WorldWideScience

Sample records for leave sufficient time

  1. Real time falling leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Alcocer, Pere Pau; Balsa, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest in simulating natural phenomena in computer graphics applications. Animating natural scenes in real time is one of the most challenging problems due to the inherent complexity of their structure, formed by millions of geometric entities, and the interactions that happen within. An example of natural scenario that is needed for games or simulation programs are forests. Forests are difficult to render because the huge amount of geometric entities and the large amount...

  2. The transcension hypothesis: Sufficiently advanced civilizations invariably leave our universe, and implications for METI and SETI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, John M.

    2012-09-01

    The emerging science of evolutionary developmental ("evo devo") biology can aid us in thinking about our universe as both an evolutionary system, where most processes are unpredictable and creative, and a developmental system, where a special few processes are predictable and constrained to produce far-future-specific emergent order, just as we see in the common developmental processes in two stars of an identical population type, or in two genetically identical twins in biology. The transcension hypothesis proposes that a universal process of evolutionary development guides all sufficiently advanced civilizations into what may be called "inner space," a computationally optimal domain of increasingly dense, productive, miniaturized, and efficient scales of space, time, energy, and matter, and eventually, to a black-hole-like destination. Transcension as a developmental destiny might also contribute to the solution to the Fermi paradox, the question of why we have not seen evidence of or received beacons from intelligent civilizations. A few potential evolutionary, developmental, and information theoretic reasons, mechanisms, and models for constrained transcension of advanced intelligence are briefly considered. In particular, we introduce arguments that black holes may be a developmental destiny and standard attractor for all higher intelligence, as they appear to some to be ideal computing, learning, forward time travel, energy harvesting, civilization merger, natural selection, and universe replication devices. In the transcension hypothesis, simpler civilizations that succeed in resisting transcension by staying in outer (normal) space would be developmental failures, which are statistically very rare late in the life cycle of any biological developing system. If transcension is a developmental process, we may expect brief broadcasts or subtle forms of galactic engineering to occur in small portions of a few galaxies, the handiwork of young and immature

  3. Part-Time Sick Leave as a Treatment Method?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén D; Andrén T

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of being on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave on the probability of recovering (i.e., returning to work with full recovery of lost work capacity). Using a discrete choice one-factor model, we estimate mean treatment parameters and distributional treatment parameters from a common set of structural parameters. Our results show that part-time sick leave increases the likelihood of recovering and dominates full-time sick leave for sickness spel...

  4. Is part-time sick leave helping the unemployed?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Using a discrete choice one-factor model, we estimate mean treatment parameters and distributional treatment parameters to analyze the effects of degree of sick leave on the probability of full recovery of lost work capacity for employed and unemployed individuals, respectively. Our results indicate that one year after the sick leave spell started, the average potential impact of part-time sick listing on an individual randomly chosen from the population on sick leave was positive for both gr...

  5. Comparison of methods for calculating conditional expectations of sufficient statistics for continuous time Markov chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tataru, Paula Cristina; Hobolth, Asger

    2011-01-01

    past evolutionary events (exact times and types of changes) are unaccessible and the past must be inferred from DNA sequence data observed in the present. RESULTS: We describe and implement three algorithms for computing linear combinations of expected values of the sufficient statistics, conditioned......BACKGROUND: Continuous time Markov chains (CTMCs) is a widely used model for describing the evolution of DNA sequences on the nucleotide, amino acid or codon level. The sufficient statistics for CTMCs are the time spent in a state and the number of changes between any two states. In applications...... of the algorithms is available at www.birc.au.dk/~paula/. CONCLUSIONS: We use two different models to analyze the accuracy and eight experiments to investigate the speed of the three algorithms. We find that they have similar accuracy and that EXPM is the slowest method. Furthermore we find that UNI is usually...

  6. Satisfaction of women urologists with maternity leave and childbirth timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Lori B; Baltrushes, Robin J; Stolzmann, Kelly L; Garshick, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Women physicians must consider many conflicting issues when timing childbirth. We characterized maternity leave, breast-feeding practices and satisfaction associated with pregnancy timing in women urologists. A 114-item anonymous survey including questions on maternity leave duration for firstborn children, workplace policies, attitudes and satisfaction was mailed to all 365 American board certified women urologists in May and July 2007. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with greater satisfaction. A total of 243 women urologists (69%) responded, of whom 158 had at least 1 biological child. Average maternal age at first birth was 32.6 years. Of the children 10%, 32% and 52% were born before, during and after residency, respectively. Only 42% of women reported the existence of a formal maternity leave policy. Of the women 70% took 8 weeks or less of leave. Those with 9 weeks or greater were 3.8 times more likely to report satisfaction (p = 0.001). Although women in practice were 2.0 times more likely to take 9 weeks or greater compared to those in training or earlier (p = 0.046), only 30% in practice took this much time. Dissatisfaction with leave was not related to birth timing (residency vs practice) or maternal age at delivery but to work/residency related issues in 69% of respondents, financial concerns in 13% and personal/other in 18%. For breast-feeding 67% of respondents were satisfied with the duration and 22% were not. Dissatisfaction was secondary to work factors. Satisfaction with leave was related to the amount of maternity leave with women with 9 weeks or greater more likely to report satisfaction. Women in practice were more likely to take 9 weeks or greater but most did not due to strong stressors related to work, partners/peers or finances. Work factors were cited for dissatisfaction with breast-feeding.

  7. Comparison of methods for calculating conditional expectations of sufficient statistics for continuous time Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataru, Paula; Hobolth, Asger

    2011-12-05

    Continuous time Markov chains (CTMCs) is a widely used model for describing the evolution of DNA sequences on the nucleotide, amino acid or codon level. The sufficient statistics for CTMCs are the time spent in a state and the number of changes between any two states. In applications past evolutionary events (exact times and types of changes) are unaccessible and the past must be inferred from DNA sequence data observed in the present. We describe and implement three algorithms for computing linear combinations of expected values of the sufficient statistics, conditioned on the end-points of the chain, and compare their performance with respect to accuracy and running time. The first algorithm is based on an eigenvalue decomposition of the rate matrix (EVD), the second on uniformization (UNI), and the third on integrals of matrix exponentials (EXPM). The implementation in R of the algorithms is available at http://www.birc.au.dk/~paula/. We use two different models to analyze the accuracy and eight experiments to investigate the speed of the three algorithms. We find that they have similar accuracy and that EXPM is the slowest method. Furthermore we find that UNI is usually faster than EVD.

  8. Comparison of methods for calculating conditional expectations of sufficient statistics for continuous time Markov chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tataru Paula

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous time Markov chains (CTMCs is a widely used model for describing the evolution of DNA sequences on the nucleotide, amino acid or codon level. The sufficient statistics for CTMCs are the time spent in a state and the number of changes between any two states. In applications past evolutionary events (exact times and types of changes are unaccessible and the past must be inferred from DNA sequence data observed in the present. Results We describe and implement three algorithms for computing linear combinations of expected values of the sufficient statistics, conditioned on the end-points of the chain, and compare their performance with respect to accuracy and running time. The first algorithm is based on an eigenvalue decomposition of the rate matrix (EVD, the second on uniformization (UNI, and the third on integrals of matrix exponentials (EXPM. The implementation in R of the algorithms is available at http://www.birc.au.dk/~paula/. Conclusions We use two different models to analyze the accuracy and eight experiments to investigate the speed of the three algorithms. We find that they have similar accuracy and that EXPM is the slowest method. Furthermore we find that UNI is usually faster than EVD.

  9. Positive and negative consequences of sick leave for the individual, with special focus on part-time sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieurin, Leif; Josephson, Malin; Vingård, Eva

    2009-01-01

    To describe the consequences of long-term sick leave (>28 days) on working situation, health and lifestyle among employees from the public sector in Sweden. Employees in four county councils and two municipalities on long term sick leave on 1 November 2005 (n = 1,128) answered a questionnaire in February 2006. The response rate was 71.7%. Eighty seven per cent were still on sick leave when the questionnaire was answered: 54% part time and 33% full time. Reporting positive consequences was rare but reporting negative consequences, such as effects on the development of salary, the possibilities of pursuing a career or to change to another job were common. Sick leave seemed to lead to a considerable loss of zest for work, even if the respondents were back in work full time. Regardless of the negative consequences at work, 92% of those on part-time sick leave believed that the part-time sick leave was good for them even if many thought it had negative consequences for employer and colleagues. Long-term sick leave has negative consequences for the individual in work situations, even for those back at work full time. The development of salary and career seem to be most affected. The attitude towards part-time sick leave was positive and this result indicates that there is a potential for an increased degree of partial return to work in the group of people on long-term sick leave.

  10. THE EFFECT OF HARVESTING TIME AND DEGREE OF LEAVES MATURATION ON VITEKSIKARPIN LEVEL IN LEGUNDI LEAVES (Vitex trifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosi Bayu Murti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Legundi (Vitex trifolia L. is one of Indonesia’s traditional crops that have not been studied and developed into fitofarmaka. Legundi leaves can be used for therapy in asthmatics with optimum level. Therefore it is necessary for optimization of harvesting Legundi leaves which includes time and degree of maturation of the leaves. Harvesting time optimization by means of harvesting the leaves at the different times i.e. morning, noon, and evening, while the leaf maturation level optimization by way of harvesting leaves numbered one through five of the youngest end, then the time of harvesting and leaves that provide optimum levels of viteksikarpin were assigned. Measurements of viteksikarpin assigned using TLCdensitometry then analyzed using Wincats software and Microsoft Office Excel 2007. The highest viteksikarpin levels in Legundi leaves harvested in the afternoon, then during the day, and the lowest in the morning. The highest viteksikarpin levels of Legundi leaves were on second leaf, first leaf, third leaf, fourth leaf, and the lowest on fifth leaf. Optimum levels of viteksikarpin in Legundi leaves was harvested in the afternoon by picking the first until the third leaf.

  11. Part-time sick leave as a treatment method for individuals with musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, Daniela; Svensson, Mikael

    2012-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that staying active is an important part of a recovery process for individuals on sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). It has been suggested that using part-time sick-leave rather than full-time sick leave will enhance the possibility of full recovery to the workforce, and several countries actively favor this policy. The aim of this paper is to examine if it is beneficial for individuals on sick leave due to MSDs to be on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave. A sample of 1,170 employees from the RFV-LS (register) database of the Social Insurance Agency of Sweden is used. The effect of being on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave is estimated for the probability of returning to work with full recovery of lost work capacity. A two-stage recursive bivariate probit model is used to deal with the endogeneity problem. The results indicate that employees assigned to part-time sick leave do recover to full work capacity with a higher probability than those assigned to full-time sick leave. The average treatment effect of part-time sick leave is 25 percentage points. Considering that part-time sick leave may also be less expensive than assigning individuals to full-time sick leave, this would imply efficiency improvements from assigning individuals, when possible, to part-time sick leave.

  12. Part-time sick leave as a treatment method for individuals with musculoskeletal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Daniela; Svensson, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that staying active is an important part of a recovery process for individuals on sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). It has been suggested that using part-time sick-leave rather than full-time sick leave will enhance the possibility of full recovery to the workforce, and several countries actively favor this policy. However, to date only few studies have estimated the effect of using part-time sick leave in contrast to full-time sick leave. In thi...

  13. An LCD Monitor with Sufficiently Precise Timing for Research in Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Peng; Nikolić, Danko

    2011-01-01

    Until now, liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors have not been used widely for research in vision. Despite their main advantages of continuous illumination and low electromagnetic emission, these monitors had problems with timing and reliability. Here we report that there is at least one new inexpensive 120 Hz model, whose timing and stability is on a par with a benchmark cathode-ray tube monitor, or even better. The onset time was stable across repetitions, 95% confidence interval (the erro...

  14. Leave no hour of sunshine unexploited. Free of energy costs and crisis proofed - energy sulf-sufficient buildings; Keine Sonnenstunde ungenutzt lassen. Energiekostenfrei und krisensicher - energieautarke Haeuser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leukefeld, Timo [Helma Eigenheimbau AG, Lehrte (Germany). Projektgruppe ' das EnergieAutarke Haus' ; Firma Timo Leukefeld - Energie verbindet, Freiberg in Sachsen (Germany).; Prutti, Corina [das komm.buero, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Living, heating and mobility provide the biggest expenses in the budget for the most people. Furthermore, the salaries from pension funds and retirement funds decrease. The purchasing power of older people decreases. Houses that largely are energetically self-sufficient as for example the energy self-sufficient house are a solution of this problem. The biggest costs just fall away for residents of these houses. These residents are independent from costs for fuel oil, gas and electricity.

  15. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for the Existence of Positive Solution for Singular Boundary Value Problems on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xuemei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available By constructing available upper and lower solutions and combining the Schauder's fixed point theorem with maximum principle, this paper establishes sufficient and necessary conditions to guarantee the existence of as well as positive solutions for a class of singular boundary value problems on time scales. The results significantly extend and improve many known results for both the continuous case and more general time scales. We illustrate our results by one example.

  16. Is Advanced Real-Time Energy Metering Sufficient to Persuade People to Save Energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite H.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote a low-carbon economy, EU citizens may soon be able to check their electricity consumption from smart meter. It is hoped that smart meter can, by providing real-time consumption and pricing information to residential users, help reducing demand for electricity. It is argued in this paper that, according the Elaborative Likelihood Model (ELM, these methods are most likely to be effective when consumers perceive the issue of energy conservation relevant to their lives. Nevertheless, some fundamental characteristics of these methods result in limited amount of perceived personal relevance; for instance, energy expenditure expense may be relatively small comparing to other household expenditure like mortgage and consumption information does not enhance interpersonal trust. In this paper, it is suggested that smart meter can apply the “nudge” approaches which respond to ELM as the use of simple rules to make decision, which include the change of feedback delivery and device design.

  17. Is Advanced Real-Time Energy Metering Sufficient to Persuade People to Save Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, L.; Leite, H.; Ponce de Leão, T.

    2012-10-01

    In order to promote a low-carbon economy, EU citizens may soon be able to check their electricity consumption from smart meter. It is hoped that smart meter can, by providing real-time consumption and pricing information to residential users, help reducing demand for electricity. It is argued in this paper that, according the Elaborative Likelihood Model (ELM), these methods are most likely to be effective when consumers perceive the issue of energy conservation relevant to their lives. Nevertheless, some fundamental characteristics of these methods result in limited amount of perceived personal relevance; for instance, energy expenditure expense may be relatively small comparing to other household expenditure like mortgage and consumption information does not enhance interpersonal trust. In this paper, it is suggested that smart meter can apply the "nudge" approaches which respond to ELM as the use of simple rules to make decision, which include the change of feedback delivery and device design.

  18. Don't leave data unattended at any time!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, D.; Czerniak, A.; Schirnick, C.

    2013-12-01

    The architecture of Kiel Data Management Infrastructure (KDMI) is setup to serve from the data creation process all the way to the data publication procedure. Accordingly the KDMI is managing data at the right beginning of the data life cycle and does not leave data unattended at this very crucial time. Starting from the chosen working procedure to handwritten protocols or lab notes the provenance of the resulting research data is captured within the KDMI. The provenance definition system is the fundamental (see figure 1) capturing tool for working procedures. The provenance definition is used to enable data input by file import, web client or hand writing recognition. The captured data in the provenance system for data is taking care of unpublished in house research data created directly on site. This system serves as a master for research data systems with more degrees of freedom in regard to technology, design or performance (e.g. GraphDB, etc). Such research systems can be regarded as compilations of unpublished data and public domain data e.g. from World Data Centers or archives. These compilations can be used to run statistical data mining and pattern finding algorithms on these specially designed platforms. The architecture of the KDMI ensures that a technical solution for data correction from the slave systems to the master system is possible and improves the quality of the stored data in the provenance system for data. After the research phase is over and the interpretation is finished the provenance system is used by a workflow based publication system called PubFlow. Within PubFlow it is possible to create repeatable workflows to publish data into various external long-term archives or World Data Center. The KDMI is based on the utilization of persistent identifiers for samples and person identities to support this automatized publication process. The publication process is the final step of the KDMI and the management responsibility of the long

  19. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for the Existence of Positive Solution for Singular Boundary Value Problems on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiqiang Feng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available By constructing available upper and lower solutions and combining the Schauder's fixed point theorem with maximum principle, this paper establishes sufficient and necessary conditions to guarantee the existence of Cld[0,1]𝕋 as well as CldΔ[0,1]𝕋 positive solutions for a class of singular boundary value problems on time scales. The results significantly extend and improve many known results for both the continuous case and more general time scales. We illustrate our results by one example.

  20. Effectiveness of early part-time sick leave in musculoskeletal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karppinen Jaro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of staying active instead of bed rest has been acknowledged in the management of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs. This emphasizes the potential benefits of adjusting work to fit the employee's remaining work ability. Despite part-time sick leave being an official option in many countries, its effectiveness has not been studied yet. We have designed a randomized controlled study to assess the health effects of early part-time sick leave compared to conventional full-day sick leave. Our hypothesis is that if work time is temporarily reduced and work load adjusted at the early stages of disability, employees with MSDs will have less disability days and faster return to regular work duties than employees on a conventional sick leave. Methods/Design The study population will consist of 600 employees, who seek medical advice from an occupational physician due to musculoskeletal pain. The inclusion requires that they have not been on a sick leave for longer than 14 days prior to the visit. Based on the physician's judgement, the severity of the symptoms must indicate a need for conventional sick leave, but the employee is considered to be able to work part-time without any additional risk. Half of the employees are randomly allocated to part-time sick leave group and their work time is reduced by 40–60%, whereas in the control group work load is totally eliminated with conventional sick leave. The main outcomes are the number of days from the initial visit to return to regular work activities, and the total number of sick leave days during 12 and 24 months of follow-up. The costs and benefits as well as the feasibility of early part-time sick leave will also be evaluated. Conclusion This is the first randomised trial to our knowledge on the effectiveness of early part-time sick leave compared to conventional full-time sick leave in the management of MSDs. The data collection continues until 2011, but preliminary

  1. Effectiveness of early part-time sick leave in musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martimo, Kari-Pekka; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Kausto, Johanna; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Ketola, Ritva; Riihimäki, Hilkka; Luukkonen, Ritva; Karppinen, Jaro; Miranda, Helena; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2008-02-25

    The importance of staying active instead of bed rest has been acknowledged in the management of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). This emphasizes the potential benefits of adjusting work to fit the employee's remaining work ability. Despite part-time sick leave being an official option in many countries, its effectiveness has not been studied yet. We have designed a randomized controlled study to assess the health effects of early part-time sick leave compared to conventional full-day sick leave. Our hypothesis is that if work time is temporarily reduced and work load adjusted at the early stages of disability, employees with MSDs will have less disability days and faster return to regular work duties than employees on a conventional sick leave. The study population will consist of 600 employees, who seek medical advice from an occupational physician due to musculoskeletal pain. The inclusion requires that they have not been on a sick leave for longer than 14 days prior to the visit. Based on the physician's judgement, the severity of the symptoms must indicate a need for conventional sick leave, but the employee is considered to be able to work part-time without any additional risk. Half of the employees are randomly allocated to part-time sick leave group and their work time is reduced by 40-60%, whereas in the control group work load is totally eliminated with conventional sick leave. The main outcomes are the number of days from the initial visit to return to regular work activities, and the total number of sick leave days during 12 and 24 months of follow-up. The costs and benefits as well as the feasibility of early part-time sick leave will also be evaluated. This is the first randomised trial to our knowledge on the effectiveness of early part-time sick leave compared to conventional full-time sick leave in the management of MSDs. The data collection continues until 2011, but preliminary results on the feasibility of part-time sick leave will be available

  2. Going Back Part-time: Family Leave Legislation and Women's Return to Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Whitney

    2012-02-01

    Using a multinomial logit model with data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, this paper tests whether the implementation of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) is associated with an increase in return to work at part-time status among first-time mothers working full-time during their pregnancy. I find a statistically significant trend of increasingly higher odds of returning to work at part-time status relative to return at full-time status, beginning in 1993 (the year in which the FMLA is implemented). Furthermore, an additional week of either state or federal leave is significantly associated with a higher odds of return at part-time status. This article provides evidence that job protection and leave legislation may help facilitate higher levels of labor force participation among women with small children, through more flexible work arrangements.

  3. Going Back Part-time: Family Leave Legislation and Women’s Return to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Using a multinomial logit model with data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, this paper tests whether the implementation of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) is associated with an increase in return to work at part-time status among first-time mothers working full-time during their pregnancy. I find a statistically significant trend of increasingly higher odds of returning to work at part-time status relative to return at full-time status, beginning in 1993 (the year in which the FMLA is implemented). Furthermore, an additional week of either state or federal leave is significantly associated with a higher odds of return at part-time status. This article provides evidence that job protection and leave legislation may help facilitate higher levels of labor force participation among women with small children, through more flexible work arrangements. PMID:22685365

  4. An Accurate Method to Determine the Muzzle Leaving Time of Guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. X. Chao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper states the importance of determining the muzzle leaving time of guns with a high degree of accuracy. Two commonly used methods are introduced, which are the high speed photography method and photoelectric transducer method, and the advantage and disadvantage of these two methods are analyzed. Furthermore, a new method to determine the muzzle leaving time of guns based on the combination of high speed photography and synchronized trigger technology is present in this paper, and its principle and uncertainty of measurement are evaluated. The firing experiments shows that the present method has distinguish advantage in accuracy and reliability from other methods.

  5. Obtaining confirmation through social relationships: Norwegian first-time mothers' experiences while on maternity leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstveit, Marit; Severinsson, Elisabeth; Karlsen, Bjørg

    2010-03-01

    The social relationships of employed women on maternity leave undergo significant changes. The aim of the study was to illuminate first-time mothers' experiences of social relationships while on maternity leave. Nine mothers were interviewed at both 3-5 months and 11-14 months post-partum and the data were analyzed by means of interpretative analysis. The main theme of obtaining confirmation through social relationships was based on two themes (being confirmed by other mothers and balancing between being a mother and an employee) and on four subthemes (seeking company, sharing experiences, feeling ineffective and in a state of stagnation, and trying to handle contact with the workplace). In order to strengthen the social relationships of mothers, the mother-child health service should offer all mothers the opportunity to join a peer support group, while employers could keep in regular contact with staff members on maternity leave.

  6. The effect of maternity leave length and time of return to work on breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuanu, Chinelo; Glover, Saundra; Probst, Janice; Liu, Jihong; Hussey, James

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the effect of maternity leave length and time of first return to work on breastfeeding. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Restricting our sample to singletons whose biological mothers were the respondents at the 9-month interview and worked in the 12 months before delivery (N = 6150), we classified the length of total maternity leave (weeks) as 1 to 6, 7 to 12, ≥ 13, and did not take; paid maternity leave (weeks) as 0, 1 to 6, ≥ 7, and did not take; and time of return to work postpartum (weeks) as 1 to 6, 7 to 12, ≥ 13, and not yet returned. Analyses included χ(2) tests and multiple logistic regressions. In our study population, 69.4% initiated breastfeeding with positive variation by both total and paid maternity leave length, and time of return to work. In adjusted analyses, neither total nor paid maternity leave length had any impact on breastfeeding initiation or duration. Compared with those returning to work within 1 to 6 weeks, women who had not yet returned to work had a greater odds of initiating breastfeeding (odds ratio [OR]: 1.46 [1.08-1.97]; risk ratios [RR]: 1.13 [1.03-1.22]), continuing any breastfeeding beyond 6 months (OR: 1.41 [0.87-2.27]; RR: 1.25 [0.91-1.61]), and predominant breastfeeding beyond 3 months (OR: 2.01 [1.06-3.80]; RR: 1.70 [1.05-2.53]). Women who returned to work at or after 13 weeks postpartum had higher odds of predominantly breastfeeding beyond 3 months (OR: 2.54 [1.51-4.27]; RR: 1.99 [1.38-2.69]). If new mothers delay their time of return to work, then duration of breastfeeding among US mothers may lengthen.

  7. Harvest time on the content and chemical composition of essential oil from leaves of guava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Aparecida Josefi da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The essential oil plants contents can be affected by several factors. For example, in certain plants, collection time has been observed to affect the content and chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the plant. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of collection time on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil from guava ( Psidium guajava L. leaves. Leaves were collected at different times of the day and the content and chemical composition of their essential oil was determined. Collection time did not qualitatively affect the chemical composition of the essential oil. However, concentration of certain substances in the oil, such as α-humulene and trans-caryophyllene, did significantly vary at different collection times. The main constituents of the essential oil of Psidium guajava are limonene (2.2-4.4%, trans-caryophyllene (18.1-17.1%, α-humulene (26.3-20.4%, aromadendrene (7.6-12.2%, α-selinene (7.3-11.3%, caryophyllene oxide (3.7-3.3%, humulene epoxide II (4.1-1.9%, and selin-11-en-4α-ol (7.2-11.1%. Leaves collected at 7:00 AM had higher essential oil production, with a content of 0.38% (d.b., whereas leaves collected at 7:00 PM had lower essential oil production, 0.24% (d.b.. Chemical analysis showed that sesquiterpene compounds represented the highest concentration (62.0%, and monoterpenoids and monoterpenes represented the lowest concentrations (1.1 and 2.2%, respectively. Chemical classes that underwent major changes with respect to collection time were monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and sesquiterpenoids (2.2-4.4%, 63.8-61.7%, and 15.9-13.2%, respectively.

  8. Reducing the time until psychotherapy initiation reduces sick leave duration in participants diagnosed with anxiety and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Sandra; Marco, José H; Andani, Joaquín

    2018-01-01

    Sick leave in patients with a mental disorder is characterized by having a long duration. Studies suggest that the time until a patient on sick leave for a common mental health disorder initiates evaluation and treatment by a healthcare professional is an important factor in the duration of the sick leave. However, in these studies, the intervention was not performed by a mental health specialist. The aim of this study was to find out whether the length of sick leave was associated with the time before initiating psychotherapy, age, time until returning to work after psychotherapy ends, and duration of psychotherapy. In a further analysis, we examined whether the model composed of age, duration of psychotherapy, and time before initiating psychotherapy predicted the length of sick leave. The sample consisted of 2,423 participants, 64.1% (n = 1,554) women and 35.9% (n = 869) men, who were on sick leave for anxiety disorders or depressive disorder. The total duration of the sick leave of participants diagnosed with depression and anxiety was positively associated with the time before beginning psychotherapy. Time before beginning psychotherapy predicted the length of sick leave when the variables age and duration of psychotherapy were controlled. It is necessary to reduce the time until beginning psychotherapy in people on sick leave for common mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The effect of part-time sick leave for employees with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders; Eplov, Lene Falgaard

    2012-12-01

    Part-time sick leave (PTSL) allows employees on full-time sick leave (FTSL) to resume work at reduced hours. When the partly absent employee's health improves, working hours are increased until the employee is able to work regular hours. Studies have found that PTSL is an effective instrument for reducing sick leave durations for employees with musculoskeletal disorders and for employees on sick leave in general. This is the first published article to document how PTSL affects sick leave durations for employees with mental disorders. The aim is to estimate the effect of PTSL on the duration until returning to regular working hours for employees with mental disorders. We compare this effect to that of PTSL for employees with non-mental disorders ('other disorders'). We use combined survey and register data about 226 employees on long-term sick leave with mental disorders and 638 employees with other disorders. These data contain information about type of disorder, PTSL and FTSL (full-time sick leave) durations, and various background characteristics. We use a mixed proportional hazard regression model that allows us to control for unobserved differences between employees on PTSL and those on FTSL. Our analyses show that PTSL has no effect on the duration until returning to regular working hours for employees with mental disorders. Furthermore, looking at specific disorders such as depression and stress-related conditions, we find no significant effects of PTSL. In contrast, in line with previous research, we find that PTSL significantly reduces the duration until returning to regular working hours for employees with other disorders. The analyses also illustrate the importance of controlling for unobserved differences between employees on PTSL and those on FTSL. Without this control, PTSL significantly reduces the duration until returning to regular working hours. When we control for unobserved characteristics, this effect decreases, and for employees with mental

  10. Taking Leave?

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  11. Continuous real-time in vivo measurement of cerebral nitric oxide supports theoretical predictions of an irreversible switching in cerebral ROS after sufficient exposure to external toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Niall J; O'Riordan, Saidhbhe L; Lowry, John P; Cloutier, Mathieu; Wellstead, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models of the interactions between alphasynuclein (αS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) predict a systematic and irreversible switching to damagingly high levels of ROS after sufficient exposure to risk factors associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). We tested this prediction by continuously monitoring real-time changes in neurochemical levels over periods of several days in animals exposed to a toxin known to cause Parkinsonian symptoms. Nitric oxide (NO) sensors were implanted in the brains of freely moving rats and the NO levels continuously recorded while the animals were exposed to paraquat (PQ) injections of various amounts and frequencies. Long-term, real-time measurement of NO in a cohort of animals showed systematic switching in levels when PQ injections of sufficient size and frequency were administered. The experimental observations of changes in NO imply a corresponding switching in endogenous ROS levels and support theoretical predictions of an irreversible change to damagingly high levels of endogenous ROS when PD risks are sufficiently large. Our current results only consider one form of PD risk, however, we are sufficiently confident in them to conclude that: (i) continuous long-term measurement of neurochemical dynamics provide a novel way to measure the temporal change and system dynamics which determine Parkinsonian damage, and (ii) the bistable feedback switching predicted by mathematical modelling seems to exist and that a deeper analysis of its characteristics would provide a way of understanding the pathogenic mechanisms that initiate Parkinsonian cell damage.

  12. Does part-time sick leave help individuals with mental disorders recover lost work capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, Daniela

    2014-06-01

    This paper aims to answer the question whether combining sick leave with some hours of work can help employees diagnosed with a mental disorder (MD) increase their probability of returning to work. Given the available data, this paper analyzes the impact of part-time sick leave (PTSL) on the probability of fully recovering lost work capacity for employees diagnosed with an MD. The effects of PTSL on the probability of fully recovering lost work capacity are estimated by a discrete choice one-factor model using data on a nationally representative sample extracted from the register of the National Agency of Social Insurance in Sweden and supplemented with information from questionnaires. All individuals in the sample were 20-64 years old and started a sickness spell of at least 15 days between 1 and 16 February 2001. We selected all employed individuals diagnosed with an MD, with a final sample of 629 individuals. The results show that PTSL is associated with a low likelihood of full recovery, yet the timing of the assignment is important. PTSL's effect is relatively low (0.015) when it is assigned in the beginning of the spell but relatively high (0.387), and statistically significant, when assigned after 60 days of full-time sick leave (FTSL). This suggests efficiency improvements from assigning employees with an MD diagnosis, when possible, to PTSL. The employment gains will be enhanced if employees with an MD diagnosis are encouraged to return to work part-time after 60 days or more of FTSL.

  13. Parental Leave Policies, Intra-household Time Allocations and Children's Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Raquel; Fruttero, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a general equilibrium model of marriage and divorce to assess how public policies on parental leave and leave benefits affect intra-household decision making, family structure, intergenerational mobility, and the distribution of income. The benchmark economy is calibrated to US data to replicate some characteristics relevant to the interaction between the marriage and labor markets. The effects of unpaid leave, paid leave benefits, and mandated leave on human capital investmen...

  14. Structured functional assessments in general practice increased the use of part-time sick leave: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterås, Nina; Gulbrandsen, Pål; Kann, Inger Cathrine; Brage, Søren

    2010-03-01

    A method for structured functional assessments of persons with long-term sick leave was implemented in a cluster randomised controlled trial in general practice. The aim was to analyse intervention effects on general practitioner (GP) sick-listing practice and patient sick leave. 57 GPs were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. The intervention group GPs learned the method at a 1-day workshop including teamwork and role-playing. The control group GPs were requested to assess functional ability as usual during the 8 months intervention period in 2005. Outcome measures included duration of patient sick leave episodes, GP prescription of part-time sick leave, active sick leave, and vocational rehabilitation. This data was extracted from a national register. The GPs in the intervention group prescribed part-time sick leave more often (p part-time and less active sick leave compared to the control group GPs. As a result, more intervention GP patients returned to part-time work compared to control GP patients. No intervention effect was seen on duration of patient sick leave episodes or on prescription of vocational rehabilitation.

  15. Maternity Leave in Turbulent Times: Effects on Labor Market Transitions and Fertility in Russia, 1985-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Theodore P.; Perelli-Harris, Brienna

    2012-01-01

    Maternity leave policies are designed to ease the tension between women's employment and fertility, but whether they actually play such a role remains unclear. We analyze the individual-level effects of maternity leave on employment outcomes and on second conception rates among Russian first-time mothers from 1985-2000 using retrospective job and…

  16. The effect of part-time sick leave for employees with mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders

    reduces the duration until employees with mental disorders end their sick leave by reporting ready for returning to regular working hours. The programme allows fully sick-listed employees to resume work at reduced hours. When the sick-listed employee’s health improves, working hours are increased until...... the employee is able to work regular hours. We use combined survey and register data about 226 long-term sick-listed employees with mental disorders and 638 employees with physical disorders. Our analyses show that part-time sick-listing significantly reduces the duration until returning to regular working...... hours for employees with physical disorders. In contrast, we find that part-time sick-listing does not reduce durations for employees with mental disorders. The analyses also illustrate the importance of adjusting for unobserved differences between part-time sick-listed and full-time sick...

  17. Indoor and Outdoor Depth Imaging of Leaves With Time-of-Flight and Stereo Vision Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Wajahat; Foix, Sergi; Alenya, Guilliem

    2014-01-01

    In this article we analyze the response of Time-of-Flight (ToF) cameras (active sensors) for close range imaging under three different illumination conditions and compare the results with stereo vision (passive) sensors. ToF cameras are sensitive to ambient light and have low resolution but deliver...... poorly under sunlight. Stereo vision is comparatively more robust to ambient illumination and provides high resolution depth data but is constrained by texture of the object along with computational efficiency. Graph cut based stereo correspondence algorithm can better retrieve the shape of the leaves...

  18. A good time to leave?: the sunk time effect in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Paula; White, K Geoffrey

    2014-06-01

    Persistence in a losing course of action due to prior investments of time, known as the sunk time effect, has seldom been studied in nonhuman animals. On every trial in the present study, pigeons were required to choose between two response keys. Responses on one key produced food after a short fixed interval (FI) of time on some trials, or on other trials, no food (Extinction) after a longer time. FI and Extinction trials were not differently signaled, were equiprobable, and alternated randomly. Responses on a second Escape key allowed the pigeon to terminate the current trial and start a new one. The optimal behavior was for pigeons to peck the escape key once the duration equivalent to the short FI had elapsed without reward. Durations of the short FI and the longer Extinction schedules were varied over conditions. In some conditions, the pigeons suboptimally responded through the Extinction interval, thus committing the sunk time effect. The absolute duration of the short FI had no effect on the choice between persisting and escaping. Instead, the ratio of FI and Extinction durations determined the likelihood of persistence during extinction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Timing matters: length of leave and working mothers' daily reentry regrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Bettina S; Ritter, Johannes O

    2012-11-01

    Dealing with developmental tasks in work and family domains is an important challenge for young and middle-aged adults. We investigated a transition that has evolved into a normative task for women, namely, the retransition back to paid work following maternity leave. In a diary study with 149 mothers who had just returned to work, we examined the daily experienced regrets concerning this return. In addition to personal resources (i.e., emotional stability, feeling prepared for the transition) and financial requirements needed to return to work, daily experienced family stress predicted decisional regrets. Moreover, our results suggest that leave length is related to psychological resilience in the face of day-to-day stress experiences: Late returners reported fewer regrets in general and were unaffected by daily family stress. Return-to-work regrets, in turn, were predictive of withdrawal intentions. This underlines the relevancy of the timing of the transition back to work in terms of successful development during this life phase.

  20. Legislative change enabling use of early part-time sick leave enhanced return to work and work participation in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Virta, Lauri J; Kausto, Johanna; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Martimo, Kari-Pekka; Laaksonen, Mikko; Leinonen, Taina; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Burdorf, Alex; Solovieva, Svetlana

    2017-09-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of part-time sick leave at the early (first 12 weeks) stage of work disability due to mental disorder or musculoskeletal disease on sustained return to work (RTW) and overall work participation. Methods In a nation-wide register-based quasi-experimental study, we compared sustained RTW (ie, ≥28 consecutive days at work) and 2-year work participation between the part- and full-time sickness absence (SA) benefit groups (N=1878 in each group) using propensity-score matching. Persons who received partial or full SA benefit due to musculoskeletal diseases or mental disorders between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 were eligible as cases or controls, respectively. Results A higher proportion showed sustained RTW after part- compared to full-time sick leave [absolute risk difference 8.0%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.3-10.9]. Moreover, the proportion of time at work was at a 10.5% higher level in the part- compared to full-time sick leave group. The prevalence of full disability retirement was almost three-fold among the full- compared to part-time sick leave group, whereas partial disability retirement was 4.5-fold more prevalent in the part- compared to full-time sick leave group. Conclusions The use of part-time sick leave during the first three months of SA enhances RTW and overall work participation during two years among persons with mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases. The prescription of part-time sick leave can be recommended at an early stage of work disability.

  1. Uptake of phosphorus from surfactant solutions by wheat leaves: spreading kinetics, wetted area, and drying time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Courtney A E; Priest, Craig; McBeath, Therese M; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2016-01-07

    The delivery and uptake of nutrients at the surface of plant leaves is an important physicochemical phenomenon that depends on leaf surface morphology and chemistry, fertilizer formulation chemistry (including adjuvant and associated surfactants), wetting dynamics, and many other physical, chemical and biological factors. In this study, the role of spreading dynamics in determining uptake of the macronutrient phosphorus from phosphoric acid fertilizer solution in combination with three different adjuvants was measured in the absence of droplet run-off and splashing. When run-off and splashing losses were zero, spreading and drying rates had a small to negligible effect on the uptake efficiency. The results suggest that uptake may be much less sensitive to the specific choice of adjuvant and long time-scale spreading behaviour than one might intuitively expect.

  2. Putting Parenting First: Why It's Time for Universal Paid Leave. PPI Policy Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Robert D.

    Although the Family and Medical Leave Act enabled some parents to take unpaid parental leave in order to fulfill family responsibilities, it did not cover all workers and did not provide workers the financial support to do so. This policy report calls for Congress to: require states to allow new parents who have been working to collect…

  3. Return to work after early part-time sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Kausto, Johanna; Shiri, Rahman; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Karppinen, Jaro; Miranda, Helena; Luukkonen, Ritva; Martimo, Kari-Pekka

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of early part-time sick leave on return to work (RTW) and sickness absence among patients with musculoskeletal disorders. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in six occupational health units of medium- and large-size enterprises. Patients aged 18-60 years with musculoskeletal disorders (N=63) unable to perform their regular work were randomly allocated to part- or full-time sick leave. In the former group, workload was reduced by restricting work time by about a half. Remaining work tasks were modified when necessary, as specified in a "fit note" from the physician. The main outcomes were time to return to regular work activities and sickness absence during 12-month follow-up. Time to RTW sustained for ≥4 weeks was shorter in the intervention group (median 12 versus 20 days, P=0.10). Hazard ratio of RTW adjusted for age was 1.60 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.98-2.63] and 1.76 (95% CI 1.21-2.56) after further adjustment for pain interference with sleep and previous sickness absence at baseline. Total sickness absence during the 12-month follow-up was about 20% lower in the intervention than the control group. Compliance with the intervention was high with no discontinuations of part-time sick leave due to musculoskeletal reasons. Early part-time sick leave may provide a faster and more sustainable return to regular duties than full-time sick leave among patients with musculoskeletal disorders. This is the first study to show that work participation can be safely increased with early part-time sick leave.

  4. Leave entitlements, time off work and the household financial impacts of quarantine compliance during an H1N1 outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Anne M; Mason, Kate E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Studdert, David M; McVernon, Jodie; Fielding, James E; Petrony, Sylvia; Gurrin, Lyle; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2012-11-20

    The Australian state of Victoria, with 5.2 million residents, enforced home quarantine during a H1N1 pandemic in 2009. The strategy was targeted at school children. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which parents' access to paid sick leave or paid carer's leave was associated with (a) time taken off work to care for quarantined children, (b) household finances, and (c) compliance with quarantine recommendations. We conducted an online and telephone survey of households recruited through 33 schools (85% of eligible schools), received 314 responses (27%), and analysed the subsample of 133 households in which all resident parents were employed. In 52% of households, parents took time off work to care for quarantined children. Households in which no resident parent had access to leave appeared to be less likely to take time off work (42% vs 58%, p=0.08) although this difference had only borderline significance. Among parents who did take time off work, those in households without access to leave were more likely to lose pay (73% vs 21%, pparent lost pay due to taking time off work, 42% experienced further financial consequences such as being unable to pay a bill. Access to leave did not predict compliance with quarantine recommendations. Future pandemic plans should consider the economic costs borne by households and options for compensating quarantined families for income losses.

  5. The Effect of Part-time Sick Leave for Employees with Mental Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Høgelund, Jan; Eplov, Lene Falgaard

    2012-01-01

    . Without this control, PTSL significantly reduces the duration until returning to regular working hours. When we control for unobserved characteristics, this effect decreases, and for employees with mental disorders the effect vanishes entirely. DISCUSSION AND LIMITATIONS: The lack of an effect of PTSL...... instrument for reducing sick leave durations for employees with musculoskeletal disorders and for employees on sick leave in general. This is the first published article to document how PTSL affects sick leave durations for employees with mental disorders. AIM: The aim is to estimate the effect of PTSL...... on the duration until returning to regular working hours for employees with mental disorders. We compare this effect to that of PTSL for employees with non-mental disorders ('other disorders'). METHODS: We use combined survey and register data about 226 employees on long-term sick leave with mental disorders...

  6. Work hours, sleep sufficiency, and prevalence of depression among full-time employees: a community-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori

    2011-05-01

    Depression due to long work hours and sleep deprivation is a major occupational health concern. The extent to which work hours and sleep are associated with depression was investigated in employees of small- and medium-scale businesses in the Japanese city of Yashio, Saitama, and in the Ohta ward of Tokyo, a suburb of Tokyo, controlling for various potential confounders. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 2,643 full-time employees (1,928 men and 715 women), aged 18-79 years (mean = 45 years), in 296 small- and medium-scale businesses were surveyed from August 2002 to December 2002 using a self-administered questionnaire evaluating work hours, sleep status, and covariates including sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, biological factors, medication usage, and occupational factors. Depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Prevalence of depression by work hours, sleep status, and covariates was analyzed by χ² test. Risk of depression by work hours, sleep status, and both combined was estimated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Participants working > 10 hours per day, sleeping hours per day, and reporting insufficient sleep were, respectively, 37%, 43%, and 97% more likely to be depressed than those working 6 to 8 hours per day, sleeping 6 to hours per day, and reporting sufficient sleep (P working > 10 hours per day or > 8 to 10 hours per day with hours per day of sleep showed a 41%-169% higher prevalence of depression versus those working 6 to 8 hours per day with 6+ hours per day of sleep (P work-hour categories (6 to 8, > 8 to 10, and > 10 hours per day) showed a 62%-179% increase in the prevalence of depression versus those working 6 to 8 hours per day and reporting sufficient sleep (P work-hour category with 6+ hours of sleep or with subjective sufficient sleep. Depression associated with long work hours is primarily a result of sleep deprivation. Greater attention should be

  7. Health-related effects of early part-time sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman; Kausto, Johanna; Martimo, Kari-Pekka; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2013-01-01

    Previously we reported that early part-time sick leave enhances return to work (RTW) among employees with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). This paper assesses the health-related effects of this intervention. Patients aged 18-60 years who were unable to perform their regular work due to MSD were randomized to part- or full-time sick leave groups. In the former, workload was reduced by halving working time. Using validated questionnaires, we assessed pain intensity and interference with work and sleep, region-specific disability due to MSD, self-rated general health, health-related quality of life (measured via EuroQol), productivity loss, depression, and sleep disturbance at baseline, 1, 3, 8, 12, and 52 weeks. We analyzed the repeated measures data (171-356 observations) with the generalized estimating equation approach. The intervention (part-time sick leave) and control (full-time sick leave) groups did not differ with regard to pain intensity, pain interference with work and sleep, region-specific disability, productivity loss, depression, or sleep disturbance. The intervention group reported better self-rated general health (adjusted P=0.07) and health-related quality of life (adjusted P=0.02) than the control group. In subgroup analyses, the intervention was more effective among the patients whose current problem began occurring part-time sick leave did not exacerbate pain-related symptoms and functional disability, but improved self-rated general health and health-related quality of life in the early stage of work disability due to MSD.

  8. Variation in content of macronutrients of guava tree leaves, in function of type and time of storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Antunes de Souza

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf analysis for perennial crops such as the guava tree is an important tool. It was used to evaluate the influence of the type of packaging (with or without refrigerator and storage time after collection on the macronutrient composition of guava tree leaves. The leaf sampling was carried out on a commercial guava tree (cv. Paluma, collecting the third pair of recently matured leaves in full bloom. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, subdivided according to the type of packaging (with or without refrigerator and further subdivided into eight storage times before washing (zero, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168h after sampling, with four replications. The storage time significantly affected the concentration of leaf nitrogen, calcium and sulfur. Moreover, the type and time of conditioning (with or without refrigerator affected only the magnesium. In general, storage fot up to 12h before washing produced no significant changes in the levels of macronutrients.

  9. Variation in content of macronutrients of guava tree leaves, in function of type and time of storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Antunes de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf analysis for perennial crops such as the guava tree is an important tool. It was used to evaluate the influence of the type of packaging (with or without refrigerator and storage time after collection on the macronutrient composition of guava tree leaves. The leaf sampling was carried out on a commercial guava tree (cv. Paluma, collecting the third pair of recently matured leaves in full bloom. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, subdivided according to the type of packaging (with or without refrigerator and further subdivided into eight storage times before washing (zero, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168h after sampling, with four replications. The storage time significantly affected the concentration of leaf nitrogen, calcium and sulfur. Moreover, the type and time of conditioning (with or without refrigerator affected only the magnesium. In general, storage fot up to 12h before washing produced no significant changes in the levels of macronutrients.

  10. Timing Matters: Length of Leave and Working Mothers' Daily Reentry Regrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Bettina S.; Ritter, Johannes O.

    2012-01-01

    Dealing with developmental tasks in work and family domains is an important challenge for young and middle-aged adults. We investigated a transition that has evolved into a normative task for women, namely, the retransition back to paid work following maternity leave. In a diary study with 149 mothers who had just returned to work, we examined the…

  11. Time away from work predicts later cognitive function: differences by activity during leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Anja K; Glymour, M Maria; Mackenbach, Johan P; van Lenthe, Frank J; Avendano, Mauricio

    2013-08-01

    We sought to examine how different activities performed during employment gaps are associated with later cognitive function and change. Five cognitive measures were used to indicate cognitive impairment of 18,259 respondents to the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (ages 50-73) in 2004/5 or 2006/7. Using complete employment histories, employment gaps of ≥6 months between ages 25 and 65 were identified. Controlling for early life socioeconomic status, school performance, and education, higher risk of cognitive impairment was associated with employment gaps described as unemployment (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.35) and sickness (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.52-2.09). In contrast, lower risk of cognitive impairment was associated with employment gaps described as training (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.52-1.01) or maternity leave (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.57-0.79). In longitudinal mixed effects models, training and maternity leave were associated with lower 2-year aging-related cognitive decline. Periods away from work described as unemployment or sickness are associated with lower cognitive function, whereas maternity and training leaves are associated with better late-life cognitive function. Both causation and selection mechanisms may explain these findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Are economic recessions at the time of leaving school associated with worse physical functioning in later life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio

    2013-11-01

    To examine whether economic conditions at the time of leaving school or college are associated with physical functioning in later life among cohorts in 11 European countries. Data came from 10,338 participants in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) aged 50-74 who left school or college between 1956 and 1986. Data on functional limitations, as well as employment, marriage, and fertility retrospective histories were linked to national unemployment rates during the year individuals left school. Models included country-fixed effects and controls for early-life circumstances. Greater unemployment rates during the school-leaving year were associated with fewer functional limitations at ages 50-74 among men (rate ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.47-0.83), but more physical functioning limitations among women (rate ratio 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.50), particularly among those with (post-)secondary education. Economic conditions at the age of leaving school were associated with several labor market, marriage, fertility, and health behavior outcomes, but controlling for these factors did not attenuate associations. Results were similar in models that controlled for selection into higher education due to measured covariates. Worse economic conditions during the school-leaving year predicted better health at later life among men but worse health among women. Both selection and causation mechanisms may explain this association. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. On Some Sufficiency-Type Stability and Linear State-Feedback Stabilization Conditions for a Class of Multirate Discrete-Time Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De la Sen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses the stability of a discrete multirate sampling system whose sets of sampling rates (or sampling periods are the integer multiple of those operating on all the preceding substates. Each of such substates is associated with a particular sampling rate. The sufficiency-type stability conditions are derived based on simple conditions on the norm, spectral radius and numerical radius of the matrix of the dynamics of a system parameterized at the largest sampling period.

  14. Do changes in the azimuthal distribution of maize leaves over time affect canopy light absorption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, J.L.; Moulia, B.; Bonhomme, R.

    1999-01-01

    In maize canopies, when modelling the architecture and light regime one usually assumes leaf azimuths are distributed uniformly. Once we had demonstrated azimuthal re-orientation of maize leaves during the vegetative phase, we tested the weight of this hypothesis on the light absorbed daily by the canopy. We thus modelled the three-dimensional (3D) geometry of maize canopies with various plant densities and at different developmental stages using plant digitizing under field conditions. We simulated radiative transfer using a volume-based approach within actual and hypothetical canopies, obtained by simply rearranging leaf azimuths. Simulations indicated that changes to horizontal heterogeneity have little effect on daily light absorption efficiency. It is concluded that changes in leaf azimuths do not have to be taken into account in crop-functioning models. (author) [fr

  15. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...... of leaving home. Results showed that while some differences disappeared when controlling for covariates, others persisted, thus indicating ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns. A strong link between leaving home and marriage was substantiated for Turks, but not for Somalis. The home-leaving patterns...... of Somalis were much more similar to those of Danes. Overall, Turkish descendants were similar to Turkish immigrants but with some differentiation. The analyses identified the existence of ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns but also found evidence of a shift towards less traditional patterns, i...

  16. Rapid determination of ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba kernels and leaves by direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongping; Xu, Yueting; Huang, Yilei; Liu, Charles; Jiang, Kezhi; Wang, Lili

    2017-12-01

    A novel method based on direct analysis in real time integrated with mass spectrometry was established and applied into rapid determination of ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba kernels and leaves. Instrument parameter settings were optimized to obtain the sensitive and accurate determination of ginkgolic acids. At the sample introduction speed of 0.2 mm/s, high intensity of [M-H] - ions for ginkgolic acids were observed in the negative ion mode by utilization of high-purity helium gas at 450°C. Two microliters of methanol extract of G. biloba kernels or leaves dropped on the surface of Quick-Strip module was analyzed after solvent evaporated to dryness. A series of standard solutions of ginkgolic acid 13:0 in the range of 2-50 mg/L were analyzed with a correlation coefficient r = 0.9981 and relative standard deviation (n = 5) from 12.5 to 13.7%. The limit of detection was 0.5 mg/L. The results of direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry were in agreement with those observed by thermochemolysis gas chromatography. The proposed method demonstrated significant potential in the application of the high-throughput screening and rapid analysis for ginkgolic acids in dietary supplements. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Static dictionaries on AC0 RAMs: query time (√log n/log log n) is necessary and sufficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Arne; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Riis, Søren

    1996-01-01

    ) on the time for answering membership queries in a set of size n when reasonable space is used for the data structure storing the set; the upper bound can be obtained using O(n) space, and the lower bound holds even if we allow space 2polylog n. Several variations of this result are also obtained. Among others......, we show a tradeoff between time and circuit depth under the unit-cost assumption: any RAM instruction set which permits a linear space, constant query time solution to the static dictionary problem must have an instruction of depth Ω(log w/log log to), where w is the word size of the machine (and log...

  18. Low resolution scans can provide a sufficiently accurate, cost- and time-effective alternative to high resolution scans for 3D shape analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel E. Marcy

    2018-06-01

    sufficiently accurate to classify intra-specific differences. We also make three recommendations for best use of low resolution data. First, we recommend that extreme caution should be taken when analyzing the asymmetric component of shape variation. Second, using 3D scans generates more random error due to increased landmarking difficulty, therefore users should be conservative in landmark choice and avoid multiple operators. Third, using 3D scans introduces a source of systematic error relative to µCT scans, therefore we recommend not combining them when possible, especially in studies expecting little biological variation. Our findings support increased use of low resolution 3D scans for most morphological studies; they are likely also applicable to low resolution scans of large specimens made in a medical CT scanner. As most vertebrates are relatively small, we anticipate our results will bolster more researchers in designing affordable large scale studies on small specimens with 3D surface scanners.

  19. Energy self-sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickeman, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    The reasons why there has been a stronger commitment of capital, technical, and managerial resources to the nuclear fuel supply business, on the part of U.S. industry, are examined. First a number of observations are made on the economic risks involved, capital investment requirements and fuel growth projects. Considering the nuclear fuel industry as a whole, the need for industry, government, electric utilities, and the public, to respond to its challenge is stressed. Sources of bottlenecks to expanding production are then considered for the various sectors of the fuel cycle. The most essential ingredients for the industry are described as: the recognition that provision of nuclear fuels falls within the private sector; predictable industry requirements for the fuel; timely regulatory and licensing requirements, criteria and actions. (U.K.)

  20. Work and pregnancy: individual and organizational factors influencing organizational commitment, timing of maternity leave, and return to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyness, K S; Thompson, C A; Francesco, A M; Judiesch, M K

    1999-10-01

    This study surveys pregnant women to examine the individual and organizational factors related with organizational commitment, planned timing of maternity leaves and return to work after childbirth. The survey was conducted on 86 pregnant women; among them, 73% were White, 8% were Asian, 7% were African-American, 6% were Hispanic, and 1% were Native-American respondents. The findings revealed that women whose organizations offered guaranteed jobs after childbirth planned to work later into their pregnancies and to return to work sooner after childbirth. Also, women who perceived supportive work-family cultures were more committed to their organizations and planned to return more quickly after childbirth than women who perceived less supportive cultures. Furthermore, women with less traditional attitudes towards parenting planned to work later into their pregnancies and return to work sooner after childbirth.

  1. Metabolic profiling and predicting the free radical scavenging activity of guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves according to harvest time by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Hyun; Cho, Somi K; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Park, Hae-Eun; Kim, Young-Suk; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2011-01-01

    Guava leaves were classified and the free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) evaluated according to different harvest times by using the (1)H-NMR-based metabolomic technique. A principal component analysis (PCA) of (1)H-NMR data from the guava leaves provided clear clusters according to the harvesting time. A partial least squares (PLS) analysis indicated a correlation between the metabolic profile and FRSA. FRSA levels of the guava leaves harvested during May and August were high, and those leaves contained higher amounts of 3-hydroxybutyric acid, acetic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, citric acid, malonic acid, trans-aconitic acid, ascorbic acid, maleic acid, cis-aconitic acid, epicatechin, protocatechuic acid, and xanthine than the leaves harvested during October and December. Epicatechin and protocatechuic acid among those compounds seem to have enhanced FRSA of the guava leaf samples harvested in May and August. A PLS regression model was established to predict guava leaf FRSA at different harvesting times by using a (1)H-NMR data set. The predictability of the PLS model was then tested by internal and external validation. The results of this study indicate that (1)H-NMR-based metabolomic data could usefully characterize guava leaves according to their time of harvesting.

  2. Leaving Moderate Tricuspid Valve Regurgitation Alone at the Time of Pulmonary Valve Replacement: A Worthwhile Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogon, Brian; Mori, Makoto; Alsoufi, Bahaaldin; Kanter, Kirk; Oster, Matt

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary valve disruption in patients with tetralogy of Fallot and congenital pulmonary stenosis often results in pulmonary insufficiency, right ventricular dilation, and tricuspid valve regurgitation. Management of functional tricuspid regurgitation at the time of subsequent pulmonary valve replacement remains controversial. Our aims were to (1) analyze tricuspid valve function after pulmonary valve replacement through midterm follow-up and (2) determine the benefits, if any, of concomitant tricuspid annuloplasty. Thirty-five patients with tetralogy of Fallot or congenital pulmonary stenosis were analyzed. All patients had been palliated in childhood by disrupting the pulmonary valve, and all patients had at least moderate tricuspid valve regurgitation at the time of subsequent pulmonary valve replacement. Preoperative and serial postoperative echocardiograms were analyzed. Pulmonary and tricuspid regurgitation, along with right ventricular dilation and dysfunction were scored as 0 (none), 1 (mild), 2 (moderate), and 3 (severe). Right ventricular volume and area were also calculated. Comparisons were made between patients who underwent pulmonary valve replacement alone and those who underwent concomitant tricuspid valve annuloplasty. At 1 month after pulmonary valve replacement, there were significant reductions in pulmonary valve regurgitation (mean 3 vs 0.39, p tricuspid valve regurgitation (mean 2.33 vs 1.3, p tricuspid regurgitation 1 month postoperatively between patients who underwent concomitant tricuspid annuloplasty and those who underwent pulmonary valve replacement alone (mean 1.31 vs 1.29, p = 0.81). However, at latest follow-up (mean 7.0 ± 2.8 years), the degree of tricuspid regurgitation was significantly higher in the concomitant annuloplasty group (mean 1.87 vs 1.12, p = 0.005). In patients with at least moderate tricuspid valve regurgitation, significant improvement in tricuspid valve function and right ventricular size occurs in the first

  3. Oxytocin Reduces Face Processing Time but Leaves Recognition Accuracy and Eye-Gaze Unaffected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubble, Kelly; Daughters, Katie; Manstead, Antony S R; Rees, Aled; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have found that oxytocin (OXT) can improve the recognition of emotional facial expressions; it has been proposed that this effect is mediated by an increase in attention to the eye-region of faces. Nevertheless, evidence in support of this claim is inconsistent, and few studies have directly tested the effect of oxytocin on emotion recognition via altered eye-gaze Methods: In a double-blind, within-subjects, randomized control experiment, 40 healthy male participants received 24 IU intranasal OXT and placebo in two identical experimental sessions separated by a 2-week interval. Visual attention to the eye-region was assessed on both occasions while participants completed a static facial emotion recognition task using medium intensity facial expressions. Although OXT had no effect on emotion recognition accuracy, recognition performance was improved because face processing was faster across emotions under the influence of OXT. This effect was marginally significant (pfaces and this was not related to recognition accuracy or face processing time. These findings suggest that OXT-induced enhanced facial emotion recognition is not necessarily mediated by an increase in attention to the eye-region of faces, as previously assumed. We discuss several methodological issues which may explain discrepant findings and suggest the effect of OXT on visual attention may differ depending on task requirements. (JINS, 2017, 23, 23-33).

  4. Ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the rapid phenolic profiling of red maple (Acer rubrum) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunting; Seeram, Navindra P

    2018-03-07

    The red maple (Acer rubrum) species is economically important to North America because of its sap, which is used to produce maple syrup. In addition, various other red maple plant parts, including leaves, were used as a traditional medicine by the Native Americans. Currently, red maple leaves are being used for nutraceutical and cosmetic applications but there are no published analytical methods for comprehensive phytochemical characterization of this material. Herein, a rapid and sensitive method using liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry was developed to characterize the phenolics in a methanol extract of red maple leaves and a proprietary phenolic-enriched red maple leaves extract (Maplifa™). Time-of-flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry experiments led to the identification of 106 phenolic compounds in red maples leaves with the vast majority of these compounds also detected in Maplifa™. The compounds included 68 gallotannins, 25 flavonoids, gallic acid, quinic acid, catechin, epicatechin, and nine other gallic acid derivatives among which 11 are potentially new and 75 are being reported from red maple for the first time. The developed method to characterize red maple leaves phenolics is rapid and highly sensitive and could aid in future standardization and quality control of this botanical ingredient. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Antioxidant and Antiangiogenic Properties, and Gas Chromatographic-Time of Flight Analysis of Sonchus arvensis Leaves Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itam, A.; Shah, A. M.; Majid, A.; Ismail, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Sonchus arvensis L. (Asteraceae) is one of the medicinal herbs used in traditional medicines, in which the leaf extract was used as a diuretic, lithotriptic and antiurolithiasis agent. The leaves of S. arvensis reported contain several compounds, including a variety of flavonoids, terpenoids and sterol, even this plant also contain silica and potassium. Flavonoids are secondary metabolite compound which have ability as antioxidant. In this study, the aims are to determine of antioxidants and antiangiogenic properties, and phytoconstituents quantitative of aqueous and methanol extracts of S. arvensis leaves. The antioxidant properties were studied using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, xanthine oxidase and beta-carotene-linoleate models system. Furthermore, the antiangiogenic property was evaluated using ex vivo rat aorta ring assay. Quantitative determination of extracts phytoconstituents were carried out by using Gas Chromatographic-Time of Flight (GC-TOF) mass spectrophotometric methods. The results showed that the aqueous and methanol extracts have ability as antioxidant which is antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts on DPPH radical and inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity are higher than that of methanol extracts. Meanwhile antioxidant activity using beta-carotene-linoleate model system of S. arvensis aqueous extract is lower than that of methanol extracts. Nevertheless, the differences of these antioxidant activities are not significant. Antiangiogenic property of aqueous extract is also higher than that of methanol extract which is measured at 100 meu g mL/sup -1/ of extracts. This indicates that there is correlation between antioxidant activity and antiangigenic property, exhibiting that this plant possesses the potential to prevent or cure the diseases that related to angiogenesis such as cancer. (author)

  6. Maternity leave duration and postpartum mental and physical health: implications for leave policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Dowd, Bryan E

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the association of leave duration with depressive symptoms, mental health, physical health, and maternal symptoms in the first postpartum year, using a prospective cohort design. Eligible employed women, eighteen years or older, were interviewed in person at three Minnesota hospitals while hospitalized for childbirth in 2001. Telephone interviews were conducted at six weeks (N = 716), twelve weeks (N = 661), six months (N = 625), and twelve months (N = 575) after delivery. Depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), mental and physical health (SF-12 Health Survey), and maternal childbirth-related symptoms were measured at each time period. Two-stage least squares analysis showed that the relationship between leave duration and postpartum depressive symptoms is U-shaped, with a minimum at six months. In the first postpartum year, an increase in leave duration is associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms until six months postpartum. Moreover, ordinary least squares analysis showed a marginally significant linear positive association between leave duration and physical health. Taking leave from work provides time for mothers to rest and recover from pregnancy and childbirth. Findings indicate that the current leave duration provided by the Family and Medical Leave Act, twelve weeks, may not be sufficient for mothers at risk for or experiencing postpartum depression.

  7. Maternity leave duration and full-time/part-time work status are associated with US mothers’ ability to meet breastfeeding intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Kelsey R.; Perrine, Cria G.; Scanlon, Kelley S.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding provides numerous health benefits for infants and mothers; however, many infants are not breastfed as long as recommended or desired by mothers. Maternal employment is frequently cited as a barrier to breastfeeding. Objectives To assess whether maternity leave duration and return-status (full-time [FT], part-time [PT]) were associated with not meeting a mother’s intention to breastfeed at least 3 months. Methods We used data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a cohort study. Analyses were limited to women employed prenatally who intended to breastfeed 3 months or longer (n=1172). Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between maternity leave duration and return to work-status (<6 weeks/FT, <6 weeks/PT, 6 weeks – 3 months/FT, 6 weeks – 3 months/PT, not working by 3 months) and meeting a mother’s intention to breastfeed at least 3 months. Results Overall, 28.8% of mothers did not meet their intention to breastfeed at least 3 months. Odds of not meeting intention to breastfeed at least 3 months were higher among mothers who returned to work FT before 3 months (<6 weeks/FT: aOR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.23 – 4.12; 6 weeks – 3 months/FT: aOR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.30 – 2.56), compared with mothers not working at 3 months. Conclusions Returning to work full-time before 3 months may reduce a mother’s ability to meet her intention to breastfeed at least 3 months. Employer support for flexible work scheduling may help more women achieve their breastfeeding goals. PMID:25034868

  8. Maternity leave duration and full-time/part-time work status are associated with US mothers' ability to meet breastfeeding intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Kelsey R; Perrine, Cria G; Scanlon, Kelley S; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

    2014-11-01

    Breastfeeding provides numerous health benefits for infants and mothers; however, many infants are not breastfed as long as recommended or desired by mothers. Maternal employment is frequently cited as a barrier to breastfeeding. This study aimed to assess whether maternity leave duration and return status (full-time [FT], part-time [PT]) were associated with not meeting a mother's intention to breastfeed at least 3 months. We used data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a cohort study. Analyses were limited to women employed prenatally who intended to breastfeed 3 months or longer (n = 1172). Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between maternity leave duration and return-to-work status (< 6 weeks/FT, < 6 weeks/PT, 6 weeks-3 months/FT, 6 weeks-3 months/PT, not working by 3 months) and meeting a mother's intention to breastfeed at least 3 months. Overall, 28.8% of mothers did not meet their intention to breastfeed at least 3 months. Odds of not meeting intention to breastfeed at least 3 months were higher among mothers who returned to work FT before 3 months (< 6 weeks/FT: adjusted odds ratio = 2.25, 95% confidence interval, 1.23-4.12; 6 weeks-3 months/FT: adjusted odds ratio = 1.82, 95% confidence interval, 1.30-2.56), compared with mothers not working at 3 months. Returning to work full-time before 3 months may reduce a mother's ability to meet her intention to breastfeed at least 3 months. Employer support for flexible work scheduling may help more women achieve their breastfeeding goals. © International Lactation Consultant Association 2014.

  9. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  10. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  11. Influence of the addition and storage time of crude extract of tea leaves (camellia sinensis l.) toward value of free fatty acid in crude palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin; Wahifiyah, E.; Hairani, R.; Panggabean, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the crude extract of tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.) and storage time on the content of free fatty acid in palm oil. The dried tea leaves were macerated and concentrated by rotary evaporator. The extract obtained was added to crude palm oil with various added mass of the extract and various storage times. Phytochemical tests indicated the presence of secondary metabolites including alkaloids, triterpenoids, steroids, phenolics and flavonoids. The ANOVA test showed a decrease in free fatty acid content in crude palm oil with the addition of tea leaves extract. The LSD (Least Significant Difference) test showed the best influence on ALB of palm oil is on the total extract mass of 2 grams and the storage time of 20 days.

  12. Associations between contractual status, part-time work, and intent to leave among professional caregivers for older people: results of a national cross-sectional survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachi, Yuko; Inoue, Kazuo; Toyokawa, Satoshi

    2010-08-01

    Despite a growing number of studies on leaving the organization or long-term care among professional caregivers for older people, little is known about the impact of types of employment on leaving. To examine the association between the type of employment and intent to leave among Japanese professional caregivers. Secondary analysis of data from the 2006 Working Conditions Survey in Long-term Care, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey done in Japan. 10,107 professional caregivers aged 18 years and older. Predictor of intent to leave was type of employment (full-time permanent, full-time precarious, and part-time precarious). Precarious work was defined as employment that failed to meet the standard of full-time permanent employment, including fixed-term, temporary agency, and part-time work. Covariates included demographics, home or facility care, tenure in the profession, national qualification for caregivers, having other jobs, overtime work, and night shift work. We used multinomial logit models to estimate the strength of the association between the type of employment and intent to leave and to explore the possible mechanisms explaining this association. In the unadjusted model, when compared to part-time precarious workers, full-time permanent workers (OR=2.37; 95% CI=2.06, 2.72) and full-time precarious workers (OR=2.41; 95% CI=2.01, 2.88) were more likely to report intent to leave. After adjustment for covariates, these odds ratios were attenuated, but nevertheless remained significant. Overtime work greatly attenuated these odds ratios in both full-time precarious and full-time permanent workers, and having national qualification for caregivers only did in the case of full-time permanent workers. In contrast to people in other professions, full-time caregivers are more likely to have intent to leave than part-time caregivers. This study highlights the importance of policy strategies for retaining full-time workers by reducing their overtime

  13. 5 CFR 630.906 - Transfer of annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... employing agency may not be sufficient to meet the needs of the leave recipient; or (3) In the judgment of... specified leave recipient. Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, annual leave may be transferred only to a leave recipient employed by the leave donor's employing agency. (b) Except as provided...

  14. Non-invasive real-time monitoring of vineyard soils, berries and leaves with FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopo Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of high quality wines requires a permanent monitoring during the entire winemaking process. A healthy production, ensured by tailor-made strategies that will lead to consumer's satisfaction is of the utmost importance. The influence of the terroir characteristics on the features of a wine has always been prone to much debate amongst the wine industry. The composition of grapes is the result of the characteristics of each individual terroir. Soil impact on growth of the vineyard, grape variety characteristics and ultimately wine quality is well known. Current strategy for analysing soils (pedology is based on wet chemistry methods, which are often laborious, expensive, time-consuming and may be of limited use. An efficient, high-throughput analytical method for estimating the impact of soil quality, tillage and thinning on the grapes quality is of paramount importance for the wine industry. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a rapid, non-destructive, inexpensive and accurate analysis technique and its use in soil evaluation for discriminating different types of soil as well as soil constituents is rapidly increasing. Results obtained from direct monitoring of four Portuguese vineyards in different locations (wine appellation regions “Alentejo”, “Dão”, “Douro” and “Vinhos Verdes” using two different portable near-infrared spectrometers are presented. In-situ measurements of soils (at different depths, plant leaves and berries were performed on different stages of the ripening period. Spectral analysis was performed with chemometric methods: PCA and PLS-DA. This monitoring approach revealed to be an excellent tool for the support of a vineyard's micro-zoning process.

  15. Sufficiency Grounded as Sufficiently Free: A Reply to Shlomi Segall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    be grounded on (i) any personal value, nor (ii) any impersonal value. Consequently, sufficientarianism is groundless. This article contains a rejoinder to this critique. Its main claim is that the value of autonomy holds strong potential for grounding sufficiency. It argues, firstly, that autonomy carries...... both personal value for its recipient as well as impersonal value, and that both of these values are suitable for grounding sufficiency. It thus follows that we should reject both (i) and (ii). Secondly, although autonomy is presumably the strongest candidate for grounding sufficiency, the article...... provides some counterargument to Segall’s rejection of the other candidates—the impersonal value of virtue; the personal value for the allocator; and the personal value for others. If the arguments are sound, they show that we need not worry about sufficientarianism being groundless....

  16. Employer Provisions for Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenheimer, Joseph R., II

    1989-01-01

    Slightly more than one-third of full-time employees in medium and large firms in private industry were covered by maternity- or paternity-leave policies; days off were usually leave without pay. (Author)

  17. Sufficiency of the Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pevec, D.; Knapp, V.; Matijevic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Estimation of the nuclear fuel sufficiency is required for rational decision making on long-term energy strategy. In the past an argument often invoked against nuclear energy was that uranium resources are inadequate. At present, when climate change associated with CO 2 emission is a major concern, one novel strong argument for nuclear energy is that it can produce large amounts of energy without the CO 2 emission. Increased interest in nuclear energy is evident, and a new look into uranium resources is relevant. We examined three different scenarios of nuclear capacity growth. The low growth of 0.4 percent per year in nuclear capacity is assumed for the first scenario. The moderate growth of 1.5 percent per year in nuclear capacity preserving the present share in total energy production is assumed for the second scenario. We estimated draining out time periods for conventional resources of uranium using once through fuel cycle for the both scenarios. For the first and the second scenario we obtained the draining out time periods for conventional uranium resources of 154 years and 96 years, respectively. These results are, as expected, in agreement with usual evaluations. However, if nuclear energy is to make a major impact on CO 2 emission it should contribute much more in the total energy production than at present level of 6 percent. We therefore defined the third scenario which would increase nuclear share in the total energy production from 6 percent in year 2020 to 30 percent by year 2060 while the total world energy production would grow by 1.5 percent per year. We also looked into the uranium requirement for this scenario, determining the time window for introduction of uranium or thorium reprocessing and for better use of uranium than what is the case in the once through fuel cycle. The once through cycle would be in this scenario sustainable up to about year 2060 providing most of the expected but undiscovered conventional uranium resources were turned

  18. Growth and Nitrogen Uptake in Sorghum Plants Manured with Leucaena Leucocaphala Leaves as Affected by Nitrogen Rate and Time of Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurd Ali, F.; Al-Shammaa, M.

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of four rates of nitrogen (N) in the form of leucaena leaves and the time of application on the performance of sorghum plants using the 15 N isotopic dilution technique. Results showed that leucaena green manure (LGM) increased dry matter and N yield of sorghum. Nitrogen recoveries of LGM ranged between 23 and 47%. An additional beneficial effect of LGM was attributed to the enhancement of soil N uptake. The best timing of LGM incorporation for obtaining more N derived from LGM, less soil N uptake, and greater dry matter and N in sorghum leaves seemed to be at planting. However, the appropriate timing and rate of LGM to obtain greater dry matter and N yield in panicles, as well as in the whole plant of sorghum, appeared to be at 30 days before planting, particularly a rate of 120 kg N ha - 1. (author)

  19. Quantitative Comparative Analysis of the Bio-Active and Toxic Constituents of Leaves and Spikes of Schizonepeta tenuifolia at Different Harvesting Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwei Ding

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A GC-MS-Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM detection method was developed for simultaneous determination of four monoterpenes: (--menthone, (+-pulegone, (--limonene and (+-menthofuran as the main bio-active and toxic constituents, and four other main compounds in the volatile oils of Schizonepeta tenuifolia (ST leaves and spikes at different harvesting times. The results showed that the method was simple, sensitive and reproducible, and that harvesting time was a possible key factor in influencing the quality of ST leaves, but not its spikes. The research might be helpful for determining the harvesting time of ST samples and establishing a validated method for the quality control of ST volatile oil and other relative products.

  20. [Work accommodation at the time of Return-to-Work for workers on sick leave: a qualitative systematic review with recommendations for Return-to-work Guidance 2017].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Kojimahara, Noriko

    2018-03-12

    We conducted a systematic review to determine whether work accommodation at the time of return-to-work (RTW) following a period of sick leave would improve work-related outcomes. Using a Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, we developed recommendations applicable to the field of occupational health in Japan. We approached our review question for "Evidence-based Return-to-work Guidance in Occupational Health 2017 (RTW 2017)" using a PICO framework (P: workers on sick leave; I: work accommodation; C: usual care; O: improvement of work-related outcomes, such as shortened sick leave period or lower rate of sick leave recurrence). To identify relevant intervention studies about work accommodation at the time of RTW, for example, modified work or partial RTW, we searched Cochrane Library, PubMed, and ICHUSHI Web using keywords/phrases such as workplace accommodation, partial RTW, rehabilitation, and modified work. Although we found no systematic reviews, we did identify 632 randomized controlled trials and cohort studies. Two researchers screened them independently using selection and exclusion criteria defined by the RTW guidance committee in the scope. For intervention studies, we extracted PICO and evaluated risk of bias using RevMan 5.3. For cohort studies, we applied the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for evaluation of risk of bias. We then evaluated the body of evidence based on risk of bias, indirectness, inconsistency, imprecision, and publication bias using GRADEPro GDT. Finally, we adopted Evidence to Decision from GRADE and developed recommendations based on anonymous panels' votes. We identified three relevant studies, which were one randomized controlled trial and two cohort studies, on Partial RTW or modified work for musculoskeletal disorders. Although we could not conduct a meta-analysis, our qualitative systematic review of these studies led us to conclude that partial RTW could shorten the period of sick leave and

  1. Information geometry and sufficient statistics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ay, N.; Jost, J.; Le, Hong-Van; Schwachhöfer, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 162, 1-2 (2015), s. 327-364 ISSN 0178-8051 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Fisher quadratic form * Amari-Chentsov tensor * sufficient statistic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.204, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00440-014-0574-8

  2. Nine Different Chemical Species and Action Mechanisms of Pancreatic Lipase Ligands Screened Out from Forsythia suspensa Leaves All at One Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tinggui; Li, Yayun; Zhang, Liwei

    2017-05-12

    It is difficult to screen out as many active components as possible from natural plants all at one time. In this study, subfractions of Forsythia suspensa leaves were firstly prepared; then, their inhibitive abilities on pancreatic lipase were tested; finally, the highest inhibiting subfraction was screened by self-made immobilized pancreatic lipase. Results showed that nine ligands, including eight inhibitors and one promotor, were screened out all at one time. They were three flavonoids (rutin, IC 50 : 149 ± 6.0 μmol/L; hesperidin, 52.4 μmol/L; kaempferol-3- O -rutinoside, isolated from F. suspensa leaves for the first time, IC 50 notably reached 2.9 ± 0.5 μmol/L), two polyphenols (chlorogenic acid, 3150 ± 120 μmol/L; caffeic acid, 1394 ± 52 μmol/L), two lignans (phillyrin, promoter; arctigenin, 2129 ± 10.5 μmol/L), and two phenethyl alcohol (forsythiaside A, 2155 ± 8.5 μmol/L; its isomer). Their action mechanisms included competitive inhibition, competitive promotion, noncompetitive inhibition, and uncompetitive inhibition. In sum, using the appropriate methods, more active ingredients can be simply and quickly screened out all at one time from a complex natural product system. In addition, F. suspensa leaves contain numerous inhibitors of pancreatic lipase.

  3. DYNAMIC SUFFICIENCY OF THE MAGNETICALLY SUSPENDED TRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Polyakov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The basic criterion of the magnetically suspended train's consumer estimation is a quality of its mechanical motion. This motion is realized in unpredictable conditions and, for purposefulness preservation, should adapt to them. Such adaptation is possible only within the limits of system’s dynamic sufficiency. Sufficiency is understood as presence at system of resources, which allow one to realize its demanded motions without violating actual restrictions. Therefore presence of such resources is a necessary condition of preservation of required purposefulness of train's dynamics, and verification of the mentioned sufficiency is the major component of this dynamic research. Methodology. Methods of the set theory are used in work. Desirable and actual approachability spaces of the train are found. The train is considered dynamically sufficient in zones of the specified spaces overlapping. Findings. Within the limits of the accepted treatment of train's dynamic sufficiency, verification of its presence, as well as a stock (or deficiency of preservations can be executed by the search and the subsequent estimation of such overlapping zones. Operatively (directly during motion it can be realized on the train's ODC with use, for example, of computer mathematics system Mathematica. It possesses extensive opportunities of highly efficient and, at the same time, demanding an expense concerning small resources information manipulation. The efficiency of using of created technique is illustrated on an example of vehicle's acceleration research. Calculation is executed with use of the constructed computer model of interaction of an independent traction electromagnetic subsystem of an artifact with its mechanical subsystem. Originality. The technique of verification of the high-speed magnetically suspended train's dynamic sufficiency is developed. The technique is highly efficient, it provides sufficient presentation and demands an expense of the

  4. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  5. Energy Self-Sufficient Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratic, S.; Krajacic, G.; Duic, N.; Cotar, A.; Jardas, D.

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze energy self-sufficient island, example of a smaller island, connected to the power system of a bigger island with an undersea cable, was taken. Mounting substation 10/0,4 is situated on the island and for the moment it provides enough electricity using the medium voltage line. It is assumed that the island is situated on the north part of the Adriatic Sea. The most important problem that occurs on the island is the population drop that occurs for a significant number of years, therefore, life standard needs to be improved, and economic development needs to be encouraged immediately. Local authorities to stimulate sustainable development on the island through different projects, to breath in a new life to the island, open new jobs and attract new people to come live there. Because of the planned development and increase of the population, energy projects, planned as a support to sustainable development, and later achievement of the energy self-sufficiency, is described in this paper. Therefore, Rewisland methodology appliance is described taking into the account three possible scenarios of energy development. Each scenario is calculated until year 2030. Also, what is taken into the account is 100% usage of renewable sources of energy in 2030. Scenario PTV, PP, EE - This scenario includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors on the buildings roofs, as well as well as implementation of energy efficiency on the island (replacement of the street light bulbs with LED lightning, replacement of the old windows and doors on the houses, as well as the installation of the thermal insulation). Scenario PV island - This scenario, similarly to the previous one, includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors an the residential buildings, as well as the 2 MW photovoltaic power plant and ''Green Hotel'', a building that satisfies all of its energy needs completely from renewable energy sources

  6. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Anne P; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the Unites States. Relative to the pre-treatment mean, fathers of infants in California are 46 percent more likely to be on leave when CA-PFL is available. In households where both parents work, we find suggestive evidence that CA-PFL increases both father-only leave-taking (i.e., father on leave while mother is at work) and joint leave-taking (i.e., both parents on leave at the same time). Effects are larger for fathers of first-born children than for fathers of later-born children.

  7. Energy Strategic Planning & Sufficiency Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retziaff, Greg

    2005-03-30

    This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficiency and stimulates economic development and employment opportunities within and around the reservation. The primary subjects addressed in this report are as follows: (1) Baseline Assessment of Current Energy Costs--An evaluation of the historical energy costs for Smith River was conducted to identify the costs for each component of their energy supply to better assess changes that can be considered for energy cost reductions. (2) Research Viable Energy Options--This includes a general description of many power generation technologies and identification of their relative costs, advantages and disadvantages. Through this research the generation technology options that are most suited for this application were identified. (3) Project Development Considerations--The basic steps and associated challenges of developing a generation project utilizing the selected technologies are identified and discussed. This included items like selling to third parties, wheeling, electrical interconnections, fuel supply, permitting, standby power, and transmission studies. (4) Energy Conservation--The myriad of federal, state and utility programs offered for low-income weatherization and utility bill payment assistance are identified, their qualification requirements discussed, and the subsequent benefits outlined. (5) Establishing an Energy Organization--The report includes a high level discussion of formation of a utility to serve the Tribal membership. The value or advantages of such action is discussed along with some of the challenges. (6) Training--Training opportunities available to the Tribal membership are identified.

  8. Hospital Capacity, Waiting Times and Sick Leave Duration - an Empirical Analysis of a Norwegian Health Policy Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Aakvik, Arild; Holmås, Tor Helge; Kjerstad, Egil

    2012-01-01

    A health policy reform aiming to reduce hospital waiting times and sickness absences, the Faster Return to Work (FRW) scheme, is evaluated by creating treatment and control groups to facilitate causal interpretations of the empirical results. We use a unique dataset on individuals where we match hospital data with social security data and socio-economic characteristics. The main idea behind the reform is that long waiting times for hospital treatment lead to unnecessarily long periods of sick...

  9. Does Leave Work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heleen van Luijn; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2004-01-01

    More and more people have to combine work and care responsibilities, and work part-time or use daycare and after-school care facilities to help them do so. The Work and Care Act, which came into force on 1 December 2001, combined all the existing schemes - such as parental and maternity leave -

  10. Parental Leave Policies and Parents' Employment and Leave-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time span is one…

  11. Ocean Sense: Student-Led, Real-Time Research at the Bottom of the Ocean - Without Leaving the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; McLean, M. A.; Riddell, D. J.; Ewing, N.; Brown, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    This presentation outlines the authentic research experiences created by Ocean Networks Canada's Ocean Sense program, a transformative education program that connects students and teachers with place-based, real-time data via the Internet. This program, developed in collaboration with community educators, features student-centric activities, clearly outlined learning outcomes, assessment tools and curriculum aligned content. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, develops, operates, and maintains cabled ocean observatory systems. Technologies developed on the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS observatories have been adapted for small coastal installations called "community observatories," which enable community members to directly monitor conditions in the local ocean environment. Data from these observatories are fundamental to lessons and activities in the Ocean Sense program. Marketed as Ocean Sense: Local observations, global connections, the program introduces middle and high school students to research methods in biology, oceanography and ocean engineering. It includes a variety of resources and opportunities to excite students and spark curiosity about the ocean environment. The program encourages students to connect their local observations to global ocean processes and the observations of students in other geographic regions. Connection to place and local relevance of the program is enhanced through an emphasis on Indigenous and place-based knowledge. The program promotes of cross-cultural learning with the inclusion of Indigenous knowledge of the ocean. Ocean Sense provides students with an authentic research experience by connecting them to real-time data, often within their own communities. Using the freely accessible data portal, students can curate the data they need from a range of instruments and time periods. Further, students are not restricted to their local community; if their question requires a greater range of

  12. Has the time to come leave the "watch-and-wait" strategy in newly diagnosed asymptomatic follicular lymphoma patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Antonio; Casanova, María; Redondo, Maximino; Pérez-Ruiz, Elisabeth; Medina-Pérez, Angeles

    2012-05-31

    Historically, the median overall survival for follicular lymphoma (FL) has been considered to be 9-10 years, and no treatment had ever prolonged this time period. Studies conducted more than 20 years ago demonstrated that treating patients with asymptomatic FL at the onset of the disease did not increase their survival, and that almost 20% of these patients did not need any treatment in the first 10 years of follow-up. Based on these facts, most clinical practice guidelines recommend active surveillance policies for patients with asymptomatic FL. The introduction of antiCD-20 monoclonal antibodies, over the last 15 years, has significantly increased the median survival rate to above 14 years. This improvement was achieved before the combination of rituximab and chemotherapy regimens became extensively used in patients with symptomatic disease. Therefore, this increase in survival may currently be more significant. At present, several clinical trials have evaluated low-toxicity therapies that prolong progression-free periods, among which rituximab monotherapy, radioimmunotherapy or the combination of rituximab with bendamustine are the most relevant. Unfortunately, these clinical trials have included only patients with symptomatic FL. The results of a recently reported clinical trial show that treatment with single-agent rituximab prolongs progression-free survival rates, time to new treatment and the quality of life of asymptomatic patients, as compared with the active surveillance strategy. Longer follow-up of these results and data regarding overall survival are awaited before this treatment can be recommended as the standard initial therapy. There are different therapeutic possibilities for asymptomatic FL patients, but no data are currently available to indicate which option is the best. Patients need to understand the risks and benefits of observation versus treatment before a final decision can be made. For patients who want active treatment the

  13. Has the time to come leave the “watch-and-wait” strategy in newly diagnosed asymptomatic follicular lymphoma patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rueda Antonio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, the median overall survival for follicular lymphoma (FL has been considered to be 9-10 years, and no treatment had ever prolonged this time period. Studies conducted more than 20 years ago demonstrated that treating patients with asymptomatic FL at the onset of the disease did not increase their survival, and that almost 20% of these patients did not need any treatment in the first 10 years of follow-up. Based on these facts, most clinical practice guidelines recommend active surveillance policies for patients with asymptomatic FL. Discussion The introduction of antiCD-20 monoclonal antibodies, over the last 15 years, has significantly increased the median survival rate to above 14 years. This improvement was achieved before the combination of rituximab and chemotherapy regimens became extensively used in patients with symptomatic disease. Therefore, this increase in survival may currently be more significant. At present, several clinical trials have evaluated low-toxicity therapies that prolong progression-free periods, among which rituximab monotherapy, radioimmunotherapy or the combination of rituximab with bendamustine are the most relevant. Unfortunately, these clinical trials have included only patients with symptomatic FL. The results of a recently reported clinical trial show that treatment with single-agent rituximab prolongs progression-free survival rates, time to new treatment and the quality of life of asymptomatic patients, as compared with the active surveillance strategy. Longer follow-up of these results and data regarding overall survival are awaited before this treatment can be recommended as the standard initial therapy. Summary There are different therapeutic possibilities for asymptomatic FL patients, but no data are currently available to indicate which option is the best. Patients need to understand the risks and benefits of observation versus treatment before a final decision

  14. Has the time to come leave the “watch-and-wait” strategy in newly diagnosed asymptomatic follicular lymphoma patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueda, Antonio; Casanova, María; Redondo, Maximino; Pérez-Ruiz, Elisabeth; Medina-Pérez, Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    Historically, the median overall survival for follicular lymphoma (FL) has been considered to be 9-10 years, and no treatment had ever prolonged this time period. Studies conducted more than 20 years ago demonstrated that treating patients with asymptomatic FL at the onset of the disease did not increase their survival, and that almost 20% of these patients did not need any treatment in the first 10 years of follow-up. Based on these facts, most clinical practice guidelines recommend active surveillance policies for patients with asymptomatic FL. The introduction of antiCD-20 monoclonal antibodies, over the last 15 years, has significantly increased the median survival rate to above 14 years. This improvement was achieved before the combination of rituximab and chemotherapy regimens became extensively used in patients with symptomatic disease. Therefore, this increase in survival may currently be more significant. At present, several clinical trials have evaluated low-toxicity therapies that prolong progression-free periods, among which rituximab monotherapy, radioimmunotherapy or the combination of rituximab with bendamustine are the most relevant. Unfortunately, these clinical trials have included only patients with symptomatic FL. The results of a recently reported clinical trial show that treatment with single-agent rituximab prolongs progression-free survival rates, time to new treatment and the quality of life of asymptomatic patients, as compared with the active surveillance strategy. Longer follow-up of these results and data regarding overall survival are awaited before this treatment can be recommended as the standard initial therapy. There are different therapeutic possibilities for asymptomatic FL patients, but no data are currently available to indicate which option is the best. Patients need to understand the risks and benefits of observation versus treatment before a final decision can be made. For patients who want active treatment the

  15. Managing Motherhood in the Australian Construction Industry: Work-family Balance, Parental Leave and Part-time Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Lingard

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of women in the Australian construction industrywas undertaken to examine women's work experiencesin construction. Questionnaires were distributed to threehundred women in construction occupations and 109completed and usable questionnaires were returned.Women were found to be seriously under-represented insite-based roles. Site/project engineers worked longer hoursthan other occupational groups and expressed significantlygreater work-family conflict. Lack of flexibility and theinability to balance work and family were common themesin the qualitative comments made by many respondents.Even when women indicated that part time work options andmaternity entitlements were provided by their organizations,many expressed a reluctance to use them and perceivedcareer penalty associated with this usage. It is concludedthat more flexible work schedules and the implementationof family-friendly policies may encourage more women intosite-based roles in construction. The paper concludes thatthe rigid work practices presently in place act as a subtleform of discrimination. The provision of such policies willonly be effective if cultural and attitudinal change is alsoachieved.

  16. Sufficient conditions for Lagrange, Mayer, and Bolza optimization problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boltyanski V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Maximum Principle [2,13] is a well known necessary condition for optimality. This condition, generally, is not sufficient. In [3], the author proved that if there exists regular synthesis of trajectories, the Maximum Principle also is a sufficient condition for time-optimality. In this article, we generalize this result for Lagrange, Mayer, and Bolza optimization problems.

  17. Time-resolved spectral studies of blue-green fluorescence of artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. Var. Scolymus) leaves: identification of chlorogenic acid as one of the major fluorophores and age-mediated changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Fermín; Cartelat, Aurélie; Alvarez-Fernández, Ana; Moya, Ismael; Cerovic, Zoran G

    2005-12-14

    Synchrotron radiation and the time-correlated single-photon counting technique were used to investigate the spectral and time-resolved characteristics of blue-green fluorescence (BGF) of artichoke leaves. Leaves emitted BGF under ultraviolet (UV) excitation; the abaxial side was much more fluorescent than the adaxial side, and in both cases, the youngest leaves were much more fluorescent than the oldest ones. The BGF of artichoke leaves was dominated by the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids. A decrease in the percentage of BGF attributable to the very short kinetic component (from 42 to 20%), in the shape of the BGF excitation spectra, and chlorogenic acid concentrations indicate that there is a loss of hydroxycinnamic acid with leaf age. Studies on excitation, emission, and synchronized fluorescence spectra of leaves and trichomes and chlorogenic acid contents indicate that chlorogenic acid is one of the main blue-green fluorophores in artichoke leaves. Results of the present study indicate that 20-42% (i.e., the very short kinetic component) of the overall BGF is emitted by chlorogenic acid. Time-resolved BGF measurements could be a means to extract information on chlorogenic acid fluorescence from the overall leaf BGF.

  18. Cost-utility analysis of a one-time supervisor telephone contact at 6-weeks post-partum to prevent extended sick leave following maternity leave in The Netherlands: results of an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Poppel Mireille NM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Working women of childbearing age are a vital part of the population. Following childbirth, this group of women can experience a myriad of physical and mental health problems that can interfere with their ability to work. Currently, there is little known about cost-effective post-partum interventions to prevent work disability. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether supervisor telephone contact (STC during maternity leave is cost-effective from a societal perspective in reducing sick leave and improving quality-adjusted life years (QALYs compared to common practice (CP. Methods We conducted an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial. QALYs were measured by the EuroQol 5-D, and sick leave and presenteeism by the Health and work Performance Questionnaire. Resource use was collected by questionnaires. Data were analysed according to intention-to-treat. Missing data were imputed via multiple imputation. Uncertainty was estimated by 95% confidence intervals, cost-utility planes and curves, and sensitivity analyses. Results 541 working women from 15 companies participated. Response rates were above 85% at each measurement moment. At the end of the follow-up, no statistically significant between-group differences in QALYs, mean hours of sick leave or presenteeism or costs were observed. STC was found to be less effective and more costly. For willingness-to-pay levels from €0 through €50,000, the probability that STC was cost-effective compared to CP was 0.2. Overall resource use was low. Mean total costs were €3678 (95% CI: 3386; 3951. Productivity loss costs represented 37% of the total costs and of these costs, 48% was attributable to sick leave and 52% to work presenteeism. The cost analysis from a company's perspective indicated that there was a net cost associated with the STC intervention. Conclusions STC was not cost-effective compared to common practice for a healthy population of working

  19. Cost-utility analysis of a one-time supervisor telephone contact at 6-weeks post-partum to prevent extended sick leave following maternity leave in The Netherlands: results of an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uegaki, Kimi; Stomp-van den Berg, Suzanne G M; de Bruijne, Martine C; van Poppel, Mireille N M; Heymans, Martijn W; van Mechelen, Willem; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2011-01-27

    Working women of childbearing age are a vital part of the population. Following childbirth, this group of women can experience a myriad of physical and mental health problems that can interfere with their ability to work. Currently, there is little known about cost-effective post-partum interventions to prevent work disability. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether supervisor telephone contact (STC) during maternity leave is cost-effective from a societal perspective in reducing sick leave and improving quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) compared to common practice (CP). We conducted an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial. QALYs were measured by the EuroQol 5-D, and sick leave and presenteeism by the Health and work Performance Questionnaire. Resource use was collected by questionnaires. Data were analysed according to intention-to-treat. Missing data were imputed via multiple imputation. Uncertainty was estimated by 95% confidence intervals, cost-utility planes and curves, and sensitivity analyses. 541 working women from 15 companies participated. Response rates were above 85% at each measurement moment. At the end of the follow-up, no statistically significant between-group differences in QALYs, mean hours of sick leave or presenteeism or costs were observed. STC was found to be less effective and more costly. For willingness-to-pay levels from €0 through €50,000, the probability that STC was cost-effective compared to CP was 0.2. Overall resource use was low. Mean total costs were €3678 (95% CI: 3386; 3951). Productivity loss costs represented 37% of the total costs and of these costs, 48% was attributable to sick leave and 52% to work presenteeism. The cost analysis from a company's perspective indicated that there was a net cost associated with the STC intervention. STC was not cost-effective compared to common practice for a healthy population of working mothers; therefore, implementation is not indicated. The cost

  20. Understanding significant processes during work environment interventions to alleviate time pressure and associated sick leave of home care workers--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gunn Robstad; Westgaard, Rolf H

    2013-11-15

    Ergonomic and work stress interventions rarely show long-term positive effect. The municipality participating in this study received orders from the Norwegian Labour Inspectorate due to an identified unhealthy level of time pressure, and responded by effectuating several work environment interventions. The study aim is to identify critical factors in the interaction between work environment interventions and independent rationalization measures in order to understand a potential negative interfering effect from concurrent rationalizations on a comprehensive work environment intervention. The study, using a historic prospective mixed-method design, comprised 6 home care units in a municipality in Norway (138 respondents, response rate 76.2%; 17 informants). The study included quantitative estimations, register data of sick leave, a time line of significant events and changes, and qualitative descriptions of employee appraisals of their work situation gathered through semi-structured interviews and open survey responses. The work environment interventions were in general regarded as positive by the home care workers. However, all units were simultaneously subjected to substantial contextual instability, involving new work programs, new technology, restructurings, unit mergers, and management replacements, perceived by the home care workers to be major sources of stress. Findings suggest that concurrent changes induced through rationalization resulted in negative exposure effects that negated positive work environment intervention effects, causing an overall deteriorated work situation for the home care workers. Establishment and active utilization of communication channels from workers to managers are recommended in order to increase awareness of putative harmful and interruptive effects of rationalization measures.

  1. On the Sharing of Temporary Parental Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This paper views temporary parental leave (leave from work to take care of a sick child) as a household public good, produced with time inputs of the parents as the only input. Assuming equal productivities in the production of temporary parental leave and equal utility functions of the spouses...

  2. Multi-ingredients determination and fingerprint analysis of leaves from Ilex latifolia using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunlin; Deng, Jiewei; Yang, Yunyun; Liu, Junshan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Fai, Kuokchiu; Zhang, Qingwen; Ye, Wencai

    2013-10-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) method integrating multi-ingredients determination and fingerprint analysis has been established for quality assessment and control of leaves from Ilex latifolia. The method possesses the advantages of speediness, efficiency, accuracy, and allows the multi-ingredients determination and fingerprint analysis in one chromatographic run within 13min. Multi-ingredients determination was performed based on the extracted ion chromatograms of the exact pseudo-molecular ions (with a 0.01Da window), and fingerprint analysis was performed based on the base peak chromatograms, obtained by negative-ion electrospray ionization QTOF-MS. The method validation results demonstrated our developed method possessing desirable specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The method was utilized to analyze 22 I. latifolia samples from different origins. The quality assessment was achieved by using both similarity analysis (SA) and principal component analysis (PCA), and the results from SA were consistent with those from PCA. Our experimental results demonstrate that the strategy integrated multi-ingredients determination and fingerprint analysis using UPLC-QTOF-MS technique is a useful approach for rapid pharmaceutical analysis, with promising prospects for the differentiation of origin, the determination of authenticity, and the overall quality assessment of herbal medicines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Career perspectives of hospital health workers after maternity and paternity leave: survey and observational study in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, C; Grote, G; Miemietz, B; Vaske, B; Geyer, S

    2015-02-01

    A term of maternity and paternity (parental) leave becomes frequent on the career paths of medical personnel. Hospitals are highly competitive environments. The question employees universally face is how such a leave will alter their personal work situation and prospects upon return. We questioned 709 leave-takers and 88 department heads of a German university hospital (2009-12; full data sets: n = 406 and n = 63) about their experiences. This data was validated by epidemiology data extraction and expert interviews, also in a Swiss and in a Norwegian institution. Parental leave elicited high emotionality (score: 4.0 +/- 2 out of 5). Superiors' appraisal of employees' parental leave was more positive than negative (p leave takers doubled to 39 %; 51 % of leave-takers experienced significant task profile changes. 58 % of doctors thought about changing their employer and 17 % of leave-taking executives lost status after return. Employees' "power" and "influence" dropped significantly (p leave. The Swiss and Norwegian comparators appeared to have more liberal substitution and part-time schemes than the German institution. A competitive hospital environment can effectively demote leave-taking medical employees in their jobs. Despite sufficient financial arrangements high-commitment staff will only take parental leave of adequate length when an institutional framework protects their status. Data support four requirements: 1. Formal recognition of the leave taker's status pre-leave. 2. Establishment of a written ("claimable") return policy. 3. Substitution scheme for each individual, preferably by a locum. 4. Redirection of funds to facilitate part-time work schemes temporarily after return. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. New statement of leave format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the communication of the Standing Concertation Committee published in Weekly Bulletin No. 18-19 of 27 April 2009, the current statement of leave on monthly pay slips has been replaced with the EDH Leave Transactions report that displays the up-to-date situation of individual leave balances at all times. The report is available on EDH. Additionally, the layout of the pay slip has been modernised. The new version of the pay slip will be send out from September 2009 onwards. Finance and Purchasing Department, Personnel Accounting Human Resources Department, Organisation and Procedures General Infrastructure Services Department, Administrative Information Services

  5. The Problems of Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sean

    2017-10-01

    The United States is the only major industrialized country in the world to not require paid parental leave. Numerous studies have shown that allowing parents time with a newborn makes the child and the parents healthier, both physically and mentally. Many physicians, especially those who work in practices with five or fewer doctors, worry about how to pay for parental leave for themselves and their staff.

  6. Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Christoffersen, Mogens; Weise, Hanne

    This artcle considders the political aims for different leave schemes and reviews studies af these schemes. The use of parental leave is sensitive to the financial loss involved in taking leave: a decrease in the benefit payments has had a significant influence on take-up, while, in general, fami......, families'' loss of income is less if leave is taken up by the mothers. Only few fathers participate in parental leave....

  7. Enough is as good as a feast - sufficiency as policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, Sarah [Lower Carbon Futures, Environmental Change Inst., Oxford Univ. Centre for the Environment (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    The concept of sufficiency has a long history, related as it is to the timeless issues of how best to distribute and use resources. Where energy is concerned, absolute reductions in demand are increasingly seen as necessary in response to climate change and energy security concerns. There is an acknowledgement that, collectively if not individually, humans have gone beyond safe limits in their use of fuels. The relatively wealthy and industrialised nations urgently need to move beyond a primary focus on efficiency to the more contentious issues surrounding demand reduction and sufficiency. The paper considers definitions of energy sufficiency, looks at a recent attempt to model future energy use in terms of efficiency and sufficiency, and discusses quantitative and qualitative aspects of sufficiency and how they might become institutionalised. There are many arguments in favour of sufficiency but they often founder in the face of political requirements for market growth and the employment generated by it. Some options for 'sufficiency policy' are selected, including a focus on energy in relation to livelihoods, energy implications of our use of time and making energy use more transparent.

  8. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  9. Decreasing seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in Germany leaves many people susceptible to genital infection: time to raise awareness and enhance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korr, Gerit; Thamm, Michael; Czogiel, Irina; Poethko-Mueller, Christina; Bremer, Viviane; Jansen, Klaus

    2017-07-06

    Herpes simplex infections (HSV1/2) are characterized by recurrent symptoms, a risk of neonatal herpes, and the facilitation of HIV transmission. In Germany, HSV1/2 infections are not notifiable and data are scarce. A previous study found higher HSV1/2 seroprevalences in women in East Germany than in women in West Germany. We assessed changes in the HSV1/2 seroprevalences over time and investigated determinants associated with HSV1/2 seropositivity to guide prevention and control. The study was based on the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS; 2008-2011) and the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey (GNHIES; 1997-1999). We tested serum samples from DEGS participants for HSV1 and HSV2 immunoglobulin G. We used Pearson's χ 2 test to compare the HSV1/HSV2 seroprevalences in terms of sex, age, and region of residence (East/West Germany) and investigated potential determinants by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) with log-binomial regression. All statistical analyses included survey weights. In total, 6627 DEGS participants were tested for HSV1, and 5013 were also tested for HSV2. Overall, HSV1 seroprevalence decreased significantly from 1997-1999 (82.1%; 95%CI 80.6-83.6) to 2008-2011 (78.4%; 95%CI 77.8-79.7). In the same period, overall HSV2 seroprevalence decreased significantly from 13.3% (95%CI 11.9-14.9) to 9.6% (95%CI 8.6-10.8), notably in 18-24-year-old men (10.4 to 0%) in East Germany. Women were more likely than men to be seropositive for HSV1 (PR 1.1) or HSV2 (PR 1.6). A lower level of education, smoking, and not speaking German were associated with HSV1 in both sexes. Women of older age, who smoked, or had a history of abortion and men of older age or who had not attended a nursery school during childhood were more often seropositive for HSV2. The reduced seroprevalences of HSV1 and HSV2 leave more people susceptible to genital HSV1/2 infections. Practitioners should be aware of HSV infection as a differential

  10. Remedy of contamination of multidrug resistant Salmonella and Escherichia coli from betel leaves (Piper betle keeping them fresh for long time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazrin Kamal

    2018-03-01

    Results: Total Salmonella counts in the betel leaves were 3.9×105, 4.9×106, 3.5×104, 1.1×103 and 1.5×103 CFU/mL, while E. coli counts were 5.5×107, 6.3×107, 4.4×105, 3.3×103 and 3.1×103 CFU/mL in the betel leaves collected from K.R. market, Kewatkhali Bazaar, whole sale market, borouj in Kushtia and borouj in Natore, respectively. Antibiogram study revealed that the isolated bacteria were sensitive to doxycyclline, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime. Application of 0.3% Salmosan-A Soln was found to be the most effective and suitable, where [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2018; 5(1.000: 73-80

  11. Time-course study and effects of drying method on concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid, flavonoids, anthocyanin, and 2''-hydroxynicotianamine in leaves of buckwheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Watanabe, Masami; Iki, Makiko; Aoyagi, Yasuo; Kim, Sun-Ju; Mukasa, Yuji; Yokota, Satoshi; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Hashimoto, Naoto; Noda, Takahiro; Yamauchi, Hiroaki; Matsuura-Endo, Chie

    2009-01-14

    Concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), rutin, minor flavonoids (such as orientin), anthocyanin, and 2''-hydroxynicotianamine (2HN) were quantified in the leaves of common and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn., respectively), at 14, 28, and 42 days after sowing (DAS). GABA and rutin concentrations peaked at 42 DAS, whereas anthocyain, 2HN, and minor flavonoid concentrations declined with the age of the plants. However, at 42 DAS, anthocyanin concentrations in the leaves of tartary buckwheat Hokkai T10 leaves were at least 10-fold greater than in the other buckwheats tested. In addition, the effects on target compound concentrations and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of three different drying methods (20 h at 40 degrees C, 7 h at 70 degrees C, or lyophilization) were investigated. In general, the drying method had no significant effect on the parameters tested. These results indicate that, in terms of GABA, rutin, and anthocyanin concentrations, leaf powder from 42 day old Hokkai T10 has the potential to be a useful food ingredient, such as Ao-jiru juice.

  12. Self-sufficiency, free trade and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautonen, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between free trade, self-sufficiency and safety of blood and blood components has been a perennial discussion topic in the blood service community. Traditionally, national self-sufficiency has been perceived as the ultimate goal that would also maximize safety. However, very few countries are, or can be, truly self-sufficient when self-sufficiency is understood correctly to encompass the whole value chain from the blood donor to the finished product. This is most striking when plasma derived medicines are considered. Free trade of blood products, or competition, as such can have a negative or positive effect on blood safety. Further, free trade of equipment and reagents and several plasma medicines is actually necessary to meet the domestic demand for blood and blood derivatives in most countries. Opposing free trade due to dogmatic reasons is not in the best interest of any country and will be especially harmful for the developing world. Competition between blood services in the USA has been present for decades. The more than threefold differences in blood product prices between European blood services indicate that competition is long overdue in Europe, too. This competition should be welcomed but carefully and proactively regulated to avoid putting safe and secure blood supply at risk. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Denmark. Self-sufficiency and reserves management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erceville, H. d'.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1991, Denmark is a self-sufficient and a net petroleum and natural gas exporting country. Like all neighboring countries of the North sea, this country enjoys many advantages. However, Denmark exports and imports about a third of its hydrocarbons. This policy is a way to control its reserves for the future. (J.S.)

  14. RECRUITMENT FINANCED BY SAVED LEAVE (RSL PROGRAMME)

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel; Tel. 73903

    1999-01-01

    Transfer to the saved leave account and saved leave bonusStaff members participating in the RSL programme may opt to transfer up to 10 days of unused annual leave or unused compensatory leave into their saved leave account, at the end of the leave year, i.e. 30 September (as set out in the implementation procedure dated 27 August 1997).A leave transfer request form, which you should complete, sign and return, if you wish to use this possibility, has been addressed you. To allow the necessary time for the processing of your request, you should return it without delay.As foreseen in the implementation procedure, an additional day of saved leave will be granted for each full period of 20 days remaining in the saved leave account on 31 December 1999, for any staff member participating in the RSL programme until that date.For part-time staff members participating in the RSL programme, the above-mentioned days of leave (annual, compensatory and saved) are adjusted proportionally to their contractual working week as...

  15. Error Bounds: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Outrata, Jiří; Kruger, A.Y.; Fabian, Marián; Henrion, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2010), s. 121-149 ISSN 1877-0533 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506; CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Error bounds * Calmness * Subdifferential * Slope Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/MTR/outrata-error bounds necessary and sufficient conditions.pdf

  16. The Army Ethic-Inchoate but Sufficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    are constraints imposed by this thesis. Delimitations include the scope, jus ad bellum, cultural relativism , descriptive ethics , and implementation...politicians. Third, this thesis will not look in depth at cultural relativism and how changes in laws and society’s philosophical and ethical ...THE ARMY ETHIC –INCHOATE BUT SUFFICIENT A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College

  17. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...... and whether parental leave is associated with a signaling cost. The results from this study of Swedish mothers show that lone mothers use more temporary parental leave than partnered mothers. Further, within the group of lone mothers, those with higher socioeconomic status take less temporary parental leave...... than those with lower socioeconomic status, whereas no such differences are found within the group of partnered mothers. One possible interpretation is that signaling costs negatively influence the utilization of temporary parental leave for lone mothers....

  18. Paternity leave experiences of NHS doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Hannah; Szram, Joanna

    2013-10-01

    This study assesses NHS doctors' experiences of paternity leave and evaluates whether practices have changed since the introduction of additional paternity leave (APL) in April 2011. An anonymised online survey designed to discover experiences and uptake of APL and ordinary paternity leave (OPL) was distributed to all members of the London Deanery Synapse® network. In total, 364 fathers responded. Their seniority ranged from foundation trainees to consultants. Following the formal introduction of OPL in 2003, the number of fathers taking any paternity leave increased (from 50% to 95.6%). The majority of respondents (76.7%) felt well supported by their employer. Since the introduction of APL, 3% of respondents took additional leave. Reasons for the low uptake of APL included the impracticalities of the law, poor awareness and perceived attitudes and implications for training. Problems with OPL included the inadequate provision of cover and difficulties in timing the leave appropriately.

  19. Energy self-sufficiency in Northampton, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The study is not an engineering analysis but begins the process of exploring the potential for conservation and local renewable-resource development in a specific community, Northampton, Massachusetts, with the social, institutional, and environmental factors in that community taken into account. Section I is an extensive executive summary of the full study, and Section II is a detailed examination of the potential for increased local energy self-sufficiency in Northampton, including current and future demand estimates, the possible role of conservation and renewable resources, and a discussion of the economic and social implications of alternative energy systems. (MOW)

  20. Maternity leave policies in academic and private radiology practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirt, B.A.; Rauth, V.; Price, A.P.F.; Pagani, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    In 1987, the American Association of Women Radiologists surveyed both academic and private radiology departments regarding pregnancy and maternity leave policies. One hundred academic institutions (70% response), 30 radiotherapy departments (38% response), and 31 private practices responded. Details were obtained regarding maternity leave policy for residents and attending physicians; availability of paternity leave; policies regarding on-call time, fluoroscopy time and intracavitary/interstitial applications during pregnancy; and problems that occurred during resident or attending physician pregnancies. There was a wide range of responses regarding paid leave time, availability of additional time, and the use of vacation time during maternity leave

  1. Ideal energy self-sufficient bioclimatic house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, C.

    1990-04-01

    This paper points out some of the interesting architectural features of a conceptual house being designed to be self-sufficient relative to the use of conventional energy sources. Brief notes are given on the following special design characteristics: the house's orientation and form - essentially a V - shaped two storey design with an orientation such as to maximize the surface area exposed to winter insolation; its special low emissivity glazing equipped with nightfall insulating screens; the adoption of maximized insulation, in which case cost benefits were assessed based on amortization over the entire life span of the house; hybrid space heating and ventilation systems involving the integration of pumps and ventilators for air circulation, and the use of a varied mix of active and passive solar heating and cooling systems.

  2. Determinants of sick-leave duration : A tool for managers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, P.A.; Krol, B.; Groothoff, J.W.

    AIMS: To provide managers with tools to manage episodes of sick-leave of their employees, the influence of factors such as age, gender, duration of tenure, working full-time or part-time, cause and history of sick-leave, salary and education on sick-leave duration was studied. METHOD: In a

  3. Access to paid parental leave for academic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itum, Dina S; Oltmann, Sarah C; Choti, Michael A; Piper, Hannah G

    2018-01-31

    Parental leave is linked to health benefits for both child and parent. It is unclear whether surgeons at academic centers have access to paid parental leave. The aim of this study was to determine parental leave policies at the top academic medical centers in the United States to identify trends among institutions. The top academic medical centers were identified (US News & World Report 2016). Institutional websites were reviewed, or human resource departments were contacted to determine parental leave policies. "Paid leave" was defined as leave without the mandated use of personal time off. Institutions were categorized based on geographical region, funding, and ranking to determine trends regarding availability and duration of paid parental leave. Among the top 91 ranked medical schools, 48 (53%) offer paid parental leave. Availability of a paid leave policy differed based on private versus public institutions (70% versus 38%, P leaves (>6 wk) than public institutions (67% versus 33%; P = 0.02). No difference in paid leave duration was noted based on region (P = 0.60) or rank (P = 0.81). Approximately, 50% of top academic medical centers offer paid parental leave. Private institutions are more likely to offer paid leave and leave of longer duration. There is considerable variability in access to paid parenteral leave for academic surgeons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  5. Guess LOD approach: sufficient conditions for robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J A; Amos, C I

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of genetic linkage between a disease and a marker locus requires specifying a genetic model describing both the inheritance pattern and the gene frequencies of the marker and trait loci. Misspecification of the genetic model is likely for etiologically complex diseases. In previous work we have shown through analytic studies that misspecifying the genetic model for disease inheritance does not lead to excess false-positive evidence for genetic linkage provided the genetic marker alleles of all pedigree members are known, or can be inferred without bias from the data. Here, under various selection or ascertainment schemes we extend these previous results to situations in which the genetic model for the marker locus may be incorrect. We provide sufficient conditions for the asymptotic unbiased estimation of the recombination fraction under the null hypothesis of no linkage, and also conditions for the limiting distribution of the likelihood ratio test for no linkage to be chi-squared. Through simulation studies we document some situations under which asymptotic bias can result when the genetic model is misspecified. Among those situations under which an excess of false-positive evidence for genetic linkage can be generated, the most common is failure to provide accurate estimates of the marker allele frequencies. We show that in most cases false-positive evidence for genetic linkage is unlikely to result solely from the misspecification of the genetic model for disease or trait inheritance.

  6. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  7. Energy Strategic Planning & Self-Sufficiency Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Retzlaff

    2005-03-30

    This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficiency and stimulates economic development and employment opportunities within and around the reservation. The primary subjects addressed in this report are as follow: (1) Baseline Assessment of Current Energy Costs--An evaluation of the historical energy costs for Smith River was conducted to identify the costs for each component of their energy supply to better assess changes that can be considered for energy cost reductions. (2) Research Viable Energy Options--This includes a general description of many power generation technologies and identification of their relative costs, advantages and disadvantages. Through this research the generation technology options that are most suited for this application were identified. (3) Project Development Considerations--The basic steps and associated challenges of developing a generation project utilizing the selected technologies are identified and discussed. This included items like selling to third parties, wheeling, electrical interconnections, fuel supply, permitting, standby power, and transmission studies. (4) Energy Conservation--The myriad of federal, state and utility programs offered for low-income weatherization and utility bill payment assistance are identified, their qualification requirements discussed, and the subsequent benefits outlined. (5) Establishing an Energy Organization--The report includes a high level discussion of formation of a utility to serve the Tribal membership. The value or advantages of such action is discussed along with some of the challenges. (6) Training--Training opportunities available to the Tribal membership are identified.

  8. Sick leave and disability pension in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors by stage, treatment, and follow-up time--a population-based comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimelius, I; Ekberg, S; Linderoth, J; Jerkeman, M; Chang, E T; Neovius, M; Smedby, K E

    2015-12-01

    This study seeks to investigate the long-term public health burden of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in terms of work loss following contemporary treatment protocols and associations with established treatment complications and lymphoma relapse. We identified 1,989 Swedish HL patients (1,082 with clinical information) aged 18-60 (median 33) years at diagnosis 1992-2009, and matched 1:4 to population comparators. Sick leave, disability pension (work loss), and comorbidity were retrieved through September 2013. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Poisson regression, and mean lost work days were estimated yearly during follow-up. The risk of annual work loss was elevated in HL survivors versus comparators up to the 15th year post-diagnosis (RR(5th year) 1.64, 95% CI 1.46-1.84; RR(10th year) 1.33, 95% CI 1.15-1.34; and RR(15th year) 1.30, 95% CI 1.04-1.62). The risk remained elevated up to the 10th year after adjustment for secondary malignancies and cardiovascular disease (RR(10th year) 1.31, 95% CI 1.13-1.52). Advanced-stage patients had more lost days than comparators (mean number(5th year) 66 versus 33, mean difference 34, 95% CI 20-48) as did patients receiving 6-8 chemotherapy courses (62 versus 33, mean difference(5th year) 30, 95 % CI 17-43). Among patients in the first complete remission, a difference was still observed for advanced-stage (51 versus 33, mean difference(5th year) 19, 95% CI 5-34) but not early-stage disease. Advanced-stage HL survivors treated with full-dose chemotherapy were at increased risk of work loss, not only explained by relapse, secondary malignancies, or cardiovascular disease. The results call for increased awareness and evaluation of reasons for long-term work disability following intensive chemotherapy among young HL survivors.

  9. Deuterium-tritium fuel self-sufficiency in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Vold, E.L.; Gung, C.Y.; Youssef, M.Z.; Shin, K.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions necessary to achieve deuterium-tritium fuel self-sufficiency in fusion reactors are derived through extensive modeling and calculations of the required and achievable tritium breeding ratios as functions of the many reactor parameters and candidate design concepts. It is found that the excess margin in the breeding potential is not sufficient to cover all present uncertainties. Thus, the goal of attaining fuel self-sufficiency significantly restricts the allowable parameter space and design concepts. For example, the required breeding ratio can be reduced by (A) attaining high tritium fractional burnup, >5%, in the plasma, (B) achieving very high reliability, >99%, and very short times, <1 day, to fix failures in the tritium processing system, and (C) ensuring that nonradioactive decay losses from all subsystems are extremely low, e.g., <0.1% for the plasma exhaust processing system. The uncertainties due to nuclear data and calculational methods are found to be significant, but they are substantially smaller than those due to uncertainties in system definition

  10. Self-Funded Leave and Life Role Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbish, Dale S.

    2009-01-01

    Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other…

  11. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  12. On the Necessary and Sufficient Assumptions for UC Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Orlandi, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    for all of them. Perhaps most interestingly we show that: •  For even the minimal meaningful KRA, where we only assume that the secret key is a value which is hard to compute from the public key, one can UC securely compute any poly-time functionality if there exists a passive secure oblivious...... that in the KRA model one-way functions are sufficient for UC commitment and UC zero-knowledge. These are the first examples of UC secure protocols for non-trivial tasks which do not assume the existence of public-key primitives. In particular, the protocols show that non-trivial UC computation is possible...

  13. Do parents leave a smaller carbon footprint?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason F.; Thunström, Linda

    Do parents leave a smaller carbon footprint? While becoming a parent is transformational as one focuses more on the future, the time constraints are more binding right now. Using a unique data set that allows us to compare CO2 emissions from Swedish two-adult households with and without children......, we find becoming a Swedish parent causes a person to leave a larger carbon ootprint—due to changes in transportation patterns and food consumption choices....

  14. Work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for sick leave in patients with neck or upper extremity complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Sandra D M; Terwee, Caroline B; van der Windt, Daniëlle A W M; van der Beek, Allard J; Bouter, Lex M; Dekker, Joost

    2007-08-01

    To study work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for sick leave among patients who have visited their general practitioner for neck or upper extremity complaints. Three hundred and forty two patients with neck or upper extremity complaints completed self-report questionnaires at baseline and after 3 months. Cox regression models were used to investigate the association between work-related risk factors and sick leave (i.e., lost days from work due to neck or upper extremity complaints in 3 months). Effect modification by sick leave at baseline, sex, worrying and musculoskeletal co-morbidity was evaluated by adding product terms to the regression models. In the subgroup of patients who scored high on the pain copying scale "worrying" the hazard ratio of sick leave was 1.32 (95% CI 1.07-1.62) per 10% increase in heavy physical work. The subgroup of patients who were sitting for long periods of time had a reduced risk of sick leave as compared to patients who did not spend a lot of time sitting, again only in patients who scored high on the pain coping scale "worrying" (adjusted HR=0.17, 95%-CI 0.04-0.72). Other work-related risk factors were not significantly related to sick leave. Heavy physical work increased the risk of sick leave and prolonged sitting reduced the risk of sick leave in a subgroup of patients who worried much about their pain. Additional large longitudinal studies of sufficiently large size among employees with neck or upper extremity complaints are needed to confirm our results.

  15. Leave-two-out stability of ontology learning algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jianzhang; Yu, Xiao; Zhu, Linli; Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Ontology is a semantic analysis and calculation model, which has been applied to many subjects. Ontology similarity calculation and ontology mapping are employed as machine learning approaches. The purpose of this paper is to study the leave-two-out stability of ontology learning algorithm. Several leave-two-out stabilities are defined in ontology learning setting and the relationship among these stabilities are presented. Furthermore, the results manifested reveal that leave-two-out stability is a sufficient and necessary condition for ontology learning algorithm.

  16. Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act.

  17. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  18. Simultaneous quantitative determination of 11 sesquiterpene lactones in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) leaves by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoyan; Yang, Qianxu

    2017-04-01

    A method of ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous quantification of 11 sesquiterpene lactones in 11 Jerusalem artichoke leaf samples harvested in a number of areas at different periods. The optimal chromatographic conditions were achieved on a ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C 18 column (3.0 × 150 mm, 1.8 μm) with linear gradient elution of methanol and water in 8 min. Quantitative analysis was carried out under selective ion monitoring mode. All of the sesquiterpene lactones showed good linearity (R 2 ≥ 0.9949), repeatability (relative standard deviations Jerusalem artichoke leaf samples from different areas. Among them, the content of sesquiterpene lactones in the sample collected from Dalian, Liaoning province was the highest and the early flowering period was considered to be the optimal harvest time. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. [Fire behavior of Mongolian oak leaves fuel bed under no-wind and zero-slope conditions. II. Analysis of the factors affecting flame length and residence time and related prediction models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Li; Liu, Bo-Fei; Di, Xue-Ying; Chu, Teng-Fei; Jin, Sen

    2012-11-01

    Taking fuel moisture content, fuel loading, and fuel bed depth as controlling factors, the fuel beds of Mongolian oak leaves in Maoershan region of Northeast China in field were simulated, and a total of one hundred experimental burnings under no-wind and zero-slope conditions were conducted in laboratory, with the effects of the fuel moisture content, fuel loading, and fuel bed depth on the flame length and its residence time analyzed and the multivariate linear prediction models constructed. The results indicated that fuel moisture content had a significant negative liner correlation with flame length, but less correlation with flame residence time. Both the fuel loading and the fuel bed depth were significantly positively correlated with flame length and its residence time. The interactions of fuel bed depth with fuel moisture content and fuel loading had significant effects on the flame length, while the interactions of fuel moisture content with fuel loading and fuel bed depth affected the flame residence time significantly. The prediction model of flame length had better prediction effect, which could explain 83.3% of variance, with a mean absolute error of 7.8 cm and a mean relative error of 16.2%, while the prediction model of flame residence time was not good enough, which could only explain 54% of variance, with a mean absolute error of 9.2 s and a mean relative error of 18.6%.

  20. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fernanda R; Buccini, Gabriela Dos S; Venâncio, Sônia I; da Costa, Teresa H M

    To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among working women. This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Monteiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF among working women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Results: Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Conclusion: Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months.

  2. The Link between National Paid Leave Policy and Work-Family Conflict among Married Working Parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, T.D.; Lapierre, L.M.; Spector, P.E.; Poelmans, S.A.Y.; O'Driscoll, M.P.; Sanchez, J.I.; Cooper, G.L.; Walvoord, A.G.; Antoniou, A.S.; Brough, P.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Kinnunen, U.; Pagon, M.; Shima, S.; Woo, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated relationships between four dimensions of work–family conflict (time- and strain-based work interference with family, time- and strain-based family interference with work) and three key national paid leave policies (paid parental leave, paid sick leave, paid annual leave) among a

  3. Maternity leave, women's employment, and marital incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J S; Essex, M J; Clark, R; Klein, M H

    2001-09-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the length of women's maternity leave and marital incompatibility, in the context of other variables including the woman's employment, her dissatisfaction with the division of household labor, and her sense of role overload. Length of leave, work hours, and family salience were associated with several forms of dissatisfaction, which in turn predicted role overload. Role overload predicted increased marital incompatibility for experienced mothers but did not for first-time mothers, for whom discrepancies between preferred and actual child care were more important. Length of maternity leave showed significant interactions with other variables, supporting the hypothesis that a short leave is a risk factor that, when combined with another risk factor, contributes to personal and marital distress.

  4. Women 1.5 Times More Likely to Leave STEM Pipeline after Calculus Compared to Men: Lack of Mathematical Confidence a Potential Culprit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jessica; Fosdick, Bailey K; Rasmussen, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The substantial gender gap in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce can be traced back to the underrepresentation of women at various milestones in the career pathway. Calculus is a necessary step in this pathway and has been shown to often dissuade people from pursuing STEM fields. We examine the characteristics of students who begin college interested in STEM and either persist or switch out of the calculus sequence after taking Calculus I, and hence either continue to pursue a STEM major or are dissuaded from STEM disciplines. The data come from a unique, national survey focused on mainstream college calculus. Our analyses show that, while controlling for academic preparedness, career intentions, and instruction, the odds of a woman being dissuaded from continuing in calculus is 1.5 times greater than that for a man. Furthermore, women report they do not understand the course material well enough to continue significantly more often than men. When comparing women and men with above-average mathematical abilities and preparedness, we find women start and end the term with significantly lower mathematical confidence than men. This suggests a lack of mathematical confidence, rather than a lack of mathematically ability, may be responsible for the high departure rate of women. While it would be ideal to increase interest and participation of women in STEM at all stages of their careers, our findings indicate that if women persisted in STEM at the same rate as men starting in Calculus I, the number of women entering the STEM workforce would increase by 75%.

  5. Women 1.5 Times More Likely to Leave STEM Pipeline after Calculus Compared to Men: Lack of Mathematical Confidence a Potential Culprit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jessica; Fosdick, Bailey K.; Rasmussen, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The substantial gender gap in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce can be traced back to the underrepresentation of women at various milestones in the career pathway. Calculus is a necessary step in this pathway and has been shown to often dissuade people from pursuing STEM fields. We examine the characteristics of students who begin college interested in STEM and either persist or switch out of the calculus sequence after taking Calculus I, and hence either continue to pursue a STEM major or are dissuaded from STEM disciplines. The data come from a unique, national survey focused on mainstream college calculus. Our analyses show that, while controlling for academic preparedness, career intentions, and instruction, the odds of a woman being dissuaded from continuing in calculus is 1.5 times greater than that for a man. Furthermore, women report they do not understand the course material well enough to continue significantly more often than men. When comparing women and men with above-average mathematical abilities and preparedness, we find women start and end the term with significantly lower mathematical confidence than men. This suggests a lack of mathematical confidence, rather than a lack of mathematically ability, may be responsible for the high departure rate of women. While it would be ideal to increase interest and participation of women in STEM at all stages of their careers, our findings indicate that if women persisted in STEM at the same rate as men starting in Calculus I, the number of women entering the STEM workforce would increase by 75%. PMID:27410262

  6. Antioxidant activity and identification of bioactive compounds from leaves of Anthocephalus cadamba by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madhu Chandel; Upendra Sharma; Neeraj Kumar; Bikram Singh; Satwinderjeet Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant potential of different extract/fractions of Anthocephalus cadamba (A. cadamba) (Roxb.) Miq. (Rubiaceae) and study the tentative identification of their active constituents. Methods: The extract/fractions were screened for antioxidant activity using various in vitro assays viz. DPPH assay, ABTS assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging assay, reducing power assay and plasmid DNA nicking assay. Total phenolic content of extract/fractions was determined by colorimetric method. An ultra-performance LC-electrospray-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry method was used to analyse the active constituents of extract/fractions of A. cadamba. Results: The ethyl acetate fraction was found to be most active fraction in all the assays as compared to other extract/fractions. The IC50 value of ethyl acetate fraction (ETAC fraction) was 21.24 μg/mL, 1.12 μg/mL, 9.68 μg/mL and 57.81 μg/mL in DPPH assay, ABTS assay, reducing power assay and superoxide scavenging assay respectively. All the extract/fractions also showed the potential to protect the plasmid DNA (pBR322) against the attack of hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton’s reagent. The bioactive compounds were identified by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS, by comparing the mass and λmax with literature values. Conclusions: The potential of the extract/fractions to scavenge different free radicals in different systems indicated that they may be useful therapeutic agents for treating radical-related pathologic damage.

  7. Women 1.5 Times More Likely to Leave STEM Pipeline after Calculus Compared to Men: Lack of Mathematical Confidence a Potential Culprit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ellis

    Full Text Available The substantial gender gap in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM workforce can be traced back to the underrepresentation of women at various milestones in the career pathway. Calculus is a necessary step in this pathway and has been shown to often dissuade people from pursuing STEM fields. We examine the characteristics of students who begin college interested in STEM and either persist or switch out of the calculus sequence after taking Calculus I, and hence either continue to pursue a STEM major or are dissuaded from STEM disciplines. The data come from a unique, national survey focused on mainstream college calculus. Our analyses show that, while controlling for academic preparedness, career intentions, and instruction, the odds of a woman being dissuaded from continuing in calculus is 1.5 times greater than that for a man. Furthermore, women report they do not understand the course material well enough to continue significantly more often than men. When comparing women and men with above-average mathematical abilities and preparedness, we find women start and end the term with significantly lower mathematical confidence than men. This suggests a lack of mathematical confidence, rather than a lack of mathematically ability, may be responsible for the high departure rate of women. While it would be ideal to increase interest and participation of women in STEM at all stages of their careers, our findings indicate that if women persisted in STEM at the same rate as men starting in Calculus I, the number of women entering the STEM workforce would increase by 75%.

  8. Absorption and translocation of phosphorus-32 in guava leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, William

    1997-01-01

    Phosphorus is easily absorbed by the leaves and translocated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the absorption and translocation of P by guava leaves, with time. When a solution containing 2% MAP and specific activity 0.15 μCi/ml was applied. MAP labelled with 32 P was applied in the 3 rd pair of leaves. These and other leaves, roots and stem were collected separately and analyzed accordingly. The results showed that 20 days after application 12% of the applied P was absorbed by the guava leaves. The translocation of P started immediately after its absorption reaching 20% 2fter 20 days. (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs

  9. Sick leave among people in paid work after age 65: A Swedish population-based study covering 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrants, K; Marklund, S; Kjeldgård, L; Head, J; Alexanderson, K

    2018-05-01

    Extending working life into older age groups is discussed in many countries. However, there is no knowledge about how this affects rates of sick leave. The aim of this work was to investigate rates of sick leave among people in paid work after retirement age and if such rates have changed over time. Swedish nationwide register data on people aged >65 years and living in Sweden in 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010 were analysed. All people with a sufficiently high work income to be eligible for public sick leave benefits were included. The proportions in paid work and compensated rates of sick leave for people aged 66-70 and ≥71 were analysed by sex, educational level, country of birth, living area, and employment type and sector. The percentage of people in paid work at ages 66-70 years increased from Women had higher rates of sick leave than men in 2005 and 2010, but lower in 1995 and 2000. In 2010, the rates of sick leave were similar between employees and the self-employed, and higher among employees in the public sector than among employees in the private sector. Rates of sick leave among workers aged >65 years were lower in 2010 than in 1995, despite much higher rates of labour market participation in 2010.

  10. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the saponins in Panax notoginseng leaves using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Panax notoginseng leaves (PNL exhibit extensive activities, but few analytical methods have been established to exclusively determine the dammarane triterpene saponins in PNL. Methods: Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS and HPLC-UV methods were developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in PNL, respectively. Results: Extraction conditions, including solvents and extraction methods, were optimized, which showed that ginsenosides Rc and Rb3, the main components of PNL, are transformed to notoginsenosides Fe and Fd, respectively, in the presence of water, by removing a glucose residue from position C-3 via possible enzymatic hydrolysis. A total of 57 saponins were identified in the methanolic extract of PNL by UPLC/Q-TOF MS. Among them, 19 components were unambiguously characterized by their reference substances. Additionally, seven saponins of PNL—ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rb3, and notoginsenosides Fc, Fe, and Fd—were quantified using the HPLC-UV method after extraction with methanol. The separation of analytes, particularly the separation of notoginsenoside Fc and ginsenoside Rc, was achieved on a Zorbax ODS C8 column at a temperature of 35°C. This developed HPLC-UV method provides an adequate linearity (r2>0.999, repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD < 2.98%, and inter- and intraday variations (RSD < 4.40% with recovery (98.7–106.1% of seven saponins concerned. This validated method was also conducted to determine seven components in 10 batches of PNL. Conclusion: These findings are beneficial to the quality control of PNL and its relevant products. Keywords: ginsenoside transformation, notoginsenoside Fd, notoginsenoside Fe, Panax notoginseng leaves, UPLC/Q-TOF MS

  11. Sufficient and necessary condition of separability for generalized Werner states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Dongling; Chen Jingling

    2009-01-01

    In a celebrated paper [Optics Communications 179, 447, 2000], A.O. Pittenger and M.H. Rubin presented for the first time a sufficient and necessary condition of separability for the generalized Werner states. Inspired by their ideas, we generalized their method to a more general case. We obtain a sufficient and necessary condition for the separability of a specific class of N d-dimensional system (qudits) states, namely special generalized Werner state (SGWS): W [d N ] (v)=(1-v)(I (N) )/(d N ) +v|ψ d N > d N |, where |ψ d N >=Σ i=0 d-1 α i |i...i> is an entangled pure state of N qudits system and α i satisfies two restrictions: (i) Σ i=0 d-1 α i α i *=1; (ii) Matrix 1/d (I (1) +TΣ i≠j α i |i> j *), where T=Min i≠j {1/|α i α j |}, is a density matrix. Our condition gives quite a simple and efficiently computable way to judge whether a given SGWS is separable or not and previously known separable conditions are shown to be special cases of our approach

  12. Properties of leaves particleboard for sheathing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryawan, Arif; Rahmawaty

    2018-03-01

    Manufacturing particleboard (PB) made of leaves was carried out to make non-structural building components, such as insulation, partition, wall, and sheathing. Raw materials used dry leaves originated from plantation (palm oil leaves) and forest plantation (magahony leaves). The adhesive used was interior type thermosetting commercial resins, namely 10% urea-formaldehyde (UF) based on oven dry leaves. Hardener used for UF resin was 1% and 3% ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) 20% (w/w), respectively. Technically, the target density of PB was 0.8 g/cm3 with the dimension’s size of (250 x 250 x 10) mm3. The pressure, temperature, and time of pressing of the hot press were 25 kgf/cm2, 120C, and 10 minutes, respectively. After conditioning for one week, the PB then was evaluated their physical and mechanical properties according to Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) A 5908 (2003). Results of this work showed: 1) Both types of PB (palm oil and mahagony leaves) were feasible to be produced for non-structural applications; 2) Addition of hardener enhanced the physical and mechanical properties of PB; 3) It was recommended to enhance the performance of the PB by manipulation of the raw materials and the design.

  13. Self-sufficiency of an autonomous reconfigurable modular robotic organism

    CERN Document Server

    Qadir, Raja Humza

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how the principle of self-sufficiency can be applied to a reconfigurable modular robotic organism. It shows the design considerations for a novel REPLICATOR robotic platform, both hardware and software, featuring the behavioral characteristics of social insect colonies. Following a comprehensive overview of some of the bio-inspired techniques already available, and of the state-of-the-art in re-configurable modular robotic systems, the book presents a novel power management system with fault-tolerant energy sharing, as well as its implementation in the REPLICATOR robotic modules. In addition, the book discusses, for the first time, the concept of “artificial energy homeostasis” in the context of a modular robotic organism, and shows its verification on a custom-designed simulation framework in different dynamic power distribution and fault tolerance scenarios. This book offers an ideal reference guide for both hardware engineers and software developers involved in the design and implem...

  14. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2002-01-01

    Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'*) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that, since last year, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2002 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they are still participants in the schem...

  15. Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22 B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the ...

  16. Maternity leave: existing policies in obstetrics and gynecology residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J L; Baillie, S; Hodgson, C S; Vontver, L; Platt, L D

    2001-12-01

    To survey program directors in obstetrics and gynecology regarding maternity leave and to determine how programs are dealing with maternity leave coverage. Questionnaires regarding impact and policy on maternity leave were mailed to accredited obstetrics and gynecology residency programs. A total of 188 of 274 (69%) questionnaires were returned completed. Respectively, 80% and 69% of respondents indicated that they have a formal maternity (maximum mean 8.7 weeks) and paternity (mean 5.27 days) leave policy. Approximately 75% of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 8 weeks during the first 3 years. Eighty-five percent of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 6 weeks during the fourth year. Ninety-three percent of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 20 weeks over the 4 years. Seventy-seven percent of respondents have other residents in their program cover for the absent resident. Thirty-seven percent of programs have schedules flexible enough to allow rearrangement so that some rotations go uncovered. Eighty-three percent of programs surveyed stated that maternity leave has a somewhat to very significant impact on the residents' schedules. Most residency programs have written maternity/paternity leave policies. A more flexible curriculum may help to accommodate the residents on leave without overburdening the residents who are left to cover.

  17. Parental leave and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhm, C J

    2000-11-01

    This study investigates whether rights to parental leave improve pediatric health. Aggregate data are used for 16 European countries over the 1969 through 1994 period. More generous paid leave is found to reduce deaths of infants and young children. The magnitudes of the estimated effects are substantial, especially where a causal effect of leave is most plausible. In particular, there is a much stronger negative relationship between leave durations and post-neonatal or child fatalities than for perinatal mortality, neonatal deaths, or low birth weight. The evidence further suggests that parental leave may be a cost-effective method of bettering child health.

  18. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    of long-term sick leave. Method Data from 508 employed pregnant women seeking antenatal care was collected by questionnaires from August 2015 to March 2016. The questionnaires, which were filled in at 20 and 32 weeks of gestation, provided information on maternal characteristics, the number of days spent...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  19. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.12 Leave system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time school-term...

  20. a Modeling Method of Fluttering Leaves Based on Point Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Hao, W.; Ning, X.; Lv, K.; Shi, Z.; Zhao, M.

    2017-09-01

    Leaves falling gently or fluttering are common phenomenon in nature scenes. The authenticity of leaves falling plays an important part in the dynamic modeling of natural scenes. The leaves falling model has a widely applications in the field of animation and virtual reality. We propose a novel modeling method of fluttering leaves based on point cloud in this paper. According to the shape, the weight of leaves and the wind speed, three basic trajectories of leaves falling are defined, which are the rotation falling, the roll falling and the screw roll falling. At the same time, a parallel algorithm based on OpenMP is implemented to satisfy the needs of real-time in practical applications. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is amenable to the incorporation of a variety of desirable effects.

  1. A MODELING METHOD OF FLUTTERING LEAVES BASED ON POINT CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaves falling gently or fluttering are common phenomenon in nature scenes. The authenticity of leaves falling plays an important part in the dynamic modeling of natural scenes. The leaves falling model has a widely applications in the field of animation and virtual reality. We propose a novel modeling method of fluttering leaves based on point cloud in this paper. According to the shape, the weight of leaves and the wind speed, three basic trajectories of leaves falling are defined, which are the rotation falling, the roll falling and the screw roll falling. At the same time, a parallel algorithm based on OpenMP is implemented to satisfy the needs of real-time in practical applications. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is amenable to the incorporation of a variety of desirable effects.

  2. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel, Ann P.; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides quasi-experimental evidence on the impact of paid leave legislation on fathers' leave-taking, as well as on the division of leave between mothers and fathers in dual-earner households. Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, which is the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the United States. Our results show that fathers in Califo...

  3. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the saponins in Panax notoginseng leaves using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Ma, Ni; He, Chengwei; Hu, Yuanjia; Li, Peng; Chen, Meiwan; Su, Huanxing; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2018-04-01

    Panax notoginseng leaves (PNL) exhibit extensive activities, but few analytical methods have been established to exclusively determine the dammarane triterpene saponins in PNL. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) and HPLC-UV methods were developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in PNL, respectively. Extraction conditions, including solvents and extraction methods, were optimized, which showed that ginsenosides Rc and Rb3, the main components of PNL, are transformed to notoginsenosides Fe and Fd, respectively, in the presence of water, by removing a glucose residue from position C-3 via possible enzymatic hydrolysis. A total of 57 saponins were identified in the methanolic extract of PNL by UPLC/Q-TOF MS. Among them, 19 components were unambiguously characterized by their reference substances. Additionally, seven saponins of PNL-ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rb3, and notoginsenosides Fc, Fe, and Fd-were quantified using the HPLC-UV method after extraction with methanol. The separation of analytes, particularly the separation of notoginsenoside Fc and ginsenoside Rc, was achieved on a Zorbax ODS C8 column at a temperature of 35°C. This developed HPLC-UV method provides an adequate linearity ( r 2  > 0.999), repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD PNL. These findings are beneficial to the quality control of PNL and its relevant products.

  4. [Vitamin-antioxidant sufficiency of winter sports athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketova, N A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Solntseva, T N; Khanfer'ian, R A

    2013-01-01

    The sufficiency of 169 athletes (six disciplines: bullet shooting, biathlon, bobsleigh, skeleton, freestyle skiing, snowboarding) with vitamins A, E, C, B2, and beta-carotene has been investigated in April-September 2013. All athletes (102 juniors, mean age--18.5 +/- 0.3 years, and 67 adult high-performance athletes, mean age--26.8 +/- 0.7 years) were sufficiently supplied with vitamin A (70.7 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl). Mean blood serum retinol level was 15% higher the upper limit of the norm (80 mcg/dl) in biathletes while median reached 90.9 mcg/dl. Blood serum level of tocopherols (1.22 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), ascorbic acid (1.06 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), riboflavin (7.1 +/- 0.4 ng/ml), and beta-carotene (25.1 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl) was in within normal range, but the incidence of insufficiency of vitamins E, C, B2, and carotenoid among athletes varied in the range of 0-25, 0-17, 15-67 and 42-75%, respectively. 95% of adults and 80% of younger athletes were sufficiently provided with vitamin E. Vitamin E level in blood serum of juniors involved in skeleton and biathlon was lower by 51 and 72% (p antioxidants (beta-carotene and vitamins E and C). In other sports, the relative quantity of athletes sufficiently supplied with these essential nutrients did not exceed 56%. The quota of supplied with all antioxidants among bullet shooters (31.1%) and bobsledders (23.5%) was significantly (p antioxidant (mainly beta-carotene) was most often recorded among persons engaged in bullet shooting (67%). The simultaneous lack of all three antioxidants was found only in freestylers and bobsledders (about 5%). Decreased level of antioxidants in blood serum in 40% of athletes was combined with vitamin B2 deficiency. The data obtained suggest the necessity to optimize diet vitamin content of all athletes, taking into account the age and gender differences. Contrary to prevailing stereotypes the optimization must involve not only an increase in the consumption of vitamins (vitamins E, B group) and carotenoids, but

  5. Association of faculty perceptions of work-life with emotional exhaustion and intent to leave academic nursing: report on a national survey of nurse faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedidia, Michael J; Chou, Jolene; Brownlee, Susan; Flynn, Linda; Tanner, Christine A

    2014-10-01

    The current and projected nurse faculty shortage threatens the capacity to educate sufficient numbers of nurses for meeting demand. As part of an initiative to foster strategies for expanding educational capacity, a survey of a nationally representative sample of 3,120 full-time nurse faculty members in 269 schools and programs that offered at least one prelicensure degree program was conducted. Nearly 4 of 10 participants reported high levels of emotional exhaustion, and one third expressed an intent to leave academic nursing within 5 years. Major contributors to burnout were dissatisfaction with workload and perceived inflexibility to balance work and family life. Intent to leave was explained not only by age but by several potentially modifiable aspects of work, including dissatisfaction with workload, salary, and availability of teaching support. Preparing sufficient numbers of nurses to meet future health needs will require addressing those aspects of work-life that undermine faculty teaching capacity. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Sufficiency does energy consumption become a moral issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Adrian (Socio-economic Inst. and Univ. Research Priority Programme in Ethics, Univ. of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland))

    2009-07-01

    Reducing the externalities from energy use is crucial for sustainability. There are basically four ways to reduce externalities from energy use: increasing technical efficiency ('energy input per unit energy service'), increasing economic efficiency ('internalising external costs'), using 'clean' energy sources with few externalities, or sufficiency ('identifying 'optimal' energy service levels'). A combination of those strategies is most promising for sustainable energy systems. However, the debate on sustainable energy is dominated by efficiency and clean energy strategies, while sufficiency plays a minor role. Efficiency and clean energy face several problems, though. Thus, the current debate should be complemented with a critical discussion of sufficiency. In this paper, I develop a concept of sufficiency, which is adequate for liberal societies. I focus on ethical foundations for sufficiency, as the discussion of such is missing or cursory only in the existing literature. I first show that many examples of sufficiency can be understood as (economic) efficiency, but that the two concepts do not coincide. I then show that sufficiency based on moralization of actions can be understood as implementation of the boundary conditions for social justice that come with notions of liberal societies, in particular the duty not to harm other people. By this, to increase sufficiency becomes a duty beyond individual taste. I further illustrate this in the context of the adverse effects of climate change as externalities from energy use.

  7. Improving the Perception of Self-Sufficiency towards Creative Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Korkmaz, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a Creative Drama Based Perception of Self-sufficiency Skills Training Program on 2nd grade bachelor degree students' (who are attending a preschool teacher training program) perception of self-sufficiency. This is a quasi-experimental study. Totally 50 students were equally divided into…

  8. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies...... in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected between 1996-2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on telephone interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression analysis, using time of first...... episode of sick leave as the primary outcome. RESULTS: We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55-2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26-1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95% CI 1...

  9. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  10. Parental leave for residents and pediatric training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is committed to the development of rational, equitable, and effective parental leave policies that are sensitive to the needs of pediatric residents, families, and developing infants and that enable parents to spend adequate and good-quality time with their young children. It is important for each residency program to have a policy for parental leave that is written, that is accessible to residents, and that clearly delineates program practices regarding parental leave. At a minimum, a parental leave policy for residents and fellows should conform legally with the Family Medical Leave Act as well as with respective state laws and should meet institutional requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education for accredited programs. Policies should be well formulated and communicated in a culturally sensitive manner. The AAP advocates for extension of benefits consistent with the Family Medical Leave Act to all residents and interns beginning at the time that pediatric residency training begins. The AAP recommends that regardless of gender, residents who become parents should be guaranteed 6 to 8 weeks, at a minimum, of parental leave with pay after the infant's birth. In addition, in conformance with federal law, the resident should be allowed to extend the leave time when necessary by using paid vacation time or leave without pay. Coparenting, adopting, or fostering of a child should entitle the resident, regardless of gender, to the same amount of paid leave (6-8 weeks) as a person who takes maternity/paternity leave. Flexibility, creativity, and advanced planning are necessary to arrange schedules that optimize resident education and experience, cultivate equity in sharing workloads, and protect pregnant residents from overly strenuous work experiences at critical times of their pregnancies.

  11. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yukiko; Kubo, M. Kenya; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Nomura, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  12. Enough is as good as a feast - sufficiency as policy. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The concept of sufficiency has a long history, related as it is to the timeless issues of how best to distribute and use resources. Where energy is concerned, absolute reductions in demand are increasingly seen as necessary in response to climate change and energy security concerns. There is an acknowledgement that, collectively if not individually, humans have gone beyond safe limits in their use of fuels. The relatively wealthy and industrialised nations urgently need to move beyond a primary focus on efficiency to the more contentious issues surrounding demand reduction and sufficiency. The paper considers definitions of energy sufficiency, looks at a recent attempt to model future energy use in terms of efficiency and sufficiency, and discusses quantitative and qualitative aspects of sufficiency and how they might become institutionalised. There are many arguments in favour of sufficiency but they often founder in the face of political requirements for market growth and the employment generated by it. Some options for 'sufficiency policy' are selected, including a focus on energy in relation to livelihoods, energy implications of our use of time and making energy use more transparent

  13. Enough is as good as a feast - sufficiency as policy. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, Sarah [Lower Carbon Futures, Environmental Change Inst., Oxford Univ. Centre for the Environment (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    The concept of sufficiency has a long history, related as it is to the timeless issues of how best to distribute and use resources. Where energy is concerned, absolute reductions in demand are increasingly seen as necessary in response to climate change and energy security concerns. There is an acknowledgement that, collectively if not individually, humans have gone beyond safe limits in their use of fuels. The relatively wealthy and industrialised nations urgently need to move beyond a primary focus on efficiency to the more contentious issues surrounding demand reduction and sufficiency. The paper considers definitions of energy sufficiency, looks at a recent attempt to model future energy use in terms of efficiency and sufficiency, and discusses quantitative and qualitative aspects of sufficiency and how they might become institutionalised. There are many arguments in favour of sufficiency but they often founder in the face of political requirements for market growth and the employment generated by it. Some options for 'sufficiency policy' are selected, including a focus on energy in relation to livelihoods, energy implications of our use of time and making energy use more transparent.

  14. [Fat soluble constituents of the leaves of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, P; Liu, J; Li, J

    1997-07-01

    Four compounds were isolated from the fat soluble fraction of the leaves of Vaccinium bracteatum and identified as friedelin (I), epifriedelinol (II), beta-sitosterol(III) and ursolic acid(IV) by IR, NMR and MS. Compound III and IV are isolated from the leaves of this plant for the first time.

  15. Assessment of Annona reticulata Linn. leaves fractions for invitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since from long time the plant, Annona reticulata Linn. is known for its beneficial effects. Leaves of A. reticulata were screened for phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The shade dried leaves were extracted with methanol and aqueous methanolic extract was partitioned successively ...

  16. Organizational commitment, job satisfaction and intention to leave: A comparative analysis between part-time and full-time faculties Compromiso organizativo, satisfacción con el trabajo e intención de abandonar la organización: Análisis comparativo entre el profesorado universitario a tiempo parcial y a tiempo completo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pep Simo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of part-time work has been growing in recent years, due to its significant increase in today's societies, and higher education institutions have not been alien to this trend. The present research tries to study the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction with the intention to leave the institution, comparing part-time and full-time faculty. An empirical research, grounded in the model proposed by Currivan (1999, has been undertaken, with a sample of faculty of ETSEIAT, a college of the Technical University of Catalonia. Results show the existence of the relationships with organizational commitment, job satisfaction and intention to leave predicted in the literature, and significant differences in job satisfaction and organizational commitment between part-time and full-time faculty. The paper ends with some proposals of further research. El trabajo a tiempo parcial ha ido adquiriendo importancia debido a su significativo aumento en las sociedades actuales, y las universidades no han sido ajenas a esta tendencia. La presente investigación estudia las relaciones entre el compromiso organizativo y la satisfacción con el trabajo con la intención de abandonar la universidad, comparando al profesorado universitario a tiempo completo con el profesorado a tiempo parcial. El estudio empírico consiste en un análisis de los predictores de la satisfacción con el trabajo y el compromiso organizativo basado en el modelo propuesto por Currivan (1999, con una muestra procedente de la escuela ETSEIAT (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. Los resultados muestran que las relaciones entre compromiso, satisfacción e intención de abandonar son las previstas en la literatura, así como diferencias significativas entre profesorado a tiempo completo y tiempo parcial. El estudio acaba con algunas propuestas de investigaciones futuras.

  17. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2)Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the interest of all parties concerned. This automatic transfer procedure has a number of advantages for participants in the SLS scheme. First, staff members will no longer have to take any administrative steps. Secondly, the new proced...

  18. New Sufficient LMI Conditions for Static Output Stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents new linear matrix inequality conditions to the static output feedback stabilization problem. Although the conditions are only sufficient, numerical experiments show excellent success rates in finding a stabilizing controller....

  19. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  20. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  1. Soluble Sugars as the Carbohydrate Reserve for CAM in Pineapple Leaves 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnal, Nancy Wieland; Black, Clanton C.

    1989-01-01

    Neutral ethanol-soluble sugar pools serve as carbohydrate reserves for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) leaves. Levels of neutral soluble sugars and glucans fluctuated reciprocally with concentrations of malic acid. Hexose loss from neutral soluble-sugar pools was sufficient to account for malic acid accumulation with about 95% of the required hexose accounted for by turnover of fructose and glucose pools. Hexose loss from starch or starch plus lower molecular weight glucan pools was insufficient to account for nocturnal accumulation of malic acid. The apparent maximum catalytic capacity of pyrophosphate:6-phosphofructokinase (PPi-PFK) at 15°C was about 16 times higher than the mean maximum rate of glycolysis that occurred to support malic acid accumulation in pineapple leaves at night and 12 times higher than the mean maximum rate of hexose turnover from all carbohydrate pools. The apparent maximum catalytic capacity of ATP-PFK at 15°C was about 70% of the activity required to account for the mean maximal rate of hexose turnover from all carbohydrate pools if turnover were completely via glycolysis, and marginally sufficient to account for mean maximal rates of acidification. Therefore, at low night temperatures conducive to CAM and under subsaturating substrate concentrations, PPi-PFK activity, but not ATP-PFK activity, would be sufficient to support the rate of glycolytic carbohydrate processing required for acid accumulation. These data for pineapple establish that there are at least two types of CAM plants with respect to the nature of the carbohydrate reserve utilized to support nighttime CO2 accumulation. The data further indicate that the glycolytic carbohydrate processing that supports acidification proceeds in different subcellular compartments in plants utilizing different carbohydrate reserves. PMID:16666775

  2. Sufficient conditions for positivity of non-Markovian master equations with Hermitian generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkie, Joshua; Wong Yinmei

    2009-01-01

    We use basic physical motivations to develop sufficient conditions for positive semidefiniteness of the reduced density matrix for generalized non-Markovian integrodifferential Lindblad-Kossakowski master equations with Hermitian generators. We show that it is sufficient for the memory function to be the Fourier transform of a real positive symmetric frequency density function with certain properties. These requirements are physically motivated, and are more general and more easily checked than previously stated sufficient conditions. We also explore the decoherence dynamics numerically for some simple models using the Hadamard representation of the propagator. We show that the sufficient conditions are not necessary conditions. We also show that models exist in which the long time limit is in part determined by non-Markovian effects

  3. Long-Term Resource Adequacy, Long-Term Flexibility Requirements, and Revenue Sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [Electric Power Research Institute; Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Laboratory; Levin, Todd [Argonne National Laboratory

    2018-02-15

    Variable generation (VG) can reduce market prices over time and also the energy that other suppliers can sell in the market. The suppliers that are needed to provide capacity and flexibility to meet the long-term reliability requirements may, therefore, earn less revenue. This chapter discusses the topics of resource adequacy and revenue sufficiency - that is, determining and acquiring the quantity of capacity that will be needed at some future date and ensuring that those suppliers that offer the capacity receive sufficient revenue to recover their costs. The focus is on the investment time horizon and the installation of sufficient generation capability. First, the chapter discusses resource adequacy, including newer methods of determining adequacy metrics. The chapter then focuses on revenue sufficiency and how suppliers have sufficient opportunity to recover their total costs. The chapter closes with a description of the mechanisms traditionally adopted by electricity markets to mitigate the issues of resource adequacy and revenue sufficiency and discusses the most recent market design changes to address these issues.

  4. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... insurance, health benefits, retirement coverage, and leave accrual). (e) The agency shall determine the... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule... reduced leave schedule unless the employee and the agency agree to do so. (b) Leave under § 630.1203(a) (3...

  5. Necessary and sufficient conditions for Hopf bifurcation in tri-neuron equation with a delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoming; Liao Xiaofeng

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the delayed differential equations modeling three-neuron equations with only a time delay. Using the time delay as a bifurcation parameter, necessary and sufficient conditions for Hopf bifurcation to occur are derived. Numerical results indicate that for this model, Hopf bifurcation is likely to occur at suitable delay parameter values.

  6. Exploring Societal Preferences for Energy Sufficiency Measures in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Corinne; Rösch, Andreas; Stauffacher, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are facing a challenging transition toward more sustainable energy systems, which produce more renewables and consume less energy. The latter goal can only be achieved through a combination of efficiency measures and changes in people’s lifestyles and routine behaviors (i.e., sufficiency). While research has shown that acceptance of technical efficiency is relatively high, there is a lack of research on societal preferences for sufficiency measures. However, this is an important prerequisite for designing successful interventions to change behavior. This paper analyses societal preferences for different energy-related behaviors in Switzerland. We use an online choice-based conjoint analysis (N = 150) to examine preferences for behaviors with high technical potentials for energy demand reduction in the following domains: mobility, heating, and food. Each domain comprises different attributes across three levels of sufficiency. Respondents were confronted with trade-off situations evoked through different fictional lifestyles that comprised different combinations of attribute levels. Through a series of trade-off decisions, participants were asked to choose their preferred lifestyle. The results revealed that a vegetarian diet was considered the most critical issue that respondents were unwilling to trade off, followed by distance to workplace and means of transportation. The highest willingness to trade off was found for adjustments in room temperature, holiday travel behaviors, and living space. Participants’ preferences for the most energy-sufficient lifestyles were rather low. However, the study showed that there were lifestyles with substantive energy-saving potentials that were well accepted among respondents. Our study results suggest that the success of energy-sufficiency interventions might depend strongly on the targeted behavior. We speculate that they may face strong resistance (e.g., vegetarian diet). Thus, it seems promising to

  7. Exploring Societal Preferences for Energy Sufficiency Measures in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Corinne, E-mail: corinne.moser@zhaw.ch [Institute of Sustainable Development, School of Engineering, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur (Switzerland); Natural and Social Science Interface, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Rösch, Andreas [Natural and Social Science Interface, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Stauffacher, Michael [Natural and Social Science Interface, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Transdisciplinarity Laboratory, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-16

    Many countries are facing a challenging transition toward more sustainable energy systems, which produce more renewables and consume less energy. The latter goal can only be achieved through a combination of efficiency measures and changes in people’s lifestyles and routine behaviors (i.e., sufficiency). While research has shown that acceptance of technical efficiency is relatively high, there is a lack of research on societal preferences for sufficiency measures. However, this is an important prerequisite for designing successful interventions to change behavior. This paper analyses societal preferences for different energy-related behaviors in Switzerland. We use an online choice-based conjoint analysis (N = 150) to examine preferences for behaviors with high technical potentials for energy demand reduction in the following domains: mobility, heating, and food. Each domain comprises different attributes across three levels of sufficiency. Respondents were confronted with trade-off situations evoked through different fictional lifestyles that comprised different combinations of attribute levels. Through a series of trade-off decisions, participants were asked to choose their preferred lifestyle. The results revealed that a vegetarian diet was considered the most critical issue that respondents were unwilling to trade off, followed by distance to workplace and means of transportation. The highest willingness to trade off was found for adjustments in room temperature, holiday travel behaviors, and living space. Participants’ preferences for the most energy-sufficient lifestyles were rather low. However, the study showed that there were lifestyles with substantive energy-saving potentials that were well accepted among respondents. Our study results suggest that the success of energy-sufficiency interventions might depend strongly on the targeted behavior. We speculate that they may face strong resistance (e.g., vegetarian diet). Thus, it seems promising to

  8. Micronutrients in the life cycle: Requirements and sufficient supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Biesalski Hans

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Macronutrients (fat, protein, carbohydrates deliver energy and important material to ensure the entire body composition. Micronutrients are needed to keep this process of continuous construction and re-construction running. Consequently, the requirement for micronutrients will differ depending on the individual need which is related to the different metabolic conditions within the life cycle. Within the first 1000 days of life, from conception to the end of the second year of life the requirement for micronutrients is high and if the supply is inadequate that might have consequences for physical and at least cognitive development. In particular, iron, iodine, vitamin D and folate are micronutrients which might become critical during that period. Due to the fact that clinical symptoms of deficiencies develop late, but inadequate supply of one or more micronutrients may have consequences for health the term hidden hunger has been introduced to describe that situation. In particular the time period of pregnancy and early childhood is critical and hidden hunger is a worldwide problem, affecting >2 billion people, primarily females and children. The importance of different requirements during the life cycle is usually not considered. In addition, we do not really know what the individual requirement is. The estimation of the requirement is based on studies calculating the supply of a micronutrient to avoid a deficiency disease within a healthy population and is not based on sound scientific methodology or data. We need to consider that at different moments in the life cycle the supply might become critical in particular in case of a disease or sudden increase of metabolic turnover. In this narrative review we summarize data from studies dealing with different micronutrient requirements in pregnancy, exercise, vegan diet, adolescents and elderly. Knowledge of critical periods and related critical micronutrients might help to avoid hidden hunger and

  9. [Effect of vitamin sufficiency on adaptation syndrome in growing rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Iu S; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Zorin, S N; Selifanov, A V; Mazo, V K

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vitamin supply of growing male -Wistar rats (n=21) with an initial body weight 53,5±0,9 g on their resistance to a single distress induced by the electric shock has been investigated. Control rats within 21 days received a complete semisynthetic diet,providingadequate amounts of vitamins. Combined vitamin deficiency in experimental rats was caused by 5-fold decrease of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and the total vitamin E exclusion from the mixture. On the 21st day, one day before the end of the experiment, both groups of rats were subjected to stress impact (electrocutaneous irritation on paws, 0,4 mA for 8 sec) and then animals were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine. By the end of the experiment, the animals with the combined vitamin deficiency lag behind in growth. Vitamin B2, A, B1 and E liver content decreased in experimental rats by 1,6, 2,3, 4,4 and 15 fold accordingly. Retinol plasma concentration was significantly reduced by 18%, α-tocopherol level - by 5 fold, urinary excretionof riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid (vitamin B6 metabolite) was significantly reduced by 6,5 and 2,46 times accordingly. MDA blood plasma concentration and the urinary ratio of oxidized and not oxidized form of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine did not differ in both groups of rats. Urinary excretion of stress biomarker corticosterone in rats with combined vitamin deficit was 2,5-fold higher than in control rats. Thus, reducing of vitamins supply resulted in an increase of urine corticosterone in stressed rats, that characterized the intensity of general adaptation syndrome. This fact shows the importance of optimal sufficiency with vitamins in nonspecific (general) resistance to stress.

  10. Leaves of Absence. School Law Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    This report contains State-by-State statutory summaries on three types of leaves of absence relating to teachers -- sick leave, maternity leave, and sabbatical leave. Only State laws that have specific reference to one of these three types of leaves of absence are included. Not included are those statutes granting boards of education the general…

  11. The level of energy sufficiency - why all the controversy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.

    2000-01-01

    It as become fashionable in certain circles to attempt to demolish the notion of energy sufficiency, a concept which is now seen as being archaic and unsuitable. To back up their claims, proponents of this standpoint take great pleasure in attacking the corresponding indicator - the rate of energy sufficiency calculated as a ratio of national primary energy production and the total consumption of primary energy (in the same unit and without climatic corrections). Confirming its precarious, conventional and debatable nature seems in their eyes to be the best means of ensuring that both the word, the concept and the measuring method of energy sufficiency are consigned to the dustbin of economic history. After having examined with perhaps a certain irony some of the usual criticisms, I intend to proceed with a re-examination of questions which in my eyes appear to be essential. (author)

  12. Increasing urban water self-sufficiency: New era, new challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Binning, Philip John; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    and 15 in-depth case studies, solutions used to increase water self-sufficiency in urban areas are analyzed. The main drivers for increased self-sufficiency were identified to be direct and indirect lack of water, constrained infrastructure, high quality water demands and commercial and institutional...... pressures. Case studies demonstrate increases in self-sufficiency ratios to as much as 80% with contributions from recycled water, seawater desalination and rainwater collection. The introduction of alternative water resources raises several challenges: energy requirements vary by more than a factor of ten...... amongst the alternative techniques, wastewater reclamation can lead to the appearance of trace contaminants in drinking water, and changes to the drinking water system can meet tough resistance from the public. Public water-supply managers aim to achieve a high level of reliability and stability. We...

  13. Global Sufficient Optimality Conditions for a Special Cubic Minimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present some sufficient global optimality conditions for a special cubic minimization problem with box constraints or binary constraints by extending the global subdifferential approach proposed by V. Jeyakumar et al. (2006. The present conditions generalize the results developed in the work of V. Jeyakumar et al. where a quadratic minimization problem with box constraints or binary constraints was considered. In addition, a special diagonal matrix is constructed, which is used to provide a convenient method for justifying the proposed sufficient conditions. Then, the reformulation of the sufficient conditions follows. It is worth noting that this reformulation is also applicable to the quadratic minimization problem with box or binary constraints considered in the works of V. Jeyakumar et al. (2006 and Y. Wang et al. (2010. Finally some examples demonstrate that our optimality conditions can effectively be used for identifying global minimizers of the certain nonconvex cubic minimization problem.

  14. Sufficient vitamin K status combined with sufficient vitamin D status is associated with better lower extremity function: a prospective analysis of two knee osteoarthritis cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M Kyla; Loeser, Richard F; McAlindon, Timothy E; Houston, Denise K; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Booth, Sarah L

    2017-10-17

    Vitamins K and D are important for the function of vitamin K-dependent proteins in joint tissues. It is unclear if these nutrients are mutually important to functional outcomes related to knee osteoarthritis (OA). We evaluated the association of vitamin K and D sufficiency with lower-extremity function in the Health, Aging Body Composition Knee OA Sub-study (Health ABC) and conducted a replication analysis in an independent cohort, the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). In Health ABC (60% female, 75±3 years) baseline nutrient status was measured using circulating vitamin K and 25(OH)D. Lower-extremity function was assessed using the short physical performance battery (SPPB) and usual 20-meter gait speed. In the OAI (58% female, 61±9 years), baseline nutrient intake was estimated by food frequency questionnaire. Lower-extremity function was assessed using usual 20-meter gait speed and chair stand completion time. Multivariate mixed models were used to evaluate the association of vitamin K and D status and intake with lower-extremity function over 4-5 years. Health ABC participants with sufficient plasma vitamin K (≥1.0 nmol/L) and serum 25(OH)D (≥50 nmol/L) generally had better SPPB scores and faster usual gait speed over follow-up (p≤0.002). In the OAI, sufficient vitamin K and vitamin D intake combined was associated with overall faster usual gait speed and chair stand completion time over follow-up (p≤0.029). Sufficient vitamin K status combined with sufficient vitamin D status was associated with better lower-extremity function in two knee OA cohorts. These findings merit confirmation in vitamin K and D co-supplementation trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantification is Neither Necessary Nor Sufficient for Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari, Luca; Maul, Andrew; Torres Irribarra, David; Wilson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Being an infrastructural, widespread activity, measurement is laden with stereotypes. Some of these concern the role of measurement in the relation between quality and quantity. In particular, it is sometimes argued or assumed that quantification is necessary for measurement; it is also sometimes argued or assumed that quantification is sufficient for or synonymous with measurement. To assess the validity of these positions the concepts of measurement and quantitative evaluation should be independently defined and their relationship analyzed. We contend that the defining characteristic of measurement should be the structure of the process, not a feature of its results. Under this perspective, quantitative evaluation is neither sufficient nor necessary for measurement

  16. Chitinase from phaseolus vulgaris leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boller, T.; Gehri, A.; Mauch, F.; Vogeli, V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of ethylene on chitinase activity in bean leaves. The authors have purified the enzyme in the course of their work. The purification method is detailed and the colorimetric and radiochemical assays are compared

  17. Parental Leave and Children's Schooling Outcomes: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from a Large Parental Leave Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Danzer; Victor Lavy

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the question whether long-term human capital outcomes are affected by the duration of maternity leave, i.e. by the time mothers spend at home with their newborn before returning to work. Employing RD and difference-in-difference approaches, this paper exploits an unanticipated reform in Austria which extended the maximum duration of paid and job protected parental leave from 12 to 24 months for children born on July 1, 1990 or later. We use test scores from the Austria...

  18. The accumulation and elimination of 89Sr in tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongxi; Wang Shouxiang; Chen Chuanqun; Sun Zhiming; Hu Bingmin; Huang Dan

    1995-01-01

    The 89 Sr was added to the tea tree-soil system by different ways. The 89 Sr in the system through the over-ground part of tea tree, was much more than that through soil. The 89 Sr concentration in older leaves was higher than in shoot for a definite treatment. The accumulation elimination law of 89 Sr in leaves varied with the treatments. For the treatment through the over-ground part, the 89 Sr concentration in older leaves and shoot was monotonously decreased with time increasing. But for the treatment through soil the 89 Sr concentration in shoot was increased to reach a peak value, and then decreased slowly; while the 89 Sr concentration in older leaves increased quickly in a period, then increased slowly to attain a saturated value. In addition, the concentration factor of 89 Sr in older leaves and shoot were determined

  19. [Chemical components from essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Kai; Ge, Fa-Huan

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the chemical compositions of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves essential oil extracted by steam distillation. The essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrum, and the relative content of each component was determined by area normalization method. 128 peaks were separated and 95 compounds were identified, which weighed 97.75%. The main chemical components of the essential oil were phytol (42.15%), squalene (16.81%), what's more pentadecanal (6.17%), pentadecanoic acid (4.49%), 3, 7, 11, 15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (3.83%), phytone (2.05%) and the other 74 chemical compositions were firstly identified from the essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves. The chemical compositions of Pandanu samaryllifolius leaves essential oil was systematically, deeply isolated and identified for the first time. This experiment has provided scientific foundation for further utilization of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves.

  20. Online Learning in Higher Education: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cher Ping

    2005-01-01

    The spectacular development of information and communication technologies through the Internet has provided opportunities for students to explore the virtual world of information. In this article, the author discusses the necessary and sufficient conditions for successful online learning in educational institutions. The necessary conditions…

  1. Intellectual Freedom and Economic Sufficiency as Educational Entitlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jane Fowler

    2001-01-01

    Using the theories of John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx, this article supports the educational entitlements of intellectual freedom and economic sufficiency. Explores these issues in reference to their implications for teaching, the teaching profession and its training. Concludes that ideas cannot be controlled by the interests of the dominant class.…

  2. Towards a sufficiency-driven business model : Experiences and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocken, N.M.P.; Short, SW

    2016-01-01

    Business model innovation is an important lever for change to tackle pressing sustainability issues. In this paper, ‘sufficiency’ is proposed as a driver of business model innovation for sustainability. Sufficiency-driven business models seek to moderate overall resource consumption by curbing

  3. Role of sufficient statistics in stochastic thermodynamics and its implication to sensory adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takumi; Sagawa, Takahiro

    2018-04-01

    A sufficient statistic is a significant concept in statistics, which means a probability variable that has sufficient information required for an inference task. We investigate the roles of sufficient statistics and related quantities in stochastic thermodynamics. Specifically, we prove that for general continuous-time bipartite networks, the existence of a sufficient statistic implies that an informational quantity called the sensory capacity takes the maximum. Since the maximal sensory capacity imposes a constraint that the energetic efficiency cannot exceed one-half, our result implies that the existence of a sufficient statistic is inevitably accompanied by energetic dissipation. We also show that, in a particular parameter region of linear Langevin systems there exists the optimal noise intensity at which the sensory capacity, the information-thermodynamic efficiency, and the total entropy production are optimized at the same time. We apply our general result to a model of sensory adaptation of E. coli and find that the sensory capacity is nearly maximal with experimentally realistic parameters.

  4. The impact of paternity leave on fathers' future earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Mari; Solli, Ingeborg F

    2013-12-01

    Using Norwegian registry data, we investigate the effect of paternity leave on fathers' long-term earnings. If the paternity leave increased long-term father involvement, then we should expect a reduction in fathers' long-term earnings as they shift time and effort from market to home production. For identification, we use the Norwegian introduction of a paternity-leave quota in 1993, reserving four weeks of the total of 42 weeks of paid parental leave exclusively for the father. The introduction of the paternity-leave quota led to a sharp increase in rates of leave-taking for fathers. We estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in fathers' exposure to the paternity-leave quota by the child's age and year of observation. Our analysis suggests that four weeks of paternity leave during the child's first year decreases fathers' future earnings, an effect that persists through our last point of observation, when the child is 5 years old. A battery of robustness tests supports our results.

  5. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Fernanda R; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L C; Dias, Johny F; da Rosa, Darlan P; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant.

  6. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L leaves (control group. All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant.

  7. Exploring the Link between Maternity Leave and Postpartum Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfeind, Katelin R; Sipsma, Heather L

    2018-05-02

    Postpartum depression affects a substantial proportion of new mothers in the United States. Although most employed women return to paid work after birth, the association between duration of maternity leave and postpartum depression is unclear. We therefore aimed to explore this relationship among mothers in the United States. Data included 177 mothers from a national survey who had returned to work full time after having a baby. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the independent association between duration of maternity leave and experiencing of postpartum depressive symptoms in the 2 weeks preceding the postpartum survey completion. Overall, duration of maternity leave was not significantly associated with experiencing postpartum depression symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80-1.01). This effect, however, varied by duration of maternity leave. Among women who took maternity leaves of 12 weeks or less, every additional week of leave was associated with a lesser odds of experiencing postpartum depressive symptoms (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.84). Among women who took maternity leaves longer than 12 weeks, leave duration was not associated with postpartum depression symptoms (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.73-1.29). Maternity leaves equaling 12 weeks or less may contribute additional risk for postpartum depressive symptoms, possibly because mothers are juggling employment alongside of important physical and emotional changes during this period. This association underscores the importance of ensuring that mothers have at least 12 weeks of leave from full-time employment after the birth of a baby. Copyright © 2018 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Disability leave and sick leave in Spain. 2016 legislative update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; Terradillos-García, María Jesús; Capdevila-García, Luisa M; Ramírez-Íñiguez de la Torre, María Victoria; Aguilar-Jiménez, Encarna; Aguado-Benedí, María José; López-González, Angel Arturo; Torres-Alberich, José Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    In Spanish, the concepts of discapacidad (disability leave) and incapacidad (sick leave) jointly refer to the impairment of a person due to injuries, diseases or deficiencies that limit their activity in a social, personal or occupational field. However, this common link does not imply that both concepts are the same. Statistical data from INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística: Statistic National Institute) show that Spain had in 2015 3.85 million persons with a disability (59.8% were women). Statistical data from 2015 from INSS (Instituto Nacional de Seguridad Social: Social Security National Institute) show high levels in the number of processes and in workers affected by temporary sick leave, with social costs to the social security system. Both concepts have been updated: about disability leave, Law 39/2006 adjusted terminology by avoiding the use of concepts with discriminating or pejorative connotation. Regarding sick leave, the Ley General de Seguridad Social (General Social Security Law)has been amended and came into effect in January, 2016. It is necessary to know and distinguish these aspects for a better administrative management, and a more oriented information to the affected patient.

  9. Faculty Sufficiency and AACSB Accreditation Compliance within a Global University: A Mathematical Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronico, Jess; Murdy, Jim; Kong, Xinlu

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript proposes a mathematical model to address faculty sufficiency requirements towards assuring overall high quality management education at a global university. Constraining elements include full-time faculty coverage by discipline, location, and program, across multiple campus locations subject to stated service quality standards of…

  10. Don’t leave your baggage unattended

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    “Don’t leave your baggage unattended” is a familiar request to anyone who travels by air, but it’s good advice wherever you may be.    At CERN, if an unattended bag is found anywhere on the site, the Fire and Rescue service will be called to evacuate the area, maintain a security perimeter for as long as necessary, and attempt to identify the owner. If the owner cannot be found in a reasonable amount of time, there’s a very strong chance that the bag will be destroyed. You can take two simple steps to avoid this fate: Don’t leave your baggage unattended;   Make sure that your contact details are clearly visible on the bag or suitcase so that, should you find yourself separated from it, you can easily be reunited.

  11. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  12. Comparative analysis of five DNA isolation protocols and three drying methods for leaves samples of Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Severo da Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish a DNA isolation protocol Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez., able to obtain samples of high yield and quality for use in genomic analysis. A commercial kit and four classical methods of DNA extraction were tested, including three cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB-based and one sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-based methods. Three drying methods for leaves samples were also evaluated including drying at room temperature (RT, in an oven at 40ºC (S40, and in a microwave oven (FMO. The DNA solutions obtained from different types of leaves samples using the five protocols were assessed in terms of cost, execution time, and quality and yield of extracted DNA. The commercial kit did not extract DNA with sufficient quantity or quality for successful PCR reactions. Among the classic methods, only the protocols of Dellaporta and of Khanuja yielded DNA extractions for all three types of foliar samples that resulted in successful PCR reactions and subsequent enzyme restriction assays. Based on the evaluated variables, the most appropriate DNA extraction method for Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez. was that of Dellaporta, regardless of the method used to dry the samples. The selected method has a relatively low cost and total execution time. Moreover, the quality and quantity of DNA extracted using this method was sufficient for DNA sequence amplification using PCR reactions and to get restriction fragments.

  13. Why People Leave Their Jobs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Domínguez A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show the results of the review of literature of relevant studies of the causal elements of intention to leave in the last five years (2009-2013. The method used to evaluate the literature was based on the seven steps for research synthesis: problem formulation, literature search, obtaining information from studies, quality assessment studies, analysis and integration of results, interpretation of evidence and presentation of results. 48 studies from 15 different countries with a sample of 35804 employees of different companies were evaluated. The findings suggest the existence of 89 different variables influencing the intention to leave of employees in an organization. The results of this study will allow researchers to better understand the variables that can be studied to verify the impact of variables such as causal elements, but also see those that have a mediating effect between them for predicting intention to leave as an element of employee turnover. This study makes three important contributions to literature of turnover. First, in this study all the parameters associated with the intention to leave were checked. Second, this study categorizes and displays in proportion relevant interests to the scientific community whom studying employee turnover across the intention to leave. And thirdly provides clues organizations to improve some of its structural and contextual features to control turnover.

  14. Assessing sufficient capability: A new approach to economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Paul Mark; Roberts, Tracy E; Barton, Pelham M; Coast, Joanna

    2015-08-01

    Amartya Sen's capability approach has been discussed widely in the health economics discipline. Although measures have been developed to assess capability in economic evaluation, there has been much less attention paid to the decision rules that might be applied alongside. Here, new methods, drawing on the multidimensional poverty and health economics literature, are developed for conducting economic evaluation within the capability approach and focusing on an objective of achieving "sufficient capability". This objective more closely reflects the concern with equity that pervades the capability approach and the method has the advantage of retaining the longitudinal aspect of estimating outcome that is associated with quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), whilst also drawing on notions of shortfall associated with assessments of poverty. Economic evaluation from this perspective is illustrated in an osteoarthritis patient group undergoing joint replacement, with capability wellbeing assessed using ICECAP-O. Recommendations for taking the sufficient capability approach forward are provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Entrepreneurship by any other name: self-sufficiency versus innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker Harris, Sarah; Caldwell, Kate; Renko, Maija

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship has been promoted as an innovative strategy to address the employment of people with disabilities. Research has predominantly focused on the self-sufficiency aspect without fully integrating entrepreneurship literature in the areas of theory, systems change, and demonstration projects. Subsequently there are gaps in services, policies, and research in this field that, in turn, have limited our understanding of the support needs and barriers or facilitators of entrepreneurs with disabilities. A thorough analysis of the literature in these areas led to the development of two core concepts that need to be addressed in integrating entrepreneurship into disability employment research and policy: clarity in operational definitions and better disability statistics and outcome measures. This article interrogates existing research and policy efforts in this regard to argue for a necessary shift in the field from focusing on entrepreneurship as self-sufficiency to understanding entrepreneurship as innovation.

  16. Parental leave: comparing children's hospitals with Fortune 500 companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A H; Gordon, E J; O'Connor, M E

    1998-07-01

    To identify parental leave policies and availability of support systems for new parents employed by children's hospitals and compare these benefits with those offered by Fortune 500 companies. Telephone or facsimile survey of all (n=118) children's hospitals and pediatric medical centers in the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions 1995 Directory of Members, and 118 geographically matched Fortune 500 companies. Policies for maternity and paternity leave, adoption benefits, and support services for new parents were compared. Ninety-four children's hospitals (80%) and 82 Fortune 500 companies (69%) responded to the survey. No difference in duration of maternity (P>.30) or paternity (P=.12) leave was found. Sixty-two companies (77%) classified maternity leave as short-term disability while 47 hospitals (50%) classified it as sick time (Pleave as short-term disability generally gives better benefits to employees with short duration of service, whereas classifying maternity leave as sick time usually favors employees with longer employment. Companies provided more financial support for adoption expenses (Ppaid or unpaid leave for adoption (P=.14). Hospitals provided more on-site day care (69% vs 42%; Pparental leave benefits than Fortune 500 companies; however, they offer better support systems for parents returning to work after the birth of a child.

  17. Pricing and crude oil self-sufficiency. [Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    How Canada should go about achieving crude oil self-sufficiency and who should develop Canada's petroleum resources are discussed. The degree of urgency and the level of commitment required by government, industry, and consumers are evaluated. What the price should be of Canadian crude oil and who should establish this price are also discussed. The economic aspects of investment, return, and taxation are also included. (DC)

  18. Information trimming: Sufficient statistics, mutual information, and predictability from effective channel states

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ryan G.; Mahoney, John R.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-06-01

    One of the most basic characterizations of the relationship between two random variables, X and Y , is the value of their mutual information. Unfortunately, calculating it analytically and estimating it empirically are often stymied by the extremely large dimension of the variables. One might hope to replace such a high-dimensional variable by a smaller one that preserves its relationship with the other. It is well known that either X (or Y ) can be replaced by its minimal sufficient statistic about Y (or X ) while preserving the mutual information. While intuitively reasonable, it is not obvious or straightforward that both variables can be replaced simultaneously. We demonstrate that this is in fact possible: the information X 's minimal sufficient statistic preserves about Y is exactly the information that Y 's minimal sufficient statistic preserves about X . We call this procedure information trimming. As an important corollary, we consider the case where one variable is a stochastic process' past and the other its future. In this case, the mutual information is the channel transmission rate between the channel's effective states. That is, the past-future mutual information (the excess entropy) is the amount of information about the future that can be predicted using the past. Translating our result about minimal sufficient statistics, this is equivalent to the mutual information between the forward- and reverse-time causal states of computational mechanics. We close by discussing multivariate extensions to this use of minimal sufficient statistics.

  19. Parental leave: the impact of recent legislation on parents' leave taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2003-02-01

    We use data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation to examine the impact of leave entitlements on unpaid leave usage by men and women after the birth of a child from 1991 to 1999. The results indicate that legislation providing the right to unpaid leave has not affected men's leave usage. The results for women are mixed: in some specifications, leave entitlements are associated with increased leave taking or longer leaves, but the results depend on how we define leave coverage. Our results point to the limited impact of unpaid leave policies and the potential importance of paid-leave policies.

  20. Reassessing Rogers' necessary and sufficient conditions of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jeanne C

    2007-09-01

    This article reviews the impact of Carl Rogers' postulate about the necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic change on the field of psychotherapy. It is proposed that his article (see record 2007-14630-002) made an impact in two ways; first, by acting as a spur to researchers to identify the active ingredients of therapeutic change; and, second, by providing guidelines for therapeutic practice. The role of the necessary and sufficient conditions in process-experiential therapy, an emotion-focused therapy for individuals, and their limitations in terms of research and practice are discussed. It is proposed that although the conditions are necessary and important in promoting clients' affect regulation, they do not take sufficient account of other moderating variables that affect clients' response to treatment and may need to be balanced with more structured interventions. Notwithstanding, Rogers highlighted a way of interacting with clients that is generally acknowledged as essential to effective psychotherapy practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Sufficient conditions for uniqueness of the weak value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressel, J; Jordan, A N

    2012-01-01

    We review and clarify the sufficient conditions for uniquely defining the generalized weak value as the weak limit of a conditioned average using the contextual values formalism introduced in Dressel, Agarwal and Jordan (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.240401). We also respond to criticism of our work by Parrott (arXiv:1105.4188v1) concerning a proposed counter-example to the uniqueness of the definition of the generalized weak value. The counter-example does not satisfy our prescription in the case of an underspecified measurement context. We show that when the contextual values formalism is properly applied to this example, a natural interpretation of the measurement emerges and the unique definition in the weak limit holds. We also prove a theorem regarding the uniqueness of the definition under our sufficient conditions for the general case. Finally, a second proposed counter-example by Parrott (arXiv:1105.4188v6) is shown not to satisfy the sufficiency conditions for the provided theorem. (paper)

  2. POLITICAL ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF RICE SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Nuryanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice self-sufficiency is an important programme in Indonesia. The programme has four major targets, i.e. increasing production, stabilizing prices and reserve stocks, and minimizing import. For that purpose, the government gave a mandate to a parastatal, namely National Logistic Agency (Bulog in implementing the rice policies. Some studies found that involvement of such a parastatal could lead to government failure in budget allocation. The study aimed to estimate social cost of rice self-sufficiency programme based on the implementation of rice instrument policies by Bulog. The study used the national annual data of 2002–2014 period. The method used was the political preference function model to estimate economic rent and dead-weight loss using rice price elasticity of demand and supply. The result showed that in terms of percentage of food security budget, the average of economic rent reached IDR 6.37 trillion per annum (18.54%, while the average of dead-weight loss amounted at IDR 0.90 trillion per annum (2.34%. It proved that rice self-sufficiency programme along with the involvement of Bulog was economically inefficient. The government should provide better agricultural infrastructure, review governmental procurement prices, and stop rice import policy to remedy market failure.

  3. [Studies on phenolic constituents from leaves of pineapple (Ananas comosus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Yi; Xing, Dong-ming; Wang, Jin-ping; Du, Li-jun

    2006-08-01

    To study the phenolic constituents of the leaves of pineapple. Chromatographic methods were used to isolate compounds from the leaves of pineapple and spectroscopic methods were used to identify the structures of the isolated compounds. 7 compounds, ananasate (1), 1-O-caffeoylglycerol (2), 1-O-p-coumaroylglycerol (3), caffeic acid (4), p-coumaric acid (5), beta-sitosterol (6) and daucosterol (7), were isolated from the leaves of pineapple. 1 was a new compound, and others were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  4. An Evaluation of Paid Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    This paper analyzes a labor market program which enables workers to leave employment temporarily with a compensation financed by the taxpayers. The main aim of the program was to increase the chances of the unemployed finding a job. However, the empirical analysis reveals a clear negative...... relationship between the unemployment rate and transition rates from employment into the paid leave scheme. Program participation is low, precisely in those labor market states, where the scheme has a potential to perform as a remedy by increasing the transition rate from unemployment to employment. Several...

  5. In Situ Dark Adaptation Enhances the Efficiency of DNA Extraction from Mature Pin Oak (Quercus palustris Leaves, Facilitating the Identification of Partial Sequences of the 18S rRNA and Isoprene Synthase (IspS Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csengele E. Barta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mature oak (Quercus spp. leaves, although abundantly available during the plants’ developmental cycle, are rarely exploited as viable sources of genomic DNA. These leaves are rich in metabolites difficult to remove during standard DNA purification, interfering with downstream molecular genetics applications. The current work assessed whether in situ dark adaptation, to deplete sugar reserves and inhibit secondary metabolite synthesis could compensate for the difficulties encountered when isolating DNA from mature leaves rich in secondary metabolites. We optimized a rapid, commercial kit based method to extract genomic DNA from dark- and light-adapted leaves. We demonstrated that in situ dark adaptation increases the yield and quality of genomic DNA obtained from mature oak leaves, yielding templates of sufficiently high quality for direct downstream applications, such as PCR amplification and gene identification. The quality of templates isolated from dark-adapted pin oak leaves particularly improved the amplification of larger fragments in our experiments. From DNA extracts prepared with our optimized method, we identified for the first time partial segments of the genes encoding 18S rRNA and isoprene synthase (IspS from pin oak (Quercus palustris, whose full genome has not yet been sequenced.

  6. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, C.; Attinger, D.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces.Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional

  7. Phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalstig, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Physiological and transport data support a symplastic pathway for phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Klein E, multigerm). The sulfhydryl inhibitor parachloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited uptake of [ 14 C]-sucrose added to the free space of developing leaves, but did not affect import of [ 14 C]-sucrose during steady-state 14 CO 2 labeling of a source leaf. The passively-transported xenobiotic sugar, [ 14 C]-L-glucose did not readily enter mesophyll cells when supplied through the cut end of the petiole of a sink leaf as determined by whole leaf autoradiography. In contrast, [ 14 C]-L-glucose translocated through the phloem from a mature leaf, rapidly entered mesophyll cells, and was evenly distributed between mesophyll and veins. Autoradiographs of developing leaves following a pulse of 14 CO 2 to a source leaf revealed rapid passage of phloem translocated into progressively higher order veins as the leaf developed. Entry into V order veins occurred during the last stage of import through the phloem. Import into developing leaves was inhibited by glyphosate (N-phosphomethylglycine), a herbicide which inhibits the aromatic amino acid pathway and hence protein synthesis. Glyphosate also stopped net starch accumulation in sprayed mature leaves, but did not affect export of carbon from treated leaves during the time period that import into developed leaves was inhibited

  8. An experimental study on drying kinetics of some herbal leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Ahmet; Aydin, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, thin-layer drying characteristics of some herbal leaves, mainly nettle and mint leaves, are investigated experimentally in a convective drier. Effects of the drying air parameters including temperature, velocity and relative humidity on the total drying time are determined. Initially, sorption isotherms of the dried leaves are determined for different temperatures and equilibrium relative humidity (e.r.h.). Experiments are conducted for air temperatures at 35, 45 and 55 deg. C, velocities at 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 m/s and, relative humidity values at 40%, 55% and 70%. In the ranges that covered, the values of the moisture diffusivity D eff are obtained between 1.744 x 10 -9 and 4.992 x 10 -9 m 2 /s for nettle leaves and 1.975 x 10 -9 and 6.172 x 10 -9 m 2 /s for mint leaves from the Fick's diffusion model. Using D eff , the value of E a is determined assuming the Arrhenius-type temperature relationship, which varies from 79.873 to 109.003 kJ/mol for nettle leaves and 66.873 to 71.987 kJ/mol for mint leaves

  9. An experimental study on drying kinetics of some herbal leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Ahmet; Aydin, Orhan [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    In this study, thin-layer drying characteristics of some herbal leaves, mainly nettle and mint leaves, are investigated experimentally in a convective drier. Effects of the drying air parameters including temperature, velocity and relative humidity on the total drying time are determined. Initially, sorption isotherms of the dried leaves are determined for different temperatures and equilibrium relative humidity (e.r.h.). Experiments are conducted for air temperatures at 35, 45 and 55 C, velocities at 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 m/s and, relative humidity values at 40%, 55% and 70%. In the ranges that covered, the values of the moisture diffusivity D{sub eff} are obtained between 1.744 x 10{sup -9} and 4.992 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for nettle leaves and 1.975 x 10{sup -9} and 6.172 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for mint leaves from the Fick's diffusion model. Using D{sub eff}, the value of E{sub a} is determined assuming the Arrhenius-type temperature relationship, which varies from 79.873 to 109.003 kJ/mol for nettle leaves and 66.873 to 71.987 kJ/mol for mint leaves. (author)

  10. Sufficiency and Duality for Multiobjective Programming under New Invexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchun Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A class of multiobjective programming problems including inequality constraints is considered. To this aim, some new concepts of generalized F,P-type I and F,P-type II functions are introduced in the differentiable assumption by using the sublinear function F. These new functions are used to establish and prove the sufficient optimality conditions for weak efficiency or efficiency of the multiobjective programming problems. Moreover, two kinds of dual models are formulated. The weak dual, strong dual, and strict converse dual results are obtained under the aforesaid functions.

  11. Pathogens in Sludge: A Case of Sufficient Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesilind, R. Aarne

    2003-07-01

    There is increasing pressure in many countries to strengthen the regulations controlling the land disposal of wastewater sludges. In this paper I argue that although there is little doubt that sludges from wastewater treatment contain pathogenic organisms, not only are there no data to show that such disposal is a public health problem, but I want to suggest that small doses of pathogens in the environment provide a ''sufficient challenge'' that actually enhances public health. There therefore seems little reason, from a public health standpoint, to pass stricter sludge disposal regulations. (author)

  12. LDR: A Package for Likelihood-Based Sufficient Dimension Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dennis Cook

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new mlab software package that implements several recently proposed likelihood-based methods for sufficient dimension reduction. Current capabilities include estimation of reduced subspaces with a fixed dimension d, as well as estimation of d by use of likelihood-ratio testing, permutation testing and information criteria. The methods are suitable for preprocessing data for both regression and classification. Implementations of related estimators are also available. Although the software is more oriented to command-line operation, a graphical user interface is also provided for prototype computations.

  13. Watch out for the leaves!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Now that autumn is here, dead leaves falling from the trees form a colourful carpet that is pleasing to the eye. However, the reality is less pleasant for pedestrians, since these leaves increase the risk of slipping and falling, especially when the ground is wet.   These conditions are also hazardous for two- and four-wheeled vehicles, whose grip on the ground can be severely reduced, thereby increasing the risk of them skidding out of control. Cyclists are among the most vulnerable road users when faced with these hazards. It is therefore essential to be alert to the dangers, which can be lessened by taking a few simple precautions such as moderating your speed and wearing suitable shoes. We also invite you to notify the Service Desk if you notice a road or pavement where there is a high concentration of dead leaves. The CERN Roads and Drainage Service will then ensure that the leaves are cleared in order to reduce the risk of accidents in the area.

  14. Nutrient resorption from seagrass leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, J.; Hemminga, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The resorption of nutrients (C, N and P) from senescent leaves of six seagrass species from nine different locations in tropical (Indonesia and Kenya), Mediterranean (Spain) and temperate (The Netherlands) regions has been investigated. Resorption was quantitatively assessed by calculating the

  15. The nutritional levels in leaves and fruits of fig trees as a function of pruning time and irrigation / Teores nutricionais em folhas e frutos de figueira, submetida a épocas de poda e irrigação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Tecchio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluating the nutritional content in leaves and fruits of the fg tree ‘Roxo de Valinhos’, pruned at different periods corresponding to the months of July, August, September and October in the years of 2004 and 2005, with and without the use of irrigation, in the county of Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. To achieve this objective, the adopted experimental design was in blocks with subdivided plots and 5 replications, in which plots corresponded to treatments with and without irrigation and subplots included prunings done in the above-mentioned four months. The levels of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Mn and Zn in leaves and fruits were evaluated in the two crop cycles. The results indicated no signifcant differences among macro and micronutrient levels in the leaves subjected to treatments with and without irrigation in the cycle 2004/05, except for cupper which showed higher level with the treatment including irrigation (6 mg kg-1. In the fruits, there was no difference, except for Zn, which also showed the highest levels (28 mg kg-1 with irrigation. In the crop cycle 2005/06, there were differences for N (40 g kg-1 and K (20 g kg-1 in the leaves, where the highest levels were observed with the treatment including irrigation. In the fruits, N had signifcant difference and its highest level was observed without irrigation (21 g kg-1. In relation to the pruning periods, signifcant differences were observed for Ca, Fe and Zn content in the leaves and Ca, K, Mg, S and Zn content in the fruits in the crop cycle 2004/05. In the cycle 2005/06, there were not differences among the levels of the evaluated nutrients in the leaves, and in the fruits there was difference for N, Ca and Cu.O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os teores nutricionais foliares e nos frutos de fgueira ‘Roxo de Valinhos’, podada em diferentes épocas, correspondentes aos meses de julho, agosto, setembro e outubro dos anos de 2004 e 2005, com e

  16. Paid parental leave supports breastfeeding and mother-infant relationship: a prospective investigation of maternal postpartum employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Rowe, Heather J; Fisher, Jane R W

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the association between the mother-infant relationship, defined as maternal-infant emotional attachment, maternal separation anxiety and breastfeeding, and maternal employment status at 10 months following first childbirth. Samples of employed, pregnant women, over 18 years of age and with sufficient English literacy were recruited systematically from one public and one private maternity hospital in Victoria. Data were collected by structured interview and self-report questionnaire in the third trimester, and at 3 and 10 months postpartum. Socio-demographic, employment, and breastfeeding information was collected. Participants completed standardised assessments of maternal separation anxiety and mother-to-infant emotional attachment. Of 205 eligible women, 165 (81%) agreed to participate and 129 (78%) provided complete data. A reduced odds of employment participation was independently associated with continuing to breastfeed at 10 months (OR=0.22, p=0.004) and reporting higher maternal separation anxiety (OR=0.23, p=0.01) when maternal age, education, occupational status and use of paid maternity leave and occupational status were adjusted for in analyses. Employment participation in the first 10 months postpartum is associated with lower maternal separation anxiety, and shorter breastfeeding duration. Paid parental leave has public health implications for mothers and infants. These include permitting sufficient time to protect sustained breastfeeding, and the development of optimal maternal infant attachment, reflected in confidence about separation from her infant. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. CANDU: Meeting the demand for energy self-sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    The success of the CANDU program can been seen quickly by examining the comparison of typical electricity bills in various provinces of Canada. The provinces of Quebec and Manitoba benefit b extensive hydro electric schemes, many of which were constructed years ago at low capital cost. In Ontario, the economic growth has outstripped these low cost sources of hydro power and hence the province has to rely on thermal sources of electricity generation. The success of the CANDU program is shown by the fact that it can contribute over a third of electricity in Ontario while keeping the total electricity rate comparable with that of those provinces that can rely on low cost hydro sources. Energy self-sufficiency encompasses a spectrum of requirements. One consideration would be the reliable supply and control of fuel during the operating life of a power plant: A greater degree of self-sufficiency would be obtained by having an involvement in the building and engineering of the power plant prior to its operation

  18. Vaccine procurement and self-sufficiency in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodle, D

    2000-06-01

    This paper discusses the movement toward self-sufficiency in vaccine supply in developing countries (and countries in transition to new economic and political systems) and explains special supply concerns about vaccine as a product class. It traces some history of donor support and programmes aimed at self-financing, then continues with a discussion about self-sufficiency in terms of institutional capacity building. A number of deficiencies commonly found in vaccine procurement and supply in low- and middle-income countries are characterized, and institutional strengthening with procurement technical assistance is described. The paper also provides information about a vaccine procurement manual being developed by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the World Health Organization (WHO) for use in this environment. Two brief case studies are included to illustrate the spectrum of existing capabilities and different approaches to technical assistance aimed at developing or improving vaccine procurement capability. In conclusion, the paper discusses the special nature of vaccine and issues surrounding potential integration and decentralization of vaccine supply systems as part of health sector reform.

  19. Revenue Sufficiency and Reliability in a Zero Marginal Cost Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A.

    2017-04-17

    Features of existing wholesale electricity markets, such as administrative pricing rules and policy-based reliability standards, can distort market incentives from allowing generators sufficient opportunities to recover both fixed and variable costs. Moreover, these challenges can be amplified by other factors, including (1) inelastic demand resulting from a lack of price signal clarity, (2) low- or near-zero marginal cost generation, particularly arising from low natural gas fuel prices and variable generation (VG), such as wind and solar, and (3) the variability and uncertainty of this VG. As power systems begin to incorporate higher shares of VG, many questions arise about the suitability of the existing marginal-cost-based price formation, primarily within an energy-only market structure, to ensure the economic viability of resources that might be needed to provide system reliability. This article discusses these questions and provides a summary of completed and ongoing modelling-based work at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to better understand the impacts of evolving power systems on reliability and revenue sufficiency.

  20. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leave schedule is a leave schedule that reduces an employee's usual number of working hours per workweek, or hours per workday. A reduced leave schedule is a change in the employee's schedule for a period of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. 825.202...

  1. When is there sufficient information from the Site Investigations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Munier, Raymond; Stroem, Anders; Soederbaeck, Bjoern; Almen, Karl-Erik; Olsson, Lars

    2004-04-01

    SKB has started site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at two different sites in Sweden. The investigations should provide necessary information for a licence application aimed at starting underground exploration. The investigations and analyses of them are supposed to provide the broad knowledge base that is required to achieve the overall goals of the site investigation phase. The knowledge will be utilized to evaluate the suitability of investigated sites for the deep repository and must be comprehensive enough to: Show whether the selected site satisfies requirements on safety and technical aspects. Serve as a basis for adaptation of the deep repository to the characteristics of the site with an acceptable impact on society and the environment. Permit comparisons with other investigated sites. Furthermore, the investigations are discontinued when the reliability of the site description has reached such a level that the body of data for safety assessment and design is sufficient, or until the body of data shows that the rock does not satisfy the requirements. These objectives are valid, but do not provide sufficient and concrete guidance. For this reason SKB has conducted this project which should acquire concrete guidance on how to judge when the surface based Site Investigation Phase does not need to continue. After a general assessment of the problem, the following specific objectives of the current work were identified: Demonstrate concretely how the assessed uncertainties in a Site Description based on a specific level of investigations, together with expected feedback from Safety Assessment and Engineering, can be used to decide whether the site investigations are sufficient - or need to continue. This demonstration will be based on a practical application of relevant aspects of decision analysis tools. Highlight and make concrete the type of feedback to be expected from Safety Assessment and Engineering and show how this feedback

  2. Abscisic acid biosynthesis in leaves and roots of Xanthium strumarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creelman, R.A.; Gage, D.A.; Stults, J.T.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Research on the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) has focused primarily on two pathways: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. The authors have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in 18 O 2 . It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of 18 O from 18 O 2 are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of 18 O incorporated increases with time. One 18 O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in 18 O 2 shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more 18 O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, 18 O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent that it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied 14 C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional 18 O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid

  3. Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in Leaves and Roots of Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, R A; Gage, D A; Stults, J T; Zeevaart, J A

    1987-11-01

    RESEARCH ON THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) HAS FOCUSED PRIMARILY ON TWO PATHWAYS: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. We have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in (18)O(2). It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of (18)O from (18)O(2) are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of (18)O incorporated increases with time. One (18)O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in (18)O(2) shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more (18)O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 (carotenoid numbering scheme) plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, (18)O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent than it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied (14)C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional (18)O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid.

  4. EVALUATION OF FOOD SELF-SUFFICIENCY OF THE REPUBLIC OF TATARSTAN DISTRICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Mansurov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the author's method for estimation of the level of food self-sufficiency for the main types of food products in the regions of Republic of Tatarstan. The proposed method is based on the use of analytical methods and mathematical comparative analysis to compose a final rating. The proposed method can be used in the system of regional management of agro-industrial complex on the federal and local level. Relevance. The relevance of this work is caused by on the one hand a hardening of foreign policy that may negatively impact on national food security, and on the other hand the state crisis of the domestic agricultural sector. All this requires the development of new approaches to regional agribusiness management. Goal. To develop a methodology is used to assess the level of food self-sufficiency. To rate the level of self-sufficiency in main types of foodstuff in regions of Republic of Tatarstan. Materials and Methods. Statistical data of the results of the AIC of the Republic of Tatarstan for 2016 was used for the study. Analytical methods, including mathematical analysis and comparison were used. Results. Based on the analysis of the present situation for ensuring of food security in Russia it was shown that now it is necessary to develop effective indicators identifying the level of self-sufficiency in basic food regions. It was also revealed that there are no such indicators in system of regional agrarian and industrial complex at present time. As a result of analysis existing approaches the author's method of rating the level of self-sufficiency of regions was offered. This method was adopted on the example of the Republic of Tatarstan. Conclusions. The proposed method of rating estimation of self-sufficiency for basic foodstuffs can be used in the regional agroindustrial complex management system at the federal and local level. It can be used to rank areas in terms of their self-sufficiency for basic foodstuffs. This

  5. Terpenoid constituents from leaves of Guarea kunthiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcez, Fernanda R.; Garcez, Walmir S.; Bazzo, Rita de Cassia; Silva, Ana Francisca G. da; Resende, Ubirazilda M.

    2004-01-01

    From leaves of Guarea kunthiana one new kaurene diterpene (ent-kaur-16-en-2-one) was isolated along with eight known diterpenes (ent-kaur-16-ene, ent-3α- and 3β-hydroxykaur-16-ene, kolavelool, kolavenol, kolavenal, ent-13-epi-manoyloxide and (-)-nephthenol), four sesquiterpenes (alismol, alismoxide, spathulenol and 4β,10α-aromadendranediol), polyprenol-12 and α- and δ-tocopherols. Kolavenal is reported for the first time as a natural product, as well as the occurrence of cembrane- and ent-kaurane-type diterpenes in the Meliaceae. (author)

  6. Nature exposure sufficiency and insufficiency: The benefits of environmental preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddon, John R; Durante, Salvatore B

    2018-01-01

    Increasing industrialization, urbanization, and a failure of many world leaders to appreciate the consequences of climate change are deleteriously impacting quality of life as well as diminishing the prospects for long term survival. Economic competitiveness and corporate profitability often pre-empt environmental concerns. The calving of an iceberg in Antarctica and the hurricane activity in the Caribbean during 2017 are unfortunate illustrations of the continuing escalation of environmental issues. We provide historical and current evidence for the importance of Nature Exposure (NE) and introduce the continuum Nature Exposure Sufficiency (NES) and Insufficiency (NEI). Insufficiency includes impoverished environments (e.g., slums and prisons) where nature exposure is very limited. Nature Exposure Sufficiency (NES) is an optimal amount of exposure to nature where many benefits such as reinvigoration can be obtained by everyone. NES also has several benefits for individuals with various health conditions such as arthritis, dementia, or depression. The benefits of NE are not just derivable from parks, forests, and other natural settings. Interiors of buildings and homes can be enhanced with plants and even pictures or objects from nature. Additionally, there is abundant evidence indicating that virtual and artificial environments depicting nature can provide substantial NE and therefore contribute to general wellbeing. Besides the difficulty in achieving cooperation amongst nations, corporations, and other collectives in developing and implementing long range plans to deal with climate change, there is also sometimes an aversion at the individual level whereby people are unwilling to experience nature due to insects and other discomforts. Such individuals are often averse to supplanting the comforts of home, even temporarily, with inadequate facilities that are seemingly less pleasant than their typical dwellings. We propose using the term Nature Exposure Aversion

  7. Artificial Self-Sufficient P450 in Reversed Micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruyuki Nagamune

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450s are heme-containing monooxygenases that require electron transfer proteins for their catalytic activities. They prefer hydrophobic compounds as substrates and it is, therefore, desirable to perform their reactions in non-aqueous media. Reversed micelles can stably encapsulate proteins in nano-scaled water pools in organic solvents. However, in the reversed micellar system, when multiple proteins are involved in a reaction they can be separated into different micelles and it is then difficult to transfer electrons between proteins. We show here that an artificial self-sufficient cytochrome P450, which is an enzymatically crosslinked fusion protein composed of P450 and electron transfer proteins, showed micelle-size dependent catalytic activity in a reversed micellar system. Furthermore, the presence of thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase promoted the P450-catalyzed reaction due to cofactor regeneration.

  8. The sufficiency assumption of the reasoned approach to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Trafimow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reasoned action approach to understanding and predicting behavior includes the sufficiency assumption. Although variables not included in the theory may influence behavior, these variables work through the variables in the theory. Once the reasoned action variables are included in an analysis, the inclusion of other variables will not increase the variance accounted for in behavioral intentions or behavior. Reasoned action researchers are very concerned with testing if new variables account for variance (or how much traditional variables account for variance, to see whether they are important, in general or with respect to specific behaviors under investigation. But this approach tacitly assumes that accounting for variance is highly relevant to understanding the production of variance, which is what really is at issue. Based on the variance law, I question this assumption.

  9. Are emotions necessary and sufficient for making moral judgments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Sousa Alves

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2013v12n1p113 Jesse Prinz (2006, 2007 claimed that emotions are necessary and sufficient for moral judgments. First of all, I clarify what this claim amounts to. The view that he labels emotionism will then be critically assessed. Prinz marshals empirical findings to defend a series of increasingly strong theses about how emotions are essential for moral judgments. I argue that the empirical support upon which his arguments are based is not only insufficient, but it even suggests otherwise, if properly interpreted. My criticism is then extended to his sentimentalist theory, that accounts for how emotions are integrated into moral judgments. The central problem is that Prinz’s view fails to capture the rational aspect of moral evaluation. I make this failure explicit and defend that some version or other of neosentimentalism is a more promising route.

  10. Hindbrain ghrelin receptor signaling is sufficient to maintain fasting glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Scott

    Full Text Available The neuronal coordination of metabolic homeostasis requires the integration of hormonal signals with multiple interrelated central neuronal circuits to produce appropriate levels of food intake, energy expenditure and fuel availability. Ghrelin, a peripherally produced peptide hormone, circulates at high concentrations during nutrient scarcity. Ghrelin promotes food intake, an action lost in ghrelin receptor null mice and also helps maintain fasting blood glucose levels, ensuring an adequate supply of nutrients to the central nervous system. To better understand mechanisms of ghrelin action, we have examined the roles of ghrelin receptor (GHSR expression in the mouse hindbrain. Notably, selective hindbrain ghrelin receptor expression was not sufficient to restore ghrelin-stimulated food intake. In contrast, the lowered fasting blood glucose levels observed in ghrelin receptor-deficient mice were returned to wild-type levels by selective re-expression of the ghrelin receptor in the hindbrain. Our results demonstrate the distributed nature of the neurons mediating ghrelin action.

  11. STUDY OF ORGANIC ACIDS IN ALMOND LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenchyk L.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Almond (Amygdalus communis is a stone fruit, from the Rosaceae family, closest to the peach. It is spread throughout the entire Mediterranean region and afterwards to the Southwestern USA, Northern Africa, Turkey, Iran, Australia and South Africa. It is sensitive to wet conditions, and therefore is not grown in wet climates. Iran is located in the semi-arid region of the world. Because of its special tolerance to water stress, almond is one of the main agricultural products in rainfed condition in Iran. Almond leaves have been investigated for their phenolic content and antioxidant activity. It was found that total antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds exhibited variations according to season, plant organ (leaf and stem and variety. Analysis of previous research on almonds focused on investigating compounds mostly in seeds and phenolic compounds in leaves, but organic acids in leaves have not been studied. Aim of this study was investigation of organic acids in leaves of almond variety which is distributed in Razavi Khorasan province of Iran. Materials and Methods. In August 2012 almond leaves were collected in Iran, dried and grinded. The study of qualitative composition and quantitative determination of carboxylic acids in almond leaves was carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. For determination organic acids content, to 50 mg of dried plant material in 2 ml vial internal standard (50 μg of tridecane in hexane was added and filled up with 1.0 ml of methylating agent (14 % BCl3 in methanol, Supelco 3-3033. The mixture was kept in a sealed vial during 8 hours at 65 °C. At this time fatty oil was fully extracted, and hydrolyzed into its constituent fatty acids and their methylation was done. At the same time free organic and phenolcarbonic acids were methylated too. The reaction mixture was poured from the plant material sediment and was diluted with 1 ml of distilled water. To extract methyl

  12. Rethinking work and family policy: the making and taking of parental leave in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, M; Litwin, A S

    2005-10-01

    Despite the continued increase in female participation rates, Australia remains one of only two developed nations in the world without a paid maternity leave scheme. While research interest and public policy debate about paid maternity leave entitlements continues, little is known about the actual utilization of the 52 weeks unpaid parental leave that is currently available to all employees. Moreover, research and policy debate on the availability and provision of paid paternity leave has only just begun. This paper argues that, given the gendered nature of employee entitlements, it is time to re-evaluate all aspects of parental leave policy in Australia. Using unique data from a national survey of Australian employees, the paper provides a statistical analysis of the use of unpaid parental leave and the availability of paid maternity leave. The paper models the availability of paid maternity leave to Australian employees as a function of demographic and organizational characteristics, including annual income, union status, and establishment size. A parallel analysis of the likelihood that an individual has used the unpaid parental leave provision is also provided. The results show that the existing unpaid parental leave provision is rarely used and that the current availability of paid maternity leave is inequitable. The paper discusses the conceptual and policy implications of these results and concludes that a re-thinking of parental leave policy in Australia is essential if gender inequities at work and in society are to be addressed.

  13. Leaf hydraulic conductance declines in coordination with photosynthesis, transpiration and leaf water status as soybean leaves age regardless of soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Anna M.; Ort, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis requires sufficient water transport through leaves for stomata to remain open as water transpires from the leaf, allowing CO2 to diffuse into the leaf. The leaf water needs of soybean change over time because of large microenvironment changes over their lifespan, as leaves mature in full sun at the top of the canopy and then become progressively shaded by younger leaves developing above. Leaf hydraulic conductance (K leaf), a measure of the leaf’s water transport capacity, can often be linked to changes in microenvironment and transpiration demand. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that K leaf would decline in coordination with transpiration demand as soybean leaves matured and aged. Photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g s) and leaf water potential (Ψleaf) were also measured at various leaf ages with both field- and chamber-grown soybeans to assess transpiration demand. K leaf was found to decrease as soybean leaves aged from maturity to shading to senescence, and this decrease was strongly correlated with midday A. Decreases in K leaf were further correlated with decreases in g s, although the relationship was not as strong as that with A. Separate experiments investigating the response of K leaf to drought demonstrated no acclimation of K leaf to drought conditions to protect against cavitation or loss of g s during drought and confirmed the effect of leaf age in K leaf observed in the field. These results suggest that the decline of leaf hydraulic conductance as leaves age keeps hydraulic supply in balance with demand without K leaf becoming limiting to transpiration water flux. PMID:25281701

  14. Fathers’ Leave and Fathers’ Involvement: Evidence from Four OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Maria C.; Adema, Willem; Baxter, Jennifer; Han, Wen-Jui; Lausten, Mette; Lee, RaeHyuck; Waldfogel, Jane

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several OECD countries have taken steps to promote policies encouraging fathers to spend more time caring for young children, thereby promoting a more gender equal division of care work. Evidence, mainly for the United States and United Kingdom, has shown fathers taking some time off work around childbirth are more likely to be involved in childcare related activities than fathers who do not take time off. This paper conducts a first cross-national analysis on the association between fathers’ leave taking and fathers’ involvement when children are young. It uses birth cohort data of children born around 2000 from four OECD countries: Australia, Denmark, the United Kingdom and the United States. Results show that the majority of fathers take time off around childbirth independent of the leave policies in place. In all countries, except Denmark, important socio-economic differences between fathers who take leave and those who do not are observed. In addition, fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when children are young. This study adds to the evidence that suggests that parental leave for fathers is positively associated with subsequent paternal involvement. PMID:28479865

  15. When is there sufficient information from the Site Investigations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Munier, Raymond; Stroem, Anders; Soederbaeck, Bjoern [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Almen, Karl-Erik [KEA Geo-konsult (Sweden); Olsson, Lars [Geostatistik AB, Tumba (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    SKB has started site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at two different sites in Sweden. The investigations should provide necessary information for a licence application aimed at starting underground exploration. The investigations and analyses of them are supposed to provide the broad knowledge base that is required to achieve the overall goals of the site investigation phase. The knowledge will be utilized to evaluate the suitability of investigated sites for the deep repository and must be comprehensive enough to: Show whether the selected site satisfies requirements on safety and technical aspects. Serve as a basis for adaptation of the deep repository to the characteristics of the site with an acceptable impact on society and the environment. Permit comparisons with other investigated sites. Furthermore, the investigations are discontinued when the reliability of the site description has reached such a level that the body of data for safety assessment and design is sufficient, or until the body of data shows that the rock does not satisfy the requirements. These objectives are valid, but do not provide sufficient and concrete guidance. For this reason SKB has conducted this project which should acquire concrete guidance on how to judge when the surface based Site Investigation Phase does not need to continue. After a general assessment of the problem, the following specific objectives of the current work were identified: Demonstrate concretely how the assessed uncertainties in a Site Description based on a specific level of investigations, together with expected feedback from Safety Assessment and Engineering, can be used to decide whether the site investigations are sufficient - or need to continue. This demonstration will be based on a practical application of relevant aspects of decision analysis tools. Highlight and make concrete the type of feedback to be expected from Safety Assessment and Engineering and show how this feedback

  16. Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Purple Leaves of Zijuan Tea (Camellia sinensis var. kitamura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxia Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant anthocyanin biosynthesis is well understood, but the regulatory mechanism in purple foliage tea remains unclear. Using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ, 815 differential proteins were identified in the leaves of Zijuan tea, among which 20 were associated with the regulation of anthocyanin metabolism. We found that the abundances of anthocyanin synthesis-related enzymes such as chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and anthocyanin synthetase, as well as anthocyanin accumulation-related UDP-glucosyl transferase and ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters in the purple leaves were all significantly higher than those in the green leaves. The abundances of the transcription factors bHLH and HY5, regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis at transcriptional level were also obviously higher in purple leaves than those in green leaves. In addition, bifunctional 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase and chorismate mutase in purple leaves were distinctly higher in abundance compared to green leaves, which provided sufficient phenylalanine substrate for anthocyanin synthesis. Furthermore, lignin synthesis was found to be reduced due to the lower abundances of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase 1, peroxidase 15 and laccase-6, which resulted in increase of intermediates flow into anthocyanin synthesis pathway. The physiological data were consistent with proteomic results. These four aspects of biosynthetic regulation contribute to anthocyanin accumulation in purple leaves of Zijuan tea.

  17. India's baseline plan for nuclear energy self-sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    India's nuclear energy strategy has traditionally strived for energy self-sufficiency, driven largely by necessity following trade restrictions imposed by the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) following India's 'peaceful nuclear explosion' of 1974. On September 6, 2008, the NSG agreed to create an exception opening nuclear trade with India, which may create opportunities for India to modify its baseline strategy. The purpose of this document is to describe India's 'baseline plan,' which was developed under constrained trade conditions, as a basis for understanding changes in India's path as a result of the opening of nuclear commerce. Note that this treatise is based upon publicly available information. No attempt is made to judge whether India can meet specified goals either in scope or schedule. In fact, the reader is warned a priori that India's delivery of stated goals has often fallen short or taken a significantly longer period to accomplish. It has been evident since the early days of nuclear power that India's natural resources would determine the direction of its civil nuclear power program. It's modest uranium but vast thorium reserves dictated that the country's primary objective would be thorium utilization. Estimates of India's natural deposits vary appreciably, but its uranium reserves are known to be extremely limited, totaling approximately 80,000 tons, on the order of 1% of the world's deposits; and nominally one-third of this ore is of very low uranium concentration. However, India's roughly 300,000 tons of thorium reserves account for approximately 30% of the world's total. Confronted with this reality, the future of India's nuclear power industry is strongly dependent on the development of a thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle as the only way to insure a stable, sustainable, and autonomous program. The path to India's nuclear energy self-sufficiency was first outlined in a seminal paper by Drs. H. J. Bhabha and N. B. Prasad presented at the Second

  18. Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000867.htm Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... once you leave. This is called a discharge plan. Your health care providers at the hospital will ...

  19. Childcare and the division of parental leave

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Despite several policies aimed at increasing fathers' participation in the caring of children, Swedish mothers still use the bulk of the paid parental leave which may have several negative consequences for the family e.g. in terms of weaker labor market attachment for the mother. Division of parental leave is likely affected by how parents value the costs associated with parental leave. I investigate whether a reduction in the care burden, or a decreased non-monetary cost, of parental leave t...

  20. On necessity and sufficiency in counseling and psychotherapy (revisited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Arnold A

    2007-09-01

    It seems to me that Carl Rogers (see record 2007-14639-002) was far too ambitious in trying to specify general conditions of necessity and sufficiency that would be relevant to the entire spectrum of problems and the diverse expectancies and personalities of the people who seek our help. Rogers' position and orientation almost totally overlook the array of problems under the rubric of "response deficits" that stem from misinformation and missing information and call for active correction, training, and retraining. Rogers also paid scant attention to problems with significant biological determinants. Nevertheless, as exemplified by his seminal 1957 article and many other articles and books, Rogers made major contributions within the domain of the therapeutic alliance. Today, the scientific emphasis looks at accountability, the need to establish various treatments of choice, and the need to understand their presumed mechanisms. Treatment efficacy and generalizability across different methodologies are now considered key issues. The efficacy narrowing and clinically self-limiting consequences of adhering to one particular school of thought are now self-evident to most. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Arterial stiffening provides sufficient explanation for primary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas H Pettersen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the most common age-related chronic disorders, and by predisposing individuals for heart failure, stroke, and kidney disease, it is a major source of morbidity and mortality. Its etiology remains enigmatic despite intense research efforts over many decades. By use of empirically well-constrained computer models describing the coupled function of the baroreceptor reflex and mechanics of the circulatory system, we demonstrate quantitatively that arterial stiffening seems sufficient to explain age-related emergence of hypertension. Specifically, the empirically observed chronic changes in pulse pressure with age and the impaired capacity of hypertensive individuals to regulate short-term changes in blood pressure arise as emergent properties of the integrated system. The results are consistent with available experimental data from chemical and surgical manipulation of the cardio-vascular system. In contrast to widely held opinions, the results suggest that primary hypertension can be attributed to a mechanogenic etiology without challenging current conceptions of renal and sympathetic nervous system function.

  2. Evolution favors protein mutational robustness in sufficiently large populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venturelli Ophelia S

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important question is whether evolution favors properties such as mutational robustness or evolvability that do not directly benefit any individual, but can influence the course of future evolution. Functionally similar proteins can differ substantially in their robustness to mutations and capacity to evolve new functions, but it has remained unclear whether any of these differences might be due to evolutionary selection for these properties. Results Here we use laboratory experiments to demonstrate that evolution favors protein mutational robustness if the evolving population is sufficiently large. We neutrally evolve cytochrome P450 proteins under identical selection pressures and mutation rates in populations of different sizes, and show that proteins from the larger and thus more polymorphic population tend towards higher mutational robustness. Proteins from the larger population also evolve greater stability, a biophysical property that is known to enhance both mutational robustness and evolvability. The excess mutational robustness and stability is well described by mathematical theory, and can be quantitatively related to the way that the proteins occupy their neutral network. Conclusion Our work is the first experimental demonstration of the general tendency of evolution to favor mutational robustness and protein stability in highly polymorphic populations. We suggest that this phenomenon could contribute to the mutational robustness and evolvability of viruses and bacteria that exist in large populations.

  3. Powerful Statistical Inference for Nested Data Using Sufficient Summary Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowding, Irene; Haufe, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Hierarchically-organized data arise naturally in many psychology and neuroscience studies. As the standard assumption of independent and identically distributed samples does not hold for such data, two important problems are to accurately estimate group-level effect sizes, and to obtain powerful statistical tests against group-level null hypotheses. A common approach is to summarize subject-level data by a single quantity per subject, which is often the mean or the difference between class means, and treat these as samples in a group-level t-test. This “naive” approach is, however, suboptimal in terms of statistical power, as it ignores information about the intra-subject variance. To address this issue, we review several approaches to deal with nested data, with a focus on methods that are easy to implement. With what we call the sufficient-summary-statistic approach, we highlight a computationally efficient technique that can improve statistical power by taking into account within-subject variances, and we provide step-by-step instructions on how to apply this approach to a number of frequently-used measures of effect size. The properties of the reviewed approaches and the potential benefits over a group-level t-test are quantitatively assessed on simulated data and demonstrated on EEG data from a simulated-driving experiment. PMID:29615885

  4. Predator confusion is sufficient to evolve swarming behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Randal S; Hintze, Arend; Dyer, Fred C; Knoester, David B; Adami, Christoph

    2013-08-06

    Swarming behaviours in animals have been extensively studied owing to their implications for the evolution of cooperation, social cognition and predator-prey dynamics. An important goal of these studies is discerning which evolutionary pressures favour the formation of swarms. One hypothesis is that swarms arise because the presence of multiple moving prey in swarms causes confusion for attacking predators, but it remains unclear how important this selective force is. Using an evolutionary model of a predator-prey system, we show that predator confusion provides a sufficient selection pressure to evolve swarming behaviour in prey. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the evolutionary effect of predator confusion on prey could in turn exert pressure on the structure of the predator's visual field, favouring the frontally oriented, high-resolution visual systems commonly observed in predators that feed on swarming animals. Finally, we provide evidence that when prey evolve swarming in response to predator confusion, there is a change in the shape of the functional response curve describing the predator's consumption rate as prey density increases. Thus, we show that a relatively simple perceptual constraint--predator confusion--could have pervasive evolutionary effects on prey behaviour, predator sensory mechanisms and the ecological interactions between predators and prey.

  5. Syndesmotic Malreduction after Ankle ORIF; Is Radiography Sufficient?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Manafi Rasi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Ankle fractures, especially those resulting from external rotation mechanisms are associated with injury to the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. Some authors have recommended performing CT scanning after open ankle surgery to evaluate the reduction of syndesmosis. In this current study, we aimed to investigate the sensitivity of plain radiography in diagnosing syndesmosis malreduction after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF in patients with ankle fractures.   Methods: Thirty patients with ankle fractures participated in this prospective study. ORIFs were performed with respect to all of the technical guidelines shown in orthopedic literature for exact syndesmosis reduction, such as fibular length and proper settings. In the operating room, plain radiography was performed in anteroposterior, mortise and lateral views to assess whether syndesmosis was malreduced. If malreduction was detected, the patient was revised. As the gold standard, patients underwent postoperative bilateral CT scanning to investigate the syndesmosis reduction which was then compared to the healthy side. Finally, the sensitivity of plain radiography in the diagnosis of syndesmosis malreduction was determined by comparing this method to CT scanning. Results: In both of the methods we did not find any patient with syndesmosis malreduction. Hence, the sensitivity of plain radiography was determined 100%. Conclusion: Based on our findings, there is no need to perform CT scanning to evaluate syndesmosis reduction after ankle ORIF in patients with ankle fractures. Plain radiography is sufficient and has satisfactory sensitivity in these patients.

  6. Syndesmotic Malreduction after Ankle ORIF; Is Radiography Sufficient?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Manafi Rasi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ankle fractures, especially those resulting from external rotation mechanisms are associated with injury to the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. Some authors have recommended performing CT scanning after open ankle surgery to evaluate the reduction of syndesmosis. In this current study, we aimed to investigate the sensitivity of plain radiography in diagnosing syndesmosis malreduction after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF in patients with ankle fractures.   Methods: Thirty patients with ankle fractures participated in this prospective study. ORIFs were performed with respect to all of the technical guidelines shown in orthopedic literature for exact syndesmosis reduction, such as fibular length and proper settings. In the operating room, plain radiography was performed in anteroposterior, mortise and lateral views to assess whether syndesmosis was malreduced. If malreduction was detected, the patient was revised. As the gold standard, patients underwent postoperative bilateral CT scanning to investigate the syndesmosis reduction which was then compared to the healthy side. Finally, the sensitivity of plain radiography in the diagnosis of syndesmosis malreduction was determined by comparing this method to CT scanning. Results: In both of the methods we did not find any patient with syndesmosis malreduction. Hence, the sensitivity of plain radiography was determined 100%. Conclusion: Based on our findings, there is no need to perform CT scanning to evaluate syndesmosis reduction after ankle ORIF in patients with ankle fractures. Plain radiography is sufficient and has satisfactory sensitivity in these patients.

  7. The CCCTB Rules on Leaving a Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Streek, J.

    2012-01-01

    The consolidation system proposed in the draft of the CCCTB Directive puts relationships between Member States on edge. This is clearly apparent in the rules that apply when a company leaves a group. In this article the leaving rules are examined. Although the leaving rules are claimed to be

  8. Sugar beet leaves for functional ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    Plant leaves are recognised as a potential source for food applications based on their nutritional profile and interesting technological properties of leaf components, and based on the large availability of plant leaves in agricultural waste streams. Besides proteins, leaves have a rich

  9. Compassionate Care Leave & Benefits. CAUT Briefing Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Compassionate care leave and benefits were introduced in 2003/04 to help employees cope with this difficult work-life balance challenge. Employment Standards legislation and the Employment Insurance program (EI) were amended to provide leave without pay, with payment of EI benefits for compassionate care leave. Collective agreements have been…

  10. The Effect of Paid Leave on Maternal Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Bidisha

    2018-06-07

    Objectives I examined the relationship between paid maternity leave and maternal mental health among women returning to work within 12 weeks of childbirth, after 12 weeks, and those returning specifically to full-time work within 12 weeks of giving birth. Methods I used data from 3850 women who worked full-time before childbirth from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. I utilized propensity score matching techniques to address selection bias. Mental health was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale, with high scores indicating greater depressive symptoms. Results Returning to work after giving birth provided psychological benefits to women who used to work full-time before childbirth. The average CESD score of women who returned to work was 0.15 standard deviation (p leave, on the other hand, was associated with adverse effects on mental health. The average CESD score of women who returned within 12 weeks of giving birth was 0.13 standard deviation higher (p leave was associated with an improved mental health outcome. Among all women who returned to work within 12 weeks of childbirth, those women who received some paid leave had a 0.17 standard deviation (p leave.

  11. The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change: Reactions to Rogers' 1957 article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samstag, Lisa Wallner

    2007-09-01

    Carl Rogers' article (see record 2007-14639-002) on the necessary and sufficient conditions for personality change has had a significant impact on the field of psychotherapy and psychotherapy research. He emphasized the client as arbiter of his or her own subjective experience and tested his hypothesized therapist-offered conditions of change using recorded sessions. This aided in demystifying the therapeutic process and led to a radical shift in the listening stance of the therapist. I briefly outline my views regarding the influence of the ideas presented in this work, describe the intellectual and cultural context of the times, and discuss a number of ways in which the therapist-offered conditions for psychological transformation are neither necessary nor sufficient. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Monteiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF among working women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Results: Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Conclusion: Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months. Resumo: Objetivos: Descrever perfil das mulheres com filhos menores de 4 meses residentes nas capitais brasileiras e no Distrito Federal segundo situação de trabalho e analisar a influência da licença-maternidade sobre o aleitamento materno exclusivo entre as mulheres trabalhadoras. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com dados extraídos da II Pesquisa Nacional de Prevalência do Aleitamento Materno realizada em 2008

  13. Retrocausal Effects as a Consequence of Quantum Mechanics Refined to Accommodate the Principle of Sufficient Reason

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-05-10

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  14. Retrocausal Effects as a Consequence of Quantum Mechanics Refined to Accommodate the Principle of Sufficient Reason

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-01-01

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  15. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. National Energy Plan 1997 - 2010; Sustainable Energy self-sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present revision of the PEN consists of two parts, a diagnosis and a strategy. In the diagnosis; the evolution and the changes are analyzed foreseen in the international and national environments to establish the form like the energy sector is affected and it responds to these conditions. In second part it revises the strategy to incorporate the required adjustments of agreement with the changes in the environment, the demand perspectives and sector and national politics limits. In the international thing, the process of transformation of the system economic World cup will contribute to strengthen the liberalization actions, deregulation and privatization of the economies of the development countries. Great part of the dynamics growth, will be sustained then in the private investment and in an atmosphere of global competition. The formation of regional blocks opens favorable perspectives for new cooperation forms and development of resources. In the case of the American hemisphere and with reference to the energy sector, one has an important potential to improve the self-sufficiency starting from regional supplies, especially starting from fossil resources. This expectation is important for Colombia that has well-known reservations and important potentials in these resources. The tendencies waited in the fossil resources are more favorable for the countries than they can have reservations and growing production of petroleum and of natural gas. Nevertheless, the development of the coal maintains favorable expectations, but with important requirements as for efficiency and quality in the production that it guarantee the positioning in a more and more concerned market. In the environmental thing, the growth foreseen in the consumption of fossil fuels also bears to the increment in the 2010 in the greenhouse gases, at levels between 36% and 49% superiors to those of 1990. That most of this increment will originate in the in the development countries and

  17. Working memory maintenance is sufficient to reduce state anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderston, Nicholas L; Quispe-Escudero, David; Hale, Elizabeth; Davis, Andrew; O'Connell, Katherine; Ernst, Monique; Grillon, Christian

    2016-11-01

    According to the attentional control theory (ACT) proposed by Eysenck and colleagues, anxiety interferes with cognitive processing by prioritizing bottom-up attentional processes over top-down attentional processes, leading to competition for access to limited resources in working memory, particularly the central executive (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, ). However, previous research using the n-back working memory task suggests that working memory load also reduces state anxiety. Assuming that similar mechanisms underlie the effect of anxiety on cognition, and the effect of cognition on anxiety, one possible implication of the ACT would suggest that the reduction of state anxiety with increasing working memory load is driven by activation of central executive attentional control processes. We tested this hypothesis using the Sternberg working memory paradigm, where maintenance processes can be isolated from central executive processes (Altamura et al., ; Sternberg, ). Consistent with the n-back results, subjects showed decreased state anxiety during the maintenance period of high-load trials relative to low-load trials, suggesting that maintenance processes alone are sufficient to achieve this state anxiety reduction. Given that the Sternberg task does not require central executive engagement, these results are not consistent with an implication of the ACT where the cognition/anxiety relationship and anxiety/cognition relationship are mediated by similar central executive mechanisms. Instead, we propose an extension of the ACT such that engaging working memory maintenance suppresses state anxiety in a load-dependent manner. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the efficacy of this effect may moderate the effect of trait anxiety on cognition. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these "cultural universals" is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of

  19. Empowering people. Alleviating poverty through self-sufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahariya, R

    1993-03-01

    Highlights from an interview with Benjamin D. de Leon, who was appointed Presidential Assistant for Social Development in the Philippines in September 1992, are presented. Mr. de Leon's concern for the marginal sectors of society in health, employment, housing, social welfare, and manpower training as well as his goals of poverty alleviation and people empowerment account for this appointment. Duties include formulating a social development agenda; assisting the Social Development Committee of the Cabinet and the National Economic Development Authority (NEDA) in program implementation; and providing weekly information packages about family planning (FP), health, children, women, and the environment. The social development agenda of the Philippine Medium-term Plan (1992-1998) includes employment, income, wages; population, health and nutrition, and family planning; and housing, education, manpower development, social welfare, and community development. The Plan recognizes that poverty is aggravated by rapid population growth, and it strives to ensure that adolescents, military males, high-risk women, and young unmarried couples receive FP information and services from government agencies and nongovernmental organizations. Adequate resources for population and FP as well as recognizing the relationship among population, resources, and the environment are essential to meet the goals of the plan. The present population and FP policy is based on the 1987 Constitution, which spells out responsible parenthood but also rejects abortion as a method of contraception. The official FP program calls for child survival and safe motherhood and accessible, available, and affordable FP services. The Roman Catholic Church opposes the program, since the Church promotes only the rhythm method, but the other religions approve of the program. Some priests and nuns did not object to the promotion of FP. Sufficient financial support from the international community for the Philippine

  20. Examining the Evolution of Paid Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladek, Carol

    While the United States continues to be the only developed nation without mandated paid maternity leave, U.S. employers are blazing their own trail for new parents. This article defines parental leave, explains what's driving the increased interest in paid parental leave among employers offering it and discusses how paid parental leave can benefit employers and employees alike. Finally, the author discusses why not all employers are offering these benefits as well as considerations for employers contemplating whether paid parental leave is right for them.

  1. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs. 630.1015 Section 630.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement...

  2. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104 Donations...

  3. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intermittent leave or working a reduced leave schedule to commence or end work mid-way through a shift, such as... per week, but works only 20 hours a week under a reduced leave schedule, the employee's ten hours of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced...

  4. Parental leave policies in graduate medical education: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Laura S; Lyon, Sarah; Garza, Rebecca; Butz, Daniel R; Lemelman, Benjamin; Park, Julie E

    2017-10-01

    A thorough understanding of attitudes toward and program policies for parenthood in graduate medical education (GME) is essential for establishing fair and achievable parental leave policies and fostering a culture of support for trainees during GME. A systematic review of the literature was completed. Non-cohort studies, studies completed or published outside of the United States, and studies not published in English were excluded. Studies that addressed the existence of parental leave policies in GME were identified and were the focus of this study. Twenty-eight studies addressed the topic of the existence of formal parental leave policies in GME, which was found to vary across time and ranged between 22 and 90%. Support for such policies persisted across time. Attention to formal leave policies in GME has traditionally been lacking, but may be increasing. Negative attitudes towards parenthood in GME persist. Active awareness of the challenges faced by parent-trainees combined with formal parental leave policy implementation is important in supporting parenthood in GME. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The effect of formal training of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR skills on medical students perceived self-sufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghaghi A

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experience of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in real clinical setting is not easily possible for all medical students. Purpose: To assess medical student perceived self-sufficiency on three procedural skill on internship courses after they had taken a training course in clerkship period. Methods: Forty three medical students who had attended a workshop on CPR, tracheal intubations and venopuncture answered the questionnaires on their perceived self-sufficiency in performing these procedures after serving a few months as interns. Results: The mean score for perceived self-sufficiency (PSS was 75.84 (±18.63.Thre were a high correlation between the score given for the applicability of training in real life situation and the stress reduction scores on first time performing the procedure. Conclusion: The high degree of correlation between PSS scores and applicability scores, may warrant the consideration of new methods in procedural skills. Keywords: SKILL TRAINING, CPR TRAINING, PERCEIVED SELF-SUFFICIENCY

  6. Sonic hedgehog in the notochord is sufficient for patterning of the intervertebral discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Suk; Lee, Chanmi; Harfe, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    The intervertebral discs, located between adjacent vertebrae, are required for stability of the spine and distributing mechanical load throughout the vertebral column. All cell types located in the middle regions of the discs, called nuclei pulposi, are derived from the embryonic notochord. Recently, it was shown that the hedgehog signaling pathway plays an essential role during formation of nuclei pulposi. However, during the time that nuclei pulposi are forming, Shh is expressed in both the notochord and the nearby floor plate. To determine the source of SHH protein sufficient for formation of nuclei pulposi we removed Shh from either the floor plate or the notochord using tamoxifen-inducible Cre alleles. Removal of Shh from the floor plate resulted in phenotypically normal intervertebral discs, indicating that Shh expression in this tissue is not required for disc patterning. In addition, embryos that lacked Shh in the floor plate had normal vertebral columns, demonstrating that Shh expression in the notochord is sufficient for pattering the entire vertebral column. Removal of Shh from the notochord resulted in the absence of Shh in the floor plate, loss of intervertebral discs and vertebral structures. These data indicate that Shh expression in the notochord is sufficient for patterning of the intervertebral discs and the vertebral column. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sustainability and energy self-sufficiency; overcoming the barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Abdel Galil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engendering more positive attitudes to renewable energy is by no means a simple feat. Renewable energy technologies are viewed as radical innovations which necessitate substantial changes in production and consumption patterns, hence often met with resistance from both institutions and individuals. Yet action is needed; global energy consumption is expected to rise by 41% and global carbon dioxide emissions by 29%, with most of the demand and rise coming from emerging economies (BP energy outlook 2035. Further, countries need to meet objectives of reduction of GHG under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Renewable energy share in the global energy mix needs to significantly increase in order to reach supply sufficiency, energy security, energy equity and environmental sustainability.Meeting demands of energy is critical for the economic and social development of any country; energy must be secure, accessible and affordable at all levels of society, and any negative impact of energy production and energy use on the environment must be minimized. Middle East energy consumption is expected to grow by 69% whilst production to grow by 32%, with 97% of demand still met by fossil fuels by the end of the 2035. Energy investment of $316 billion will be required in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA between 2015 and 2019 to meet its growing demand for power (Apicorp, 2014. Diversifying energy sources is indeed of interest in the MENA region, spurred by growing demand for power and desalinated water, fluctuating fuel price, GHG emission reduction targets, depleting fossil fuel reserves and advances in renewable energy technology. However, there are many barriers that hinder the adoption of renewable energy technologies worldwide, but more so in the MENA region. These barriers are political, economic, social and technological. With a focus on Europe and MENA, it can be said that these barriers have much in common albeit framing

  8. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Stein; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L; Maeland, Silje; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2015-03-01

    To explore general practitioners' (GPs') specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patients suffering from subjective health complaints. Focus-group study. Nine focus-group interviews in three cities in different regions of Norway. 48 GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 32-65), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certificates related to patients with subjective health complaints. The GPs identified some specific strategies that they claimed to apply when dealing with the question of sick leave for patients with subjective health complaints. The first step would be to build an alliance with the patient by complying with the wish for sick leave, and at the same time searching for information to acquire the patient's perspective. This position would become the basis for the main goal: motivating the patient for a rapid return to work by pointing out the positive effects of staying at work, making legal and moral arguments, and warning against long-term sick leave. Additional solutions might also be applied, such as involving other stakeholders in this process to provide alternatives to sick leave. GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick-leave negotiations has been suggested by others to enhance return to work, and should be further encouraged. However, specific effectiveness of this strategy is yet to be proven, and further investigation into the actual dealings between doctor and patients in these complex encounters is needed.

  9. ADJUNCTIVE THERAPY OF COMMUNITY-ACKUIRED PNEUMONIA: NECESSITY AND SUFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Savchenkova

    2016-01-01

      failures  at both the outpatient  and  inpatient, which  significantly increases the cost of treatment. From the standpoint of evidence-based medicine is justified by the  inclusion in the  treatment of communityacquired pneumonia, only a mucolytic drugs and indications NSAIDs as an antipyretic and analgesic short course. The use of most drugs of pathogenic therapy do not have the evidence base  and  the  efficiency of their  purpose can not  be considered reasonable. In this case, the analysis can serve as a basis for planning a set of measures for improvement of pharmacotherapy community-acquired pneumonia based on the principle of minimal sufficiency

  10. Intention to leave and employee turnover: expanding understanding of key antecedents in the modern workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Voigt, Emily Anne

    2017-01-01

    This research expanded understanding of the key antecedents of intention to leave and employee turnover in a sample of retail banking employees from a large Australian-based financial institution. In three empirical studies, this research provided unique insights into today‘s workforce and deepened understanding of how work related factors influence intention to leave and turnover. The first study compared the relationships between work attitudes and intention to leave for part-time and f...

  11. Low but Sufficient Anidulafungin Exposure in Critically Ill Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wanrooy, Marjolijn J. P.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Arends, Jan P.; Zijlstra, Jan G.; Werf, van der Tjip S.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    The efficacy of anidulafungin is driven by the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC ratio. Patients in intensive care may be at risk for underexposure. In critically ill patients with an invasive Candida infection, the anidulafungin exposure and a possible correlation with disease

  12. Flavonoids from leaves of Mauritia flexuosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma M. de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The chromatographic fractionation of the Mauritia flexuosa L. f., Arecaceae, leaves extract, a plant known by the name of buriti palm tree, resulted in the isolation of six flavonoids: tricin-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-6-C-arabinoside, 8-C-glucoside (isoschaftoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (nicotiflorine, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin, luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin and luteolin-6-C-glucoside (isoorientin. The flavonoids were found out and previously reported as constituents of the Arecaceae family plants, but the occurrence of C-glucoside flavonoids, in the species being analyzed, is described for the first time on this study. The structural elucidations of all of the isolated compounds were performed by means of the comparison of their spectral data (¹H and 13C NMR, UV and ESI-MS with those ones of the literature.

  13. Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth-Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2010-01-01

    Investments in children are generally seen as investments in the future economy. In this study I focus on time investments in children as I investigate the long-term educational effects on children of increasing parents' birth-related leave from 14 to 20 weeks using a natural experiment from 1984...

  14. Leave or Stay? Battered Women's Decision after Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinseok; Gray, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    Battered women's reasons for staying with or leaving their male partners are varied and complex. Using data from the Domestic Violence Experience in Omaha, Nebraska, a discrete-time hazard model was employed to examine a woman's decision based on four factors: financial independence, witness of parental violence, psychological factors, and the…

  15. Sufficient condition for confinement of static quarks by a vortex condensation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.; Petkova, V.B.

    1978-11-01

    We derive a sufficient condition for confinement of static quarks by a vortex condensation mechanism. It admits vortices that are thick at all times at the cost of constraining them to a finite volume Λi whose complement is not simply connected. The confining potential V(L) is estimated in terms of the change of free energy of a system enclosed in Λi which is induced by a change in vorticity (= singular gauge transformation applied to boundary conditions on deltaΛi). For Abelian gauge theories in 3 dimensions the confining Coulomb potential is reproduced as a lower bound. (orig.) [de

  16. Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, A. M.; Omar, A. A.; Harraz, F. M.; El Sohafy, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. leaves were subjected to extraction, fractionation and isolation of the flavonoidal compounds. Five flavonoidal compounds were isolated which are quercetin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinofuranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside. Quercetin-3-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside was isolated for the first time from the leaves. Fractions together with the isolates were tested for their antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial studies showed good activities for the extracts and the isolated compounds. PMID:20931082

  17. Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: evidence from maternity leave mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy, focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. We also look for impacts of the reform on self-reported indicators of maternal and child health captured in our data. For most indicators we find no effect.

  18. Don’t Leave U.S. Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Arellano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the pace at which Federal and State legislation were implemented to provide working parents and caregivers the ability to take time off for the birth or adoption of a child, to care for the elderly, sick or disabled family members, and others in need of care. Compared with many industrialized nations, the United States ranks alongside the least generous countries in terms of providing a balanced lifestyle between work and family life. For instance, the United States does not even provide national paid family leave. This article provides the history, purpose, and scope of the Family and Medical Leave Act, and later implementations of State programs. Furthermore, this article will present a brief survey of the paternal, maternal, and parental leave policies of other countries and will provide suggestions for changing existing federal policies to provide a more conducive family and work balance for employees.

  19. The chemical constituents from leaves of Acer saccharum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Hong

    2009-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents of leaves of Acer saccharum. The leaves of Acer saccharum were extracted by ethanol. The concentrated material was partitioned by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. After extracted by ethyl acetate, the extract was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and recrystallization. The compound structures were identified on the basis of spectral data and chemical methods. Seven compounds were isolated from the leaves of Acer saccharum. Their compound structures were identified as 3-keton-ursane,3beta-hydroxy-12-olean-12-en and 5-en-7-hydroxy-sitosterol. All the three compounds identified are isolated from this genus for the first time.

  20. Sick leave among home-care personnel: a longitudinal study of risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmström Eva B

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sick leave due to neck, shoulder and back disorders (NSBD is higher among health-care workers, especially nursing aides/assistant nurses, compared with employees in other occupations. More information is needed about predictors of sick leave among health care workers. The aim of the study was to assess whether self-reported factors related to health, work and leisure time could predict: 1 future certified sick leave due to any cause, in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group I and 2 future self-reported sick leave due to NSBD in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group II. Methods Study group I, comprised 443 female nursing aides/assistant nurses, not on sick leave at baseline when a questionnaire was completed. Data on certified sick leave were collected after 18 months. Study group II comprised 274 of the women, who at baseline reported no sick leave during the preceding year due to NSBD and who participated at the 18 month follow-up. Data on sick leave due to NSBD were collected from the questionnaire at 18 months. The associations between future sick leave and factors related to health, work and leisure time were tested by logistic regression analyses. Results Health-related factors such as previous low back disorders (OR: 1.89; 95% CI 1.20–2.97 and previous sick leave (OR 6.40; 95%CI 3.97–10.31, were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to any cause. Factors related to health, work and leisure time, i.e. previous low back disorders (OR: 4.45; 95% CI 1.27–15.77 previous sick leave, not due to NSBD (OR 3.30; 95%CI 1.33–8.17, high strain work (OR 2.34; 95%CI 1.05–5.23 and high perceived physical exertion in domestic work (OR 2.56; 95%CI 1.12–5.86 were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to NSBD. In the final analyses, previous low back disorders and previous sick leave remained significant in both study groups. Conclusion The results suggest a focus on previous low

  1. Paid Maternity Leave and Breastfeeding Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Kelsey R; Perrine, Cria G; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2016-09-01

    Despite the benefits of breastfeeding, rates in the United States are low. Shorter maternity leave is associated with lower initiation and shorter durations of breastfeeding; however, little is known about how paid maternity leave may influence breastfeeding rates. We used data from the 2006-2010 U.S. National Survey of Family Growth on the most recent birth to employed women who delivered a child within the previous 5 years. Separate multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe the associations between paid leave duration (0, 1-5, 6-11, ≥ 12 weeks, maternity leave not taken) and three outcomes: 1) breastfeeding initiation, 2) 6-month duration, and 3) 6-month duration among initiators. Twenty-eight percent of prenatally employed women received no paid leave. Women who received 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding compared to women with no paid leave (87.3% vs 66.7%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.83 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.23-6.48]). Similarly, women with 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to breastfeed at 6 months, compared to women with no paid leave (24.9% vs 50.1%, aOR 2.26 [95% CI 1.20-4.26]). Among women who initiated breastfeeding, having received 12 or more weeks' paid leave increased the odds of breastfeeding for 6 or more months; however, the association was not statistically significant in the adjusted model (aOR 1.81 [95% CI 0.93-3.52]). Employed women who received 12 or more weeks of paid maternity leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and be breastfeeding their child at 6 months than those without paid leave. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. [New cerebroside from leaves of pineapple].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Ping; Wang, Hong-Ying; Du, Li-Jun; Ding, Yi; Xing, Dong-Ming; Wang, Wei

    2007-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the leaves of pineapple. Chromatographic methods were used to isolate compounds from the leaves of pineapple and spectral methods were used to identify the structures of the isolated compounds. Compound 1 was isolated from the leaves of pineapple. It was identified as 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S, 3R, 4E, 11E)-2-[(2(R)-hydroxydocosanoyl) amido]-4, 11-hexadecanediene-1, 3-diol. Compound 1 was a new compound.

  3. Need for and use of family leave among parents of children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Paul J; Garfield, Craig F; Elliott, Marc N; Carey, Colleen; Eriksson, Carl; Schuster, Mark A

    2007-05-01

    Parents of children with special health care needs are especially vulnerable to work-family conflicts that family leave benefits might help resolve. We examined leave-taking among full-time-employed parents of children with special health care needs. We identified all children with special health care needs in 2 large inpatient/outpatient systems in Chicago, Illinois, and Los Angeles, California, and randomly selected 800 per site. From November 2003 to January 2004, we conducted telephone interviews with 1105 (87% of eligible and successfully contacted) parents. Among the sample's 574 full-time-employed parents, we examined whether leave benefits predicted missing any work for child illness, missing >4 weeks for child illness, and ability to miss work whenever their child needed them. Forty-eight percent of full-time-employed parents qualified for federal Family and Medical Leave Act benefits; 30% reported employer-provided leave benefits (not including sick leave/vacation). In the previous year, their children averaged 20 missed school/child care days, 12 doctor/emergency department visits, and 1.7 hospitalizations. Although 81% of parents missed work for child illness, 41% reported not always missing work when their child needed them, and 40% of leave-takers reported returning to work too soon. In multivariate regressions, parents who were eligible for Family and Medical Leave Act benefits and aware of their eligibility had 3.0 times greater odds of missing work for child illness than ineligible parents. Parents with >4 weeks of employer-provided leave benefits had 4.7 times greater odds of missing >4 weeks than parents without benefits. Parents with paid leave benefits had 2.8 times greater odds than other parents of missing work whenever their child needed them. Full-time-employed parents of children with special health care needs experience severe work-family conflicts. Although most have leave benefits, many report unmet need for leave. Access to Family and

  4. Extraction and identification of bioactive compounds from agarwood leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, N. Y.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Idham, Z.; Ruslan, M. S. H.; Aziz, A. H. A.; Irwansyah, N.

    2016-11-01

    Agarwood commonly known as gaharu, aloeswood or eaglewood have been used as traditional medicine for centuries and its essential oil also being used as perfumery ingredients and aroma enhancers in food products. However, there is least study on the agarwood leaves though it contains large number of biomolecules component that show diverse pharmacological activity. Previous study showed that the extracted compounds from the leaves possess activities like anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor and anti-helminthic. The main objectives of this research were to determine bioactive compounds in agarwood leaves; leaves extract and oil yield obtained from maceration and soxhlet extraction methods respectively. The maceration process was performed at different operating temperature of 25°C, 50°C and 75°C and different retention time at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. Meanwhile, various solvents were used to extract the oil from agarwood leaves using soxhlet method which are hexane, water, isopropanol and ethanol. The extracted oil from agarwood leaves by soxhlet extraction was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The results showed that the highest extract of 1.53% was obtained when increase the temperature to 75 °C and longest retention time of 120 minutes gave the highest oil yield of 2.10 % by using maceration. This is because at higher temperature enhances the solubility solute and diffusivity coefficient, thus increase the extract yield while longer retention time allow the reaction between solvent and solute occurred more rapidly giving higher extract. Furthermore, the soxhlet extraction using n-hexane as the solvent gave the highest oil yield as compared to other solvent due to the non-polar properties of n-hexane increase the efficiency of oil which is also non-polar to soluble in the solvent. In addition, the results also reported that the oil extracted from agarwood leaves contains bioactive compounds which are phytol, squalene, n-hexadecanoic acid and

  5. Nurses' leaving intentions: antecedents and mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Miyuki; Yamashita, Noriko; Oba, Keiko

    2008-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study to investigate how nurses' work values, perceptions of environmental characteristics, and organizational commitment are related to their leaving intentions. Nurse leaving is a serious international problem as it contributes to the nursing shortage that threatens the welfare of society. The characteristics of nurses, the work environment and nurses' feelings towards their jobs (or organizations) have an impact on their leaving intentions. A convenience sample of 849 Registered Nurses was recruited from three public hospitals in the central-west region of Japan during 2006 and 319 completed questionnaires were returned (response rate 39%). Data were analysed using regression analysis. Nurses' work values and their perceptions of their workplace environment interacted to influence leaving intentions. When there was a match between the importance nurses placed on being able to challenge current clinical practices and the number of the actual opportunities to do so, leaving intentions were low. When there was a mismatch, intention to quit the job became stronger. In addition, organizational commitment intervened between nurses' perceptions of the match in clinical challenges and leaving intention. Nurses' leaving intentions, deserve extensive exploration of their causes. Such exploration should include attending to both nurses' needs and organizational characteristics, investigating how the match between them could affect nurses' leaving intention, and exploring factors that intervene between nurses' perceptions of the match and leaving intention.

  6. Reducing sick leave of Dutch vocational school students: adaptation of a sick leave protocol using the intervention mapping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kroon, Marlou L A; Bulthuis, Jozien; Mulder, Wico; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; Anema, Johannes R

    2016-12-01

    Since the extent of sick leave and the problems of vocational school students are relatively large, we aimed to tailor a sick leave protocol at Dutch lower secondary education schools to the particular context of vocational schools. Four steps of the iterative process of Intervention Mapping (IM) to adapt this protocol were carried out: (1) performing a needs assessment and defining a program objective, (2) determining the performance and change objectives, (3) identifying theory-based methods and practical strategies and (4) developing a program plan. Interviews with students using structured questionnaires, in-depth interviews with relevant stakeholders, a literature research and, finally, a pilot implementation were carried out. A sick leave protocol was developed that was feasible and acceptable for all stakeholders. The main barriers for widespread implementation are time constraints in both monitoring and acting upon sick leave by school and youth health care. The iterative process of IM has shown its merits in the adaptation of the manual 'A quick return to school is much better' to a sick leave protocol for vocational school students.

  7. Abscisic acid biosynthesis in leaves and roots of Xanthium strumarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A.; Gage, D.A.; Stults, J.T.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1987-11-01

    Research on the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) has focused primarily on two pathways: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. The authors have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in /sup 18/O/sub 2/. It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of /sup 18/O from /sup 18/O/sub 2/ are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of /sup 18/O incorporated increases with time. One /sup 18/O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in /sup 18/O/sub 2/ shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more /sup 18/O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, /sup 18/O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent that it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied /sup 14/C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional /sup 18/O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid.

  8. Administrative circular n°3 (Rev. 2) – Home leave, travel to home station and assimilated leave and travel

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 3 (Rev. 2) entitled “Home leave, travel to the home station and assimilated leave and travel”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 11 October 2012 and entering into force on 1 January 2013, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department.   This circular is applicable to employed members of the personnel. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 3 (Rev. 1) entitled “Travel to the home station and home leave” of June 2002. The circular was revised in order to take into account the new status of Associate Member State and the fact that henceforth, home stations may be situated on territory outside of Europe. It is proposed to introduce a new system of determination of the benefits (Travel expenses, travel time and distance indemnity) granted in the context of home leave and supplementary journeys to the home station.  For t...

  9. Metabolism by grasshoppers of volatile chemical constituents from Mangifera indica and Solanum paniculatum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Clécio S; Ramos, Natália S M; Da Silva, Rodolfo R; Da Câmara, Cláudio A G; Almeida, Argus V

    2012-12-01

    The chemical volatiles from plant leaves and their biological activities have been extensively studied. However, no studies have addressed plant-chemical volatiles after undergoing the digestive process in host insects. Here we describe for the first time chemical profiles of volatile constituents from Solanum paniculatum and Mangifera indica leaves metabolized by grasshoppers. Both profiles were qualitatively and quantitatively different from the profiles of non-metabolized leaves. The amount of nerolidol, the major constituent of S. paniculatum leaves, decreased and other sesquiterpenes, such as spathulenol, were formed during the digestive process of the grasshopper Chromacris speciosa. In M. indica, the presence of phenylpropanoids was observed (dillapiole, Z-asarone, E-asarone and γ-asarone) in the leaves metabolized by the grasshopper Tropidacris collaris, but these compounds were not found in the non-metabolized leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The capital markets - will there be sufficient funds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silcock, J.

    1975-04-01

    Review of the specific requirements of nuclear finence, i.e. the financing problems that are unique to nuclear energy and the ways in which they might be solved. As the starting-point is the estimations given in 'Energy prospects to 1985' OECD 1974, and at the conference 'World Energy Finance', organised by the Financial Times and the Oil Daily. It is concluded that energy development represents the world's largest single financing problem, that nuclear finance represents the largest single sector for investment within the energy sector, and that it is subject to the same macro-economic constraints in the procurement of finance as the energy sector as a whole. However, nuclear finance has certain features that make it an even more difficult sector to finance than conventional energy sources. These difficulties can only be resolved through active government intervention, particularly in the field of debt equity ratios and tariff increases. (B.P.)

  11. Juggling work and breastfeeding: effects of maternity leave and occupational characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Kosa, Jessica Lang; Pearl, Michelle; Graham, Steve; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Juggling breastfeeding and paid work can challenge breastfeeding success. We examined the relationship between breastfeeding and maternity leave before and after delivery among working mothers in Southern California. California is 1 of only 5 states in the United States providing paid pregnancy leave that can be extended for infant bonding. Drawing from a case-control study of preterm birth and low birth weight, 770 full-time working mothers were compared on whether they established breastfeeding in the first month. For those who established breastfeeding, we examined duration. Eligible women participated in California's Prenatal Screening Program; delivered live births between July 2002 and December 2003; were > or =18 years old; had a singleton birth without congenital anomalies; and had a US mailing address. We assessed whether maternity leave and other occupational characteristics predicted breastfeeding cessation and used multivariate regression models weighted for probability of sampling to calculate odds ratios for breastfeeding establishment and hazards ratios for breastfeeding cessation. A maternity leave of leave on breastfeeding cessation was stronger among nonmanagers, women with inflexible jobs, and with high psychosocial distress. Antenatal leave in the last month of pregnancy was not associated with breastfeeding establishment or duration. Postpartum maternity leave may have a positive effect on breastfeeding among full-time workers, particularly those who hold nonmanagerial positions, lack job flexibility, or experience psychosocial distress. Pediatricians should encourage patients to take maternity leave and advocate for extending paid postpartum leave and flexibility in working conditions for breastfeeding women.

  12. Maternity leave in the ninth month of pregnancy and birth outcomes among working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Pearl, Michelle; Graham, Steve; Hubbard, Alan; Hosang, Nap; Kharrazi, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The health effects of antenatal maternity leave have been scarcely evaluated. In California, women are eligible for paid benefits up to 4 weeks before delivery. We explored whether leave at > or =36 weeks gestation increases gestation and birthweight, and reduces primary cesarean deliveries among full-time working women. Drawing from a 2002--2003 nested case-control study of preterm birth and low birthweight among working women in Southern California, we compared a cohort of women who took leave (n = 62) or worked until delivery (n = 385). Models weighted for probability of sampling were used to calculate hazards ratios for gestational age, odds ratios (OR) for primary cesarean delivery, and multilinear regression coefficients for birthweight. Leave-takers were similar to non-leave-takers on demographic and health characteristics, except that more clerical workers took leave (p = .02). Compared with non-leave-takers, leave-takers had almost 4 times lower odds of cesarean delivery after adjusting for covariates (OR, 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08-0.94). Overall, there were no marked differences in length of gestation or mean birthweight. However, in a subgroup of women whose efforts outstripped their occupational rewards, gestation was prolonged (hazard ratio for delivery each day between 36 and 41 weeks, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.34-0.93). Maternity leave in late pregnancy shows promise for reducing cesarean deliveries and prolonging gestation in occupationally strained women.

  13. Digital Mammography in Young Women: Is a Single View Sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossner, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Single view mammography may be a less time consuming, more comfortable and radiation reduced alternative for young women, but there are no studies examining this approach after the implementation of digital mammography into clinical practice. Retrospective analysis of all mammographies performed in women younger than 40 years during a 24 month period. The sample consisted of 109 women with 212 examined breasts. All patients initially received standard two- view mammography. In the study setting the MLO- views were read by a single viewer and compared to a composite reference standard. In this sample 7 malignant findings were present and the review of the MLO-view detected 6 of them (85%). In patients with dense breasts 4 out of 5 malignant findings were found on the single-view (sensitivity 80%) and all 2 malignant findings were detected in patients with low breast density (sensitivity 100%). There were 7 false positive findings (3.3%). i.e. in total 8 out of 212 examined breasts were therefore misinterpreted (3.8%). Single view digital mammography detects the vast majority of malignant findings, especially in low density breast tissue and the rate of false-positive findings is within acceptable limits. Therefore this approach may be used in different scenarios (for example in increasing patient throughout in resource poor settings, reducing radiation burden in the young or in combination with ultrasound to use the strengths of both methods). More research on this topic is needed to establish its potential role in breast imaging.

  14. Family Structure and Home-Leaving: A Further Specification of the Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    1991-01-01

    Investigated impact of childhood family structure on timing of home-leaving. Data from 1988 National Survey of Families and Households suggest that exposure to nonintact family living during childhood raises likelihood of home-leaving prior to age 19. Adopted children and children who lived in nonparental situations were most likely to leave…

  15. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    DIVISION HR

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programs) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave. They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave a...

  16. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programmes) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave.They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system 1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave...

  17. Antioxidant activity of Arbutus unedo leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabuçcuoğlu, A; Kivçak, B; Baş, M; Mert, T

    2003-09-01

    The ethanol and methanol extracts of Arbutus unedo leaves were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by an improved assay based on the decolorization of the radical monocation of [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (ABTS). The ethanol and methanol extract of A. unedo leaves displayed potent antioxidant activity.

  18. Grass leaves as potential hominin dietary resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Oliver C C; Koppa, Abigale; Henry, Amanda G; Leichliter, Jennifer N; Codron, Daryl; Codron, Jacqueline; Lambert, Joanna E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2018-04-01

    Discussions about early hominin diets have generally excluded grass leaves as a staple food resource, despite their ubiquity in most early hominin habitats. In particular, stable carbon isotope studies have shown a prevalent C 4 component in the diets of most taxa, and grass leaves are the single most abundant C 4 resource in African savannas. Grass leaves are typically portrayed as having little nutritional value (e.g., low in protein and high in fiber) for hominins lacking specialized digestive systems. It has also been argued that they present mechanical challenges (i.e., high toughness) for hominins with bunodont dentition. Here, we compare the nutritional and mechanical properties of grass leaves with the plants growing alongside them in African savanna habitats. We also compare grass leaves to the leaves consumed by other hominoids and demonstrate that many, though by no means all, compare favorably with the nutritional and mechanical properties of known primate foods. Our data reveal that grass leaves exhibit tremendous variation and suggest that future reconstructions of hominin dietary ecology take a more nuanced approach when considering grass leaves as a potential hominin dietary resource. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. When and Why Dropouts Leave High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Elizabeth; Glennie, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Teens may leave school because of academic failure, disciplinary problems, or employment opportunities. In this article, the authors test whether the reasons dropouts leave school differ by grade level and age. We compare dropout rates and reasons across grade levels and ages for all high school students, ethnic groups, and gender groups. Across…

  20. Energy self-sufficient sensory ball screw drive; Energieautarker sensorischer Kugelgewindetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays the availability of machine tools plays a decisive role in competition to increase in productivity. From state of the art it arises, that ball screw drives are the most abusive component in feed drives because of abrasive wear. Furthermore condition monitoring enables avoiding unplanned machine failure and increasing the availability of the deployed production facility. Thereby the application of additional sensors allows the direct acquisition of wear correlative measurements. To reduce the required effort for integration and increase the robustness, reliability and clarity in industrial environment energy self-sufficient sensor systems can be applied. In this thesis the development and investigation of an energy self-sufficient sensory ball screw drive with direct measurement of wear correlative pretension for condition monitoring application is described. The prototype measures the pretension with force sensors based on strain gauges. The sensor system includes microcontroller-based electronics for signal processing as well as wireless data transmission with ZigBee-standard. A hybrid system assures the energy supply of the sensor system. On the one hand a stepper motor generator produces electrical energy from the motion energy of the ball screw drive. On the other hand an energy buffer based on super caps is reloaded in stationary position by wireless energy transmission. For verification a prototype system is build up. In measurements the sensory and energetic characteristics of the energy self-sufficient sensor systems are analyzed. Moreover, the functionality of the ball screw drive as well as the signal characteristics of the force sensors are examined for different pretensions. In addition, pretension losses due to wear are established in realized endurance trials, which means that timely maintenance can be planned.

  1. Caregiver Leave-Taking in Spain: Rate, Motivations, and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogero-García, Jesús; García-Sainz, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to (1) determine the rate of (full- and part-time) caregiver leave-taking in Spain, (2) identify the reasons conducive to a more intense use of this resource, and (3) ascertain the main obstacles to its use, as perceived by caregivers. All 896 people covered by the sample were engaging in paid work and had cared for dependent adults in the last 12 years. This resource, in particular the full-time alternative, was found to be a minority option. The data showed that legal, work-related, and family and gender norm issues are the four types of factors that determine the decision to take such leaves. The most significant obstacles to their use are the forfeiture of income and the risk of losing one's job. Our results suggest that income replacement during a leave would increase the take-up of these resources. Moreover, enlargement of public care services would promote the use of leave as a free choice of caregivers.

  2. Sorption behavior of congo red on different plant leaves (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.I.; Mirza, M.L.; Zafar, S.; Khalid, N.

    2011-01-01

    Batch adsorption studies were carried out to evaluate the potential of different plant leaves (Bougainvillaea Glabra and Citrus Sinensis) for the removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution by optimizing different parameters such as effect of shaking time, adsorbent dose, initial adsorbate concentration, temperature etc. The experimental data was subjected to different types of isotherm models such as Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich. The maximum adsorption capacity was calculated and was comparable for both the leaves through Freundlich isotherm by using the optimized parameters of weight and time at room temperature. The sorption mean free energy from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm was also determined and compared. Pseudo-first and Pseudo-second order kinetics models were tested for the adsorption of Congo red on plant leaves powder. The experimental data fitted well for Pseudo-second order model. The uptake of Congo red was also studied with the variation of temperature. Thermodynamic parameters have been calculated. The results indicate that the plant leaves of Bougainvilia Glabra and Citrus Sinensis are efficient adsorbents for Congo red dye from aqueous solutions and can be used for wastewater management. (author)

  3. [Beneficial effect of maternity leave on delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Séguin, Louise; Goulet, Lise

    2002-01-01

    To identify the contribution of the duration of the prenatal maternity leave on term delivery. Characteristics of the prenatal maternity leave and delivery among 363 working women who had delivered a full-term infant at 1 of 4 hospitals in Montreal during 1996 were studied. The presence of an intervention or complication during delivery was observed in 68.9% of the participants. The average duration of the prenatal maternity leave was about 8 weeks (SD = 7). The adjusted risk of a difficult delivery decreased significantly with the duration of the prenatal maternity leave (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.99). The duration of the maternity leave before delivery is associated with an easier term delivery for working women.

  4. Soluble Sugars as the Carbohydrate Reserve for CAM in Pineapple Leaves : Implications for the Role of Pyrophosphate:6-Phosphofructokinase in Glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnal, N W; Black, C C

    1989-05-01

    Neutral ethanol-soluble sugar pools serve as carbohydrate reserves for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) leaves. Levels of neutral soluble sugars and glucans fluctuated reciprocally with concentrations of malic acid. Hexose loss from neutral soluble-sugar pools was sufficient to account for malic acid accumulation with about 95% of the required hexose accounted for by turnover of fructose and glucose pools. Hexose loss from starch or starch plus lower molecular weight glucan pools was insufficient to account for nocturnal accumulation of malic acid. The apparent maximum catalytic capacity of pyrophosphate:6-phosphofructokinase (PPi-PFK) at 15 degrees C was about 16 times higher than the mean maximum rate of glycolysis that occurred to support malic acid accumulation in pineapple leaves at night and 12 times higher than the mean maximum rate of hexose turnover from all carbohydrate pools. The apparent maximum catalytic capacity of ATP-PFK at 15 degrees C was about 70% of the activity required to account for the mean maximal rate of hexose turnover from all carbohydrate pools if turnover were completely via glycolysis, and marginally sufficient to account for mean maximal rates of acidification. Therefore, at low night temperatures conducive to CAM and under subsaturating substrate concentrations, PPi-PFK activity, but not ATP-PFK activity, would be sufficient to support the rate of glycolytic carbohydrate processing required for acid accumulation. These data for pineapple establish that there are at least two types of CAM plants with respect to the nature of the carbohydrate reserve utilized to support nighttime CO(2) accumulation. The data further indicate that the glycolytic carbohydrate processing that supports acidification proceeds in different subcellular compartments in plants utilizing different carbohydrate reserves.

  5. Local mandate improves equity of paid sick leave coverage: Seattle’s experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Romich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paid sick leave allows workers to take time off work for personal or family health needs, improving health and potentially limiting infectious diseases. The U.S. has no national sick leave mandate, and many American workers - particularly those at lower income levels - have no right to paid time off for their own or family members’ health needs. This article reports on outcomes of a local mandate, the City of Seattle Paid Sick and Safe Time Ordinance, which requires certain employers to provide paid sick leave to eligible workers. Methods Survey collectors contacted a stratified random sample of Seattle employers before the Ordinance went into effect and one year later. Pre- and post- analysis draws on responses to survey items by 345 employers who were subject to the paid sick leave mandate. Results Awareness of the policy and provision of paid leave grew significantly over the year after the Ordinance was enacted. More employers offered leave to full-time workers (80.8 to 93.9%, p < .001 and part-time workers (47.1 to 66.7%, p < .001 with particularly large increases in the hospitality sector, which includes food workers (coverage of any hospitality employee: 27.5 to 85.0%, p < .001. Conclusions Absent a federal policy, local paid sick time mandates can increase paid sick leave coverage, an important social determinant of health.

  6. Divergent Trends in US Maternity and Paternity Leave, 1994-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorsky, Jay L

    2017-03-01

    To determine the number and type of US workers taking maternity or paternity leave. We created a publicly available ecological long-term series for measuring parental leave from 1994 to 2015 by using the Current Population Survey, which interviews about 60 000 randomly selected households monthly. The average month from 1994 to 2015 saw 273 000 women and 13 000 men on maternity or paternity leave. Maternity leave rates per 10 000 births showed no trend over 22 years (mean = 677.6). Paternity figures increased by a factor of 3, but started from a small base (14.7-54.6). We observed no national impact on maternity or paternity leave after implementation of state laws that provided paid leave. About half (51.1%) of employees on maternity or paternity leave during 2015 received paid time off. The typical woman on maternity leave was older, more likely married, more likely non-Hispanic White, and more educated than the typical woman who gave birth. Although the US economy has expanded dramatically since 1994, this improvement does not appear to have translated into more women taking maternity leave.

  7. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO MEET BEEF SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN WEST PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hartono

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to present an alternative approach to meet beef self-sufficiency in West Papua, Indonesia. It mainly focuses on calculating the needed number of productive cows to enhance beef production in the province. Out of the total farmer households in Manokwari, Indonesia, 189 farmer-respondents were selected as samples of the study. Selection of the sample was based on the number of cattle kept in every age group (less than one (2 years old and the number of productive cows. Secondary data came from the time series data of the number of slaughtered cattle vis-à-vis the population of all districts in West Papua Province from 1980-2008. Data were analyzed using the Partial Adjustment Model (PAM and Ordinary Least Square (OLS method. Results of the study showed that beef self-sufficiency in West Papua depend on the availability of the number of productive cows to produce ready-slaughtered-bull in the previous year. Particularly for West Papua, to produce one unit of bull in the tth –year, with the assumption that cattle mortality is 4.92%, a number of 2.38 animal units AU of productive cows must be provided in the previous two (2 years.

  8. Scheduling of Crude Oil Operations in Refinery without Sufficient Charging Tanks Using Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan An

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A short-term schedule for crude oil operations in a refinery should define and sequence the activities in detail. Each activity involves both discrete-event and continuous variables. The combinatorial nature of the scheduling problem makes it difficult to solve. For such a scheduling problem, charging tanks are a type of critical resources. If the number of charging tanks is not sufficient, the scheduling problem is further complicated. This work conducts a study on the scheduling problem of crude oil operations without sufficient charging tanks. In this case, to make a refinery able to operate, a charging tank has to be in simultaneous charging and feeding to a distiller for some time, called simultaneously-charging-and-feeding (SCF mode, leading to disturbance to the oil distillation in distillers. A hybrid Petri net model is developed to describe the behavior of the system. Then, a scheduling method is proposed to find a schedule such that the SCF mode is minimally used. It is computationally efficient. An industrial case study is given to demonstrate the obtained results.

  9. Impaired Hedgehog signalling-induced endothelial dysfunction is sufficient to induce neuropathy: implication in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapouly, Candice; Yao, Qinyu; Vandierdonck, Soizic; Larrieu-Lahargue, Frederic; Mariani, John N; Gadeau, Alain-Pierre; Renault, Marie-Ange

    2016-02-01

    Microangiopathy, i.e. endothelial dysfunction, has long been suggested to contribute to the development of diabetic neuropathy, although this has never been fully verified. In the present paper, we have identified the role of Hedgehog (Hh) signalling in endoneurial microvessel integrity and evaluated the impact of impaired Hh signalling in endothelial cells (ECs) on nerve function. By using Desert Hedgehog (Dhh)-deficient mice, we have revealed, that in the absence of Dhh, endoneurial capillaries are abnormally dense and permeable. Furthermore, Smoothened (Smo) conditional KO mice clarified that this increased vessel permeability is specifically due to impaired Hh signalling in ECs and is associated with a down-regulation of Claudin5 (Cldn5). Moreover, impairment of Hh signalling in ECs was sufficient to induce hypoalgesia and neuropathic pain. Finally in Lepr(db/db) type 2 diabetic mice, the loss of Dhh expression observed in the nerve was shown to be associated with increased endoneurial capillary permeability and decreased Cldn5 expression. Conversely, systemic administration of the Smo agonist SAG increased Cldn5 expression, decreased endoneurial capillary permeability, and restored thermal algesia to diabetic mice, demonstrating that loss of Dhh expression is crucial in the development of diabetic neuropathy. The present work demonstrates the critical role of Dhh in maintaining blood nerve barrier integrity and demonstrates for the first time that endothelial dysfunction is sufficient to induce neuropathy. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Necessary and sufficient conditions for R₀ to be a sum of contributions of fertility loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueffler, Claus; Metz, Johan A J

    2013-03-01

    Recently, de-Camino-Beck and Lewis (Bull Math Biol 69:1341-1354, 2007) have presented a method that under certain restricted conditions allows computing the basic reproduction ratio R₀ in a simple manner from life cycle graphs, without, however, giving an explicit indication of these conditions. In this paper, we give various sets of sufficient and generically necessary conditions. To this end, we develop a fully algebraic counterpart of their graph-reduction method which we actually found more useful in concrete applications. Both methods, if they work, give a simple algebraic formula that can be interpreted as the sum of contributions of all fertility loops. This formula can be used in e.g. pest control and conservation biology, where it can complement sensitivity and elasticity analyses. The simplest of the necessary and sufficient conditions is that, for irreducible projection matrices, all paths from birth to reproduction have to pass through a common state. This state may be visible in the state representation for the chosen sampling time, but the passing may also occur in between sampling times, like a seed stage in the case of sampling just before flowering. Note that there may be more than one birth state, like when plants in their first year can already have different sizes at the sampling time. Also the common state may occur only later in life. However, in all cases R₀ allows a simple interpretation as the expected number of new individuals that in the next generation enter the common state deriving from a single individual in this state. We end with pointing to some alternative algebraically simple quantities with properties similar to those of R₀ that may sometimes be used to good effect in cases where no simple formula for R₀ exists.

  11. [Modeling polarimetric BRDF of leaves surfaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong-Hui; Wang, Pei-Juan; Zhu, Qi-Jiang; Zhou, Hong-Min

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to model a physical polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (pBRDF), which can character not only the non-Lambertian but also the polarized features in order that the pBRDF can be applied to analyze the relationship between the degree of polarization and the physiological and biochemical parameters of leaves quantitatively later. Firstly, the bidirectional polarized reflectance distributions from several leaves surfaces were measured by the polarized goniometer developed by Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The samples of leaves include two pieces of zea mays L. leaves (young leaf and mature leaf) and a piece of E. palcherrima wild leaf. Non-Lambertian characteristics of directional reflectance from the surfaces of these three leaves are obvious. A Cook-Torrance model was modified by coupling the polarized Fresnel equations to simulate the bidirectional polarized reflectance properties of leaves surfaces. The three parameters in the modified pBRDF model, such as diffuse reflectivity, refractive index and roughness of leaf surface were inversed with genetic algorithm (GA). It was found that the pBRDF model can fit with the measured data well. In addition, these parameters in the model are related with both the physiological and biochemical properties and the polarized characteristics of leaves, therefore it is possible to build the relationships between them later.

  12. Family practice residents' maternity leave experiences and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerdingen, D K; Chaloner, K M; Vanderscoff, J A

    1995-09-01

    A growing number of residents are having babies during residency training. While many businesses are working to improve maternity conditions and benefits for their employees, residency programs are often not prepared to accommodate pregnant residents. This study was conducted to examine the maternity leave experiences of women who delivered infants during their family practice residency training. Program directors from each of the 394 family practice residency programs listed in the 1993 Directory of Family Practice Residency Programs were asked to distribute surveys to female residents who gave birth during their residency training and had returned to work by the time of the study. Of 199 known eligible residents, 171 (86%) completed surveys; these women represented 127 programs located in 36 states and Puerto Rico. Only 56.8% of women were aware of their program having a written maternity leave policy. The average length of maternity leave was 8 weeks; 76% had leaves of 10 weeks or less. For many, the maternity leave was derived from more than one source, including vacation, sick time, or a mother-child elective. Nearly all (88.3%) the women breast-fed, and the mean duration of breast-feeding was more than 19 weeks. In general, participants believed that having a baby during residency was somewhat difficult. Problems frequently encountered by women after their return to work included sleep deprivation and tiredness, difficulty arranging for child care, guilt about child care, and breast-feeding. Factors that detracted most from the childbirth experience were too little sleep, problems arranging for child care, and lack of support from the partner, residency faculty, and other residents. Having a baby during residency is somewhat difficult for the average female resident. Factors that may ease this difficulty include getting adequate sleep and receiving support from one's partner, faculty, and other residents.

  13. Maternal leave policies and vaccination coverage: a global analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daku, Mark; Raub, Amy; Heymann, Jody

    2012-01-01

    Childhood vaccination is a proven and cost-effective way to reduce childhood mortality; however, participation in vaccination programs is not universal even where programs are free or low cost. Studies in diverse countries have reported work conflicts as limiting parents' ability to vaccinate their children. Using policy data for 185 UN member countries, we explore the hypothesis that an increased opportunity for parents to bring children to vaccination sites will translate into higher childhood vaccination rates. To do so, we use OLS regression to examine the relationship between the duration of adequately paid maternal leave and the uptake of vaccines. We find that a higher number of full-time equivalent weeks of paid maternal leave is associated with higher childhood vaccination rates, even after controlling for GDP per capita, health care expenditures, and social factors. Further research is needed to assess whether this association is upheld in longitudinal and intervention studies, as well as whether other forms of leave such as paid leave to care for the health of family members is effective at increasing the ability of parents to bring children for needed preventive care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Leaving surgical training: some of the reasons are in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forel, Deanne; Vandepeer, Meegan; Duncan, Joanna; Tivey, David R; Tobin, Stephen A

    2018-05-01

    In 2014, the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons identified, through internal analysis, a considerable attrition rate within its Surgical Education and Training programme. Within the attrition cohort, choosing to leave accounted for the majority. Women were significantly over-represented. It was considered important to study these 'leavers' if possible. An external group with medical education expertise were engaged to do this, a report that is now published and titled 'A study exploring the reasons for and experiences of leaving surgical training'. During this time, the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons came under serious external review, leading to the development of the Action Plan on Discrimination, Bullying and Sexual Harassment in the Practice of Surgery, known as the Building Respect, Improving Patient Safety (BRIPS) action plan. The 'Leaving Training Report', which involved nearly one-half of all voluntary 'leavers', identified three major themes that were pertinent to leaving surgical training. Of these, one was about surgery itself: the complexity, the technical, decision-making and lifestyle demands, the emotional aspects of dealing with seriously sick patients and the personal toll of all of this. This narrative literature review investigates these aspects of surgical education from the trainees' perspective. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  15. The evolution, morphology and development of fern leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra eVasco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaves are lateral determinate structures formed in a predictable sequence (phyllotaxy on the flanks of an indeterminate shoot apical meristem. The origin and evolution of leaves in vascular plants has been widely debated. Being the main conspicuous organ of nearl all vascular plants and often easy to recognize as such, it seems surprising that leaves have had multiple origins. For decades, morphologists, anatomists, paleobotanists, and systematists have contributed data to this debate. More recently, molecular genetic studies have provided insight into leaf evolution and development mainly within angiosperms and, to a lesser extent, lycophytes. There has been recent interest in extending leaf evolutionary developmental studies to other species and lineages, particularly in lycophytes and ferns. Therefore, a review of fern leaf morphology, evolution and development is timely. Here we discuss the theories of leaf evolution in ferns, morphology and diversity of fern leaves, and experimental results of fern leaf development. We summarize what is known about the molecular genetics of fern leaf development and what future studies might tell us about the evolution of fern leaf development.

  16. Maternity and family leave policies in rural family practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainguy, S; Crouse, B J

    1998-09-01

    To help recruit and retain physicians, especially women, rural family practice groups need to establish policies regarding maternity and other family leaves. Also important are policies regarding paternity leave, adoptive leave, and leave to care for elderly parents. We surveyed members of the American Academy of Family Physicians in rural practice in 1995 to assess the prevalence of leave policies, the degree to which physicians are taking family leave, and the characteristics of ideal policies. Currently, both men and women physicians are taking family leaves of absence, which indicates a need for leave policies. Furthermore, a lack of family leave policies may deter women from entering rural practice.

  17. Labour Supply Responses to Paid Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Arizo; Lindahl, Erica; Skogman Thoursie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Women account for the majority of parental leave take-up, which is likely one of the major reasons for the gender gap in income and wages. Consequently, many countries exert effort to promote a more gender equal division of parental leave. Indeed, the last decades have seen an increase in fathers' take-up of parental leave benefits, but the gender earnings gap has remained fairly constant. In this paper we re-evaluate the labour supply responses of both mothers and fathers to three major refo...

  18. Late adolescents' conceptualizations of home-leaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D; Hotch, D F

    1981-02-01

    Separation from the family, a key developmental task, has received scant attention from developmentalists. In this study, college students' dissimilarity ratings and ratings on 22 bipolar adjective scales were obtained for a set of 20 definitions of home-leaving. Results of a cluster analysis revealed that conceptualizations of the definitions are organized in terms of eight clusters. Ratings on the 22 adjective scales provided an empirical means for interpreting the typological structure of the home-leaving definitions. Convergence the results of this inductive study of home-leaving and elements of ego development theory was noted.

  19. Laser induced fluorescence of some plant leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmi, M.S.; Mohamed, M.M.; Amer, R.; Elshazly, O.; Elraey, M.

    1992-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is successfully used as a technique for remote detection of spectral characteristics of some plants. A pulsed nitrogen laser at 337.1 nm is used to excite cotton, corn and rice leaves. The fluorescence spectrum is detected in the range from 340 nm to 820 nm. It is found that, these plant leaves have common fluorescence maxima at 440 nm, 685 nm and 740 nm. plant leaves are also found to be identifiable by the ratio of the fluorescence intensity at 440 nm to that at 685 nm. The present technique can be further used as a means of assessing, remotely, plant stresses. 5 fig

  20. Fathers' Leave, Fathers' Involvement and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Lausten, Mette; Baxter, Jennifer

    involved’ perform better during the early years than their peers with less involved fathers. This paper analyses data of four OECD countries — Australia; Denmark; United Kingdom; United States — to describe how leave policies may influence father’s behaviours when children are young and whether...... their involvement translates into positive child cognitive and behavioural outcomes. This analysis shows that fathers’ leave, father’s involvement and child development are related. Fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when...

  1. 78 FR 8833 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... creates a new qualifying exigency leave category for parental care. In military caregiver leave, the Final... covered employers to take job- protected, unpaid leave, or to substitute appropriate accrued paid leave... CFR Part 825 The Family and Medical Leave Act; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 25...

  2. Sufficient conditions for Hadamard well-posedness of a coupled thermo-chemo-poroelastic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Malysheva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the well-posedness of a coupled parabolic-elliptic system modeling fully coupled thermal, chemical, hydraulic, and mechanical processes in porous formations that impact drilling and borehole stability. The underlying thermo-chemo-poroelastic model is a system of time-dependent parabolic equations describing thermal, solute, and fluid diffusions coupled with Navier-type elliptic equations that attempt to capture the elastic behavior of rock around a borehole. An existence and uniqueness theory for a corresponding initial-boundary value problem is an open problem in the field. We give sufficient conditions for the well-posedness in the sense of Hadamard of a weak solution to a fully coupled parabolic-elliptic initial-boundary value problem describing homogeneous and isotropic media.

  3. Synchronous spikes are necessary but not sufficient for a synchrony code in populations of spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Jan; Kruscha, Alexandra; Lindner, Benjamin; Benda, Jan

    2017-03-07

    Synchronous activity in populations of neurons potentially encodes special stimulus features. Selective readout of either synchronous or asynchronous activity allows formation of two streams of information processing. Theoretical work predicts that such a synchrony code is a fundamental feature of populations of spiking neurons if they operate in specific noise and stimulus regimes. Here we experimentally test the theoretical predictions by quantifying and comparing neuronal response properties in tuberous and ampullary electroreceptor afferents of the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus These related systems show similar levels of synchronous activity, but only in the more irregularly firing tuberous afferents a synchrony code is established, whereas in the more regularly firing ampullary afferents it is not. The mere existence of synchronous activity is thus not sufficient for a synchrony code. Single-cell features such as the irregularity of spiking and the frequency dependence of the neuron's transfer function determine whether synchronous spikes possess a distinct meaning for the encoding of time-dependent signals.

  4. From constraint to sufficiency. The decoupling of energy and carbon from human needs, 1975-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, Julia K. [Institute of Social Ecology, University of Klagenfurt, Vienna (Austria); Roberts, J. Timmons [Center for Environmental Studies, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We investigate the relationship between human needs, energy consumption and carbon emissions for several indicators of human development: life expectancy, literacy, income and the Human Development Index. We find that high human development can be achieved at moderate energy and carbon levels; increasing energy and carbon past this level does not necessarily contribute to higher living standards. By conducting a novel longitudinal analysis from 1975 to 2005, we observe a previously undetected decoupling of the per capita energy and carbon required for human needs. If resources were equally distributed, current energy and carbon levels would be more than sufficient to satisfy global human needs at high levels of human development. By projecting current trends to 2030, we demonstrate that the global energy consumption and carbon emissions required to satisfy human needs will decrease with time, despite growth in population. (author)

  5. Sufficient conditions for optimality for a mathematical model of drug treatment with pharmacodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Leszczyński

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider an optimal control problem for a general mathematical model of drug treatment with a single agent. The control represents the concentration of the agent and its effect (pharmacodynamics is modelled by a Hill function (i.e., Michaelis-Menten type kinetics. The aim is to minimize a cost functional consisting of a weighted average related to the state of the system (both at the end and during a fixed therapy horizon and to the total amount of drugs given. The latter is an indirect measure for the side effects of treatment. It is shown that optimal controls are continuous functions of time that change between full or no dose segments with connecting pieces that take values in the interior of the control set. Sufficient conditions for the strong local optimality of an extremal controlled trajectory in terms of the existence of a solution to a piecewise defined Riccati differential equation are given.

  6. Post-Disaster Food and Nutrition from Urban Agriculture: A Self-Sufficiency Analysis of Nerima Ward, Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Giles Bruno; Sekiyama, Makiko; Terada, Toru; Yokohari, Makoto

    2017-07-10

    Background : Post-earthquake studies from around the world have reported that survivors relying on emergency food for prolonged periods of time experienced several dietary related health problems. The present study aimed to quantify the potential nutrient production of urban agricultural vegetables and the resulting nutritional self-sufficiency throughout the year for mitigating post-disaster situations. Methods : We estimated the vegetable production of urban agriculture throughout the year. Two methods were developed to capture the production from professional and hobby farms: Method I utilized secondary governmental data on agricultural production from professional farms, and Method II was based on a supplementary spatial analysis to estimate the production from hobby farms. Next, the weight of produced vegetables [t] was converted into nutrients [kg]. Furthermore, the self-sufficiency by nutrient and time of year was estimated by incorporating the reference consumption of vegetables [kg], recommended dietary allowance of nutrients per capita [mg], and population statistics. The research was conducted in Nerima, the second most populous ward of Tokyo's 23 special wards. Self-sufficiency rates were calculated with the registered residents. Results : The estimated total vegetable production of 5660 tons was equivalent to a weight-based self-sufficiency rate of 6.18%. The average nutritional self-sufficiencies of Methods I and II were 2.48% and 0.38%, respectively, resulting in an aggregated average of 2.86%. Fluctuations throughout the year were observed according to the harvest seasons of the available crops. Vitamin K (6.15%) had the highest self-sufficiency of selected nutrients, while calcium had the lowest (0.96%). Conclusions : This study suggests that depending on the time of year, urban agriculture has the potential to contribute nutrients to diets during post-disaster situations as disaster preparedness food. Emergency responses should be targeted

  7. Post-Disaster Food and Nutrition from Urban Agriculture: A Self-Sufficiency Analysis of Nerima Ward, Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles Bruno Sioen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-earthquake studies from around the world have reported that survivors relying on emergency food for prolonged periods of time experienced several dietary related health problems. The present study aimed to quantify the potential nutrient production of urban agricultural vegetables and the resulting nutritional self-sufficiency throughout the year for mitigating post-disaster situations. Methods: We estimated the vegetable production of urban agriculture throughout the year. Two methods were developed to capture the production from professional and hobby farms: Method I utilized secondary governmental data on agricultural production from professional farms, and Method II was based on a supplementary spatial analysis to estimate the production from hobby farms. Next, the weight of produced vegetables [t] was converted into nutrients [kg]. Furthermore, the self-sufficiency by nutrient and time of year was estimated by incorporating the reference consumption of vegetables [kg], recommended dietary allowance of nutrients per capita [mg], and population statistics. The research was conducted in Nerima, the second most populous ward of Tokyo’s 23 special wards. Self-sufficiency rates were calculated with the registered residents. Results: The estimated total vegetable production of 5660 tons was equivalent to a weight-based self-sufficiency rate of 6.18%. The average nutritional self-sufficiencies of Methods I and II were 2.48% and 0.38%, respectively, resulting in an aggregated average of 2.86%. Fluctuations throughout the year were observed according to the harvest seasons of the available crops. Vitamin K (6.15% had the highest self-sufficiency of selected nutrients, while calcium had the lowest (0.96%. Conclusions: This study suggests that depending on the time of year, urban agriculture has the potential to contribute nutrients to diets during post-disaster situations as disaster preparedness food. Emergency responses should be

  8. Flexible employment and nurses' intention to leave the profession: The role of support at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeytinoglu, Isik U; Denton, Margaret; Plenderleith, Jennifer Millen

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of this paper are to examine (1) the association between flexible employment and nurses' intention to leave the profession, and (2) whether or not support at work mediates the association between flexible employment and nurses' intention to leave the profession. Flexible employment is analyzed objectively using non-permanent contract, part-time employment status, casual employment status, involuntary hours and on-call work, and subjectively using job insecurity. Support at work refers to organizational, supervisor and peer support. Data come from our survey of 1396 nurses employed in three teaching hospitals in Southern Ontario. Descriptive statistics are provided. Bivariate correlations, hierarchical regression analysis and mediation tests are conducted. Compared to those in full-time employment, nurses in part-time employment do not intend to leave the profession. None of the other objective flexible employment factors are associated with intention to leave the profession. Perceived job insecurity is associated with intention to leave the profession. Low support at work contributes to intention to leave the profession and mediates the association between job insecurity and intention to leave the profession. The study provides evidence to health sector managers and policy makers that part-time employment, perceived job security and support at work are important factors to consider in efforts to retain nurses in the profession. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Paid Leave Benefits Among a National Sample of Working Mothers with Infants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd-Banigan, Megan; Bell, Janice F.

    2013-01-01

    To describe a range of employment benefits, including maternity and other paid leave, afforded to working women with infants; and to examine the geographic, socio-demographic correlates of such benefits to inform the workplace policy agenda in the US. Using data from the Listening to Mothers II Survey, a national sample of English-speaking women who gave birth in 2005, we conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses to examine the associations between socio-demographic factors and employment leave variables (paid maternity, sick and personal leave). Forty-one percent of women received paid maternity leave for an average of 3.3 weeks with 31 % wage replacement. On average women took 10 weeks of maternity leave and received 10.4 days of paid sick leave and 11.6 days of paid personal time per year. Women who were non-Hispanic Black, privately insured, working full-time, and from higher income families were more likely to receive paid maternity leave, for more time, and at higher levels of wage replacement, when controlling for the other socio-demographic characteristics. Race/ethnicity, family income and employment status were associated with the number of paid personal days. Currently, the majority of female employees with young children in the US do not receive financial compensation for maternity leave and women receive limited paid leave every year to manage health-related family issues. Further, women from disadvantaged backgrounds generally receive less generous benefits. Federal policy that supports paid leave may be one avenue to address such disparities and should be modified to reflect accepted international standards. PMID:23584928

  10. Paid leave benefits among a national sample of working mothers with infants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd-Banigan, Megan; Bell, Janice F

    2014-01-01

    To describe a range of employment benefits, including maternity and other paid leave, afforded to working women with infants; and to examine the geographic, socio-demographic correlates of such benefits to inform the workplace policy agenda in the US. Using data from the Listening to Mothers II Survey, a national sample of English-speaking women who gave birth in 2005, we conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses to examine the associations between socio-demographic factors and employment leave variables (paid maternity, sick and personal leave). Forty-one percent of women received paid maternity leave for an average of 3.3 weeks with 31 % wage replacement. On average women took 10 weeks of maternity leave and received 10.4 days of paid sick leave and 11.6 days of paid personal time per year. Women who were non-Hispanic Black, privately insured, working full-time, and from higher income families were more likely to receive paid maternity leave, for more time, and at higher levels of wage replacement, when controlling for the other socio-demographic characteristics. Race/ethnicity, family income and employment status were associated with the number of paid personal days. Currently, the majority of female employees with young children in the US do not receive financial compensation for maternity leave and women receive limited paid leave every year to manage health-related family issues. Further, women from disadvantaged backgrounds generally receive less generous benefits. Federal policy that supports paid leave may be one avenue to address such disparities and should be modified to reflect accepted international standards.

  11. Influence of Hydrogen-Based Storage Systems on Self-Consumption and Self-Sufficiency of Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pötzinger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the behavior of residential solar-powered electrical energy storage systems. For this purpose, a simulation model based on MATLAB/Simulink is developed. Investigating both short-time and seasonal hydrogen-based storage systems, simulations on the basis of real weather data are processed on a timescale of 15 min for a consideration period of 3 years. A sensitivity analysis is conducted in order to identify the most important system parameters concerning the proportion of consumption and the degree of self-sufficiency. Therefore, the influences of storage capacity and of storage efficiencies are discussed. A short-time storage system can increase the proportion of consumption by up to 35 percentage points compared to a self-consumption system without storage. However, the seasonal storing system uses almost the entire energy produced by the photovoltaic (PV system (nearly 100% self-consumption. Thereby, the energy drawn from the grid can be reduced and a degree of self-sufficiency of about 90% is achieved. Based on these findings, some scenarios to reach self-sufficiency are analyzed. The results show that full self-sufficiency will be possible with a seasonal hydrogen-based storage system if PV area and initial storage level are appropriate.

  12. Uranium: do leave it in the ground!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyard, P.

    1990-01-01

    A previous author has argued that it would be best in the long run to consume uranium as much as possible in reactors rather than leave it in the ground in order to save the earth and generations into the far distant future from the evils of radiation. The argument is based on a comparison between the radioactive decay processes of fissioned uranium and uranium left in the earth to decay in its own time. It can be shown that from 300 days after reactor shut down onwards, the spent fuel will generate barely 1% of the radioactive energy that it would were it left untouched in the ground. Counter arguments are presented based largely on the risks to human health and life presented by uranium mining and disasters at nuclear plants such as that at Chernobyl. Illustrations are given of the suffering of people living near uranium mines arising from soil contamination by uranium tailings; the widespread radioactive contamination of the surrounding area and increased cancer mortality rates due to the Chernobyl accident are described. Finally, it is pointed out that uranium serves as a radioactive heat source in the gigantic recycling of rocks and the regeneration of the planet. All these arguments lead to the conclusion that uranium is best left in the earth. (UK)

  13. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses anti- inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... demonstrated, the anti-inflammatory effect of tomato leaves and its associated molecular mechanisms have not yet .... dissolved in 10% of culture-grade dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; Sigma-. Aldrich .... In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol.

  14. The Disabled Young Adult: Ready to Leave Home?

    OpenAIRE

    Tervo, Raymond; O'Leary, Donal

    1986-01-01

    The disabled young adult strives to be independent when preparing to leave home and family. This article provides a checklist that can help the disabled young adult and his/her family to make this transition. In some cases, a transitional rehabilitation program may also be of help. The family physician who is familiar with the issues that pertain to adolescent development can play a central part in addressing patient and family problems that present at this time.

  15. 5 CFR 630.1111 - Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... needs of individual emergency leave recipients, an employing agency may allow an employee to receive... annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. 630.1111 Section 630.1111 Administrative Personnel... recipient. An emergency leave recipient may receive a maximum of 240 hours of donated annual leave at any...

  16. On the Motion of Falling Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Razavi, Pedram

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the motion of falling leaves through modeling using papers and the corresponding data collected from more than four thousands experiments. Two series of experiments were designed in order to study the relationship between different parameters which can affect different paths of motion in leaves. In the first series of experiments, the shapes of the potential paths that falling papers can take were investigated as a whole. A new classification scheme was derived from th...

  17. Intra-Household Allocation of Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Gobbi, Paula Eugenia; Parys, Juliane; Schwerhoff, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    We introduce childcare sharing in a collective model of household behavior to investigate which factors make spouses increase or decrease their share of parental leave. The concern about future consumption motivates parents to invest in their human capital and to limit their leave duration. Using relative income and the age difference between spouses as distribution factors, we cannot reject Pareto efficiency in childcare sharing. Higher relative incomes and larger age differences shift the c...

  18. EFFECT OF NUTMEG (MYRISTICA FRANGRANS HOUTT LEAVES AND CLOVE (SYZYGIUM AROMATICUM L. LEAVES TREATMENT TO PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF KACANG GOAT (CAPRA HIRCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapsuha Y.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutmeg (Myristica frangrans Houtt and clove (Syzygium aromaticum L is an herb plants that contain essential oils. The research objective was to determine the physical quality (pH, shrinkage cooking, and water holding capacity and chemical quality (moisture content, protein content and fat content of Kacang goat (Capra hircus by rationing of nutmeg and clove leaves treatment. There are four treatments that consisted of the percentage of R0 = ration basal (without the addition of nutmeg and clove leaves, R1 = basal diet + 5% of nutmeg leaves, R2 = basal diet + 5% of clove leaves, R3 = basal diet + 5% of nutmeg leaves +5 % of clove leaves, while each treatment was replicated four times. The results showed that the use of nutmeg and cloves leaves in a ration of 5% does not affect the physical and chemical quality of the Kacang goat in terms of pH, cooking shrinkage, water holding capacity, moisture content, protein content and fat content.

  19. Estimating concentration of fluoride in edible leaves locally grown around Raipur, Chhattisgarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhuti Jain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluorine is the 13th most abundant element in the earth crust and is available in various environmental, clinical, and food samples in varied concentrations. Aim: To estimate concentration of fluoride in five medicinal and five nonmedicinal edible leaves locally grown around Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India. Materials and Methods: Samples of ten medicinal and nonmedicinal edible leaves, namely, spinach (Spinacia oleracea, coriander leaves (Coriandrum sativum, chawli bhaji (Amaranthus spinach, lal bhaji (Alternanthera bettzickiana, mooli bhaji (Raphanus sativus, neem (Azadirachta indica, tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum, mint leaves (Mentha longifolia, betel leaves (Piper betle, and bael leaves (Aegle marmelos were collected in the clean polyethene bags. After thorough washing with water, leaves were left to dry in ambient temperature and crushed into powder using a mixer grinder. One gram of each of the powdered samples was taken and analyzed for fluoride concentration using a 2-(4-sulfophenylazo 1,8-dihydroxy-3,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid trisodium salt spectrophotometric method. Results: The presence of fluoride in varied concentrations in locally grown edible leaves were analyzed. The highest concentration of fluoride was reported in tulsi (6.0 μg/g and lowest in mint leaves (1.1 μg/g. Two edible leaves, neem and bael, showed fluoride concentration below detection limit. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding the importance of edible leaves may be lost in the near future unless efforts are made to educate younger generations about their importance. Hence, the time has come to make good use of centuries-old knowledge through modern approaches for their better economic and therapeutic utilization.

  20. Paid Maternity Leave in the United States: Associations with Maternal and Infant Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Judy; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Abraham, Jean M; Blewett, Lynn A; McGovern, Patricia M

    2018-02-01

    Objectives The United States is one of only three countries worldwide with no national policy guaranteeing paid leave to employed women who give birth. While maternity leave has been linked to improved maternal and child outcomes in international contexts, up-to-date research evidence in the U.S. context is needed to inform current policy debates on paid family leave. Methods Using data from Listening to Mothers III, a national survey of women ages 18-45 who gave birth in 2011-2012, we conducted multivariate logistic regression to predict the likelihood of outcomes related to infant health, maternal physical and mental health, and maternal health behaviors by the use and duration of paid maternity leave. Results Use of paid and unpaid leave varied significantly by race/ethnicity and household income. Women who took paid maternity leave experienced a 47% decrease in the odds of re-hospitalizing their infants (95% CI 0.3, 1.0) and a 51% decrease in the odds of being re-hospitalized themselves (95% CI 0.3, 0.9) at 21 months postpartum, compared to women taking unpaid or no leave. They also had 1.8 times the odds of doing well with exercise (95% CI 1.1, 3.0) and stress management (95% CI 1.1, 2.8), compared to women taking only unpaid leave. Conclusions for Practice Paid maternity leave significantly predicts lower odds of maternal and infant re-hospitalization and higher odds of doing well with exercise and stress management. Policies aimed at expanding access to paid maternity and family leave may contribute toward reducing socio-demographic disparities in paid leave use and its associated health benefits.

  1. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  2. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  3. Office design's impact on sick leave rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin Danielsson, Christina; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Wulff, Cornelia; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of office type on sickness absence among office employees was studied prospectively in 1852 employees working in (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Sick leaves were self-reported two years later as number of (a) short and (b) long (medically certified) sick leave spells as well as (c) total number of sick leave days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, with adjustment for background factors. A significant excess risk for sickness absence was found only in terms of short sick leave spells in the three open-plan offices. In the gender separate analysis, this remained for women, whereas men had a significantly increased risk in flex-offices. For long sick leave spells, a significantly higher risk was found among women in large open-plan offices and for total number of sick days among men in flex-offices. A prospective study of the office environment's effect on employees is motivated by the high rates of sick leaves in the workforce. The results indicate differences between office types, depending on the number of people sharing workspace and the opportunity to exert personal control as influenced by the features that define the office types.

  4. Investigation Of Infrared Drying Behaviour Of Spinach Leaves Using ANN Methodology And Dried Product Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarimeseli Ayse

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of infrared power output and sample mass on drying behaviour, colour parameters, ascorbic acid degradation, rehydration characteristics and some sensory scores of spinach leaves were investigated. Within both of the range of the infrared power outputs, 300–500 W, and sample amounts, 15–60 g, moisture content of the leaves was reduced from 6.0 to 0.1±(0.01 kg water/kg dry base value. It was recorded that drying times of the spinach leaves varied between 3.5–10 min for constant sample amount, and 4–16.5 min for constant power output. Experimental drying data obtained were successfully investigated by using artificial neural network methodology. Some changes were recorded in the quality parameters of the dried leaves, and acceptable sensory scores for the dried leaves were observed in all of the experimental conditions.

  5. Stomatal Responses to Light and Drought Stress in Variegated Leaves of Hedera helix1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphalo, Pedro J.; Sánchez, Rodolfo A.

    1986-01-01

    Direct and indirect mechanisms underlying the light response of stomata were studied in variegated leaves of the juvenile phase of Hedera helix L. Dose response curves of leaf conductance were measured with blue and red light in leaves kept in normal or in an inverted position. In the green portions of the leaves, the sensitivity to blue light was nearly 100 times higher than that to red light. No response to red light was observed in the white portions of the leaves up to 90 micromoles per square meter per second. Red light indirectly affected leaf conductance while blue light had a direct effect. Leaf conductance was found to be more sensitive to drought stress and showed a more persistent aftereffect in the white portions of the leaves. A differential effect of drought stress on the responses to blue and red light was also observed. PMID:16664900

  6. The direct impact of maternity benefits on leave taking: Evidence from complete fertility histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugiavini, Agar; Pasini, Giacomo; Trevisan, Elisabetta

    2013-03-01

    Maternity leave policies have important effects on several labour market outcomes of women, and are specifically designed to reduce gender differences in the various dimensions of working life and to contrast the negative consequence of fertility decisions. By making use of a unique data set which contains complete work and fertility histories for different European countries, combined with features of maternity leave schemes across countries and over time, we look at the effect of maternity leave benefits on job interruptions after each successive childbirth. The main result of the paper is that maternity leave legislation in Europe effectively increases job protection and female labour market attachment: a more generous paid maternity leave increases the number of weeks employed but not at work, but reduces the number of weeks spent out of the labour market. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Teor e composição do óleo essencial de inflorescências e folhas de Lavandula dentata L. em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento floral e épocas de colheita Yield and composition of essential oil from inflorescences and leaves of lavender (Lavandula dentata L. in different flower development stages and harvest times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.M. Masetto

    2011-01-01

    , cosmetic and personal care industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield and composition of essential oil from lavender inflorescences and leaves in different development stages. The experimental design was completely randomized in 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, with three flower development stages (bud, pre-anthesis/anthesis and senescence and two harvest periods (January and April, and 5 replicates. The essential oil samples were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. There was an interaction between the factors harvest time and flower development on essential oil yield of inflorescences, and a superior average was observed for flower buds harvested in January. The development stages did not alter the essential oil yield of leaves. The development stages influenced the levels of compounds of the essential oil from inflorescences and leaves. For essential oil in senescent flower stage harvested in April, there was a high level of 1,8-cineol, whereas in the remaining development stages, the levels were lower in both harvest times. The levels of camphor increased in the pre-anthesis/anthesis and senescence in January harvest. The essential oil from leaves presented higher levels of 1,8-cineol in branches with flowers in pre-anthesis/anthesis. Camphor and fenchone levels were higher in branches with buds. The essential oil from leaves of branches with buds and senescent flowers showed higher levels of linalool than that from inflorescences.

  8. A MODELING METHOD OF FLUTTERING LEAVES BASED ON POINT CLOUD

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tang; Y. Wang; Y. Zhao; Y. Zhao; W. Hao; X. Ning; K. Lv; Z. Shi; M. Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Leaves falling gently or fluttering are common phenomenon in nature scenes. The authenticity of leaves falling plays an important part in the dynamic modeling of natural scenes. The leaves falling model has a widely applications in the field of animation and virtual reality. We propose a novel modeling method of fluttering leaves based on point cloud in this paper. According to the shape, the weight of leaves and the wind speed, three basic trajectories of leaves falling are defined, which ar...

  9. Identification of fine-leaved species of genus Festuca by molecular methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stukonis, V.; Armoniene, R.; Kemesyte, V.

    2015-01-01

    Festuca (L.) is a taxonomically complex genus of family Poaceae. The fine-leaved species of fescue are well adapted to grow in sandy and dry habitats, therefore, they can be used for establishment of lawns of minimal maintenance as well as recultivations of damaged soils. Breeding for the new varieties to meet these purposes requires reliable methods for identification of the species. The discrimination of fine-leaved fescue species based on morphological features is rather difficult, therefore reliable molecular marker would greatly facilitate it and eliminate the need to wait till floral organs are fully formed. Seven fine-leaved species of genus Festuca collected in Lithuania, namely, F. ovina, F. trachyphylla, F. polesica, F. psammophila, F. sabulosa, F. pseudovina and F. wolgensis were investigated at the Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry. The ISSR markers, seed storage proteins and isozymes were tested for their ability to distinguish between the fine-leaved species of the genus Festuca. Seed storage protein and ISSR fingerprint profiles could be used to distinguish between fine-leaved species of Festuca, except for closely related F. sabulosa and F. polesica species. Isozyme fingerprints did not contain sufficient number of species specific bands and were not feasible to discriminate between species. (author)

  10. Information system support as a critical success factor for chronic disease management: Necessary but not sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carolyn J; Fortin, Patricia; Maclure, Malcolm; Macgregor, Art; Robinson, Sylvia

    2006-12-01

    Improvement of chronic disease management in primary care entails monitoring indicators of quality over time and across patients and practices. Informatics tools are needed, yet implementing them remains challenging. To identify critical success factors enabling the translation of clinical and operational knowledge about effective and efficient chronic care management into primary care practice. A prospective case study of positive deviants using key informant interviews, process observation, and document review. A chronic disease management (CDM) collaborative of primary care physicians with documented improvement in adherence to clinical practice guidelines using a web-based patient registry system with CDM guideline-based flow sheet. Thirty community-based physician participants using predominantly paper records, plus a project management team including the physician lead, project manager, evaluator and support team. A critical success factor (CSF) analysis of necessary and sufficient pathways to the translation of knowledge into clinical practice. A web-based CDM 'toolkit' was found to be a direct CSF that allowed this group of physicians to improve their practice by tracking patient care processes using evidence-based clinical practice guideline-based flow sheets. Moreover, the information and communication technology 'factor' was sufficient for success only as part of a set of seven direct CSF components including: health delivery system enhancements, organizational partnerships, funding mechanisms, project management, practice models, and formal knowledge translation practices. Indirect factors that orchestrated success through the direct factor components were also identified. A central insight of this analysis is that a comprehensive quality improvement model was the CSF that drew this set of factors into a functional framework for successful knowledge translation. In complex primary care settings environment where physicians have low adoption rates of

  11. Optically-Induced Neuronal Activity Is Sufficient to Promote Functional Motor Axon Regeneration In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Ward

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injuries are common, and functional recovery is very poor. Beyond surgical repair of the nerve, there are currently no treatment options for these patients. In experimental models of nerve injury, interventions (such as exercise and electrical stimulation that increase neuronal activity of the injured neurons effectively enhance axon regeneration. Here, we utilized optogenetics to determine whether increased activity alone is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration. In thy-1-ChR2/YFP transgenic mice in which a subset of motoneurons express the light-sensitive cation channel, channelrhodopsin (ChR2, we activated axons in the sciatic nerve using blue light immediately prior to transection and surgical repair of the sciatic nerve. At four weeks post-injury, direct muscle EMG responses evoked with both optical and electrical stimuli as well as the ratio of these optical/electrical evoked EMG responses were significantly greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, significantly more ChR2+ axons successfully re-innervated the gastrocnemius muscle in mice that received optical treatment. Sections of the gastrocnemius muscles were reacted with antibodies to Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2 to quantify the number of re-occupied motor endplates. The number of SV2+ endplates was greater in mice that received optical treatment. The number of retrogradely-labeled motoneurons following intramuscular injection of cholera toxin subunit B (conjugated to Alexa Fluor 555 was greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, the acute (1 hour, one-time optical treatment resulted in robust, long-lasting effects compared to untreated animals as well as untreated axons (ChR2-. We conclude that neuronal activation is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration, and this regenerative effect is specific to the activated neurons.

  12. A pacemaker magnet check alone is sufficient for the majority of patients postpacemaker implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael A; Wong, Kelvin C K; Qureshi, Norman; Rajappan, Kim; Bashir, Yaver; Betts, Timothy R

    2014-12-01

    Patients postpacemaker implant can undergo a full assessment by pacing system programmer (PSP) or a magnet check. The former takes longer, but provides more detailed information; a magnet-mode assessment is faster, but provides only capture data in an asynchronous pacing mode. A magnet-mode assessment alone may be sufficient in most cases, and current clinical practice varies considerably. A retrospective single-center assessment of all pacemaker implants receiving PSP and magnet checks between September 2009 and April 2010. Patient records were reviewed. The results of PSP and magnet checks and any subsequent device-related management were noted. A total of 168 patients underwent pacemaker implantation, magnet-mode assessment, and then PSP interrogation during this period. Magnet-mode assessment revealed a problem in only one patient-failure of atrial capture, leading to subsequent atrial lead repositioning. None of the remaining 167 patients have a serious problem at PSP interrogation; six had minor issues at PSP check, none of which required repeat surgical intervention. The magnet-mode test only provides information on lead capture in an asynchronous pacing mode, which is the most essential data postoperatively. Our study has suggested that a magnet-mode assessment without PSP interrogation may be sufficient in the immediate postimplant assessment of these patients. Routine postimplant PSP interrogation is time consuming, labor intensive, and adds only minimal additional benefit to the safe management of these patients above and beyond a magnet check, coupled with informed assessment of the associated electrocardiogram/rhythm strip, clinical examination, and chest x-ray. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Relationship between Organizational Support Perceptions and Self-Sufficiencies of Logistics Sector Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefer Gumus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to examine the relationship between organizational support perceptions and self-sufficiency levels of logistics sector employees and to determine whether organizational support perceptions and self-sufficiency levels of employees differ according to some specification. The questionnaire form consisting of perceived organizational support scale in accordance with the purpose, general self-sufficiency scale and personal information form, was applied to 124 employees of 3 separate logistics firms operating in Istanbul. The data obtained from the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS17.0 statistical software package on computer. In the assessment of data, descriptive characteristics of employees were determined by frequency and percentage statistics and the self-sufficiency and perceived organizational support levels by the mean and standard deviation statistics. The t test, Tukey test and one-way Anova tests were utilized in determining employees' self-sufficiency and perceived organizational support levels differentiation according to descriptive characteristics, and correlation analysis was utilized in determining the relationship between self-sufficiency and perceived organizational support levels of employees. In conclusion, it was determined that there was statistical relationship between organizational support and self-sufficiency levels perceived by logistics sector employees. Accordingly, when employees' perceived organizational support levels increase then self-sufficiency levels also increase, and when perceived organizational support levels decrease then self-sufficiency levels also decrease.

  14. ["Paternity leave"? Retrospective view on a delayed reform of maternity leave in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, R

    1984-01-01

    Only 1 of 3 Austrian fathers involves himself daily in child rearing, and the younger the children, the less likely he is to be involved. Austria is among those European countries with the greatest pregnancy benefits. New mothers may take up to 1 year of paid maternity leave without fear of losing their jobs. This article uses 1982 Institute of Demography survey data to determine support for similar paternity leave for fathers. In the last few years, both Social Democrat and Conservative women have worked for this leave, although the movement has also found opposition by women in trade unions, as well as from conservative groups. Survey results show that 46% of married Austrian women, under age 40, favor paternity leave; 1 or 4 women can imagine their husbands taking such leave. Among husbands, 34% favored the leave option, and 1 of 4 could imagine taking the leave for a least part of the baby's first year. The study attempts to identify those husbands most likely to take advantage of paternity leave. At present, most men will not choose to stay with their children at the expense of earnings reduction. Compensation reforms for both mothers and fathers must first occur before men and women in a position to make real decisions on maternity and paternity leave.

  15. What is the Role of Parental Leave policies in shaping Work and Care in the Enlarged EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the article is to examine the role of parental leave in shaping a mother's choice between work and care in the enlarged EU. A central question is how parental leave schemes affect mothers' employment and the occupational consequences for mothers who spend time on full-time caring...

  16. [Risk factors for absenteeism due to sick leave in the petroleum industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oenning, Nágila Soares Xavier; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lima, Veronica Maria Cadena

    2014-02-01

    To identify risk factors for absenteeism among workers with sick leave in an oil company. A case-control study (120 cases and 656 controls) nested in a retrospective cohort study following up all employees of an oil company in the North-Northeast of Brazil from 2007 to 2009. The response variable used to represent absenteeism with sick leave was the average incidence of sick leave, defined as the ratio between total sick days and potential working days in the period. Logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the association between average incidence of sick leave > 5.0% over the period and the variables sex, position, age, time at work, shift work, smoking, arterial hypertension, body mass index, physical activity, coronary risk, sleep, glycemia, non-managed diabetes, cardiovascular, digestive, musculoskeletal, neurological and neoplastic diseases, straining body positioning during work, satisfaction at work, relationship with management, and concentrated attention at work. Average incidence of sick leave higher than 5.0% in the cohort period was 15.5%. The logistic model revealed that workers with average incidence of sick leave higher than 5.0% were 2.6 times more likely to be female; 2.0 time more likely to be smokers; 1.8 time more likely to be former smokers; 2.2 times more likely to report abnormal sleep and 10.5 times more likely to report dissatisfaction with their than workers with average incidence of sick leave ≤ 5.0% in the period. In this population, female gender, being a smoker or a former smoker, reporting dissatisfaction with the job and reporting abnormal sleep are good predictors of occupational absenteeism with sick leave. To identify risk factors for absenteeism among workers with sick leave in an oil company. A case-control study (120 cases and 656 controls) nested in a retrospective cohort study following up all employees of an oil company in the North-Northeast of Brazil from 2007 to 2009. The response variable used to

  17. Risk factors for absenteeism due to sick leave in the petroleum industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oenning, Nágila Soares Xavier; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lima, Veronica Maria Cadena

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for absenteeism among workers with sick leave in an oil company. METHODS A case-control study (120 cases and 656 controls) nested in a retrospective cohort study following up all employees of an oil company in the North-Northeast of Brazil from 2007 to 2009. The response variable used to represent absenteeism with sick leave was the average incidence of sick leave, defined as the ratio between total sick days and potential working days in the period. Logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the association between average incidence of sick leave > 5.0% over the period and the variables sex, position, age, time at work, shift work, smoking, arterial hypertension, body mass index, physical activity, coronary risk, sleep, glycemia, non-managed diabetes, cardiovascular, digestive, musculoskeletal, neurological and neoplastic diseases, straining body positioning during work, satisfaction at work, relationship with management, and concentrated attention at work. RESULTS Average incidence of sick leave higher than 5.0% in the cohort period was 15.5%. The logistic model revealed that workers with average incidence of sick leave higher than 5.0% were 2.6 times more likely to be female; 2.0 time more likely to be smokers; 1.8 time more likely to be former smokers; 2.2 times more likely to report abnormal sleep and 10.5 times more likely to report dissatisfaction with their than workers with average incidence of sick leave ≤ 5.0% in the period. CONCLUSIONS In this population, female gender, being a smoker or a former smoker, reporting dissatisfaction with the job and reporting abnormal sleep are good predictors of occupational absenteeism with sick leave. PMID:24789643

  18. Construction and engineering of a thermostable self-sufficient cytochrome P450

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandai, Takao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke [Nanobiotechnology Research Center and Department of Bioscience, School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda 669-1337 (Japan); Imaoka, Susumu, E-mail: imaoka@kwansei.ac.jp [Nanobiotechnology Research Center and Department of Bioscience, School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda 669-1337 (Japan)

    2009-06-19

    CYP175A1 is a thermophilic cytochrome P450 and hydroxylates {beta}-carotene. We previously identified a native electron transport system for CYP175A1. In this report, we constructed two fusion proteins consisting of CYP175A1, ferredoxin (Fdx), and ferredoxin-NADP{sup +} reductase (FNR): H{sub 2}N-CYP175A1-Fdx-FNR-COOH (175FR) and H{sub 2}N-CYP175A1-FNR-Fdx-COOH (175RF). Both 175FR and 175RF were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The V{sub max} value for {beta}-carotene hydroxylation was 25 times higher with 175RF than 175FR and 9 times higher with 175RF than CYP175A1 (non-fused protein), although the k{sub m} values of these enzymes were similar. 175RF retained 50% residual activity even at 80 {sup o}C. Furthermore, several mutants of the CYP175A1 domain of 175RF were prepared and one mutant (Q67G/Y68I) catalyzed the hydroxylation of an unnatural substrate, testosterone. Thus, this is the first report of a thermostable self-sufficient cytochrome P450 and the engineering of a thermophilic cytochrome P450 for the oxidation of an unnatural substrate.

  19. Overexpression of aromatase alone is sufficient for ovarian development in genetically male chicken embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke S Lambeth

    Full Text Available Estrogens play a key role in sexual differentiation of both the gonads and external traits in birds. The production of estrogen occurs via a well-characterised steroidogenic pathway, which is a multi-step process involving several enzymes, including cytochrome P450 aromatase. In chicken embryos, the aromatase gene (CYP19A1 is expressed female-specifically from the time of gonadal sex differentiation. To further explore the role of aromatase in sex determination, we ectopically delivered this enzyme using the retroviral vector RCASBP in ovo. Aromatase overexpression in male chicken embryos induced gonadal sex-reversal characterised by an enlargement of the left gonad and development of ovarian structures such as a thickened outer cortex and medulla with lacunae. In addition, the expression of key male gonad developmental genes (DMRT1, SOX9 and Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH was suppressed, and the distribution of germ cells in sex-reversed males followed the female pattern. The detection of SCP3 protein in late stage sex-reversed male embryonic gonads indicated that these genetically male germ cells had entered meiosis, a process that normally only occurs in female embryonic germ cells. This work shows for the first time that the addition of aromatase into a developing male embryo is sufficient to direct ovarian development, suggesting that male gonads have the complete capacity to develop as ovaries if provided with aromatase.

  20. Construction and engineering of a thermostable self-sufficient cytochrome P450

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandai, Takao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke; Imaoka, Susumu

    2009-01-01

    CYP175A1 is a thermophilic cytochrome P450 and hydroxylates β-carotene. We previously identified a native electron transport system for CYP175A1. In this report, we constructed two fusion proteins consisting of CYP175A1, ferredoxin (Fdx), and ferredoxin-NADP + reductase (FNR): H 2 N-CYP175A1-Fdx-FNR-COOH (175FR) and H 2 N-CYP175A1-FNR-Fdx-COOH (175RF). Both 175FR and 175RF were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The V max value for β-carotene hydroxylation was 25 times higher with 175RF than 175FR and 9 times higher with 175RF than CYP175A1 (non-fused protein), although the k m values of these enzymes were similar. 175RF retained 50% residual activity even at 80 o C. Furthermore, several mutants of the CYP175A1 domain of 175RF were prepared and one mutant (Q67G/Y68I) catalyzed the hydroxylation of an unnatural substrate, testosterone. Thus, this is the first report of a thermostable self-sufficient cytochrome P450 and the engineering of a thermophilic cytochrome P450 for the oxidation of an unnatural substrate.

  1. Navigation and history of science: autopsy to submarine Kursk. Survival previsions were not sufficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available On August 12, 2000, Saturday, a Russian submarine of the Oscar II class, the K-141 Kursk, sank in the Barents Sea, while sailing as part of the "Summer-X Exercise" manoeuvres. The Kursk was a giant double-hulled submarine, with nine sealed compartments, considered impossible to be sunk. During the manoeuvres, at 08:51 local time, the Kursk requested permission to prepare a torpedo and it received the response "Dobro" (good in English. At 11:29:34 (07:29:50 UTC the Norwegian seismic monitoring network (NORSAR registered an earthquake of intensity 1.5 on the Richter scale at northeast of Murmansk, approximately 250 Km from Norway, and 80 Km from the Kola Peninsula. At 11:31:48, two minutes and fourteen seconds later, a second movement, 4.2 on the Richter scale and 250 times longer than the first, was recorded by different seismographs, even being detected in Alaska. It was equivalent to an explosion of 2-3 Tm of TNT. After a great confusion and propaganda, there was no choice other than to accept the facts: the Kursk had suffered two explosions, had sunk and the whole crew had perished. But what happened in that submarine? It seems clear that survival previsions were not sufficient.

  2. Access to and use of paid sick leave among low-income families with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemans-Cope, Lisa; Perry, Cynthia D; Kenney, Genevieve M; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Pantell, Matthew S

    2008-08-01

    The ability of employed parents to meet the health needs of their children may depend on their access to sick leave, especially for low-income workers, who may be afforded less flexibility in their work schedules to accommodate these needs yet also more likely to have children in poor health. Our goal was to provide rates of access to paid sick leave and paid vacation leave among low-income families with children and to assess whether access to these benefits is associated with parents' leave taking to care for themselves or others. We used a sample of low-income families (paid leave and characteristics of children, families, and parents' employer. Access to paid leave was lower among children in low-income families than among those in families with higher income. Within low-income families, children without >or=1 full-time worker in the household were especially likely to lack access to this benefit, as were children whose parents work for small employers. Among children whose parents had access to paid sick leave, parents were more likely to take time away from work to care for themselves or others. This relationship is even more pronounced among families with the highest need, such as children in fair or poor health and children with all parents in full-time employment. Legislation mandating paid sick leave could dramatically increase access to this benefit among low-income families. It would likely diminish gaps in parents' leave taking to care for others between families with and without the benefit. However, until the health-related consequences are better understood, the full impact of such legislation remains unknown.

  3. 33 CFR 115.30 - Sufficiency of State authority for bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for bridges. 115.30 Section 115.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.30 Sufficiency of State authority for bridges. An opinion of the attorney general of the State as to the sufficiency of State...

  4. What Provisions Do Orthopaedic Programs Make for Maternity, Paternity, and Adoption Leave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jennifer; Teuscher, David

    2016-09-01

    The process of choosing medical specialty and residency programs is multifaceted. Today's generation of medical students may have an increased interest in work-life balance and time with their families. In considering this factor, medical students may be influenced by policy regarding maternity, paternity, and adoption leave during residency and fellowship training. Current policy among orthopaedic programs regarding maternity, paternity, and adoption leave is not well described. To understand the influence these policies may have on the choices that medical students make in choosing their specialty, the policies must first be better understood. (1) What proportion of orthopaedic programs have formal or unwritten policies regarding maternity, paternity, and adoptive leave? (2) What are the provisions for time away, allotment of time, and makeup options for trainees who take leave? (3) What proportion of orthopaedic programs report utilization of leave, and what proportions of leave are for maternity, paternity, or adoptive reasons? Accredited programs in orthopaedic surgery were identified through the Council of Orthopedic Residency Directors within the American Orthopaedic Association. Current program directors of these accredited programs were surveyed. The survey was emailed to 144 program directors, of which 141 emails were delivered. Responses were received from 45 program directors, representing 31% of programs. The survey focused on maternity, paternity, and adoptive leave, and it consisted of questions designed to explore program policies (formal, unwritten, no policy, or in development), time considerations (amount allowed, allocation of time away, and makeup requirements), and utilization (trainees who took leave and type of leave used). Most respondents have maternity leave policy (formal: 36 of 45 [80%]; unwritten: 17 of 45 [38%]). Sixteen programs (16 of 45 [36%]) reported having both a formal and an unwritten maternity leave policy. Less than half of

  5. University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

    2013-01-01

    The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

  6. LBTool: A stochastic toolkit for leave-based key updates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative techniques have been successfully employed in verification of information and communication systems. However, the use of such techniques are still rare in the area of security. In this paper, we present a toolkit that implements transient analysis on a key update method for wireless...... sensor networks. The analysis aims to find out the probability of a network key being compromised at a specific time point, which result in fluctuations over time for a specific key update method called Leave-based key update. For such a problem, the use of current tools is limited in many ways...

  7. The dewetting properties of lotus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jihua; Sheng, Xianliang; Jiang, Lei

    2009-02-03

    The high dewetting abilities of lotus leaves can be transited to a complete wetting state by soaking the leaves in water at a depth of 50 cm for 2 h. However, after being dried by N2 gas, the high dewetting behavior of lotus leaves may be mostly restored. This indicates that experimental procedure might considerably affect the dewetting abilities of lotus leaves. To discover the mechanism underlying this interesting dewetting phenomena, the dewetting force was used to characterize the dewetting abilities of surfaces, and model studies to mimic the papillae were done. Surface hydrophobicity, sizes, rise angles, and secondary structures of the models' sides affected their dewetting force with water. So we suggested that the dewetting states, Cassie or Wenzel's state, of lotus surfaces depend much on the depth of water, i.e., the hydraulic pressure. On the other hand, the primary structures of papillae in Cassie's state led to a high receding angle with respect to the plane of the leaf during the dewetting measurement. The secondary structures and micro/nano arrays of papillae increased the dewetting abilities of lotus leaves, since no water intruded between papillae. However, the structures of papillae in Wenzle's state significantly reduced the dewetting abilities of lotus leaves after being soaked at a depth of 50 cm for 2 h. Therefore, as for novel designs of microdevices floating on water, including the use of the high dewetting properties of suphydrophobic materials, surface (primary or secondary) microstructure and external pressure, such as static hydraulic pressure, must be taken into account.

  8. Maternal Employment Effects of Paid Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Bergemann, Annette; Riphahn, Regina T.

    2015-01-01

    We study the short, medium, and longer run employment effects of a substantial change in the parental leave benefit program in Germany. In 2007, a means-tested parental leave transfer program that had paid benefits for up to two years was replaced by an earnings related transfer which paid benefits for up to one year. The reform generated winners and losers with heterogeneous response incentives. We find that the reform speeds up the labor market return of both groups of mothers after benefit...

  9. Does paternity leave affect mothers’ sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Naz, Ghazala

    2009-01-01

    Female labour force participation is high in Norway but sickness absence rates are higher for women than for men. This may be partly a result of unequal sharing of childcare in the family. In this paper, we consider the effect of paternity leave on sickness absence among women who have recently given birth. We draw on a six-year panel taken from full population data from administrative sources. We find that in the 6% of families where fathers take out leave more than the standard quota (gende...

  10. Preparing Apigenin from Leaves of Adinandra nitida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengxiang Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Adinandra nitida were used as raw material, and a new industrially significant method of preparing apigenin was established by hydrolyzing a water extract and recrystallizing it with ethanol in order to obtain a new source for the production of this flavone. A yield of about 2.5 % (dry mass was obtained with the purity of 93.05 %, determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Moreover, the main flavonoids in leaves of Adinandra nitida and the product after acid hydrolysis were identified as camellianin A and apigenin, respectively, by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV/VIS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS.

  11. Conditions sufficient for the production of oral cocaine or lidocaine self-administration in preference to water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, J L; Siris, A; Lau, C E

    1996-03-01

    Groups of rats were given a chronic history of drinking cocaine solutions of different concentrations in daily, 3-h schedule induced polydipsia sessions. Animals failed to develop a preference for cocaine solution to concurrently presented water. Schedule-induction conditions were maintained, and the animals were divided into separate groups, drinking either cocaine or lidocaine placed in a highly acceptable vehicle (glucose-saccharin solution). Animals preferred their respective drug solutions to concurrently presented water, and these preferences remained stable after the glucose-saccharin vehicle was gradually faded to water, leaving only cocaine or lidocaine, respectively, in the solution. Thus a stable preference for drug solution to water could be instituted in rats for either cocaine or lidocaine solution (putative reinforcing and nonreinforcing agents, respectively) given an appropriate associative history, with high intakes maintained by schedule-induction. Conditions sufficient for the initiation of an oral preference and high intake for a putatively reinforcing drug cannot be assumed to occur owing to the drug's reinforcing property in the absence of demonstrating the ineffectiveness of an appropriate negative control substance.

  12. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing one...

  13. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for... of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth of...

  14. 77 FR 8959 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ...; and extends FMLA military caregiver leave to family members of certain veterans with serious injuries... Medical Leave Act of 1993, Final Rule on November 17, 2008 (2008 final rule). 73 FR 67934. A. What the... covered servicemember (referred to as ``military caregiver leave''). These two leave entitlements are...

  15. Phytochemical screening and in vitro anthelmintic activity of methanol extract of Terminalia citrina leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narhari Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate anthelmintic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Terminalia citrina (T. citrina plant belonging to the Combretaceae family. Methods: The tests of phytochemical screening included alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, quinines, anthocyanins, glycosides, carbohydrates and reducing sugars. The anthelmintic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of T. citrina was evaluated against Pheretima posthuma at three different concentrations (25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL of extracts which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of worms. Results: The phytochemical screening of T. citrina leaves revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, carbohydrates and reducing sugars. The present study indicated that methanolic extract significantly exhibited paralysis and also caused death of worms especially at highest concentration of 100 mg/mL, as compared to standard reference Albendazole (10 mg/mL. Conclusions: This study suggests that the leaves of T. citrina possess potent anthelmintic activity.

  16. Sorption of fluoride using chemically modified Moringa oleifera leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Shabnam; Chattree, Amit

    2018-05-01

    Contamination of drinking water due to fluoride is a severe health hazard problem. Excess of fluoride (> 1.5 mg/L) in drinking water is harmful to human health. Various treatment technologies for removing fluoride from groundwater have been investigated. The present study showed that the leaves of Moringa oleifera, a herbal plant is an effective adsorbent for the removal of fluoride from aqueous solution. Acid treated Moringa oleifera leaves powder showed good adsorption capacity than alkali treated Moringa oleifera leaves powder. Batch sorptive defluoridation was conducted under the variable experimental condition such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial fluoride ion concentration. Maximum defluoridation was achieved at pH 1. The percentage of fluoride removal increases with adsorbent dose. The equilibrium sorption data were fitted into Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. Of the three adsorption isotherms, the R 2 value of Langmuir isotherm model was the highest. The maximum monolayer coverage ( Q max) from Langmuir isotherm model was determined to be 1.1441 mg/g, the separation factor indicating a favorable sorption experiment is 0.035. It was also discovered that the adsorption did not conform to the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The heat of sorption process was estimated from Temkin Isotherm model to be - 0.042 J/mol which vividly proved that the adsorption experiment followed a physical process.

  17. Leaving from and returning to nursing practice: contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Isabel; Taua, Chris

    2009-07-01

    Many nurses leave nursing and never return. Others return after a period of time. Given the global shortage of nurses a better understanding of these movements is needed. The present study focused on nurses who had been out of nursing for more than five years, and explored factors that influenced their leaving and return to practice. All the nurses who had undertaken a Competency Assessment Programme at a given New Zealand tertiary institution during 2005 were invited to participate. Of the 70 questionnaires mailed out 32 (44.5%) were completed and returned. Quantitative data were analysed using Microsoft Excel, and the qualitative data were coded and analysed by means of content analysis. For each, leaving and returning, three key issues emerged. Nurses left for personal reasons, to seek a career change, or because of poor working conditions. They returned when they had the personal freedom to do so, for fiscal reasons, or because they were motivated by some sense of unfinished business. These findings indicate that it is important for educators involved with Competency Assessment Programmes to collaborate with employers in ensuring that there are opportunities for re-entry to positive work environments, with a degree of flexibility that suits the demographic characteristics of those nurses returning to practice.

  18. The work ability index and single-item question: associations with sick leave, symptoms, and health--a prospective study of women on long-term sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Linda; Grimby-Ekman, Anna; Hagberg, Mats; Dellve, Lotta

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated the association between the work ability index (WAI) and the single-item question on work ability among women working in human service organizations (HSO) currently on long-term sick leave. It also examined the association between the WAI and the single-item question in relation to sick leave, symptoms, and health. Predictive values of the WAI, the changed WAI, the single-item question and the changed single-item question were investigated for degree of sick leave, symptoms, and health. This cohort study comprised 324 HSO female workers on long-term (>60 days) sick leave, with follow-ups at 6 and 12 months. Participants responded to questionnaires. Data on work ability, sick leave, health, and symptoms were analyzed with regard to associations and predictability. Spearman correlation and mixed-model analysis were performed for repeated measurements over time. The study showed a very strong association between the WAI and the single-item question among all participants. Both the WAI and the single-item question showed similar patterns of associations with sick leave, health, and symptoms. The predictive value for the degree of sick leave and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was strong for both the WAI and the single-item question, and slightly less strong for vitality, neck pain, both self-rated general and mental health, and behavioral and current stress. This study suggests that the single-item question on work ability could be used as a simple indicator for assessing the status and progress of work ability among women on long-term sick leave.

  19. Effect of xanthophyll composition on the chlorophyll excited state lifetime in plant leaves and isolated LHCII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Matthew P.; Zia, Ahmad; Horton, Peter; Ruban, Alexander V.

    2010-01-01

    Xanthophyll excited states have been implicated by transient absorption and two-photon excitation studies in playing a key role in the regulation of photosynthetic light harvesting via photoprotective energy dissipation. For any proposed quenching mechanism to be effective it must reduce the chlorophyll excited state lifetime from 2 ns to ∼0.5-0.4 ns. In the presented study the effect of xanthophyll composition on the chlorophyll excited state lifetime in Arabidopsis leaves in the light harvesting (F m ) and photoprotective (NPQ) states was determined. The data was compared to the chlorophyll excited state lifetime of native isolated LHCII and CP26 in detergent micelles with varying xanthophyll composition. It was found that although the differences in xanthophyll composition between LHC complexes from various Arabidopsis mutants were sufficient to explain the varying F m lifetime (and varying PSII efficiency), they were not of a sufficient scale to fully explain the observed differences in the NPQ lifetimes. Only when the LHC complexes were exposed to a low detergent/low pH media, a condition known to mimic the conformational state of LHCII associated with NPQ in vivo, were variations in excited state lifetime large enough to explain the differences observed in leaves. Furthermore, the data reveal that the replacement of lutein by either zeaxanthin or violaxanthin in the internal xanthophyll binding sites of LHCII and CP26 reduces the efficiency of energy dissipation in the photoprotective state in leaves and isolated complexes.

  20. Determination of five trace elements in leaves in Nanfang sweet orange by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fangqing

    2006-01-01

    The five trace elements of copper, zinc, manganese, iron and cobalt in leaves of Nanfang sweet orange are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The technique is simple, precise and sensitive. The effect of the type of digesting solution (mixed acid), the ratio of mixed acid, the volume of digesting solution and the time of digesting are investigated in details. The results show that leaves of Nanfang sweet orange contain higher amount of iron and zinc. (authors)

  1. Long-term sick leave and its risk factors during pregnancy among Danish hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Jacobsen, Lene B; Olsen, Jørn; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2004-01-01

    The authors sought to describe risk indicators of long-term sick leave during pregnancy among hospital employees. A register-based study was undertaken of 4,852 female hospital employees aged 20-45 years from the second largest hospital in Denmark during 1995-99 based on job titles, working time, sick leave, and births combined with a survey among a total of 773 women who had been pregnant during their employment (response rate 85%). Altogether 236 (31%) were on sick leave for at least 10% of their scheduled work time during their latest pregnancy and 169 (22%) had been absent at least 20% of the time. The pregnant women had an average sickness absence of 6.1 days per month, non-pregnant women 0.95 days per month. Sick leave was more frequent in late than in early gestation. Women employed as nursing aides or hospital orderlies, launderers, and nurses had more sick leave days than other hospital employees. Part-time work, previous sickness absence not related to pregnancy, and previous chronic back pain were risk factors for long-term sick leave as were much walking or standing, long working days, high work level, little practical support from supervisors and colleagues, low job control, much lifting and night or shift work. Sick leave was unrelated to family size, support from the family and number of working years. Long-term sick leave during pregnancy was frequent and to some extent predictable. Efforts should be made to organize work for pregnant women in a manner that optimizes their health and well-being.

  2. Extraction and Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Coumarin in Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Mikania glomerata Spreng: ("guaco" Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeghini Renata M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for preparation of hydroalcoholic extracts of "guaco" (Mikania glomerata Spreng. leaves were compared: maceration, maceration under sonication, infusion and supercritical fluid extraction. Evaluation of these methods showed that maceration under sonication had the best results, when considering the ratio extraction yield/extraction time. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedure for the determination of coumarin in these hydroalcoholic extracts of "guaco" leaves is described. The HPLC method is shown to be sensitive and reproducible.

  3. Protective Role of Comfrey Leave Extracts on UV-induced Zebrafish Fin Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chien-Chung; Chou, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Yao-Chin; Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Wen, Chi-Chung; Chen, Yau-Hung

    2014-01-01

    In zebrafish, UV exposure leads to fin malformation phenotypes including fin reduction or absence. The present study evaluated UV-protective activities of comfrey leaves extracts in a zebrafish model by recording fin morphological changes. Chemopreventive effects of comfrey leave extracts were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression. The results showed that (1) the mean times of return to normal fin in the UV+comfrey (50 and 100 ppm) groups were 3.43 and ...

  4. Barefoot and in a German kitchen: federal parental leave and benefit policy and the return to work after childbirth in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrich, J; Spiess, C K; Yang, Q

    1996-01-01

    "Since 1979 German federal maternity leave and benefit policy has given women incentives to stay at home and take care of their newborn and youngest children. In 1986 this leave and benefit policy was changed in several ways, turning it into a powerful instrument for delaying mothers' return to work after childbirth.... We estimate post childbirth return to work hazards for women during the federally protected leave protection period and immediately upon completion of this leave period. During the leave mothers are less likely to return to work the longer is the time left in the leave protection period; however, this result cannot be attributed generally to high levels of maternity benefits. When the leave protection period ends, mothers with strong labor force attachment who are still on leave return to their jobs." excerpt

  5. Oral Administration of Astrovirus Capsid Protein Is Sufficient To Induce Acute Diarrhea In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Meliopoulos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The disease mechanisms associated with the onset of astrovirus diarrhea are unknown. Unlike other enteric virus infections, astrovirus infection is not associated with an inflammatory response or cellular damage. In vitro studies in differentiated Caco-2 cells demonstrated that human astrovirus serotype 1 (HAstV-1 capsid protein alone disrupts the actin cytoskeleton and tight junction complex, leading to increased epithelial barrier permeability. In this study, we show that oral administration of purified recombinant turkey astrovirus 2 (TAstV-2 capsid protein results in acute diarrhea in a dose- and time-dependent manner in turkey poults. Similarly to that induced by infectious virus, TAstV-2 capsid-induced diarrhea was independent of inflammation or histological changes but was associated with increased intestinal barrier permeability, as well as redistribution of sodium hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3 from the membrane to the cytoplasm of the intestinal epithelium. Unlike other viral enterotoxins that have been identified, astrovirus capsid induces diarrhea after oral administration, reproducing the natural route of infection and demonstrating that ingestion of intact noninfectious capsid protein may be sufficient to provoke acute diarrhea. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the astrovirus capsid acts like an enterotoxin and induces intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction.

  6. Sufficient Condition for Estimation in Designing H∞ Filter-Based SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aqilah Othman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended Kalman filter (EKF is often employed in determining the position of mobile robot and landmarks in simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM. Nonetheless, there are some disadvantages of using EKF, namely, the requirement of Gaussian distribution for the state and noises, as well as the fact that it requires the smallest possible initial state covariance. This has led researchers to find alternative ways to mitigate the aforementioned shortcomings. Therefore, this study is conducted to propose an alternative technique by implementing H∞ filter in SLAM instead of EKF. In implementing H∞ filter in SLAM, the parameters of the filter especially γ need to be properly defined to prevent finite escape time problem. Hence, this study proposes a sufficient condition for the estimation purposes. Two distinct cases of initial state covariance are analysed considering an indoor environment to ensure the best solution for SLAM problem exists along with considerations of process and measurement noises statistical behaviour. If the prescribed conditions are not satisfied, then the estimation would exhibit unbounded uncertainties and consequently results in erroneous inference about the robot and landmarks estimation. The simulation results have shown the reliability and consistency as suggested by the theoretical analysis and our previous findings.

  7. Low ATP level is sufficient to maintain the uncommitted state of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buravkova, L B; Rylova, Y V; Andreeva, E R; Kulikov, A V; Pogodina, M V; Zhivotovsky, B; Gogvadze, V

    2013-10-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MMSCs) are minimally differentiated precursors with great potential to transdifferentiate. These cells are quite resistant to oxygen limitation, suggesting that a hypoxic milieu can be physiological for MMSCs. Human MMSCs isolated from adipose tissue were grown at various oxygen concentrations. Alteration in cell immunophenotype was determined by flow cytometry after staining with specific antibodies. Concentrations of glucose and lactate were determined using the Biocon colorimetric test. Cellular respiration was assessed using oxygen electrode. The modes of cell death were analyzed by flow cytometry after staining with Annexin V and propidium iodide. We found that permanent oxygen deprivation attenuated cellular ATP levels in these cells, diminishing mitochondrial ATP production but stimulating glycolytic ATP production. At the same time, permanent hypoxia did not affect MMSCs' viability, stimulated their proliferation and reduced their capacity to differentiate. Further, permanent hypoxia decreased spontaneous cell death by MMSCs. Under hypoxic conditions glycolysis provides sufficient energy to maintain MMSCs in an uncommitted state. These findings are of interest not only for scientific reasons, but also in practical terms. Oxygen concentration makes an essential contribution to MMSC physiology and should be taken into account in the setting of protocols for cellular therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Paid maternity and paternity leave: rights and choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Claire

    2007-01-01

    From April 2007 onwards, maternity leave will be raised to nine months Paid maternity leave is associated with significant health benefits for babies, including reduced infant mortality The Government proposes to increase paid maternity leave to one year and introduce additional paternity leave by around 2009 The U.K's provision for maternity leave and child care is more generous than the U.S.A. or Australia but less than in the Scandinavian countries

  9. An Internatioal Comparison and Assessment of Maternity Leave Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothea Alewell, Kerstin Pull

    2001-01-01

    Provisions for maternity leave are common among industrialized countries, but their institutional design varies distinctly from country to country. Developing our theory on the impact on maternity leave regulations on women's labor market situation, we argue that a woman on leave creates a re-organization problem for her employer. The costs of re-organization will not simply increase with the duration of maternity leave, but display a hump-shaped curvature which peeks at medium-leave duration...

  10. Solar flare leaves sun quaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    energy, and produce X-rays, microwaves and a shock wave that heats the solar surface. Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that predicts the nature and magnitude of the shock waves that this beam of energetic electrons should create when they slam down into the solar atmosphere. Although their theory directed them to the right area to search for the seismic waves, the waves that they found were 10 times stronger than they had predicted. "They were so strong that you can see them in the raw data," Kosovichev says. The solar seismic waves appear to be compression waves like the "P" waves generated by an earthquake. They travel throughout the Sun's interior. In fact, the waves should recombine on the opposite side of the Sun from the location of the flare to create a faint duplicate of the original ripple pattern, Kosovichev predicts. Now that they know how to find them, the SOHO scientists say that the seismic waves generated by solar flares should allow them to verify independently some of the conditions in the solar interior that they have inferred from studying the pattern of waves that are continually ruffling the Sun's surface. SOHO is part of the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program, a global effort to observe and understand our star and its effects on our environment. The ISTP mission includes more than 20 satellites, coupled with with ground-based observatories and modeling centers, that allow scientists to study the Sun, the Earth, and the space between them in unprecedented detail. ISTP is a joint program of NASA, ESA, Japan's Institute for Astronautical Science, and Russia's Space Research Institute. Still images of the solar quake can be found at the following internet address: FTP://PAO.GSFC.NASA.GOV/newsmedia/QUAKE/ For further information, please contact : ESA Public Relations Division Tel:+33(0)1.53.69.71.55 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.76.90 3

  11. Comparative proteomics of leaves found at different stem positions of maize seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Bo; Wang, Dan; Ge, Xuan-Liang; Zhao, Biligen-Gaowa; Wang, Xu-Chu; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2016-07-01

    To better understand the roles of leaves at different stem positions during plant development, we measured the physiological properties of leaves 1-4 on maize seedling stems, and performed a proteomics study to investigate the differences in protein expression in the four leaves using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry in conjunction with database searching. A total of 167 significantly differentially expressed protein spots were found and identified. Of these, 35% are involved in photosynthesis. By further analysis of the data, we speculated that in leaf 1 the seedling has started to transition from a heterotroph to an autotroph, development of leaf 2 is the time at which the seedling fully transitions from a heterotroph to an autotroph, and leaf maturity was reached only with fully expanded leaves 3 and 4, although there were still some protein expression differences in the two leaves. These results suggest that the different leaves make different contributions to maize seedling growth via modulation of the expression of the photosynthetic proteins. Together, these results provide insight into the roles of the different maize leaves as the plant develops from a heterotroph to an autotroph. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Maternity Leave Access and Health: A Systematic Narrative Review and Conceptual Framework Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Ellie; Baird, Sarah; Bingenheimer, Jeffrey Bart; Markus, Anne Rossier

    2016-06-01

    Background Maternity leave is integral to postpartum maternal and child health, providing necessary time to heal and bond following birth. However, the relationship between maternity leave and health outcomes has not been formally and comprehensively assessed to guide public health research and policy in this area. This review aims to address this gap by investigating both the correlates of maternity leave utilization in the US and the related health benefits for mother and child. Methods We searched the peer-reviewed scholarly literature using six databases for the years 1990 to early 2015 and identified 37 studies to be included in the review. We extracted key data for each of the included studies and assessed study quality using the "Weight of the Evidence" approach. Results The literature generally confirms a positive, though limited correlation between maternity leave coverage and utilization. Likewise, longer maternity leaves are associated with improved breastfeeding intentions and rates of initiation, duration and predominance as well as improved maternal mental health and early childhood outcomes. However, the literature points to important disparities in access to maternity leave that carry over into health outcomes, such as breastfeeding. Synthesis We present a conceptual framework synthesizing what is known to date related to maternity leave access and health outcomes.

  13. (annonaceae) leaves-a potential antimalarial drug

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xylopia species are widely available in West Africa. Xylopia parviflora (Benth) plant is used in folk medicine in the management of a number of ailments, one of these is the use of the leaves in the treatment of malaria fever for which a number of patients have reported its beneficial effects. This study was designed to ...

  14. leaves extract on mild steel in acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    The volume of the cathodic hydrogen gas evolved was also plotted as a .... prevent the escape of hydrogen gas. The volume .... Clivia nobilis leaves extract on the flow of current ... behaviour of ethanol extract of Piper guinensis as a green ...

  15. Borneol from Leaves of Blumea balsamifera

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and organic solvent of low boiling-point extract. At present ... localized at 800 m altitude, 25° 04´ N and 106°. 28´ E. The ... In HDSE, leaves and water were used in similar amounts .... rate of (–)-borneol did not increase significantly. (p > 0.05) ...

  16. Thaumatococcus daniellii leaves: its chemical compositions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol extract of the plant exhibited low 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 615.14 μg/ml. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) characterization of n-hexane, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of T. daniellii leaves identified , thirteen and fifteen compounds, with ...

  17. Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L., common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., horsemint (Mentha longifolia L., sage (Salvia officinalis L., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.. The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs from the mint family Lamiaceae. In mycological investigations, 180 fragments of each plant leaves (1,080 dead leaf fragments in total were placed in a 2% PDA medium. Over 970 colonies of fungi belonging to 48 species were isolated from the dead leaf tissues of the six herb species. Alternaria alternata (toxin-producing, Epicoccum nigrum and Sordaria fimicola were the most frequently isolated. The largest numbers of colonies and species of fungi were isolated from horsemint, while the lowest numbers were from wild marjoram leaves. It was shown that the death of leaves of selected herb species from the Lamiaceae family was caused by various fungi. The results of the mycological analysis confirmed the diversity of species colonizing the leaves of the herbs.

  18. Comparative morphology on leaves of Daphniphyllum (Daphniphyllaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, M.-S.; Yang, Y.-P.; Sheue, C.-R.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative anatomical study on the leaves of nine out of 29 species of the genus Daphniphyllum was performed to seek support for the present infrageneric classification. Daphniphyllum is composed of two sections, Lunata (with one subsection Lunata) and Daphniphyllum (with two subsections,

  19. Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinicke, Kenneth; Cybulski, Franz Wilhelm; Drews, Lea Vedel

    2005-01-01

    In the article it is argued that contemporary fatherhood and masculinity differ increasingly from hegemonic masculinity according to which men are primarily responsible for ensuring the financial basis of the family. The article “Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark”, based on interviews with 15...

  20. Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves. Teachers' Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Tracy; And Others

    This is a guide for use with "Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves" activity cards which are activities for elementary school students (grades 4 to 6) focusing on gardening. It includes educational objectives for each topic as well as lists of vocabulary words, comments, questions for discussion, additional activities, and resources. An interdisciplinary…

  1. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses antiinflammatory activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the leaves of tomato plant that contained several active compounds including alkaloid, steroid and flavanoid has been used for the treatment of variety of diseases and as anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-gout. Although, a number of pharmacological properties have already been demonstrated, the ...

  2. Leave no trace in the outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The essential guide for enjoying the outdoors without harming the environment. - Details the seven core principles of Leave No Trace ethics and practices - Covers hiking, campfires, food storage, and personal hygiene - Endorsed by the USDI National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and the USDA Forest Service

  3. Isolation of chlorophyll a from spinach leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Dikio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for separating chlorophyll a from spinach leaves by column chromatography and solvent extraction techniques has been developed. The purity and identity of the chlorophyll a have been confirmed by UV-Vis, IR and mass spectrometry. Yields from 100 g of freeze-dried spinach were 23 – 24 mg of chlorophyll a.

  4. Why Nannies Leave Their Employing Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn

    The position of nanny as a career option for child care/child development/early childhood education graduates is examined. This study surveyed nannies randomly selected from the 1991 International Nanny Association Directory to determine why nannies leave their employing families. Surveys were mailed to 160 nannies; 62 (39%) nannies responded.…

  5. Talking Leaves, Volume 4, No. 4

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence

    2000-01-01

    Talking Leaves, Spring 2000, Articles: Classroom and Schoolwide Observation Under the Microscope Observing School Restructuring in Multicultural, Multilingual Contexts From the Other Side of the Classroom Looking for Findings in all the Right Places The Classroom Observation Schedule and the Teacher Roles Observation Schedule The Standards Performance Continuum: Measuring CREDE's Standards for Effective Pedagogy The Kentu...

  6. Retrocausal Effects As A Consequence of Orthodox Quantum Mechanics Refined To Accommodate The Principle Of Sufficient Reason

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-11-01

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  7. Job satisfaction and intent to leave among psychiatric nurses: closed versus open wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Alexander; Kagan, Ilya

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate: (a) the association between socio-demographic variables, job satisfaction and intent to leave among hospital psychiatric nurses, and (b) the differences in the above between psychiatric nurses working on closed and open wards. After receiving ethical approval, a convenience sample of 52 (70% of total nursing staff) was drawn from psychiatric nurses in a large Israeli psychiatric hospital (95% response rate). The sample completed anonymously a self-administered structured questionnaire. A negative correlation was found between job satisfaction and intent to leave and between age, all categories of seniority, and intent to leave. Closed-ward nurses reported a higher intent to leave psychiatric nursing. Nurses under 35 reported a significantly higher intent to leave psychiatric nursing than nurses over 35. Job satisfaction was significantly higher among full-time nurses than part-time. Psychiatric hospitals need to pay attention to all factors associated with workers' readiness to leave. Given the widespread shortage of nurses, it is especially important that they address the relatively low job satisfaction of both younger and part-time nurses, and the particular stresses that closed-ward nurses work under. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Loving and Leaving Public Health: Predictors of Intentions to Quit Among State Health Agency Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Leider, Jonathon P; Sellers, Katie

    2015-01-01

    State health agencies play a critical role in protecting and promoting the health and well-being of the people they serve. To be effective, they must maintain a highly skilled, diverse workforce of sufficient size and with proper training. The goal of this study was to examine demographics, job and workplace environment characteristics, job satisfaction, and reasons for initially joining the public health workforce as predictors of an employee's intentions to leave an organization within the next year. This study used a cross-sectional design. Respondents were selected on the basis of a stratified sampling approach, with 5 geographic (paired Health and Human Services [HHS] regions) as the primary strata. Balanced repeated replication was used as a resampling method for variance estimation. A logistic regression model was used to examine the correlates of intentions to leave one's organization within the next year. The independent variables included several measures of satisfaction, perceptions about the workplace environment, initial reasons for joining public health, gender, age, education, salary, supervisory status, program area, and paired HHS region. The sample for this study consisted of 10,246 permanently employed state health agency central office employees who responded to the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS). Considering leaving one's organization within the next year. Being a person of color, living in the West (HHS regions 9 and 10), and shorter tenure in one's current position were all associated with higher odds of intentions to leave an organization within the next year. Conversely, greater employee engagement, organizational support, job satisfaction, organization satisfaction, and pay satisfaction were all significant predictors of lower intentions to leave one's organization within the next year. Results from this study suggest several variables related to demographics, job characteristics, workplace environment, and

  9. Causes and Consequences of a Father's Child Leave: Evidence from a Reform of Leave Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    are the most progressive when it comes to family-friendly policies. An extensive reform of child leave schemes in Denmark affected couples differently depending on whether the parents where employed in the same or in different parts of the public sector. Based on a difference-in-differences strategy, I find...... that economic incentives are very important for intra-household leave-sharing. Increasing the couples' after tax income by $9 per day of leave which is transferred from the mother to the father is found to lead to a one day transfer. This corresponds to a supply elasticity close to unity....

  10. A necessary and sufficient condition for a real quadratic extension to have class number one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemu, Y.

    1990-02-01

    We give a necessary and sufficient condition for a real quadratic extension to have class number one and discuss the applicability of the result to find the class number one fields with small discriminant. 9 refs, 3 tabs

  11. The Effects of Simple Necessity and Sufficiency Relationships on Children's Causal Inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1976-01-01

    Attempted to determine (1) whether developmental differences existed in children's comprehension of simple necessity and simple sufficiency relationships, and (2) the source of developmental differences in children's causal reasoning. (SB)

  12. Countrywide Evaluation of the Long-Term Family Self-Sufficiency Plan. Establishing the Baselines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schoeni, Robert

    2002-01-01

    ...) Plan on November 16,1999. The LTFSS Plan consists of 46 projects whose goal is to promote self-sufficiency among families that are participating in the California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs...

  13. Impact of Market Behavior, Fleet Composition, and Ancillary Services on Revenue Sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany

    2016-04-26

    This presentation provides an overview of new and ongoing NREL research that aims to improve our understanding of reliability and revenue sufficiency challenges through modeling tools within a markets framework.

  14. 76 FR 39115 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Transformation Initiative Family Self-Sufficiency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Information Collection: Transformation Initiative Family Self-Sufficiency Demonstration Small Grants AGENCY... information: Title of Proposal: Notice of Funding Availability for the Transformation Initiative Family Self..., think tanks, consortia, Institutions of higher education accredited by a national or regional...

  15. Translocation of radiocesium from stems and leaves of plants and the effect on radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged plant tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Kagiya, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    An accident occurred at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011 at which time large amounts of radionuclides were released into the atmosphere and the sea. In early May 2011, it was found that newly emerged tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves contained radiocesium, both 134 Cs and 137 Cs in some areas more than 300 km away from the Fukushima plant. To understand the mechanisms of radiocesium transfer to newly emerged tissues (shoots, leaves and fruits) of other plants in the future, radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged leaves of 14 plant species collected from the sampling areas in and near National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba, Japan. The studied plant types were: (1) herbaceous plants, (2) woody plants with no old leaves at the time of the March accident, and (3) woody plants with old leaves out before the accident. About 40–50 d after the start of the accident, newly emerged leaves from woody plant with old leaves tended to show higher values than other woody or herbaceous plants. Concentrations of radiocesium in newly emerged tissues of trees decreased with time, but they did not decrease to the level of herbaceous plants. The type of the plant and presence of old leaves at the time of the heavy deposition period affected the radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged tissues.

  16. Is LMWH Sufficient for Anticoagulant Prophylaxis in Bariatric Surgery? Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaad, Farraj; Zakhar, Bramnik; Anton, Kvasha; Moner, Merie; Wisam, Sbeit; Safy, Farraj; Igor, Waksman

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the coagulation profile by thromboelastography in morbidly obese patients who undergo bariatric surgery. Morbid obesity entails increased risk for thromboembolic events. There is no clear protocol for thromboembolic prophylaxis, regarding timing and length of treatment, in bariatric surgery. Thromboelastography provides data on a coagulation process from creation of the clot until the fibrinolysis. Ninety-three morbidly obese patients were prospectively recruited within a 2-year period. Coagulation profile was measured by thromboelastography before surgery, in the immediate postoperative period, within 3 h from surgery, and in the late postoperative period, within 10-14 days after surgery. Venous thromboembolic prophylaxis was achieved by giving low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), once a day. Of the eligible patients, 67 underwent sleeve gastrectomy while 23 underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Normal values of coagulation factor function, clotting time, and fibrin function, as measured by R, K, and α (angle), were demonstrated in addition to higher maximal amplitude (MA) values, reflecting increased function of platelets. The average MA value before the surgery was above normal and continued rising consistently in the immediate postoperative as well as in the early postoperative period. Morbidly obese patients have a strong tendency toward thrombosis, as demonstrated by pathologically elevated MA values. Altered coagulation profiles were demonstrated 2 weeks postoperatively; thus, prophylaxis that continued at least for 2 weeks after bariatric surgery should be considered. Since LMW heparin is not sufficient alone as thromboembolic prophylaxis, we recommend adding antiplatelet therapy. Further evaluation of appropriate thromboprophylaxis is warranted.

  17. Analyzing components of Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT): Is treatment entry training sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kimberly C; Benishek, Lois A; Kerwin, MaryLouise E; Dugosh, Karen L; Carpenedo, Carolyn M; Bresani, Elena; Haugh, James A; Washio, Yukiko; Meyers, Robert J

    2017-11-01

    Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) assists family members with a treatment-resistant loved one. The most consistent outcome of CRAFT is increased treatment entry of the identified treatment-resistant person (IP). This led us to question whether all 6 components of CRAFT are necessary. In a randomized clinical trial, 115 concerned significant others (CSOs) of an IP received 12-14 sessions of the full CRAFT intervention, 4-6 sessions focused on Treatment Entry Training (TEnT), or 12-14 sessions of Al-Anon/Nar-Anon Facilitation (ANF). We monitored treatment entry, attendance, and substance use of the IP and the CSO's mood and functioning. Data were collected at baseline and 4, 6, and 9 months after the baseline. We found significant reductions in time to treatment entry (χ(2)2 = 8.89, p = .01) and greater treatment entry rates for CRAFT (62%; odds ratio [OR] = 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-6.9) and TEnT (63%; OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.2-7.5) compared with ANF (37%), but CRAFT and TEnT did not differ significantly from each other (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.4-2.7). No between-group differences in IP drug use were reported by CSOs, but days of drug use decreased over time for all groups (F(3, 277) = 13.47, p CRAFT produces greater treatment entry rates than ANF and found similar treatment entry rates for CRAFT and TEnT. This suggests that treatment entry training is sufficient for producing the best established outcome of CRAFT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Study on Processing Technology and Quality of Moringa oleifera leaves with y - Aminobutyric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain the high level of γ-aminobutyric acid Moringa oleifera leaves, Use 7% sodium glutamate solution to soak the fresh Moringa oleifera leaves, study effect of different treatment times and three different drying methods( hot air drying, vacuum freeze drying, shadow drying on the formation of y-aminobutyric acid and quality (total flavonoids, soluble sugar, amino acids, polyphenols, colorof dried Moringa oleifera leaves. The results indicated that shadow-dried Moringa oleifera leaves had the hightest retention of γ-aminobutyric acid, but its browning degree were not preferable, soluble sugar was damaged gravely, and its vulnerable to weather conditions. Vacuum freeze dried Moringa oleifera leaves had the hightest retention of flavonoids, polyphenols and amino acids. The y-aminobutyric acid content of Vacuum freeze dried and hot air dried Moringa oleifera leaves had no much difference. Hot air dried Moringa oleifera leaves browning degree were preferable, it’s had an moderate content of soluble sugar and amino acids, the short drying time is characteristics of this drying method.with the treatment time increased, the content of γ-aminobutyric acid and amino acids content first increased and then decreased. Flavonoids and polyphenols content first decreased and then increased. Soluble sugar content decreased. In summary, after soaking with 7% sodium glutamate solution for 10h, then dried by hot air drying(drying temperature of 60°C, was the most suitable way for industrial production of the high level of γ-aminobutyric acid Moringa oleifera leaves.

  19. HEMOSTATIC EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF Piper betle, Linn LEAVES TO MALE MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadakata Sinulingga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage occurs in most of the dental care. Untreated hemorrhage could cause excessive blood loss, hypotension, and cyanosis. A Natural resource that reported has an hemostatic effect is ethanol extract of betel leaves (Piper betel, Linn.The aim of this study is to find the minimum concentration of ethanol extract of betel leaves which capable of shortening the bleeding time in mice. The experimental study used pretest-posttest with control group design was conducted on 35 mice that divided into 7 group which are negative control, positive control (feracrylum 1%, the ethanol extract of betel leaves 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. All mice were injected heparin intravenously. Mice’s tail was cut at diameter 3 mm and pretest bleeding time was counted. Mice’s tail was recut at diameter 4 mm, given treatment for 5 seconds and posttest bleeding time was counted. Results of paired t-test showed that reduction of bleeding time between pretest and posttest was significant (p<0,050. The enhancement of ethanol extract of betel leaves concentration leads to better hemostatic effect. Results of ANOVA test showed that comparison of posttest bleeding time among groups was significant (p<0,050. The minimum concentration of ethanol extract of betel leaves which capable of shortening the bleeding time in mice is 5%.

  20. Transforming the energy system: Why municipalities strive for energy self-sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelken, Maximilian; Römer, Benedikt; Drescher, Marcus; Welpe, Isabell

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence that a rising number of municipalities in Germany are striving for energy self-sufficiency, there is little understanding of the driving factors behind this development. We investigate economic, ecological, social and energy system related factors that drive municipalities to strive for energy self-sufficiency with a focus on electricity supply. The empirical data for this study is based on insights generated through expert interviews (N =19) with mayors, energy experts and scientists as well as a quantitative study among mayors and energy officers (N =109) of German municipalities. Results show that environmental awareness, tax revenues and greater independence from private utilities are positively related to the mayors’ attitude towards the realization of energy self-sufficiency. Furthermore, citizens, the political environment, the mayor's political power, and his/her financial resources are relevant factors for a municipality striving for energy self-sufficiency. Policymakers need to decide whether or not to support mayors in this development. For suitable policy interventions, the results suggest the importance of an integrated approach that considers a combination of identified factors. Finally, we propose a morphological box to structure different aspects of energy self-sufficiency and categorize the present study. - Highlights: • Municipalities striving for energy self-sufficiency can play a key role in the transition of the energy system. • Tax revenues and environmental awareness main drivers behind mayors’ attitude towards energy self-sufficiency. • Citizens and the political environment main influencers of mayors striving for energy self-sufficiency. • 19 expert interviews analyzed for the framework of the study based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). • 109 mayors and energy officers participated in the quantitative main survey.

  1. Why do seniors leave resistance training programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton E

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Elissa Burton,1 Anne-Marie Hill,1 Simone Pettigrew,2 Gill Lewin,3 Liz Bainbridge,1 Kaela Farrier,1 Phil Airey,4 Keith D Hill1 1School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, 2School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, 3School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, Curtin University, 4Council on the Ageing, Perth, WA, Australia Purpose: The proportion of the population, that is older, is growing at a faster rate than other age groups. Physical activity is important for older people because it assists in living independently. Participating in resistance training on a regular basis (twice weekly is recommended for older people; yet, fewer than 15% of people over 60 years achieve this level. The aim of this article was to investigate the factors contributing to older people’s decisions to stop participation in a resistance training program.Participants and methods: Participants were older people who had chosen to participate in a structured resistance training program specifically designed for seniors and then after a period of time discontinued. This population received a questionnaire in the mail focused on factors contributing to their cessation of resistance training exercise. Qualitative results were analyzed using inductive content analysis.Results: Fifty-six survey responses were received (average age 71.5 years, SD =9.0; 79% females. Injury, illness, and holidaying were the main reasons for ceasing participation. A small but important number of responses (11% reported that they considered they were not provided with sufficient support during the resistance training programs.Conclusions: To attract and retain their senior clients, the results indicate that program organizers need to provide tailored support to return to resistance training after injury and offer flexible and individualized services that accommodate older people’s life choices in retirement. Keywords: older people, strength training, gymnasium, retention, aging

  2. Betacyanin accumulation and guaiacol peroxidase activity in Beta vulgaris L. leaves following copper stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. León Morales

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of copper stress on betacyanin accumulation and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOD activity in leaves of different age was evaluated in red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. Crosby Egyptian plants. In hydroponic culture, plants were treated with 0.3 μM (control, 50 μM, 100 μM, and 250 μM of CuSO4 for 6 days. Copper was taken up and accumulated in old roots but was not translocated to leaves. However in young leaves, the increase of lipid peroxidation and reduction of growth were evident from day 3 of copper exposure; whereas in old leaves, the lipid peroxidation and growth were the same from either copper-treated or control plants. In response to copper exposure, the betacyanin accumulation was evident in young leaves by day 3, and continued to increase until day 6. Betacyanin only were accumulated in old leaves until day 6, but the contents were from 4 to 5 times lower than those observed in young leaves at the same copper concentrations. GPOD activity increased 3.3- and 1.4-fold in young and old leaves from day 3 of copper treatment respectively, but only in the young leaves was sustained at the same level until day 6. Old roots shown betacyanin in the control plants, but the betacyanin level and growth were reduced with the copper exposure. In contrast, young roots emerged by copper effect also accumulated copper and showed the highest betacyanin content of all plant parts assayed. These results indicate that betacyanin accumulation and GPOD activity are defense responses to copper stress in actively growing organs.

  3. Economic Valuation of Sufficient and Guaranteed Irrigation Water Supply for Paddy Farms of Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kavoosi Kalashami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of the strategic crop of rice highly depends to the existence of sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water, and water shortage stresses have irreparable effects on yield and quality of productions. Decrease of the Sefidrud river inflow in Guilan province which is the main source of supplying irrigation water for 171 thousand hectares under rice cropping area of this province, has been challenged sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply in many regions of mentioned province. Hence, in present study estimating the value that paddy farmers place on sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply has been considered. Economic valuation of sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply improves water resource management policies in demand side. Requested data set were obtained on the base of a survey and are collected from 224 paddy farms in rural regions that faced with irrigation water shortages. Then, using open-ended valuation approach and estimation of Tobit model via ML and two stages Heckman approach, eliciting paddy farmers' willingness to pay for sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply has been accomplished. Results revealed that farmers in investigated regions willing to pay 26.49 percent more than present costs of providing irrigation water in order to have sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water.

  4. The Right to Paid Annual Leave: the Implications of Accession

    OpenAIRE

    Potočnjak, Željko; Grgić, Andrea; Čatipović, Iva

    2014-01-01

    The right to paid annual leave is a particularly important principle of EU social law that is regulated by the provisions of Article 7 of the Working Time Directive (WTD), where it enjoys a privileged status as the only non-derogable right. Significantly, Article 7 of the WTD Directive has been interpreted by the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) as a directly effective provision. In Croatian law, this right has been implemented by means of the Labour Act. In thi...

  5. Measuring the cost of leaving care in Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Forbes; Brett Inder; Sunitha Raman

    2006-01-01

    On any given night in Victoria, around 4,000 children and young people live under the care and protection of the State. For many young people, this care extends over a long period of time, sometimes until their 18th birthday. It is well documented that young people leaving State care often lack the social and economic resources to assist them in making the transition into independent living. As a consequence, the long-term life outcomes from this group are frequently very poor. A recent repor...

  6. Father's Rights to Paid Parental Leave in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Haas, L.

    2011-01-01

    to what extent government-provided, paid parental leave and quotas for fathers could bring about equality in the division of leave between men and women by focusing on the pioneers in the field, the Nordic countries – the first nations to offer fathers parental leave and introduce quotas. First, we......European Union policy encourages men and women to share parental leave to balance work and family life and promote gender equality in the labor market. A new directive extends parental leave to four months and introduces a quota, so one month is reserved for each parent. This article explores...... describe the extent to which parental leave policies have been established and implemented in a way that is likely to promote equal sharing of leave. Next, we evaluate the impact of particular configurations of gender equality incentives in present parental leave policies for the actual division of leave...

  7. Analyzing the impact of price subsidy on rice self-sufficiency level in Malaysia: A preliminary finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Farah Hanim Abdul; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Hawari, Nurul Nazihah

    2017-11-01

    The Malaysian government had targeted for the rice industry in the country to achieve 100% rice self-sufficiency where Malaysia's rice self-sufficiency level (SSL) is currently at 65% to 75%. Thus, the government had implemented few policies to increase the rice production in Malaysia in order to meet the growing demand of rice. In this paper, the effect of price support on the rice production system in Malaysia is investigated. This study utilizes the system dynamics approach of the rice production system in Malaysia where the complexity of the factor is interrelated and changed dynamically through time. Scenario analysis was conducted using system dynamics model by making changes on the price subsidy to see its effect on the rice production and rice SSL. The system dynamics model provides a framework for understanding the effect of price subsidy on the rice self-sufficiency level. The scenario analysis of the model shows that a 50% increase in the price subsidy leads to a substantial increase in demand as the rice price drops. Accordingly, the local production increases by 15%. However, the SSL slightly decreases as the local production is insufficient to meet the large demand.

  8. Philosophy of sufficiency economy for community-based adaptation to climate change: Lessons learned from Thai case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulvadee Kansuntisukmongkol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Major components within the philosophy of a sufficiency economy include moderation, prudence, and self-immunity together with knowledge and morality. These components were proposed to safeguard local communities from adverse changes and crises. Climatic crises due to global warming can impact upon local agricultural production and consumption systems. Yet, it is still questionable whether communities following the sufficiency economy philosophy can cope with climate change. The objective of this research was to study the coping and adaptive capacity to climate change of local agricultural communities following the sufficiency economy philosophy and to analyze the success factors of adaptation to climate change. The research found five adaptive strategies leading to a resilient livelihood: (1 self-evaluation, (2 diversity dependency, (3 storage and reserve, (4 cooperation, and (5 mobility over space and time. These strategies help to reduce exposure and sensitivity, while increasing adaptive capacity to climate change with the aims of sustainability and adaptation for survival, and protecting natural resource bases for food and settlement security. Moderation, prudence, and self-immunity are critical success factors of adaptation measures, whereas local ecological knowledge with morality is a core enabling factor for adapting to climate change. These factors can be applied in community-based climate change adaptation in the National Adaptation Plan.

  9. Efficiency of Dry (Psidium guava) Leaves for The Removal of Cesium-137 from Aqueous Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, H.A.; Abu-Kharda, S.A.; Abd El -Baset, L.A.; Abu-Shohba, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Batch experiments for the removal of cesium-137 from aqueous solution onto guava leaves (psidium guava) and carbonized guava leaves were studied as a function of contact time, dosage, ph value and initial concentration ion. The sorption process was described by pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, Morris and Elovich kinetic models. Cesium concentrations were ranged between 2x10 -5 - 1x10 -3 M. Sorption data have been interpreted in terms of Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The maximum sorption capacity of carbonized guava leaves adsorbent for cesium removal was 8.02 mgg -1 . The results of the present study suggest that carbonized guava leaves can be used beneficially for cesium removal from aqueous solution.

  10. The Best Extraction Technique for Kaempferol and Quercetin Isolation from Guava Leaves (Psidium guajava)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, I.; Suparto, I. H.; Wulandari, N. S.

    2017-03-01

    Guava leaves contain various compounds that have biological activity such as kaempferol and quercetin as anticancer. Twelve extraction techniques were performed to obtain the best extraction technique to isolate kaempferol and quercetin from the guava leaves. Toxicity of extracts was tested against Artemia salina larvae. All extracts were toxic (LC50 value less than 1000 ppm) except extract of direct soxhletation on guava leaves, and extract of sonication and soxhletation using n-hexane. The extract with high content of total phenols and total flavonoids, low content of tannins, intense color of spot on thin layer chromatogram was selected for high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Direct sonication of guava leaves was chosen as the best extraction technique with kampferol and quercetin content of 0.02% and 2.15%, respectively. In addition to high content of kaempferol and quercetin, direct sonication was chosen due to the shortest extraction time, lesser impurities and high toxicity.

  11. The influence of altered gravity on carbohydrate metabolism in excised wheat leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenland, D. M.; Brown, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    We developed a system to study the influence of altered gravity on carbohydrate metabolism in excised wheat leaves by means of clinorotation. The use of excised leaves in our clinostat studies offered a number of advantages over the use of whole plants, most important of which were minimization of exogenous mechanical stress and a greater amount of carbohydrate accumulation during the time of treatment. We found that horizontal clinorotation of excised wheat leaves resulted in significant reductions in the accumulation of fructose, sucrose, starch and fructan relative to control, vertically clinorotated leaves. Photosynthesis, dark respiration and the extractable activities of ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.27), sucrose phosphate synthase (EC 2.4.4.14), sucrose sucrose fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.99), and fructan hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.80) were unchanged due to altered gravity treatment.

  12. Prey-induced changes in the accumulation of amino acids and phenolic metabolites in the leaves of Drosera capensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Stork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2012-04-01

    Effect of prey feeding (ants Formica fusca) on the quantitative changes in the accumulation of free amino acids, soluble proteins, phenolic metabolites and mineral nutrients in the leaves of carnivorous plant Drosera capensis was studied. Arginine was the most abundant compound in Drosera leaves, while proline was abundant in ants. The amount of the majority of amino acids and their sum were elevated in the fed leaves after 3 and 21 days, and the same, but with further enhancement after 21 days, was observed in ants. Accumulation of amino acids also increased in young non-fed leaves of fed plants. Soluble proteins decreased in ants, but were not enhanced in fed leaves. This confirms the effectiveness of sundew's enzymatic machinery in digestion of prey and suggests that amino acids are not in situ deposited, but rather are allocated within the plant. The content of total soluble phenols, flavonoids and two selected flavonols (quercetin and kaempferol) was not affected by feeding in Drosera leaves, indicating that their high basal level was sufficient for the plant's metabolism and prey-induced changes were mainly N based. The prey also showed to be an important source of other nutrients besides N, and a stimulation of root uptake of some mineral nutrients is assumed (Mg, Cu, Zn). Accumulation of Ca and Na was not affected by feeding.

  13. Optimum design for effective water transport through a double-layered porous hydrogel inspired by plant leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejeong; Kim, Hyeonjeong; Huh, Hyungkyu; Hwang, Hyung Ju; Lee, Sang Joon

    2014-11-01

    Plant leaves are generally known to have optimized morphological structure in response to environmental changes for efficient water usage. However, the advantageous features of plant leaves are not fully utilized in engineering fields yet, since the optimum design in internal structure of plant leaves is unclear. In this study, the tissue organization of the hydraulic pathways inside plant leaves was investigated. Water transport through double-layered porous hydrogel models analogous to mesophyll cells was experimentally observed. In addition, computational experiment and theoretical analysis were applied to the model systems to find the optimal design for efficient water transport. As a result, the models with lower porosity or with pores distributed widely in the structure exhibit efficient mass transport. Our theoretical prediction supports that structural features of plant leaves guarantee sufficient water supply as survival strategy. This study may provide a new framework for investigating the biophysical principles governing the morphological optimization of plant leaves and for designing microfluidic devices to enhance mass transport ability. This study was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea and funded by the Korean government.

  14. Predictors of Intent to Leave the Job Among Home Health Workers: Analysis of the National Home Health Aide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Robyn; Wilhelm, Jess; Bishop, Christine E; Bryant, Natasha S; Hermer, Linda; Squillace, Marie R

    2017-10-01

    To identify agency policies and workplace characteristics that are associated with intent to leave the job among home health workers employed by certified agencies. Data are from the 2007 National Home and Hospice Care Survey/National Home Health Aide Survey, a nationally representative, linked data set of home health and hospice agencies and their workers. Logistic regression with survey weights was conducted to identify agency and workplace factors associated with intent to leave the job, controlling for worker, agency, and labor market characteristics. Job satisfaction, consistent patient assignment, and provision of health insurance were associated with lower intent to leave the job. By contrast, being assigned insufficient work hours and on-the-job injuries were associated with greater intent to leave the job after controlling for fixed worker, agency, and labor market characteristics. African American workers and workers with a higher household income also expressed greater intent to leave the job. This is the first analysis to use a weighted, nationally representative sample of home health workers linked with agency-level data. The findings suggest that intention to leave the job may be reduced through policies that prevent injuries, improve consistency of client assignment, improve experiences among African American workers, and offer sufficient hours to workers who want them. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Women's Reasons for Leaving the Engineering Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Wan, Min; Singh, Romila

    2017-01-01

    Among the different Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math fields, engineering continues to have one of the highest rates of attrition (Hewlett et al., 2008). The turnover rate for women engineers from engineering fields is even higher than for men (Frehill, 2010). Despite increased efforts from researchers, there are still large gaps in our understanding of the reasons that women leave engineering. This study aims to address this gap by examining the reasons why women leave engineering. Specifically, we analyze the reasons for departure given by national sample of 1,464 women engineers who left the profession after having worked in the engineering field. We applied a person-environment fit theoretical lens, in particular, the Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA) (Dawis and Lofquist, 1984) to understand and categorize the reasons for leaving the engineering field. According to the TWA, occupations have different "reinforcer patterns," reflected in six occupational values, and a mismatch between the reinforcers provided by the work environment and individuals' needs may trigger departure from the environment. Given the paucity of literature in this area, we posed research questions to explore the reinforcer pattern of values implicated in women's decisions to leave the engineering field. We used qualitative analyses to understand, categorize, and code the 1,863 statements that offered a glimpse into the myriad reasons that women offered in describing their decisions to leave the engineering profession. Our results revealed the top three sets of reasons underlying women's decision to leave the jobs and engineering field were related to: first, poor and/or inequitable compensation, poor working conditions, inflexible and demanding work environment that made work-family balance difficult; second, unmet achievement needs that reflected a dissatisfaction with effective utilization of their math and science skills, and third, unmet needs with regard to lack of recognition

  16. Weed Interference Effects on Leaves, Internode and Harvest Index of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of appropriate weed management strategies and efficient use of herbicides relies upon understanding weed-crop interactions. A field study was carried out to assess the effect of weed interference on leaves, internode and harvest index of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The experiment was established under a randomized complete block design with two types of weed interference treatments: plots with weeds and plots without weeds at different time intervals (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. The sigmoid Boltzmann model was used to quantify the crop traits as influenced by weed interference. Prolonged delays in weed removal reduced gradually the number of leaves of the crop. Weed interference decreased dry weight of leaves as well, so that the lowest value of it (33.49 g plant-1 was observed in full season during weed-infested treatment. Infestation of weeds affected the length of the crop internodes. While the weed interference duration increased, the length of the internodes decreased. Harvest index was also sensitive to weed competition. As the crop was kept weed-infested from the emergence for increasing periods of time, harvest index decreased to a value of 28.01%. A significant negative correlation between total biomass of weeds and dry bean traits (number of leaves, leaves dry weight, internode length and harvest index was observed. Therefore, weeds are able to adversely affect dry bean growth through constraining environmental resources and impairing leaves as the photosynthetic areas.

  17. School environment as predictor of teacher sick leave: data-linked prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Jenni; Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Puusniekka, Riikka; Pohjonen, Tiina; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna

    2012-09-11

    Poor indoor air quality (IAQ) and psychosocial problems are common in schools worldwide, yet longitudinal research on the issue is scarce. We examined whether the level of or a change in pupil-reported school environment (IAQ, school satisfaction, and bullying) predicts recorded sick leaves among teachers. Changes in the school environment were assessed using pupil surveys at two time points (2001/02 and 2004/05) in 92 secondary schools in Finland. Variables indicating change were based on median values at baseline. We linked these data to individual-level records of teachers' (n = 1678) sick leaves in 2001-02 and in 2004-05. Multilevel multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for baseline sick leave and covariates showed a decreased risk for short-term (one to three days) sick leaves among teachers working in schools with good perceived IAQ at both times (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.5-0.9), and for those with a positive change in IAQ (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.9), compared to teachers in schools where IAQ was constantly poor. Negative changes in pupil school satisfaction (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-2.8) and bullying (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.3) increased the risk for short-term leaves among teachers when compared to teachers in schools where the level of satisfaction and bullying had remained stable. School environment factors were not associated with long-term sick leaves. Good and improved IAQ are associated with decreased teacher absenteeism. While pupil-related psychosocial factors also contribute to sick leaves, no effect modification or mediation of psychosocial factors on the association between IAQ and sick leave was observed.

  18. Japanese tea leaves: a possible biological standard reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuwa, Keiichiro; Notsu, Kenji; Tsunoda, Kin-ichi; Kato, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yuko.

    1978-01-01

    Japanese Tea Leaves, prepared by pulverizing with an agate ball mill and sieving with a Saran fiber sieve (50 mesh) were assessed as a possible biological standard reference material for elemental analysis. The metal content of the tea leaves was determined independently at two laboratories using atomic absorption and flame emission spectrometry. Neutron activation analysis was also performed to determine the content (21 elements) of Tea Leaves. For some elements the result from the various methods were compared. The characteristics of Tea Leaves are discussed and the elemental composition is compared to that of Orchard Leaves (NBS SRM, 1571). The most significant characteristic of Tea Leaves was the high manganese content. (auth.)

  19. The linear accumulation of atmospheric mercury by vegetable and grass leaves: Potential biomonitors for atmospheric mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Sen; Ci, Zhijia; Kong, Xiangrui; Wang, Zhangwei

    2013-09-01

    One question in the use of plants as biomonitors for atmospheric mercury (Hg) is to confirm the linear relationships of Hg concentrations between air and leaves. To explore the origin of Hg in the vegetable and grass leaves, open top chambers (OTCs) experiment was conducted to study the relationships of Hg concentrations between air and leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The influence of Hg in soil on Hg accumulation in leaves was studied simultaneously by soil Hg-enriched experiment. Hg concentrations in grass and vegetable leaves and roots were measured in both experiments. Results from OTCs experiment showed that Hg concentrations in leaves of the four species were significantly positively correlated with those in air during the growth time (p  0.05). Thus, Hg in grass leaves is mainly originated from the atmosphere, and grass leaves are more suitable as potential biomonitors for atmospheric Hg pollution. The effect detection limits (EDLs) for the leaves of alfalfa and ryegrass were 15.1 and 22.2 ng g(-1), respectively, and the biological detection limit (BDL) for alfalfa and ryegrass was 3.4 ng m(-3).

  20. Procalcitonin is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moro Serrano Manuel

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has recently been suggested that serum procalcitonin (PCT is of value in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, with varying results. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to assess the usefulness of PCT as a marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin. Methods One hundred infants aged between 4 and 28 days of life admitted to the Neonatology Services of 13 acute-care teaching hospitals in Spain over 1-year with clinical suspicion of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin were included in the study. Serum PCT concentrations were determined by a specific immunoluminometric assay. The reliability of PCT for the diagnosis of nosocomial neonatal sepsis at the time of suspicion of infection and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms was calculated by receiver-operating characteristics (ROC curves. The Youden's index (sensitivity + specificity - 1 was used for determination of optimal cutoff values of the diagnostic tests in the different postnatal periods. Sensitivity, specificity, and the likelihood ratio of a positive and negative result with the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated. Results The diagnosis of nosocomial sepsis was confirmed in 61 neonates. Serum PCT concentrations were significantly higher at initial suspicion and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms in neonates with confirmed sepsis than in neonates with clinically suspected but not confirmed sepsis. Optimal PCT thresholds according to ROC curves were 0.59 ng/mL at the time of suspicion of sepsis (sensitivity 81.4%, specificity 80.6%; 1.34 ng/mL within 12–24 h of birth (sensitivity 73.7%, specificity 80.6%, and 0.69 ng/mL within 36–48 h of birth (sensitivity 86.5%, specificity 72.7%. Conclusion Serum PCT concentrations showed a moderate diagnostic reliability for the detection of nosocomial neonatal sepsis from the time of suspicion of infection. PCT is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of

  1. ANTIANAPHYLACTIC ACTIVITY OF HELIOTROPIUM INDICUM LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    M Shenoy Ashoka; C. Shastry Shashidhar

    2011-01-01

    The alcoholic extract of Heliotropium indicum leaves was evaluated using Wistar rats and Duncan Hartley guinea pigs. The antianaphylactic activity was investigated in rats using the active anaphylaxis model. The effect on mast cell stabilization was performed by ex vivo challenge of antigen in sensitized rat intestinal mesenteries. Antihistaminic activity was studied in guinea pigs using histamine-induced bronchospasm where preconvulsive dyspnea was used as an end point following exposure to ...

  2. The Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Contributes to but Is Not Sufficient for Virulence In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseth, Allison; Marzi, Andrea; Hoenen, Thomas; Herwig, Astrid; Gardner, Don; Becker, Stephan; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Among the Ebola viruses most species cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans; however, Reston ebolavirus (REBOV) has not been associated with human disease despite numerous documented infections. While the molecular basis for this difference remains unclear, in vitro evidence has suggested a role for the glycoprotein (GP) as a major filovirus pathogenicity factor, but direct evidence for such a role in the context of virus infection has been notably lacking. In order to assess the role of GP in EBOV virulence, we have developed a novel reverse genetics system for REBOV, which we report here. Together with a previously published full-length clone for Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV), this provides a unique possibility to directly investigate the role of an entire filovirus protein in pathogenesis. To this end we have generated recombinant ZEBOV (rZEBOV) and REBOV (rREBOV), as well as chimeric viruses in which the glycoproteins from these two virus species have been exchanged (rZEBOV-RGP and rREBOV-ZGP). All of these viruses could be rescued and the chimeras replicated with kinetics similar to their parent virus in tissue culture, indicating that the exchange of GP in these chimeric viruses is well tolerated. However, in a mouse model of infection rZEBOV-RGP demonstrated markedly decreased lethality and prolonged time to death when compared to rZEBOV, confirming that GP does indeed contribute to the full expression of virulence by ZEBOV. In contrast, rREBOV-ZGP did not show any signs of virulence, and was in fact slightly attenuated compared to rREBOV, demonstrating that GP alone is not sufficient to confer a lethal phenotype or exacerbate disease in this model. Thus, while these findings provide direct evidence that GP contributes to filovirus virulence in vivo, they also clearly indicate that other factors are needed for the acquisition of full virulence. PMID:22876185

  3. Boosting long-term memory via wakeful rest: intentional rehearsal is not necessary, consolidation is sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Michaela; Alber, Jessica; Cowan, Nelson; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    People perform better on tests of delayed free recall if learning is followed immediately by a short wakeful rest than by a short period of sensory stimulation. Animal and human work suggests that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for the consolidation of recently acquired memories. However, an alternative account cannot be ruled out, namely that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for intentional rehearsal of recently acquired memories, thus driving superior memory. Here we utilised non-recallable words to examine whether wakeful rest boosts long-term memory, even when new memories could not be rehearsed intentionally during the wakeful rest delay. The probing of non-recallable words requires a recognition paradigm. Therefore, we first established, via Experiment 1, that the rest-induced boost in memory observed via free recall can be replicated in a recognition paradigm, using concrete nouns. In Experiment 2, participants heard 30 non-recallable non-words, presented as 'foreign names in a bridge club abroad' and then either rested wakefully or played a visual spot-the-difference game for 10 minutes. Retention was probed via recognition at two time points, 15 minutes and 7 days after presentation. As in Experiment 1, wakeful rest boosted recognition significantly, and this boost was maintained for at least 7 days. Our results indicate that the enhancement of memory via wakeful rest is not dependent upon intentional rehearsal of learned material during the rest period. We thus conclude that consolidation is sufficient for this rest-induced memory boost to emerge. We propose that wakeful resting allows for superior memory consolidation, resulting in stronger and/or more veridical representations of experienced events which can be detected via tests of free recall and recognition.

  4. Boosting long-term memory via wakeful rest: intentional rehearsal is not necessary, consolidation is sufficient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Dewar

    Full Text Available People perform better on tests of delayed free recall if learning is followed immediately by a short wakeful rest than by a short period of sensory stimulation. Animal and human work suggests that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for the consolidation of recently acquired memories. However, an alternative account cannot be ruled out, namely that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for intentional rehearsal of recently acquired memories, thus driving superior memory. Here we utilised non-recallable words to examine whether wakeful rest boosts long-term memory, even when new memories could not be rehearsed intentionally during the wakeful rest delay. The probing of non-recallable words requires a recognition paradigm. Therefore, we first established, via Experiment 1, that the rest-induced boost in memory observed via free recall can be replicated in a recognition paradigm, using concrete nouns. In Experiment 2, participants heard 30 non-recallable non-words, presented as 'foreign names in a bridge club abroad' and then either rested wakefully or played a visual spot-the-difference game for 10 minutes. Retention was probed via recognition at two time points, 15 minutes and 7 days after presentation. As in Experiment 1, wakeful rest boosted recognition significantly, and this boost was maintained for at least 7 days. Our results indicate that the enhancement of memory via wakeful rest is not dependent upon intentional rehearsal of learned material during the rest period. We thus conclude that consolidation is sufficient for this rest-induced memory boost to emerge. We propose that wakeful resting allows for superior memory consolidation, resulting in stronger and/or more veridical representations of experienced events which can be detected via tests of free recall and recognition.

  5. The Ebola virus glycoprotein contributes to but is not sufficient for virulence in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Groseth

    Full Text Available Among the Ebola viruses most species cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans; however, Reston ebolavirus (REBOV has not been associated with human disease despite numerous documented infections. While the molecular basis for this difference remains unclear, in vitro evidence has suggested a role for the glycoprotein (GP as a major filovirus pathogenicity factor, but direct evidence for such a role in the context of virus infection has been notably lacking. In order to assess the role of GP in EBOV virulence, we have developed a novel reverse genetics system for REBOV, which we report here. Together with a previously published full-length clone for Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV, this provides a unique possibility to directly investigate the role of an entire filovirus protein in pathogenesis. To this end we have generated recombinant ZEBOV (rZEBOV and REBOV (rREBOV, as well as chimeric viruses in which the glycoproteins from these two virus species have been exchanged (rZEBOV-RGP and rREBOV-ZGP. All of these viruses could be rescued and the chimeras replicated with kinetics similar to their parent virus in tissue culture, indicating that the exchange of GP in these chimeric viruses is well tolerated. However, in a mouse model of infection rZEBOV-RGP demonstrated markedly decreased lethality and prolonged time to death when compared to rZEBOV, confirming that GP does indeed contribute to the full expression of virulence by ZEBOV. In contrast, rREBOV-ZGP did not show any signs of virulence, and was in fact slightly attenuated compared to rREBOV, demonstrating that GP alone is not sufficient to confer a lethal phenotype or exacerbate disease in this model. Thus, while these findings provide direct evidence that GP contributes to filovirus virulence in vivo, they also clearly indicate that other factors are needed for the acquisition of full virulence.

  6. Sickness presence, sick leave and adjustment latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Gerich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Previous research on the association between adjustment latitude (defined as the opportunity to adjust work efforts in case of illness and sickness absence and sickness presence has produced inconsistent results. In particular, low adjustment latitude has been identified as both a risk factor and a deterrent of sick leave. The present study uses an alternative analytical strategy with the aim of joining these results together. Material and Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, a random sample of employees covered by the Upper Austrian Sickness Fund (N = 930 was analyzed. Logistic and ordinary least square (OLS regression models were used to examine the association between adjustment latitude and days of sickness absence, sickness presence, and an estimator for the individual sickness absence and sickness presence propensity. Results: A high level of adjustment latitude was found to be associated with a reduced number of days of sickness absence and sickness presence, but an elevated propensity for sickness absence. Conclusions: Employees with high adjustment latitude experience fewer days of health complaints associated with lower rates of sick leave and sickness presence compared to those with low adjustment latitude. In case of illness, however, high adjustment latitude is associated with a higher pro­bability of taking sick leave rather than sickness presence.

  7. Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juheini Amin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves. Preminelary experiment showed that ethanolic extract ofgandarusa leaves (Justicia gendarussa Burm. could decreased uric acid blood level on rats. The aim of this experimentwas to determine of the value LD50 and liver function based on activities of aminotransferase. Animals test which wereused in this experiment were 50 males and 50 females white mice. They were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 as controlgroup was given aquadest. Group 2-5 were treated by ethanolic extract of gandarusa leaves with dosage 4, 8, 16, and 32g/kg bw. The LD50 value was determined by the amount of death in group during 24 hours after giving a single dose oftest substance. The result showed that the highest dose was practically non toxic with LD50 value of 31.99 g/kg bw(male groups and 27.85 g/kg bw (female groups. Measurement of aminotransferase activity was done by usingcolorimetric method. The result of ANOVA analysis for liver function showed that the giving test substance 4 g/kg bw–16 g/kg bw was not significantly different between treated groups and control group.

  8. Correlation, necessity, and sufficiency: Common errors in the scientific reasoning of undergraduate students for interpreting experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Aaron B; Lam, Diane P; Soowal, Lara N

    2015-01-01

    Gaining an understanding of how science works is central to an undergraduate education in biology and biochemistry. The reasoning required to design or interpret experiments that ask specific questions does not come naturally, and is an essential part of the science process skills that must be learned for an understanding of how scientists conduct research. Gaps in these reasoning skills make it difficult for students to become proficient in reading primary scientific literature. In this study, we assessed the ability of students in an upper-division biochemistry laboratory class to use the concepts of correlation, necessity, and sufficiency in interpreting experiments presented in a format and context that is similar to what they would encounter when reading a journal article. The students were assessed before and after completion of a laboratory module where necessary vs. sufficient reasoning was used to design and interpret experiments. The assessment identified two types of errors that were commonly committed by students when interpreting experimental data. When presented with an experiment that only establishes a correlation between a potential intermediate and a known effect, students frequently interpreted the intermediate as being sufficient (causative) for the effect. Also, when presented with an experiment that tests only necessity for an intermediate, they frequently made unsupported conclusions about sufficiency, and vice versa. Completion of the laboratory module and instruction in necessary vs. sufficient reasoning showed some promise for addressing these common errors. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  9. How, When, and Where? Assessing Renewable Energy Self-Sufficiency at the Neighborhood Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosspietsch, David; Thömmes, Philippe; Girod, Bastien; Hoffmann, Volker H

    2018-02-20

    Self-sufficient decentralized systems challenge the centralized energy paradigm. Although scholars have assessed specific locations and technological aspects, it remains unclear how, when, and where energy self-sufficiency could become competitive. To address this gap, we develop a techno-economic model for energy self-sufficient neighborhoods that integrates solar photovoltaics (PV), conversion, and storage technologies. We assess the cost of 100% self-sufficiency for both electricity and heat, comparing different technical configurations for a stylized neighborhood in Switzerland and juxtaposing these findings with projections on market and technology development. We then broaden the scope and vary the neighborhood's composition (residential share) and geographic position (along different latitudes). Regarding how to design self-sufficient neighborhoods, we find two promising technical configurations. The "PV-battery-hydrogen" configuration is projected to outperform a fossil-fueled and grid-connected reference configuration when energy prices increase by 2.5% annually and cost reductions in hydrogen-related technologies by a factor of 2 are achieved. The "PV-battery" configuration would allow achieving parity with the reference configuration sooner, at 21% cost reduction. Additionally, more cost-efficient deployment is found in neighborhoods where the end-use is small commercial or mixed and in regions where seasonal fluctuations are low and thus allow for reducing storage requirements.

  10. Sickness absence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of psychological treatments for individuals on sick leave due to common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsson, Sigrid; Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik; Öst, Lars-Göran

    2018-01-30

    Sick leave due to common mental disorders (CMDs) increase rapidly and present a major societal challenge. The overall effect of psychological interventions to reduce sick leave and symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated and there is a need for a systematic review and meta-analysis of the field. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to calculate the effect size of psychological interventions for CMDs on sick leave and psychiatric symptoms based on all published randomized controlled trials. Methodological quality, the risk of bias and publication bias were also assessed. The literature searches gave 2240 hits and 45 studies were included. The psychological interventions were more effective than care as usual on both reduced sick leave (g = 0.15) and symptoms (g = 0.21). There was no significant difference in effect between work focused interventions, problem-solving therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy or collaborative care. We conclude that psychological interventions are more effective than care as usual to reduce sick leave and symptoms but the effect sizes are small. More research is needed on psychological interventions that evaluate effects on sick leave. Consensual measures of sick leave should be established and quality of psychotherapy for patients on sick leave should be improved.

  11. A solar house self-sufficient of energy. Experiences on the way to energy autarky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, K.; Dohlen, K. v.; Lehmberg, H.; Stahl, W.; Wittwer, C.; Goetzberger, A.

    1994-01-01

    The solar house Freiburg which is self-sufficient of energy was completed in October 1992. After a long and complex planning phase now measuring and monitoring tasks as well as the realization fo improvement measures are to the fore. This article presents exemplary results of the first year of operation and compare them with the expectations. Self-sufficient operation of the building could be attained between April and October 1993. Here among others hydrogen was successfully produced by photovoltaic supplied electrolysis and was to a large degree used for thermal applications (cooking, heating). The fact that the supply of energy was not self-sufficient all the year round was due to the failure of the fuel cell used to produce electric power again with hydrogen. (orig./BWI) [de

  12. Sufficient education attainment for a decent standard of living in modern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Joy Callander

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Education attainment will impact upon an individual’s capacity to engage in the labour force, their living standards and hence their poverty status. As such, education should be included in measures of poverty. However, it is not known what a sufficient level of education to have a decent standard of living is. Using the 2003 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers different levels of education attainment were tested for their association with labour force participation and income. Based upon this, it was concluded that Year 12 or higher is a sufficient level of education attainment for 15 to 64 year olds; and Year 10 or higher for people over the age of 65 years. This is in line with current government policies to improve Year 12 completion rates. Knowing what a ‘sufficient level of education attainment’ is, allows education to be included in multidimensional measures of poverty that view education as a key dimension of disadvantage.

  13. Parameters Symptomatic for Boron Toxicity in Leaves of Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Cervilla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of boron (B toxicity has risen in areas of intensive agriculture close to the Mediterranean sea. The objective of this research was to study the how B toxicity (0.5 and 2 mM B affects the time course of different indicators of abiotic stress in leaves of two tomato genotypes having different sensitivity to B toxicity (cv. Kosaco and cv. Josefina. Under the treatments of 0.5 and 2 mM B, the tomato plants showed a loss of biomass and foliar area. At the same time, in the leaves of both cultivars, the B concentration increased rapidly from the first day of the experiment. These results were more pronounced in the cv. Josefina, indicating greater sensitivity than in cv. Kosaco with respect to excessive B in the environment. The levels of O2 •− and anthocyanins presented a higher correlation coefficient (r>0.9 than did the levels of B in the leaf, followed by other indicators of stress, such as GPX, chlorophyll b and proline (r>0.8. Our results indicate that these parameters could be used to evaluate the stress level as well as to develop models that could help prevent the damage inflicted by B toxicity in tomato plants.

  14. Turning palm leaves into wood: Opportunities for Egypt's rural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Bedouin women weave handmade baskets, hats, and lamps using dried palm leaves. ... palm tree leaves into hardwood and high-quality wooden products, ... of wood and open doors to job opportunities for rural communities.

  15. Leaving School: A Comparison of the Worries Held by Adolescents with and without Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R.; Dagnan, D.; Jahoda, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leaving school is an important time for adolescents, with increasing autonomy and developing adult identities. The present study sought to shed light on the content and emotional impact of worries amongst adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities (IDs) at this time of change. Methods: Twenty-five adolescents with mild to…

  16. Having a First versus a Second Child: Comparing Women's Maternity Leave Choices and Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Medora W.

    2013-01-01

    There are good reasons to suspect that the transition parents go through when having their second child may be different from when having their first, yet these differences remain understudied. This study focuses on one specific area of possible divergence by looking at how first-time versus second-time mothers decide on maternity leave length. To…

  17. Emergency management: does it have a sufficiently comprehensive understanding of decision-making, process and context?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niculae, C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: It is now widely recognized in the social and management sciences that the effective support of decision-making requires a multi-disciplinary perspective, with businesses increasingly using inter-disciplinary teams. This trend is also seen in nuclear emergency management, for example in the UK inter-disciplinary groups are formed to focus on specific topics such as remediation where their recommendations are feed to the decision makers. The necessity of taking a multi-disciplinary perspective is particularly important for contexts in which the decision makers are likely to be under high stress and so could revert to instinctive patterns of behaviour and modes of communication found in their core disciplines. Yet when we look at the design of the information systems produced to support emergency management, we find a very partial set of disciplinary perspectives providing a strongly rationalistic, technocratic view. These systems have been developed by the technical community with little consultation with non-expert decision makers and limited understanding of emergency management processes across Europe and the social systems with which they interact. In this paper we have considered the Cynefin model, developed by IBM, which draws together much of the work on decision making and decision context over the past 30-40 years, describing the possible contexts in which decision-making may take place, the known, the knowable, the complex and the chaotic space. The known space is the realm of scientific knowledge where the cause and effect are understood. Next, there is the knowable space the realm of scientific enquiry where the cause and effect can be determined with sufficient data. In the complex space there are many interacting cause and effects, to the extent that we do not have sufficiently refined models to predict what will happen as a consequence of any particular actions and the cause and effect may only be explained after the event. In the chaotic

  18. Dietary Iodine Sufficiency and Moderate Insufficiency in the Lactating Mother and Nursing Infant: A Computational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W; Wang, Jian; George, Nysia I; Gearhart, Jeffery M; McLanahan, Eva D

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends that lactating women ingest 290 μg iodide/d and a nursing infant, less than two years of age, 110 μg/d. The World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders recommend population maternal and infant urinary iodide concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L to ensure iodide sufficiency. For breast milk, researchers have proposed an iodide concentration range of 150-180 μg/L indicates iodide sufficiency for the mother and infant, however no national or international guidelines exist for breast milk iodine concentration. For the first time, a lactating woman and nursing infant biologically based model, from delivery to 90 days postpartum, was constructed to predict maternal and infant urinary iodide concentration, breast milk iodide concentration, the amount of iodide transferred in breast milk to the nursing infant each day and maternal and infant serum thyroid hormone kinetics. The maternal and infant models each consisted of three sub-models, iodide, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). Using our model to simulate a maternal intake of 290 μg iodide/d, the average daily amount of iodide ingested by the nursing infant, after 4 days of life, gradually increased from 50 to 101 μg/day over 90 days postpartum. The predicted average lactating mother and infant urinary iodide concentrations were both in excess of 100 μg/L and the predicted average breast milk iodide concentration, 157 μg/L. The predicted serum thyroid hormones (T4, free T4 (fT4), and T3) in both the nursing infant and lactating mother were indicative of euthyroidism. The model was calibrated using serum thyroid hormone concentrations for lactating women from the United States and was successful in predicting serum T4 and fT4 levels (within a factor of two) for lactating women in other countries. T3 levels were adequately predicted. Infant serum thyroid hormone levels were adequately

  19. [Effect of vitamin beverages on vitamin sufficiency of the workers of Pskov Hydroelectric Power-Plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiricheva, T V; Vrezhesinskaia, O A; Beketova, N A; Pereverzeva, O G; Kosheleva, O V; Kharitonchik, L A; Kodentsova, V M; Iudina, A V; Spirichev, V B

    2010-01-01

    The research of influence of vitamin complexes in the form of a drink or kissel on vitamin sufficiency of working persons has been carried out. Long inclusion (6,5 months) in a diet of vitamin drinks containing about 80% from recommended daily consumption of vitamins, was accompanied by trustworthy improvement of vitamins C and B6 sufficiency and prevention of seasonal deterioration of beta-carotene status. As initially surveyed have been well provided with vitamins A and E, their blood serum level increase had not occurred.

  20. PENENTUAN CADANGAN PREMI DENGAN METODE PREMIUM SUFFICIENCY PADA ASURANSI JIWA SEUMUR HIDUP JOINT LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    NI PUTU MIRAH PERMATASARI; I NYOMAN WIDANA; KARTIKA SARI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to get the formula of premium reserves through the premium sufficiency method. Premium reserve is the amount of fund that is collected by the insurance company in preparation for the claim’s payment. Premium sufficiency method is gross premium calculation. To construct that formula, this research used Tabel Mortalitas Indonesia (TMI) 2011, interest rate 2.5% and cost of alpha %. Based on simulation result in men premium reserve value of age 1 of 56 years propotio...

  1. PENENTUAN CADANGAN PREMI DENGAN METODE PREMIUM SUFFICIENCY PADA ASURANSI JIWA SEUMUR HIDUP JOINT LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI PUTU MIRAH PERMATASARI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to get the formula of premium reserves through the premium sufficiency method. Premium reserve is the amount of fund that is collected by the insurance company in preparation for the claim’s payment. Premium sufficiency method is gross premium calculation. To construct that formula, this research used Tabel Mortalitas Indonesia (TMI 2011, interest rate 2.5% and cost of alpha %. Based on simulation result in men premium reserve value of age 1 of 56 years propotional with insured periods, but after56 years enhancement of premium reserve value.

  2. Mental and Active Preparation: Examining Variations in Women's Processes of Preparing to Leave Abusive Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermea, Autumn M; Khaw, Lyndal; Hardesty, Jennifer L; Rosenbloom, Lindsay; Salerno, Craig

    2017-02-01

    Although the process of leaving abusive relationships has received increased research attention, preparing to leave is still largely understudied. Despite an emphasis on safety planning, not all women take active steps to prepare, and the characteristics and experiences of those who do or do not actively prepare are unknown. We address this gap with a secondary data analysis of interviews with 25 abused mothers in the process of leaving. All women initially engaged in mental planning, where they had emotionally disconnected from their partners. Using constructivist grounded theory techniques, we identified two distinct groups: those whose mental planning led to active planning ( n = 11), and those who moved directly from mental planning to leaving ( n = 14) with little time or need to actively plan. The groups differed on several individual, relationship, and child factors, which may have impacted the ability or decisions to prepare. This study supports the feminist view that survivors are not helpless victims but active agents who strategize for safety. Those who engage solely in mental planning still prepare to leave, even if they do not engage in active planning. Practitioners should consider factors affecting preparations and acknowledge mental planning as a necessary effort in leaving.

  3. Laboring Until Labor: The Prevalence and Correlates of Antenatal Maternity Leave in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julia M

    2018-02-01

    Introduction Most women in the U.S. are employed during pregnancy and work until the month of childbirth. For many, working throughout pregnancy poses little threat to their health; however, women experiencing difficult pregnancies and/or working in strenuous or inflexible jobs may benefit from taking time from work as they approach childbirth, but almost no empirical evidence examines antenatal leave (ANL). Methods Using a national survey of English-speaking women, this paper offers the first national description of ANL and examines state policy predictors of uptake. Results Thirty-seven percent of employed women worked until the week their baby was due. After controlling for characteristics of women and their jobs, living in a state with any or multiple leave laws increased the probability of ANL by 14 and 23% points, respectively. Women living in states with multiple leave laws stopped work almost 2 weeks earlier than women in states without a policy. Discussion Paid leave policies currently being considered at the federal, state, and local levels should consider the potential impact on antenatal leave, in addition to postnatal leave, and how they influence population health.

  4. The Length of Maternity Leave and Family Health

    OpenAIRE

    Beuchert, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation,we estimate the effect of the length of maternity leave on a range of health indicators including the number of hospital admissions for both mother and child and the probability of the mother receiving antidepressants. The reform led to an increa...

  5. ANALGETIC ACTIVITY OF CEP-CEPAN (Saurauia cauliflora DC. LEAVES EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Salim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. The people who live in Karo use several types of plants to relieve pain, one of which is cep-cepan (Saurauia cauliflora DC. The leaves of this plant traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. There is no scientific evidence about analgetic effect of the leaves. Thus, this study aimed to determine the potential effect of the ethanolic extract of cep-cepan leaves as an analgesic. Fresh Cep-cepan leaves were dried in a drying cabinet at 40°C. Furthermore, the water content of the powdered dried leaves was determined using azeotropic distillation method. Phytochemical screening was carried out to determine chemical groups contained in the dried leaves. Plant extraction was done by maceration method using ethanol 96%. Analgesic effect of the extract was evaluated by observing respon time of mices to infrared as pain inducer. Mices were grouped into six categories, they were: vehicle, antalgin 65 mg/kgBW, and extracts at the dose of 500 mg/kgBW, 250 mg/kgBW, 125 mg/kgBW, 62,5 mg/kgBW, all were administered orally. The data were analayzed using ANOVA followed by LSD. Results showed that the dried leaves contained flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, anthraquinone glycosides and steroids/triterpenoids. The water contain of the dried leaves was 5,3%. The analgesic test results showed the extract at the dose of 250 mg/kgBW had strong analgesic effect similar to that of 500 mg/kgBW and antalgin 65 mg/kgBW.

  6. Cytotoxic Constituents from the Leaves of Zanthoxylum schinifolium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhe; Min, Byung Sun; Kim, Ae Kyong; Woo, Mi Hee; Jun, Do Youn; Kim, Young Ho

    2010-01-01

    The roots, stems, pericarps, and seeds of Z. schinifolium were each extracted with MeOH, and the leaves were extracted with 80% MeOH and concentrated. These extracts were examined on MTT for cytotoxicity against Jurkat T cell clone E6.1. The results showed that the leaves extract had the strongest MTT cytotoxicity. The MeOH extract of Z. schinifolium leaves was subsequently fractionated into four parts: methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water. These fractions were examined on MTT for cytotoxicity. The results showed that the methylene chloride fraction exhibited the strongest MTT cytotoxicity. Chromatographic separation of the methylene chloride and butanol fractions had yielded a quinolin (1), three phenylpropanoids (2, 3, 12), four coumarins (4 ∼ 7), three triterpenoids (8 ∼ 10), an alkaloid (11), an alcohol glucoside (13) and three monoterpene glucosides (14, 15, 16). One of these compounds were identified as new threo-6-amino-5-hydroxy-5-methyl-1,3-oxazinan-4-one (11) together with fifteen known, 3-heptyl-2-methylisoquinolin-1(2H)-one (1), integrifoliodiol (2), cuspidiol (3), bergapten (4), aurapten (5), 8-hydroxy-7-methoxy-chromen-2-one (6), 6,7-dimethoxy-2H-naphthalen-1-one (7), lupeol (8), lupeone (9), β-sitosterol (10), syringin (12), 2-propyl alchol β-D-glucopyranoside (13), vomifoliol-9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (14), betulalbuside A (15) and cnidioside C (16) on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidences. All of the compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant except 5 and 7. In the MTT cytotoxicity assay against Jurkat T cell clone E6.1, IC 50 values of cuspidiol (3) and auraptene (5) were obtained at 7.3 μg/mL and 16.5 μg/mL, respectively

  7. Cytotoxic Constituents from the Leaves of Zanthoxylum schinifolium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhe; Min, Byung Sun; Kim, Ae Kyong; Woo, Mi Hee [Catholic Univ. of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Do Youn; Kim, Young Ho [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The roots, stems, pericarps, and seeds of Z. schinifolium were each extracted with MeOH, and the leaves were extracted with 80% MeOH and concentrated. These extracts were examined on MTT for cytotoxicity against Jurkat T cell clone E6.1. The results showed that the leaves extract had the strongest MTT cytotoxicity. The MeOH extract of Z. schinifolium leaves was subsequently fractionated into four parts: methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water. These fractions were examined on MTT for cytotoxicity. The results showed that the methylene chloride fraction exhibited the strongest MTT cytotoxicity. Chromatographic separation of the methylene chloride and butanol fractions had yielded a quinolin (1), three phenylpropanoids (2, 3, 12), four coumarins (4 ∼ 7), three triterpenoids (8 ∼ 10), an alkaloid (11), an alcohol glucoside (13) and three monoterpene glucosides (14, 15, 16). One of these compounds were identified as new threo-6-amino-5-hydroxy-5-methyl-1,3-oxazinan-4-one (11) together with fifteen known, 3-heptyl-2-methylisoquinolin-1(2H)-one (1), integrifoliodiol (2), cuspidiol (3), bergapten (4), aurapten (5), 8-hydroxy-7-methoxy-chromen-2-one (6), 6,7-dimethoxy-2H-naphthalen-1-one (7), lupeol (8), lupeone (9), β-sitosterol (10), syringin (12), 2-propyl alchol β-D-glucopyranoside (13), vomifoliol-9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (14), betulalbuside A (15) and cnidioside C (16) on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidences. All of the compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant except 5 and 7. In the MTT cytotoxicity assay against Jurkat T cell clone E6.1, IC{sub 50} values of cuspidiol (3) and auraptene (5) were obtained at 7.3 μg/mL and 16.5 μg/mL, respectively.

  8. Cellular proton dynamics in Elodea canadensis leaves induced by cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq Javed, M; Lindberg, Sylvia; Greger, Maria

    2014-04-01

    Our earlier investigations showed that Elodea canadensis shoots, grown in the presence of cadmium (Cd), caused basification of the surrounding medium. The present study was aimed to examine the proton dynamics of the apoplastic, cytosolic and vacuolar regions of E. canadensis leaves upon Cd exposure and to establish possible linkage between cellular pH changes and the medium basification. The changes in cytosolic calcium [Ca(2+)]cyt was also investigated as the [Ca(2+)]cyt and [pH]cyt homeostasis are closely linked. The cellular H(+) and Ca(2+) concentrations were monitored by fluorescence microscopy and ion-specific fluorescent dyes. Cadmium concentration of leaf-cell walls was measured after plant cultivation at different fixed levels of starting pH. The protoplasts from E. canadensis leaves were isolated by use of a newly developed enzymatic method. Upon Cd addition, both cytosolic and vacuolar pH of leaf protoplasts increased with a concomitant rise in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Time course studies revealed that changes in [Ca(2+)]cyt and [pH]cyt followed similar dynamics. Cadmium (0.5 μM) exposure decreased the apoplastic pH by 0.85 units. The maximum cell wall bound Cd-contents were obtained in plants grown at low starting pH. It is concluded that Cd treatment causes apoplastic acidosis in E. canadensis leaves associated with enhanced Cd binding to the cell walls and, consequently, reduced Cd influx into the cytosol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. 5 CFR 630.1206 - Notice of leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... medical treatment, the employee shall provide notice to the agency of his or her intention to take leave... placement or planned medical treatment requires leave to begin within 30 calendar days, the employee shall... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of leave. 630.1206 Section 630...

  10. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... States (less language training) and the actual days overseas beginning on the date of departure from the.... (e) Military leave. Military leave of not more than 15 calendar days in any calendar year may be... such military leave has been approved in advance by the cognizant Mission Director or Assistant...

  11. 77 FR 22519 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Family and Medical Leave Act AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Department of Labor. ACTION: Extension of... on the proposed revisions to certain regulations of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA... Family and Medical Act (FMLA) regulations to implement amendments to the military leave provisions of the...

  12. Konference Fathers and Paternity Leave: Men Do It

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maříková, Hana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 14 (2006), s. 833-835 ISSN 0038-0288. [Fathers and Paternity Leave: Men Do It] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700280504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : parental leave * paternity leave * fathering Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.128, year: 2006

  13. Maternity Leave Provisions for Classroom Teachers in Larger School Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Research Service Circular, 1966

    1966-01-01

    Maternity leave provisions for classroom teachers in 129 school systems having enrollments of 25,000 or more are reported for 1965-66 in this national survey. Tables contain information on compulsory absence prior to anticipated date of birth and earliest permissible return from maternity leaves. Brief descriptions of maternity leave practices are…

  14. Volatile components of vine leaves from two Portuguese grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz, analysed by solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruno; Correia, Ana C; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M; Jordão, António M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the volatile composition of vine leaves and vine leaf infusion prepared from vine leaves collected at 30 and 60 days after grape harvest of two Vitis vinifera L. species. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in vine leaves and in vine leaf infusions. It was observed that the volatile compounds present in vine leaves are dependent on the time of harvest, with benzaldehyde being the major volatile present in vine leaves collected at 30 days after harvesting. There are significant differences in the volatile composition of the leaves from the two grape cultivars, especially in the sample collected at 60 days after grape harvest. This is not reflected in the volatile composition of the vine leaf infusion made from this two cultivars, the more important being the harvesting date for the volatile profile of vine leaf infusion than the vine leaves grape cultivar.

  15. Handling and postharvest shelf life of ora-pro-nobis leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Karen Reis Barbosa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the effects of hydrocooling and plastic bag use on the postharvest quality ora-pro-nobis (Pereskia aculeata Mill. leaves stored at 5 and 25ºC. The experiments were conducted in a split plot scheme, with treatments in plots and subplots storage time in a randomized block design. The leaf chlorophyll content, mass loss (ML, relative water content (RWC, soluble sugars levels, reducings (RED, non-reducings and starch were determined. In leaves stored at 25ºC, the ML was higher when leaves were hydrocooled. The highest RWC resulted from the use of plastic bag, which prevented the leaves from wilting for a longer period of time. The soluble sugars levels varied according to the increase or decrease in RWC. The contents of RED decreased with the time of storage at 25°C. The cold storage increased the shelf life of ora-pro-nobis by 168 hours. The hydrocooling increased the RWC of leaves, although it did not influence the shelf life. The perforated plastic bag was effective in increasing the shelf life, and when associated with hydrocooling, the plastic bags provide a lower rate of loss of fresh mass.

  16. The potato virus x TGBp2 protein association with the endoplasmic reticulum plays a role in but is not sufficient for viral cell-to-cell movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Ruchira; Krishnamurthy, Konduru; Blancaflor, Elison; Payton, Mark; Nelson, Richard S.; Verchot-Lubicz, Jeanmarie

    2003-01-01

    Potato virus X (PVX) TGBp1, TGBp2, TGBp3, and coat protein are required for virus cell-to-cell movement. Plasmids expressing GFP fused to TGBp2 were bombarded to leaf epidermal cells and GFP:TGBp2 moved cell to cell in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves but not in Nicotiana tabacum leaves. GFP:TGBp2 movement was observed in TGBp1-transgenic N. tabacum, indicating that TGBp2 requires TGBp1 to promote its movement in N. tabacum. In this study, GFP:TGBp2 was detected in a polygonal pattern that resembles the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed TGBp2 has two putative transmembrane domains. Two mutations separately introduced into the coding sequences encompassing the putative transmembrane domains within the GFP:TGBp2 plasmids and PVX genome, disrupted membrane binding of GFP:TGBp2, inhibited GFP:TGBp2 movement in N. benthamiana and TGBp1-expressing N. tabacum, and inhibited PVX movement. A third mutation, lying outside the transmembrane domains, had no effect on GFP:TGBp2 ER association or movement in N. benthamiana but inhibited GFP:TGBp2 movement in TGBp1-expressing N. tabacum and PVX movement in either Nicotiana species. Thus, ER association of TGBp2 may be required but not be sufficient for virus movement. TGBp2 likely provides an activity for PVX movement beyond ER association

  17. Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on translocation of 42K deposited on leaves of lettuce and maize plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamel, A.

    1975-01-01

    2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) applied in solution (10μg per plant) on a leaf of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa, cv. Grosse Blonde Paresseuse) decreases the translocation of 42 K from the treated leaf, both in pretreatment and in simultaneous action if the interval of time was sufficiently long between the foliar applications. The metabolic action of 2,4-D seemed to proceed in the treated leaf. The results may be explainded by stimulation of metabolic activity and consequently of retention, already observed by several authors, with 2,4-D and other phytohormones. 2,4-D had not a comparable effect on the translocation of 42 K from the leaves of maize plants (Zea mays Dekalb 202) even if the amount applied was higher and the duration of the pretreatment more significant. However, for this species slight stimulation with 2,4-D of the retention of 42 K in the sheath of the treated leaf was observed. The results obtained with lettuce and maize might fit to the pattern of selectivity found for other aspects of the metabolism. (author)

  18. Operation of CANDU power reactor in thorium self-sufficient fuel cycle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These disadvantages of thorium fuel cycle were seemingly the reasons why that ... According to the data of figure 2, maximum (equilibrium) content of 233U in ..... Self-sufficient mode is related with rather big effort in the extraction of isotopes of.

  19. Evaluating the sufficiency of protected lands for maintaining wildlife population connectivity in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Erin L. Landguth; Curtis H. Flather

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The goal of this study was to evaluate the sufficiency of the network of protected lands in the U.S. northern Rocky Mountains in providing protection for habitat connectivity for 105 hypothetical organisms. A large proportion of the landscape...

  20. Stability of matrices with sufficiently strong negative-dominant-diagonal submatrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, H.J.; Schoonbeek, L.

    A well-known sufficient condition for stability of a system of linear first-order differential equations is that the matrix of the homogeneous dynamics has a negative dominant diagonal. However, this condition cannot be applied to systems of second-order differential equations. In this paper we