more highly expressed in stems than in other organs. Expression levels of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (HcC4H) and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (Hc4CL) were highest in mature leaves, followed by stems and young leaves, and lowest in roots and mature flowers. The expression of chalcone synthase (HcCHS), chalcone isomerase (HcCHI), and flavone 3-hydroxylase (HcF3H) was highest in young flowers, whereas that of flavone synthase (HcFLS) was highest in leaves. An analysis of kaempferitrin accumulation in the different organs of kenaf revealed that the accumulation of this compound was considerably higher (>10-fold) in leaves than in other organs. On the basis of a comparison of kaempferitrin contents with the expression levels of different genes in different organs, we speculate that HcFLS plays an important regulatory role in the kaempferitrin biosynthetic pathway in kenaf.

  1. Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz Extract Inhibits Lipid Accumulation on Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells and High-Fat Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Kyu Kim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we elucidated that Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract reduced the body weight gain induced through feeding a high-fat diet to C57BL/6 mice. The treatment of Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract significantly reduced the adipose tissue weight to 2.7/100 g of body weight in high-fat mice. When their adipose tissue morphology was investigated for histochemical staining, the distribution of cell size in the high-fat diet groups was hypertrophied compared with those from Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract-treated mice. In addition, in Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract-treated mice, a significant reduction of serum triglyceride and T-cholesterol was observed at to 21% and 17%, respectively. The discovery of bioactive compounds from diet or dietary supplementation is one of possible ways to control obesity and to prevent or reduce the risks of various obesity-related diseases. These results support that Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract is expected to create the therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity.

  2. Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract inhibits lipid accumulation on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and high-fat mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Changhyun; Park, Min-Kyoung; Shin, Hee-June; Jung, Uhee; Kim, Jin-Kyu

    2012-07-23

    Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we elucidated that Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract reduced the body weight gain induced through feeding a high-fat diet to C57BL/6 mice. The treatment of Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract significantly reduced the adipose tissue weight to 2.7/100 g of body weight in high-fat mice. When their adipose tissue morphology was investigated for histochemical staining, the distribution of cell size in the high-fat diet groups was hypertrophied compared with those from Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract-treated mice. In addition, in Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract-treated mice, a significant reduction of serum triglyceride and T-cholesterol was observed at to 21% and 17%, respectively. The discovery of bioactive compounds from diet or dietary supplementation is one of possible ways to control obesity and to prevent or reduce the risks of various obesity-related diseases. These results support that Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract is expected to create the therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity.

  3. Plant, cell, and molecular mechanisms of abscisic-acid regulation of stomatal apertures. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal-aperture size in intact leaves: Accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    At various times after pulse labeling Vicia faba L. leaflets with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents whereas those from rinsed peels contained only cytoplastic contents. Sucrose specific radioactivity peaked in palisade cells, 111 GBq{center_dot}mol{sup {minus}1}, at 20 min. In contrast, the {sup 14}C content and sucrose specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO{sub 2} incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum sucrose specific radioactivity and a high sucrose influx rate. These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple sucrose pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived sucrose in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by {approximately} 4 {micro}m. Factors expected to enhance sucrose accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic sucrose concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll-sucrose efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal-aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism.

  4. Exogenous Calcium Alleviates Photoinhibition of PSII by Improving the Xanthophyll Cycle in Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Leaves during Heat Stress under High Irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sha; Wang, Fang; Guo, Feng; Meng, Jing-Jing; Li, Xin-Guo; Dong, Shu-Ting; Wan, Shu-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Peanut is one of the calciphilous plants. Calcium (Ca) serves as a ubiquitous central hub in a large number of signaling pathways. The effect of exogenous calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] (6 mM) on the dissipation of excess excitation energy in the photosystem II (PSII) antenna, especially on the level of D1 protein and the xanthophyll cycle in peanut plants under heat (40°C) and high irradiance (HI) (1 200 µmol m−2 s−1) stress were investigated. Compared with the control plants [cultivated in 0 mM Ca(NO3)2 medium], the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in Ca2+-treated plants showed a slighter decrease after 5 h of stress, accompanied by higher non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), higher expression of antioxidative genes and less reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Meanwhile, higher content of D1 protein and higher ratio of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) were also detected in Ca2+-treated plants under such stress. These results showed that Ca2+ could help protect the peanut photosynthetic system from severe photoinhibition under heat and HI stress by accelerating the repair of D1 protein and improving the de-epoxidation ratio of the xanthophyll cycle. Furthermore, EGTA (a chelant of Ca ion), LaCl3 (a blocker of Ca2+ channel in cytoplasmic membrane), and CPZ [a calmodulin (CaM) antagonist] were used to analyze the effects of Ca2+/CaM on the variation of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) (%) and the expression of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE). The results indicated that CaM, an important component of the Ca2+ signal transduction pathway, mediated the expression of the VDE gene in the presence of Ca to improve the xanthophyll cycle. PMID:23940721

  5. Exogenous calcium alleviates photoinhibition of PSII by improving the xanthophyll cycle in peanut (Arachis hypogaea leaves during heat stress under high irradiance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Yang

    Full Text Available Peanut is one of the calciphilous plants. Calcium (Ca serves as a ubiquitous central hub in a large number of signaling pathways. The effect of exogenous calcium nitrate [Ca(NO32] (6 mM on the dissipation of excess excitation energy in the photosystem II (PSII antenna, especially on the level of D1 protein and the xanthophyll cycle in peanut plants under heat (40°C and high irradiance (HI (1 200 µmol m(-2 s(-1 stress were investigated. Compared with the control plants [cultivated in 0 mM Ca(NO32 medium], the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm in Ca(2+-treated plants showed a slighter decrease after 5 h of stress, accompanied by higher non-photochemical quenching (NPQ, higher expression of antioxidative genes and less reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation. Meanwhile, higher content of D1 protein and higher ratio of (A+Z/(V+A+Z were also detected in Ca(2+-treated plants under such stress. These results showed that Ca(2+ could help protect the peanut photosynthetic system from severe photoinhibition under heat and HI stress by accelerating the repair of D1 protein and improving the de-epoxidation ratio of the xanthophyll cycle. Furthermore, EGTA (a chelant of Ca ion, LaCl3 (a blocker of Ca(2+ channel in cytoplasmic membrane, and CPZ [a calmodulin (CaM antagonist] were used to analyze the effects of Ca(2+/CaM on the variation of (A+Z/(V+A+Z (% and the expression of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE. The results indicated that CaM, an important component of the Ca(2+ signal transduction pathway, mediated the expression of the VDE gene in the presence of Ca to improve the xanthophyll cycle.

  6. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  7. Violaxanthin is an abscisic acid precursor in water-stressed dark-grown bean leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yi; Walton, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The leaves a dark-grown bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings accumulate considerably lower quantities of xanthophylls and carotenes than do leaves of light-grown seedlings, but they synthesize at least comparable amounts of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites when water stressed. We observed a 1:1 relationship on a molar basis between the reduction in levels of ciolaxanthin, 9'-cis-neoxanthin, and 9-cis-violaxanthin and the accumulation of ABA, phaseic acid, and dihydrophaseic acid, when leaves from dark-grown plants were stressed for 7 hours. Early in the stress period, reductions in xanthophylls were greater than the accumulation of ABA and its metabolites, suggesting the accumulation of an intermediate which was subsequently converted to ABA. Leaves which were detached, but no stressed, did not accumulate ABA nor were their xanthophyll levels reduced. Leaves from plants that had been sprayed with cycloheximido did not accumulate ABA when stressed, nor were their xanthophyll levels reduced significantly. Incubation of dark-grown stressed leaves in an 18 O 2 -containing atmosphere resulted in the synthesis of ABA with levels of 18 O in the carboxyl group that were virtually identical to those observed in light-grown leaves. The results of these experiments indicate that violaxanthin is an ABA precursor in stressed dark-grown leaves, and they are used to suggest several possible pathways from violaxanthin to ABA

  8. Violaxanthin is an abscisic acid precursor in water-stressed dark-grown bean leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Walton, D.C. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse (USA))

    1990-03-01

    The leaves a dark-grown bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings accumulate considerably lower quantities of xanthophylls and carotenes than do leaves of light-grown seedlings, but they synthesize at least comparable amounts of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites when water stressed. We observed a 1:1 relationship on a molar basis between the reduction in levels of ciolaxanthin, 9{prime}-cis-neoxanthin, and 9-cis-violaxanthin and the accumulation of ABA, phaseic acid, and dihydrophaseic acid, when leaves from dark-grown plants were stressed for 7 hours. Early in the stress period, reductions in xanthophylls were greater than the accumulation of ABA and its metabolites, suggesting the accumulation of an intermediate which was subsequently converted to ABA. Leaves which were detached, but no stressed, did not accumulate ABA nor were their xanthophyll levels reduced. Leaves from plants that had been sprayed with cycloheximido did not accumulate ABA when stressed, nor were their xanthophyll levels reduced significantly. Incubation of dark-grown stressed leaves in an {sup 18}O{sub 2}-containing atmosphere resulted in the synthesis of ABA with levels of {sup 18}O in the carboxyl group that were virtually identical to those observed in light-grown leaves. The results of these experiments indicate that violaxanthin is an ABA precursor in stressed dark-grown leaves, and they are used to suggest several possible pathways from violaxanthin to ABA.

  9. Achieving ultrafine grained and homogeneous AA1050/ZnO nanocomposite with well-developed high angle grain boundaries through accumulative press bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirkhanlou, Sajjad, E-mail: s.amirkhanlou@aut.ac.ir [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ketabchi, Mostafa; Parvin, Nader; Askarian, Masoomeh [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Carreño, Fernando [Department of Physical Metallurgy, CENIM-CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-03-11

    Aluminum matrix nanocomposites with 2 vol% ZnO nanoparticles were produced using accumulative press bonding (APB) as a very effective and novel severe plastic deformation process. Microstructural evaluation and mechanical properties of specimens were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and tensile test. Microstructure of AA1050/ZnO nanocomposite showed a uniform distribution of ZnO nanoparticles throughout the aluminum matrix. STEM and EBSD observations revealed that ultrafine-grained Al/ZnO nanocomposite with the average grain size of <500 nm and well-developed high angle grain boundaries (80% high angle boundaries and 37° average misorientation angle) was successfully obtained by performing 14 cycles of the APB process. When the number of APB cycles increased the tensile strength of Al/ZnO nanocomposite improved and reached 228 MPa after 14 cycles, which was 2.6 and 1.3 times greater than the obtained values for annealed (raw material, 88 MPa) and monolithic aluminum (180 MPa), respectively.

  10. Zanthoxylum piperitum DC ethanol extract suppresses fat accumulation in adipocytes and high fat diet-induced obese mice by regulating adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, So Young; Ahn, Ji Yun; Kim, Tae Wan; Ha, Tae Youl

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the anti-obesity effects of Zanthoxylum piperitum DC fruit ethanol extract (ZPE) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and obese mice fed a high-fat diet. We evaluated the influence of the addition of ZPE to a high-fat diet on body weight, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipids in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, adipogenic gene expression was determined by Western blot and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis. We assessed the effect of ZPE on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. ZPE reduced weight gain, white adipose tissue mass, and serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels (pZPE decreased lipid accumulation and PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP-1, and FAS protein and mRNA levels in the liver. ZPE inhibited in vitro adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner and significantly attenuated adipogenic transcription factors, such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP-1 in 3T3L1 cells. These findings suggest that Z. piperitum DC exerts an anti-obesity effect by inhibiting adipogenesis through the downregulation of genes involved in the adipogenesis pathway.

  11. EFFECT OF CONSUMING GUAVA LEAVES (PSIDII FOLIUM EXTRACT ON THE LEVEL OF BLOOD PROFILE IN TEENAGE GIRLS AT VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL OF PALEBON SEMARANG, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulaeka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women are at risk of iron-deficiency anemia, especially in teenage girls. One alternative treatment to prevent the occurrence of anemia is to consume guava leaf extract Objective: To examine the effect of guava leaves extract on changes in blood profile level in teenage girls. Methods: This study was a quasy experiment with pretest posttest control group design. This research was conducted at SMK Palebon Semarang conducted on December 2016 - January 2017. There were 36 samples selected using a purposive sampling, with 18 samples were assigned in the experiment and control group. Blood profiles was measured in the Laboratory of Cito Klinik Setiabudi to see the hemoglobin level, hematocrit level, erythrocyte count, and platelet count. Data were analyzed using Independent t-test. Results: There were significant differences in hemoglobin and trombocytes levels after given intervention between the experiment and control group with p-value 0.05. Conclusion: Guava leaves (Psidii folium extracts have a significant effect on changes in hemoglobin and thrombocyte levels in teenage girls, but not in the hematocrit and thrombocytes levels. Therefore, it is suggested that guava leaves (Psidii folium extracts can be an alternative treatment for midwives to prevent the occurrence of anemia in teenage girls.

  12. Trace element accumulation and distribution in sunflower plants at the stages of flower bud and maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna De Maria

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the accumulation and distribution of cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn and copper (Cu in different portions of plants of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., cv. Oleko grown in soil with contaminants (5, 300, 400 mg kg–1 of Cd, Zn and Cu, respectively and without (untreated soil as a control from the emergence of cotyledon leaves until to two phenological stages: flower bud (R-1 and maturity (R- 9. Sunflower accumulated considerable amounts of heavy metals in both phenological stages showing slight reductions of dry matter production. At R-1 stage, Cd, Zn and Cu were accumulated mainly in the roots with concentrations respectively up to 5.4, 233 and 160 mg kg–1 of dry matter with a low translocation from roots to the aerial part. Yet at the R-1 stage, the bioconcentration factor (BCF of Cd showed a significantly higher value in the Cd-Zn-Cu treatment (0.27 with respect to the untreated control (0.02, vice versa was observed for Cu, whereas no significant difference between treatments was observed for Zn (0.12 on average. However among metals, Cd showed the highest value of BCF. Referring only to the epigeous portion, differences in the accumulation and distribution of the three metals in the treated plants were found in both phenological stages; indeed passing from flower bud to the maturity stage, Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations increased in the stems and leaves, particularly in the old ones, whereas decreased in the heads. Metal accumulation in the achenes was very low and never exceed the toxicity threshold value considered for livestock. The high storage of heavy metals in roots and the probable re-translocation of the three metals along the plant during the growing cycle could be considered as a strategy of sunflower to preserve young metabolically-active leaves and reproductive organs from toxic metal concentrations.

  13. Advanced accumulator for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimura, Taiki; Chikahata, Hideyuki

    1997-01-01

    Advanced accumulators have been incorporated into the APWR design in order to simplify the safety system configuration and to improve reliability. The advanced accumulators refill the reactor vessel with a large discharge flow rate in a large LOCA, then switch to a small flow rate to continue safety injection for core reflooding. The functions of the conventional accumulator and the low head safety injection pump are integrated into this advanced accumulator. Injection performance tests simulating LOCA conditions and visualization tests for new designs have been carried out. This paper describes the APWR ECCS configuration, the advanced accumulator design and some of the injection performance and visualization test results. It was verified that the flow resistance of the advanced accumulator is independent of the model scale. The similarity law and performance data of the advanced accumulator for applying APWR was established. (author)

  14. Does Leave Work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heleen van Luijn; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2004-01-01

    More and more people have to combine work and care responsibilities, and work part-time or use daycare and after-school care facilities to help them do so. The Work and Care Act, which came into force on 1 December 2001, combined all the existing schemes - such as parental and maternity leave -

  15. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  16. High-Resolution and Non-destructive Evaluation of the Spatial Distribution of Nitrate and Its Dynamics in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Leaves by Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Yu Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate is an important component of the nitrogen cycle and is therefore present in all plants. However, excessive nitrogen fertilization results in a high nitrate content in vegetables, which is unhealthy for humans. Understanding the spatial distribution of nitrate in leaves is beneficial for improving nitrogen assimilation efficiency and reducing its content in vegetables. In this study, near-infrared (NIR hyperspectral imaging was used for the non-destructive and effective evaluation of nitrate content in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. leaves. Leaf samples with different nitrate contents were collected under various fertilization conditions, and reference data were obtained using reflectometer apparatus RQflex 10. Partial least squares regression analysis revealed that there was a high correlation between the reference data and NIR spectra (r2 = 0.74, root mean squared error of cross-validation = 710.16 mg/kg. Furthermore, the nitrate content in spinach leaves was successfully mapped at a high spatial resolution, clearly displaying its distribution in the petiole, vein, and blade. Finally, the mapping results demonstrated dynamic changes in the nitrate content in intact leaf samples under different storage conditions, showing the value of this non-destructive tool for future analyses of the nitrate content in vegetables.

  17. Effect of shading from jointing to maturity on high molecular weight glutenin subunit accumulation and glutenin macropolymer concentration in grain of winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, X.; Cai, J.; Li, H.

    2012-01-01

    the accumulation and concentration of HMW-GS in the grains. Consequently, S1 reduced falling number and SDS-sedimentation volume, while shortened dough development time (DDT) and dough stability time (DST). In contrast, S2 and S3 increased falling number, wet-gluten concentration and SDS-sedimentation volume......, and lengthened the DDT and DST. In addition, the fluctuations in accumulations of HMW-GS and GMP and most quality traits because of shading in Yangmai 158 were less than Yangmai 11. The interrelations between HMW-GS accumulation, GMP concentration and quality of grain and dough were further discussed....

  18. Acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 accumulates high amount of lipid droplets under a nitrogen-depleted condition at a low-pH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Hirooka

    Full Text Available Microalgal storage lipids are considered to be a promising source for next-generation biofuel feedstock. However, microalgal biodiesel is not yet economically feasible due to the high cost of production. One of the reasons for this is that the use of a low-cost open pond system is currently limited because of the unavoidable contamination with undesirable organisms. Extremophiles have an advantage in culturing in an open pond system because they grow in extreme environments toxic to other organisms. In this study, we isolated the acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 from sulfuric acid mine drainage in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. The vegetative cells of YKT1 display the morphological characteristics of Trebouxiophyceae and molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated it to be most closely related to Pseudochlorella pringsheimii. The optimal pH and temperature for the growth of YKT1 are pH 3.0-5.0 and a temperature 20-25°C, respectively. Further, YKT1 is able to grow at pH 2.0 and at 32°C, which corresponds to the usual water temperature in the outdoors in summer in many countries. YKT1 accumulates a large amount of storage lipids (∼30% of dry weigh under a nitrogen-depleted condition at low-pH (pH 3.0. These results show that acidophilic green algae will be useful for industrial applications by acidic open culture systems.

  19. High organochlorine accumulation in blubber of Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, from Brazilian coast and its use to establish geographical differences among populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lailson-Brito, J.; Dorneles, P.R.; Azevedo-Silva, C.E.; Azevedo, A.F.; Vidal, L.G.; Zanelatto, R.C.; Lozinski, C.P.C.; Azeredo, A.; Fragoso, A.B.L.

    2010-01-01

    Blubber samples from 33 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from three estuaries (Guanabara, Sepetiba/Ilha Grande and Paranagua Bays) of Southern and Southeastern Brazil were analyzed for organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs and HCB). The sampled individuals were incidentally captured in gillnet fishery between 1995 and 2005. The concentrations (in ng/g lipids) varied from 652 to 23 555 for ΣDDT; from 765 to 99 175 for ΣPCB; and from <4.4 to 156 for HCB. The results have shown that cetaceans from Brazil present organochlorine concentrations that are comparable to those reported for highly industrialized regions of Northern Hemisphere. Using discriminant analysis it was possible to verify that the dolphin populations from the three bays present different organochlorine accumulation patterns. This feature allows the use of this set of pollutants as an auxiliary tool for identification of different populations of the species off Brazilian Coast. - The site fidelity of Guiana dolphins inhabiting polluted environments allows population differentiation through discriminant analysis using organochlorine profiles.

  20. High organochlorine accumulation in blubber of Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, from Brazilian coast and its use to establish geographical differences among populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lailson-Brito, J., E-mail: lailson@biof.ufrj.b [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Dorneles, P.R., E-mail: dorneles.paulo@uerj.b [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Azevedo-Silva, C.E., E-mail: ceass@biof.ufrj.b [Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Azevedo, A.F., E-mail: azevedo.alex@uerj.b [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Vidal, L.G. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Zanelatto, R.C. [Pro- Reitoria de Administracao, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil); Lozinski, C.P.C. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Azeredo, A., E-mail: aazeredo@uefs.b [Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Colegiado de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Departamento de Saude, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS) (Brazil); Fragoso, A.B.L. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    Blubber samples from 33 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from three estuaries (Guanabara, Sepetiba/Ilha Grande and Paranagua Bays) of Southern and Southeastern Brazil were analyzed for organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs and HCB). The sampled individuals were incidentally captured in gillnet fishery between 1995 and 2005. The concentrations (in ng/g lipids) varied from 652 to 23 555 for SIGMADDT; from 765 to 99 175 for SIGMAPCB; and from <4.4 to 156 for HCB. The results have shown that cetaceans from Brazil present organochlorine concentrations that are comparable to those reported for highly industrialized regions of Northern Hemisphere. Using discriminant analysis it was possible to verify that the dolphin populations from the three bays present different organochlorine accumulation patterns. This feature allows the use of this set of pollutants as an auxiliary tool for identification of different populations of the species off Brazilian Coast. - The site fidelity of Guiana dolphins inhabiting polluted environments allows population differentiation through discriminant analysis using organochlorine profiles.

  1. High-speed scanning ablation of dental hard tissues with a λ=9.3-μm CO2 laser: heat accumulation and peripheral thermal damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Daniel; Staninec, Michal; Lee, Chulsung; Fried, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    A mechanically scanned CO2 laser operated at high laser pulse repetition rates can be used to rapidly and precisely remove dental decay. This study aims to determine whether these laser systems can safely ablate enamel and dentin without excessive heat accumulation and peripheral thermal damage. Peripheral thermal damage can adversely impact the mechanical strength of the irradiated tissue, particularly for dentin, and reduce the adhesion characteristics of the modified surfaces. Samples were derived from noncarious extracted molars. Pulpal temperatures were recorded using microthermocouples situated at the pulp chamber roof of samples (n=12), which were occlusally ablated using a rapid-scanning, water-cooled 300 Hz CO2 laser over a two minute time course. The mechanical strength of facially ablated dentin (n=10) was determined via four-point bend test and compared to control samples (n=10) prepared with 320 grit wet sand paper to simulate conventional preparations. Composite-to-enamel bond strength was measured via single-plane shear test for ablated/non-etched (n=10) and ablated/acid-etched (n=8) samples and compared to control samples (n=9) prepared by 320 grit wet sanding. Thermocouple measurements indicated that the temperature remained below ambient temperature at 19.0°C (s.d.=0.9) if water-cooling was used. There was no discoloration of either dentin and enamel, the treated surfaces were uniformly ablated and there were no cracks observable on the laser treated surfaces. Fourpoint bend tests yielded mean mechanical strengths of 18.2 N (s.d.=4.6) for ablated dentin and 18.1 N (s.d.=2.7) for control (p>0.05). Shear tests yielded mean bond strengths of 31.2 MPa (s.d.=2.5, penamel without excessive heat accumulation and with minimal thermal damage. It is not clear whether the small (16%) but statistically significant reduction in the shear bond strength to enamel is clinically significant since the mean shear bond strength exceeded 30 MPa.

  2. High-level accumulation of oleyl oleate in plant seed oil by abundant supply of oleic acid substrates to efficient wax ester synthesis enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan; Hornung, Ellen; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    Biotechnology enables the production of high-valued industrial feedstocks from plant seed oil. The plant-derived wax esters with long-chain monounsaturated acyl moieties, like oleyl oleate, have favorite properties for lubrication. For biosynthesis of wax esters using acyl-CoA substrates, expressions of a fatty acyl reductase (FAR) and a wax synthase (WS) in seeds are sufficient. For optimization of the enzymatic activity and subcellular localization of wax ester synthesis enzymes, two fusion proteins were created, which showed wax ester-forming activities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . To promote the formation of oleyl oleate in seed oil, WSs from Acinetobactor baylyi ( Ab WSD1) and Marinobacter aquaeolei ( Ma WS2), as well as the two created fusion proteins were tested in Arabidopsis to evaluate their abilities and substrate preference for wax ester production. The tested seven enzyme combinations resulted in different yields and compositions of wax esters. Expression of a FAR of Marinobacter aquaeolei ( Ma FAR) with Ab WSD1 or Ma WS2 led to a high incorporation of C 18 substrates in wax esters. The Ma FAR/TM Mm AWAT2- Ab WSD1 combination resulted in the incorporation of more C 18:1 alcohol and C 18:0 acyl moieties into wax esters compared with Ma FAR/ Ab WSD1. The fusion protein of a WS from Simmondsia chinensis ( Sc WS) with MaFAR exhibited higher specificity toward C 20:1 substrates in preference to C 18:1 substrates. Expression of Ma FAR/ Ab WSD1 in the Arabidopsis fad2 fae1 double mutant resulted in the accumulation of oleyl oleate (18:1/18:1) in up to 62 mol% of total wax esters in seed oil, which was much higher than the 15 mol% reached by Ma FAR/ Ab WSD1 in Arabidopsis Col-0 background. In order to increase the level of oleyl oleate in seed oil of Camelina , lines expressing Ma FAR/ Sc WS were crossed with a transgenic high oleate line. The resulting plants accumulated up to >40 mg g seed -1 of wax esters, containing 27-34 mol% oleyl oleate. The

  3. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, A.V.; Goncharenko, G.G.; Kilchevsky, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  4. Determination of high molecular mass compounds from Amazonian plant's leaves; Determinacao de compostos de massa molecular alta em folhas de plantas da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Denilson Soares de; Pereira, Alberto dos Santos; Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: ladetec@iq.gov.br; Cabral, Jose Augusto; Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Cid [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Simoneit, Bernd R.T. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences. Petroleum and Environmental Geochemistry Group; Elias, Vladimir O. [Analytical Solution, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-10-01

    The fractions of dichloromethane extracts of leaves from andiroba (Carapa guianensis - Meliaceae), caapi (Banisteriopsis caapi - Malpighiaceae), cocoa (Theobroma cacao - Sterculiaceae), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa - Lecytidaceae), cupuacu (Theobroma grandiflorum - Sterculiaceae), marupa (Simaruba amara - Simaroubaceae) and rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis - Euphorbiaceae), were analyzed by HT-HRGC and HT-HRGC-MS. Esters of homologous series of fatty acids and long chain alcohols, phytol, amyrines and tocopherols were characterized. The characterization of the compounds was based mainly in mass spectra data and in addition by usual spectrometric data ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, IR). (author)

  5. Rhodomollanol A, a Highly Oxygenated Diterpenoid with a 5/7/5/5 Tetracyclic Carbon Skeleton from the Leaves of Rhododendron molle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junfei; Zhan, Guanqun; Zhang, Hanqi; Zhang, Qihua; Li, Ying; Xue, Yongbo; Yao, Guangmin

    2017-07-21

    A novel diterpenoid with an unprecedented carbon skeleton, rhodomollanol A (1), and a new grayanane diterpenoid, rhodomollein XXXI (2), were isolated from the leaves of Rhododendron molle. Their structures were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 possesses a unique cis/trans/trans/cis/cis-fused 3/5/7/5/5/5 hexacyclic ring system featuring a rare 7-oxabicyclo[4.2.1]nonane core decorated with three cyclopentane units. The plausible biosynthetic pathway for 1 was proposed. Compound 1 exhibited moderate PTP1B inhibitory activity.

  6. Mineral profile of Ghanaian dried tobacco leaves and local snuff. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addo, M.A.; Gbadago, J.K.; Affum, H.A.; Okley, G.M.; Adom, T.; Ahmed, K.

    2008-01-01

    The concentration of thirty-four elements each in Ghanaian dried tobacco leaves and snuff (powdered tobacco) have been determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The concentration of Hg, Cr, As and Cd in both set of samples were found to be in excess of WHO limits for drinking water, thus indicating potential toxicity of the samples. Cr, Cd, Sb and Cu were two to eight times high, whilst As and Hg were comparable in powdered tobacco and tobacco leaves. The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of elemental concentrations and the toxicological strengths in both tobacco leaves and tobacco powder. The results indicated that the toxicity of the snuff was higher than the tobacco. This indicated strongly that from the medical point of view, the level of toxic accumulation in users might be potentially high in the tobacco powder compared to the leaves. Thus, education of the Ghanaian public on the threshold value of toxic elements contained in both set of samples was suggested to safeguard users against these addictives. (author)

  7. AICAR Protects against High Palmitate/High Insulin-Induced Intramyocellular Lipid Accumulation and Insulin Resistance in HL-1 Cardiac Cells by Inducing PPAR-Target Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rodríguez-Calvo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we studied the impact of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR, a well-known AMPK activator, on cardiac metabolic adaptation. AMPK activation by AICAR was confirmed by increased phospho-Thr172-AMPK and phospho-Ser79-ACC protein levels in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Then, cells were exposed to AICAR stimulation for 24 h in the presence or absence of the AMPK inhibitor Compound C, and the mRNA levels of the three PPARs were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Treatment with AICAR induced gene expression of all three PPARs, but only the Ppara and Pparg regulation were dependent on AMPK. Next, we exposed HL-1 cells to high palmitate/high insulin (HP/HI conditions either in presence or in absence of AICAR, and we evaluated the expression of selected PPAR-targets genes. HP/HI induced insulin resistance and lipid storage was accompanied by increased Cd36, Acot1, and Ucp3 mRNA levels. AICAR treatment induced the expression of Acadvl and Glut4, which correlated to prevention of the HP/HI-induced intramyocellular lipid build-up, and attenuation of the HP/HI-induced impairment of glucose uptake. These data support the hypothesis that AICAR contributes to cardiac metabolic adaptation via regulation of transcriptional mechanisms.

  8. Genes up-regulated during red coloration in UV-B irradiated lettuce leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Sug; Choung, Myoung-Gun; Kim, Jung-Bong; Hahn, Bum-Soo; Kim, Jong-Bum; Bae, Shin-Chul; Roh, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Cheon, Choong-Ill; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Cho, Kang-Jin

    2007-04-01

    Molecular analysis of gene expression differences between green and red lettuce leaves was performed using the SSH method. BlastX comparisons of subtractive expressed sequence tags (ESTs) indicated that 7.6% of clones encoded enzymes involved in secondary metabolism. Such clones had a particularly high abundance of flavonoid-metabolism proteins (6.5%). Following SSH, 566 clones were rescreened for differential gene expression using dot-blot hybridization. Of these, 53 were found to overexpressed during red coloration. The up-regulated expression of six genes was confirmed by Northern blot analyses. The expression of chalcone synthase (CHS), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) genes showed a positive correlation with anthocyanin accumulation in UV-B-irradiated lettuce leaves; flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3',5'H) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) were expressed continuously in both samples. These results indicated that the genes CHS, F3H, and DFR coincided with increases in anthocyanin accumulation during the red coloration of lettuce leaves. This study show a relationship between red coloration and the expression of up-regulated genes in lettuce. The subtractive cDNA library and EST database described in this study represent a valuable resource for further research for secondary metabolism in the vegetable crops.

  9. Phaleria macrocarpa Boerl. (Thymelaeaceae Leaves Increase SR-BI Expression and Reduce Cholesterol Levels in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosie Andriani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro and in vivo studies of the activity of Phaleria macrocarpa Boerl (Thymelaeaceae leaves against the therapeutic target for hypercholesterolemia were done using the HDL receptor (SR-BI and hypercholesterolemia-induced Sprague Dawley rats. The in vitro study showed that the active fraction (CF6 obtained from the ethyl acetate extract (EMD and its component 2',6',4-trihydroxy-4'-methoxybenzophenone increased the SR-BI expression by 95% and 60%, respectively. The in vivo study has proven the effect of EMD at 0.5 g/kgbw dosage in reducing the total cholesterol level by 224.9% and increasing the HDL cholesterol level by 157% compared to the cholesterol group. In the toxicity study, serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT activity were observed to be at normal levels. The liver histology also proved no toxicity and abnormalities in any of the treatment groups, so it can be categorized as non-toxic to the rat liver. The findings taken together show that P. macrocarpa leaves are safe and suitable as an alternative control and prevention treatment for hypercholesterolemia in Sprague Dawley rats.

  10. Measurement of RF characteristics of magnetic alloys for an RF cavity of the accumulator cooler ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, M.; Chiba, Y.; Katayama, T.; Koseki, T.; Ohtomo, K.; Tsutsui, H.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic alloy (MA)-loaded RF cavity has been studied for an RF stacking system of the accumulator cooler ring (ACR). RF characteristics of several high-permeability MA cores were measured in the frequency range between 1 and 50 MHz. The effects of the cut-core configuration, cutting the core and leaving air gaps between two circular halves, were also investigated. The results show that the shunt impedance remains high and the appropriate inductance and Q-value can be obtained by increasing the gap width of the cut core in the frequency region of the ACR cavity

  11. Chemical elements in Leucaena leucocephala leaves of riparian zones of the municipality of Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Elvis J. de; Fernandes, Elisabete A.N.; Lira, Marcelo G.; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Camilli, Leandro

    2017-01-01

    The species Leucaena leucocephala can be found in several riparian ecosystems, acting as one of the main invasive and harmful species for the forest restoration of the permanent preservation areas. It has also been studied for the phytoremediation of some chemical elements, due to their potential accumulation of chemical substances. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the accumulation of chemical elements in leaves of Leucaena leucocephala trees by Instrumental Neutronic Activation Analysis - INAA. Samples of leaves were collected in eight samples from riverside areas of the Piracicaba Municipality, São Paulo, Brazil, during the dry and rainy season. After collection, washing with water and drying in a forced circulation oven, the samples were comminuted and encapsulated in polyethylene capsules and subjected to a thermal neutron flux of 10 13 cm -2 s -1 for 8 hours in the Nuclear Research Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN / CNEN. Thermal neutron flux monitoring was performed by Ni-Cr alloy fragments with known concentrations of the chemical monitors elements. After measurements of radioactivity induced by HPGe detectors, the concentrations of the chemical elements were calculated by the k0 method using the Quantu computer program. Certified reference materials were also analyzed for quality assurance of the analytical procedure. The results indicated high concentrations of La and lanthanoids (Ce, Eu, Sm, Tb and Yb) in leaves of L. leucocephala in both periods analyzed. It was possible to observe a decrease in the concentrations of the chemical elements in the rainy season, probably associated to the washing of the geological material deposited on the leaves of the trees by the rains, except for K, Mo, Rb, Sb and Zn, whose values remained or increased in the leaves collected during the rainy season. Considering the constant leaf production, L. leucocephala can greatly affect the cycling of chemical elements due to its accumulation capacity demonstrated by this

  12. Analysis of flavonoids from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaves using high performance liquid chromatography/photodiode array detector tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and an extraction method optimized by orthogonal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sha; Wu, Ben-Hong; Fang, Jin-Bao; Liu, Yan-Ling; Zhang, Hao-Hao; Fang, Lin-Chuan; Guan, Le; Li, Shao-Hua

    2012-03-02

    The extraction protocol of flavonoids from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaves was optimized through an orthogonal design. The solvent was the most important factor comparing solvent, solvent:tissue ratio, extraction time, and temperature. The highest yield of flavonoids was achieved with 70% methanol-water and a solvent:tissue ratio of 30:1 at 4 °C for 36 h. The optimized analytical method for HPLC was a multi-step gradient elution using 0.5% formic acid (A) and CH₃CN containing 0.1% formic acid (B), at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. Using this optimized method, thirteen flavonoids were simultaneously separated and identified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS(n)). Five of the bioactive compounds are reported in lotus leaves for the first time. The flavonoid content of the leaves of three representative cultivars was assessed under the optimized extraction and HPLC analytical conditions, and the seed-producing cultivar 'Baijianlian' had the highest flavonoid content compared with rhizome-producing 'Zhimahuoulian' and wild floral cultivar 'Honglian'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in sediment and organic carbon accumulation in a highly-disturbed ecosystem: The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (California, USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Lerberg, Elizabeth J.; Dickhut, Rebecca M.; Kuehl, Steven A.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Wakeham, Stuart G.

    2009-01-01

    We used the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta CA (Delta, hereafter) as a model system for understanding how human activities influence the delivery of sediment and total organic carbon (TOC) over the past 50-60 years. Sediment cores were collected from sites within the Delta representing the Sacramento River (SAC), the San Joaquin River (SJR), and Franks Tract (FT), a flooded agricultural tract. A variety of anthropogenic tracers including 137 Cs, total DDE (ΣDDE) and brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) congeners were used to quantify sediment accumulation rates. This information was combined with total organic carbon (TOC) profiles to quantify rates of TOC accumulation. Across the three sites, sediment and TOC accumulation rates were four to eight-fold higher prior to 1972. Changes in sediment and TOC accumulation were coincident with completion of several large reservoirs and increased agriculture and urbanization in the Delta watershed. Radiocarbon content of TOC indicated that much of the carbon delivered to the Delta is 'pre-aged' reflecting processing in the Delta watershed or during transport to the sites rather than an input of predominantly contemporary carbon (e.g., 900-1400 years BP in surface sediments and 2200 yrs BP and 3610 yrs BP at the base of the SJR and FT cores, respectively). Together, these data suggest that human activities have altered the amount and age of TOC accumulating in the Delta since the 1940s.

  14. Employer Provisions for Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenheimer, Joseph R., II

    1989-01-01

    Slightly more than one-third of full-time employees in medium and large firms in private industry were covered by maternity- or paternity-leave policies; days off were usually leave without pay. (Author)

  15. Genotypic variations in the dynamics of metal concentrations in poplar leaves: A field study with a perspective on phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottier, Mathieu; García de la Torre, Vanesa S.; Victor, Cindy; David, Laure C.; Chalot, Michel; Thomine, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Poplar is commonly used for phytoremediation of metal polluted soils. However, the high concentrations of trace elements present in leaves may return to soil upon leaf abscission. To investigate the mechanisms controlling leaf metal content, metal concentrations and expression levels of genes involved in metal transport were monitored at different developmental stages on leaves from different poplar genotypes growing on a contaminated field. Large differences in leaf metal concentrations were observed among genotypes. Whereas Mg was remobilized during senescence, Zn and Cd accumulation continued until leaf abscission in all genotypes. A positive correlation between Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein 1 (NRAMP1) expression levels and Zn bio-concentration factors was observed. Principal component analyses of metal concentrations and gene expression levels clearly discriminated poplar genotypes. This study highlights a general absence of trace element remobilization from poplar leaves despite genotype specificities in the control of leaf metal homeostasis. - Highlights: • Poplar genotypes display large variations in leaf metal concentrations. • Trace elements are not remobilized during poplar leaf senescence. • Distinct transporter genes control metal homeostasis at different leaf stages. • Poplar genotypes use distinct mechanisms to control leaf metal homeostasis. • NRAMP1 metal transporter could contribute to Zn and Cd accumulation in poplar leaves. - In order to improve metal phytoextraction using poplars, this work provides new insights on the control of leaf metal concentrations through principal component and correlative analyses

  16. Supplementation with Vitis vinifera L. skin extract improves insulin resistance and prevents hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Izabelle Barcellos; de Bem, Graziele Freitas; Cordeiro, Viviane Silva Cristino; da Costa, Cristiane Aguiar; de Carvalho, Lenize Costa Reis Marins; da Rocha, Ana Paula Machado; da Costa, Gisele França; Ognibene, Dayane Teixeira; de Moura, Roberto Soares; Resende, Angela Castro

    2017-07-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most common complications of obesity. The Vitis vinifera L. grape skin extract (ACH09) is an important source of polyphenols, which are related to its antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activities. We hypothesized that ACH09 could also exert beneficial effects on metabolic disorders associated with obesity and evaluated ACH09's influence on high-fat (HF) diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in C57BL/6 mice. The animals were fed a standard diet (10% fat, control) or an HF diet (60% fat, HF) with or without ACH09 (200mg/[kg d]) for 12weeks. Our results showed that ACH09 reduced HF diet-induced body weight gain, prevented hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis, and improved hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. The underlying mechanisms of these beneficial effects of ACH09 may involve the activation of hepatic insulin-signaling pathway because the expression of phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phosphorylated Akt serine/threonine kinase 1, and glucose transporter 2 was increased by ACH09 and correlated with improvement of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. ACH09 reduced the expression of the lipogenic factor sterol regulatory-element binding protein-1c in the liver and upregulated the lipolytic pathway (phosphorylated liver kinase B1/phosphorylated adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase), which was associated with normal hepatic levels of triglyceride and cholesterol and prevention of steatosis. ACH09 prevented the hepatic oxidative damage in HF diet-fed mice probably by restoration of antioxidant activity. In conclusion, ACH09 protected mice from HF diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. The regulation of hepatic insulin signaling pathway, lipogenesis, and oxidative stress may contribute to ACH09's protective effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High Temperature During Rice Grain Filling Enhances Aspartate Metabolism in Grains and Results in Accumulation of Aspartate-Family Amino Acids and Protein Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-gang LIANG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Global warming causes the exacerbation of rice growing environment, which seriously affects rice growth and reproduction, and finally results in the decrease of rice yield and quality. We investigated the activities of aspartate metabolism enzymes in grains, and the contents of Aspartate-family amino acids and protein components to further understand the effects of high temperature (HT on rice nutritional quality during rice grain filling. Under HT, the average activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AAT and aspartokinase (AK in grains significantly increased, the amino acid contents of aspartate (Asp, lysine (Lys, threonine (Thr, methionine (Met and isoleucine (Ile and the protein contents of albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin also significantly increased. The results indicated that HT enhanced Asp metabolism during rice grain filling and the enhancement of Asp metabolism might play an important role in the increase of Asp-family amino acids and protein components in grains. In case of the partial appraisal of the change of Asp-family amino acids and protein components under HT, we introduced eight indicators (amino acid or protein content, ratio of amino acid or protein, amino acid or protein content per grain and amino acid or protein content per panicle to estimate the effects of HT. It is suggested that HT during rice grain filling was benefit for the accumulation of Asp-family amino acids and protein components. Combined with the improvement of Asp-family amino acid ratio in grains under HT, it is suggested that HT during grain filling may improve the rice nutritional quality. However, the yields of parts of Asp-family amino acids and protein components were decreased under HT during rice grain filling.

  18. High Endogenous Accumulation of ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Protect against Ischemia-Reperfusion Renal Injury through AMPK-Mediated Autophagy in Fat-1 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Hyeong Gwon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Regulated autophagy is involved in the repair of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI. Fat-1 transgenic mice produce ω3-Polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs from ω6-Polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω6-PUFAs without a dietary ω3-PUFAs supplement, leading to a high accumulation of omega-3 in various tissues. ω3-PUFAs show protective effects against various renal injuries and it has recently been reported that ω3-PUFAs regulate autophagy. We assessed whether ω3-PUFAs attenuated IR-induced acute kidney injury (AKI and evaluated its associated mechanisms. C57Bl/6 background fat-1 mice and wild-type mice (wt were divided into four groups: wt sham (n = 10, fat-1 sham (n = 10, wt IRI (reperfusion 35 min after clamping both the renal artery and vein; n = 15, and fat-1 IRI (n = 15. Kidneys and blood were harvested 24 h after IRI and renal histological and molecular data were collected. The kidneys of fat-1 mice showed better renal cell survival, renal function, and pathological damage than those of wt mice after IRI. In addition, fat-1 mice showed less oxidative stress and autophagy impairment; greater amounts of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II, Beclin-1, and Atg7; lower amounts of p62; and, higher levels of renal cathepsin D and ATP6E than wt kidneys. They also showed more adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation, which resulted in the inhibition of phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Collectively, ω3-PUFAs in fat-1 mice contributed to AMPK mediated autophagy activation, leading to a renoprotective response.

  19. Dual regulation of root hydraulic conductivity and plasma membrane aquaporins by plant nitrate accumulation and high-affinity nitrate transporter NRT2.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Tillard, Pascal; Gojon, Alain; Maurel, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The water status and mineral nutrition of plants critically determine their growth and development. Nitrate (NO3(-)), the primary nitrogen source of higher plants, is known to impact the water transport capacity of roots (root hydraulic conductivity, Lpr). To explore the effects and mode of action of NO3(-) on Lpr, we used an extended set of NO3(-) transport (nrt1.1, nrt1.2, nrt1.5 and nrt2.1), signaling (nrt1.1 and nrt2.1) and metabolism (nia) mutants in Arabidopsis, grown under various NO3(-) conditions. First, a strong positive relationship between Lpr and NO3(-) accumulation, in shoots rather than in roots, was revealed. Secondly, a specific 30% reduction of Lpr in nrt2.1 plants unraveled a major role for the high-affinity NO3(-) transporter NRT2.1 in increasing Lpr These results indicate that NO3(-)signaling rather than nitrogen assimilation products governs Lpr in Arabidopsis. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to investigate the effects of NO3(-) availability on plasma membrane aquaporin (plasma membrane intrinsic protein; PIP) expression. Whereas PIP regulation mostly occurs at the post-translational level in wild-type plants, a regulation of PIPs at both the transcriptional and translational levels was uncovered in nrt2.1 plants. In conclusion, this work reveals that control of Arabidopsis Lpr and PIP functions by NO3(-) involves novel shoot to root signaling and NRT2.1-dependent functions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. High Endogenous Accumulation of ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Protect against Ischemia-Reperfusion Renal Injury through AMPK-Mediated Autophagy in Fat-1 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, Do Hyeong; Hwang, Tae Woong; Ro, Ju-Ye; Kang, Yoon-Joong; Jeong, Jin Young; Kim, Do-Kyung; Lim, Kyu; Kim, Dong Woon; Choi, Dae Eun; Kim, Jwa-Jin

    2017-09-30

    Regulated autophagy is involved in the repair of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Fat-1 transgenic mice produce ω3-Polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) from ω6-Polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω6-PUFAs) without a dietary ω3-PUFAs supplement, leading to a high accumulation of omega-3 in various tissues. ω3-PUFAs show protective effects against various renal injuries and it has recently been reported that ω3-PUFAs regulate autophagy. We assessed whether ω3-PUFAs attenuated IR-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) and evaluated its associated mechanisms. C57Bl/6 background fat-1 mice and wild-type mice (wt) were divided into four groups: wt sham ( n = 10), fat-1 sham ( n = 10), wt IRI (reperfusion 35 min after clamping both the renal artery and vein; n = 15), and fat-1 IRI ( n = 15). Kidneys and blood were harvested 24 h after IRI and renal histological and molecular data were collected. The kidneys of fat-1 mice showed better renal cell survival, renal function, and pathological damage than those of wt mice after IRI. In addition, fat-1 mice showed less oxidative stress and autophagy impairment; greater amounts of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3)-II, Beclin-1, and Atg7; lower amounts of p62; and, higher levels of renal cathepsin D and ATP6E than wt kidneys. They also showed more adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, which resulted in the inhibition of phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Collectively, ω3-PUFAs in fat-1 mice contributed to AMPK mediated autophagy activation, leading to a renoprotective response.

  1. Microbial accumulation of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Dong Faqin; Dai Qunwei

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of microbial accumulation of uranium and the effects of some factors (including pH, initial uranium concentration, pretreatment of bacteria, and so on) on microbial accumulation of uranium are discussed briefly. The research direction and application prospect are presented. (authors)

  2. Metabolite modifications in Solanum lycopersicum roots and leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the treatment, Cd accumulated significantly in the roots compared to stems and leaves. Plant growth (root, stem and leaf) decreased when Cd concentration increased. The analysis of 1H-NMR spectra of polar extracts showed clear differences between metabolites amounts (soluble sugars, organic and amino acids) ...

  3. Hyperforin accumulates in the translucent glands of Hypericum perforatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Jens; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Jäger, Anna K

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hypericum perforatum contains the therapeutically important compounds hypericin and hyperforin. Hypericin is known to accumulate in the dark glands. This investigation aimed to determine the accumulation site of hyperforin. METHODS: Dark and translucent glands as well as non......-secretory tissue in leaves were manually isolated under the microscope. Hyperforin content was quantified by UV HPLC. Secretory structures were surveyed anatomically. KEY RESULTS: The hyperforin content of intact leaves was found to be about 3 mg g(-1) fresh tissue, whereas a content of about 7 mg g(-1) fresh...

  4. Induced Plant Accumulation of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Kavanagh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lithium’s (Li value has grown exponentially since the development of Li-ion batteries. It is usually accessed in one of two ways: hard rock mineral mining or extraction from mineral-rich brines. Both methods are expensive and require a rich source of Li. This paper examines the potential of agro-mining as an environmentally friendly, economically viable process for extracting Li from low grade ore. Agro-mining exploits an ability found in few plant species, to accumulate substantial amounts of metals in the above ground parts of the plant. Phyto-mined metals are then retrieved from the incinerated plants. Although the actual amount of metal collected from a crop may be low, the process has been shown to be profitable. We have investigated the suitability of several plant species including: Brassica napus and Helianthus annuus, as Li-accumulators under controlled conditions. Large plant trials were carried out with/without chelating agents to encourage Li accumulation. The question we sought to answer was, can any of the plant species investigated accumulate Li at levels high enough to justify using them to agro-mine Li. Results show maximum accumulated levels of >4000 mg/kg Li in some species. Our data suggests that agro-mining of Li is a potentially viable process.

  5. Study of features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oganesyants Lev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the fields of processing industries’ activities is the use of secondary resources. The use the vegetative parts of grape plants may become an important component in solving this task. Such vegetative parts, first of all, include red grape leaves, which provide a large reserve of antioxidants and other biologically useful substances. The Russian Research Institute of Brewing and Wine Industry has carried out the detailed study of the features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties cultivated in the Rostov region of Russia. Cold winters are considered to be the major stress for the grape plants. Under these conditions, leaves accumulate large amount of biologically active substances, including trans-resveratrol, which provide significant advantage compared with the harvest from grapes cultivated in areas where the plants are not protected during winter. Comparative studies on the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous and European varieties were conducted, including on the use of bioassay systems in vitro. It was found that extracts of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties have a marked effect on the rate of glutathione reductase and pyruvate kinase reactions that are demonstrating their angioprotective and energizing properties. The increase in the rate of the catalase reaction indicates the manifestation of antioxidant properties. The technology of CO2 – and highly concentrated hydrophilic extracts production from red vine leaves that preserves biologically active compounds to the maximum extent possible. The extracts are used for the manufacture of soft drinks that have the venomotor action and may be applied in the process of the manufacture of fat products with extended shelf life, as well as the main raw material for the preparations with the pronounced angioprotective effect.

  6. Characteristics of element composition of aerosols adsorbed on leaves by radioactivation analysis and their effects on plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamatsu, Takejiro; Koshikawa, Masami; Sase, Hiroyuki; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Kawashima, Munetsugu; Takada, Jitsuya; Matsushita, Rokuji

    1999-01-01

    Aerosol deposits on leaves of various trees, especially cedar in different regions of Japan were collected to characterize the elemental composition using neutron activation analysis, ICP-AES, etc. and also investigate the effects of deposit aerosols on plants and the efficacy as an indicator for air pollution. Compared with the elemental composition of the soil, Se, Cr, Au, Br, As, Sb, Ag, etc. were more abundant in aerosols on cedar leaves. Especially, Sb is thought to be mostly derived from combustion of fossil fuels (exhaust gas from cars, etc.). Since Sb was accumulated on leaves at high levels and the analytical precision for Sb by neutron radioactivation was very high, the element was thought useful as an indicator for air pollution. If the amounts of Sb on the leaves of cedar and pine trees, which are widely distributed in Japan are determined, the degrees of pollution in all regions of Japan would be determined. In cedar trees of Saitama Prefecture where the deposit amounts of aerosols were comparatively larger, 42% of stoma was covered with the deposits, resulting that the rate of cuticular transpiration was increased and the amounts of basic elements leached from the leave surface was also increased. Thus, it was suggested that these changes might be the cause of recent declining of cedars in Japanese urban regions. (M.N.)

  7. Copper toxicity in leaves of Elodea canadensis Michx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, Przemysław; Maleva, Maria; Prasad, M N V; Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2009-05-01

    Elodea canadensis (Canadian waterweed) has an ability to accumulate and bioconcentrate heavy metals. In this work, selected cellular responses for Cu treatment were studied in leaves of E. canadensis. Short term experiments, i.e. 1 week exposure to 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 microM of Cu indicated that concentrations up to 10 microM Cu causes a pronounced accumulation of photosynthetic pigments, a drastic degradation of soluble proteins with molecular weight above 18 kDa and a rapid accumulation of polypeptides with molecular weight below 14 kDa. The connection of these observations with copper detoxification mechanisms in aquatic macrophytes are discussed.

  8. Ecophysiological studies on photosynthesis and pigment adaptation of light and shade leaves; Oekophysiologische Untersuchungen zur Photosynthese und Pigment-Adaptation bei Licht- und Schattenblaettern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, M.

    2005-07-01

    Photosynthetic function and pigment adaptation, as well as several other leaf parameters of light and shade adapted leaves of trees were studied under different environmental conditions. These measurements were performed primarily on a solitary standing beech during a summer drought stress period and an autumnal partial regeneration of physiological activity. Mainly investigated were beech leaves, sun leaves growing at the south side of the tree and shade leaves from the interior of the crown, since beech leaves show the strongest physiological light and shade adaptation responses among all deciduous trees. Similar adaptation studies were also performed with red, light-exposed, anthocyanin-containing leaves of the herbaceous purple foliage plant Perilla (beefsteak plant, Chinese basil) and some other plant species with either slightly or more red leaves, in order to check whether the accumulation of anthocyanins in the upper leaf epidermis of sun exposed-leaves blocks the high-light induced formation of sun-type chloroplasts. The latter are known to possess a much higher photosynthetic capacity and a different pigment composition as compared to shade-type chloroplasts of shaded green leaves. Special consideration was given to the natural drought stress effects usually occurring in the summer period (ca. end of July to end of August), caused by a combination of unfavourable weather conditions, such as a longer heat stress, with strong solar radiation and a very low rain precipitation lying clearly below the annual mean. The obtained research results provided new facts for a better understanding of the physiology of photosynthesis in sun and shade leaves of beech at both normal physiological conditions (June) and at environmental stress conditions (July, August), as well as the effect of anthocyanins on the formation of sun-type chloroplasts and their photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids) in light-exposed purple foliage. (orig.)

  9. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, G.P.; Sands, K.; Waters, M.; Wixson, B.G.; Dorward-King, E.

    2000-03-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc were quantified in mine wastes and in soils mixed with mine wastes. Metal concentrations were found to be heterogeneous in the wastes. Iceberg lettuce, Cherry Belle radishes, Roma bush beans, and Better Boy tomatoes were cultivated in mine wastes and in waste-amended soils. Lettuce and radishes had 100% survival in the 100% mine waste treatments compared to 0% and 25% survival for tomatoes and beans, respectively. Metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues to determine uptake and distribution of metals in the edible plant parts. Individual soil samples were collected beneath each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. This analysis verified heterogeneous metal content of the mine wastes. The four plant species effectively accumulated and translocated lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. Tomato and bean plants contained the four metals mainly in the roots and little was translocated to the fruits. Radish roots accumulated less metals compared to the leaves, whereas lettuce roots and leaves accumulated similar concentrations of the four metals. Lettuce leaves and radish roots accumulated significantly more metals than bean and tomato fruits. This accumulation pattern suggests that consumption of lettuce leaves or radish roots from plants grown in mine wastes would pose greater risks to humans and wildlife than would consumption of beans or tomatoes grown in the same area. The potential risk may be mitigated somewhat in humans, as vegetables grown in mine wastes exhibited stunted growth and chlorosis.

  10. Office design's impact on sick leave rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin Danielsson, Christina; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Wulff, Cornelia; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of office type on sickness absence among office employees was studied prospectively in 1852 employees working in (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Sick leaves were self-reported two years later as number of (a) short and (b) long (medically certified) sick leave spells as well as (c) total number of sick leave days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, with adjustment for background factors. A significant excess risk for sickness absence was found only in terms of short sick leave spells in the three open-plan offices. In the gender separate analysis, this remained for women, whereas men had a significantly increased risk in flex-offices. For long sick leave spells, a significantly higher risk was found among women in large open-plan offices and for total number of sick days among men in flex-offices. A prospective study of the office environment's effect on employees is motivated by the high rates of sick leaves in the workforce. The results indicate differences between office types, depending on the number of people sharing workspace and the opportunity to exert personal control as influenced by the features that define the office types.

  11. Determining Recoverable and Irrecoverable Contributions to Accumulated Strain in a NiTiPd High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloy During Thermomechanical Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, J. A.; Karaman, I.; Lagoudas, D. C.; Bigelow, G.; Noebe, R. D.; Padula, S., II

    2011-01-01

    When Ni(29.5)Ti(50.5)Pd30 shape memory alloy is thermally cycled under stress, significant strain can accumulate due to elasticity, remnant oriented martensite and plasticity. The strain due to remnant martensite can be recovered by further thermal cycling under 0 MPa until the original transformation-induced volume change and martensite coefficient of thermal expansion are obtained. Using this technique, it was determined that the 8.15% total accumulated strain after cycling under 200 MPa consisted of 0.38%, 3.97% and 3.87% for elasticity, remnant oriented martensite and creep/plasticity, respectively.

  12. Parental leave and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhm, C J

    2000-11-01

    This study investigates whether rights to parental leave improve pediatric health. Aggregate data are used for 16 European countries over the 1969 through 1994 period. More generous paid leave is found to reduce deaths of infants and young children. The magnitudes of the estimated effects are substantial, especially where a causal effect of leave is most plausible. In particular, there is a much stronger negative relationship between leave durations and post-neonatal or child fatalities than for perinatal mortality, neonatal deaths, or low birth weight. The evidence further suggests that parental leave may be a cost-effective method of bettering child health.

  13. Assessment of macro and microelement accumulation capability of two aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Alfani, Anna; Di Tommasi, Paul; Bartoli, Giovanni; De Santo, Amalia Virzo

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of four macroelements (C, N, P, S) and eight trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were measured in the leaves and roots of the emergent plant, Phragmites communis Trin., and in the shoots and roots of the submersed Najas marina L., taken from Lake Averno (Naples, Italy). Phragmites communis leaves showed higher concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus than roots, while the roots exhibited significantly higher concentrations of sulphur and trace metals. Najas marina roots also showed higher concentrations of sulphur and trace metals than shoots, but these differences were less marked than in Phragmites communis except for sulphur. Sulphur was the only macronutrient to show the highest concentrations in the roots. Phragmites communis roots had higher values of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni than Najas marina roots. By contrast, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were higher in Najas marina shoots than in Phragmites communis leaves. Phragmites communis, available through the year, showing high capability to accumulate trace metals in the roots, appears a good monitor of lake contamination, better than Najas marina. - Element accumulation in roots and shoots of aquatic plants was used as a criteria for selecting useful biomonitors

  14. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    of long-term sick leave. Method Data from 508 employed pregnant women seeking antenatal care was collected by questionnaires from August 2015 to March 2016. The questionnaires, which were filled in at 20 and 32 weeks of gestation, provided information on maternal characteristics, the number of days spent...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  15. Dust retaining properties of leaves of some tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusev, M I

    1960-05-01

    A study was made in Tashkent, Russia of the dust-retaining power of leaves of several tree species. Investigations were made in a park where these tree species were growing in close proximity, exposed to the effects of dust from the main city street and from the highway passing through the park. Observations on the dust-retaining power of leaves were made mostly during the summer and fall months. The dust-retaining power of leaves of different tree species varied with the dust concentration in the air. In the summer and fall when rains are scarce a steady accumulation of dust was observed on the surface of the leaves. 1 table.

  16. High Throughput Sequencing of Small RNAs in the Two Cucurbita Germplasm with Different Sodium Accumulation Patterns Identifies Novel MicroRNAs Involved in Salt Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Junjun; Lei, Bo; Niu, Mengliang; Huang, Yuan; Kong, Qiusheng; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, recognize their mRNA targets based on perfect sequence complementarity. MiRNAs lead to broader changes in gene expression after plants are exposed to stress. High-throughput sequencing is an effective method to identify and profile small RNA populations in non-model plants under salt stresses, significantly improving our knowledge regarding miRNA functions in salt tolerance. Cucurbits are sensitive to soil salinity, and the Cucurbita genus is used as the rootstock of other cucurbits to enhance salt tolerance. Several cucurbit crops have been used for miRNA sequencing but salt stress-related miRNAs in cucurbit species have not been reported. In this study, we subjected two Cucurbita germplasm, namely, N12 (Cucurbita. maxima Duch.) and N15 (Cucurbita. moschata Duch.), with different sodium accumulation patterns, to Illumina sequencing to determine small RNA populations in root tissues after 4 h of salt treatment and control. A total of 21,548,326 and 19,394,108 reads were generated from the control and salt-treated N12 root tissues, respectively. By contrast, 19,108,240 and 20,546,052 reads were obtained from the control and salt-treated N15 root tissues, respectively. Fifty-eight conserved miRNA families and 33 novel miRNAs were identified in the two Cucurbita germplasm. Seven miRNAs (six conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNAs) were up-regulated in salt-treated N12 and N15 samples. Most target genes of differentially expressed novel miRNAs were transcription factors and salt stress-responsive proteins, including dehydration-induced protein, cation/H+ antiporter 18, and CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase. The differential expression of miRNAs between the two Cucurbita germplasm under salt stress conditions and their target genes demonstrated that novel miRNAs play an important role in the response of the two Cucurbita germplasm to salt stress. The present study initially explored small RNAs in the

  17. High Throughput Sequencing of Small RNAs in the Two Cucurbita Germplasm with Different Sodium Accumulation Patterns Identifies Novel MicroRNAs Involved in Salt Stress Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Xie

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs, recognize their mRNA targets based on perfect sequence complementarity. MiRNAs lead to broader changes in gene expression after plants are exposed to stress. High-throughput sequencing is an effective method to identify and profile small RNA populations in non-model plants under salt stresses, significantly improving our knowledge regarding miRNA functions in salt tolerance. Cucurbits are sensitive to soil salinity, and the Cucurbita genus is used as the rootstock of other cucurbits to enhance salt tolerance. Several cucurbit crops have been used for miRNA sequencing but salt stress-related miRNAs in cucurbit species have not been reported. In this study, we subjected two Cucurbita germplasm, namely, N12 (Cucurbita. maxima Duch. and N15 (Cucurbita. moschata Duch., with different sodium accumulation patterns, to Illumina sequencing to determine small RNA populations in root tissues after 4 h of salt treatment and control. A total of 21,548,326 and 19,394,108 reads were generated from the control and salt-treated N12 root tissues, respectively. By contrast, 19,108,240 and 20,546,052 reads were obtained from the control and salt-treated N15 root tissues, respectively. Fifty-eight conserved miRNA families and 33 novel miRNAs were identified in the two Cucurbita germplasm. Seven miRNAs (six conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNAs were up-regulated in salt-treated N12 and N15 samples. Most target genes of differentially expressed novel miRNAs were transcription factors and salt stress-responsive proteins, including dehydration-induced protein, cation/H+ antiporter 18, and CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase. The differential expression of miRNAs between the two Cucurbita germplasm under salt stress conditions and their target genes demonstrated that novel miRNAs play an important role in the response of the two Cucurbita germplasm to salt stress. The present study initially explored small

  18. Source identification of heavy metals in atmospheric dust using Platanus orientalis L. leaves as bioindicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Norouzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on atmospheric dust have been limited by the high cost of instrumental monitoring methods and also sampling difficulties. The use of organisms acting as bioaccumulators has recently been proposed. In this study, the leaves of Platanus orientalis L., as a possible biomonitor of heavy metals in atmospheric dust, were evaluated to understand the likely source(s of pollution in Isfahan, Iran. Concentration of Zn, Cu, Ni and Mn and Magnetic susceptibility (χlf were determined in washed (WL and unwashed leaves (UL, monthly sampled from May to Nov., 2012. By subtracting the amount of metal concentrations and χlf in UL and WL, the amount of these parameters in dust deposited on the leaves (UL-WL were calculated. Enrichment factor analysis (EF, correlation coeficient, principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis (CA on the UL-WL data were employed to trace the heavy metals sources. Results showed that the metal concentration in UL and WL in primary sampling times was not statistically different. As time passed, this difference became more noticeable. Seasonal accumulation trends of elements concentration in UL-WL, referred to as accumulative biomonitors showing the accumulation of dust on the leaves are considerable and the contamination of plants by metal occurs mainly by retention of particulate matter. All the heavy metals are well correlated with χlf, indicating the potential of magnetic measurement as an inexpensive and less laborious method to estimate heavy metals. Cu and Zn exhibited a very strong correlation with each other and the highest correlation with χlf, suggesting an anthropogenic nature of these two metals. High EF of Cu and Zn showed that anthropogenic sources contribute a substantial amount of these metals to dust deposited on leaves. Whereas, less EF for Mn and Ni shows that natural source and local polluted soils might be the main origins of these metals. PCA results showed 2 principal components. Factor 1 with

  19. In Vivo Inhibition of Lipid Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyani; Purwakusumah, E. P.; Andrianto, D.

    2017-03-01

    This is a preliminary research report on the use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to establish anti-obesity screening assay of the natural plant resources. Nematode C. elegans has been used as experimental animal model for understanding lipid accumulation. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of selected plant extracts on lipid accumulation in C. elegans. Currently no report could be found regarding lipid accumulation in C.elegans treated with ethanolic leaf extracts of jabon merah (Anthocephalus macrophyllus), jati belanda (Guazuma ulmifolia), and Mindi (Melia Azedarach) plants. Lipid accumulation was determined qualitatively using lipid staining method and quantitatively by colorimetry using sulpho-phospho-vanillin reagent. Data showed that lipid accumulation was inhibited up to 72% by extract of M. azedarach, about 35% by both of A. macrophyllus and G. ulmifolia extracts, and up to 25% by orlistat (a synthetic slimming drug). Ethanolic extract of A. macrophyllus, G. ulmifolia, and M. azedarach leaves were shown to inhibit lipid accumulation in C. elegans and M. azedarach leaves extracts was the most effective inhibitor. C.elegans were shown to be an effective model for in vivo lipid accumulation mechanism and potential to be used as a rapid screening assay for bioactive compounds with lipid accumulation inhibitory activity.

  20. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel, Ann P.; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides quasi-experimental evidence on the impact of paid leave legislation on fathers' leave-taking, as well as on the division of leave between mothers and fathers in dual-earner households. Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, which is the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the United States. Our results show that fathers in Califo...

  1. High-speed scanning ablation of dental hard tissues with a λ = 9.3 μm CO2 laser: adhesion, mechanical strength, heat accumulation, and peripheral thermal damage

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Daniel; Chang, Kwang; Hedayatollahnajafi, Saba; Staninec, Michal; Chan, Kenneth; Lee, Robert; Fried, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    CO2 lasers can be operated at high laser pulse repetition rates for the rapid and precise removal of dental decay. Excessive heat accumulation and peripheral thermal damage is a concern when using high pulse repetition rates. Peripheral thermal damage can adversely impact the mechanical strength of the irradiated tissue, particularly for dentin, and reduce the adhesion characteristics of the modified surfaces. The interpulpal temperature rise was recorded using microthermocouples situated at ...

  2. Molecular imaging of alkaloids in khat (Catha edulis) leaves with MeV-SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenčič, Boštjan; Jeromel, Luka; Ogrinc Potočnik, Nina; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Vavpetič, Primož; Rupnik, Zdravko; Bučar, Klemen; Vencelj, Matjaž; Kelemen, Mitja; Matsuo, Jiro; Kusakari, Masakazu; Siketić, Zdravko; Al-Jalali, Muhammad A.; Shaltout, Abdallah; Pelicon, Primož

    2017-08-01

    Imaging Mass Spectroscopy (IMS) is a unique research tool providing localization and identification of a wide range of biomolecules as essential data to understand biochemical processes in living organisms. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry with high-energy heavy ions (MeV-SIMS) is emerging as a promising IMS technique for chemical imaging of biological tissue. We measured the molecular mass spatial distributions in leaves of khat (Catha edulis). Khat is a natural drug plant, native to eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. In these countries, fresh leaves are being chewed by significant part of population. It was reported that 80% of the adult population in Yemen chew the khat leaves. The main stimulating effects of khat are induced by a monoamine alkaloid called cathinone. During leaf ageing, cathinone is further metabolised to cathine and norephedrine. Earlier studies identified the alkaloids in khat, however little is known on their spatial distribution, reflecting the biosynthesis and accumulation in the tissue. Chemical mapping of alkaloids on cross-sections of khat leaves by MeV-SIMS was done at JSI by a pulsed 5.8 MeV 35Cl6+ beam, focused to a diameter of 15 μm, using a linear time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer with a mass resolution of 500. In addition, measurements of MeV-SIMS mass spectra were performed at Kyoto University by a continuous broad beam of 6 MeV 63Cu4+ ions at an orthogonal TOF spectrometer with a high mass resolution of 11,000. Sections of leaves were analysed and mass spectra obtained at both MeV-SIMS setups were compared. Tissue-level distributions of detected alkaloids are presented and discussed.

  3. Transcript profiling and gene characterization of three fatty acid desaturase genes in high, moderate, and low linolenic acid genotypes of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and their role in linolenic acid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Mitali; Duguid, Scott; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2011-06-01

    Three genes encoding fatty acid desaturase 3 (fad3a, fad3b, and a novel fad3c) were cloned from four flax genotypes varying in linolenic acid content. Real-time PCR was used to quantify expression levels of the three fad3 genes during seed development. High amounts of both fad3a and fad3b transcripts were observed and reached their peak levels at 20 days after anthesis, except for fad3a from SP2047 where only low level expression was observed throughout seed development. Transcript accumulation of the novel fad3c gene was at similar background levels. The fatty acid composition was analysed for all genotypes and stages of development and compared with the fad3 gene expression patterns. α-Linolenic acid gradually accumulated during seed development, while linoleic acid was transient and decreased in M5791, UGG5-5, and AC McDuff. In contrast, the linolenic acid present in the early stages of development nearly completely disappeared in SP2047, while linoleic acid steadily accumulated. fad3a of the low linolenic acid line SP2047 encoded a truncated protein caused by a premature stop codon resulting from a single point mutation, and the low level of transcript accumulation in this genotype is likely due to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay caused by the premature termination of translation as a result of this early stop codon. Although substantial amounts of transcript accumulation occurred with fad3b of SP2047 genotype, cloning of the gene revealed a mutation in the first histidine box causing an amino acid change. Heterologous expression in yeast of the SP2047 and UGG5-5 fad3b genes showed that the mutation in the histidine box in SP2047 caused the enzyme inactivity. Taken together, these results showed that fad3a and fad3b are responsible for linolenic acid accumulation in flax seeds but did not support a major role for the novel fad3c. These observations were further supported by phenotypic and genotypic assessment of a doubled haploid population. Expression patterns

  4. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Anne P; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the Unites States. Relative to the pre-treatment mean, fathers of infants in California are 46 percent more likely to be on leave when CA-PFL is available. In households where both parents work, we find suggestive evidence that CA-PFL increases both father-only leave-taking (i.e., father on leave while mother is at work) and joint leave-taking (i.e., both parents on leave at the same time). Effects are larger for fathers of first-born children than for fathers of later-born children.

  5. The dewetting properties of lotus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jihua; Sheng, Xianliang; Jiang, Lei

    2009-02-03

    The high dewetting abilities of lotus leaves can be transited to a complete wetting state by soaking the leaves in water at a depth of 50 cm for 2 h. However, after being dried by N2 gas, the high dewetting behavior of lotus leaves may be mostly restored. This indicates that experimental procedure might considerably affect the dewetting abilities of lotus leaves. To discover the mechanism underlying this interesting dewetting phenomena, the dewetting force was used to characterize the dewetting abilities of surfaces, and model studies to mimic the papillae were done. Surface hydrophobicity, sizes, rise angles, and secondary structures of the models' sides affected their dewetting force with water. So we suggested that the dewetting states, Cassie or Wenzel's state, of lotus surfaces depend much on the depth of water, i.e., the hydraulic pressure. On the other hand, the primary structures of papillae in Cassie's state led to a high receding angle with respect to the plane of the leaf during the dewetting measurement. The secondary structures and micro/nano arrays of papillae increased the dewetting abilities of lotus leaves, since no water intruded between papillae. However, the structures of papillae in Wenzle's state significantly reduced the dewetting abilities of lotus leaves after being soaked at a depth of 50 cm for 2 h. Therefore, as for novel designs of microdevices floating on water, including the use of the high dewetting properties of suphydrophobic materials, surface (primary or secondary) microstructure and external pressure, such as static hydraulic pressure, must be taken into account.

  6. Phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalstig, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Physiological and transport data support a symplastic pathway for phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Klein E, multigerm). The sulfhydryl inhibitor parachloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited uptake of [ 14 C]-sucrose added to the free space of developing leaves, but did not affect import of [ 14 C]-sucrose during steady-state 14 CO 2 labeling of a source leaf. The passively-transported xenobiotic sugar, [ 14 C]-L-glucose did not readily enter mesophyll cells when supplied through the cut end of the petiole of a sink leaf as determined by whole leaf autoradiography. In contrast, [ 14 C]-L-glucose translocated through the phloem from a mature leaf, rapidly entered mesophyll cells, and was evenly distributed between mesophyll and veins. Autoradiographs of developing leaves following a pulse of 14 CO 2 to a source leaf revealed rapid passage of phloem translocated into progressively higher order veins as the leaf developed. Entry into V order veins occurred during the last stage of import through the phloem. Import into developing leaves was inhibited by glyphosate (N-phosphomethylglycine), a herbicide which inhibits the aromatic amino acid pathway and hence protein synthesis. Glyphosate also stopped net starch accumulation in sprayed mature leaves, but did not affect export of carbon from treated leaves during the time period that import into developed leaves was inhibited

  7. Boron accumulation and toxicity in hybrid poplar (Populus nigra × euramericana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H; Menon, Manoj; Lehmann, Eberhard; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Schulin, Rainer

    2011-12-15

    Poplars accumulate high B concentrations and are thus used for the phytomanagement of B contaminated soils. Here, we performed pot experiments in which Populus nigra × euramericana were grown on a substrate with B concentrations ranging from 13 to 280 mg kg(-1) as H(3)BO(3). Salix viminalis, Brassica juncea, and Lupinus albus were grown under some growing conditions for comparison. Poplar growth was unaffected at soil B treatment levels up to 93 mg kg(-1). Growth was progressively reduced at levels of 168 and 280 mg kg(-1). None of the other species survived at these substrate B levels. At leaf B concentrations toxicity. Neutron radiography revealed that chlorotic leaf tissues had B concentrations of 1000-2000 mg kg(-1), while necrotic tissues had >2000 mg kg(-1). Average B concentrations of up to 3500 mg kg(-1) were found in leaves, while spots within leaves had concentrations >7000 mg kg(-1), showing that B accumulation in leaf tissue continued even after the onset of necrosis. The B accumulation ability of P. nigra × euramericana is associated with B hypertolerance in the living tissue and storage of B in dead leaf tissue.

  8. Evaluation of constitutive iron reductase (AtFRO2 expression on mineral accumulation and distribution in soybean (Glycine max. L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wilton Vasconcelos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an important micronutrient in human and plant nutrition. Adequate iron nutrition during crop production is central for assuring appropriate iron concentrations in the harvestable organs, for human food or animal feed. The whole-plant movement of iron involves several processes, including the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron at several locations throughout the plant, prior to transmembrane trafficking of ferrous iron. In this study, soybean plants that constitutively expressed the AtFRO2 iron reductase gene were analyzed for leaf iron reductase activity, as well as the effect of this transgene's expression on root, leaf, pod wall, and seed mineral concentrations. High Fe supply, in combination with the constitutive expression of AtFRO2, resulted in significantly higher concentrations of different minerals in roots (K, P, Zn, Ca, Ni, Mg and Mo, pod walls (Fe, K, P, Cu and Ni, leaves (Fe, P, Cu, Ca, Ni and Mg and seeds (Fe, Zn, Cu and Ni. Leaf and pod wall iron concentrations increased as much as 500% in transgenic plants, while seed iron concentrations only increased by 10%, suggesting that factors other than leaf and pod wall reductase activity were limiting the translocation of iron to seeds. Protoplasts isolated from transgenic leaves had three-fold higher reductase activity than controls. Expression levels of the iron storage protein, ferritin, were higher in the transgenic leaves than in wild-type, suggesting that the excess iron may be stored as ferritin in the leaves and therefore unavailable for phloem loading and delivery to the seeds. Also, citrate and malate levels in the roots and leaves of transgenic plants were significantly higher than in wild-type, suggesting that organic acid production could be related to the increased accumulation of minerals in roots, leaves and pod walls, but not in the seeds. All together, these results suggest a more ubiquitous role for the iron reductase in whole-plant mineral accumulation and

  9. The effect of drainage on organic matter accumulation and plant communities of high-altitude peatlands in the Colombian tropical Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Benavides

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The tropical Andes store and regulate water outflow that serves nearly 60 million people. Most of the water is for un-managed agricultural irrigation. In this work I report how the drainage of peatlands has adversely affected the development of plant communities and recent carbon accumulation in a páramo massif at 2500 to 3800 m altitude in the northern Andes. I surveyed vegetation and water chemistry in 26 peatlands with differing intensities of drainage. Peat cores to 50 cm from two sites with contrasting drainage histories were dated using 210Pb, and used to compare historical vegetation changes and carbon accumulation rates. (A Species composition was much affected by drainage, which resulted in a reduction in cover of Sphagnum and other peat-forming species, and the encroachment of sedges and Juncus effusus. The ability of peat to store water and carbon was also reduced in drained peatlands. Vegetation records show a shift towards sedge-Juncus communities around 50 years ago when agricultural use of water increased. (B Peat and carbon accumulation rates were lower in drained sites, indicating either greater decomposition rates of the upper peat column or lower production by the changed plant communities. The ecological services offered by peatlands to agrarian communities downstream are important. Measures to prevent peatland destruction are needed urgently.

  10. Phosphatidic acid accumulation and catecholamine release in adrenal chromaffin cells: stimulation by high potassium and by nicotine, and effect of a diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R 59 022.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, P J; Jones, J A; Boarder, M R

    1991-09-01

    Using primary cultures of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells labelled with 32Pi, we show that stimulation with bradykinin, nicotine, or a depolarising concentration of potassium stimulates the accumulation of [32P]phosphatidic acid. The effects of nicotine and potassium are smaller than the effect of bradykinin, and are dependent entirely on extracellular calcium. The diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R 59 022 attenuates the formation of phosphatidic acid by nicotine and depolarising concentrations of potassium. This inhibitor also blocks the nicotine and potassium stimulation of noradrenaline release from chromaffin cells. Using 45Ca2+ influx studies, we show that the nicotine-evoked calcium influx is also attenuated by R 59 022. These observations contrast with those in another report in which we showed that bradykinin stimulation of either [32P]phosphatidic acid accumulation or noradrenaline release is not affected by R 59 022. It is likely that the calcium influx produced by nicotine and depolarising potassium is blocked by R 59 022 by a mechanism that is independent of its ability to block diacylglycerol kinase. The nicotine- and potassium-stimulated [32P]phosphatidic acid accumulation is a consequence of this calcium influx and presumably reflects calcium activation of either phospholipase C or phospholipase D.

  11. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of Four Major Flavonol Glycosides in the Leaves of Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) Roemer (Chinese Toon) from Various Origins by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Liting; Cao, Yaqi; Gu, Qinying; Yang, Huan; Tam, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) Roemer is an endemic species of Toona genus native to Asian area. Its dried leaves are applied in the treatment of many diseases; however, few investigations have been reported for the quantitative analysis and comparison of major bioactive flavonol glycosides in the leaves harvested from various origins. Objective: To quantitatively analyze four major flavonol glycosides including rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside, and kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside in the leaves from different production sites and classify them according to the content of these glycosides. Materials and Methods: A high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method for their simultaneous determination was developed and validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, stability, and repeatability. Moreover, the method established was then employed to explore the difference in the content of these four glycosides in raw materials. Finally, a hierarchical clustering analysis was performed to classify 11 voucher specimens. Results: The separation was performed on a Waters XBridge Shield RP18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm) kept at 35°C, and acetonitrile and H2O containing 0.30% trifluoroacetic acid as mobile phase was driven at 1.0 mL/min during the analysis. Ten microliters of solution were injected and 254 nm was selected to monitor the separation. A strong linear relationship between the peak area and concentration of four analytes was observed. And, the method was also validated to be repeatable, stable, precise, and accurate. Conclusion: An efficient and reliable HPLC-DAD method was established and applied in the assays for the samples from 11 origins successfully. Moreover, the content of those flavonol glycosides varied much among different batches, and the flavonoids could be considered as biomarkers to control the quality of Chinese Toon. SUMMARY Four major flavonol glycosides in the leaves

  12. Accumulation of Heavy Metals (Pb, Cd, V) in Sediment, roots and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    info and www.bioline.org.br/ja. Accumulation of Heavy Metals (Pb, Cd, V) in Sediment, roots and leaves of ... ABSTRACT: Sirik mangrove forests harbour two species, Avicennia marina and .... Based on the soil critical concentration value of Pb.

  13. Genotypic variation in the sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) I. Plant composition and transcript accumulation

    KAUST Repository

    McCallum, John A.

    2011-06-01

    Organosulfur compounds are major sinks for assimilated sulfate in onion (Allium cepa L.) and accumulation varies widely due to plant genotype and sulfur nutrition. In order to better characterise sulfur metabolism phenotypes and identify potential control points we compared plant composition and transcript accumulation of the primary sulfur assimilation pathway in the high pungency genotype \\'W202A\\' and the low pungency genotype \\'Texas Grano 438\\' grown hydroponically under S deficient (S-) and S-sufficient (S+) conditions. Accumulation of total S and alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxide flavour precursors was significantly higher under S+ conditions and in \\'W202A\\' in agreement with previous studies. Leaf sulfate and cysteine levels were significantly higher in \\'W202A\\' and under S+. Glutathione levels were reduced by S- treatment but were not affected by genotype, suggesting that thiol pool sizes are regulated differently in mild and pungent onions. The only significant treatment effect observed on transcript accumulation in leaves was an elevated accumulation of O-acetyl serine thiol-lyase under S-. By contrast, transcript accumulation of all genes in roots was influenced by one or more treatments. APS reductase transcript level was not affected by genotype but was strongly increased by S-. Significant genotype × S treatment effects were observed in a root high affinity-sulfur transporter and ferredoxin-sulfite reductase. ATP sulfurylase transcript levels were significantly higher under S+ and in \\'W202A\\'. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  15. Does paternity leave affect mothers’ sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Naz, Ghazala

    2009-01-01

    Female labour force participation is high in Norway but sickness absence rates are higher for women than for men. This may be partly a result of unequal sharing of childcare in the family. In this paper, we consider the effect of paternity leave on sickness absence among women who have recently given birth. We draw on a six-year panel taken from full population data from administrative sources. We find that in the 6% of families where fathers take out leave more than the standard quota (gende...

  16. Preparing Apigenin from Leaves of Adinandra nitida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengxiang Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Adinandra nitida were used as raw material, and a new industrially significant method of preparing apigenin was established by hydrolyzing a water extract and recrystallizing it with ethanol in order to obtain a new source for the production of this flavone. A yield of about 2.5 % (dry mass was obtained with the purity of 93.05 %, determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Moreover, the main flavonoids in leaves of Adinandra nitida and the product after acid hydrolysis were identified as camellianin A and apigenin, respectively, by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV/VIS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS.

  17. Assessment of metals content in dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) leaves grown on mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levei, Levente; Andrei, Mariana Lucia; Hoaghia, Maria Alexandra; Ozunu, Alexandru

    2017-12-01

    Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is one of the plant species that has the ability to spontaneously grow on mine tailings, due to its high tolerance for harsh environmental conditions (low nutrients level, high metal contents). The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in tailings and dandelion leaves grown on nonferrous mine tailings from Romania, while the metal accumulation was assessed by transfer factors (TFs) calculated as the ratio between the metal concentration in plant leaves and in tailings underneath. The results showed that the metal concentrations in tailings ranged between 0.4-8.0 mg/kg Cd, 20-1300 mg/kg Cu, 27-570 mg/kg Pb and 48-800 mg/kg Zn, while the metal concentrations in dandelion ranged between 0.2-4.8 mg/kg Cd, 6.2-17 mg/kg Cu, 0.5-75 mg/kg Pb and 27-260 mg/kg Zn. The TFs were below 0.8 for Cd and Zn and below 0.4 for Cu and Pb and decreased in the following order Cd≥Zn>Cu≥Pb, suggesting the Cd and Zn accumulation capability of dandelion.

  18. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) leaves as biomonitors of atmospheric metal pollution in arid and semi-arid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Khashman, Omar Ali, E-mail: omarkhashman@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, P.O. Box (20), Ma' an-Jordan (Jordan); Al-Muhtaseb, Ala' a H.; Ibrahim, Khalid A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, P.O. Box (20), Ma' an-Jordan (Jordan)

    2011-06-15

    The leaves of date palms were evaluated as a possible biomonitor of heavy metal contamination in Ma'an city, Jordan. Concentrations of (Fe), (Pb), (Zn), (Cu), (Ni), and (Cr) were determined in washed and unwashed leaves and soil samples collected from different sites with different degrees of metal contamination (urban, suburban, industrial, highway and rural sites); separate leaves were taken from outside the city to be used as a control sample. Samples collected from industrial sites were found to have high concentrations of all metals except those of Cu, Ni and Pb, which were found at high levels in the highway site samples which is associated with the road traffic. The difference between unwashed and washed samples showed that metal pollutants exist as contaminants, particularly Pb, Zn and Ni, which varied in concentration, depending on the source of the metal. - Highlights: > High metal concentration in plant samples and roadside soil was due to the heavy traffic. > The mean concentrations (C) were in the order: C{sub Fe} > C{sub Pb} > C{sub Zn} > C{sub Ni} > C{sub Cu} > C{sub Cr}. > Difference between unwashed and washed samples showed that pollutants exist as contaminants. - Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) leaves can be used as an inexpensive biomonitor of the deposition, accumulation and distribution of heavy metal contamination in arid environments.

  19. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) leaves as biomonitors of atmospheric metal pollution in arid and semi-arid environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khashman, Omar Ali; Al-Muhtaseb, Ala'a H.; Ibrahim, Khalid A.

    2011-01-01

    The leaves of date palms were evaluated as a possible biomonitor of heavy metal contamination in Ma'an city, Jordan. Concentrations of (Fe), (Pb), (Zn), (Cu), (Ni), and (Cr) were determined in washed and unwashed leaves and soil samples collected from different sites with different degrees of metal contamination (urban, suburban, industrial, highway and rural sites); separate leaves were taken from outside the city to be used as a control sample. Samples collected from industrial sites were found to have high concentrations of all metals except those of Cu, Ni and Pb, which were found at high levels in the highway site samples which is associated with the road traffic. The difference between unwashed and washed samples showed that metal pollutants exist as contaminants, particularly Pb, Zn and Ni, which varied in concentration, depending on the source of the metal. - Highlights: → High metal concentration in plant samples and roadside soil was due to the heavy traffic. → The mean concentrations (C) were in the order: C Fe > C Pb > C Zn > C Ni > C Cu > C Cr . → Difference between unwashed and washed samples showed that pollutants exist as contaminants. - Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) leaves can be used as an inexpensive biomonitor of the deposition, accumulation and distribution of heavy metal contamination in arid environments.

  20. Parental Leave Policies and Parents' Employment and Leave-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time span is one…

  1. On flavonoid accumulation in different plant parts: Variation patterns among individuals and populations in the shore campion (Silene littorea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Del Valle

    2015-10-01

    flavonoids towards southern latitudes was observed in calyxes and leaves. This pattern corresponds to a gradual increase of UV-B radiation and temperature, and a decrease of rainfall toward the south. However, populations along the southern coast exposed to similar climatic stressors showed highly variable flavonoid contents, implying that other factors may play a role in flavonoid accumulation.

  2. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  3. An Efficient Method for the Preparative Isolation and Purification of Flavonoid Glycosides and Caffeoylquinic Acid Derivatives from Leaves of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Using High Speed Counter-Current Chromatography (HSCCC) and Prep-HPLC Guided by DPPH-HPLC Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daijie; Du, Ning; Wen, Lei; Zhu, Heng; Liu, Feng; Wang, Xiao; Du, Jinhua; Li, Shengbo

    2017-02-02

    In this work, the n-butanol extract from leaves of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (L. japonica) was reacted with DPPH and subjected to a HPLC analysis for the guided screening antioxidants (DPPH-HPLC experiments). Then, nine antioxidants, including flavonoid glycosides and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, were isolated and purified from leaves of L. japonica using high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and prep-HPLC. The n-butanol extract was firstly isolated by HSCCC using methyl tert-butyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/water (0.5% acetic acid) (2:2:1:5, v/v), yielding five fractions F1, F2 (rhoifolin), F3 (luteoloside), F4 and F5 (collected from the column after the separation). The sub-fractions F1, F4 and F5 were successfully separated by prep-HPLC. Finally, nine compounds, including chlorogenic acid (1), lonicerin (2), rutin (3), rhoifolin (4), luteoloside (5), 3,4-Odicaffeoylquinic acid (6), hyperoside (7), 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (8), and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (9) were obtained, respectively, with the purities over 94% as determined by HPLC. The structures were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), 1H- and 13C-NMR. Antioxidant activities were tested, and the isolated compounds showed strong antioxidant activities.

  4. Rate of ice accumulation during ice storms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feknous, N. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Sabourin, G. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The rate of glaze ice accumulation is the result of a complex process dependent on numerous meteorological and physical factors. The aim of this paper was to estimate the distribution rate of glaze ice accumulation on conductors in southern Quebec for use in the design of mechanical and electrical de-icing devices. The analysis was based on direct observations of ice accumulation collected on passive ice meters. The historical database of Hydro-Quebec, which contains observations at over 140 stations over period of 25 years, was used to compute accumulation rates. Data was processed so that each glaze ice event was numbered in a chronological sequence. Each event consisted of the time series of ice accumulations on each of the 8 cylinders of the ice meters, as well as on 5 of its surfaces. Observed rates were converted to represent the average ice on a 30 mm diameter conductor at 30 m above ground with a span of 300 m. Observations were corrected to account for the water content of the glaze ice as evidenced by the presence of icicles. Results indicated that despite significant spatial variations in the expected severity of ice storms as a function of location, the distribution function for rates of accumulation were fairly similar and could be assumed to be independent of location. It was concluded that the observations from several sites could be combined in order to obtain better estimates of the distribution of hourly rates of ice accumulation. However, the rates were highly variable. For de-icing strategies, it was suggested that average accumulation rates over 12 hour periods were preferable, and that analyses should be performed for other time intervals to account for the variability in ice accumulation rates over time. In addition, accumulation rates did not appear to be highly correlated with average wind speed for maximum hourly accumulation rates. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  5. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2)Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the interest of all parties concerned. This automatic transfer procedure has a number of advantages for participants in the SLS scheme. First, staff members will no longer have to take any administrative steps. Secondly, the new proced...

  6. Self-organizing feature map (neural networks) as a tool to select the best indicator of road traffic pollution (soil, leaves or bark of Robinia pseudoacacia L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A; Stankiewicz, A; Kolon, K; Kempers, A J

    2009-07-01

    Concentrations of the elements Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in the leaves and bark of Robinia pseudoacacia and the soil in which it grew, in the town of Oleśnica (SW Poland) and at a control site. We selected this town because emission from motor vehicles is practically the only source of air pollution, and it seemed interesting to evaluate its influence on soil and plants. The self-organizing feature map (SOFM) yielded distinct groups of soils and R. pseudoacacia leaves and bark, depending on traffic intensity. Only the map classifying bark samples identified an additional group of highly polluted sites along the main highway from Wrocław to Warszawa. The bark of R. pseudoacacia seems to be a better bioindicator of long-term cumulative traffic pollution in the investigated area, while leaves are good indicators of short-term seasonal accumulation trends.

  7. Alterations in Rubisco activity and in stomatal behavior induce a daily rhythm in photosynthesis of aerial leaves in the amphibious-plant Nuphar lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snir, Ainit; Gurevitz, Michael; Marcus, Yehouda

    2006-12-01

    Nuphar lutea is an amphibious plant with submerged and aerial foliage, which raises the question how do both leaf types perform photosynthetically in two different environments. We found that the aerial leaves function like terrestrial sun-leaves in that their photosynthetic capability was high and saturated under high irradiance (ca. 1,500 mumol photons m(-2) s(-1)). We show that stomatal opening and Rubisco activity in these leaves co-limited photosynthesis at saturating irradiance fluctuating in a daily rhythm. In the morning, sunlight stimulated stomatal opening, Rubisco synthesis, and the neutralization of a night-accumulated Rubisco inhibitor. Consequently, the light-saturated quantum efficiency and rate of photosynthesis increased 10-fold by midday. During the afternoon, gradual closure of the stomata and a decrease in Rubisco content reduced the light-saturated photosynthetic rate. However, at limited irradiance, stomatal behavior and Rubisco content had only a marginal effect on the photosynthetic rate, which did not change during the day. In contrast to the aerial leaves, the photosynthesis rate of the submerged leaves, adapted to a shaded environment, was saturated under lower irradiance. The light-saturated quantum efficiency of these leaves was much lower and did not change during the day. Due to their low photosynthetic affinity for CO(2) (35 muM) and inability to utilize other inorganic carbon species, their photosynthetic rate at air-equilibrated water was CO(2)-limited. These results reveal differences in the photosynthetic performance of the two types of Nuphar leaves and unravel how photosynthetic daily rhythm in the aerial leaves is controlled.

  8. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  9. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  10. Creation / accumulation city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doevendans, C.H.; Schram, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    A distinction between basic archetypes of urban form was made by Bruno Fortier: the accumulation city as opposed to the creation city. These archetypes derive from archaeology - being based on the Roman and the Egyptian city - but are interpreted as morphological paradigms, as a set of assumptions

  11. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  12. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  13. Photoprotection vs. Photoinhibition of Photosystem II in Transplastomic Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Dominantly Accumulating Astaxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Ritsuko; Yamano, Nami; Hashimoto, Hideki; Misawa, Norihiko; Ifuku, Kentaro

    2016-07-01

    Transplastomic (chloroplast genome-modified; CGM) lettuce that dominantly accumulates astaxanthin grows similarly to a non-transgenic control with almost no accumulation of naturally occurring photosynthetic carotenoids. In this study, we evaluated the activity and assembly of PSII in CGM lettuce. The maximum quantum yield of PSII in CGM lettuce was <0.6; however, the quantum yield of PSII was comparable with that in control leaves under higher light intensity. CGM lettuce showed a lower ability to induce non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) than the control under various light intensities. The fraction of slowly recovering NPQ in CGM lettuce, which is considered to be photoinhibitory quenching (qI), was less than half that of the control. In fact, 1 O 2 generation was lower in CGM than in control leaves under high light intensity. CGM lettuce contained less PSII, accumulated mostly as a monomer in thylakoid membranes. The PSII monomers purified from the CGM thylakoids bound echinenone and canthaxanthin in addition to β-carotene, suggesting that a shortage of β-carotene and/or the binding of carbonyl carotenoids would interfere with the photophysical function as well as normal assembly of PSII. In contrast, high accumulation of astaxanthin and other carbonyl carotenoids was found within the thylakoid membranes. This finding would be associated with the suppression of photo-oxidative stress in the thylakoid membranes. Our observation suggests the importance of a specific balance between photoprotection and photoinhibition that can support normal photosynthesis in CGM lettuce producing astaxanthin. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Lead accumulation by some plant species cultivated in the vicinity of a lead factory in Sfax; Accumulation du plomb par quelques especes vegetales cultivees au voisinage d'une fonderie de plomb a Sfax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elloumi, N.; Ben Abdallah, F.; Mezghani, I.; Boukhris, M. [Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Lab. d' Ecologie Vegetale, Unite de Recherche Biologie de la Vegetation en Milieu Aride, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2003-06-01

    Atmospheric emissions, particularly the particles containing high concentrations of heavy metals, have harmful effects on the environment. The aim of this work is to evaluate the accumulation of a lead factory emissions, on the vegetation near the factory in function of time, distance and climatic factors. Analyses results have showed an important lead accumulation by vegetation located in the vicinity of the factory. Plant species studied here (olive trees, palm trees, almond trees, pomegranate trees and vine) have shown high and variable lead accumulation. Highest concentrations (over than 400 {mu}g/g) were recorded in non-washed leaves of olive trees surrounding the factory. Rapid and considerable decrease of lead content was, however, recorded for the same species situated at a distance bigger than 1 km from the source. Interaction effects study of several factors, such as climatic factors and diversity of plant species on lead accumulation by plants, have shown that the degree of lead accumulation was related to wind direction and distance from pollution source. Lead concentrations in species planted in the NW of the factory and exposed to SE wind direction were higher than that of ones exposed to any other direction. High lead concentrations in the vicinity of the factory seem to indicate that particles and gaseous pollutants fallout in the surrounding of the factory are as much important as the chimney height is reduced. (authors)

  15. Contrasts in Sediment Delivery and Dispersal from River Mouth to Accumulation Zones in High Sediment Load Systems: Fly River, Papua New Guinea and Waipaoa River, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogston, A. S.; Walsh, J. P.; Hale, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    The relationships between sediment-transport processes, short-term sedimentary deposition, subsequent burial, and long-term accumulation are critical to understanding the morphological development of the continental margin. This study focuses on processes involved in formation and evolution of the clinoform in the Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea in which much of the riverine sediment accumulates, and comparison to those processes active off the Waipaoa River, New Zealand that form mid-shelf deposits and export sediment to the slope. In tidally dominated deltas, sediment discharged from the river sources must transit through an estuarine region located within the distributary channels, where particle pathways can undergo significant transformations. Within the distributaries of the Fly River tidally dominated delta, near-bed fluid-mud concentrations were observed at the estuarine turbidity maximum and sediment delivery to the nearshore was controlled by the morphology and gradient of the distributary. El Niño results in anonymously low flow and sediment discharge conditions, which limits transport of sediment from the distributaries to the nearshore zone of temporary storage. Because the sediment stored nearshore feeds the prograding clinoform, this perturbation propagates throughout the dispersal system. In wave-dominated regions, transport mechanisms actively move sediment away from the river source, separating the site of deposition and accumulation from the river mouth. River-flood and storm-wave events each create discrete deposits on the Waipaoa River shelf and data has been collected to determine their form, distribution, and relationship to factors such as flood magnitude or wave energy. In this case, transport pathways appear to be influenced by structurally controlled shelf bathymetry. In both cases, the combined fluvial and marine processes can initiate and maintain gravity-driven density flows, and although their triggers and controls differ vastly

  16. Offspring from rat mothers fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet during gestation and lactation accumulate free fatty acids in the liver when exposed to high fat diet as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Ingvorsen, Camilla

    Introduction: Maternal diet during gestation and lactation has been implicated as a factor that modifies the risk of developing metabolic diseases later in life. Hepatic lipid accumulation is strongly linked to development of metabolic diseases. Free fatty acids induce ER stress, mitochondrial...... in adult life. In this poster, we report data on hepatic lipid content. Methods: Rat dams were fed a 60 E% fat diet and given 15% sucrose (HFHS) in the drinking water or chow and pure water (C) six weeks before mating as well as during gestation and lactation. After birth, male pups was cross......-fostered by the dams, so that half of the pups born by HFHS mothers was lactated by C dams and vice versa, generating four groups; CC, CH, HC and HH (first letter maternal diet during pregnancy and the second diet during lactation). At weaning all pups were transferred to chow-diet and kept on this diet until the age...

  17. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... insurance, health benefits, retirement coverage, and leave accrual). (e) The agency shall determine the... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule... reduced leave schedule unless the employee and the agency agree to do so. (b) Leave under § 630.1203(a) (3...

  18. Milk production and composition, and progeny performance in young ewes with high merit for rapid growth and muscle and fat accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Nieto, C A; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Wood, D A; Martin, G B; Bencini, R; Thompson, A N

    2018-02-26

    In ewe lambs, acceleration of growth and accumulation of both muscle and fat leads to earlier sexual maturity and better reproductive performance. The next stage in the development of this theme is to test whether these aspects of growth in young ewes affect milk production in their first lactation and the growth of their first progeny. We studied 75 young Merino ewes that had known phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT), and known Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post-weaning weight (PWT) and depths of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). They lambed for the first time at 1 year of age. Their lambs were weighed weekly from birth to weaning at 10 weeks to determine live weight gain and weaning weight. Progeny birth weight was positively associated with live weight gain and weaning weight (P0.05). The PWT of the sire was positively associated with live weight gain (P0.05). The concentrations of fat, protein, lactose and total solids in the milk were not affected by the phenotype or genotype of the mothers or of the sires of the mothers, or by the sex of the progeny (P>0.05). We conclude that selection of young Merino ewes for better growth, and more rapid accumulation of muscle and fat, will lead to progeny that are heavier at birth, grow faster and are heavier at weaning. Moreover, milk production and composition do not seem to be affected by the genetic merit of the mother for post-weaning live weight or PEMD or PFAT. Therefore, Merino ewes can lamb at 1 year of age without affecting the production objectives of the Merino sheep industry.

  19. Cardiac and metabolic changes in long-term high fructose-fat fed rats with severe obesity and extensive intramyocardial lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsen, Lene N; Lademann, Jacob B; Petersen, Jørgen S; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Ploug, Thorkil; Prats, Clara; Pedersen, Henrik D; Kjølbye, Anne Louise

    2010-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome and obesity-related diseases are affecting more and more people in the Western world. The basis for an effective treatment of these patients is a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. Here, we characterize fructose- and fat-fed rats (FFFRs) as a new animal model of metabolic syndrome. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 60 kcal/100 kcal fat diet with 10% fructose in the drinking water. After 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 wk of feeding, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, glucose, and lipid levels were measured. Cardiac function was examined by in vivo pressure volume measurements, and intramyocardial lipid accumulation was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Cardiac AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) levels were measured by Western blotting. Finally, an ischemia-reperfusion study was performed after 56 wk of feeding. FFFRs developed severe obesity, decreased glucose tolerance, increased serum insulin and triglyceride levels, and an initial increased fasting glucose, which returned to control levels after 24 wk of feeding. The diet had no effect on blood pressure but decreased hepatic PEPCK levels. FFFRs showed significant intramyocardial lipid accumulation, and cardiac hypertrophy became pronounced between 24 and 36 wk of feeding. FFFRs showed no signs of cardiac dysfunction during unstressed conditions, but their hearts were much more vulnerable to ischemia-reperfusion and had a decreased level of phosphorylated AMPK at 6 wk of feeding. This study characterizes a new animal model of the metabolic syndrome that could be beneficial in future studies of metabolic syndrome and cardiac complications.

  20. Accumulation of MS2, GA, and Qβ phages on high density polyethylene (HDPE) and drinking water biofilms under flow/non-flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelleïeux, Sandra; Bertrand, Isabelle; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine; Mathieu, Laurence; Francius, Grégory; Gantzer, Christophe

    2012-12-01

    Accumulation of enteric viruses on surfaces within a drinking water distribution system was investigated in a reactor using three F-specific RNA bacteriophages (MS2, GA, and Qβ) as models of human pathogenic viruses. The influence of hydrodynamic versus hydrostatic conditions and the effect of the colonization of HDPE surfaces with two-month-old biofilms were assessed for virus accumulation on surfaces. In order to work under controlled laminar conditions and to study various wall shear stresses at the same time, a new rotating disc reactor was designed. Among the wall shear rates applied in the reactor (450 to 1640 s(-1)) no significant differences were observed concerning both the total number of bacteria, which was found to be around 1.7 × 10(7) cells/cm(2) and the virus concentrations on surfaces were about 3 × 10(4), 5 × 10(5) and 3 × 10(5) eq PFU/cm(2) for MS2, GA and Qβ phages, respectively. Comparison between static versus dynamic conditions revealed that both Brownian diffusion and convective diffusion were involved in the transport of these soft colloidal particles and an increase reaching about 1 log in virus concentrations measured on surfaces appeared when hydrodynamic conditions where applied. Our results also showed the influence of the colonization by two-month-old drinking water biofilms which led to a change in the level of virus adhesion. The implication of the physico-chemical properties was also underlined since different adhesion profiles were obtained for the three bacteriophages and MS2 phage was found to be the less adherent one whatever the conditions applied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of drying methods and agronomic variables on the chemical composition of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil) obtained from high-pressure CO2 extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Krause, Laiza Canielas; Freitas, Lisiane dos Santos; Dariva, Cláudio; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Caramão, Elina Bastos

    2007-12-12

    The main objective of this work is to assess the influence of two drying methods (microwave and vacuum oven) and some agronomic variables (plant fertilization conditions and sunlight intensity) on the characteristics of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) leaves extracts obtained from high-pressure carbon dioxide extractions performed in the temperature range from 20 to 40 degrees C and from 100 to 250 bar. Samples of mate were collected in an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Ervateira Barão LTDA, Brazil. Chemical distribution of the extracts was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer detector (GC/MS). In addition to extraction variables, results showed that both sample drying methods and agronomic conditions exert a pronounced influence on the extraction yield and on the chemical distribution of the extracts.

  2. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  3. Global Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Distinct Aluminum-Tolerance Pathways in the Al-Accumulating Species Hydrangea macrophylla and Marker Identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Chen

    Full Text Available Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla is a well known Al-accumulating plant, showing a high level of aluminum (Al tolerance and accumulation. Although the physiological mechanisms for detoxification of Al and the roles of Al in blue hydrangea sepals have been reported, the molecular mechanisms of Al tolerance and accumulation are poorly understood in hydrangea. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Al-response genes in the roots and leaves of hydrangea by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq. The assembly of hydrangea transcriptome provides a rich source for gene identification and mining molecular markers, including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and simple sequence repeat (SSR. A total of 401,215 transcripts with an average length of 810.77 bp were assembled, generating 256,127 unigenes. After annotation, 4,287 genes in the roots and 730 genes in the leaves were up-regulated by Al exposure, while 236 genes in the roots and 719 genes in the leaves were down-regulated, respectively. Many transporters, including MATE and ABC families, were involved in the process of Al-citrate complex transporting from the roots in hydrangea. A plasma membrane Al uptake transporter, Nramp aluminum transporter was up-regulated in roots and leaves under Al stress, indicating it may play an important role in Al tolerance by reducing the level of toxic Al. Although the exact roles of these candidate genes remain to be examined, these results provide a platform for further functional analysis of the process of detoxification of Al in hydrangea.

  4. Selenium accumulation by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate 100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible tissues, which

  5. Accumulation of satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.S.; Ruskol, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    Formation and evolution of circumplanetary satellite swarms are investigated. Characteristic times of various processes are estimated. The characteristic time for the accumulation of the bodies in the swarm was several orders of magnitude shorter than that of the planet, i.e. than the time of the replenishment of the material by the swarm (10 8 yr). The model of the accumulation of the swarm is constructed taking into account the increase of its mass due to trapping of heliocentrically moving particles and its decrease due to outfall of the inner part of the swarm onto the growing planet. The accumulation of circumplanetary bodies is also considered. The main features of the evolution of the swarm essentially depend on the size distribution of bodies in the swarm and in the zone of the planet and also on the degree of the concentration of the swarm mass toward the planet. If the sum of the exponents of the inverse power laws of these distributions is less than 7, the model of the transparent swarm developed in this paper should be preferred. When this sum is greater than 7, the model of opaque swarm suggested by A. Harris and W.M. Kaula is better. There is predominant trapping of small particles into the swarm due to their more frequent collisions. Optical thickness of the protoplanetary cloud in radial direction is estimated. It is shown that at the final stage of the planetary accumulation, the cloud was semitransparent in the region of terrestrial planets and volatile substances evaporated at collisions could be swept out from the outer parts of the satellite swarm by the solar wind

  6. Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1980-01-01

    The AA in its final stage of construction, before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. Antiprotons were first injected, stochastically cooled and accumulated in July 1980. From 1981 on, the AA provided antiprotons for collisions with protons, first in the ISR, then in the SPS Collider. From 1983 on, it also sent antiprotons, via the PS, to the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). The AA was dismantled in 1997 and shipped to Japan.

  7. Engineering the production of conjugated fatty acids in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Olga; Shockey, Jay M; Gidda, Satinder K; Silver, Maxwell I; Chapman, Kent D; Mullen, Robert T; Dyer, John M

    2017-08-01

    The seeds of many nondomesticated plant species synthesize oils containing high amounts of a single unusual fatty acid, many of which have potential usage in industry. Despite the identification of enzymes for unusual oxidized fatty acid synthesis, the production of these fatty acids in engineered seeds remains low and is often hampered by their inefficient exclusion from phospholipids. Recent studies have established the feasibility of increasing triacylglycerol content in plant leaves, which provides a novel approach for increasing energy density of biomass crops. Here, we determined whether the fatty acid composition of leaf oil could be engineered to accumulate unusual fatty acids. Eleostearic acid (ESA) is a conjugated fatty acid produced in seeds of the tung tree (Vernicia fordii) and has both industrial and nutritional end-uses. Arabidopsis thaliana lines with elevated leaf oil were first generated by transforming wild-type, cgi-58 or pxa1 mutants (the latter two of which contain mutations disrupting fatty acid breakdown) with the diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT1 or DGAT2) and/or oleosin genes from tung. High-leaf-oil plant lines were then transformed with tung FADX, which encodes the fatty acid desaturase/conjugase responsible for ESA synthesis. Analysis of lipids in leaves revealed that ESA was efficiently excluded from phospholipids, and co-expression of tung FADX and DGAT2 promoted a synergistic increase in leaf oil content and ESA accumulation. Taken together, these results provide a new approach for increasing leaf oil content that is coupled with accumulation of unusual fatty acids. Implications for production of biofuels, bioproducts, and plant-pest interactions are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. New statement of leave format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the communication of the Standing Concertation Committee published in Weekly Bulletin No. 18-19 of 27 April 2009, the current statement of leave on monthly pay slips has been replaced with the EDH Leave Transactions report that displays the up-to-date situation of individual leave balances at all times. The report is available on EDH. Additionally, the layout of the pay slip has been modernised. The new version of the pay slip will be send out from September 2009 onwards. Finance and Purchasing Department, Personnel Accounting Human Resources Department, Organisation and Procedures General Infrastructure Services Department, Administrative Information Services

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Lipid Droplets from Arabidopsis Aging Leaves Brings New Insight into Their Biogenesis and Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysiane Brocard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lipid droplets (LDs are cell compartments specialized for oil storage. Although their role and biogenesis are relatively well documented in seeds, little is known about their composition, structure and function in senescing leaves where they also accumulate. Here, we used a label free quantitative mass spectrometry approach to define the LD proteome of aging Arabidopsis leaves. We found that its composition is highly different from that of seed/cotyledon and identified 28 proteins including 9 enzymes of the secondary metabolism pathways involved in plant defense response. With the exception of the TRIGALACTOSYLDIACYLGLYCEROL2 protein, we did not identify enzymes implicated in lipid metabolism, suggesting that growth of leaf LDs does not occur by local lipid synthesis but rather through contact sites with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER or other membranes. The two most abundant proteins of the leaf LDs are the CALEOSIN3 and the SMALL RUBBER PARTICLE1 (AtSRP1; both proteins have structural functions and participate in plant response to stress. CALEOSIN3 and AtSRP1 are part of larger protein families, yet no other members were enriched in the LD proteome suggesting a specific role of both proteins in aging leaves. We thus examined the function of AtSRP1 at this developmental stage and found that AtSRP1 modulates the expression of CALEOSIN3 in aging leaves. Furthermore, AtSRP1 overexpression induces the accumulation of triacylglycerol with an unusual composition compared to wild-type. We demonstrate that, although AtSRP1 expression is naturally increased in wild type senescing leaves, its overexpression in senescent transgenic lines induces an over-accumulation of LDs organized in clusters at restricted sites of the ER. Conversely, atsrp1 knock-down mutants displayed fewer but larger LDs. Together our results reveal that the abundancy of AtSRP1 regulates the neo-formation of LDs during senescence. Using electron tomography, we further provide evidence

  10. Leaves of Absence. School Law Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    This report contains State-by-State statutory summaries on three types of leaves of absence relating to teachers -- sick leave, maternity leave, and sabbatical leave. Only State laws that have specific reference to one of these three types of leaves of absence are included. Not included are those statutes granting boards of education the general…

  11. A study of accumulation of trace metals in coffee plants grown on ultisols fertilized with rock phosphates by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Daisy; Lal, Madan; D'Souza, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Trace elements in soil and leaves of coffee plants have been analysed by a non-destructive Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique to study their accumulation due to repeated rock phosphate fertilization. Analysis of standard reference materials of soil and leaves through EDXRF yielded values within 5% error of the certified values. This method was therefore used to determine the trace metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Nb, Zr and Y) concentrations of soils, rock phosphates and leaves of coffee grown in experimental ultisols. Results indicate that rock phosphate fertilization over a period of 10 years did not contribute significantly to high trace metal concentration in plants. (author). 6 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  12. Ectopic accumulation of linalool confers resistance to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri in transgenic sweet orange plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takehiko; Endo, Tomoko; Rodríguez, Ana; Fujii, Hiroshi; Goto, Shingo; Matsuura, Takakazu; Hojo, Yuko; Ikeda, Yoko; Mori, Izumi C; Fujikawa, Takashi; Peña, Leandro; Omura, Mitsuo

    2017-05-01

    In order to clarify whether high linalool content in citrus leaves alone induces strong field resistance to citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), and to assess whether this trait can be transferred to a citrus type highly sensitive to the bacterium, transgenic 'Hamlin' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) plants over-expressing a linalool synthase gene (CuSTS3-1) were generated. Transgenic lines (LIL) with the highest linalool content showed strong resistance to citrus canker when spray inoculated with the bacterium. In LIL plants inoculated by wounding (multiple-needle inoculation), the linalool level was correlated with the repression of the bacterial titer and up-regulation of defense-related genes. The exogenous application of salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate or linalool triggered responses similar to those constitutively induced in LIL plants. The linalool content in Ponkan mandarin leaves was significantly higher than that of leaves from six other representative citrus genotypes with different susceptibilities to Xcc. We propose that linalool-mediated resistance might be unique to citrus tissues accumulating large amounts of volatile organic compounds in oil cells. Linalool might act not only as a direct antibacterial agent, but also as a signal molecule involved in triggering a non-host resistance response against Xcc. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Translocation of Cd and Mn from Bark to Leaves in Willows on Contaminated Sediments: Delayed Budburst Is Related to High Mn Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Vandecasteele

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the hydrology of sediments in tidal marshes or landfills may affect the uptake of metals in the vegetation. Leaf and stem samples of Salix cinerea (grey sallow were collected during four consecutive growing seasons at six contaminated plots on a polluted dredged sediment landfill and one plot on an uncontaminated reference site. The first three contaminated plots were already emerged in the first half of the first growing season, while the other three were submerged in the first year, but became increasingly dry over the study period. Foliar and stem cutting concentrations for Cd, Zn and Mn increased on the latter three plots over the four years. Willow bark contained high concentrations of Cd, Zn and Mn. In two consecutive greenhouse experiments with willow cuttings from different origins (uncontaminated and contaminated sites and grown under different soil conditions (uncontaminated and contaminated, we observed an important translocation of Mn from bark to shoots. In a third experiment with willow cuttings collected on soils with a range of heavy metal concentrations and, thus, with a broad range of Cd (4–67 mg/kg dry matter, Zn (247–660 mg/kg dry matter and Mn (38–524 mg/kg dry matter concentrations in the bark, high Mn concentrations in the bark were found to affect the budburst of willow cuttings, while no association of delayed budburst with Cd and Zn concentrations in the bark was found. We conclude that wood and, especially, bark are not a sink for metals in living willows. The high Mn concentrations in the bark directly or indirectly caused delayed or restricted budburst of the willow cuttings.

  14. Extensive Variation in Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation among Populations of Chamaecrista fasciculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Tessa M.; Cory, Wendy; Rutter, Matthew T.

    2013-01-01

    Plant populations may vary substantially in their tolerance for and accumulation of heavy metals, and assessment of this variability is important when selecting species to use in restoration or phytoremediation projects. We examined the population variation in cadmium tolerance and accumulation in a leguminous pioneer species native to the eastern United States, the partridge pea (Chamaecrista fasciculata). We assayed growth, reproduction and patterns of cadmium accumulation in six populations of C. fasciculata grown on a range of cadmium-contaminated soils. In general, C. fasciculata exhibited tolerance in low to moderate soil cadmium concentrations. Both tolerance and accumulation patterns varied across populations. C. fasciculata exhibited many characteristics of a hyperaccumulator species, with high cadmium uptake in shoots and roots. However, cadmium was excluded from extrafloral nectar. As a legume with tolerance for moderate cadmium contamination, C. fasciculata has potential for phytoremediation. However, our findings also indicate the importance of considering the effects of genetic variation on plant performance when screening plant populations for utilization in remediation and restoration activities. Also, there is potential for cadmium contamination to affect other species through contamination of leaves, fruits, flowers, pollen and root nodules. PMID:23667586

  15. Enhanced accumulation of atropine in Atropa belladonna transformed by Rac GTPase gene isolated from Scoparia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kyouhei; Lee, Jung-Bum; Yamamura, Yoshimi; Kurosaki, Fumiya

    2013-12-01

    Leaf tissues of Atropa belladonna were transformed by Sdrac2, a Rac GTPase gene, that is isolated from Scoparia dulcis, and the change in atropine concentration of the transformants was examined. Re-differentiated A. belladonna overexpressing Sdrac2 accumulated considerable concentration of atropine in the leaf tissues, whereas the leaves of plants transformed by an empty vector accumulated only a very low concentration of the compound. A. belladonna transformed by CASdrac2, a modified Sdrac2 of which translate was expected to bind guanosine triphosphate (GTP) permanently, accumulated very high concentrations of atropine (approximately 2.4-fold excess to those found in the wild-type plant in its natural habitat). In sharp contrast, the atropine concentration in transformed A. belladonna prepared with negatively modified Sdrac2, DNSdrac2, expected to bind guanosine diphosphate instead of GTP, was very low. These results suggested that Rac GTPases play an important role in the regulation of secondary metabolism in plant cells and that overexpression of the gene(s) may be capable of enhancing the production of natural products accumulated in higher plant cells.

  16. Effect of Transpiration on Plant Accumulation and Translocation of PPCP/EDCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgen, Laurel K; Ueda, Aiko; Wu, Xiaoqin; Parker, David R; Gan, Jay

    2015-01-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation in arid and hot climates where plant transpiration is high may affect plant accumulation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, carrot, lettuce, and tomato plants were grown in solution containing 16 PPCP/EDCs in either a cool-humid or a warm-dry environment. Leaf bioconcentration factors (BCF) were positively correlated with transpiration for chemical groups of different ionized states (p < 0.05). However, root BCFs were correlated with transpiration only for neutral PPCP/EDCs (p < 0.05). Neutral and cationic PPCP/EDCs showed similar accumulation, while anionic PPCP/EDCs had significantly higher accumulation in roots and significantly lower accumulation in leaves (p < 0.05). Results show that plant transpiration may play a significant role in the uptake and translocation of PPCP/EDCs, which may have a pronounced effect in arid and hot climates where irrigation with treated wastewater is common. PMID:25594843

  17. Extensive variation in cadmium tolerance and accumulation among populations of Chamaecrista fasciculata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa M Henson

    Full Text Available Plant populations may vary substantially in their tolerance for and accumulation of heavy metals, and assessment of this variability is important when selecting species to use in restoration or phytoremediation projects. We examined the population variation in cadmium tolerance and accumulation in a leguminous pioneer species native to the eastern United States, the partridge pea (Chamaecrista fasciculata. We assayed growth, reproduction and patterns of cadmium accumulation in six populations of C. fasciculata grown on a range of cadmium-contaminated soils. In general, C. fasciculata exhibited tolerance in low to moderate soil cadmium concentrations. Both tolerance and accumulation patterns varied across populations. C. fasciculata exhibited many characteristics of a hyperaccumulator species, with high cadmium uptake in shoots and roots. However, cadmium was excluded from extrafloral nectar. As a legume with tolerance for moderate cadmium contamination, C. fasciculata has potential for phytoremediation. However, our findings also indicate the importance of considering the effects of genetic variation on plant performance when screening plant populations for utilization in remediation and restoration activities. Also, there is potential for cadmium contamination to affect other species through contamination of leaves, fruits, flowers, pollen and root nodules.

  18. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  19. Sedimentary mercury (Hg) in the marginal seas adjacent to Chinese high-Hg emissions: Source-to-sink, mass inventory, and accumulation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihun; Lim, Dhongil; Jung, Dohyun; Kang, Jeongwon; Jung, Hoisoo; Woo, Hanjun; Jeong, Kapsik; Xu, Zhaokai

    2018-03-01

    We comprehensively investigated sedimentary Hg in Yellow and East China Seas (YECSs), which constitute potentially important depocenters for large anthropogenic Hg emissions from mainland China. A large dataset of Al-TOC-Hg concentrations led to an in-depth understanding of sedimentary Hg in the entire YECSs, including distribution and its determinants, source-to-sink, background levels, inventory in flux and budget, and accumulation history. Especially, the net atmospheric Hg flux to the sediments was estimated to be 1.3 × 10 -5  g/m 2 /yr, which corresponded reasonably well to that calculated using a box model. About 21.2 tons of atmospheric Hg (approximately 4% of the total anthropogenic atmospheric Hg emissions from China) were buried annually in the YECS basin. This result implies that most of atmospheric Hg from China is transferred to the surface of the Pacific (including the East/Japan Sea and South China Sea) by the westerlies and, consequently, can play a critical role in open-sea aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Accumulation of cadmium, zinc, and copper by Helianthus annuus L.: impact on plant growth and uptake of nutritional elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivelli, Anna Rita; De Maria, Susanna; Puschenreiter, Markus; Gherbin, Piergiorgio

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the effects on physiological response, trace elements and nutrients accumulation of sunflower plants grown in soil contaminated with: 5 mg kg(-1) of Cd; 5 and 300 mg kg(-1) of Cd and Zn, respectively; 5, 300, and 400 mg kg(-1) of Cd, Zn, and Cu, respectively. Contaminants applied did not produce large effects on growth, except in Cd-Zn-Cu treatment in which leaf area and total dry matter were reduced, by 15%. The contamination with Cd alone did not affect neither growth nor physiological parameters, despite considerable amounts of Cd accumulated in roots and older leaves, with a high bioconcentration factor from soil to plant. By adding Zn and then Cu to Cd in soil, significant were the toxic effects on chlorophyll content and water relations due to greater accumulation of trace elements in tissues, with imbalances in nutrients uptake. Highly significant was the interaction between shoot elements concentration (Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mg, K, Ca) and treatments. Heavy metals concentrations in roots always exceeded those in stem and leaves, with a lower translocation from roots to shoots, suggesting a strategy of sunflower to compartmentalise the potentially toxic elements in physiologically less active parts in order to preserve younger tissues.

  1. Manganese accumulation in the brain: MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A.; Nomiyama, K.; Takase, Y.; Nakazono, T.; Nojiri, J.; Kudo, S. [Saga Medical School, Department of Radiology, Saga (Japan); Noguchi, T. [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Manganese (Mn) accumulation in the brain is detected as symmetrical high signal intensity in the globus pallidi on T1-weighted MR images without an abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. In this review, we present several cases of Mn accumulation in the brain due to acquired or congenital diseases of the abdomen including hepatic cirrhosis with a portosystemic shunt, congenital biliary atresia, primary biliary cirrhosis, congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt without liver dysfunction, Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome with a diffuse intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and patent ductus venosus. Other causes of Mn accumulation in the brain are Mn overload from total parenteral nutrition and welding-related Mn intoxication. (orig.)

  2. [Animal nutrition for veterinarians--actual cases: tulip bulbs with leaves (Tulipa gesneriana)--an unusual and high risk plant for ruminant feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, P; Blanke, H J; Wohlsein, P; Kamphues, J; Stöber, M

    2003-07-01

    14 cattle (mainly younger ones) of a total of 50 extensively kept Galloways died within 6 weeks in late winter 2001/02. According to the owner's report, grass growth had been rather poor; therefore, the herd was fed additionally hay as well as large amounts of tulip onions. In the microbiological examination a highly reduced hygienic quality of the roughage could be detected. In the rumen contents of two dissected young cattle parts of tulip onions were found. According to pertinent literature, tulip onions (in particular their external layers) contain variant-specific amounts of anti-nutritive substances; main active agents are tulipin (a glycoprotein), tuliposid A and B, and lectins. They may cause intensive mucosal irritation, accompanied by reduced feed digestion and body-weight gains, drooling, vomiting and diarrhea. This case report underlines risks caused by feeding of plants originally not destined as forage, if their active ingredients and effects are unknown or remain unconsidered.

  3. Chitinase from phaseolus vulgaris leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boller, T.; Gehri, A.; Mauch, F.; Vogeli, V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of ethylene on chitinase activity in bean leaves. The authors have purified the enzyme in the course of their work. The purification method is detailed and the colorimetric and radiochemical assays are compared

  4. The Application of Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with a LTQ-Orbitrap Mass Technique to Reveal the Dynamic Accumulation of Secondary Metabolites in Licorice under ABA Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da; Xu, Guojie; Ren, Guangxi; Sun, Yufeng; Huang, Ying; Liu, Chunsheng

    2017-10-20

    The traditional medicine licorice is the most widely consumed herbal product in the world. Although much research work on studying the changes in the active compounds of licorice has been reported, there are still many areas, such as the dynamic accumulation of secondary metabolites in licorice, that need to be further studied. In this study, the secondary metabolites from licorice under two different methods of stress were investigated by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS). A complex continuous coordination of flavonoids and triterpenoids in a network was modulated by different methods of stress during growth. The results showed that a total of 51 secondary metabolites were identified in licorice under ABA stress. The partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) revealed the distinction of obvious compounds among stress-specific districts relative to ABA stress. The targeted results showed that there were significant differences in the accumulation patterns of the deeply targeted 41 flavonoids and 10 triterpenoids compounds by PCA and PLS-DA analyses. To survey the effects of flavonoid and triterpenoid metabolism under ABA stress, we inspected the stress-specific metabolic changes. Our study testified that the majority of flavonoids and triterpenoids were elevated in licorice under ABA stress, while the signature metabolite affecting the dynamic accumulation of secondary metabolites was detected. Taken together, our results suggest that ABA-specific metabolite profiling dynamically changed in terms of the biosynthesis of flavonoids and triterpenoids, which may offer new trains of thought on the regular pattern of dynamic accumulation of secondary metabolites in licorice at the metabolite level. Our results also provide a reference for clinical applications and directional planting and licorice breeding.

  5. The Application of Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with a LTQ-Orbitrap Mass Technique to Reveal the Dynamic Accumulation of Secondary Metabolites in Licorice under ABA Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The traditional medicine licorice is the most widely consumed herbal product in the world. Although much research work on studying the changes in the active compounds of licorice has been reported, there are still many areas, such as the dynamic accumulation of secondary metabolites in licorice, that need to be further studied. In this study, the secondary metabolites from licorice under two different methods of stress were investigated by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid linear ion trap–Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS. A complex continuous coordination of flavonoids and triterpenoids in a network was modulated by different methods of stress during growth. The results showed that a total of 51 secondary metabolites were identified in licorice under ABA stress. The partial least squares–discriminate analysis (PLS-DA revealed the distinction of obvious compounds among stress-specific districts relative to ABA stress. The targeted results showed that there were significant differences in the accumulation patterns of the deeply targeted 41 flavonoids and 10 triterpenoids compounds by PCA and PLS-DA analyses. To survey the effects of flavonoid and triterpenoid metabolism under ABA stress, we inspected the stress-specific metabolic changes. Our study testified that the majority of flavonoids and triterpenoids were elevated in licorice under ABA stress, while the signature metabolite affecting the dynamic accumulation of secondary metabolites was detected. Taken together, our results suggest that ABA-specific metabolite profiling dynamically changed in terms of the biosynthesis of flavonoids and triterpenoids, which may offer new trains of thought on the regular pattern of dynamic accumulation of secondary metabolites in licorice at the metabolite level. Our results also provide a reference for clinical applications and directional planting and licorice breeding.

  6. The Problems of Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sean

    2017-10-01

    The United States is the only major industrialized country in the world to not require paid parental leave. Numerous studies have shown that allowing parents time with a newborn makes the child and the parents healthier, both physically and mentally. Many physicians, especially those who work in practices with five or fewer doctors, worry about how to pay for parental leave for themselves and their staff.

  7. Persistent negative temperature response of mesophyll conductance in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves under both high and low vapour pressure deficits: a role for abscisic acid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Changpeng; Ethier, Gilbert; Pepin, Steeve; Dubé, Pascal; Desjardins, Yves; Gosselin, André

    2017-09-01

    The temperature dependence of mesophyll conductance (g m ) was measured in well-watered red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plants acclimated to leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit (VPDL) daytime differentials of contrasting amplitude, keeping a fixed diurnal leaf temperature (T leaf ) rise from 20 to 35 °C. Contrary to the great majority of g m temperature responses published to date, we found a pronounced reduction of g m with increasing T leaf irrespective of leaf chamber O 2 level and diurnal VPDL regime. Leaf hydraulic conductance was greatly enhanced during the warmer afternoon periods under both low (0.75 to 1.5 kPa) and high (0.75 to 3.5 kPa) diurnal VPDL regimes, unlike stomatal conductance (g s ), which decreased in the afternoon. Consequently, the leaf water status remained largely isohydric throughout the day, and therefore cannot be evoked to explain the diurnal decrease of g m . However, the concerted diurnal reductions of g m and g s were well correlated with increases in leaf abscisic acid (ABA) content, thus suggesting that ABA can induce a significant depression of g m under favourable leaf water status. Our results challenge the view that the temperature dependence of g m can be explained solely from dynamic leaf anatomical adjustments and/or from the known thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions and lipid membranes.​. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Simultaneous quantitative determination of 11 sesquiterpene lactones in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) leaves by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoyan; Yang, Qianxu

    2017-04-01

    A method of ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous quantification of 11 sesquiterpene lactones in 11 Jerusalem artichoke leaf samples harvested in a number of areas at different periods. The optimal chromatographic conditions were achieved on a ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C 18 column (3.0 × 150 mm, 1.8 μm) with linear gradient elution of methanol and water in 8 min. Quantitative analysis was carried out under selective ion monitoring mode. All of the sesquiterpene lactones showed good linearity (R 2 ≥ 0.9949), repeatability (relative standard deviations Jerusalem artichoke leaf samples from different areas. Among them, the content of sesquiterpene lactones in the sample collected from Dalian, Liaoning province was the highest and the early flowering period was considered to be the optimal harvest time. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Separation of five compounds from leaves of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees by off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography combined with gradient and recycling elution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Qi; Yu, Jingang; Zeng, Hualiang; Jiang, Shujing; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-05-01

    An off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography method combined with gradient and recycling elution mode was established to isolate terpenoids and flavones from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees. By using the solvent systems composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water with different volume ratios, five compounds including roseooside, 5,4'-dihydroxyflavonoid-7-O-β-d-pyranglucuronatebutylester, 7,8-dimethoxy-2'-hydroxy-5-O-β-d-glucopyranosyloxyflavon, 14-deoxyandrographiside, and andrographolide were successfully isolated. Purities of these isolated compounds were all over 95% as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were identified by UV, mass spectrometry, and (1) H NMR spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that the combination of off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography with different elution modes is an efficient technique to isolate compounds from complex natural product extracts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Betanin reduces the accumulation and cross-links of collagen in high-fructose-fed rat heart through inhibiting non-enzymatic glycation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junyan; Tan, Chang; Wang, Yiheng; Yang, Shaobin; Tan, Dehong

    2015-02-05

    We attempted to determine whether betanin (from natural pigments) that has antioxidant properties would be protective against fructose-induced diabetic cardiac fibrosis in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fructose water solution (30%) was accessed freely, and betanin (25 and 100 mg/kg/d) was administered by intra-gastric gavage continuously for 60 d. Rats were sacrificed after overnight fast. The rat blood and left ventricle were collected. In vitro antiglycation assay in bovine serum albumin/fructose system was also performed. In rats treated only with fructose, levels of plasma markers: glucose, insulin, HOMA and glycated hemoglobin rised, left ventricle collagen accumulated and cross-linked, profibrotic factor-transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) protein expression increased, and soluble collagen decreased, compared with those in normal rats, showing fructose induces diabetic cardiac fibrosis. Treatment with betanin antagonized the changes of these parameters, demonstrating the antifibrotic role of betanin in the selected diabetic models. In further mechanistic study, betanin decreased protein glycation indicated by the decreased levels of protein glycation reactive intermediate (methylglyoxal), advanced glycation end product (N(ε)-(carboxymethyl) lysine) and receptors for advanced glycation end products (AGEs), antagonized oxidative stress and nuclear factor-κB activation elicited by fructose feeding, suggesting inhibition of glycation, oxidative stress and nuclear factor-κB activation may be involved in the antifibrotic mechanisms. Betanin also showed anitglycative effect in BSA/fructose system, which supported that anitglycation was involved in betanin's protective roles in vivo. Taken together, the potential for using betanin as an auxillary therapy for diabetic cardiomyopathy deserves to be explored further. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Formation of 14C-asparagine from 14C-precursor in mulberry leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Tadaaki

    1981-01-01

    Since a remarkable accumulation of asparagine in the young leaves of mulberry has been observed, the formation of 14 C-asparagine from 14 C-labeled substrates in young leaves was examined in comparison with that in the mature leaves. 14 C-aspartic acid and 14 C-succinic acid expected as active precursors for asparagine biosynthesis, and 14 C-sucrose as respiratory substrates were fed respectively to the disks of young or mature leaves of mulberry. Although 14 C-succinic acid was actively converted to 14 C-asparagine, no significant amount of 14 C-asparagine was formed from 14 C-aspartic acid in two hours of feeding period. The rate of formation of 14 C-asparagine from 14 C-succinic acid in the mature leaves was slightly higher than that in the young leaves. Amino acids other than asparagine acquired 14 C from 14 C-labeled substrates were mainly aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and ν-amino butyric acid in both of the leaves. Intending to accelerate the formation of asparagine in the leaves, ammonium ion was supplied to culturing solution as only source of nitrogen and plants were grown for two weeks in that solution before 14 C-labeled substrates feeding experiments. Supplying of ammonium ion brought about enhanced accumulation of asparagine in the young leaves, and caused remarkable formation of 14 C-asparagine from 14 C-aspartic acid in both of the leaves. However, the rate of 14 C-asparagine formation from 14 C-aspartic acid in the young leaves did not exceed that in the mature leaves. (author)

  12. Accumulation of different metals in apple trees organs from an unfertilized orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanica, F.

    1999-01-01

    Working in an unfertilized apple orchard, planted on brown-reddish soil in Baneasa - Bucuresti, the accumulation of different metals in trees organs was studied: leaves, vegetative branches, fruit branches and fruits. The samples were taken from 'Golden delicious' variety, planted at 10 meters, 'Idared' variety, planted at 100 meters and 'Akane' variety, planted at 200 meters from the Bucuresti-Ploiesti motorway. Lead accumulation depended on the distance to the pollution source and organ type. In leaves, lead was found even at 100 m from the road border (11.7 ppm in 'Idared' variety). At 10 m the leaves content was much higher (306 ppm, 'Golden delicious'). Because of the specific metabolism selectivity apple trees didn't accumulate lead into fruit branches and fruits. Copper leaves content varied between 5.85 ppm ('Golden delicious') and 16.2 ppm ('Akane') being lower than the fruits content (8.36 ppm 'Idared' - 23.0 ppm 'Golden delicious'). In apple tree fruit branches the Cu accumulation was 2-3 times higher than in the vegetative branches. The same fruit branches accumulated the highest quantity of zinc (between 67.5 and 83.9 ppm). Fruit contents in zinc (10.0-16.9 ppm) were close to the normal value: 15 ppm, but leave contents (43.3-48.7 ppm) were more than doubled compared to the normal range: 15-20 ppm. The 'Idared' variety accumulated the lowest quantity of nickel in all analyzed organs. Iron accumulation was different in function of the analyzed organ, variety and ion type (Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ ). The highest Fe 3+ content was found in 'Golden delicious' leaves: 547 ppm and the highest Fe 2+ content in 'Idared' leaves: 96.0 ppm. The lowest iron content was found in fruits. The manganese content of the analyzed organs varied from 8.32 to 130 ppm. Refs. 4 (author)

  13. Aflatoxin Accumulation in a Maize Diallel Cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Paul Williams

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, occur naturally in maize. Contamination of maize grain with aflatoxin is a major food and feed safety problem and greatly reduces the value of the grain. Plant resistance is generally considered a highly desirable approach to reduction or elimination of aflatoxin in maize grain. In this investigation, a diallel cross was produced by crossing 10 inbred lines with varying degrees of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in all possible combinations. Three lines that previously developed and released as sources of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation were included as parents. The 10 parental inbred lines and the 45 single crosses making up the diallel cross were evaluated for aflatoxin accumulation in field tests conducted in 2013 and 2014. Plants were inoculated with an A. flavus spore suspension seven days after silk emergence. Ears were harvested approximately 60 days later and concentration of aflatoxin in the grain determined. Parental inbred lines Mp717, Mp313E, and Mp719 exhibited low levels (3–12 ng/g of aflatoxin accumulation. In the diallel analysis, both general and specific combining ability were significant sources of variation in the inheritance of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. General combining ability effects for reduced aflatoxin accumulation were greatest for Mp494, Mp719, and Mp717. These lines should be especially useful in breeding for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. Breeding strategies, such as reciprocal recurrent selection, would be appropriate.

  14. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a potential hyperaccumulator-Lonicera japonica Thunb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zhouli [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jia 19 Yuqu