WorldWideScience

Sample records for leatherhead food international

  1. Some Technological Challenges in the Addition of Probiotic Bacteria to Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Claude P.

    In North-America, up to 93% of consumers believe certain foods have health benefits that may reduce the risk of disease (Clydesdale, 2005). Using a strict definition, limited to food and drinks that tend to make specific health claims of some kind on the packaging or in advertising, the functional foods (FF) and drinks market in the five major European markets, the USA, Japan and Australia had a combined value of 16 billion USD in 2005 (Leatherhead Food International, 2006). Dairy products account for nearly 43% of this market, which is almost entirely made up of fermented dairy products (Leatherhead Food International, 2006).

  2. 800 kW transmission line research at Leatherhead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-05-29

    The experimental transmission line was installed at Leatherhead to enable the Central Electricity Research Laboratories to study the insulators, fittings, and conductors likely to be needed for ac power transmission at voltages up to the equivalent of 800 kV three-phase. Continuous recording will be made of corona power loss and radio and television interference. For this purpose C.E.R.L. has developed a statistical radio-interference recorder. The instrumentation also includes an automatic corona-loss bridge and data logger.

  3. International Food Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Malov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The review article reveals the content of the concept of Food Regime, which is little-known in the Russian academic reference. The author monitored and codified the semantic dynamic of the terminological unit from its original interpretations to modern formulations based on the retrospective analysis. The rehabilitation of the academic merits of D. Puchala and R. Hopkins — authors who used the concept Food Regime for a few years before its universally recognized origin and official scientific debut, was accomplished with help of historical and comparative methods. The author implemented the method of ascension from the abstract to the concrete to demonstrating the classification of Food Regimes compiled on the basis of geopolitical interests in the sphere of international production, consumption, and distribution of foodstuffs. The characteristic features of historically formed Food Regime were described in the chronological order, as well as modern tendencies possessing reformist potential were identified. In particular, it has been established that the idea of Food Sovereignty (which is an alternative to the modern Corporate Food Regime is the subject for acute academic disputes. The discussion between P. McMichael P. and H. Bernstein devoted to the “peasant question” — mobilization frame of the Food Sovereignty strategy was analyzed using the secondary data processing method. Due to the critical analysis, the author comes to the conclusion that it is necessary to follow the principles of the Food Sovereignty strategy to prevent the catastrophic prospects associated with ecosystem degradation, accelerated erosion of soils, the complete disappearance of biodiversity and corporate autoc racy successfully. The author is convinced that the idea of Food Sovereignty can ward off energetic liberalization of nature, intensive privatization of life and rapid monetization of unconditioned human reflexes.

  4. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  5. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  6. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1997-01-01

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940's: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950's: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960's: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970's: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980's: establishment of national regulations; 1990's: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  7. International document on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This international document highlights the major issues related to the acceptance of irradiated food by consumers, governmental and intergovernmental activities, the control of the process, and trade. The conference recognized that: Food irradiation has the potential to reduce the incidence of foodborne diseases. It can reduce post-harvest food losses and make available a larger quantity and a wider variety of foodstuffs for consumers. Regulatory control by competent authorities is a necessary prerequisite for introduction of the process. International trade in irradiated foods would be facilitated by harmonization of national procedures based on internationally recognized standards for the control of food irradiation. Acceptance of irradiated food by the consumer is a vital factor in the successful commercialization of the irradiation process, and information dissemination can contribute to this acceptance

  8. International status of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation processing of foods has been studied for over 30 years. To a considerable extent this research was carried out in the framework of various international projects. After optimistic beginnings in the 1950s and long delays, caused by uncertainty about the health safety of foods so treated, food irradiation has now reached the stage of practical application in several countries. In order to prepare the way for world-wide accceptance of the new process, the Codex Alimentarius Commission has accepted an 'International General Standard for Irradiated Foods' and an 'International Code of Practice for the Operation of Irradiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Foods'. Psychological barriers to a process associated with the word 'radiation' are still formidable; it appears, however, that acceptance by authorities, food industry and consumers continues to grow

  9. Prospects for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, David

    1990-01-01

    Recent legislation will permit the introduction of food irradiation in the UK. This development has been met with protests from consumer groups, and some wariness among retailers. David Kilcast, of the Leatherhead Food Research Association, explains the basic principles and applications of food irradiation, and argues that a test marketing campaign should be initiated. The consumer, he says, will have the final say in the matter. (author)

  10. Food irradiation receives international acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddoes, J M [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario. Commercial Products

    1982-04-01

    Irradiation has advantages as a method of preserving food, especially in the Third World. The author tabulates some examples of actual use of food irradiation with dates and tonnages, and tells the story of the gradual acceptance of food irradiation by the World Health Organization, other international bodies, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). At present, the joint IAEA/FAO/WHO standard permits an energy level of up to 5 MeV for gamma rays, well above the 1.3 MeV energy level of /sup 60/Co. The USFDA permits irradiation of any food up to 10 krad, and minor constituents of a diet may be irradiated up to 5 Mrad. The final hurdle to be cleared, that of economic acceptance, depends on convincing the food processing industry that the process is technically and economically efficient.

  11. Food irradiation receives international acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddoes, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Irradition has advantages as a method of preserving food, especially in the Third World. The author tabulates some examples of actual use of food irradiation with dates and tonnages, and tells the story of the gradual acceptance of food irradiation by the World Health Organization, other international bodies, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). At present, the joint IAEA/FAO/WHO standard permits an energy level of up to 5 MeV for gamma rays, well above the 1.3 MeV energy level of 60 Co. The USFDA permits irradiation of any food up to 10 krad, and minor constituents of a diet may be irradiated up to 5 Mrad. The final hurdle to be cleared, that of economic acceptance, depends on convincing the food processing industry that the process is technically and economically efficient

  12. International status of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1982-09-01

    Recent international moves that are likely to result in an increasing acceptance of irradiated foods are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the activities of the FAO, WHO, Codex Alimentarius and to attitudes in the United States and the Asian-Pacific region. In 1979, the Codex Alimentarius Commission adopted a Recommended General Standard for Irradiated Food. A resume is given of a revised version of the standard that is presently under consideration. However, remaining barriers to trade in irradiated food are briefly discussed, such as legal and regulatory problems, labelling, public acceptance and economic viability

  13. Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF). The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFS-RF) is a collaborative program of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and IDRC valued at CA $61 654 707 (CIDA: CA $50 000 000; IDRC: CA $11 654 707). The program ...

  14. International food aid – directions of changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sapa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Permanently unsolved world food insecurity problem makes the international community search for solutions. One of the used methods is international food aid directed to developing countries. Long term analyses of the food aid flows allow to identify some tendencies that show: increase of emergency food aid and decrease of direct transfer. These tendencies also apply to the two biggest food donors i.e. the USA and the EU. The noticeable directions of changes are based on the international community initiatives, on which the national regulation are formed later.

  15. Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund(CIFSRF) is a program of Canada's International Development Research. Centre (IDRC) undertaken with the financial support of the. Government of Canada provided through Foreign ...

  16. Prospects of international trade in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1990-01-01

    Irradiation is gaining recognition as a physical process for reducing food losses, enhancing hygienic quality of food and facilitating food trade. At present, 36 countries have approved the use of irradiation for processing collectively over 40 food items either on an unconditional or restricted basis. Commercial use of irradiated foods and food ingredients is being carried out in 22 countries. Technology transfer on food irradiation is being intensified to local industry in different regions. Worldwide, a total of 40 commercial/demonstration irradiators available for treating foods have been or are being constructed. Acceptance and control of international trade in irradiated foods were discussed at the International Conference on the Acceptance, Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food, jointly convened by FAO, IAEA, WHO and ITC-UNCTAD/GATT in Geneva, Switzerland, 12-16 December 1988. An ''International Document on Food Irradiation'' was adopted by consensus at this Conference which will facilitate wider acceptance and control of international trade in irradiated foods. (author)

  17. Australian International Food Security Research Centre | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Australian International Food Security Research Centre. Australian International Food Security Research Centre. http://aciar.gov.au/AIFSC. Cultivate Africa's Future. The Cultivate Africa's Future research partnership is designed to support applied research to combat hunger in sub-Saharan Africa by harnessing the potential ...

  18. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide

  19. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2004-01-01

    The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international

  20. Canadian International Food Security Research Fund | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF) invests in scaling up ... for farming families, and improve nutrition throughout the Global South. ... universities, civil society organizations, governments, and the private sector, ...

  1. International acceptance of irradiated food. Legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The three international organizations competent in the field of irradiation processing for the preservation of food (FAO, WHO, IAEA), convened, at the end of 1977, an Advisory Group to revise and update the recommendations of a similar group which met in early 1972. The Advisory Group considered how national regulations could be harmonized so as to facilitate the international movement of irradiated food. This publication contains the Report of the Advisory Group, which summarizes the considerations of the Group on regulatory control over the irradiation plant and irradiation of foods, and on assurances for comparability of control (international labelling and documentation). Annexes 1 to 6 are included in order to complete the relevant information on the legal aspects of this subject. They include a Draft General Standard for Irradiated Foods, a Draft Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Foods, Recommendations of a Consultation Group on the Legal Aspects of Food Irradiation, a Listing of the Legislation on Food Irradiation Adopted in Member States (1971-1976), and Model Regulations for the Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food

  2. [Food poisoning--importance of international perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki

    2012-08-01

    It is important to obtain the information on food security in the countries other than Japan since more than 60 % of the food consumed come from these countries. Food security is now considered as a global issue. A global trend persuading us to provide safe food to humans is based on the concept of human security development associated with a sense of human mission to sustain one's life. Another global tendency pushing us to secure safety and hygiene of food is driven by the economic pressure coming from the rules in international trade established by Codex Committee under FAO/WHO. In contrast to these trends under globalization requesting safe and hygienic food, food habits based on tradition or religion are maintained locally in various parts of the world. These local habits include eating raw or improperly cooked foods, which may become a risk of being exposed to food poisoning pathogens. This issue may be adequately solved by a risk assessment approach based on the concept of appropriate level of protection (ALOP). Like or not, people in some local areas live in the unhygienic environment where they are unintentionally and frequently exposed to enteric pathogens or immunologically cross-reacting microorganisms through which they may acquire specific immunity to the pathogens and escape from infection by the pathogens. There are therefore many areas in the world where people understand the necessity to provide safe food at the international level (globalization) but actually consume food in varying hygienic conditions from area to area due in part to traditional food habits or living environments (localization); we call this situation as glocalization (global+local).

  3. Food Irradiation. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-11-15

    For some years research has been done in several countries, with the object of contributing to the world's food supplies, on the application of nuclear methods to food preservation and processing. The importance of food preservation is of particular relevance in certain regions of the world where up to thirty per cent of harvested foodstuffs are being lost because of damage by animal pests and microorganisms. A series of international meetings have been held on this subject; the first, held in 1958 at Harwell, was followed by further meetings in 1960 in Paris and in 1961 in Brussels. The International Symposium on Food Irradiation organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations through their Joint Division of Atomic Energy in Agriculture, and held at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre, Karlsruhe, from 6 to 10 June 1966, at the generous invitation of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, is the most recent of this series of meetings. It was held for the purpose of exchanging the most up-to-date results of research, of contributing towards co-operative efforts between Member States, and of stimulating trade in the international exchange of irradiated products between nations. Papers describing research over the past fourteen years were given by outstanding authorities; the results point to a breakthrough having been achieved in the use of ionizing radiation in food preservation, notwithstanding some problems still to be solved, such as overcoming changes in colour, flavour, odour or texture. The Symposium was attended by over 200 scientists from 25 countries and four international organizations. Sixty-nine papers were presented. It was shown that a wide variety of foodstuffs exist for which radiation could be used for three different purposes: to produce indefinitely stable products, to rid food of organisms that constitute health hazards, and to extend the normal shelf or market life

  4. Food Irradiation. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    For some years research has been done in several countries, with the object of contributing to the world's food supplies, on the application of nuclear methods to food preservation and processing. The importance of food preservation is of particular relevance in certain regions of the world where up to thirty per cent of harvested foodstuffs are being lost because of damage by animal pests and microorganisms. A series of international meetings have been held on this subject; the first, held in 1958 at Harwell, was followed by further meetings in 1960 in Paris and in 1961 in Brussels. The International Symposium on Food Irradiation organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations through their Joint Division of Atomic Energy in Agriculture, and held at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre, Karlsruhe, from 6 to 10 June 1966, at the generous invitation of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, is the most recent of this series of meetings. It was held for the purpose of exchanging the most up-to-date results of research, of contributing towards co-operative efforts between Member States, and of stimulating trade in the international exchange of irradiated products between nations. Papers describing research over the past fourteen years were given by outstanding authorities; the results point to a breakthrough having been achieved in the use of ionizing radiation in food preservation, notwithstanding some problems still to be solved, such as overcoming changes in colour, flavour, odour or texture. The Symposium was attended by over 200 scientists from 25 countries and four international organizations. Sixty-nine papers were presented. It was shown that a wide variety of foodstuffs exist for which radiation could be used for three different purposes: to produce indefinitely stable products, to rid food of organisms that constitute health hazards, and to extend the normal shelf or market life

  5. International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1982-01-01

    The International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology (IFFIT) was set up in November 1978 for a period of five years at the Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation, Wageningen, The Netherlands under an Agreement between the FAO, IAEA and the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries of the Government of the Netherlands. Under this Agreement, the irradiation facilities, office space and services of the Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation are put at IFFIT's disposal. Also the closely located Research Foundation, ITAL, provides certain facilities and laboratory services within the terms of the Agreement. The FAO and IAEA contribute US-Dollar 25,000. Annually for the duration of IFFIT. (orig.) [de

  6. Groundwater Depletion Embedded in International Food Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas; Puma, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent hydrological modeling and Earth observations have located and quantified alarming rates of groundwater depletion worldwide. This depletion is primarily due to water withdrawals for irrigation, but its connection with the main driver of irrigation, global food consumption, has not yet been explored. Here we show that approximately eleven per cent of non-renewable groundwater use for irrigation is embedded in international food trade, of which two-thirds are exported by Pakistan, the USA and India alone. Our quantification of groundwater depletion embedded in the world's food trade is based on a combination of global, crop-specific estimates of non-renewable groundwater abstraction and international food trade data. A vast majority of the world's population lives in countries sourcing nearly all their staple crop imports from partners who deplete groundwater to produce these crops, highlighting risks for global food and water security. Some countries, such as the USA, Mexico, Iran and China, are particularly exposed to these risks because they both produce and import food irrigated from rapidly depleting aquifers. Our results could help to improve the sustainability of global food production and groundwater resource management by identifying priority regions and agricultural products at risk as well as the end consumers of these products.

  7. Groundwater depletion embedded in international food trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas; Puma, Michael J.

    2017-03-01

    Recent hydrological modelling and Earth observations have located and quantified alarming rates of groundwater depletion worldwide. This depletion is primarily due to water withdrawals for irrigation, but its connection with the main driver of irrigation, global food consumption, has not yet been explored. Here we show that approximately eleven per cent of non-renewable groundwater use for irrigation is embedded in international food trade, of which two-thirds are exported by Pakistan, the USA and India alone. Our quantification of groundwater depletion embedded in the world’s food trade is based on a combination of global, crop-specific estimates of non-renewable groundwater abstraction and international food trade data. A vast majority of the world’s population lives in countries sourcing nearly all their staple crop imports from partners who deplete groundwater to produce these crops, highlighting risks for global food and water security. Some countries, such as the USA, Mexico, Iran and China, are particularly exposed to these risks because they both produce and import food irrigated from rapidly depleting aquifers. Our results could help to improve the sustainability of global food production and groundwater resource management by identifying priority regions and agricultural products at risk as well as the end consumers of these products.

  8. Demeter's Resilience: an International Food Defense exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Morgan; Kennedy, Shaun; Busta, Frank

    2010-07-01

    The National Center for Food Protection and Defense (NCFPD), which is led by the University of Minnesota, hosted an international food defense exercise on 27 to 29 May 2008. Established in 2004, NCFPD is a Department of Homeland Security Center of Excellence with the mission of defending the food system through research and education. Tabletop exercises are practice-based scenarios intended to mimic real life experiences. The objective of the exercise discussed in this article was to facilitate discussion to increase awareness among exercise participants of both the threat that would be posed by an intentional attack on the food supply and the international impact of such an attack. Through facilitated discussion, exercise participants agreed on the following themes: (i) recognition of a foodborne disease outbreak is driven by the characteristics of the illness rather than the actual number of ill individuals; (ii) during the course of a foodborne outbreak there are generally multiple levels of communication; (iii) a common case definition for a foodborne disease is difficult to develop on a global scale; and (iv) the safety and health of all individuals is the number one priority of all parties involved. Several challenges were faced during the development of the exercise, but these were overcome to produce a more robust exercise. The following discussion will provide an overview of the challenges and the strategies used to overcome them. The lessons learned provide insight into how to plan, prepare, and host an international food defense exercise.

  9. Supporting food security solutions | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-10-04

    Oct 4, 2013 ... Including women in the crusade against hunger ... The knowledge, production practices, and defining of food conservation, preparation, and consumption ... and international leadership in vaccine development and research on human and ... Given equal treatment, farmers will fulfill their potential as worthy ...

  10. Consumer health hazards in international food trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Emerging risks have been defined as potential food-borne, feed-borne, or diet-related hazards that may become a risk for human health in the future. This study disentangles how emerging risks relate to international trade. It develops a basic framework for the economic analysis of emerging risks,

  11. Biosocial risks of food: international aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Corvo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food consumption is influenced by a series of issues that affect both individuals, and people and cultures of the different parts of the world. It studies biosocial risks that have dramatic implications: obesity, anorexia and bulimia; malnutrition and hunger, involving more than 800 million people; the waste food, a real paradox of the global world; the land grabbing. These are very different problems because of causes and dynamics, but all of them require a profound change to be affected: a greater awareness of eating behaviour, an educational action on food topics, an intervention of regulatory institutions, local and international, which guarantees a fair market for products and food sovereignty.

  12. Comparison of international food allergen labeling regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Food allergy is a significant public health issue worldwide. Regulatory risk management strategies for allergic consumers have focused on providing information about the presence of food allergens through label declarations. A number of countries and regulatory bodies have recognized the importance of providing this information by enacting laws, regulations or standards for food allergen labeling of "priority allergens". However, different governments and organizations have taken different approaches to identifying these "priority allergens" and to designing labeling declaration regulatory frameworks. The increasing volume of the international food trade suggests that there would be value in supporting sensitive consumers by harmonizing (to the extent possible) these regulatory frameworks. As a first step toward this goal, an inventory of allergen labeling regulations was assembled and analyzed to identify commonalities, differences, and future needs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Irradiation of packaged food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, D.

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is used to improve the safety of food by killing insects and microorganisms, to inhibit sprouting in crops such as onions and potatoes and to control ripening in agricultural produce. In order to prevent re-infestation and re-contamination it is essential that the food is suitably packed. Consequently, the packaging material is irradiated whilst in contact with the food, and it is important that the material is resistant to radiation-induced changes. In this paper the nature of the irradiation process is reviewed briefly, together with the known effects of irradiation on packaging materials and their implications for the effective application of food irradiation. Recent research carried out at the Leatherhead Food RA on the possibility of taint transfer into food is described. (author)

  14. International Fairs in the Modern Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio M. Santucci

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available International trade fairs are an important marketing tool for the expanding organic market. Although much output is marketed locally and there is a growing demand for the so-called zero miles products, Italian organic raw materials and processed foods are largely exported. For the first time, a direct survey has been conducted on 100 Italian firms attending BioFach 2000, to analyze aspects like activities performed, goals and expectations, forms of private – public partnerships. By using seven relevant variables, the firms are grouped into five categories. The same firms have been contacted after one month, to assess results, level of satisfaction and willingness to participate in a next edition.

  15. Global Food Safety-International Consumers' Rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Malik Altaf

    2013-10-11

    Your submissions to this Special Issue "Food Microbiology and Safety" of Foods -a new open access journal-are welcome. We understand there are no foodborne illness-free zones in the world. Therefore, a proper understanding of foodborne pathogens and the factors that impact their growth, survival and pathogenesis would equip us with tools to ensure global food safety. This Special Issue publishes articles on different aspects of food microbiology and safety. [...].

  16. Exploring International Students' Food Choices Using Photovoice Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Nova

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to explore international student food choices in a semirural setting using participatory photovoice techniques. Eighteen international students took photographs over 7-10 days of a typical food week and then attended a workshop where they completed three photography display and captioning tasks. Ten themes emerged linked to the…

  17. Global Food Safety?International Consumers? Rights?

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Malik Altaf

    2013-01-01

    Your submissions to this Special Issue “Food Microbiology and Safety” of Foods—a new open access journal—are welcome. We understand there are no foodborne illness-free zones in the world. Therefore, a proper understanding of foodborne pathogens and the factors that impact their growth, survival and pathogenesis would equip us with tools to ensure global food safety. This Special Issue publishes articles on different aspects of food microbiology and safety.

  18. Halal Food : Thai Halal Food Products and International Market

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Noaman; Wanwang, Alisa

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to examine salient issues in the Halal food business with special focus on entering Thai Halal food products into international market. Market screening plays an important role in entering new market or setting up the business in the foreign country. In this paper we have analyzed the importance of Halal Food for the Muslims and explained the growth of Halal food in French markets. The study focuses attention on the identification of key areas in Halal food export and channel ...

  19. Wholesomeness studies in the International Food Irradiation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, P S [International Food Irradiation Project, Federal Research Centre for Nutrition

    1980-01-01

    Despite more than 25 years of history as an effective food preservation method, food irradiation is still subject to strict legislative control in many countries and scientific investigations are required to provide reassurance as to the safety of irradiated food. The International Food Irradiation Project was set up on October 14, 1970 to facilitate the objective evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated foodstuffs. Its major activities are; (1) wholesomeness testing of irradiated foods, (2) research on and investigations into the methodology of wholesomeness testing, (3) dissemination of information, and (4) assisting national and international authorities in their consideration of acceptance of irradiated food. In particular, the project over the past nine years had been devoted to the provision of data to national health authorities and international bodies. Up to now, 23 studies were and are being carried out for the project under contract. Subjects for the studies include wheat, wheat flour, potatoes, fish, rice, mango, spices, dried dates, onions and cocoa beans.

  20. International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

  1. International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.B. [Industrial and Biological Section. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Science. P.O. Box 31. Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

  2. Food, Environment, and Health | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The goal of the Food, Environment, and Health program is to develop evidence, innovations, and policies to ... A young mother and her baby visit the local nutrition center in rural Madagascar to participate ... Gary Kobinger working in the lab.

  3. Agriculture and Food Security | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1MB). Funding. The Agriculture and Food Security program funds research primarily through competitive calls. Announcements and details on eligibility and thematic focus for funding opportunities will be posted on IDRC's funding page.

  4. Food for Thought: Analysing the Internal and External School Food Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Mary; Molcho, Michal; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Kelly, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Availability and access to food is a determinant of obesity. The purpose of this paper is to examine food availability within and outside of post-primary schools in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach: Data on the internal school food environment were collected from 63 post-primary schools using questionnaires. The external school food…

  5. HUNGER & FOODS: an issue of international politics.

    OpenAIRE

    Carmo Ferreira, Maria Eulália do

    2015-01-01

    Hunger, poverty and environmental degradation are not only national but international issues. Thus, they could be solved or at least be minimized through greater international cooperation. However, international cooperation is not automatic, even with awareness of these serious problems shared by significant portion of the world population. Furthermore, the interdependence that is being built between the states is asymmetric. Core States, in addition to obtaining more political and economic g...

  6. The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations and Rules on Intellectual ... New funding opportunity to fight antimicrobial resistance ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and ...

  7. Jargon-Busters cut through thicket around food | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A new book helps make sense of the complexities and controversies surrounding ... Calestous Juma, a professor of international development at Harvard ... CASE STUDY: Quito, Ecuador — Quito's farms produce food, enterprise, and hope.

  8. Biosocial risks of food: international aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Corvo

    2017-01-01

    Food consumption is influenced by a series of issues that affect both individuals, and people and cultures of the different parts of the world. It studies biosocial risks that have dramatic implications: obesity, anorexia and bulimia; malnutrition and hunger, involving more than 800 million people; the waste food, a real paradox of the global world; the land grabbing. These are very different problems because of causes and dynamics, but all of them require a profound change to be affected: a great...

  9. Decoupling from international food safety standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercado, Geovana; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico; Honig, Benson

    2018-01-01

    rural producers who, grounded in culturally-embedded food safety conceptions, face difficulties in complying. We address this gap here through a multiple case study involving four public school feeding programs that source meals from local rural providers in the Bolivian Altiplan. Institutional logics...... in the market. These include: (1) partial adoption of formal rules; (2) selective adoption of convenient rules; and (3) ceremonial adoption to avoid compliance. Decoupling strategies allow local actors to largely disregard the formal food safety regulations while accommodating traditional cultural practices...

  10. Changes in food neophobia and dietary habits of international students

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, John; Hartwell, Heather; Brown, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Background\\ud International study is becoming more prevalent, yet aspects such as food neophobia often militate against the consumption of a nutritionally balanced diet of visiting students. The purpose of this paper, therefore, was to evaluate the extent to which international postgraduate students experience food neophobia, how this might vary by nationality and other demographic characteristics, and how acculturation might manifest itself in students’ dietary behaviour.\\ud Methods\\ud Inter...

  11. The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 févr. 2008 ... This is the best single summary of the political choices facing food and agriculture policymakers that has been written in this decade. Pat Mooney, Executive Director, the ETC Group An excellent resource for those mapping the increasing control of our food chain by international players. Suman Sahai ...

  12. Wastewater shores up food security | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-13

    Oct 13, 2010 ... Water enters the food system at various points along the path “from farm to fork. ... The findings will help to influence future WHO recommendations and government health policies – and to stop a valuable ... Related articles ...

  13. Better cassava boosts food security | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... ... of IDRC continues to this day to support my breeding work,” explains Nassar, now 72 years old ... Life-saving applications in Africa ... It improved national food security, restored economic balance to agricultural communities, ...

  14. International Food Aid Programs: Background and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    D. Ho Analyst in Agricultural Policy Charles E. Hanrahan Senior Specialist in Agricultural Policy February 3, 2010 Congressional Research Service...U.S. Treasury. 10 In United States agricultural policy , “monetization” is a P.L. 480 provision (Section 203) first included in the Food Security Act...Contact Information Melissa D. Ho Analyst in Agricultural Policy mho@crs.loc.gov, 7-5342 Charles E. Hanrahan Senior Specialist in Agricultural

  15. International Implications of Labeling Foods Containing Engineered Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara D.; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Mortensen, Ninell P.

    2016-01-01

    To provide greater transparency and comprehensive information to consumers regarding their purchase choices, the European Parliament and the Council have mandated via Regulation 1169/2011 that foods containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) be labeled. This review covers the main concerns related...... additives used for decades. We recommend that food industries and food safety authorities be more proactive in communicating with the public and consumer groups regarding the potential benefits and risks of using ENMs in foods. Efforts should be made to improve harmonization of information requirements...... between countries to avoid potential international trade barriers....

  16. Legal aspects and international implications of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, Alain.

    1977-11-01

    This paper reports on the status of work on food irradiation at international level, namely the IAEA/FAO/WHO Vienna recommendations, the proposed EEC directive, and the Codex alimentarius draft standards. It then deals with the legal aspects of the subject, in particular the problems concerning definitions, controls and instructions, and finally reviews the regulations for international trade in irradiated foodstuffs. (NEA) [fr

  17. International Implications of Labeling Foods Containing Engineered Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, Khara D; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Mortensen, Ninell P; Cates, Sheryl; Kowalcyk, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    To provide greater transparency and comprehensive information to consumers regarding their purchase choices, the European Parliament and the Council have mandated via Regulation 1169/2011 that foods containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) be labeled. This review covers the main concerns related to the use of ENMs in foods and the potential impacts that this type of food labeling might have on diverse stakeholder groups, including those outside the European Union (EU), e.g., in the United States. We also provide recommendations to stakeholders for overcoming existing challenges related to labeling foods containing ENMs. The revised EU food labeling requirements will likely result in a number of positive developments and a number of challenges for stakeholders in both EU and non-EU countries. Although labeling of foods containing ENMs will likely improve transparency, provide more information to facilitate consumer decisions, and build trust among food safety authorities and consumers, critical obstacles to the successful implementation of these labeling requirements remain, including the need for (i) harmonized information requirements or regulations between countries in different regions of the world, (ii) clarification of the regulatory definitions of the ENMs to be used for food labeling, (iii) robust techniques to detect, measure, and characterize diverse ENMs in food matrices, and (iv) clarification of the list of ENMs that may be exempt from labeling requirements, such as several food additives used for decades. We recommend that food industries and food safety authorities be more proactive in communicating with the public and consumer groups regarding the potential benefits and risks of using ENMs in foods. Efforts should be made to improve harmonization of information requirements between countries to avoid potential international trade barriers.

  18. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Lukar E; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Waterlander, Wilma E; Sodergren, Marita; Svastisalee, Chalida; Blanchard, Laurence; Liese, Angela D; Battersby, Sarah; Carter, Mary-Ann; Sheeshka, Judy; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Sherman, Sandy; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    Background Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets varies internationally. This study assessed variations in the display of snack foods and soft drinks within a sample of supermarkets across eight countries. Methods Within-store audits were used to ev...

  19. Wholesomeness studies in the International Food Irradiation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    Despite more than 25 years history as an effective food preservation method, food irradiation is still subject to strict legislative control in many countries and it is required to carry out scientific investigations to reassure the safety of irradiated food. The International Food Irradiation Project was set up on October 14, 1970 to facilitate the objective evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated foodstuffs. Its major activities are; (1) wholesomeness testing of irradiated foods, (2) research on and investigations into the methodology of wholesomeness testing, (3) dissemination of information, and (4) assisting national and international authorities in their consideration of acceptance of irradiated food. In particular, the project over the past nine years had been devoted to the provision of data to national health authorities and international bodies. Up to now, 23 studies were and are being carried out for the project under contract. Subject to the studies include wheat, wheat flour, potatoes, fish, rice, mango, spices, dried dates, onions and cocoa beans. (Kitajima, A.)

  20. Changes in food neophobia and dietary habits of international students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J S A; Hartwell, H L; Brown, L

    2010-06-01

    International study is becoming more prevalent, yet aspects such as food neophobia often militate against visiting students consuming a nutritionally balanced diet. The present study aimed to evaluate the extent to which international post-graduate students experience food neophobia, how this might vary by nationality and other demographic characteristics, and how acculturation might manifest itself in students' dietary behaviour. International students (n = 228) attending a Masters course were invited to complete a validated food neophobia and dietary habits questionnaire during their first week at university. The questionnaire was subsequently re-administered to the same students approximately 4 and 8 months later. In total, 226 usable responses were analysed (124, 58 and 44, respectively) for the first, second and final data collection. Perhaps surprisingly, the overall food neophobia scores increased from an mean (SD) initial value of 27.95 (16.95) to 33.67 (33.67) after 3 months, although, when comparing European and Asian students, only the former were significantly different (P Asian and European students reported small but not significant changes in their eating habits, although, after 3 months, significantly (P = students' perceived healthiness of their diets either by nationality or over time. Understanding the complexities of food neophobia, other aspects of dietary change and at what point these changes might take place in the acculturation process when students arrive in the UK needs to be fully understood if a climate for positive learning is to be established.

  1. Food Preservation by Irradiation. Vol. II. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In the task of alleviating the distress caused by the world-wide food shortage it is essential to preserve what has been grown and harvested in the fields. Clearly all suitable methods for preserving agricultural produce and food should be made use of. In this context treatment with ionizing radiation has proved its value as an environmentally clean, physical method of food preservation which is low in its energy requirement, but the volume of food being processed in this way is still low. The introduction of food irradiation on a global basis poses certain economic, legal, regulatory and health-related questions, the solution of which requires close international collaboration. Such collaboration between many international, intergovernmental and national organizations began over a decade ago. The need for dissemination and discussion of information gained through research and development work on this subject became apparent, and a number of inter-regional meetings were held. The last international symposium on the topic was held jointly by FAO and the IAEA in 1972 in Bombay. To review progress made since then, FAO and the IAEA, together with WHO, convened the present Symposium on 21-25 November 1977. It appeared timely to hold this Symposium for the following reasons: (1) Apart from significant scientific work reported in the literature, progress in other directions between 1972 and 1977 had also been made. For example, the number of food items authorized by governments, with or without restriction, had grown from 19 to 26, and the number of countries accepting one or more irradiated foods for human consumption had increased from 11 to 19. (2) Largely on the basis of the work of the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation (Karlsruhe), already described at the Bombay Symposium, an international expert committee, jointly convened by FAO, the IAEA and WHO in August-September 1976, had made important statements on the philosophy of wholesomeness studies

  2. Food Preservation by Irradiation. Vol. I. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In the task of alleviating the distress caused by the world-wide food shortage it is essential to preserve what has been grown and harvested in the fields. Clearly all suitable methods for preserving agricultural produce and food should be made use of. In this context treatment with ionizing radiation has proved its value as an environmentally clean, physical method o f food preservation which is low in its energy requirement, but the volume of food being processed in this way is still low. The introduction o f food irradiation on a global basis poses certain economic, legal, regulatory and health-related questions, the solution o f which requires close international collaboration. Such collaboration between many international, intergovernmental and national organizations began over a decade ago. The need for dissemination and discussion o f information gained through research and development work on this subject became apparent, and a number of inter-regional meetings were held. The last international symposium on the topic was held jointly by FAO and the IAEA in 1972 in Bombay. To review progress made since then, FAO and the IAEA, together with WHO, convened the present Symposium on 21-25 November 1977. It appeared timely to hold this Symposium for the following reasons: (1) Apart from significant scientific work reported in the literature, progress in other directions between 1972 and 1977 had also been made. For example, the number of food items authorized by governments, with or without restriction, had grown from 19 to 26, and the number of countries accepting one or more irradiated foods for human consumption had increased from 11 to 19. (2) Largely on the basis of the work of the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation (Karlsruhe), already described at the Bombay Symposium, an international expert committee, jointly convened by FAO, the IAEA and WHO in August-September 1976, had made important statements on the philosophy of wholesomeness

  3. Factors influencing food choice of athletes at international competition events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelly, Fiona E; Burkhart, Sarah J; Dunn, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Although the nutrient requirements and dietary intake of athletes have been thoroughly investigated, little is known about the influences on their food choice, particularly prior to and during competition. This study sought to investigate factors that influence food selection of athletes at two similar international competition events: the Melbourne 2006 and Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games. A secondary aim was to explore differences in these factors between at each event given the culturally diverse locations. A survey developed for this study was distributed to athletes in the village dining hall at both events. Athletes scored a selection of factors influencing food choice on a scale of 1 (not important) to 5 (very important). A total of 769 individuals completed the questionnaire in total, with 351 (46%) from Delhi and 418 (54%) from Melbourne. Overall, athletes rated nutrient composition (M = 4.22), stage of competition (M = 4.09), time of day (M = 4.02) and familiarity of the food (M = 4.07) higher than sensory properties (smell M = 3.88; visual appearance M = 3.22) when making a food selection. Visual appearance (p = 0.01), stage of competition (p food (p motives for food section of athletes from a range of sports and cultures is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Waterlander, Wilma E; Sodergren, Marita; Svastisalee, Chalida; Blanchard, Laurence; Liese, Angela D; Battersby, Sarah; Carter, Mary-Ann; Sheeshka, Judy; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Sherman, Sandy; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie; Crawford, David A

    2013-05-14

    Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets varies internationally. This study assessed variations in the display of snack foods and soft drinks within a sample of supermarkets across eight countries. Within-store audits were used to evaluate and compare the availability of potato chips (crisps), chocolate, confectionery and soft drinks. Displays measured included shelf length and the proportion of checkouts and end-of-aisle displays containing these products. Audits were conducted in a convenience sample of 170 supermarkets across eight developed nations (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (US)). The mean total aisle length of snack foods (adjusted for store size) was greatest in supermarkets from the UK (56.4 m) and lowest in New Zealand (21.7 m). When assessed by individual item, the greatest aisle length devoted to chips, chocolate and confectionery was found in UK supermarkets while the greatest aisle length dedicated to soft drinks was in Australian supermarkets. Only stores from the Netherlands (41%) had less than 70% of checkouts featuring displays of snack foods or soft drinks. Whilst between-country variations were observed, overall results indicate high levels of snack food and soft drinks displays within supermarkets across the eight countries. Exposure to snack foods is largely unavoidable within supermarkets, increasing the likelihood of purchases and particularly those made impulsively.

  5. Local Food Systems Supported by Communities Nationally and Internationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Mária Bakos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the concerns about the long-term sustainability of globalized retail trade as well as the more and more determining health-conscious food-consuming attitude the systems of government respectively the groups of conscious consumers all over the world put emphasis on the popularization and development of local food chains and small-scale supply chains simultaneously they connect the retailers producing highquality, local foods with the direct markets. In my study, I would like to present an overview of the development and current state of community supported agricultural systems on the international and Hungarian level and on the basis of the results of my questionnaire survey. I will indicate whether there are any demand for local food in Hungary and about how much the population of the six investigated settlements are familiar with it. Within this type of alternative local food systems, farmers and their buyers form a community based on social capital (co-operation, mutual trust and mutual responsibility, a direct sales channel, in such a way that cooperation is also beneficial to the producer and the consumer. The producer is in an advantageous position as he can form a direct and long-term relationship with his consumers selling his high-quality products locally consequently he can work in a cost-effective and optimal way. However, the advantage of the consumer is that he can obtain healthy foods from reliable sources contributing to the maintenance of his health respectively to the development of local economy.

  6. Renewal through Participation in Global Food Security Governance: Implementing the International Food Security and Nutrition Civil Society Mechanism to the Committee on World Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, J.A.B.; Barling, D.

    2012-01-01

    The food commodity price rises from 2006 to 2008 engendered a period
    of political renewal and reform in the governance of global food security. The
    Committee on World Food Security (CFS) was designated as the main international forum dealing with food security and nutrition in 2009 as part

  7. Combination Processes in Food Irradiation. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Combination Processes in Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-09-15

    Processes in Food Irradiation was held by the IAEA and FAO at the Bandaranaike Memorial International Conference Hall in Colombo on 24-28 November 1980, and the present volume contains the proceedings. One of the most effective means demonstrated of increasing the efficacy of irradiation in the control of food spoilage is the combination of a low irradiation dose with a mild heat treatment. Promising results were reported for the shelf-life extension of mangoes and papayas, and the disinfestation of dried dates. Commercial application of the heat-irradiation treatment for some fruits is expected to follow soon. The Symposium covered other topics, such as the mechanisms of sensitization of microorganisms by physical and chemical agents, improvement of the microbiological quality of foods by combination processes, and the aspects of the wholesomeness and legislation of the food irradiation process. A key issue in the general discussion was the recommendation on the acceptability of food irradiated up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy. This important recommendation had been achieved at a recently convened Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Foods (27 October - 3 November 1980, Geneva). The breakthrough on the toxicological acceptability constitutes a firm basis for going ahead speedily with the development of practical applications of food irradiation, which should take its rightful place among other food preservation methods in helping to provide more and better food to a world in need. The sponsoring organizations hope that the publication of these proceedings will encourage further research and development of food irradiation to the benefit of mankind.

  8. Combination Processes in Food Irradiation. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Combination Processes in Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Processes in Food Irradiation was held by the IAEA and FAO at the Bandaranaike Memorial International Conference Hall in Colombo on 24-28 November 1980, and the present volume contains the proceedings. One of the most effective means demonstrated of increasing the efficacy of irradiation in the control of food spoilage is the combination of a low irradiation dose with a mild heat treatment. Promising results were reported for the shelf-life extension of mangoes and papayas, and the disinfestation of dried dates. Commercial application of the heat-irradiation treatment for some fruits is expected to follow soon. The Symposium covered other topics, such as the mechanisms of sensitization of microorganisms by physical and chemical agents, improvement of the microbiological quality of foods by combination processes, and the aspects of the wholesomeness and legislation of the food irradiation process. A key issue in the general discussion was the recommendation on the acceptability of food irradiated up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy. This important recommendation had been achieved at a recently convened Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Foods (27 October — 3 November 1980, Geneva). The breakthrough on the toxicological acceptability constitutes a firm basis for going ahead speedily with the development of practical applications of food irradiation, which should take its rightful place among other food preservation methods in helping to provide more and better food to a world in need. The sponsoring organizations hope that the publication of these proceedings will encourage further research and development of food irradiation to the benefit of mankind

  9. An Internal Dose Assessment Associated with Personal Food Intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joeun; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Wontae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection), Therefore, had recommended the concept of 'Critical Group'. Recently the ICRP has recommended the use of 'Representative Person' on the new basic recommendation 103. On the other hand the U.S. NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) has adopted more conservative concept, 'Maximum Exposed Individuals (MEI)' of critical Group. The dose assessment in Korea is based on MEI. Although dose assessment based on MEI is easy to receive the permission of the regulatory authority, it is not efficient. Meanwhile, the internal dose by food consumption takes an important part. Therefore, in this study, the internal dose assessment was performed in accordance with ICRP's new recommendations. The internal dose assessment was performed in accordance with ICRP's new recommendations. It showed 13.2% decreased of the annual internal dose due to gaseous effluents by replacing MEI to the concept of representative person. Also, this calculation based on new ICRP's recommendation has to be extended to all areas of individual dose assessment. Then, more accurate and efficient values might be obtained for dose assessment.

  10. Food for thought: New international MBA focusing on the food sector at Aarhus School of Business in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Julia

    2003-01-01

    The Aarhus School of Business in Denmark now launches a new international MBA Programme focussing on the food sector. The programme is designed to provide managers in the food sector with knowledge and managerial skills enabling them to rise to challenges that will face tomorrow's food sector....

  11. Facts about food irradiation. A series of fact sheets from the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-01

    The safety and benefits of foods processed by ionizing radiation are well documented. In an effort to provide governments, especially those of developing countries, with scientifically accurate information on issues of general interest to the public, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI), which was established under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the IAEA, decided at its 7th Annual Meeting in Rome, Italy, on October 1990, to issue a series of ''Fact Sheets'' on the subject. ICGFI, an inter-governmental body with a membership of 37 governments, has as one of its mandates the function to provide information to Member States of the FAO, WHO, and IAEA and to the three organizations themselves on the safe and proper use of food irradiation technology. The Fact Sheets included here cover issues relating to: status and trends; scientific and technical terms; food irradiation and radioactivity; chemical changes in irradiated food; nutritional quality of irradiated foods; genetic studies; microbiological safety of irradiated food; irradiation and food safety; irradiation and food additives and residues; packaging of irradiated foods; safety of irradiation facilities; controlling the process; food irradiation costs; and irradiated foods and the consumer. The Fact Sheets have been separately indexed and included in the INIS Database under Reference Numbers 23011206-23011217, 23011319 and 23012743. The Fact Sheets were first issued by the ICGFI Secretariat (Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, Austria) in May 1991.

  12. Facts about food irradiation. A series of fact sheets from the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The safety and benefits of foods processed by ionizing radiation are well documented. In an effort to provide governments, especially those of developing countries, with scientifically accurate information on issues of general interest to the public, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI), which was established under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the IAEA, decided at its 7th Annual Meeting in Rome, Italy, on October 1990, to issue a series of ''Fact Sheets'' on the subject. ICGFI, an inter-governmental body with a membership of 37 governments, has as one of its mandates the function to provide information to Member States of the FAO, WHO, and IAEA and to the three organizations themselves on the safe and proper use of food irradiation technology. The Fact Sheets included here cover issues relating to: status and trends; scientific and technical terms; food irradiation and radioactivity; chemical changes in irradiated food; nutritional quality of irradiated foods; genetic studies; microbiological safety of irradiated food; irradiation and food safety; irradiation and food additives and residues; packaging of irradiated foods; safety of irradiation facilities; controlling the process; food irradiation costs; and irradiated foods and the consumer. The Fact Sheets have been separately indexed and included in the INIS Database under Reference Numbers 23011206-23011217, 23011319 and 23012743. The Fact Sheets were first issued by the ICGFI Secretariat (Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, Austria) in May 1991

  13. Canadian International Food Security Research Fund - Phase II ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The fund was designed to finance initiatives to solve global food and ... food security and enhance nutrition in developing countries; -increase food ... In a context of rising food prices, millions of Africans in marginal areas rely on a range of ...

  14. New Insights on AIDS, Food, and Nutrition | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-14

    Oct 14, 2010 ... Food Security, Livelihoods and HIV: Challenges and Responses ... that may otherwise have to take children out of school and reduce food intake. ... transfer programs can provide communities and families with safety nets in ...

  15. Wild plants spark revival in traditional foods | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... Newly trained in commercial food preparation and marketing, the nutritional ambassadors are popularizing these widely available foods. The research, which ... Small-scale agriculture plays an essential role in reducing poverty and improving food security for rural and urban people. IDRC Digital Library

  16. 76 FR 33700 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University. Board members with continuing service include Elsa Murano... International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of the public meeting of the Board for International Food and Agricultural...

  17. Improving internal communication between marketing and technology functions for successful new food product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lina; Grunert, Klaus G; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the new product development (NPD) success for novel food products, it is crucial to understand how information can be optimally disseminated within companies. This systematic literature review concentrates on factors influencing internal communication between market......, and knowledge management, food companies can enhance internal communication between market and technology functions during the NPD process....

  18. 76 FR 39811 - International Center for Technology Assessment and the Center for Food Safety; Noxious Weed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... dated July 18, 2002, the International Center for Technology Assessment and the Center for Food Safety... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0081] International Center for Technology Assessment and the Center for Food Safety; Noxious Weed Status of Kentucky Bluegrass Genetically Engineered for Herbicide...

  19. International training workshop on quality control and management of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The International Training Workshop on Quality Control and Management of Food Indantrione was hold from 28-30, August, 2004 in Beijing, China and organized by Chinese Society of Nuclear Agriculture and China Isotope and Radiation Association. 10 Articles were collected in this symposium including training lectures. The contents included: international developments in food irradiation, Quality control and magement of food irradiation, industrializing development of irradiated food in China, Food irradiator and its quality management, research in setting standard for enterprise about irradiated products and etc.

  20. Food safety in Vietnam: where we are at and what we can learn from international experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Unger, Fred; Dang-Xuan, Sinh; Grace, Delia

    2017-02-16

    Food-borne diseases are attracting a lot of attention in Vietnam as a result of repeated episodes of adulterated and unsafe food. In this paper, we provide some perspectives on food safety in Vietnam from the point of view of an international research institution working on food safety with partners in the country. We argue that one of the key issues of food safety in Vietnam is that certain food value chain stakeholders lack ethics, which leads to the production and trading of unsafe foods in order to make profits irrespective of adverse health effects on consumers. In turn, the shortfall in ethical behaviours around food can be attributed to a lack of incentives or motivating factors.Although food safety causes panic in the population, it is unclear how much contaminated food contributes to the burden of food-borne diseases and food poisonings in Vietnam. However, globally, the biggest health problem associated with food are infections from consuming food contaminated with viruses, bacteria or parasites. A major food safety challenge is the inappropriate way of communicating food risks to the public. Another key constraint is the inherent difficulty in managing food in wet markets and from smallholder production. On the other hand, local foods, and local food production and processing are an important cultural asset as well as being essential to food safety, and these aspects can be put at risk if food safety concerns motivate consumers to purchase more imported foods.In this paper, we also discuss good experiences in food safety management from other countries and draw lessons learnt for Vietnam on how to better deal with the current food safety situation.

  1. 76 FR 45223 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program Announcement Type... program promotes education, child development, and food security for poor [[Page 45224

  2. Assessment of Utilization of Food Variety on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M. R.; Paradis, R.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.; Kloeris, V. L.; Douglas, G. L.

    2018-01-01

    Long duration missions will require astronauts to subsist on a closed food system for at least three years. Resupply will not be an option, and the food supply will be older at the time of consumption and more static in variety than previous missions. The space food variety requirements that will both supply nutrition and support continued interest in adequate consumption for a mission of this duration is unknown. Limited food variety of past space programs (Gemini, Apollo, International Space Station) as well as in military operations resulted in monotony, food aversion, and weight loss despite relatively short mission durations of a few days up to several months. In this study, food consumption data from 10 crew members on 3-6-month International Space Station missions was assessed to determine what percentage of the existing food variety was used by crew members, if the food choices correlated to the amount of time in orbit, and whether commonalities in food selections existed across crew members. Complete mission diet logs were recorded on ISS flights from 2008 - 2014, a period in which space food menu variety was consistent, but the food system underwent an extensive reformulation to reduce sodium content. Food consumption data was correlated to the Food on Orbit by Week logs, archived Data Usage Charts, and a food list categorization table using TRIFACTA software and queries in a SQL SERVER 2012 database.

  3. Evolving US Food Safety Regulations and International Competitors: Implementation Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekuni Nakuja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 US Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA represents a major initiative to improve food safety. The legislation mandates the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA with developing a regulatory system to implement the Act. Both domestic and foreign firms that wish to supply US consumers with food will face a considerable increase in regulatory costs. Implementation has proved challenging for the FDA leading to delays which increase investment risks for foreign suppliers, particulalry from developing countries. This paper sets out the major FSMA requirements and examines how the regulatory burden may fall on foreign versus US suppliers.

  4. Worldwide status of food irradiation and the role of IAEA and other international organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1988-01-01

    While there has been an increasing interest in introducing irradiation for preservation and decontamination of food by national authorities and food industry, this technology has generated wide public debate in view of its perceived association with nuclear technology. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to provide objectivity to the application of irradiation for food processing and (2) to project future trends of this technology. Irradiation appears to offer the most viable alternative to the existing technologies in quarantine treatment, hygienic quality of foods, reduction of food losses, and increase in market demand for fresh foods. Current limitations of food irradiation are discussed in terms of technical aspects, infrastructure and economics, consumer concerns, and harmonization of national regulations. Commercial applications have been reported in 19 countries. It is estimated that the total production of irradiated foods world-wide amounted to approximately 500,000 tons per annum. To ensure an effective implementation of the technology on a global basis, FAO and WHO have collaborated closely with the IAEA. An International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation was established under the aegis of FAO, IAEA, and WHO in May 1984. These organizations play an important role in training, technology transfer, developing guidelines on specific applications of food irradiation, international register of food irradiation facilities, acceptance and international trade in irradiated foods, and public information. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Worldwide status of food irradiation and the role of IAEA and other international organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1988-04-01

    While there has been an increasing interest in introducing irradiation for preservation and decontamination of food by national authorities and food industry, this technology has generated wide public debate in view of its perceived association with nuclear technology. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to provide objectivity to the application of irradiation for food processing and (2) to project future trends of this technology. Irradiation appears to offer the most viable alternative to the existing technologies in quarantine treatment, hygienic quality of foods, reduction of food losses, and increase in market demand for fresh foods. Current limitations of food irradiation are discussed in terms of technical aspects, infrastructure and economics, consumer concerns, and harmonization of national regulations. Commercial applications have been reported in 19 countries. It is estimated that the total production of irradiated foods world-wide amounted to approximately 500,000 tons per annum. To ensure an effective implementation of the technology on a global basis, FAO and WHO have collaborated closely with the IAEA. An International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation was established under the aegis of FAO, IAEA, and WHO in May 1984. These organizations play an important role in training, technology transfer, developing guidelines on specific applications of food irradiation, international register of food irradiation facilities, acceptance and international trade in irradiated foods, and public information. (Namekawa, K.).

  6. Solutions for a food-secure future | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-10-05

    Oct 5, 2016 ... ... of people in developing countries lift themselves out of hunger and poverty. Through the Centre's Agriculture and Food Security program, IDRC invested more than CAD$179 million from 2009-2015 to develop, test, and scale up solutions that improve food security and nutrition in the developing world.

  7. International agri-food chains and networks. Management and Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Trienekens, J.H.; Wijnands, J.H.M.; Wubben, E.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    This book brings together a rich collection of papers on management and organization in agri-food chains and networks. Producers, processors, traders and retailers of agricultural and food products operate in an economic and institutional environment that is increasingly dominated by global

  8. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and Food Systems (IJOTAFS) publishes high-quality peer reviewed articles, in English, in all areas of agriculture and food production and processing including tree production, pesticide science, post harvest biology and technology, seed science, irrigation, agricultural engineering, water resources management, marine ...

  9. Economic approaches to measuring the significance of food safety in international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, J A

    2000-12-20

    International trade in food products has expanded rapidly in recent years. This paper presents economic approaches for analyzing the effects on trade in food products of the food safety requirements of governments and private buyers. Important economic incentives for companies to provide improved food safety arise from (1) public incentives such as ex ante requirements for sale of a product with sufficient quality and ex post penalties (liability) for sale of products with deficient quality, and (2) private incentives for producing quality such as internal performance goals (self-regulation) and the external (certification) requirements of buyers. The World Trade Organization's Sanitary Phytosanitary Agreement facilitates scrutiny of the benefits and costs of country-level regulatory programs and encourages regulatory rapprochement on food safety issues. Economists can help guide risk management decisions by providing estimates of the benefits and costs of programs to improve food safety and by analyzing their effect on trade in food products.

  10. Food Micro 2010, 22th International ICFMH Symposium, “ Microbial Behaviour in the Food Chain ” 30th August – 3rd September 2010, Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This Special Issue of International Journal of Food Microbiology contains a selection of papers presented at Food Micro 2010, the 22th Symposium of the International Committee on Food Microbiology and Hygiene (ICFMH). Food Micro 2010 was held on 30th August to 3rd September 2010 in Copenhagen......, Denmark and organized in collaboration between the Danish Centre for Advanced Food Studies (LMC) and Lund University in Sweden....

  11. The Post-war International Food Order: The Case of Agriculture in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Felipe Gaviria Garcés

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the post-war period, Colombian agriculture has been reshaped mainly by international measures. The post-war international food order (called food regime over time has exacerbated Colombian rural problems linked to land issues. Emphasizing in five groups of crops (Cereals, Fruits, Pulses, Roots and Tubers, and Vegetables this article found how Colombia has turned from being a self-sufficient producer into a net importer. Consequently, the food regime has reshaped agricultural structures where policies have favored certain groups rather than solving land issues. Bio-fuel crop policies are following the same direction, jeopardizing food sovereignty and deepening rural Colombian problems.

  12. HIV/AIDS and food insecurity: Double jeopardy | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-14

    Jan 14, 2011 ... ... have a devastating effect on hunger throughout the developing world. ... and cofounder of the Regional Network on HIV/AIDS, Rural Livelihoods and Food .... CASE STUDY: Kampala, Uganda — From the ground up: Urban ...

  13. World Food Day 2015 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-25

    May 25, 2016 ... World Food Day 2015 ... Canadian Lorne Babiuk, a global leader in vaccine research, Killam Prize and Gairdner Wightman Award laureate, ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.

  14. Virtual Water and Food Security in Tunisia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... on the world grain market has social implications for Tunisia's small farmers and ... Thus, when a country exports an agricultural product, in effect it also exports ... Tunisia that incorporates the virtual water concept in a food security strategy.

  15. New bean products to improve food security | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    ... Agricultural Research Organisation and the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research ... New bean products to improve food security. April 21, 2016. Image ... more lucrative market for smallholder bean farmers, most of whom are women.

  16. International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. I.; Song, B. S.; Yoon, Y. H.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, K. P.

    2010-02-15

    {center_dot} Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials {center_dot} Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

  17. International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. I.; Song, B. S.; Yoon, Y. H.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, K. P.

    2010-02-01

    · Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials · Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

  18. 76 FR 13598 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program's Micronutrient... the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition (McGovern-Dole) Program... through FAS's McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition (McGovern-Dole) Program...

  19. 78 FR 26375 - Food and Drug Administration/International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering Co-Sponsorship...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ...] Food and Drug Administration/International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering Co-Sponsorship... Society of Pharmaceutical Engineering (ISPE), is announcing a conference entitled ``Redefining the `C' in CGMP: Creating, Implementing and Sustaining a Culture of Quality'' Pharmaceutical Quality System (ICH...

  20. International business expansion through franchising : the case of fast-food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sadi, Muhammad A.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was threefold: 1) to establish a set of research questions , propositions and hypotheses about the nature of international fast-food franchising; 2) to identify the distinctive strategies employed by fast-food franchise firms in foreign markets and 3) to provide a set of guidelines for managers which will assist them in dealing with the challenges of initiating and expanding a fast-food franchise system in a foreign country. A multi...

  1. The International Food Policy Research Institute: Sustainable solutions for ending hunger and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record The International Food Policy Research Institute(IFPRI) mainly works for sustainable food security and end of world hunger. The vision of this organization is to make the world free from hunger and malnutrition and where food policy decisions are transparent with participation of consumers and producers. This organization operates in five different regions including North Africa and Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and Central Asia, East Asia and Southeast A...

  2. McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program (McGovern-Dole program) helps support education, child development, and food security for some of the world's poorest children. It provides for donations of U.S. agricultural products, as well as financial and technical assistance, for school feeding and maternal and…

  3. Nuclear techniques in food and agriculture. 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The catalogue lists all publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Food And Agriculture during the period 1980-1994. The major subjects covered include: food irradiation, insect and pest control, mutation plant breeding, plant biotechnology, soil fertility and irrigation, agrochemicals animal production and health

  4. Fish for food | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... Bolivia has the lowest per-capita consumption of fish among South American nations, but that could soon change. Members the Amazon Fish for Food project are working to encourage the sustainable use of the country's fish resources through fishing and aquaculture. This article is part of an ongoing series ...

  5. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, L.E.; Cameron, A.J.; McNaughton, S.A.; Waterlander, W.E.; Sodergren, M.; Svastisalee, C.; Blanchard, L.; Liese, A.D.; Battersby, S.; Carter, M.A.; Sheeshka, J.; Kirkpatrick, S.I.; Sherman, S.; Cowburn, G.; Foster, C.; Crawford, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets

  6. Globalization of water and food through international trade: impacts on food security, resilience and justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; Carr, J. A.; Seekell, D. A.; Suweis, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    The global distribution of water resources in general depends on geographic conditions but can be (virtually) modified by humans through mechanisms of globalization, such as trade, that make food commodities available to populations living far from the production regions. While trade is expected to improve access to food and (virtual) water, its impact on the global food system and its vulnerability to shocks remains poorly understood. It is also unclear who benefits from trade and whether it contributes to inequality and justice in resource redistribution. We reconstruct the global patterns of food trade and show with a simple model how the ongoing intensification of imports and exports has eroded the resilience of the global food system. Drawing on human rights theory, we investigate the relationship between inequality and injustice in access to water and food. We assess the fulfillment of positive and negative water and food rights and evaluate the obligations arising from the need to ensure that these rights are met throughout the world. We find that trade enhances the vulnerability to shocks but overall increase the number of people whose water and food rights are met.

  7. Impact of the Global Food Safety Initiative on Food Safety Worldwide: Statistical Analysis of a Survey of International Food Processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Philip G; Mauromoustakos, Andy; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Thompson, Kevin C; Yiannas, Frank; Bridges, Kerry; Francois, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    In 2000, the Consumer Goods Forum established the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) to increase the safety of the world's food supply and to harmonize food safety regulations worldwide. In 2013, a university research team in conjunction with Diversey Consulting (Sealed Air), the Consumer Goods Forum, and officers of GFSI solicited input from more than 15,000 GFSI-certified food producers worldwide to determine whether GFSI certification had lived up to these expectations. A total of 828 usable questionnaires were analyzed, representing about 2,300 food manufacturing facilities and food suppliers in 21 countries, mainly across Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and North America. Nearly 90% of these certified suppliers perceived GFSI as being beneficial for addressing their food safety concerns, and respondents were eight times more likely to repeat the certification process knowing what it entailed. Nearly three-quarters (74%) of these food manufacturers would choose to go through the certification process again even if certification were not required by one of their current retail customers. Important drivers for becoming GFSI certified included continuing to do business with an existing customer, starting to do business with new customer, reducing the number of third-party food safety audits, and continuing improvement of their food safety program. Although 50% or fewer respondents stated that they saw actual increases in sales, customers, suppliers, or employees, significantly more companies agreed than disagreed that there was an increase in these key performance indicators in the year following GFSI certification. A majority of respondents (81%) agreed that there was a substantial investment in staff time since certification, and 50% agreed there was a significant capital investment. This survey is the largest and most representative of global food manufacturers conducted to date.

  8. Fermented food for life (CIFSRF Phase 2) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In test markets in East Africa, a 1-gram sachet sold for less than 50 cents Canadian and ... a program of IDRC undertaken with the financial support of the Government of ... Institution. Heifer Project International. Institution Country. United States.

  9. Apples or candy? Internal and external influences on children's food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Amanda S; Lim, Seung-Lark; Smith, Timothy Ryan; Cherry, J Bradley C; Black, William R; Davis, Ann M; Bruce, Jared M

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this concise narrative review is to examine the current literature regarding endogenous and exogenous influences on youth food choices. Specifically, we discuss internal factors such as interoception (self-awareness) of pain and hunger, and neural mechanisms (neurofunctional aspects) of food motivation. We also explore external factors such as early life feeding experiences (including parenting), social influences (peers), and food marketing (advertising). We conclude with a discussion of the overlap of these realms and future directions for the field of pediatric food decision science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. REDD+ and international leakage via food and timber markets: a CGE analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, O.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of international trade in food and timber on land use and potential carbon leakage in the context of actions to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). First a simple analytical model of international leakage is presented that focuses on

  11. Contribution of various of manufacturing of food products to internal exposure dose of population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajrashevskaya, D.A.; Goncharova, N.V.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1986, considerable data have been produced and published on all the above aspects of the Cs 137 from soils to agricultural products. Today no critical evaluation of the available information has been undertaken. There is an obvious need to evaluate the relative importance of agricultural foodstuffs as a source of internal dose. The importance of food from different production systems to the internal dose from radiocaesium was investigated in selected study sites in Belarus. This work considers approaches and methods of internal exposure dose evaluation for citizens of radioactive contaminated territories consuming food products of radioactive contaminated forests. (authors)

  12. Obesity, international food and beverage industries and self-regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Ronit, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how large international companies in the breakfast cereal, snack, and beverage industries address the issue of obesity, and how their strategies are governed by various forms of self-regulation. In a first step, we study websites of ten companies and identify five different...

  13. Children and adolescents' internal models of food-sharing behavior include complex evaluations of contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Benenson, Joyce F; Kramer, Donald L

    2003-01-01

    This study examined internal representations of food sharing in 589 children and adolescents (8-19 years of age). Questionnaires, depicting a variety of contexts in which one person was asked to share a resource with another, were used to examine participants' expectations of food-sharing behavior. Factors that were varied included the value of the resource, the relation between the two depicted actors, the quality of this relation, and gender. Results indicate that internal models of food-sharing behavior showed systematic patterns of variation, demonstrating that individuals have complex contextually based internal models at all ages, including the youngest. Examination of developmental changes in use of individual patterns is consistent with the idea that internal models reflect age-specific patterns of interactions while undergoing a process of progressive consolidation.

  14. Comparative analyses of the internal radiation exposures due to food chain pathway using food III code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Chung, Kyu Hoi; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Jeong Ho

    1988-01-01

    In order to develop a food-chain computer code suitable to the environmental conditions of Korea, the FOOD III code was partially modified. The execution results for Korean male-adult were compared to those from the Canadian version of FOOD III to deduce a more realistic approach in dose assessment. The amounts of Mn-54, Co-50, Co-60, I-131 and I-132 released from Kori unit 1 in 1984 were used as the source terms for the sample calculation. The maximum atmospheric dispersion factor(X/Q) value on the site boundary was applied. Through the code modification, organ doses decreased by about 20∼70% and the effective committed dose equivalent by about 40% to be 7.935x10 -6 Sv/y which is 0.16% of the ICRP limit, 5x10 -3 Sv/y. (Author)

  15. THE FOOD RUSH. A SECURITY RISK AND A CAUSE FOR INTERNATIONAL INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana FILIP

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Access to food is more than ever a question of interest. The world needs to produce at least 50% more food to feed 9 billion people by 2050. The land, biodiversity, oceans, forests, and other forms of natural capital are being depleted at unprecedented rates. Unless we change how we grow our food and manage our natural capital, food security – especially for the world’s poorest – will be at risk. In this context we expect that the struggle for food to generate migration, conflicts and, why not, international intervention defined by the new Copenhagen School of Security Studies paradigm. Since March 2008 governments, UN agencies and many social movements have adopted positions on the causes of the food crisis and the means to address it. Unfortunately, while these parties are trying to coordinate their activities and suggest new approaches, the old recipes for producing more food are often brought up. Contradictory proposals are made and the thought given to the causes underlying hunger and the food crisis (social, economic and political discrimination and exclusion has gone largely unheeded. The first Millennium Development Goal, which called for cutting the percentage of hungry people by half by 2015, is clearly out of reach. But the food crisis might lead to a new world food order.

  16. A Comparison of Characteristics and Food Insecurity Coping Strategies between International and Domestic Postsecondary Students Using a Food Bank Located on a University Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanbazaza, Mahitab; Ball, Geoff D C; Farmer, Anna P; Maximova, Katerina; Farahbakhsh, Jasmine; Willows, Noreen D

    2017-12-01

    We compared food insecurity status, coping strategies, demographic characteristics, and self-rated health of international and domestic postsecondary students requesting emergency food hampers from a campus food bank (CFB). We collected data from a cross-sectional convenience sample of domestic and international students who accessed the CFB at the University of Alberta. Food insecurity was prevalent (international students: n = 26/27 (96.2%), domestic students: n = 31/31 (100%)). Compared with their domestic peers, international students were less likely to rate their mental health negatively (14.8% vs 38.7%, P = 0.04). The primary income source was government loans (54.8%) for domestic students and research assistantships (33.3%) for international students. To cope with not having enough money for food, the majority of both student groups delayed bill payments or buying university supplies, applied for loans or bursaries, purchased food on credit, or worked more. International students were less likely to ask friends or relatives for food (48.1% vs 77.4%, P = 0.02). Domestic and international students mostly used similar coping strategies to address food insecurity; however, they paid for their education using different income sources. Distinct strategies for international and domestic students are required to allow more students to cover their educational and living expenses.

  17. [Food Security in Europe: comparison between the "Hygiene Package" and the British Retail Consortium (BRC) & International Food Standard (IFS) protocols].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilo, A; Parisi, S; Delia, S; Anastasi, F; Bruno, G; Laganà, P

    2009-01-01

    The birth of Hygiene Package and of the Reg. CE no 2073/2005 in the food production field signalled a change in Italy. This process started in Italy in 1997 with the legislative decree no 155 on Self-control but in reality, it was implemented in the UK in 1990 with the promulgation of the Food Safety Act. This legal act was influenced by some basic rules corresponding to the application of HACCP standards. Since 1990 the British chains of distribution (Retailers) have involved all aspects of the food line in this type of responsibility. Due to this growing awareness for a need for greater regulation, a protocol, edited by British Retail Consortium was created in 1998. This protocol acted as a "stamp" of approval for food products and it is now known as the BRC Global Food Standard. In July 2008, this protocol became effective in its fifth version. After the birth of BRC, also French and German Retailers have established a standard practically equivalent and perhaps more pertinent to safety food, that is International Food Standard (IFS). The new approach is specific to the food field and strictly applies criteria which will ensure "safety, quality and legality" of food products, similarly to ISO 22000:2005 (mainly based on BRC & IFS past experiences). New standards aim to create a sort of green list with fully "proper and fit" Suppliers only, because of comprehensible exigencies of Retailers. It is expected, as we have shown, that Auditor authorities who are responsible for ensuring that inspections are now carried out like the Hygiene Package, will find these new standards useful. The advantages of streamlining this system is that it will allow enterprises to diligently enforce food safety practices without fear of upset or legal consequence, to improve the quality (HACCP) of management & traceability system; to restrict wastes, reprocessing and withdrawal of products. However some discordances about the interpretation of certain sub-field norms (e.g., water

  18. Targeting International Food Aid Programmes: The Case of Productive Safety Net Programme in Tigray, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Azadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia has experienced more than five major droughts in the past three decades, leading to high dependency on international food aids. Nevertheless, studies indicate that asset depletion has not been prevented; neither did food insecurity diminish. Since 2004/5, the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP has been implemented to improve food security in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Critics point out that the implementation of food aid programmes can have negative impacts as well as positive outcomes for local communities. Accordingly, this survey study aimed to analyse the distribution and allocation of food aids in the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP in Tigray. Results of 479 interviews revealed that targeting different households in the PSNP has been considerably linked to socio-demographic attributes among which age and size of family were decisive factors to receive food aids. Furthermore, older households with smaller family size received more direct support. Inequality between genders was another major finding of this study. When combined with the marital status, there was also a big difference in the percentage of married or unmarried women receiving food aids. These findings could provide fundamental information for policy intervention to correct food security programmes at household level and reduce hunger. Given that, socio-demographic factors can help to identify particular and usually different requirements, vulnerabilities and coping strategies of the members of the food aid programme, so that they can be much more addressed when an emergency happens.

  19. Identifying the community structure of the food-trade international multi-network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreggiani, S.; Mangioni, G.; Puma, M. J.; Fagiolo, G.

    2018-05-01

    Achieving international food security requires improved understanding of how international trade networks connect countries around the world through the import-export flows of food commodities. The properties of international food trade networks are still poorly documented, especially from a multi-network perspective. In particular, nothing is known about the multi-network’s community structure. Here we find that the individual crop-specific layers of the multi-network have densely connected trading groups, a consistent characteristic over the period 2001–2011. Further, the multi-network is characterized by low variability over this period but with substantial heterogeneity across layers in each year. In particular, the layers are mostly assortative: more-intensively connected countries tend to import from and export to countries that are themselves more connected. We also fit econometric models to identify social, economic and geographic factors explaining the probability that any two countries are co-present in the same community. Our estimates indicate that the probability of country pairs belonging to the same food trade community depends more on geopolitical and economic factors—such as geographical proximity and trade-agreement co-membership—than on country economic size and/or income. These community-structure findings of the multi-network are especially valuable for efforts to understand past and emerging dynamics in the global food system, especially those that examine potential ‘shocks’ to global food trade.

  20. 15 years of existence of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.A.E.

    1999-01-01

    The ICGFI essentially contributed to international dissemination of unbiased information about the advantages and risks of food irradiation. The body has issued ICGFI publications containing codes of good practice for a variety of purposes, as eg. for operation of irradiation facilities for the treatment of food (GIP), or guidelines for due handling of irradiated food (GMP). Training courses have been offered to scientists, especially from developing countries, as well as for inspectors of national supervisory authorities. The activities of the advisory group as well as the conditions governing future activities are discussed. (orig./CB) [de

  1. International food trade reduces environmental effects of nitrogen pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yaxing; Wu, Shaohua; Zhou, Shenglu; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Hao

    2016-09-01

    The globalization of agricultural trade has dramatically altered global nitrogen flows by changing the spatial pattern of nitrogen utilization and emissions at a global scale. As a major trading country, China uses a large amount of nitrogen, which has a profound impact on global nitrogen flows. Using data on food production and trade between China and 26 other countries and regions, we calculated nitrogen inputs and outputs in food production ecosystem in each country. We estimated nitrogen flows in international food trade and analyzed their impact on nitrogen pollution in China. We divided nitrogen flows into embodied and virtual nitrogen flows. Embodied nitrogen is taken up by the plant and incorporated into the final food product, whereas virtual nitrogen is lost to the environment throughout the food production process and is not contained in the final food product. Our results show that China mainly imports food products from America and Asia, accounting for 95 % of all imported food. Asia (mainly Japan) and Europe are the main exporters of food from China, with Japan and the EU accounting for 17 and 10 % of all exported food, respectively. Total nitrogen inputs and outputs in food production in China were 55,400 and 61,000 Gg respectively, which were much higher than in other countries. About 1440 and 950 Gg of embodied and virtual nitrogen respectively flow into China through the food trade, mainly from food-exporting countries such as the USA, Argentina, and Brazil. Meanwhile, 177 and 160 Gg of embodied and virtual nitrogen respectively flow out of China from the export of food products, mainly to Japan. China's net food imports have reduced 720 and 458 Gg for nitrogen utilization and outputs, respectively, which accounted for 1.3 and 0.78 % of total nitrogen inputs and outputs in China. These results suggest that food trade in China has a profound effect on nitrogen flows and has greatly reduced environmental impacts on nitrogen pollution in China.

  2. Nutrient patterns and their food sources in an International Study Setting: report from the EPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, Aurelie; Pisa, Pedro T; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Freisling, Heinz; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Nailler, Laura; Wendt, Andrea; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Dahm, Christina C; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Quirós, Jose R; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta Castaño, José M; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lentjes, Marleen A; Key, Timothy J; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Beulens, Joline W J; Ericson, Ulrika; Drake, Isabel; Nilsson, Lena M; Winkvist, Anna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hjartåker, Anette; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses. We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR) data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312). Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436) provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC) 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores. The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs in term of food sources. These outcomes open research opportunities and

  3. Nutrient patterns and their food sources in an International Study Setting: report from the EPIC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie Moskal

    Full Text Available Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses.We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312. Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436 provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores.The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs in term of food sources. These outcomes open research

  4. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. The recent accidental release of radioactive substances into the environment from the Chernobyl accident, demonstrated the need for veterinary, ecological, physical and medical sciences to be prepared to respond to an incident in order to protect the environment, food chain, other agricultural assets and humans from the adverse effects of radionuclides. Several presentations suggested that even with the best technologies, national and regional commitment, and relatively unrestricted resource levels, nuclear incidents can cross international boundaries and can contaminate the environment to the extent that the integrity of various food and water supplies can be at risk. Speakers and subsequent discussers tended to concentrate on the issues associated with lessening future environmental impacts if similar types of incidents should occur again.

  5. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. The recent accidental release of radioactive substances into the environment from the Chernobyl accident, demonstrated the need for veterinary, ecological, physical and medical sciences to be prepared to respond to an incident in order to protect the environment, food chain, other agricultural assets and humans from the adverse effects of radionuclides. Several presentations suggested that even with the best technologies, national and regional commitment, and relatively unrestricted resource levels, nuclear incidents can cross international boundaries and can contaminate the environment to the extent that the integrity of various food and water supplies can be at risk. Speakers and subsequent discussers tended to concentrate on the issues associated with lessening future environmental impacts if similar types of incidents should occur again

  6. The international food unit: a new measurement aid that can improve portion size estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, T; Weltert, M; Rollo, M E; Smith, S P; Jia, W; Collins, C E; Sun, M

    2017-09-12

    Portion size education tools, aids and interventions can be effective in helping prevent weight gain. However consumers have difficulties in estimating food portion sizes and are confused by inconsistencies in measurement units and terminologies currently used. Visual cues are an important mediator of portion size estimation, but standardized measurement units are required. In the current study, we present a new food volume estimation tool and test the ability of young adults to accurately quantify food volumes. The International Food Unit™ (IFU™) is a 4x4x4 cm cube (64cm 3 ), subdivided into eight 2 cm sub-cubes for estimating smaller food volumes. Compared with currently used measures such as cups and spoons, the IFU™ standardizes estimation of food volumes with metric measures. The IFU™ design is based on binary dimensional increments and the cubic shape facilitates portion size education and training, memory and recall, and computer processing which is binary in nature. The performance of the IFU™ was tested in a randomized between-subject experiment (n = 128 adults, 66 men) that estimated volumes of 17 foods using four methods; the IFU™ cube, a deformable modelling clay cube, a household measuring cup or no aid (weight estimation). Estimation errors were compared between groups using Kruskall-Wallis tests and post-hoc comparisons. Estimation errors differed significantly between groups (H(3) = 28.48, p studies should investigate whether the IFU™ can facilitate portion size training and whether portion size education using the IFU™ is effective and sustainable without the aid. A 3-dimensional IFU™ could serve as a reference object for estimating food volume.

  7. International to domestic price transmission in fourteen developing countries during the 2007-08 food crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    -through in China and India, over close relationship between international and domestic prices in Brazil and South Africa, to substantial domestic price overshooting in Ethiopia and Nigeria. Much of this variation can be explained by price stabilization policies, public policy failure, incomplete market integration......This paper synthesizes the evidence on price transmission from international maize, rice and wheat markets to domestic markets in fourteen developing countries during the global food crisis in 2007-08. A great variation in the price transmission patterns is observed; from almost no price pass...

  8. Comparing internal and alliance-based new product development processes: case studies in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Gripsrud, Geir

    2011-01-01

    This is the authors’ final, accepted and refereed manuscript to the article Companies may simultaneously pursue different new product development (NPD) strategies. This article reports a comparative two case design study of in-house NPD projects as well as alliance based NPD projects in a food company. Two contradicting proposition’s of the efficiency of NPD in an alliance compared to NPD performed internally are stated, and the findings indicate that the alliance based NPD solution create...

  9. Comparing internal and alliance-based new product development processes: case studies in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Gripsrud, Geir

    2011-01-01

    Companies may simultaneously pursue different new product development (NPD) strategies. This article reports a comparative two case design study of in-house NPD projects as well as alliance based NPD projects in a food company. Two contradicting proposition’s of the efficiency of NPD in an alliance compared to NPD performed internally are stated, and the findings indicate that the alliance based NPD solution creates a better context for NPD than the in-house solution. Less forwarding of unsol...

  10. Estimation of internal exposure dose from food after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Mari; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Kawai, Masaki; Miyatake, Hirokazu; Hirakawa, Sachiko; Murakami, Kana; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Shunji; Suzuki, Gen

    2016-01-01

    In order to estimate the internal exposure dose from food due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, total diet study (TDS) has been carried out. TDS is a method for estimating how much of certain chemicals people intake in the normal diet. A wide range of food products are chosen as targets, and the increase or decrease of chemicals depending on processing or cooking is taken into account. This paper glanced at the transition of TDS survey results, and with a focus on the survey results of the market basket (MB) system, which is one of the TDS techniques, it examined a decrease in the committed effective dose per year of radioactive cesium. Although the values of internal exposure dose from food in Fukushima Prefecture and surrounding prefectures are even now in a relatively high tendency compared with those in the distant regions, the difference has been narrowing. According to the attenuation prediction of internal exposure dose in each region of Fukushima Prefecture, the values after 5 years from the accident will be lower than the measured value on the food in market that has been investigated during 1989 and 2005. In addition, the internal exposure dose that was the survey results based on MB system in September - October 2014 was 0.0007 to 0.0022 mSv/year. These values are very small at 1% or less of the upper limit dose of 1 mSv/year as the setting basis of current reference value in Japan. (A.O.)

  11. Proceedings of the seventh international food convention: nutritional security through sustainable development research and education for healthy foods - souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    At present, the application of advanced technology during production, processing, storage and distribution of food with an ultimate aim of strengthening the socio-economic status of farmers, entrepreneurs and rural artisan community has paramount importance. The convention made an effort to touch upon the following areas: food and nutritional security and sustainability, food processing and engineering, food safety management systems, food health and nutrition, skill development and entrepreneurship, food science and technology research etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  12. Survey of food radioactivity and estimation of internal dose from ingestion in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingyuan; Zhu Hongda; Han Peizhen

    1988-01-01

    In order to provide necessary bases for establishing 'Radionuclide Concentration Limits in Food stuffs', survey on radionuclide contents in Chinese food and estimation of internal dose from ingestion were carried out with the cooperation of 30 radiation protection establishments during the period 1982-1986. Activity concentrations in 14 categories (27 kinds) of Chinese food for 22 radionuclides were determined. In the light of three principal types of Chinese diet, food samples were collected from normal radiation background areas in 14 provinces or autonomous regions and three similarly elevated natural background areas. Annual intake by ingestion and resultant committed dose equivalents to general public for 15 radionuclides in these areas were estimated. In normal background areas the total annual intake of the 15 radionuclides by the public (adlut males) is about 4.2 x 10 4 Bq, and the resultant total committed dose equivalent is about 3.43 x 10 -4 Sv, but in two elevated natural background area the public annual intake and resulting committed dose equivalents for some natural radionulides are much higher than those in normal areas, while no obvious radiocontamination was discoveried relative contribution of each food category or each radionuclide to the total are discussed

  13. A taste of the unfamiliar. Understanding the meanings attached to food by international postgraduate students in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lorraine; Edwards, John; Hartwell, Heather

    2010-02-01

    Using findings from semi-structured interviews with international postgraduate students in England, this paper explores the meanings attached to the food they eat in a new culture. Our study, using interviews, aimed to uncover student responses to both the food they eat whilst abroad and to the food they have left behind. Many students criticised local English food as bland, fattening, and unhealthy; nevertheless, most showed an openness to new foods, trying not only local food but also dishes prepared by their international friends, but this sat alongside a strong attachment to their home country dishes. Eating together was a popular leisure activity, and food of the origin country or region was the most popular cuisine. Eating home country food offered emotional and physical sustenance; students felt comforted by familiar taste, and that their physical health was stabilised by the consumption of healthier food than was available locally. Despite acknowledgement of the importance of food to cultural identity and overall quality of life in the anthropology and nutrition literatures, there is a dearth of research into this aspect of the international student experience; this study, therefore, marks an important beginning. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Restrictions on antimicrobial use in food animal production: an international regulatory and economic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The administration of antimicrobial drugs to food animals at low doses for extended durations for growth promotion and disease prevention has been linked to the global health crisis of antimicrobial resistance. Internationally, multiple jurisdictions have responded by restricting antimicrobial use for these purposes, and by requiring a veterinary prescription to use these drugs in food animals. Opponents of these policies have argued that restrictions have been detrimental to food animal production where they have been adopted. Methods We surveyed the antimicrobial use policies of 17 political jurisdictions outside of the United States with respect to growth promotion, disease prevention, and veterinary oversight, and reviewed the available evidence regarding their production impacts, including measures of animal health. Jurisdictions were included if they were a top-five importer of a major U.S. food animal product in 2011, as differences between the policies of the U.S. and other jurisdictions may lead to trade barriers to U.S. food animal product exports. Jurisdictions were also included if information on their policies was publicly available in English. We searched the peer-reviewed and grey literatures and corresponded with jurisdictions’ U.S. embassies, regulators, and local experts. Results Jurisdictions were categorized by whether they prohibit use of antimicrobials for growth promotion and/or use of antimicrobials without a veterinary prescription. Of the 17 jurisdictions surveyed, six jurisdictions have prohibited both types of use, five jurisdictions have prohibited one use but not the other use, and five jurisdictions have not prohibited either use, while information was not available for one jurisdiction. Data on the production impacts of these prohibitions were limited, although available data, especially from Denmark and Sweden, suggest that restrictions on growth promotion use can be implemented with minimal production consequences

  15. Restrictions on antimicrobial use in food animal production: an international regulatory and economic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Dina Fine; Smith, Tyler J S; Nachman, Keeve E

    2013-10-16

    The administration of antimicrobial drugs to food animals at low doses for extended durations for growth promotion and disease prevention has been linked to the global health crisis of antimicrobial resistance. Internationally, multiple jurisdictions have responded by restricting antimicrobial use for these purposes, and by requiring a veterinary prescription to use these drugs in food animals. Opponents of these policies have argued that restrictions have been detrimental to food animal production where they have been adopted. We surveyed the antimicrobial use policies of 17 political jurisdictions outside of the United States with respect to growth promotion, disease prevention, and veterinary oversight, and reviewed the available evidence regarding their production impacts, including measures of animal health. Jurisdictions were included if they were a top-five importer of a major U.S. food animal product in 2011, as differences between the policies of the U.S. and other jurisdictions may lead to trade barriers to U.S. food animal product exports. Jurisdictions were also included if information on their policies was publicly available in English. We searched the peer-reviewed and grey literatures and corresponded with jurisdictions' U.S. embassies, regulators, and local experts. Jurisdictions were categorized by whether they prohibit use of antimicrobials for growth promotion and/or use of antimicrobials without a veterinary prescription. Of the 17 jurisdictions surveyed, six jurisdictions have prohibited both types of use, five jurisdictions have prohibited one use but not the other use, and five jurisdictions have not prohibited either use, while information was not available for one jurisdiction. Data on the production impacts of these prohibitions were limited, although available data, especially from Denmark and Sweden, suggest that restrictions on growth promotion use can be implemented with minimal production consequences. A majority of leading U.S. trade

  16. Application of the International Life Sciences Institute Key Events Dose-Response Framework to food contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A

    2012-12-01

    Contaminants are undesirable constituents in food. They may be formed during production of a processed food, present as a component in a source material, deliberately added to substitute for the proper substance, or the consequence of poor food-handling practices. Contaminants may be chemicals or pathogens. Chemicals generally degrade over time and become of less concern as a health threat. Pathogens have the ability to multiply, potentially resulting in an increased threat level. Formal structures have been lacking for systematically generating and evaluating hazard and exposure data for bioactive agents when problem situations arise. We need to know what the potential risk may be to determine whether intervention to reduce or eliminate contact with the contaminant is warranted. We need tools to aid us in assembling and assessing all available relevant information in an expeditious and scientifically sound manner. One such tool is the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Key Events Dose-Response Framework (KEDRF). Developed as an extension of the WHO's International Program on Chemical Safety/ILSI mode of action/human relevance framework, it allows risk assessors to understand not only how a contaminant exerts its toxicity but also the dose response(s) for each key event and the ultimate outcome, including whether a threshold exists. This presentation will illustrate use of the KEDRF with case studies included in its development (chloroform and Listeriaonocytogenes) after its publication in the peer-reviewed scientific literature (chromium VI) and in a work in progress (3-monochloro-1, 2-propanediol).

  17. Virtual water trade: an assessment of water use efficiency in the international food trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Amid an increasing water scarcity in many parts of the world, virtual water trade as both a policy instrument and practical means to balance the local, national and global water budget has received much attention in recent years. Building upon the knowledge of virtual water accounting in the literature, this study assesses the efficiency of water use embodied in the international food trade from the perspectives of exporting and importing countries and at the global and country levels. The investigation reveals that the virtual water flows primarily from countries of high crop water productivity to countries of low crop water productivity, generating a global saving in water use. Meanwhile, the total virtual water trade is dominated by green virtual water, which constitutes a low opportunity cost of water use as opposed to blue virtual water. A sensitivity analysis, however, suggests high uncertainties in the virtual water accounting and the estimation of the scale of water saving. The study also raises awareness of the limited effect of water scarcity on the global virtual water trade and the negative implications of the global water saving for the water use efficiency and food security in importing countries and the environment in exporting countries. The analysis shows the complexity in evaluating the efficiency gains in the international virtual water trade. The findings of the study, nevertheless, call for a greater emphasis on rainfed agriculture to improve the global food security and environmental sustainability.

  18. Codex general standard for irradiated foods and recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission was established to implement the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. The purpose of this programme is to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. At its 15th session, held in July 1983, the Commission adopted a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and a Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods. This Standard takes into account the recommendations and conclusions of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committees convened to evaluate all available data concerning the various aspects of food irradiation. This Standard refers only to those aspects which relate to the processing of foods by ionising energy. The Standard recognizes that the process of food irradiation has been established as safe for general application to an overall average level of absorbed dose of 10 KGy. The latter value shold not be regarded as a toxicological upper limit above which irradiated foods become unsafe; it is simply the level at or below which safety has been established. The Standard provides certain mandatory provisions concerning the facilities used and for the control of the process in the irradiation plants. The present Standard requires that shipping documents accompanying irradiated foods moving in trade should indicate the fact of irradiation. The labelling of prepackaged irradiated foods intended for direct sale to the consumer is not covered in this Standard

  19. Codex general standard for irradiated foods and recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission was established to implement the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. The purpose of this programme is to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. At its 15th session, held in July 1983, the Commission adopted a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and a Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods. This Standard takes into account the recommendations and conclusions of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committees convened to evaluate all available data concerning the various aspects of food irradiation. This Standard refers only to those aspects which relate to the processing of foods by ionising energy. The Standard recognizes that the process of food irradiation has been established as safe for general application to an overall average level of absorbed dose of 10 kGy. The latter value should not be regarded as a toxicological upper limit above which irradiated foods become unsafe; it is simply the level at or below which safety has been established. The Standard provides certain mandatory provisions concerning the facilities used and for the control of the process in the irradiation plants. The present Standard requires that shipping documents accompanying irradiated foods moving in trade should indicate the fact of irradiation. The labelling of prepackaged irradiated foods intended for direct sale to the consumer is not covered in this Standard

  20. [Brazil: agricultural modernisation and food production restructuring in the international crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, J P

    1985-01-01

    development in the mid-1960s which required insertion into the world economy, notably through a search for new export sectors. The agricultural sector was assigned 3 functions: producing food as cheaply as possible, increasing the proportion of exportable crops, and substituting some of the foods imported. Brazil evolved in 2 decades from a classic agroexporter to a more complex structure reflecting the semiindustrialized state of the economy. The share of processed agricultural goods increased accordingly. The foods produced for the internal market have been changing at the same time that a new hierarchy of exportable products has evolved. Agricultural policy involved recourse to market mechanisms and cheap credit focused on the south and southeastern regions, large and medium sized producers, and a few products including soy, coffee, sugar cane, and cotton. Just 3% of credits went to the traditional foodstuffs beans and manioc. The most serious consequence of the internationalization of the agricultural economy has been a dangerous increase in the vulnerability of low income groups to world food price fluctuations.

  1. Impact of Brand Orientation, Internal Marketing and Job Satisfaction on the Internal Brand Equity: The Case of Iranian’s Food and Pharmaceutical Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Azizi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal branding has been emerging recently as an important issue in marketing field. This study provides insights into how job satisfaction, internal marketing and brand orientation shape employees internal brand equity. Empirical data were collected by a questionnaire distributed to food and pharmaceutical firms. The empirical results indicated that while brand orientation and internal marketing were found to have impact on internal brand equity, job satisfaction has no effect on internal brand equity. Additionally, it was observed that job satisfaction and internal marketing has direct and positive impact on brand orientation and therefore indirect and positive impact on internal brand equity through brand orientation. Results of this study can help organizations to improve their financial performance through more awareness of the determinants of internal brand equity.

  2. Outbreak of SRSV gastroenteritis at an international conference traced to food handled by a post-symptomatic caterer.

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, T.; Hutchings, P.; Palmer, S.

    1993-01-01

    In an outbreak of small round structured virus (SRSV) gastroenteritis at an international AIDS conference 67 people were ill with diarrhoea or vomiting, one requiring admission to hospital. Epidemiological investigations demonstrated that the vehicle of infection was food prepared by a foodhandler who was recovering from a mild gastrointestinal illness. The food most strongly associated with illness, coronation chicken, was prepared by the food handler on the second day after symptoms ceased....

  3. Y2K and International Agricultural Transportation: Analysis of Export Markets, Import Suppliers, and Major Food Aid Recipient Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    USDA Y2K information assessment of international food transportation modes in : selected foreign countries. The assessment targeted 9 of the top 10 markets for : U.S. Agricultural exports and 7 of the top 8 suppliers of imported food products : to th...

  4. Beneficial impacts of an international grain reserve on global food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, C.; Schewe, J.; Puma, M. J.; Frieler, K.

    2017-12-01

    Highly volatile food prices on global markets challenge food security. Only in the last decade, two pronounced food price spikes severely affected vulnerable populations worldwide by increasing malnutrition and hunger. This has stirred up the debate upon the usefulness of an international grain reserve. Whereas advocates argue that it could damp damaging price extremes, opponents question its effectiveness and are concerned about associated market distortions and costs. However, to our knowledge, a comprehensive quantitative assessment is still missing. For this purpose, we introduce an agent-based dynamic multi-regional model that consistently accounts for intra-annual strategic as well as commercial storage holding. For the case of wheat, we first show that the model is able to reproduce historical world market prices (see Fig. 1(a)) and regional ending stocks (stocks see Fig.1(b) for global ending stocks) from 1980 to the present. Having a bi-annual timestep, the model enables us to single out the main drivers of past short-term price volatility: regional, mainly weather induced, production variations followed by trade policies as the second most important driver. The latter include, both, long-term stockholding management decisions as well as short-term regional political responses to scarcity situations such as export restrictions and restocking attempts. We then quantitatively model a strategic wheat reserve managed by an international body such as the UN. We discuss a management scheme for the reserve that aims at stabilizing prices within a price band by buying at low and selling at high prices (cf. Fig. 1). Importantly, in order to minimize market distortions, this scheme is not designed to damp out price volatility completely, but to merely avoid damaging price extremes. Thus, it preserves the incentive for producers to invest in agricultural development and it can only complement and not replace local efforts to increase the food system's resilience

  5. International Workshop on Post-Accident Food Safety Science, Hosted by the Cabinet Office, Government of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Oikawa, Shinji; Aoki, Jin; Fujii, Masahiro; Okabe, Yoko; Koyama, Ryota; Iracane, Daniel; Lazo, Ted; ); Theelen, Rob; Sekiya, Naoya; Ito, Toshihiko; Kazumata, Seiichi; Hatta, Nobuyuki; Yuasa, Osamu; Nonaka, Shunkichi; Sato, Chie; Nisbet, Anne; Kai, Michiaki; Gusev, Igor; ); Nosske, Dietmar; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Leonard, Kinson; Perks, Christopher; Liland, Astrid; Mostovenko, Andrei; Arai, Yoshimitsu; Sato, Mamoru; Kokubun, Youichi; Nemoto, Yoshiharu; Boyd, Mike; Homma, Toshimitsu; ); Lecomte, Jean Francois; Perks, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, considerable public concern arose regarding the management of food in and from Japan. These concerns were raised in Japan, as well as in surrounding countries. Unfortunately, it was quickly realised that the existing frameworks for decision-making with regard to food safety seemed inadequate for addressing the challenges presented by this unprecedented event. The areas affected by the accident are heavily agricultural, producing many food products, including rice, vegetables, beef, persimmons and peaches. In addition, the area is an important region for fisheries in Japan. The food products of the region had been very well-regarded both in Japan and abroad. However, some of the people living in affected areas remain concerned for their health and for their future livelihood. In the aftermath of the accident, populations living outside the directly affected areas were also concerned about consuming food products from Fukushima. In Tokyo, which is located approximately 240 km south of Fukushima, some shops ceased entirely to carry certain food items, simply because the best examples were commonly from the Fukushima region. Many of Japan's trading partners, which were concerned about importing food thought to be contaminated, showed similar reactions. These concerns posed a complex, multi-layered problem with local, national and international implications, for which there were no broad, internationally-agreed approaches. This stands as an important lesson to be absorbed from the accident and highlights a need for international focus. To secure distribution of safe agricultural and livestock products, good agricultural practices to produce safe food and feed, including reduction measures of radionuclides from farmland, have been implemented in Japan. The regulation limits have been set consistent with the approach stipulated in the international standards/guidelines, i.e. Codex guidelines. Food

  6. Outbreak of SRSV gastroenteritis at an international conference traced to food handled by a post-symptomatic caterer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, T; Hutchings, P; Palmer, S

    1993-08-01

    In an outbreak of small round structured virus (SRSV) gastroenteritis at an international AIDS conference 67 people were ill with diarrhoea or vomiting, one requiring admission to hospital. Epidemiological investigations demonstrated that the vehicle of infection was food prepared by a foodhandler who was recovering from a mild gastrointestinal illness. The food most strongly associated with illness, coronation chicken, was prepared by the food handler on the second day after symptoms ceased. The investigation confirms the view that foodhandlers may contaminate food with SRSVs after cessation of symptoms and should remain off work until at least 48 h after recovery.

  7. Metagenomic data of fungal internal transcribed spacer from serofluid dish, a traditional Chinese fermented food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Serofluid dish (or Jiangshui, in Chinese, a traditional food in the Chinese culture for thousands of years, is made from vegetables by fermentation. In this work, microorganism community of the fermented serofluid dish was investigated by the culture-independent method. The metagenomic data in this article contains the sequences of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions of rRNA genes from 12 different serofluid dish samples. The metagenome comprised of 50,865 average raw reads with an average of 8,958,220 bp and G + C content is 45.62%. This is the first report on metagenomic data of fungal ITS from serofluid dish employing Illumina platform to profile the fungal communities of this little known fermented food from Gansu Province, China. The Metagenomic data of fungal internal transcribed spacer can be accessed at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP067411. Keywords: Serofluid dish, Jiangshui, Fungal ITS, Cultivation-independent, Microbial diversity

  8. Internal Dose from Food and Drink Ingestion in the Early Phase after the Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Masaki; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Hirakawa, Sachiko; Murakami, Kana; Takizawa, Mari; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Shunji; Miyatake, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Gen

    2017-09-01

    Activity concentrations in food and drink, represented by water and vegetables, have been monitored continuously since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, with a focus on radioactive cesium. On the other hand, iodine-131 was not measured systematically in the early phase after the accident. The activity concentrations of iodine-131 in food and drink are important to estimate internal exposure due to ingestion pathway. When the internal dose from ingestion in the evacuation areas is estimated, water is considered as the main ingestion pathway. In this study, we estimated the values of activity concentrations in water in the early phase after the accident, using a compartment model as an estimation method. The model uses measurement values of activity concentration and deposition rate of iodine-131 onto the ground, which is calculated from an atmospheric dispersion simulation. The model considers how drinking water would be affected by radionuclides deposited into water. We estimated the activity concentrations of water on Kawamata town and Minamisouma city during March of 2011 and the committed effective doses were 0.08 mSv and 0.06 mSv. We calculated the transfer parameters in the model for estimating the activity concentrations in the areas with a small amount of measurement data. In addition, we estimated the committed effective doses from vegetables using atmospheric dispersion simulation and FARMLAND model in case of eating certain vegetables as option information.

  9. The extent and nature of food advertising to children on Spanish television in 2012 using an international food-based coding system and the UK nutrient profiling model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo-Bordonada, M Á; León-Flández, K; Damián, J; Bosqued-Estefanía, M J; Moya-Geromini, M Á; López-Jurado, L

    2016-08-01

    To examine the extent and nature of food television advertising directed at children in Spain using an international food-based system and the United Kingdom nutrient profile model (UKNPM). Cross-sectional study of advertisements of food and drinks shown on five television channels over 7 days in 2012 (8am-midnight). Showing time and duration of each advertisement was recorded. Advertisements were classified as core (nutrient-rich/calorie-low products), non-core, or miscellaneous based on the international system, and either healthy/less healthy, i.e., high in saturated fats, trans-fatty acids, salt, or free sugars (HFSS), according to UKNPM. The food industry accounted for 23.7% of the advertisements (4212 out of 17,722) with 7.5 advertisements per hour of broadcasting. The international food-based coding system classified 60.2% of adverts as non-core, and UKNPM classified 64.0% as HFSS. Up to 31.5% of core, 86.8% of non-core, and 8.3% of miscellaneous advertisements were for HFSS products. The percentage of advertisements for HFSS products was higher during reinforced protected viewing times (69.0%), on weekends (71.1%), on channels of particular appeal to children and teenagers (67.8%), and on broadcasts regulated by the Spanish Code of self-regulation of the advertising of food products directed at children (70.7%). Both schemes identified that a majority of foods advertised were unhealthy, although some classification differences between the two systems are important to consider. The food advertising Code is not limiting Spanish children's exposure to advertisements for HFSS products, which were more frequent on Code-regulated broadcasts and during reinforced protected viewing time. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of tip clearance on performance and internal flow condition of fluid food pump using low viscous fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, S; Ishioka, T; Fukutomi, J; Shigemitsu, T

    2012-01-01

    Fluid machines for fluid food have been used in wide variety of fields i.e. transportation, the filling, and for the improvement of quality of fluid foods. However, flow conditions of it are quite complicated because fluid foods are different from water. Therefore, design methods based on internal flow conditions have not been conducted. In this research, turbo-pumps having a small number of blades were used to decrease shear loss and keep wide flow passage. The influence of the tip clearance was investigated by the numerical analysis using the model with and without the tip clearance. In this paper, the influence of tip clearance on performances and internal flow conditions of turbo-pump using low viscous fluid were clarified by experimental and numerical analysis results. In addition, design methods based on the internal flow were considered. Further, the influences of viscosity on the performance characteristic and internal flow were investigated.

  11. 75 FR 39699 - Sterigenics International, Inc.; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2004-F-0069... AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA... radiation in the production of shelf stable foods, including multiple ingredient shelf stable foods. FOR...

  12. FAO/IAEA/WHO international conference on ensuring the safety and quality of food through radiation processing. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains extended synopses of 90 articles presented to the FAO/IAEA/WHO international conference on ensuring the safety and quality of food through radiation processing, held in Anatalya, Turkey, 19-22 October, 1999. The major themes covered include food irradiation technologies, public acceptance of irradiated food items, effectiveness and economic aspects of food irradiation

  13. FAO/IAEA/WHO international conference on ensuring the safety and quality of food through radiation processing. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This document contains extended synopses of 90 articles presented to the FAO/IAEA/WHO international conference on ensuring the safety and quality of food through radiation processing, held in Anatalya, Turkey, 19-22 October, 1999. The major themes covered include food irradiation technologies, public acceptance of irradiated food items, effectiveness and economic aspects of food irradiation.

  14. Revision of the recommended international general standard for irradiated foods and of the recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    In view of the findings and statements of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food, convened in Geneva from 27 October to 3 November 1980, a Consultation Group, convened in Geneva from 1 to 3 July 1981 suggested the revision of the Recommended International General Standard for Irradiated Foods and of the Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities. The proposed changes are given and justified and the revised wording of the documents presented

  15. Linking Hydro-Meteorological Hazards, Climate and Food Security: an Initiative of International Scientific Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Beer, T.

    2013-05-01

    Humans face climatic and hydro-meteorological hazards on different scales in time and space. In particular natural hazards can have disastrous impact in the short term (flood) and in the long term (drought) as they affect human life and health as well as impacting dramatically on the sustainable development of society. They represent a pending danger for vulnerable lifelines, infrastructure and the agricultural systems that depend on the water supply, reservoirs, pipelines, and power plants. Developed countries are affected, but the impact is disproportionate within the developing world. Extreme natural events such as extreme floods or prolonged drought can change the life and economic development of developing nations and stifle their development for decades. The beginning of the XX1st century has been marked by a significant number of natural disasters, such as floods, severe storms, wildfires, hurricanes, and tsunamis. Extreme natural events cause devastation resulting in loss of human life, large environmental damage, and partial or total loss of infrastructure that, in the longer time, will affect the potential for agricultural recovery. Recent catastrophic events of the early 21st century (e.g. floods in Pakistan and Thailand, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami) remind us once again that there is a strong coupling between complex solid Earth, oceanic, and atmospheric processes and that even developed countries such as Japan are subject to agricultural declines as a result of disastrous hydro-meteorological events. Scientific community recognizes that communication between the groups of experts of various international organizations dealing with natural hazards and their activity in disaster risk reduction and food security needs to be strengthened. Several international scientific unions and intergovernmental institutions set up a consortium of experts to promote studies of weather, climate and their interaction with agriculture, food and their socio

  16. Anthropological characteristics, internal organs measurements, and food consumption of Indonesian people, 1989-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiarto, C.; Bangun, M.; Singh, A.; Yazir, Y.; Alrasyid, H.; Hutagalung, H.

    1998-01-01

    This study has been conducted to obtain, assess and interpret data on morphological, anatomical, chemical and metabolic characteristics of Indonesian population of all ages for establishing an Indonesian Reference Man. The paper presents age and sex specific data on physical anthropometric measurements, and on weights and dimensions of internal organs of normal and healthy Indonesian people. In addition, the content of selected elements in main organs and foodstuff, and the data of daily food consumption of well nourished individuals in three different regions of Indonesia are also presented. Approximately 804 people of all ages were measured to obtain the physical/anthropometric data. The people chosen were from 3 Indonesian regions representing the middle class socioeconomic population. The average body weight and total body height of the age group 20-39 years were found to be 53.5 kg (range: 40-70 kg) and 160.4 cm (range: 147.3-179.8 cm) for males and 48.9 kg (range: 32.7-79.5 kg) and 150.9 cm (range: 141.8-167.3 cm) for females. The weights and dimensions of internal organs data were collected in Jakarta from about 155 sudden death victims. The weight of most male organs was generally about 1% to 19% larger than those of females. However, the female thyroid was 5.6% larger dm the males. The age specific food consumption were obtained in three regions of Indonesia. The content of elements in the selected foodstuffs are also included in this report. The results show that rice is consumed three times a day by most subjects. Milk and eggs are widely consumed and the intake tends to be higher in the younger age groups. Among the meat group, beef is the most popular and consumed with the highest frequency, followed by chicken both in popularity and quantity consumed. Vegetables, particularly the colored vegetables, are used daily in high amounts. (author)

  17. The emergence of international food safety standards and guidelines: understanding the current landscape through a historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsingh, Brigit

    2014-07-01

    Following the Second World War, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) teamed up to construct an International Codex Alimentarius (or 'food code') which emerged in 1963. The Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) was charged with the task of developing microbial hygiene standards, although it found itself embroiled in debate with the WHO over the nature these standards should take. The WHO was increasingly relying upon the input of biometricians and especially the International Commission on Microbial Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) which had developed statistical sampling plans for determining the microbial counts in the final end products. The CCFH, however, was initially more focused on a qualitative approach which looked at the entire food production system and developed codes of practice as well as more descriptive end-product specifications which the WHO argued were 'not scientifically correct'. Drawing upon historical archival material (correspondence and reports) from the WHO and FAO, this article examines this debate over microbial hygiene standards and suggests that there are many lessons from history which could shed light upon current debates and efforts in international food safety management systems and approaches.

  18. Importance of spatial and spectral data reduction in the detection of internal defects in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuechen; Nansen, Christian; Aryamanesh, Nader; Yan, Guijun; Boussaid, Farid

    2015-04-01

    Despite the importance of data reduction as part of the processing of reflection-based classifications, this study represents one of the first in which the effects of both spatial and spectral data reductions on classification accuracies are quantified. Furthermore, the effects of approaches to data reduction were quantified for two separate classification methods, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM). As the model dataset, reflection data were acquired using a hyperspectral camera in 230 spectral channels from 401 to 879 nm (spectral resolution of 2.1 nm) from field pea (Pisum sativum) samples with and without internal pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum) infestation. We deployed five levels of spatial data reduction (binning) and eight levels of spectral data reduction (40 datasets). Forward stepwise LDA was used to select and include only spectral channels contributing the most to the separation of pixels from non-infested and infested field peas. Classification accuracies obtained with LDA and SVM were based on the classification of independent validation datasets. Overall, SVMs had significantly higher classification accuracies than LDAs (P food products with internal defects, and it highlights that spatial and spectral data reductions can (1) improve classification accuracies, (2) vastly decrease computer constraints, and (3) reduce analytical concerns associated with classifications of large and high-dimensional datasets.

  19. Assessing the internal validity of a household survey-based food security measure adapted for use in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghizadeh Atefeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of food insecurity is an indicator of material well-being in an area of basic need. The U.S. Food Security Module has been adapted for use in a wide variety of cultural and linguistic settings around the world. We assessed the internal validity of the adapted U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module to measure adult and child food insecurity in Isfahan, Iran, using statistical methods based on the Rasch measurement model. Methods The U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module was translated into Farsi and after adaptation, administered to a representative sample. Data were provided by 2,004 randomly selected households from all sectors of the population of Isfahan, Iran, during 2005. Results 53.1 percent reported that their food had run out at some time during the previous 12 months and they did not have money to buy more, while 26.7 percent reported that an adult had cut the size of a meal or skipped a meal because there was not enough money for food, and 7.2 percent reported that an adult did not eat for a whole day because there was not enough money for food. The severity of the items in the adult scale, estimated under Rasch-model assumptions, covered a range of 6.65 logistic units, and those in the child scale 11.68 logistic units. Most Item-infit statistics were near unity, and none exceeded 1.20. Conclusion The range of severity of items provides measurement coverage across a wide range of severity of food insecurity for both adults and children. Both scales demonstrated acceptable levels of internal validity, although several items should be improved. The similarity of the response patterns in the Isfahan and the U.S. suggests that food insecurity is experienced, managed, and described similarly in the two countries.

  20. International Atomic Energy Agency Regional Workshop on Commercialisation of ionising energy treatment of food: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.; Toner, B.

    1985-01-01

    The global need to ensure adequate food supplies places a demand on new technologies and techniques to improve yields and preservation of food by eliminating or reducing bacterial degradation and infestation of raw or processed foods. The use of ionising radiation in food processing also has potential to alleviate certain food-borne diseases which cause serious threats to the health of people in many countries

  1. FAO/IAEA International Symposium on Food Safety and Quality: Applications of Nuclear and Related Techniques, Vienna, Austria, 10−13 November 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring food supply integrity is of the utmost importance in relation to food security, safety and quality, consumer protection and international trade. Control measures throughout the entire food production and supply chain are essential to maintain and assure this integrity. The fundamental purpose of the controls is to support food safety and quality, because both are essential and set the foundation for food security and consumer protection as well as facilitating both domestic and international trade. The need for methods to monitor and verify food safety and quality is evidenced by the ever growing list of food product recalls and incidents such as melamine, antibiotic and dioxin contamination. Food fraud (e.g. the adulteration of beef products with horse meat), the introduction of new technologies with potential food safety implications (e.g. nanotechnology) and environmental factors (e.g. climate change) further highlight the importance of continued refinement, development and innovation to improve food control measures. Effective techniques are necessary to help assess and manage risks and protect the consumer. These include food irradiation to treat food directly, as well as other nuclear and related technologies for tracing food products in order to verify their provenance or to detect and control contaminants. To explore some of these challenges experienced by many Member States, an International Symposium on Food Safety and Quality: Applications of Nuclear and Related Techniques was held in Vienna, Austria, from 10 to 13 November 2014, under the auspices of the Food and Environmental Protection Subprogramme.

  2. INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support): summary and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, S

    2013-10-01

    This supplement presents the foundational elements for INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support). As explained in the overview article by Swinburn and colleagues, INFORMAS has a compelling rationale and has set forth clear objectives, outcomes, principles and frameworks for monitoring and benchmarking key aspects of food environments and the policies and actions that influence the healthiness of food environments. This summary highlights the proposed monitoring approaches for the 10 interrelated INFORMAS modules: public and private sector policies and actions; key aspects of food environments (food composition, labelling, promotion, provision, retail, prices, and trade and investment) and population outcomes (diet quality). This ambitious effort should be feasible when approached in a step-wise manner, taking into account existing monitoring efforts, data sources, country contexts and capacity, and when adequately resourced. After protocol development and pilot testing of the modules, INFORMAS aims to be a sustainable, low-cost monitoring framework. Future directions relate to institutionalization, implementation and, ultimately, to leveraging INFORMAS data in ways that will bring key drivers of food environments into alignment with public health goals. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  3. PulseNet International: Vision for the implementation of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for global food-borne disease surveillance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadon, Celine; Van Walle, Ivo; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Campos, Josefina; Chinen, Isabel; Concepcion-Acevedo, Jeniffer; Gilpin, Brent; Smith, Anthony M; Man Kam, Kai; Perez, Enrique; Trees, Eija; Kubota, Kristy; Takkinen, Johanna; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Carleton, Heather

    2017-01-01

    PulseNet International is a global network dedicated to laboratory-based surveillance for food-borne diseases. The network comprises the national and regional laboratory networks of Africa, Asia Pacific, Canada, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East, and the United States. The

  4. 76 FR 55869 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for the McGovern-Dole International Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... Applications for the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program; Correction... Education and Child Nutrition (McGovern-Dole) program. The notice stated that eligible applicants could... highest-level result of this framework is ``Improved Literacy of School-aged Children.'' Proposals that do...

  5. 76 FR 28046 - Memorandum of Understanding Between the Food and Drug Administration and the International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Tots Public-Private Partnership AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0005; FDA 225-09-0014] Memorandum of Understanding Between the Food and Drug Administration and the...

  6. The right to food in international law with case studies from The Netherlands and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wernaart, Bart; Meulen, van der Bernd

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, the enforceability of the right to adequate food is discussed in the context of industrialized countries. The right to food as a human right can be considered the fundament of food law. Human rights in themselves occupy a special position in the field of law. On the one hand they

  7. Consumers Valuations and choice Processes of Food Safety Enhancement Attributes: An International Study of Beef Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Food safety concerns have had dramatic impacts on food and livestock markets in recent years. Here we examine consumer preferences for various beef food safety assurances. In particular, we evaluate the extent to which such preferences are heterogeneous within and across

  8. Supermarkets and unhealthy food marketing: An international comparison of the content of supermarket catalogues/circulars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Emma L; Kähkönen, Laila A; Sacks, Gary; Cameron, Adrian J

    2015-12-01

    Supermarket marketing activities have a major influence on consumer food purchases. This study aimed to assess and compare the contents of supermarket marketing circulars from a range of countries worldwide from an obesity prevention perspective. The contents of supermarket circulars from major supermarket chains in 12 non-random countries were collected and analysed over an eight week period from July to September 2014 (n=89 circulars with 12,563 food products). Circulars were largely English language and from countries representing most continents. Food products in 25 sub-categories were categorised as discretionary or non-discretionary (core) food or drinks based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. The total number of products in each subcategory in the whole circular, and on front covers only, was calculated. Circulars from most countries advertised a high proportion of discretionary foods. The only exceptions were circulars from the Philippines (no discretionary foods) and India (11% discretionary food). Circulars from six countries advertised more discretionary foods than core foods. Front covers tended to include a much greater proportion of healthy products than the circulars overall. Supermarket circulars in most of the countries examined include a high percentage of discretionary foods, and therefore promote unhealthy eating behaviours that contribute to the global obesity epidemic. A clear opportunity exists for supermarket circulars to promote rather than undermine healthy eating behaviours of populations. Governments need to ensure that supermarket marketing is included as part of broader efforts to restrict unhealthy food marketing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Establishment of the foundation for international collaborating research with US NASA FTCSC to develop space, military and special purpose food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Chul Hun; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Wun; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Kyung Pho; Kim, Jang Ho; Kwon, Jung Ho

    2005-08-01

    In the space era of 21st century, the advancement of aerospace field is essential for ensuring the national security and raising the national status. Internationally spacefood and space life support system is considered as an limitedly developed technology area. Establishment of the foundation for collaborating study with NASA FTCSC to develop space, military, and special food. Acquirement of the basis of the technology development for safe, long-term preservation of military and special purpose food to ensure national security as well as health and welfare

  10. Major food safety episodes in Taiwan: implications for the necessity of international collaboration on safety assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jih-Heng; Yu, Wen-Jing; Lai, Yuan-Hui; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2012-07-01

    The major food safety episodes that occurred in Taiwan during the past decade are briefly reviewed in this paper. Among the nine major episodes surveyed, with the exception of a U.S. beef (associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease)-related incident, all the others were associated with chemical toxicants. The general public, which has a layperson attitude of zero tolerance toward food safety, may panic over these food-safety-associated incidents. However, the health effects and impacts of most incidents, with the exception of the melamine incident, were essentially not fully evaluated. The mass media play an important role in determining whether a food safety concern becomes a major incident. A well-coordinated and harmonized system for domestic and international collaboration to set up standards and regulations is critical, as observed in the incidents of pork with ractopamine, Chinese hairy crab with nitrofuran antibiotics, and U.S. wheat with malathion. In the future, it can be anticipated that food safety issues will draw more attention from the general public. For unknown new toxicants or illicit adulteration of food, the establishment of a more proactive safety assessment system to monitor potential threats and provide real-time information exchange is imperative. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Use of electronic group method in assessing food safety training needs and delivery methods among international college students in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden-Robinson, Julie; Eighmy, Myron A; Lyonga, Agnes Ngale

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the types of unfamiliar foods international students in the U.S. encounter and to assess food safety information that international students would like to receive for mitigating risks associated with handling and preparing unfamiliar foods. The study identified preferred instructional delivery methods and media for receiving food safety training or information. An electronic group method was used for this study. The electronic group method was chosen to maximize group efficiency by allowing participants to share ideas simultaneously and anonymously with minimal use of time and resources.Types of different (unfamiliar) foods were grouped into major categories. Fast and ready-to-eat foods, and processed and frozen foods constituted a major change for some international students, who were accustomed to homemade and fresh foods in their countries. Participants were interested in receiving information about how to safely handle and prepare unfamiliar foods in their new environment. Preferred methods for receiving food safety information included written materials, online publications, presentations, and materials provided during student orientation. Food packages, websites, and television programs were other preferred methods of receiving food safety information. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol.II (Working papers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. Two volumes were produced; one a collection of all papers presented, and the other a compilation of the proceedings from each of the topic workshops. In order to rapidly distribute the Association's information to members, papers and other information were collated and disseminated as presented to the conference participants

  13. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol.II (Working papers)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. Two volumes were produced; one a collection of all papers presented, and the other a compilation of the proceedings from each of the topic workshops. In order to rapidly distribute the Association's information to members, papers and other information were collated and disseminated as presented to the conference participants.

  14. Summary of principles for intervention in food and drinking water in a radiological emergency developed by several international organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hideo

    1994-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 it became clear that the guidelines on the management of the consequence of a nuclear accident were needed for action over long time scales and for dealing with the widespread radioactive contamination that affected many countries at distances far from the accident site. One of the major difficulties in area away from the site of a nuclear accident concerns decisions on the safety of contaminated food and drinking water. International organizations, ICRP, IAEA, WHO and several other organizations, have considered it appropriate to develop guidelines to assist national authorities in making decisions on the control of food in the event of widespread contamination by radionuclides in a radiological emergency. These guidelines and the recommendations for intervention in food and drinking water by WHO, ICRP and CEC are summarized, and the considerations and problems to adopt the guidelines are proposed in this paper. (author)

  15. Comparison of predictions from internationally recognized assessment models for the transfer of selected radionuclides through terrestrial food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.O.; Bergstroem, U.; Gyllander, C.; Wilkens, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    Six internationally recognized terrestrial food-chain models developed in Sweden, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the International Atomic Energy Agency are compared. This comparison includes the data bases and predictions for the transfer of Co-60, Sr-90, I-131, and Cs-137 into milk, and leafy and nonleafy vegetables from a hypothetical 30-yr continuous rate of atmospheric deposition onto agricultural systems. Model predictions are compared against United Nations summaries of empirical relationships between atmospheric deposition and concentrations in food of Sr-90 and Cs-137. The results of statistical analyses of the effect of parameter uncertainties on model predictions are also included for Sr-90, Cs-137, and I-131. Discrepancies among model predictions vary between factors of 6 and 30. These results reflect differences in model assumptions rather than uncertainties in model parameters

  16. DTU International Energy Report 2016: The Energy-Water-Food Nexus - from local to global aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Energy, water, and food systems are closely interlinked in the Energy-Water-Food Nexus. Water is of paramount importance for the energy sector. Fossil fuels require water for extraction, trans-port and processing. Thermal power plants require water for cooling, whether they use nuclear, fossil or...

  17. The First International Conference on Global Food Security – A Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van M.K.; Giller, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Improving food security is difficult. There are many reasons why hunger and malnutrition persist, not least because deep social inequities and conflicts often dominate. Equally many approaches are needed to deal with this global problem. In the case of global food security, improvements can depend

  18. Modeling food logistics networks with emission considerations: the case of an international beef supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsic characteristics of food products and processes along with growing sustainability concerns lead to the need for decision support tools that can integrate economic considerations with quality preservation and environmental protection in food supply chains. In this study, we develop a

  19. Internal and External Moderators of the Effect of Variety on Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remick, Abigail K.; Polivy, Janet; Pliner, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Many factors contribute to how much we eat. One such factor is the variety of different foods available. The current article reviews the variety literature with a specific focus on the factors that moderate the effects of variety on food intake and that moderate the processes that may underlie the variety effect (i.e., sensory-specific satiety and…

  20. Functional foods and cardiometabolic diseases : International Task Force for Prevention of Cardiometabolic Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assman, G.; Buono, P.; Valle, Della E.; Farinaro, E.; Ferns, G.; Krogh, V.; Kromhout, D.

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports the hypothesis that functional foods containing physiologically-active components may be healthful. Longitudinal cohort studies have shown that some food classes and dietary patterns are beneficial in primary prevention, and this has led to the identification of putative

  1. Japanese Consumer Perceptions of Genetically Modified Food: Findings From an International Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Keiko; Okamoto, Sawako; Hamada, Miki; Obana, Naoya; Samori, Mami; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2016-08-29

    Reports of food-related incidents, such as cows infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (2001) and the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), engendered significant fear among Japanese consumers and led to multiple farmer suicides, even when no actual health damage occurred. The growing availability of genetically modified (GM) food is occurring against this backdrop of concern about food safety. Consumers need information to assess risk and make informed purchasing decisions. However, we lack a clear picture of Japanese consumer perceptions of GM food. This study aims to understand Japanese consumer perceptions of GM food for risk communication. Consumer perceptions of GM food were compared among 4 nations. A Web-based survey was conducted in Japan, the United States, the United Kingdom, and France. Participants were asked about demographics, fear of health hazards, resistance to GM and breeding-improved products, perception of GM technology and products, and willingness to pay. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted, as were t tests on dichotomous variables, and 1-way analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Of 1812 individuals who agreed to participate, 1705 (94%) responded: 457 from Japan and 416 each from France, the United States, and the United Kingdom. The male/female and age group ratios were all about even. Some resistance to GM food was seen in all countries in this study. France showed the strongest resistance (Pperceptions of GM technology and products, consumers in nations other than Japan would accept GM food if it were appropriately explained, they were provided with scientific data supporting its safety, and they understood that all food carries some risk. However, Japanese consumers tended to accept GM technology but rejected its application to food (Phealth hazards are known, respondents in Japan and France strongly recognized GM food as a health risk. Price discounts of 30% and GM technology may be communication cues to start

  2. International firms in Africa’s food retail business-emerging issues and research agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandonde, Felix Adamu; Kuada, John

    2016-01-01

    /methodology/approach – This paper is comprised of a comprehensive review of the literature and integrates the fragmented body of knowledge on the area of retail internationalisation and food marketing. The gaps in the literature identified here may help to understand the sector better and develop academic research agendas on both......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of the retail sector in Sub-Saharan Africa, to point out the lack of information on some critical issues and to raise some questions about relevant topics for researchers and practitioners in the retail area for the African market. Design...... the growth of the modern food retail sector and the agribusiness sector in Africa. Findings – Four major topics were identified in the urban agri-food retail business in the African continent: large global retailers in Africa’s food sector; the internationalisation of African food retailers; the procurement...

  3. International collaborative project to compare and track the nutritional composition of fast foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic diseases are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the world with over-nutrition a primary cause of diet-related ill health. Excess quantities of energy, saturated fat, sugar and salt derived from fast foods contribute importantly to this disease burden. Our objective is to collate and compare nutrient composition data for fast foods as a means of supporting improvements in product formulation. Methods/design Surveys of fast foods will be done in each participating country each year. Information on the nutrient composition for each product will be sought either through direct chemical analysis, from fast food companies, in-store materials or from company websites. Foods will be categorized into major groups for the primary analyses which will compare mean levels of saturated fat, sugar, sodium, energy and serving size at baseline and over time. Countries currently involved include Australia, New Zealand, France, UK, USA, India, Spain, China and Canada, with more anticipated to follow. Discussion This collaborative approach to the collation and sharing of data will enable low-cost tracking of fast food composition around the world. This project represents a significant step forward in the objective and transparent monitoring of industry and government commitments to improve the quality of fast foods.

  4. International collaborative project to compare and track the nutritional composition of fast foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    Chronic diseases are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the world with over-nutrition a primary cause of diet-related ill health. Excess quantities of energy, saturated fat, sugar and salt derived from fast foods contribute importantly to this disease burden. Our objective is to collate and compare nutrient composition data for fast foods as a means of supporting improvements in product formulation. Surveys of fast foods will be done in each participating country each year. Information on the nutrient composition for each product will be sought either through direct chemical analysis, from fast food companies, in-store materials or from company websites. Foods will be categorized into major groups for the primary analyses which will compare mean levels of saturated fat, sugar, sodium, energy and serving size at baseline and over time. Countries currently involved include Australia, New Zealand, France, UK, USA, India, Spain, China and Canada, with more anticipated to follow. This collaborative approach to the collation and sharing of data will enable low-cost tracking of fast food composition around the world. This project represents a significant step forward in the objective and transparent monitoring of industry and government commitments to improve the quality of fast foods.

  5. Fast-food consumption and body mass index in children and adolescents: an international cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Irene; Stewart, Alistair W; Hancox, Robert J; Beasley, Richard; Murphy, Rinki; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2014-12-08

    To investigate whether reported fast-food consumption over the previous year is associated with higher childhood or adolescent body mass index (BMI). Secondary analysis from a multicentre, multicountry cross-sectional study (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) Phase Three). Parents/guardians of children aged 6-7 completed questionnaires which included questions about their children's asthma and allergies, fast-food consumption, height and weight. Adolescents aged 13-14 completed the same questionnaire. The questionnaire asked "In the past 12 months, how often on average did you (your child) eat fast-food/burgers?" The responses were infrequent (never/only occasionally), frequent (once/twice a week) or very frequent (three or more times per week). A general linear mixed model was used to determine the association between BMI and fast-food consumption, adjusting for Gross National Income per capita by country, measurement type (whether heights/weights were reported or measured), age and sex. 72,900 children (17 countries) and 199,135 adolescents (36 countries) provided data. Frequent and very frequent fast-food consumption was reported in 23% and 4% of children, and 39% and 13% of adolescents, respectively. Children in the frequent and very frequent groups had a BMI that was 0.15 and 0.22 kg/m(2) higher than those in the infrequent group (pfast-food consumption is high in childhood and increases in adolescence. Compared with infrequent fast-food consumption, frequent and very frequent consumption is associated with a higher BMI in children. Owing to residual confounding, reverse causation and likely misreporting, the reverse association observed in adolescents should be interpreted with caution. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Research for the innovation of the agri-food system in international cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bocchi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, characterized by intense environmental, landscape and socio-economic-financial changes, unexpected issues concerning the primary sector are arising and asks to researchers an urgent and deep reformulation both of the conceptual and technological tools used in the applied research. The concept of innovation is now radically changed, starting from a prevailing formula of linear top-down technology transfer, which has characterized the green revolution of the 1960s, to nowadays approach characterized by the innovation of a complex system, aimed at creating sustainable and shared opportunities through economic and institutional development. Those who now work in public or private bodies oriented to research for innovation are struggling to maintain their specific study area, but within integrated schemes where technical and scientific aspects are in interaction with organizational, institutional and political issues. Innovation can tackle several issues: new products, new technologies, new markets, new procedures (institutions and new policies. The series of scientific and conceptual tools framed into the Agro-ecology domain seems appropriate to plan development initiatives of which the primary objective is ensuring a sustainable management of all the resources involved in agricultural production processes, while promoting food security and sovereignty, as well as protecting the rural landscape. By studying a target agro-ecosystem it is possible to identify and characterize the relationships between both the internal components and the system structures and functions at different levels of complexity of plot, farm and country, without neglecting the interactions among scientific, technological and socio-economic factors, and ultimately tending towards a science aimed at conflict resolution. Given the challenges that agricultural development is going to face in the next decades, it is indeed essential to support the planning

  7. International Conference on Sustainable Rice Production - Policy, Technology and Extension Celebration Activity for International Year of Rice and World Food Day 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Rice is the staple food of more than half of the world's population. The production, processing and management of paddy rice have provided the basic conditions for the living of mankind. The production of rice has not only created employment opportunities for one billion agricultural population in developing nations, but has also contributed to the development of the splendid culture associated with rice production. Hence, effective and productive rice systems play an influential role in development of economy and improvement of quality of life. In view of this, on 16 December,2002, the UN General Assembly declared the year of 2004 the International Year of Rice.

  8. International spread of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Schwarzengrund in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Lockett, Jana

    2007-01-01

    We compared 581 Salmonella enterica serotype Schwarzengrund isolates from persons, food, and food animals in Denmark, Thailand, and the United States by antimicrobial drug susceptibility and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. Resistance, including resistance to nalidixic acid......, was frequent among isolates from persons and chickens in Thailand, persons in the United States, and food imported from Thailand to Denmark and the United States. A total of 183 PFGE patterns were observed, and 136 (23.4%) isolates had the 3 most common patterns. Seven of 14 isolates from persons in Denmark...... had patterns found in persons and chicken meat in Thailand; 22 of 390 human isolates from the United States had patterns found in Denmark and Thailand. This study suggests spread of multidrug-resistant S. Schwarzengrund from chickens to persons in Thailand, and from imported Thai food products...

  9. 78 FR 13855 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... ``Globalization of agriculture and food research at land-grant universities: BIFAD public meeting at University of... BIFAD Chair Brady Deaton. The Board will address both old and new business during this time and hear...

  10. 77 FR 50113 - ASTM International-Food and Drug Administration Workshop on Absorbable Medical Devices: Lessons...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... disability, please contact Cindy Garris, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 66, rm... that the implant must withstand and perform. Moreover, the optimal preclinical/bench testing paradigm...

  11. Participatory alternatives for charity food delivery? Finnish development in an international comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Silvasti, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    [Introduction] Give a man a fish, and you feed him for a day; show him how to catch fish, and you feed him for a lifetime. First and foremost, hunger as an extreme form of marginalization is a problem of developing countries. It is interesting, though, that food insecurity is also increasing rapidly in the developed world. This article deals with the particular phenomena of marginalization in forms of hunger and food insecurity in rich Western countries. Participation is discussed here as ...

  12. Targeting the pains of food insecurity and malnutrition among internally displaced persons with nutrient synergy and analgesics in organ meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayemi, Peter O; Muchenje, Voster; Yetim, Hasan; Ahhmed, Abdulatef

    2018-02-01

    Living with pain is one of the distressing effects of food insecurity and malnutrition among millions of internally displaced persons (IDPs) worldwide. Vulnerability to emotional pain, metabolic imbalance, chronic illnesses and non-communicable diseases by IDPs are associated with stressed livelihood and restricted access to balanced diets in their camps. Tackling the complexity of issues related to internal displacement is challenging as 45% are globally trapped in protracted conditions. In this review, a diet-based intervention is proposed considering the potential benefits of nutrient synergy and analgesic constituents in organ meat. Providing an affordable, value added and well packaged nutrient dense diet is suggested to meet daily protein and micronutrient requirements from organ meat. Also, unlocking health-promoting bioactive substances and analgesics in restructured organ meat product is proposed as personalized dietary remedy to exert opioid bioactivity in food matrix. Exploiting the nutrient synergy of this animal by-product will not only improve the nutritional status or wellbeing but also raise the composite score of dietary diversity or food security index among IDPs by 2030. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. [The analysis of domestic and international policy of food fortification with vitamins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaya, O A

    2016-01-01

    Fortification of food products of mass consumption with vitamins is a modern, most cost-effective, efficient and physiological way to improve the vitamin status of the population. Free or voluntary enrichment on the initiative of producers is used in the industrialized countries at low risk for inadequate population intake of micronutrients. Enrichment of products of mass consumption is almost always mandatory, legislative consolidated, while target enrichment of foods intended for different groups can be both mandatory and voluntary The criteria for the effectiveness of mandatory food fortification are an increase of certain vitamin consumption, reduce of the relative number of people with inadequate intake of certain micronutrients, improvement of micronutrient sufficiency (blood level), enhancement of biomarkers of some alimentar diseases, reduction of the frequency of congenital defects (neural tube defect). Assessment of risk/benefit ratio indicates safety of mandatory fortification of flour with B vitamins. In Russia, the regulatory framework for food fortification (enrichment levels, forms of vitamins) has been yet laborated. But initiative enrichment, held in Russia, does not give the desired result. An urgent need for legislative mandatory fortification of products consumed by the majority of the population (bread, milk) with B vitamins (the lack of which is the most frequently detected in the population of Russia) arose in a lack of knowledge of the population about the benefits of fortified foods and lack of preference in the selection of such products.

  14. Energy and water tradeoffs in enhancing food security: A selective international assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, Shahbaz; Maraseni, Tek Narayan; Maroulis, Jerry; Hafeez, Mohsin

    2009-01-01

    Rice is the major staple food in most Asian countries. However, with rapidly growing populations, sustained high productivity and yields through improving water productivity is critically important. Increasingly complex energy-agriculture relationships require an in-depth understanding of water and energy tradeoffs. This study contributes to energy and food policies by analysing the complex energy, water and economics dynamics across a selection of major rice growing countries. The results show that tradeoffs exist between yield and energy inputs with high yield attributed to higher levels of energy input. The selected developed countries show higher energy productivity, relative to all other energy inputs, compared to the selected developing counties, owing to enhanced mechanisation, on-farm technology and improved farm management. Among all countries, China has the highest water productivity due to water-saving irrigation practices. These practices offer opportunities for developed and developing countries to increase water productivity at the same time taking advantage of economic and energy benefits of reduced pumping. Sustained production from agriculture is vital to food security. Improved irrigation practices can offset environmental footprints in the short run but their large-scale implementation remains an issue. In the long run, investments are needed to buffer the negative impacts of food production on the environment. Investments to boost water productivity and improved energy use efficiency in crop production are two pathways to reduce energy dependency, enhanced natural resource sustainability and ensuring future food security.

  15. Functional foods and cardiometabolic diseases* International Task Force for Prevention of Cardiometabolic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, G; Buono, P; Daniele, A; Della Valle, E; Farinaro, E; Ferns, G; Krogh, V; Kromhout, D; Masana, L; Merino, J; Misciagna, G; Panico, S; Riccardi, G; Rivellese, A A; Rozza, F; Salvatore, F; Salvatore, V; Stranges, S; Trevisan, M; Trimarco, B; Vetrani, C

    2014-12-01

    Mounting evidence supports the hypothesis that functional foods containing physiologically-active components may be healthful. Longitudinal cohort studies have shown that some food classes and dietary patterns are beneficial in primary prevention, and this has led to the identification of putative functional foods. This field, however, is at its very beginning, and additional research is necessary to substantiate the potential health benefit of foods for which the diet-health relationships are not yet scientifically validated. It appears essential, however, that before health claims are made for particular foods, in vivo randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trials of clinical end-points are necessary to establish clinical efficacy. Since there is need for research work aimed at devising personalized diet based on genetic make-up, it seems more than reasonable the latter be modeled, at present, on the Mediterranean diet, given the large body of evidence of its healthful effects. The Mediterranean diet is a nutritional model whose origins go back to the traditional dietadopted in European countries bordering the Mediterranean sea, namely central and southern Italy, Greece and Spain; these populations have a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases than the North American ones, whose diet is characterized by high intake of animal fat. The meeting in Naples and this document both aim to focus on the changes in time in these two different models of dietary habits and their fall out on public health.

  16. Solubility Testing of Sucrose Esters of Fatty Acids in International Food Additive Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yukino; Kawano, Satoko; Motoda, Kenichiro; Tomida, Masaaki; Tatebe, Chiye; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the solubility of 10 samples of sucrose esters of fatty acids (SEFA) products that are commercially available worldwide as food additives (emulsifiers). Although one sample dissolved transparently in both water and ethanol, other samples produced white turbidity and/or precipitates and did not meet the solubility criterion established by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). When the sample solutions were heated, the solubility in both water and ethanol increased. All of the samples dissolved transparently in ethanol, and dispersed and became white without producing precipitates in water. The present study suggests that the current solubility criterion of the JECFA SEFA specifications needs to be revised.

  17. Food or Thought? Assessing Internal and External Factors Affecting Evaluations of Instructor Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, John; Kiggins, Ryan; Kickham, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Within the broader literature concerned with potential bias in student measures of instructor effectiveness, two broad types of bias have been shown to operate in a course: internal and external. Missing is an assessment of the relative influence of each bias type in the classroom. Do internal or external types of bias matter more or less to…

  18. Spatial structure of food contamination with 137Cs and estimation of long-term internal dose loads on population of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchko, K.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of 53,207 records of 137 Cs contents in 83 types of food products obtained in 1993 in Belarus was carried out. Internal exposure by eight selected food components has been estimated. To map the non-uniformly distributed data, different types of geostatical approaches are used. The results of spatial analysis of long term internal dose loads on populations under high radiation risk could be used in decision making. (author)

  19. 75 FR 61695 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; One Hundred and Sixtieth Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... institutions continue to play an important role in helping the civilian populations of these countries improve... the Marriott Hotel's Iowa Ballroom, Salons A, B, and C located on the second floor. ``Higher Education... rolled out its global food security strategy, known as ``Feed the Future.'' This new initiative has...

  20. 77 FR 30017 - International Capacity Building With Respect to Food Safety; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... more authorities to address the increasingly globalized food supply and prevent problems before they... the global supply chain as a key Agency priority. Indeed, two recent reports have focused on the challenges of global supply chains: FDA's ``Pathway to Global Product Safety and Quality,'' and the Institute...

  1. International Agro-food Chains and Networks as Instruments for Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.; Slingerland, M.A.; Nijhoff, H.

    2006-01-01

    Agro-food chains and networks play an increasingly important role in providing access to markets for producers from developing countries. In developing countries companies become integrated into geographically dispersed supply networks that link producers, traders and processors from the South with

  2. International cooperation for food and nutrition security: Systematization of the participatory, contextualized, and intersectoral educational practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene BURLANDY

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study systematized the experience gained with the project Construindo capacidades em segurança alimentar e nutricional no Brasil, Canadá e Angola (2004-2010, Building food and nutrition security skills in Brazil, Canada, and Angola, whose objective was to qualify actions that promote food and nutrition security in the three countries using different educational practices. The activities were organized in the following subprojects: (a online distance learning courses; (b workshops to train managers, government technicians, representatives of civil society organizations, and social subjects who offered to act as a link between communities; and (c local pilot projects. The present study reports this experience. The educational practices implemented in the municipalities of Araçuaí (MG, Juazeiro (BA, and Fortaleza (CE were analyzed based on systematized information in the project reports and activity records (texts and photographs. The analytical reference was based on the concept of food and nutrition education, guided by the fundamentals of Popular Education and Paulo Freire; on the concept of food and nutrition security; and on the following analytical dimensions: participation, contextualization of educational practices, and intersectoriality. The results evidenced how educational practices contributed to the construction of shared concepts of food and nutrition security from an intersectoral and participatory perspective that values the peculiarities of diet in different socioeconomic and cultural contexts, and highlights daily situations and local traditions. They also expose the limits and potentialities of an experience of this magnitude, conducted from an interdisciplinarity perspective and using participatory methods.

  3. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  4. The Regulatory Framework Across International Jurisdictions for Risks Associated with Consumption of Botanical Food Supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Low, Teng Yong; Wong, Kwok Onn; Yap, Adelene L.L.; Haan, De Laura H.J.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary supplements, including those containing botanical ingredients and botanical-derived compounds, have been marketed to consumers globally for many decades. However, the legislative framework for such products remains inconsistent across jurisdictions internationally. This study aims to

  5. Internal and External Barriers Impacting Non-Food Cellulosic Biofuel Projects in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Withers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Escalating demand, along with EPAct 2005, has led the United States government to assume a twofold leadership approach of energy security and environmental practices. This has initiated several important issues pertaining to cellulosic biofuel production. However, little is known about what is needed for the U.S. to lead long-term renewable energy security, how the US will develop and implement leading environmental energy practices, what supply capabilities and refining technologies are available to produce renewable fuels, and how funding can be used to adopt available technologies. This article examines geographical aspects, operational status, and barriers tending to prevent the successful commercialization of non-food cellulosic ethanol projects in the U.S. from secondary sources. Outcomes of this research can be used to further understand inhibitors that impact the production and commercialization of ethanol from non-food cellulosic sources.

  6. Innovation indicators: a survey of innovative activities in the international food processed industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Cardoso de Barros Fornari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to combine traditional methods of measuring intensity with other alternative indicators to examine the dispersion of innovation activities in different industries and countries. The hypothesis that underlies the study lies in the fact that in the Food Processed Industry (IAP the traditional methods are insufficient to detect the core of the innovation process. As method, we analyzed patent data extracted from the twenty-five largest food processed companies in the world and suggested different indicators developed from the Pesquisa de Inovação Tecnológica (PINTEC, 2010 – for Brazilian companies – and the Community Innovation Survey (CIS, 2009 – for European Union companies. The results allowed us to establish relationships in three dimensions: (i the complexity of the innovative effort of the IAP; (ii the efforts to innovation in different countries are distinct and; (iii there is heterogeneity in country performance.

  7. Towards internationally acceptable standards for food additives and contaminants based on the use of risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huggett, A.; Petersen, B.J.; Walker, R.; Fisher, C.E.; Notermans, S.H.W.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abbott, P.; Debackere, M.; Hathaway, S.C.; Hecker, E.F.F.; Knaap, A.G.A.; Kuznesof, P.M.; Meyland, I.; Moy, G.; Narbonne, J.-F.; Paakkanen, J.; Smith, M.R.; Tennant, D.; Wagstaffe, P.; Wargo, J.; Würtzen, G.

    1998-01-01

    Internationally acceptable norms need to incorporate sound science and consistent risk management principles in an open and transparent manner, as set out in the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). The process of risk analysis provides a procedure

  8. The role of food standards on international trade: assessing the Brazilian beef chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques Vieira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challengesfacing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

  9. Nuclear techniques in food and agriculture 1990-2002. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications, including technical documents (TECDOCs), of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2002. It is divided into two parts. The first part lists all sales publications in alphabetical order by subject category whereas the second part lists all TECDOCs in alphabetical order by subject category. Most publications are issued in English, although some are also available in other languages

  10. Nuclear techniques in food and agriculture 1990-2002. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications, including technical documents (TECDOCs), of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2002. It is divided into two parts. The first part lists all sales publications in alphabetical order by subject category whereas the second part lists all TECDOCs in alphabetical order by subject category. Most publications are issued in English, although some are also available in other languages.

  11. A Proposed Managerial Framework for International Marketing Operations in the Fast Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Selase Asamoah; Miloslava Chovancová

    2011-01-01

    When choosing marketing strategies for international markets, one of the factors that should be considered is the cultural differences that exist among consumers in different countries. If the branding strategy has to be contextual and in tune with the culture, then the brand positioning variables has to interact, adapt and respond to the cultural variables in which the brand is operating. This study provides an overview of the relevance of culture in the development of an effective branding ...

  12. International consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: Executive summary-Workgroup Report of the Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee, American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Chehade, Mirna; Groetch, Marion E; Spergel, Jonathan M; Wood, Robert A; Allen, Katrina; Atkins, Dan; Bahna, Sami; Barad, Ashis V; Berin, Cecilia; Brown Whitehorn, Terri; Burks, A Wesley; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Cianferoni, Antonella; Conte, Marisa; Davis, Carla; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Grimshaw, Kate; Gupta, Ruchi; Hofmeister, Brittany; Hwang, J B; Katz, Yitzhak; Konstantinou, George N; Leonard, Stephanie A; Lightdale, Jennifer; McGhee, Sean; Mehr, Sami; Sopo, Stefano Miceli; Monti, Giovanno; Muraro, Antonella; Noel, Stacey Katherine; Nomura, Ichiro; Noone, Sally; Sampson, Hugh A; Schultz, Fallon; Sicherer, Scott H; Thompson, Cecilia C; Turner, Paul J; Venter, Carina; Westcott-Chavez, A Amity; Greenhawt, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis (FPIES) is a non-IgE cell- mediated food allergy that can be severe and lead to shock. Despite the potential seriousness of reactions, awareness of FPIES is low; high-quality studies providing insight into the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management are lacking; and clinical outcomes are poorly established. This consensus document is the result of work done by an international workgroup convened through the Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology and the International FPIES Association advocacy group. These are the first international evidence-based guidelines to improve the diagnosis and management of patients with FPIES. Research on prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnostic markers, and future treatments is necessary to improve the care of patients with FPIES. These guidelines will be updated periodically as more evidence becomes available. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality certification as a key success factor in international marketing of food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niels; Marcussen, Carl Henrik

    1996-01-01

    delivery service and a stable quality have a high priority, which is indeed closely connected to the quality management system. The ISO 9000 certification in itself is, however, not generally considered as that important but there are differences between the three countries. I Germany an ISO 9000......Executive summary 1. During recent years Danish producers of processed pork have experienced an increasing competition in the Western European markets. In this connection it has been maintained that a better quality and especially an ISO 9000 certification of the quality management systems...... retail chains, catering firms and food processing companies have been interviewed about their criteria for choosing suppliers and what part the quality management systems of the suppliers and perhaps an ISO certification would play in this connection. 4. It appears from the investigation that in general...

  14. Food, Globalization and Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Sonnenfeld, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of

  15. The experiences and perceptions of food banks amongst users in high-income countries: An international scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Georgia; Mehta, Kaye; McNaughton, Darlene; Booth, Sue

    2018-01-01

    Food banks have become the main response to food insecurity in many high-income countries, but it has been argued that they lack the capacity to respond consistently and fully to the food needs of the people who use them. This literature review set out to answer the question 'how do food bank recipients experience food relief services and how does this impact their lives and wellbeing?' A comprehensive search of electronic databases yielded twenty qualitative studies, conducted in developed countries, exploring user perspectives of food banks. From the studies reviewed, there emerged three main categories that represented the different aspects of the food bank process from the food bank user's perspective: the user's perceptions about the idea of being fed from food banks, the user's perceptions about food bank offerings and operations, and the socio-psychological impact of receiving food from food banks. While participants of these studies spoke positively of the volunteers and were thankful for the service, they also consistently report limited food choice, poor quality, shame, stigma and embarrassment associated with food bank use. The food bank industry continues to expand despite there being little evidence that food banks are an appropriate response for those facing food insecurity. This is worrying as the results of this review indicate that although participants value the service provided by the food bank, the experience can be largely negative. These findings raise questions about the food bank model as a long-term strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 75 FR 9388 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; One Hundred and Fifty-Ninth Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ..., ``Food Security: the Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food.'' He will... the scale and density needed to produce future positive landscape level reductions in environmental...

  17. Effects of internal phosphorus loadings and food-web structure on the recovery of a deep lake from eutrophication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepori, Fabio; Roberts, James J.

    2017-01-01

    We used monitoring data from Lake Lugano (Switzerland and Italy) to assess key ecosystem responses to three decades of nutrient management (1983–2014). We investigated whether reductions in external phosphorus loadings (Lext) caused declines in lake phosphorus concentrations (P) and phytoplankton biomass (Chl a), as assumed by the predictive models that underpinned the management plan. Additionally, we examined the hypothesis that deep lakes respond quickly to Lext reductions. During the study period, nutrient management reduced Lext by approximately a half. However, the effects of such reduction on P and Chl a were complex. Far from the scenarios predicted by classic nutrient-management approaches, the responses of P and Chl a did not only reflect changes in Lext, but also variation in internal P loadings (Lint) and food-web structure. In turn, Lint varied depending on basin morphometry and climatic effects, whereas food-web structure varied due to apparently stochastic events of colonization and near-extinction of key species. Our results highlight the complexity of the trajectory of deep-lake ecosystems undergoing nutrient management. From an applied standpoint, they also suggest that [i] the recovery of warm monomictic lakes may be slower than expected due to the development of Lint, and that [ii] classic P and Chl a models based on Lext may be useful in nutrient management programs only if their predictions are used as starting points within adaptive frameworks.

  18. Dietary 232Th and 238U intakes for Japanese as obtained in a market basket study and contributions of imported foods to internal doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, K.

    1995-01-01

    Thorium-232 and 238 U contents in four food groups were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Daily intakes of 232 Th and 238 U for Japanese were estimated to 2.22 mBq and 15.5 mBq per person, respectively. Furthermore, preliminary estimations were made for the effects of imported foods on internal exposures for Japanese. (author). 16 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  19. [Labeling of food containing genetically modified organisms: international policies and Brazilian legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo; Marin, Victor Augustus

    2011-08-01

    The increase in surface area planted with genetically modified crops, with the subsequent transfer of such crops into the general environment for commercial trade, has raised questions about the safety of these products. The introduction of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety has led to the need to produce information and ensure training in this area for the implementation of policies on biosafety and for decision-making on the part of governments at the national, regional and international level. This article presents two main standpoints regarding the labeling of GM products (one adopted by the United States and the other by the European Union), as well as the position adopted by Brazil and its current legislation on labeling and commercial release of genetically modified (GM) products.

  20. ILSI Brazil International Workshop on Functional Foods: a narrative review of the scientific evidence in the area of carbohydrates, microbiome, and health

    OpenAIRE

    Marie E. Latulippe; Agnès Meheust; Livia Augustin; David Benton; Přemysl Berčík; Anne Birkett; Alison L. Eldridge; Joel Faintuch; Christian Hoffmann; Julie Miller Jones; Cyril Kendall; Franco Lajolo; Gabriela Perdigon; Pedro Antonio Prieto; Robert A. Rastall

    2013-01-01

    To stimulate discussion around the topic of ‘carbohydrates’ and health, the Brazilian branch of the International Life Sciences Institute held the 11th International Functional Foods Workshop (12 December 2011) in which consolidated knowledge and recent scientific advances specific to the relationship between carbohydrates and health were presented. As part of this meeting, several key points related to dietary fiber, glycemic response, fructose, and impacts on satiety, cognition, mood, and g...

  1. Development of International Terminology and Definitions for Texture-Modified Foods and Thickened Fluids Used in Dysphagia Management: The IDDSI Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichero, Julie A Y; Lam, Peter; Steele, Catriona M; Hanson, Ben; Chen, Jianshe; Dantas, Roberto O; Duivestein, Janice; Kayashita, Jun; Lecko, Caroline; Murray, Joseph; Pillay, Mershen; Riquelme, Luis; Stanschus, Soenke

    2017-04-01

    Dysphagia is estimated to affect ~8% of the world's population (~590 million people). Texture-modified foods and thickened drinks are commonly used to reduce the risks of choking and aspiration. The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative (IDDSI) was founded with the goal of developing globally standardized terminology and definitions for texture-modified foods and liquids applicable to individuals with dysphagia of all ages, in all care settings, and all cultures. A multi-professional volunteer committee developed a dysphagia diet framework through systematic review and stakeholder consultation. First, a survey of existing national terminologies and current practice was conducted, receiving 2050 responses from 33 countries. Respondents included individuals with dysphagia; their caregivers; organizations supporting individuals with dysphagia; healthcare professionals; food service providers; researchers; and industry. The results revealed common use of 3-4 levels of food texture (54 different names) and ≥3 levels of liquid thickness (27 different names). Substantial support was expressed for international standardization. Next, a systematic review regarding the impact of food texture and liquid consistency on swallowing was completed. A meeting was then convened to review data from previous phases, and develop a draft framework. A further international stakeholder survey sought feedback to guide framework refinement; 3190 responses were received from 57 countries. The IDDSI Framework (released in November, 2015) involves a continuum of 8 levels (0-7) identified by numbers, text labels, color codes, definitions, and measurement methods. The IDDSI Framework is recommended for implementation throughout the world.

  2. Analysis of Maize versus Ethanol Production in Nebraska, United States and International Agricultural Droughts: Lessons for Global Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boken, V.; Tenkorang, F.

    2012-04-01

    Nebraska is one of the eight main corn (maize) belt states of the United States. Maize is the major crop of Nebraska with an average annual production of about 38 million tons (about 12% of U.S. production), which contributes billions of dollars to the state's economy. The yield of maize has increased significantly over the past century - from 1.6 t/ha in 1900 to 10.4 t/ha in 2010. While the majority of maize (about 40%) is currently used for animal feed and ethanol production, only about six percent is exported. It is estimated that about one billion people accounting for about 15% population of the world live in chronic hunger because of low agricultural productivity and drought. Most of these people depend on the U.S. for grains including maize. If a greater quantity of maize is diverted to ethanol production, considerably less quantity of maize would be available for export to developing countries where it could be used for human consumption and to mitigate hunger and improve food security. This paper presents analysis of maize production in Nebraska for the past three decades and examines how its commercialization for ethanol production has affected its exports in the face of drought at an international level.

  3. Internal validity of a household food security scale is consistent among diverse populations participating in a food supplement program in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melgar-Quinonez Hugo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective We assessed the validity of a locally adapted Colombian Household Food Security Scale (CHFSS used as a part of the 2006 evaluation of the food supplement component of the Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia, Colombia (MANA – Plan Departamental de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional de Antioquia. Methods Subjects included low-income families with pre-school age children in MANA that responded affirmatively to at least one CHFSS item (n = 1,319. Rasch Modeling was used to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the items through measure and INFIT values. Differences in CHFSS performance were assessed by area of residency, socioeconomic status and number of children enrolled in MANA. Unidimensionality of a scale by group was further assessed using Differential Item Functioning (DIF. Results Most CHFSS items presented good fitness with most INFIT values within the adequate range of 0.8 to 1.2. Consistency in item measure values between groups was found for all but two items in the comparison by area of residency. Only two adult items exhibited DIF between urban and rural households. Conclusion The results indicate that the adapted CHFSS is a valid tool to assess the household food security of participants in food assistance programs like MANA.

  4. Internal validity of a household food security scale is consistent among diverse populations participating in a food supplement program in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Michelle; Melgar-Quinonez, Hugo; Uribe, Martha C Alvarez

    2008-05-23

    We assessed the validity of a locally adapted Colombian Household Food Security Scale (CHFSS) used as a part of the 2006 evaluation of the food supplement component of the Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia, Colombia (MANA - Plan Departamental de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional de Antioquia). Subjects included low-income families with pre-school age children in MANA that responded affirmatively to at least one CHFSS item (n = 1,319). Rasch Modeling was used to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the items through measure and INFIT values. Differences in CHFSS performance were assessed by area of residency, socioeconomic status and number of children enrolled in MANA. Unidimensionality of a scale by group was further assessed using Differential Item Functioning (DIF). Most CHFSS items presented good fitness with most INFIT values within the adequate range of 0.8 to 1.2. Consistency in item measure values between groups was found for all but two items in the comparison by area of residency. Only two adult items exhibited DIF between urban and rural households. The results indicate that the adapted CHFSS is a valid tool to assess the household food security of participants in food assistance programs like MANA.

  5. Indicators of food and water security in an Arctic Health context--results from an international workshop discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Lena Maria; Berner, James; Dudarev, Alexey A; Mulvad, Gert; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Parkinson, Alan; Rautio, Arja; Tikhonov, Constantine; Evengård, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    In August 2012, a literature search with the aim of describing indicators on food and water security in an Arctic health context was initialized in collaboration between the Arctic Human Health Expert Group, SDWG/AHHEG and the AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme within the Arctic Council) Human Health Assessment Group, AMAP/HHAG. In December 2012, workshop discussions were performed with representatives from both of these organizations, including 7 Arctic countries. The aim of this article is to describe the workshop discussions and the rational for the 12 indicators selected and the 9 rejected and to discuss the potential feasibility of these. Advantages and disadvantages of candidate indicators were listed. Informative value and costs for collecting were estimated separately on a 3-level scale: low, medium and high. Based on these reviews, the final selection of promoted and rejected indicators was performed and summarized in tables. Among 10 suggested indicators of food security, 6 were promoted: healthy weight, traditional food proportion in diet, monetary food costs, non-monetary food accessibility, food-borne diseases and food-related contaminants. Four were rejected: per-person dietary energy supply, food security modules, self-estimated food safety and healthy eating. Among 10 suggested indicators of water security, 6 were promoted: per-capita renewable water, accessibility of running water, waterborne diseases, drinking-water-related contaminants, authorized water quality assurance and water safety plans. Four were rejected: water consumption, types of water sources, periodic water shortages and household water costs.

  6. Indicators of food and water security in an Arctic Health context – results from an international workshop discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Maria Nilsson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In August 2012, a literature search with the aim of describing indicators on food and water security in an Arctic health context was initialized in collaboration between the Arctic Human Health Expert Group, SDWG/AHHEG and the AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme within the Arctic Council Human Health Assessment Group, AMAP/HHAG. In December 2012, workshop discussions were performed with representatives from both of these organizations, including 7 Arctic countries. The aim of this article is to describe the workshop discussions and the rational for the 12 indicators selected and the 9 rejected and to discuss the potential feasibility of these. Advantages and disadvantages of candidate indicators were listed. Informative value and costs for collecting were estimated separately on a 3-level scale: low, medium and high. Based on these reviews, the final selection of promoted and rejected indicators was performed and summarized in tables. Among 10 suggested indicators of food security, 6 were promoted: healthy weight, traditional food proportion in diet, monetary food costs, non-monetary food accessibility, food-borne diseases and food-related contaminants. Four were rejected: per-person dietary energy supply, food security modules, self-estimated food safety and healthy eating. Among 10 suggested indicators of water security, 6 were promoted: per-capita renewable water, accessibility of running water, waterborne diseases, drinking-water-related contaminants, authorized water quality assurance and water safety plans. Four were rejected: water consumption, types of water sources, periodic water shortages and household water costs.

  7. FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  8. Nigerian Food Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Food Journal (NIFOJ) is a journal of international standard ... of special attributes and advantages of food products and materials, technical ... the various disciplines among members who are employed in food research, the food ...

  9. International Data & Economic Analysis (IDEA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — International Data UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Food Price Index; IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics; Millennium Challenge Corporation; and World Bank,...

  10. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  11. Food irradiation: its role in food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, R U

    1986-12-31

    There are food safety criteria generally defined by international groups and specifically defined by individual countries. Food irradiation will be discussed in the light of food safety regulations. The merits and acceptability of food irradiation in promoting trade within and between countries will also be discussed. The need for public awareness and training of technical personnel will be highlighted

  12. Food irradiation: its role in food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R. U.

    1985-01-01

    There are food safety criteria generally defined by international groups and specifically defined by individual countries. Food irradiation will be discussed in the light of food safety regulations. The merits and acceptability of food irradiation in promoting trade within and between countries will also be discussed. The need for public awareness and training of technical personnel will be highlighted

  13. Role of the central R&D laboratories of an international group in the field of Food-Feed Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovari Katalin

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available With increased globalisation and more frequent crises within food/feed industry, public concern over food safety will remain at its present level and may even increase. The crushing/refining industry is likely to face further problems in the future. The recently established Food/Feed Safety Coordination Committee will be able to deal with any new crises at group level (communication, action organisation, in close cooperation with R&D, which in turn will provide the scientific background, analytical results, proposals for technical solutions and continuous monitoring, for any given situation.

  14. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR assays integrated with an internal control for quantification of bovine, porcine, chicken and turkey species in food and feed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan R Shehata

    Full Text Available Food adulteration and feed contamination are significant issues in the food/feed industry, especially for meat products. Reliable techniques are needed to monitor these issues. Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR assays were developed and evaluated for detection and quantification of bovine, porcine, chicken and turkey DNA in food and feed samples. The ddPCR methods were designed based on mitochondrial DNA sequences and integrated with an artificial recombinant plasmid DNA to control variabilities in PCR procedures. The specificity of the ddPCR assays was confirmed by testing both target species and additional 18 non-target species. Linear regression established a detection range between 79 and 33200 copies of the target molecule from 0.26 to 176 pg of fresh animal tissue DNA with a coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.997-0.999. The quantification ranges of the methods for testing fortified heat-processed food and feed samples were 0.05-3.0% (wt/wt for the bovine and turkey targets, and 0.01-1.0% (wt/wt for pork and chicken targets. Our methods demonstrated acceptable repeatability and reproducibility for the analytical process for food and feed samples. Internal validation of the PCR process was monitored using a control chart for 74 consecutive ddPCR runs for quantifying bovine DNA. A matrix effect was observed while establishing calibration curves with the matrix type under testing, and the inclusion of an internal control in DNA extraction provides a useful means to overcome this effect. DNA degradation caused by heating, sonication or Taq I restriction enzyme digestion was found to reduce ddPCR readings by as much as 4.5 fold. The results illustrated the applicability of the methods to quantify meat species in food and feed samples without the need for a standard curve, and to potentially support enforcement activities for food authentication and feed control. Standard reference materials matching typical manufacturing processes are needed for

  15. Impact of Dietary Acculturation on the Food Habits, Weight, Blood Pressure, and Fasting Blood Glucose Levels of International College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almohanna, Amal; Conforti, Frank; Eigel, William; Barbeau, William

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to determine the impact of dietary acculturation on the health status of newly arrived international students at Virginia Tech in Fall 2010. Participants: Thirty-five international students, 18-36 years of age, completed the study. Methods: Data were collected at 3 different time periods (V1, V2, and V3)…

  16. Organic Agriculture in Development - The need for integrated production for food security. Proceedings and report of international workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2007-01-01

    Chemical fertilizers, synthetic pesticides, irrigation and improved cultivars were important ingredients of the Green Revolution that helped increase food production in Asia. Today, chemical input intensive system of crop husbandry are widely perceived as not sustainable in the long term. Total...

  17. Describing and analyzing effects of international differences in food safety requirements -the case of the EU versus US-

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmers, H.J.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Poppe, K.J.; Wijnands, J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper compares SPS-requirements of the USA and of the EU from the perspective of the processing establishment, and analyzes the consequences of differences for national as well as firm policies. Differences in safety requirements may impede the competitiveness of the food industry.

  18. Evaluation of the impact of matrix effect on quantification of pesticides in foods by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using isotope-labeled internal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Otake, Takamitsu

    2015-05-29

    The impact of the matrix effect in GC-MS quantification of pesticides in food using the corresponding isotope-labeled internal standards was evaluated. A spike-and-recovery study of nine target pesticides was first conducted using paste samples of corn, green soybean, carrot, and pumpkin. The observed analytical values using isotope-labeled internal standards were more accurate for most target pesticides than that obtained using the external calibration method, but were still biased from the spiked concentrations when a matrix-free calibration solution was used for calibration. The respective calibration curves for each target pesticide were also prepared using matrix-free calibration solutions and matrix-matched calibration solutions with blank soybean extract. The intensity ratio of the peaks of most target pesticides to that of the corresponding isotope-labeled internal standards was influenced by the presence of the matrix in the calibration solution; therefore, the observed slope varied. The ratio was also influenced by the type of injection method (splitless or on-column). These results indicated that matrix-matching of the calibration solution is required for very accurate quantification, even if isotope-labeled internal standards were used for calibration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Review on the Rising Prevalence of International Standards: Threats or Opportunities for the Agri-Food Produce Sector in Developing Countries, with a Focus on Examples from the MENA Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faour-Klingbeil, Dima

    2018-01-01

    Food safety standards are a necessity to protect consumers’ health in today’s growing global food trade. A number of studies have suggested safety standards can interrupt trade, bringing financial and technical burdens on small as well as large agri-food producers in developing countries. Other examples have shown that economical extension, key intermediaries, and funded initiatives have substantially enhanced the capacities of growers in some countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region to meet the food safety and quality requirements, and improve their access to international markets. These endeavors often compensate for the weak regulatory framework, but do not offer a sustainable solution. There is a big gap in the food safety level and control systems between countries in the MENA region and those in the developed nations. This certainly has implications for the safety of fresh produce and agricultural practices, which hinders any progress in their international food trade. To overcome the barriers of legal and private standards, food safety should be a national priority for sustainable agricultural development in the MENA countries. Local governments have a primary role in adopting the vision for developing and facilitating the implementation of their national Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) standards that are consistent with the international requirements and adapted to local policies and environment. Together, the public and private sector’s support are instrumental to deliver the skills and infrastructure needed for leveraging the safety and quality level of the agri-food chain. PMID:29510498

  20. A Review on the Rising Prevalence of International Standards: Threats or Opportunities for the Agri-Food Produce Sector in Developing Countries, with a Focus on Examples from the MENA Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faour-Klingbeil, Dima; Todd, Ewen C D

    2018-03-03

    Food safety standards are a necessity to protect consumers' health in today's growing global food trade. A number of studies have suggested safety standards can interrupt trade, bringing financial and technical burdens on small as well as large agri-food producers in developing countries. Other examples have shown that economical extension, key intermediaries, and funded initiatives have substantially enhanced the capacities of growers in some countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region to meet the food safety and quality requirements, and improve their access to international markets. These endeavors often compensate for the weak regulatory framework, but do not offer a sustainable solution. There is a big gap in the food safety level and control systems between countries in the MENA region and those in the developed nations. This certainly has implications for the safety of fresh produce and agricultural practices, which hinders any progress in their international food trade. To overcome the barriers of legal and private standards, food safety should be a national priority for sustainable agricultural development in the MENA countries. Local governments have a primary role in adopting the vision for developing and facilitating the implementation of their national Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) standards that are consistent with the international requirements and adapted to local policies and environment. Together, the public and private sector's support are instrumental to deliver the skills and infrastructure needed for leveraging the safety and quality level of the agri-food chain.

  1. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes: lessons learned and implications for the regulation of marketing of foods and beverages to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Chessa K

    2013-10-01

    To identify lessons learned from 30 years of implementing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (‘the Code’) and identify lessons learned for the regulation of marketing foods and beverages to children. Historical analysis of 30 years of implementing the Code. Latin America and the Caribbean. None. Legislation to restrict marketing of breast-milk substitutes is necessary but not sufficient; equally important are the promulgation of implementing regulations, effective enforcement and public monitoring of compliance. A system of funding for regular monitoring of compliance with legislation should be explicitlyd eveloped and funded from the beginning. Economic sanctions, while important, are likely to be less effective than reports that affect a company’s public image negatively. Non-governmental organizations play a critical role in leveraging public opinion and galvanizing consumer pressure to ensure that governments adopt regulations and companies adhere to them. Continual clinical, epidemiological and policy research showing the link between marketing and health outcomes and between policy and better health is essential. Implementation of the Code has not come easily as it places the interests of underfinanced national governments and international and non-governmental organizations promoting breast-feeding against those of multinational corporations that make hundreds of millions of dollars annually marketing infant formulas. Efforts to protect, promote and support breast-feeding have been successful with indicators of breast-feeding practices increasing globally. The lessons learned can inform current efforts to regulate the marketing of foods and beverages to children.

  2. International trade standards for commodities and products derived from animals: the need for a system that integrates food safety and animal disease risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, G R; Penrith, M-L; Atkinson, M W; Thalwitzer, S; Mancuso, A; Atkinson, S J; Osofsky, S A

    2013-12-01

    A case is made for greater emphasis to be placed on value chain management as an alternative to geographically based disease risk mitigation for trade in commodities and products derived from animals. The geographic approach is dependent upon achievement of freedom in countries or zones from infectious agents that cause so-called transboundary animal diseases, while value chain-based risk management depends upon mitigation of animal disease hazards potentially associated with specific commodities or products irrespective of the locality of production. This commodity-specific approach is founded on the same principles upon which international food safety standards are based, viz. hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP). Broader acceptance of a value chain approach enables animal disease risk management to be combined with food safety management by the integration of commodity-based trade and HACCP methodologies and thereby facilitates 'farm to fork' quality assurance. The latter is increasingly recognized as indispensable to food safety assurance and is therefore a pre-condition to safe trade. The biological principles upon which HACCP and commodity-based trade are based are essentially identical, potentially simplifying sanitary control in contrast to current separate international sanitary standards for food safety and animal disease risks that are difficult to reconcile. A value chain approach would not only enable more effective integration of food safety and animal disease risk management of foodstuffs derived from animals but would also ameliorate adverse environmental and associated socio-economic consequences of current sanitary standards based on the geographic distribution of animal infections. This is especially the case where vast veterinary cordon fencing systems are relied upon to separate livestock and wildlife as is the case in much of southern Africa. A value chain approach would thus be particularly beneficial to under-developed regions of

  3. Nigerian Food Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Food Journal (NIFOJ) is a journal of international standard established ... of interdisciplinary knowledge on all aspects of food science and technology. ... Optimization of Some Physico-Chemical Properties of Predigested Soymilk ...

  4. Hepatitis A in Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border: the role of international travel and food-borne exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Michelle; Hopkins, Jackie; Farrington, Leigh; Gresham, Louise; Ginsberg, Michele; Bell, Beth P

    2004-07-01

    Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border historically have had among the highest hepatitis A rates in the United States, but risk factors have not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to examine risk factors associated with acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border in San Diego County, California. In this case-control study, hepatitis A cases among Hispanic children who were younger than 18 years reported from June 1998 through August 2000 were matched by age group and exposure period to Hispanic children who were susceptible to HAV infection. Participants and their families were interviewed about demographic information and potential sources of HAV infection, including attending child care, food and waterborne exposures, cross-border and other international travel, and travel-related activities. Participants included 132 children with hepatitis A and 354 control subjects. The median age of study participants was 7 years (range: 1-17). Sixty-seven percent of case-patients traveled outside the United States during the incubation period, compared with 25% of the children without hepatitis A (odds ratio [OR]: 6.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.0-9.7); all children, except 1, had traveled to Mexico. In multivariate analysis, hepatitis A was associated with having eaten food from a taco stand or street food vendor (adjusted OR: 17.0; 95% CI: 4.1-71.1) and having eaten salad/lettuce (adjusted OR: 5.2; 95% CI: 1.3-20.1) during travel. Hepatitis A among Hispanic children who live in an urban area of the United States-Mexico border is associated with cross-border travel to Mexico and food-borne exposures during travel. Travelers to areas where hepatitis A is endemic should receive hepatitis A vaccine before travel.

  5. Food Consumption Patterns Of The Ozyorsk Population In 1948-1966, Important For Estimating Peroral Component Of Internal Exposure Doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokrov, Y.; Martyushov, V.Z.; Stukalov, Pavel M.; Ivanov, I.A.; Beregich, D.A.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2008-01-01

    Results of reconstruction of food consumption patterns are presented for the residents of Ozyorsk for the period of 1948-1966. The reconstruction was performed on the basis analysis of the archive data. The given period of time is characterized by maximum releases into the atmosphere from the Mayak PA sources, and, therefore, it is considered to be the most significant period for calculating peroral component contribution to effective exposure doses to the population. The paper describes main foodstuff suppliers (regions) and their economic indices, as well as delivery rates and consumption rates for most important foodstuffs (primarily whole milk).

  6. Investigation on food radioactivity and estimation of internal dose by ingestion in two Chinese high radiation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, H.

    1993-01-01

    As a part of a nationwide survey, the activity concentrations in 14 categories of food for 8-9 radionuclides in Yangjian Country (Guangdong Province) and an area near U-mining area (Jiangxi Province) of China were determined. The radionuclides are natural uranium (U), natural thorium (Th), 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 227 Ac, 40 K and 87 Rb. According to the local diet composition, public Annual Intake and resultant committed dose equivalents for these natural radionuclides by ingestion in the area were estimated. 4 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  7. Anti-microbial polymer films for food packaging: Poster at the 3rd International Symposium on Food Packaging: Ensuring the Safety, Quality and Traceability of Foods, 17-19 November 2004, Barcelona, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Sandmeier, D.; Kensbock, E.

    2004-01-01

    Anti-microbial fitted polymers can protect the surface of food from unwanted microorganisms like bacteria, yeast and mould or prevent or suppress their growth. This type of active packaging contributes to a better quality and shelf life. Today the extended use of polymers offers new possibilities to construct anti-microbial packaging materials. There are two different mechanisms of anti-microbial fitted films, surface fixed anti-microbial groups or release of active agents. Based on the relea...

  8. Reassessing supplier reputation in international trade coordination – a German and Australian perspective of global organic food networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernzen, Amelie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainties are especially high among importing firms and for products with sensitive and ‘critical’ quality characteristics in a societal context, such as food. While much recent literature on this issue has focused on the implementation of standards and certification systems, I argue that reputation also plays an important role for trading firms in mitigating uncertainties across large distances. Reputation may or may not reflect reality and is based on public (e.g. media and networked (from individuals information. This article draws on Convention Theory in a case study based on qualitative interviews among organic food importers to Germany and Australia. I first show that the degree of their public exposure implies specific risks and strongly influences importers’ coordination strategy. I then go on to examine how, in these firms’ supplier relations and risk management, not only the reputation of (potential suppliers counts, but also the reputation of supplier countries and institutional systems such as standards and certification bodies. Intensive involvement and first-hand experience with certifiers and suppliers in exporting countries can, in some cases, cause firms to challenge their existing beliefs. I conclude that a good reputation is still essential for (improving market access, even when basic prerequisites such as legally mandatory certification are fulfilled.

  9. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient...... another central issue of the paper. Results revealed that the general attitudes towards functional foods are related to the purchase intention with regard to functional foods described by their carrier/ingredient combinations. Consumers' attitudes towards specific carrier ingredient combinations define...... influence food manufacturers' decision making with regards to production of functional foods. Internal factors such as organisational characteristics, innovation characteristics, and external factors such as functional food ingredient suppliers' marketing efforts, collaboration between suppliers and food...

  10. Investigation of natural radionuclides in foods and waters in China and evaluation of internal dose to public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Changshou; Liu Yulan; Xu Ning; Hu Aiying; Kou Tiluo; Shi Zhongxin

    1992-12-01

    In order to obtain background radiation levels of natural radionuclides in foods and waters in China, the determination and analysis of water and food samples have been completed by organizations of radiological protection from 28 provinces, autonomous regions and three major cities. Ranges of specific activity of natural radionuclides for U, Th, Ra, K, Pb and Po are (2.2 ∼ 25.5) x 10 -2 Bq/kg, (0.5 ∼ 6.9) x 10 -2 Bq/kg, (3.4 ∼ 25.5) x 10 -2 Bq/kg, (25 ∼ 420) x 10 -2 Bq/kg, (3.9 ∼ 55) x 10 -2 Bq/kg and (2.7 ∼ 58) x 10 -2 Bq/kg, respectively. Samples of drinking water were taken from tap water or well. The average concentrations in tap water and well water are 2.8 x 10 -2 Bq/L and 3.7 x 10 -2 Bq/L for U, 0.8 x 10 -2 Bq/L and 1.3 x 10 -2 Bq/L for Ra, 0.07 x 10 -2 Bq/L and 0.06 x 10 -2 Bq/L for Th, 0. 3 x 10 -2 Bq/L and 1.1 x 10 -2 Bq/L for Pb and 0.3 Bq/L and 0.5 Bq/L for Po respectively. The annual intakes by ingestion have been calculated. The annual intake of male adult from six main natural radionuclides is about 205 Bq. Among them 64% of total intake of U is from drinking water. The contributions from grains to the total intake of Ra, Pb and Po are 55.7%, 59.7% and 70% respectively. The total annual average effective dose equivalent of 6 natural radionuclides for male adult in China is about 310 μSv

  11. Outline of work under way at the Central Electricity Research Laboratories, Leatherhead (GB))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, C.A.P.

    1977-01-01

    At CERL the properties of structural materials suitable for primary sodium circuits of fast reactors are covered by a number of jobs, many of which are concerned with mechanical properties of steels in air. These include the measurement of creep and rupture behaviours, the identification of grain boundary deformation and damage processes and crack growth in creep and/or fatigue. The work covers the candidate fast reactor steels AISI 316, Alloy 800, 12CrMoV, 9CR1Mo, 24Cr1Mo and includes 316-9Cr1Mo and 316-24 Cr1Mo transition joints. One job is concerned specifically with the influence of liquid sodium on material properties and involves the use of high flow rate sodium loops. Details of the relevant projects are given: corrosion of steels in flowing sodium; creep and fatigue of steels in flowing sodium; small scale experiments in liquid sodium; creep, creep crack growth and fatigue of AISI 316 in air and vacuum; ageing studies of AISI 316 and 9Cr1Mo base and weld metals; dissimilar metal transition joints

  12. Investigation of natural radionuclides in foods and waters in China and evaluation of internal dose to public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changshou, Zhu; Yulan, Liu; Ning, Xu; Aiying, Hu; Tiluo, Kou; Zhongxin, Shi [Laboratory of Industrial Hygiene, Ministry of Public Health (China); and others

    1992-12-01

    In order to obtain background radiation levels of natural radionuclides in foods and waters in China, the determination and analysis of water and food samples have been completed by organizations of radiological protection from 28 provinces, autonomous regions and three major cities. Ranges of specific activity of natural radionuclides for U, Th, Ra, K, Pb and Po are (2.2 {approx} 25.5) x 10 {sup -2} Bq/kg, (0.5 {approx} 6.9) x 10{sup -2} Bq/kg, (3.4 {approx} 25.5) x 10 {sup -2} Bq/kg, (25 {approx} 420) x 10{sup -2} Bq/kg, (3.9 {approx} 55) x 10{sup -2} Bq/kg and (2.7 {approx} 58) x 10{sup -2} Bq/kg, respectively. Samples of drinking water were taken from tap water or well. The average concentrations in tap water and well water are 2.8 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L and 3.7 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L for U, 0.8 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L and 1.3 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L for Ra, 0.07 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L and 0.06 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L for Th, 0. 3 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L and 1.1 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L for Pb and 0.3 Bq/L and 0.5 Bq/L for Po respectively. The annual intakes by ingestion have been calculated. The annual intake of male adult from six main natural radionuclides is about 205 Bq. Among them 64% of total intake of U is from drinking water. The contributions from grains to the total intake of Ra, Pb and Po are 55.7%, 59.7% and 70% respectively. The total annual average effective dose equivalent of 6 natural radionuclides for male adult in China is about 310 {mu}Sv.

  13. Food problems and food irradiation, recent trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is to contribute to the stable security of foodstuffs which is the fundamental condition of human survival by improving the preservation of foodstuffs and food sanitation utilizing the biological effect due to irradiation. The research and development have been carried out internationally since 1950s, but after the safety declaration of irradiated foods in 1980 by the international organ concerned, the permission and practical use for foods in various foreign countries, the technology transfer to developing countries and so on have been advanced. At present, food irradiation is permitted in 38 countries, and the practical irradiation is carried out in 24 countries. In Japan, the irradiation of potatoes to prevent germination was permitted in 1972, and the practical irradiation on potatoes of yearly 15,000 t is carried out. In the near future, irradiated foods will appear in international foodstuff market, and Japan which imports foodstuffs must cope with them. Foodstuffs and the safety, food irradiation, the soundness of irradiated foods, food irradiation in various foreign countries and Japan, the trend of international organs and the criticism of food irradiation are reported. (K.I.)

  14. Intercomparison and certification of some Chinese and international food and biological matrix CRMs for several uncertified ultratrace elements by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizhi, T.; Bangfa, N.; Pingsheng, W.; Huiling, N.; Lei, C.; Yangmei, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis was used for determinations of 8 rare elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in two Chinese CRMs, GBW 08503 (wheat) and GBW 09101 (hair), and Cs, Sr, Th and U in five NIST SRMs, 1548 (Total Diet), 1486 (Bone Meal), 8414 (Bovine Muscle), 1566a (Oyster Powder ) and 1575 (Pine Needles). These determinations are for eventual certification of above ultratrace elements so far not certified. The radiochemical separation scheme used in RNAA of NIST SRMs is an anion exchange followed by the coprecipitation by (REE)F 3 for U and Th, and SrSo 4 precipitation for Sr and Cs. For RNAA of the two Chinese CRMs, a one step (REE)F 3 precipitation was used. Chemical yields were determined for all relevant elements by tracer experiments. All these materials were also analyzed by ICPMS, that offered an opportunity to compare the two major trace analytical techniques on their merits and drawbacks for these particular cases. RNAA is proven to be one of the important techniques in ultratrace analysis, especially in certification of some ultratrace elements. Determination of elements in sub-ng/g level is still an area to be further investigated because: (1) some such elements are important in food and health related environmental studies, (2) many of these elements have no (or very few) certified values in existing biological CRMs, (3) reliable techniques qualified for ultratrace analysis are needed to be established, and (4) sampling behavior of elements at these levels is still not very well known (recommended minimum sample size may not be adequate). (author)

  15. Using program impact pathways to understand and improve program delivery, utilization, and potential for impact of Helen Keller International's homestead food production program in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Deanna K; Vicheka, Sao; Kro, Meng; Chakriya, Chhom; Kroeun, Hou; Hoing, Ly Sok; Talukder, Aminzzaman; Quinn, Victoria; Iannotti, Lora; Becker, Elisabeth; Roopnaraine, Terry

    2013-06-01

    Evidence of the impact of homestead food production programs on nutrition outcomes such as anemia and growth is scant. In the absence of information on program impact pathways, it is difficult to understand why these programs, which have been successful in increasing intake of micronutrient-rich foods, have had such limited documented impact on nutrition outcomes. To conduct a process evaluation of Helen Keller International's (HKI's) homestead food production program in Cambodia to assess whether the program was operating as planned (in terms of design, delivery, and utilization) and to identify ways in which the program might need to be strengthened in order to increase its potential for impact. A program theory framework, which laid out the primary components along the hypothesized program impact pathways, was developed in collaboration with HKI and used to design the research. Semistructured interviews and focus group discussions with program beneficiaries (n = 36 and 12, respectively), nonbeneficiaries (n = 12), and program implementers (n = 17 and 2, respectively) and observations of key program delivery points, including health and nutrition training sessions (n = 6), village model farms (n = 6), and household gardens of beneficiaries (n = 36) and nonbeneficiaries (n = 12), were conducted to assess the delivery and utilization of the primary program components along the impact pathways. The majority of program components were being delivered and utilized as planned. However, challenges with some of the key components posited to improve outcomes such as anemia and growth were noted. Among these were a gap in the expected pathway from poultry production to increased intake of eggs and poultry meat, and some weaknesses in the delivery of the health and nutrition training sessions and related improvements in knowledge among the village health volunteers and beneficiaries. Although the program has been successful in delivering the majority of the program

  16. How can interdisciplinarity of food, design, architecture and pedagogy affect children’s eating habits and food preferences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hermanssdottir, Sunna; Rasmussen, Mai

    2012-01-01

    Abstract for the International Conference on Designing Food and Designing for Food 2012, London June 28-29, 2012......Abstract for the International Conference on Designing Food and Designing for Food 2012, London June 28-29, 2012...

  17. Does science speak clearly and fairly in trade and food safety disputes? The search for an optimal response of WTO adjudication to problematic international standard-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kuei-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Most international health-related standards are voluntary per se. However, the incorporation of international standard-making into WTO agreements like the SPS Agreement has drastically changed the status and effectiveness of the standards. WTO members are urged to follow international standards, even when not required to comply fully with them. Indeed, such standards have attained great influence in the trade system. Yet evidence shows that the credibility of the allegedly scientific approach of these international standard-setting institutions, especially the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) governing food safety standards, has been eroded and diluted by industrial and political influences. Its decision-making is no longer based on consensus, but voting. The adoption of new safety limits for the veterinary drug ractopamine in 2012, by a very close vote, is simply another instance of the problematic operations of the Codex. These dynamics have led skeptics to question the legitimacy of the standard setting body and to propose solutions to rectify the situation. Prior WTO rulings have yet to pay attention to the defect in the decision-making processes of the Codex. Nevertheless, the recent Appellate Body decision on Hormones II is indicative of a deferential approach to national measures that are distinct from Codex formulas. The ruling also rejects the reliance on those experts who authored the Codex standards to assess new measures of the European Community. This approach provides an opportunity to contemplate what the proper relationship between the WTO and Codex ought to be. Through a critical review of WTO rulings and academic proposals, this article aims to analyze how the WTO ought to define such interactions and respond to the politicized standard-making process in an optimal manner. This article argues that building a more systematic approach and normative basis for WTO judicial review of standard-setting decisions and the selection of technical

  18. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labots, H.; Huis in 't Veld, G.J.P.; Verrips, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    After a review of several methods for the preservation of food and the routes of food infections, the following chapters are devoted to the preservation by irradiation. Applications and legal aspects of food irradiation are described. Special reference is made to the international situation. (Auth.)

  19. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  20. Non-nutritive anticarcinogens in foods : state of the art and future developments : a report of the international workshop held on March 26 - 27 1990 in Wageningen, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, M.G.L.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    1990-01-01

    On March 26-27 1990 an international workshop on non-nutritive anticarcinogens in foods was organised in Wageningen, The Netherlands. Aim of the workshop was to review progress in the research on natural occurring non-nutritive anticarcinogens and to set priorities for future analytica! and

  1. Small-scale Farmer Access to International Agri-Food Chains : a BOP-Based Reflection on the Need for Socially Embedded Innovation in the Coffee and Flower Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danse, M.G.; Vellema, S.

    2007-01-01

    Internationalisation of agro-food chains offers agricultural sectors in developing economies prospects in profitable and competitive international markets. Market access strategies often seem to assume poverty alleviation as one of the outcomes. This paper aims to be more precise about the required

  2. Automatic food decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    Consumers' food decisions are to a large extent shaped by automatic processes, which are either internally directed through learned habits and routines or externally influenced by context factors and visual information triggers. Innovative research methods such as eye tracking, choice experiments...... and food diaries allow us to better understand the impact of unconscious processes on consumers' food choices. Simone Mueller Loose will provide an overview of recent research insights into the effects of habit and context on consumers' food choices....

  3. Food irradiation makes progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J. van

    1984-01-01

    In the past fifteen years, food irradiation processing policies and programmes have been developed both by a number of individual countries, and through projects supported by FAO, IAEA and WHO. These aim at achieving general acceptance and practical implementation of food irradiation through rigorous investigations of its wholesomeness, technological and economic feasibility, and efforts to achieve the unimpeded movement of irradiated foods in international trade. Food irradiation processing has many uses

  4. Perspectives of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, J.K.

    1974-01-01

    Food preservation by means of ionizing radiation has been technically feasible for more than a decade. Its utilization could increase food safety, extend the transport and shell life of foods, cut food losses, and reduce dependence upon chemical additives. The prime obstacles have been the strict safety requirements set by health authorities to this preservation method and the high costs of the long-term animal tests necessary to fulfil these requirements. An International Food Irradiation Project, expected to establish the toxicological safety of 10 foods by about 1976, is described in some detail. (author)

  5. Food Mapping: A Psychogeographical Method for Raising Food Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, R. Alan; Killham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Food mapping is a new, participatory, interdisciplinary pedagogical approach to learning about our modern food systems. This method is inspired by the Situationist International's practice of the "dérive" and draws from the discourses of critical geography, the food movement's research on food deserts, and participatory action…

  6. Radioactivity and food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references

  7. FOOD SECURITY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu STANCIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing world population, the limitation of the natural availability for food production, the climate issues and the food consumption need for modification imposed a continuous updating of the food security concept. Although Romania has sufficient natural resources, which may ensure, by means of proper exploitation, the population’s food needs, the lack of a unitary approach at the government level, materialized in the dependence on imports and in fluctuations in the agro-food production, leads to a re-evaluation of national food needs. National food security may be affected by a series of risks and threats, which appeared due to an imbalance connected with the availability, the utility and the stability of the agro-food sector, interdependent elements that must be functional. The present article proposes an analysis of food security in Romania, with a short presentation of the concept in an international context.

  8. Preparation for Pick-and-Eat Food Production on the International Space Station: Flight Definition for the VEG-04 and VEG-05 Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, G. D.; Wheeler, R. M.; Romeyn, M. W.; Hummerick, M. E.; Spencer, L. E.; Morrow, R. C.; Mitchell, C. A.; Burgner, S.; Whitmire, A. M.; Young, M. H.; hide

    2018-01-01

    Growth of fresh, nutritious, palatable produce for crew consumption during spaceflight may provide health-promoting, bioavailable nutrients and enhance the dietary experience as we move toward longer-duration missions. Tending plants also may serve as a countermeasure for crew psychological stresses associated with long duration spaceflight. However, requirements to support consistent growth of a variety of high quality, nutritious crops under spaceflight environmental conditions is unknown. This study is exploring the potential to grow plants for food production on the International Space Station (ISS) using the Veggie vegetable production system. Ground testing is underway to compare the impacts of several fertilizer and lighting treatments on growth, quality, and nutritional composition of the leafy green crop mizuna, and the dwarf tomato crop Red Robin when subjected to Veggie ISS environmental conditions. Early testing focused on the leafy crop Tokyo Bekana Chinese cabbage, but ground tests indicated that this plant suffered from stress responses when grown under LEDs and the chronically elevated CO2 levels found on the ISS. Mizuna, a related leafy variety that grows well in the presence of high CO2, and has excellent organoleptic characteristics, was selected as an alternate crop. Tomato crops have been grown using two fertilizer formulations and two pollination techniques, and growth tests using different red:blue lighting environments are underway. Chemical analysis is also being conducted and these data, when coupled with the growth results, will be used to down-select to the two best lighting treatments and best fertilizer treatment for future testing of each crop on the ISS. Additionally, seed-source testing has become important, with mizuna seeds from two different vendors growing very differently. A seed source has been selected, and seed-surface-sanitizing methods have been confirmed for mizuna, but these remain under development for tomato. A crop

  9. An overview of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    This outline survey reviews the subject of food irradiation under the following headings:- brief history, the process (sources, main features of a food processing facility, interaction of radiation with food, main applications of the technology, packaging) consumer concerns (safety, nutritional changes, labelling, detection), international use of food irradiation and legal aspects. (UK)

  10. Regulatory aspect of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison Aziz

    1985-01-01

    Interest in the process of food irradiation is reviewed once again internationally. Although food irradiation has been thoroughly investigated, global acceptance is still lacking. Factors which impede the progress of the technology are discussed here. (author)

  11. The Intersection of Environmental Variability, Policy, and Human Values: International Treaties, Yukon River Salmon, and Food Security in a Changing Arctic (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, S.; Loring, P. A.; Murray, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    2009 was a particularly devastating year for rural communities of the Yukon River in Alaska. For a number of reasons, including annual variability in Chinook and Chum salmon runs, imperfect monitoring and information, “best practices” management decisions by regulatory agencies, and international treaty obligations related to conservation and total allowable catch allocation, the smokehouses and freezers of many Alaska Native families, particularly those in up-river communities in the Yukon Flats region, are empty; a problem that has prompted Alaska’s Governor Sean Parnell to ask the US Federal Government to declare a disaster. However, depending on whom you ask, this year’s management of these resources, which provide food security and enable self-reliance in rural communities, may be evaluated as a failure or as a success. How can we reconcile an institutional assessment that claims success as defined in terms of internationally-agreed upon conservation and escapement goals, with the negative economic and health impacts on communities? We use this case to illustrate how the whole Yukon River watershed and drainage, including Alaska and Canada, provides an elegant, geographic context for the discussion and analysis of the human dimensions of environmental change and regional sustainability. Policymakers have arguably gone to great lengths to reconcile competing ‘uses’ of the Yukon River, including commercial and subsistence uses as well as conservation goals, but while managers continue to strive to be ‘adaptive learners’ in their approach to balancing these goals, the impacts on rural communities are immediate and cumulative, synergistic, temporally and spatially scaled, and directly related to rural livelihoods, community health, well-being and sustainability. The cost of this ‘adaptive’ process may be too high, both for the ecosystem and for the people who live there. Are we asking too much of the Yukon River? Are we asking too much of the

  12. International cooperative effort to establish ASTM [American Society for Testing and Materials] standards for the measurement of radiation dose for food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV.

    1987-01-01

    A task group has been formed within the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifically to develop standards for measuring radiation dose for food processing. The task group, which has 78 members, including 16 from Europe, consists of a broad cross section of food industry, government, regulatory, manufacturing, and university interests. The group is working on seven standards; three specifically for food irradiation applications, and four for using specific dosimeter types for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable methods of accomplishing the required irradiation treatment of food and other products, and will be available for adoption by regulatory agencies in food irradiation protocols. 1 tab

  13. Destination specific risks of acquisition of notifiable food- and waterborne infections or sexually transmitted infections among Finnish international travellers, 1995-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöldi, Viktor; Sane, Jussi; Kantele, Anu; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska; Salmenlinna, Saara; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2017-10-10

    Overnight international travels made by Finns more than doubled during 1995-2015. To estimate risks and observe trends of travel-related notifiable sexually transmitted and food- and water-borne infections (STIs and FWIs) among travellers, we analysed national reports of gonorrhoea, syphilis, hepatitis A, shigellosis, campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis cases and related them to travel statistics. Cases notified as travel-related to the Finnish infectious diseases register were used as numerators and overnight stays of Statistics Finland surveys as denominator. We calculated overall risks (per 100,000 travellers) and assessed trends (using regression model) in various geographic regions. Of all travel-related cases during 1995-2015, 2304 were STIs and 70,929 FWIs. During 2012-2015, Asia-Oceania showed highest risk estimates for gonorrhoea (11.0; 95%CI, 9.5-13), syphilis (1.4; 0.93-2.1), salmonellosis (157; 151-164), and campylobacteriosis (135; 129-141), and Africa for hepatitis A (4.5; 2.5-7.9), and shigellosis (35; 28-43). When evaluating at country level, the highest risks of infections was found in Thailand, except for hepatitis A ranking Hungary the first. During 2000-2011, significantly decreasing trends occurred for most FWIs particularly in the European regions and for STIs in Russia-Baltics. Our findings can be used in targeting pre-travel advice, which should also cover those visiting Thailand or European hepatitis A risk areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Food for the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2012-01-01

    The population of the world is expected to grow by a third to nine billion by 2050. In order to feed this growing population, global food production will have to increase significantly. It is vitally important to make optimal use of the latest modern technology to help farmers to produce more food, to protect animals and crops against diseases and pests and to ensure that food is safe and wholesome.Nuclear techniques can help to achieve all three of these goals. The International Atomic Energy Agency, working closely with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, makes these techniques available to farmers and food producers in developing countries.

  15. Food irradiation seminar: Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The report covers the Seminar for Asia and the Pacific on the practical application of food irradiation. The seminar assessed the practical application of food irradiation processes, commercial utilisation and international trade of irradiated food

  16. Food irradiation: fiction and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (IGCFI), sponsored by World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), with the intention to provide to governments, especially those of developing countries, scientifically correct information about food irradiation, decided to organize a file and questions of general public interest. The document is composed by descriptive files related with the actual situation and future prospective, technical and scientific terms, food irradiation and the radioactivity, chemical transformations in irradiated food, genetic studies, microbiological safety of irradiated food, irradiation and harmlessness, irradiation and additives, packing, irradiation facilities control, process control, irradiation costs and benefits as well as consumers reaction

  17. Determination of dioxins (PCDDs/PCDFs) and PCBs in food and feed using the DR CALUX bioassay : results of an international validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizzi, G.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Holst, von C.; Rose, M.; Anklam, E.

    2005-01-01

    Maximum levels for dioxins in food and feedstuffs have been recently established by the European Commission through two regulations. Dioxin-monitoring programmes of food and feedstuffs will therefore be undertaken by the European Member States to implement these regulations, which would be

  18. Can Functional Food and Organic Food be Supporting Concepts in Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Bügel, Susanne; Almer, Kamille; Zalecka, A.; Ploeger, A.; Huber, Machteld; Kahl, J.

    2013-01-01

    Poster IUNS 20st International Congress of Nutrition. Functional and organic food belong to fast growing segments of the European food market. The question is whether organic food can also be a functional food. The conclusion is that functional food and organic food are competing rather than supporting concepts in Europe.

  19. Detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyakova, A.; Tsvetkova, E.; Nikolova, R.

    2005-01-01

    In connection with the ongoing world application of irradiation as a technology in Food industry for increasing food safety, it became a need for methods of identification of irradiation. It was required to control international trade of irradiated foods, because of the certain that legally imposed food laws are not violated; supervise correct labeling; avoid multiple irradiation. Physical, chemical and biological methods for detection of irradiated foods as well principle that are based, are introducing in this summary

  20. Contributions of processed foods to dietary intake in the US from 2003-2008: a report of the Food and Nutrition Science Solutions Joint Task Force of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R

    2012-11-01

    Processed foods are an integral part of American diets, but a comparison of the nutrient contribution of foods by level of processing with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans regarding nutrients to encourage or to reduce has not been documented. The mean reported daily dietary intakes of these nutrients and other components were examined among 25,351 participants ≥2 y of age in the 2003-2008 NHANES to determine the contribution of processed food to total intakes. Also examined was the percent contribution of each nutrient to the total reported daily nutrient intake for each of the 5 categories of food that were defined by the level of processing. All processing levels contributed to nutrient intakes, and none of the levels contributed solely to nutrients to be encouraged or solely to food components to be reduced. The processing level was a minor determinant of individual foods' nutrient contribution to the diet and, therefore, should not be a primary factor when selecting a balanced diet.

  1. An art report to analyze internal and external research status for the establishment of the safe supply system of the foods for military meal service using ionization energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jang Ho; Jo, Cheol Hun; Kim, Dong Ho; Lee, You Seok

    2003-09-01

    Since the risk of food-borne pathogenic diseases such as E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella always remains in the military meal service system, it is necessary to develop the method to eliminate this problem. According to the preference survey of military meals, it is shown that soldiers preferred the improvement in quality such as tastes and variety to the increase in quantity. For this reason, the supply of diverse foods, improvement of cooking methods, and the complement of meal service facilities are required. The developed countries such as the United States maintain the facilities to control the environmental factors such as temperature, moisture, and oxygen and they develop and use the rapid methods to test the storage times of each category of foods based on the theoretical studies of food storage/preservation/processing and their experimental data. Due to the ordinary sanitation methods are gradually limited all over the world, as new technology for prevention of food-borne diseases and establishment to manufacture wholesome food, a radiation technology is very effective to ensure safe food and preservation/distribution, improve the safety of processed food and its manufacturing processes. And, the military meal service including combat rations furnishes viability, energy, ability for duty, and mental rest to soldiers. Furthermore, it ensures combat capabilities, enhances mobility power of troops, improves combat efficiency, and establishes the military supply system. It is necessary to study irradiation technique in order to establish the safe food supply system for military meal service and eliminate contamination such as food-borne disease for combat crews as an essential element in military power

  2. Ionization of food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    After general remarks on foods preservation, on international works and on ionization future prospects, main irradiation sources are described. Recalls on radioactivity, on radiation-matter interaction, on toxicology of ionized foods and on ionized foods detection are given. Ionization applications to various products are reviewed, especially in: - Poultry meat - Fishing products - Fresh fruits and vegetables - Dry fruits and vegetables - spices, tea, infusion - prepacked products... An evaluation of economics and sociocultural impacts is presented in connection with recent experiments [fr

  3. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Allergies KidsHealth / For Kids / Food Allergies What's in this ... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system makes ...

  4. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  5. International Food Security: Insufficient Efforts by Host Governments and Donors Threaten Progress to Halve Hunger in Sub-Saharan Africa by 2015

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melito, Thomas; Thomas, Phillip J; Bray, Carol; Chen, Ming; Chung, Debbie; De Alteriis, Martin; DeWolf, Leah; Dowling, Mark; Finkler, Etana; Hudson Acknowledgments, Melinda

    2008-01-01

    ..., and the impact of poor health on the agricultural workforce. Additional factors, including rising global commodity prices and climate change, will likely further exacerbate food insecurity in the region...

  6. Food Safety: an Integral Part of Food Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, Lizette

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, many countries have developed integrated and harmonized food safety and quality control guidelines in accordance with national legislation and international standards to protect the health of consumers. But food safety standards alone are not enough. Radiation technology can complement and supplement existing technologies to ensure food security, safety and quality.

  7. IAEA and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo

    1995-01-01

    IAEA was founded in 1957. 122 countries take part in it. It is operated with the yearly ordinary budget of about 20 billion yen and the technical cooperation budget of about 6 billion yen and by 2200 personnel. Its two important roles are the promotion of the peaceful utilization of atomic energy and the prevention of nuclear proliferation. The activities of IAEA are shown. The cooperation with developing countries and the international research cooperation program are the important activities. The securing of foods is an urgent subject, and the utilization of radiation and isotopes has been promoted, aiming at sustaining agriculture. The necessity of food irradiation is explained, and at present, commercial food irradiation is carried out in 28 countries including Japan. The irradiation less than 10 kGy does not cause poisonous effect in any food, according to JECFI. The new international agreement is expected to be useful for promoting the international trade of irradiated foods. The international cooperation for the spread of food irradiation and the public acceptance of food irradiation are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Food irradiation 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaiz, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation principles; its main applications, advantages and limitations; wholesomeness, present activities at Ezeiza Atomic Centre; research coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency; capacity building; and some aspects on national and international regulations, standards and commercialization are briefly described. At present 56 countries authorize the consumption of varied irradiated foods; trade is performed in 32 countries, with about 200 irradiation facilities. Argentina pioneered nuclear energy knowledge and applications in Latin America, food irradiation included. A steady growth of food industrial volumes treated in two gamma facilities can be observed. Food industry and producers show interest towards new facilities construction. However, a 15 years standstill in incorporating new approvals in the Argentine Alimentary Code, in spite of consecutive request performed either by CNEA or some food industries restricts, a wider industrial implementation, which constitute a drawback to future regional commercialization in areas such as MERCOSUR, where Brazil since 2000 freely authorize food irradiation. Besides, important chances in international trade with developed countries will be missed, like the high fresh fruits and vegetables requirements United States has in counter-season, leading to convenient sale prices. The Argentine food irradiation facilities have been designed and built in the country. Argentina produces Cobalt-60. These capacities, unusual in the world and particularly in Latin America, should be protected and enhanced. Being the irradiation facilities scarce and concentrated nearby Buenos Aires city, the possibilities of commercial application and even research and development are strongly limited for most of the country regions. (author) [es

  9. Atomic energy and food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-07-01

    International activities aimed at improving, increasing and conserving food supplies are fostered in special ways by the Joint Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture established by the Agency and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. An examination of the processes by which food is produced and of the skills arising from nuclear techniques which are being applied is made here by Maurice Fried and Bjorn Sigurbjornsson. They are the Director and Deputy Director of the Joint Division, which is an integral part of both the Agriculture Department of FAO and of the Agency's Department of Research and Isotopes. (author)

  10. Food Safety Incidents, Collateral Damage and Trade Policy Responses: China-Canada Agri-Food Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Huanan; Hobbs, Jill E.; Kerr, William A.

    2008-01-01

    As markets become globalized, food safety policy and international trade policy are increasingly intertwined. Globalization also means that food safety incidents are widely reported internationally. One result is that food safety incidents can negatively impact products where no food safety issue exists as consumers lose trust in both foreign and domestic food safety institutions. While the policy framework for dealing with directly effected imported foods is well understood, how to deal with...

  11. Forest gardening on abandoned terraces links local biomass carbon accumulation to international carbon markets, reverses land degradation, improves food diversity, and increases farmer income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Despite chronic underproduction of food in Nepal, more and more agricultural land is abandoned especially in the remote middle hills and mountains. Male and young workers leave the villages for higher wages in the bigger cities or abroad. By now, most villages are mainly populated by women, children and elderly persons maintaining the gardens and fields close to the houses and leave the centenarian terraces fallow. Erosion, vanishing water resources, losses of soil organic carbon and the weakening of the local agro-economy become increasingly problematic. During the rainy season of 2015/16, 86 farmer families from four villages replanted their abandoned terraces with 25,000 mixed trees, mostly Cinnamon, Moringa, Mulberry, Lemon, Michelia, Paulownia, and various nuts. All trees were planted with a blend of organic biochar-based fertilizer and compost, since it was convincingly demonstrated by more than 20 field trials in this region that this was the most plant-growth promoting method. Mulching of the trees with rice straw or thatch grass was generalized. To let the young tries pass the critical seven months of dry season, water retention ponds with pipe irrigation were installed. Farmers were organized in groups of three families to mutually help and control the tree maintenance which led to an average tree survival rate of more than 80% after the first year compared to less than 50% in many country-wide forestation projects since the 1980s. Between the lower and upper lines of trees on the terraces, ginger, turmeric, black beans, onions, lentils and other secondary crops were cultivated using the same organic biochar based fertilizer and mulching techniques. What may seem a reasonable approach for many places, is in many of the poorest countries simply not possible to realize because village families do often not have the necessary initial investment for saplings and irrigation facilities at their disposal. Therefore, the Ithaka Institute linked the forest garden

  12. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy introduced into the International Standard Organization (ISO) regulations as an alternative method for detection and identification of pathogens in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Evelin; Korsak, Dorota; Kowalska, Aneta; Księżopolska-Gocalska, Monika; Niedziółka-Jönsson, Joanna; Roźniecka, Ewa; Michałowicz, Weronika; Albrycht, Paweł; Podrażka, Marta; Hołyst, Robert; Waluk, Jacek; Kamińska, Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    We show that surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) can serve as a fast, reliable, and easy method for detection and identification of food-borne bacteria, namely Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Cronobacter spp., in different types of food matrices (salmon, eggs, powdered infant formula milk, mixed herbs, respectively). The main aim of this work was to introduce the SERS technique into three ISO (6579:2002; 11290-1:1996/A1:2004; 22964:2006) standard procedures required for detection of these bacteria in food. Our study demonstrates that the SERS technique is effective in distinguishing very closely related bacteria within a genus grown on solid and liquid media. The advantages of the proposed ISO-SERS method for bacteria identification include simplicity and reduced time of analysis, from almost 144 h required by standard methods to 48 h for the SERS-based approach. Additionally, PCA allows one to perform statistical classification of studied bacteria and to identify the spectrum of an unknown sample. Calculated first and second principal components (PC-1, PC-2) account for 96, 98, and 90% of total variance in the spectra and enable one to identify the Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, and Cronobacter spp., respectively. Moreover, the presented study demonstrates the excellent possibility for simultaneous detection of analyzed food-borne bacteria in one sample test (98% of PC-1 and PC-2) with a goal of splitting the data set into three separated clusters corresponding to the three studied bacteria species. The studies described in this paper suggest that SERS represents an alternative to standard microorganism diagnostic procedures. Graphical Abstract New approach of the SERS strategy for detection and identification of food-borne bacteria, namely S. enterica, L. monocytogenes, and C. sakazakii in selected food matrices.

  13. Packing for food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A G [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee approved the use of radiation treatment of foods. Nowadays food packaging are mostly made of plastics, natural or synthetic, therefore effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packing engineering for food irradiation technology. By selecting the right polymer materials for food packaging it can be ensured that the critical elements of material and product performance are not compromised. When packaging materials are in contact with food at the time of irradiation that regulatory approvals sometimes apply. The review of the R-and-D and technical papers regarding material selection, testing and approval is presented in the report. The most information come from the USA where this subject is well elaborated, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports are reviewed as well. The report can be useful for scientists and food irradiation plants operators. (author)

  14. Packing for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee approved the use of radiation treatment of foods. Nowadays food packaging are mostly made of plastics, natural or synthetic, therefore effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packing engineering for food irradiation technology. By selecting the right polymer materials for food packaging it can be ensured that the critical elements of material and product performance are not compromised. When packaging materials are in contact with food at the time of irradiation that regulatory approvals sometimes apply. The review of the R-and-D and technical papers regarding material selection, testing and approval is presented in the report. The most information come from the USA where this subject is well elaborated, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports are reviewed as well. The report can be useful for scientists and food irradiation plants operators. (author)

  15. Food irradiation in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henon, Y.M.

    1995-01-01

    Food irradiation already has a long history of hopes and disappointments. Nowhere in the world it plays the role that it should have, including in the much needed prevention of foodborne diseases. Irradiated food sold well wherever consumers were given a chance to buy them. Differences between national regulations do not allow the international trade of irradiated foods. While in many countries food irradiation is still illegal, in most others it is regulated as a food additive and based on the knowledge of the sixties. Until 1980, wholesomeness was the big issue. Then the ''prerequisite'' became detection methods. Large amounts of money have been spent to design and validate tests which, in fact, aim at enforcing unjustified restrictions on the use of the process. In spite of all the difficulties, it is believed that the efforts of various UN organizations and a growing legitimate demand for food safety should in the end lead to recognition and acceptance. (Author)

  16. Sustainable Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia; Eberle, Ulrike; Lorek, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary food production and consumption cannot be regarded as sustainable and raises problems with its wide scope involving diverse actors. Moreover, in the face of demographic change and a growing global population, sus-tainability problems arising from food systems will likely become more...... and globalization of agriculture and food processing, the shift of consumption patterns toward more dietary animal protein, the emergence of modern food styles that entail heavily processed products, the growing gap on a global scale between rich and poor, and the paradoxical lack of food security amid an abundance...... of food. These factors are attributable to national and international policies and regulations, as well as to prevalent business prac-tices and, in particular, consumers' values and habits. The most effective ways for affluent societies to reduce the environmental impact of their diets are to reduce...

  17. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  18. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  19. A working procedure for identifying emerging food safety issues at an early stage: Implications for European and international risk management practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marvin, H.J.P.; Kleter, G.A.; Frewer, L.J.; Cope, S.F.; Wentholt, M.T.A.; Rowe, G.

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for early identification of emerging food safety issues in order to prevent them from developing into health risks. In this paper, various existing methods and procedures which can be used for early identification of safety issues are reviewed, including the monitoring of the

  20. The return of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerton, K.

    1992-01-01

    In discussing the need for food irradiation the author examines the problems that arise in processing foods of different kinds: spices, meat, fruits and vegetables. It is demonstrated that the relatively low dose of radiation required to eliminate the reproductive capacity of the pest can be tolerated by most fruits and vegetables without damage. Moreover the safety of irradiated food is acknowledged by major national and international food organizations and committees. The author agreed that when food irradiation has been approved by a country, consumers should be able to choose between irradiated and non-irradiated food. To enable the choice, clear and unambiguous labelling must be enforced. 13 refs., 1 tab., ills

  1. Radioactivity and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna Marzys, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food-on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods. 14 refs, 4 tabs

  2. Food irradiation and sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  3. Food irradiation and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25 to 70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning in achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70 to 80 0 C (bacon to 53 0 C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurrence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40 0 C to -20 0 C). Radappertized foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for 'wholesomeness' (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effects of radappertization on the 'wholesomeness' characteristics of these foods. (author)

  4. Radioactivity and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods

  5. Food allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... questions about the food you are served. When buying food, read package ingredients carefully. ... allergies in breastfed or other children to prevent future food allergies. Always discuss this with your child's ...

  6. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  7. Synergies through blending "on site" learning with e-learning internationally - evaluating the global seminar on environment and sustainable food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jane Bech; Christensen, Dorthe; Sriskandarajah, Nadarajah

    2005-01-01

    The Global Seminar is an international course, which builds on the premise that knowledge construction occurs when students explore real global issues and delemmas, take positions in relation to these, discuss those positions in an argumentative format and finally, reflect on and re......-evaluate their positions. The most challenging E-learning component was the international student groups (ISG), where small groups, comprising of students from the participating countries and universities, collaborate entirely online on carrying out a problem-based project....

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  9. International Food Security: Insufficient Efforts by Host Governments and Donors Threaten Progress to Halve Hunger in Sub-Saharan Africa by 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    AIDS human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome IEHA Initiative to End Hunger in Africa (A U.S. Presidential Initiative...term agricultural development have not been successful. The United States’ Presidential Initiative to End Hunger in Africa ( IEHA ...Africa, but these efforts are not integrated into IEHA . Given this fragmented approach to food security, the U.S. government is likely missing

  10. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, M.

    1978-01-01

    In November, 1977, an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation was held at Wageningen, the Netherlands. About 200 participants attended the Symposium which was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization; a reflection of the active interest which is being shown in food irradiation processing, particularly among developing countries. The 75 papers presented provided an excellent review of the current status of food irradiation on a wide range of different topics, and the Symposium also afforded the valuable opportunity for informal discussion among the participants and for developing personal contacts. A brief survey of the salient aspects discussed during the course of the meeting are reported on. (orig.) [de

  11. One health and food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielinga, Peter; Schlundt, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Many, if not most, of all important zoonoses relate in some way to animals in the food production chain. Therefore food becomes an important vehicle for many zoonotic pathogens. One of the major issues in food safety over the latest decades has been the lack of cross-sectoral collaboration across...... the food production chain. Major food safety events have been significantly affected by the lack of collaboration between the animal health, the food control, and the human health sector. One Health formulates clearly both the need for, and the benefit of cross-sectoral collaboration. Here we will focus...... on the human health risk related to zoonotic microorganisms present both in food animals and food derived from these animals, and typically transmitted to humans through food. Some diseases have global epidemic- or pandemic-potential, resulting in dramatic action from international organizations and national...

  12. Gender and food security

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Agriculture Organization; The World Bank; IFAD

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record This is a module in the "Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook" published by the World Bank, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Fund for Agricultural Development. This module examines the critical role that women play in food production and agricultural development. Women consistently have less access than men to resources and opportunities throughout the production chain. By removing such inequalities and incorporating women in decision making processe...

  13. The International Society of Hypertension and World Hypertension League call on governments, nongovernmental organizations and the food industry to work to reduce dietary sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norman R C; Lackland, Daniel T; Chockalingam, Arun; Lisheng, Liu; Harrap, Stephen B; Touyz, Rhian M; Burrell, Louise M; Ramírez, Agustín J; Schmieder, Roland E; Schutte, Aletta E; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2014-02-01

    The International Society of Hypertension and the World Hypertension League have developed a policy statement calling for reducing dietary salt. The policy supports the WHO and the United Nations recommendations, which are based on a comprehensive and up-to-date review of relevant research. The policy statement calls for broad societal action to reduce dietary salt, thus reducing blood pressure and preventing hypertension and its related burden of cardiovascular disease. The hypertension organizations and experts need to become more engaged in the efforts to prevent hypertension and to advocate strongly to have dietary salt reduction policies implemented. The statement is being circulated to national hypertension organizations and to international nongovernmental health organizations for consideration of endorsement. Member organizations of the International Society of Hypertension and the World Hypertension League are urged to support this effort.

  14. Sustainability assessment of food chain logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Bastl, M.; Allaoui, H.

    2015-01-01

    Food chain logistics plays an important role in the sustainability performance of the food sector. Therefore, project SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems) started as a collaborative international project, aiming for tools and frameworks for the food sector to make a step change in

  15. Issues in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, S.

    1987-04-01

    This discussion paper has two goals: first, to raise public awareness of food irradiation, an emerging technology in which Canada has the potential to build a new industry, mainly oriented to promising overseas markets; and second, to help build consensus among government and private sector decision makers about what has to be done to realize the domestic and export potential. The following pages discuss the potential of food irradiation; indicate how food is irradiated; outline the uses of food irradiation; examine questions of the safety of the equipment and both the safety and nutritional value of irradiated food; look at international commercial developments; assess the current and emerging domestic scene; and finally, draw some conclusions and offer suggestions for action

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  17. Food Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, H.; Warnaar, M.; Methorst, B.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Dagevos, H.; Onwezen, M.C.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Kortstee, H.J.M.; Genderen, van R.A.

    2017-01-01

    These days many innovations are taking place through and in the food system. There is quite a debate about our food and how it is produced. Although this process is a slow one, more and more consumers are willing to make a conscious choice for healthier and more sustainable food. A healthier food

  18. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    are identified and then categorised according to whether they pertain to the food product itself or the production methods and facilities and whether they describe physical or social properties of local food. From this a model with four categories is developed. It is found that properties of the product are more......Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... perspectives on local food, namely experience economy, local food systems and what is termed pro-industrialism. These have differing and sometimes opposite conceptualisations and aims for the concept of local food. Using the perspective of experience economy as theoretical background, the concept of local food...

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  20. The impact of food regulation on the food supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aruoma, Okezie I.

    2006-01-01

    Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, 'a hazard' is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer

  1. The impact of food regulation on the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruoma, Okezie I

    2006-04-03

    Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, "a hazard" is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer.

  2. Towards a food allergy free world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, G.

    2016-01-01

    The international food industry appreciates the benefits of sharing its research load via collaborative programs with partners. TNO offers you the opportunity to participate in its strategic Shared Research Program (SRP) ‘Towards a Food Allergy Free World’.

  3. Food irradiation: a reply to the food industry; and reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynjolfsson, Ari; Piccioni, R.

    1989-01-01

    In a reply to a critical article on food irradiation, Dr Ari Brynjolfsson of the International Facility of Food Irradiation Technology contends that the food industry has no interest in supporting the nuclear industry by using nuclear wastes as radiation sources - high voltage electron generators are more practical and economic. Also World Health Organization Toxicologists have concluded irradiated food is safe toxicologically, nutritionally and microbiologically. A study in India found no difference in polyploidy in children fed irradiated or non-irradiated food. In reply Dr Richard Piccioni suggests that the cancer risk from irradiated food is high, that the Indian study showed that irradiated food can cause an increase in polyploidy in well-fed adults, and suggests that Cs-137 from nuclear reactors will be used in food irradiation. (U.K.)

  4. Prediction of the maximum dosage to man from the fallout of nuclear devices V. Estimation of the maximum dose from internal emitters in aquatic food supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamplin, A.R.; Fisher, H.L.; Chapman, W.H.

    1968-01-01

    A method is described for estimating the maximum internal dose that could result from the radionuclides released to an aquatic environment. By means of this analysis one can identify the nuclides that could contribute most to the internal dose, and determine the contribution of each nuclide to the total dose. The calculations required to estimate the maximum dose to an infant's bone subsequent to the construction of a sea-level canal are presented to illustrate the overall method. The results are shown to serve the basic aims of preshot rad-safe analysis and of guidance for postshot documentation. The usefulness of the analysis in providing guidance for device design is further pointed out. (author)

  5. A comparative analysis of media reporting of perceived risks and benefits of genetically modified crops and foods in Kenyan and international newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosier, Christopher; Sulemana, Iddisah; James, Harvey S; Valdivia, Corinne; Folk, William; Smith, Randall D

    2015-07-01

    We empirically examine the reporting on biotechnology in Kenyan and international newspapers between 2010 and early 2014. We identify news articles that reported on biotechnology and analyze their use of words to determine whether there is a balance in the reporting of perceived risks and benefits. We also consider how the sources used in news articles and how the publication of the Séralini study of rats fed genetically modified maize affect the balance of reporting of perceived risks and benefits. We find that in Kenyan news reporting, more articles mention perceived benefits than risks, but when risks are mentioned, new articles contain more references to risks than to benefits. We also find that sources affect the reporting of perceived risks and benefits and that the Séralini study increased the likelihood that perceived risks are reported in Kenyan news reporting, but not in international newspapers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Consumer Behavior on The Choice of Typical Regional Food Products Based on External and Internal Factors, Perception, Attitude and Consumer Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Dwi Gemina; Titiek Tjahya Andari; Indra Cahya Kusuma

    2013-01-01

    Consumer behavior will determine their decision making in the buying process. The approach to the decision making process that gives a specific description on the reason why consumers behave in certain ways was conducted by: 1) formulating structural variables that affect external and internal factors towards perception; 2) formulating structural variables of perception towards attitude and preference; 3) formulating structural variables of attitude and preference towards consumer behavior on...

  7. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  8. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    insecurity existed among households in the study areas based on the recommended average DEC/AE, of 2200 kcal and ... An International Journal of Basic and Applied Research. 41 ... population, for example, eating of less preferred foods.

  9. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  10. [Validity of an instrument for assessing food consumption, food habits and cooking skills in 8-11 years old students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lera, Lydia; Fretes, Gabriela; González, Carmen Gloria; Salinas, Judith; Vio del Rio, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    An instrument to measure food knowledge, food consumption, cooking skills, food habits and food expenses at school is necessary to assess changes in food practices. To validate an instrument to measure changes in food knowledge, food consumption, cooking skills, food habits and food expenses in Chilean school children 8 - 11 years from third to fifth grade. A validation of a questionnaire with 42 questions was conducted in two stages: the first to assess temporal stability, concordance and internal consistency in 45 children. The second one to apply the survey, modified with the results of the first stage, in 90 children assessing internal consistency. The first survey with 42 questions showed a reasonable temporal stability, concordance and internal consistency for cooking skills, habits and food expenditure at school. Internal consistency was good for food consumption, but not so good for food knowledge. In the final validation with 90 children, there was good consistency for food consumption but bad for food knowledge. Besides, children with cooking skills ate more healthy food and those who expended more money at school, consumed less healthy food. Food knowledge questions were eliminated from the instrument, which was elaborated with 28 questions about food consumption, cooking skills, food habits and food expenses at school. This instrument is useful to assess changes in food and nutrition education interventions in 8 -11 years children, in particular to measure cooking skills and food expenses at school. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. New developments in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molins, R.

    1996-01-01

    Food irradiation technology is rapidly gaining worldwide acceptance as a promising tool to help alleviate some important food security and safety concerns, and to facilitate the international trade in food. Because of the different priorities that these issues receive in various countries, food irradiation is being considered by developing countries as the technology of choice over chemical fumigants in applications related to the reduction of food losses such as the insect disinfestation of stored staple and export commodities and the inhibition of sprouting of bulb and tuber crops. In contrast, the use of irradiation as a 'cold pasteurization' method to improve the hygienic quality and safety of foods is emerging as the primary field of application in developed countries. Moreover, the use of irradiation as an alternative, non-chemical quarantine treatment for fresh fruits, vegetables and other agricultural commodities entering international trade will no doubt benefit exporting as well as importing countries. 4 figs

  12. Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Internal Temperature Chart Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and storage are essential in preventing foodborne illness. You can't see, smell, or taste harmful bacteria that may cause illness. In every step of food preparation, follow the four guidelines to keep food safe: ...

  13. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1,3-galactose, a carbohydrate found on mammalian meat, and is associated with being bitten by the ... home. Treating Food Allergies There is currently no cure for food allergy, but there are many promising ...

  14. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook and Twitter . Play our Food Allergy Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Test your knowledge ... oral allergy syndrome? » Video: What is a red meat allergy? » Vitamin D and Food Allergy » When Should ...

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The article explains what radiation does to food to preserve it. Food irradiation is of economic importance to Canada because Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is the leading world supplier of industrial irradiators. Progress is being made towards changing regulations which have restricted the irradiation of food in the United States and Canada. Examples are given of applications in other countries. Opposition to food irradiation by antinuclear groups is addressed

  16. Food Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of food irradiation are outlined. The interaction of irradiation with matter is then discussed with special reference to the major constituents of foods. The application of chemical analysis in the evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods is summarized [af

  18. Food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... safety URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002434.htm Food safety To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Food safety refers to the conditions and practices that preserve the quality of food. These practices prevent contamination and foodborne ...

  19. Food jags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  20. Food safety challenges associated with traditional foods of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu CAGRI-MEHMETOGLU

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumer food safety concerns are continually increasing in Turkey, with consumer demand for safer foods becoming an important challenge for the industry. Most traditional foods in Turkey are produced under different requirements, and food safety risk management and risk assessment are conducted primarily by the government. Based on risk assessment, safety regulations and standards for traditional foods (e.g. Turkish white cheese, doner, helva have been established. In this paper, safety concerns surrounding the commercialization of traditional Turkish foods and related studies to identify and minimize potential hazards are discussed along with pathogen contamination in raw meat balls and aflatoxin in helva and white cheese. Based on this review, additional national risk analysis experts and related databases are urgently needed. In addition, the manufacturing processes for traditional foods need to be standardized and harmonized with international standards, such as CODEX.

  1. Food health branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    elements convey a healthy brand image depends on context factors external to the company (e.g. regulation), and internal ones (e.g. corporate branding strategy, brand type, product type, type of communication strategies, the brand management stage and the manager's capability). Moreover, the marketing mix...... and contributing towards healthier food choices. However, branding a food product based on the value of health is not an easy practice as strategies employed may often fail to convey the value of health. In addition, a potential conflict may be apparent between branding the value of health and the ethical norms...... in conveying a healthy brand image and how health brands are dealt with in the public discourse. The second study explores consumers' associations with food and health, perceptions of food healthfulness, and how these differ between gender and age groups. The third study identifies health-related segments...

  2. Food Irradiation Newsletter. V.13, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The International Conference on the Acceptance, Control of, and Trade in Irradiated Food, jointly sponsored by FAO, IAEA, WHO and ITC-UNCTAD/GATT, Geneva, Switzerland, December 1988, recognized that (1) food irradiation has the potential to reduce the incidence of foodborne diseases; (2) food irradiation can reduce post-harvest food losses and make available a larger quantity and a wider variety of foodstuffs for consumers - It can also be an effective quarantine treatment for certain food and thus contribute to international trade; (3) international trade in irradiated foods would be facilitated by harmonization of national procedures based on internationally recognized standards for the control of food irradiation. The ''International Document on Food Irradiation'' adopted by consensus at the Conference is included in this issue, which also contains excerpts of the 5th Annual Meeting of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI), convened in Vienna, September 1988, and reports of two co-ordinated meetings, the second Research Co-ordination Meeting on the Use of Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Food and Agricultural Commodities, and the Second Co-ordination Meeting on Food Irradiation Programme for Developing Countries in Middle East and Europe. 3 tabs

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Queensland Government has given its support the establishment of a food irradiation plant in Queensland. The decision to press ahead with a food irradiation plant is astonishing given that there are two independent inquiries being carried out into food irradiation - a Parliamentary Committee inquiry and an inquiry by the Australian Consumers Association, both of which have still to table their Reports. It is fair to assume from the Queensland Government's response to date, therefore, that the Government will proceed with its food irradiation proposals regardless of the outcomes of the various federal inquiries. The reasons for the Australian Democrats' opposition to food irradiation which are also those of concerned citizens are outlined

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, M.

    1989-01-01

    This popular-level article emphasizes that the ultimate health effects of irradiated food products are unknown. They may include vitamin loss, contamination of food by botulism bacteria, mutations in bacteria, increased production of aflatoxins, changes in food, carcinogenesis from unknown causes, presence of miscellaneous harmful chemicals, and the lack of a way of for a consumer to detect irradiated food. It is claimed that the nuclear industry is applying pressure on the Canadian government to relax labeling requirements on packages of irradiated food in order to find a market for its otherwise unnecessary products

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beishon, J.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation has been the subject of concern and controversy for many years. The advantages of food irradiation include the reduction or elimination of dangerous bacterial organisms, the control of pests and insects which destroy certain foods, the extension of the shelf-life of many products, for example fruit, and its ability to treat products such as seafood which may be eaten raw. It can also replace existing methods of treatment which are believed to have hazardous side-effects. However, after examining the evidence produced by the proponents of food irradiation, the author questions whether it has any major contribution to make to the problems of foodborne diseases or world food shortages. More acceptable solutions, he suggests, may be found in educating food handlers to ensure that hygienic conditions prevail in the production, storage and serving of food. (author)

  6. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    Food can be provided with extra beneficial properties by physical processing. These benefits include a reduced possibility of food poisoning, or an increased life of the food. We are familiar with pasteurisation of milk, drying of vegetables, and canning of fruit. These physical processes work because the food absorbs energy during treatment which brings about the changes needed. The energy absorbed in these examples is heat energy. Food irradiation is a less familiar process. It produces similar benefits to other processes and it can sometimes be applied with additional advantages over conventional processing. For example, because irradiation causes little heating, foods may look and taste more natural. Also, treatment can take place with the food in its final plastic wrappers, reducing the risk of re-contamination. (author). 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Collection of Baseline Studies of the Food for Peace Title II Development Food Assistance Programs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — USAID's Office of Food for Peace (FFP) awards funding to private voluntary organizations (PVOs) to design and implement multi-year Title II development food...

  8. Food, novel foods, and allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; LPI

    2002-01-01

    Certain foods lead may to allergic responses in certain individuals. Main allergenic foods are Crustacea (shrimp, lobster, crab), egg, fish, milk, peanuts, soybeans, tree nuts, and wheat, and allergens are always proteins. A wide array of symptoms can result from food allergy (gastrointestinal,

  9. Food irradiation: contaminating our food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccioni, R.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry has promoted food irradiation as an effective and safe means of preserving food at minimum risk to the public. However, wide-scale food irradiation programmes such as that approved in the United States of America would have an adverse impact on public health in the following ways: through the consumption of carcinogenic substances generated in irradiated foods, through the use of irradiation to mask bacteriological contamination of spoiled food, through the replacement of fresh foods with nutritionally depleted foods, through accidents with leaks or mishandling of the radiation sources used and through the environmental damage resulting from reactor operation or spent fuel reprocessing necessary to produce the required isotopes for food irradiation. The food irradiation market is potentially enormous, requiring a large number of facilities and isotopes, some, such as caesium-137, would come from the production of nuclear weapons. Evidence of the presence of carcinogenic or mutagenic activity in irradiated foods is discussed. Although the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a food irradiation programme it would actually be against the FDA's legal obligation which is to protect the health and safety of the American people. (UK)

  10. Safer food means food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this article the author presents the sanitary advantages that are brought by food irradiation. OMS experts state that this technique is safe and harmless for any average global dose between 10 KGy and 100 KGy. Whenever a seminar is held on the topic, it is always concluded that food irradiation should be promoted and favoured. In France food irradiation is authorized for some kinds of products and exceptionally above a 10 KGy dose. Historically food irradiation has been hampered in its development by its classification by American Authorities as food additives in 1958 (Delanay clause). The author draws a parallel between food irradiation and pasteurization or food deep-freezing in their beginnings. (A.C.)

  11. Food irradiation nears commercial development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    One person out of eight in the world today suffers from chronic undernourishment. This problem is likely to get worse as the world's population doubles during the next thirty to forty years. Since about 25% or more of our harvested food is lost due to various kinds of wastage and spoilage, food preservation is no less important than food production. To supply the world's demand for food, it is more reasonable to conserve what is produced than to produce more to compensate for subsequent losses. Thus, it is obvious that all methods of preserving food and agricultural produce should be examined to see if their use might alleviate the world's food shortage, and that to develop better and safer techniques of food preservation will improve food supplies. Food preservation is an ever greater problem for the developing countries, not only because of their chronic problems of undernourishment, but also because most of them are in tropical or sub-tropical regions where food spoilage is rapid. The IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) held a symposium on food irradiation at Colombo in Sri Lanka. The symposium paid special attention to the use of food irradiation in preserving tropical fruits as well as fish and fish products. It also examined the cost of the food irradiation process and compared it with those of conventional processes. Food irradiation is one field in which advance is most likely to be achieved through international co-operation. This co-operation has been supported by the IAEA and FAO in a number of ways. During the last 15 years three previous symposia (Karlsruhe, 1966; Bombay, 1972; Wageningen, 1977), numerous panel meetings, and training courses, have been held on this subject and many nations' food irradiation projects have been supported by technical assistance and co-ordinated research programmes

  12. Food irradiation: advantages and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandes, N.K.; Vital, H. de C.; Sabaa-Srur, A.U.O.

    2003-01-01

    Food irradiation is a physical method of processing food (e.g. freezing, canning). It has been thoroughly researched over the last four decades and is recognized as a safe and wholesome method. It has the potential both of disinfesting dried food to reduce storage losses and disinfesting fruits and vegetables to meet quarantine requirements for export trade. Low doses of irradiation inhibit spoilage losses due to sprouting of root and tuber crops. Food- borne diseases due to contamination by pathogenic microorganisms and parasites of meat, poultry, fish, fishery products and spices are on the increase. Irradiation of these solid foods can decontaminate them of pathogenic organisms and thus provide safe food to the consumer. Irradiation can successfully replace the fumigation treatment of cocoa beans and coffee beans and disinfest dried fish, dates, dried fruits, etc. One of the most important advantages of food irradiation processing is that it is a coldprocess which does not significantly alter physico-chemical characters of the treated product. It can be applied to food after its final packaging. Similar to other physical processes of food processing, (e.g. canning, freezing), irradiation is a capital intensive process. Thus, adequate product volume must be made available in order to maximize the use of the facility and minimize the unit cost of treatment. Lack of harmonization of regulations among the countries which have approved irradiated foods hampers the introduction of this technique for international trade. Action at the international level has to be taken in order to remedy this situation. One of the important limitations of food irradiation processing is its slow acceptance by consumers, due inter alia to a perceived association with radioactivity. The food industry tends to be reluctant to use the technology in view of uncertainties regarding consumer acceptance of treated foods. Several market testing and consumer acceptance studies have been carried

  13. Agricultural biodiversity, food security and climate change: a call for research and international collaboration.; Biodiversidad agricola, seguridad alimentaria y cambio climatico: una llamada a la investigacion y a la colaboracion internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgkin, T.; Frison, E.; Fanzo, J.; Lopez Noriega, I.

    2011-07-01

    The events of these last years have shown that there are still major problems in the global food supply and food security and food prices can change very quickly. Therefore the reduction of food stocks, such as poor harvests, competition with bio fuels production, land grabbing and speculation have been identified as causing this situation. whatever the cause, the crisis has shown how far we are to achieve genuine food security. (Author) 31 refs.

  14. Soil - a scarce resource. The Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries' report on the interaction between food, feed and bioenergy. Danish potential in an international perspective; Jorden - en knap ressource. Foedevareministeriets rapport om samspillet mellem foedevarer, foder og bioenergi. Dansk potentiale i et internationalt perspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    The competition concerning utilization of agricultural soil has multiple causes. Prospects of climate change, growing energy consumption, environmental related controls on agricultural production, increase in population and wealth in e.g. China and India are some of the challenges that will influence future acreage use in agriculture. The present debate on biofuels based on agricultural crops puts focus on utilization of agricultural soil. Knowledge synthesis on biomass has documented that production and use of biomass is a complex area which is highly influenced by global conditions. The complexity is underlined by the numerous significant aspects within economy, trade, technology, environment and ethics which influence biomass. Therefore the political interest and regulation of biomass are subject to many considerations, especially as regards international regulation. In May 2007 the Danish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries appointed a project group in order to clarify the relationship between the various uses of biomass, including the risk of not being able to maintain the present balance between growing food and crops for other purposes. The group has taken stock of the overall situation. The group's results are presented in this report. (BA)

  15. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention......The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  18. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenewald, T

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers.

  19. Food Innocuousness: Prospect In Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elvira Ortiz Amaya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Food innocuousness, on all over the world, is receiving more attention due to the increment in the incidence of food borne diseases (ETAs, the worry about emergent known dangers and the globalization of trade. Consequently, this literature review shows the progress in relation to this thematic, in Colombia. It covers topics as the relation between food innocuousness and safety, the international and national organizations involved, the developments, in legislation, the system of epidemiological surveillance of ETAs and their perspectives, as cornerstones to ensure food quality

  20. Radionuclides in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.; Schmidt, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclides in the Food Chain reviews past experience in meeting the challenge of radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs and water sources and, in the wake of the reactor accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, presents current concepts and programs relating to measurement, surveillance, effects, risk management, evaluation guidelines, and control and regulatory activities. This volume, based on a symposium sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute in association with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, which brought together both radiation experts and food industry policymakers, examines such vital topics as structural problems in large-scale crisis-managment systems; dose assessment from man-made sources; international recommendations on radiation protection; airborne contamination, as well as aquatic and soilborne radionuclides; food-chain contamination from testing nuclear devices; long-term health effects of radionuclides in food and water supplies; and use of mathematical models in risk assessment and management. (orig.)

  1. International Trade. International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Мохнюк, А. М.; Mokhniuk, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Work programme of the study course “International Trade. International Business” was prepared in accordance with educational and vocational training program for bachelors of training direction 6.030601 “Management”.

  2. Food allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Waserman Susan; Watson Wade

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnost...

  3. Food Processing: Technology and Nutritive Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbouin-Rerolle, Pascale

    1993-01-01

    This booklet examines the principles of food preservation, food preservation techniques, and nutrition-related consequences of food processing. All foodstuffs in their natural state will deteriorate and become unfit for human consumption due to internal factors, such as enzyme activity, or external factors, such as insects, rodents, and…

  4. Food toxin detection with atomic force microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Externally introduced toxins or internal spoilage correlated pathogens and their metabolites are all potential sources of food toxins. To prevent and protect unsafe food, many food toxin detection techniques have been developed to detect various toxins for quality control. Although several routine m...

  5. Feeding humanity through global food trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Carr, Joel A.; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca; Vandoni, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    The recent intensification of international trade has led to a globalization of food commodities and to an increased disconnection between human populations and the land and water resources that support them through crop and livestock production. Several countries are not self-sufficient and depend on imports from other regions. Despite the recognized importance of the role of trade in global and regional food security, the societal reliance on domestic production and international trade remains poorly quantified. Here we investigate the global patterns of food trade and evaluate the dependency of food security on imports. We investigate the relationship existing between the trade of food calories and the virtual transfer of water used for their production. We show how the amount of food calories traded in the international market has more than doubled between 1986 and 2009, while the number of links in the trade network has increased by more than 50%. Likewise, global food production has increased by more than 50% in the same period, providing an amount of food that is overall sufficient to support the global population at a rate of 2700-3000 kcal per person per day. About 23% of the food produced for human consumption is traded internationally. The water use efficiency of food trade (i.e., food calories produced per unit volume of water used) has declined in the last few decades. The water use efficiency of food production overall increases with the countries' affluence; this trend is likely due to the use of more advanced technology.

  6. Food allergy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maleki, Soheila J; Burks, A. Wesley; Helm, Ricki M

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Exploring Current and Novel Methods for the Detection and Diagnosis of Food Allergy: the Clinical Approach * Adriano Mari and Enrico Scala...

  7. Food allergy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maleki, Soheila J; Burks, A. Wesley; Helm, Ricki M

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii ix I. CLINICAL ASPECTS 1. Clinical Manifestations of Food Allergic Disease * Tamara T. Perry, Amy M. Scurlock, and Stacie M. Jones...

  8. Food retailing and food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail).

  9. Search Results | Page 192 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-01

    Manitoba universities and project partners awarded $6.4-Million from Canadian International Food Security Research Fund for international research. Canadian agricultural research in international food security receives financial support through the IDRC, CIFSRF and other partnerships. Published date. January 1, 2011 ...

  10. Search Results | Page 837 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 8361 - 8370 of 8489 ... Manitoba universities and project partners awarded $6.4-Million from Canadian International Food Security Research Fund for international research. Canadian agricultural research in international food security receives financial support through the IDRC, CIFSRF and other partnerships.

  11. Search Results | Page 838 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 8371 - 8380 of 8494 ... Manitoba universities and project partners awarded $6.4-Million from Canadian International Food Security Research Fund for international research. Canadian agricultural research in international food security receives financial support through the IDRC, CIFSRF and other partnerships.

  12. Evolution of Food Quality Demand in the Food Service Industry in China: The Case of Duck

    OpenAIRE

    Carnegie, Rachel Alison

    2014-01-01

    Booming economic growth and rising consumer incomes have impacted food preferences and purchasing behavior in China. At the same time, several internationally publicized food safety incidents, particularly in the animal husbandry sector, have heightened awareness of and concern for food safety and quality in meat and dairy. Rising quality demand and safety concerns have been studied at length in the food retail sector, but also appear to be important in the food service industry. This researc...

  13. Search Results | Page 4 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 31 - 40 of 1119 ... Canadian International Food Security Research Fund - Phase II. In 2009 ... These communities are undergoing rapid social and economic changes. ... FARM TO FORK NUTRITION DIET Food security SCHOOL MEALS ...

  14. All projects related to Burkina Faso | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... with the general rise in food prices has increased food insecurity in the Sahel. ... Consumer Unity &Trust Society (CUTS International) is an international ... between researchers, inventors and innovators and public decision-makers with a ...

  15. Use of electron accelerators in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar

    2013-01-01

    Preservation of food by ionizing radiations involves controlled application of energy of radiation to agricultural commodities, foods and food ingredients, for improving storage life, hygiene and safety. Insects and microbes cause major economic losses to stored crops. Many of our food products are contaminated with diseases causing germs and toxin producing molds. Without improvement in microbial quality and getting properly treated to overcome quarantine barriers our agricultural products cannot get international markets. In this respect electron accelerators have immense potential in commercial radiation processing of foods. Both low and high dose applications with increased process rates can be achieved using accelerators to cover a wide spectrum of food commodities approved for commercial radiation processing as per the recent gazette notification under Atomic Energy (Radiation Processing of Food and Allied Products) Rule, 2012. The effectiveness of processing of food by ionizing radiation depends on proper delivery of absorbed dose and its reliable measurement. For food destined for international trade, it is important that the dosimetry used for dose determination is carried out accurately and that the process is monitored in accordance with the internationally accepted procedures. Experiments using alanine-EPR system were carried out to optimize the process parameters of 10 MeV electron beam for commercial irradiation of food. Different food commodities namely, mango, potato and rawa (semolina) were irradiated to measure the absorbed dose distribution. The actual depth dose profile in food products and useful scan width of the electron beam were determined for commercial radiation processing of food using electron beam. (author)

  16. Technology of food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai has demonstrated that radiation processing of foods can contribute to nations food security by reducing post-harvest losses caused by insect infestation, microbial-spoilage and physiological changes. The technology has commercial potential for the conservation of cereals, pulses and their products, spices, onions, potatoes, garlic, some tropical fruits, sea foods, meat and poultry. Irradiation can ensure hygienic quality in foods including frozen foods by eliminating food borne pathogens and parasitic organisms. It offers a viable environment friendly alternative to chemical fumigants for quarantine treatment against insect pests in agricultural and horticultural products entering international trade. The safety and nutritional adequacy of irradiated foods for human consumption is well established. About 40 countries including India have regulations permitting irradiation of foods and 28 countries are irradiating foods for processing industries and institutional catering

  17. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... precautions should be taken at every stage a food takes — from preparation to cooking to storing leftovers. A lot of this responsibility falls on grown-ups, but kids can help fight germs, too. One of the best ways is to ... to prepare foods. When should you wash? Before you start helping — ...

  18. Food online

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van der Lomme C.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis the research focuses on the legal rules and regulations in the Netherlands that apply in the context of food purchases by consumers that are concluded online. Sale of food via the Internet takes place in the area of Civil Code requirements on distance selling and public law

  19. Food Peptidomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Minkiewicz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to discuss the definition of food peptidomics and highlight the role of this approach in food and nutrition sciences. Similar to living organisms, food peptidome may be defined as the whole peptide pool present in a food product or raw material. This definition also covers peptides obtained during technological processes and/or storage. The area of interest of food peptidomics covers research concerning the origin of peptidome, its dynamic changes during processing and/or storage, the influence of its presence, the composition and changes in the pool of peptides on the properties of food products or raw materials as well as the methods applied in research into this group of compounds. The area of interests of food peptidomics would include biological activity, functional properties, allergenicity, sensory properties and information on the product or resource authenticity and origin as well as its history and relationships. Research methods applied in food peptidomics, with special emphasis on computational methods, are also summarized.

  20. Food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de

    2011-01-01

    Food security is back on the agenda as a top priority for policy makers. In January 2011, record high food prices resulted in protests in Tunisia, which subsequently led to the spread of the revolutions in other North African and Middle Eastern countries. Although experts have asserted that no

  1. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Akira

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs

  2. Food Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Nancy E.

    1991-01-01

    An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  4. Food Intimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Laurent

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Disordered eating behaviors are implicated in the development and persistence of obesity in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. The purpose of this study was to provide a qualitative perspective of obese youth’s eating behaviors through the lens of their parent as they attempt to create healthy changes. An in-depth secondary analysis was conducted for the construct of food intimacy that evolved as part of a larger study investigating how parents promote health for their obese child. Seventeen parents of 10- to 14-year-old obese youth were interviewed. Themes and concepts were developed using grounded theory. Parents described child behaviors such as losing control and sneaky eating to obtain food, as well as using food for comfort, pleasure, and simply loving food. The relationship between these children and food was identified as the over-arching theme, food intimacy. This study highlights the intimate relationship these children developed with food and the powerful influence of this relationship on their eating behaviors. This suggests that prescribed interventions such as exercising more and eating less may be ineffective in certain obese children, and that more focus should be placed on investigating the relationship an obese child has with food.

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab [de

  6. Food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teodorowicz, Malgorzata; Neerven, Van Joost; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-01-01

    The majority of foods that are consumed in our developed society have been processed. Processing promotes a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugars, the Maillard reaction (MR). Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contribute to the taste, smell and color of many food products, and thus

  7. Food irradiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    1999-01-01

    Trade in food and agricultural products is important to all countries, the economies of many developing countries would be significantly improved if they were able to export more food and agricultural products. Unfortunately, many products can not be traded because they are infested with, or hosts to, harmful pests, contaminated with microorganisms, or spoil quickly. Foods contaminated with microorganisms cause economic losses, widespread illness and death. Several technologies and products have been developed to resolve problems in trading food and to improve food safety, but none can provide all the solutions. Irradiation is an effective technology to resolve technical problems in trade of many food and agricultural products, either as a stand- alone technology or in combination with others. As a disinfestation treatment it allows different levels of quarantine security to be targeted and it is one of few methods to control internal pests. The ability of irradiation virtually to eliminate key pathogenic organisms from meat, poultry, and spices is an important public health advantage. In addition to controlling pests and eliminating harmful bacteria, irradiation also extends the storage life of many foods. In the laboratories of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, many research projects were completed on the effects of gamma irradiation to the storage life of chicken meat, anchovy, Turkish fermented sausage, dried and fresh fruits and vegetables and also research projects were conducted on the effects of gamma irradiation on microorganisms (Salmonella, Campylo-bacteria, E.coli and S.aureus in white and red meat) and parasites (food-borne, trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodes spp.)

  8. Proceedings of a seminar on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    International interest in the industrial use of ionizing radiation as a means of food preservation has increased rapidly following the favourable outcome of many years of intensive research on the health implications of food irradiation. The introduction in the U.S. and elsewhere of legislation restricting the use of chemical additives to foods for both human and animal consumption has contributed to this development. A high priority must be given to coordinating legislation on food irradiation within the European Community if international trade in irradiated foods is to make progress and food losses by spoilage and by insect infestation are to be minimised. Speakers from the United Kigdom, France and Germany describe the legislative and developmental situation in their respective countries. The implication for the Irish food industry is presented by scientists working on food research and development and regulatory aspects in Ireland are also discussed

  9. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomotaro; Aoki, Shohei

    1976-01-01

    Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

  10. Food porn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on.

  11. Policy Reform Impact on Food Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Celikkol, Pinar; Dunn, James W.; Stefanou, Spiro E.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of agricultural policies and their reform is of major concern when addressing issues of growth, innovation and consolidation in the food manufacturing sector. Growth is one of the forces fueling the globalization of food manufacturing activities. Market- and policy-driven forces present a myriad of opportunities to influence growth and reorientation of patterns at the nexus where food manufacturing links the food system. The productivity and international competitiveness of the foo...

  12. Radiation processing of food and agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Reducing post-harvest food losses is becoming increasingly important for sustaining food supplies. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for improving food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Preservation of food by ionizing radiation involves controlled application of energy of ionizing radiation such as gamma rays, X-rays, and accelerated electrons to agricultural commodities, food products and ingredients, for improving their storage life, hygiene and safety. The process employs either gamma rays emitted by radioisotopes such as cobalt-60 or high-energy electrons or X-rays generated from machine sources

  13. HACCP, food quality, food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bognar, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper summarizes the principles and purposes of the ''Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points'' (HACCP) system and its application and implementation within the European Union for the purposes of food quality and safety control, including food irradiation. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrington, Hugh

    1988-06-01

    This special edition of 'Food Manufacture' presents papers on the following aspects of the use of irradiation in the food industry:- 1) an outline view of current technology and its potential. 2) Safety and wholesomeness of irradiated and non-irradiated foods. 3) A review of the known effects of irradiation on packaging. 4) The problems of regulating the use of irradiation and consumer protection against abuse. 5) The detection problem - current procedures. 6) Description of the Gammaster BV plant in Holland. 7) World outline review. 8) Current and future commercial activities in Europe. (U.K.)

  15. Contemporary food technology and its impact on cuisine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupien, John R; Lin, Ding Xiao

    2004-01-01

    This article contains a general review of current food technologies and their effect on the quality and safety of foods. The uses of these technologies in the context of current and projected world population, urbanization prevention of food losses, preservation and trade of foods, domestically and internationally are briefly reviewed. Technologies discussed are related to food storage, refrigeration, frozen foods, milling and baking, canning, pickling, extrusion processes, fermentation, and to foods and food ingredients such as fruits and vegetables, animal products, fat and oils, canned products, and food additives.

  16. Middle East food safety perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S

    2014-08-01

    Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Food irradiation: an emerging opportunity for African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Gyamfi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text. The paper reviews the use of food irradiation technology and its potential in food processing and international trade for economic development of African countries. Provision of infrastructure along with technical expertise, private sector anticipation, effective collaborative ventures and networking with other countries and international agencies are considered crucial for Africa to harness the potential of food irradiation. (author)

  18. The Food Crisis and Food Security: Towards a New World Food Order?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Golay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The worst food crisis since 1974 broke out in 2007-08. Higher world market prices of food commodities (especially wheat, rice, soya and maize sparked an unprecedented increase in the number of hungry people. Despite moderately lower prices since the summer of 2008, the number of the hungry continued to rise in 2009. This food crisis has placed the fight against hunger on the international agenda. Since March 2008 governments UN agencies and many social movements have adopted positions on the causes of the crisis and the means to address it. Unfortunately, while these parties are trying to coordinate their activities and suggest new approaches, the old recipes for producing more food are often brought up. Contradictory proposals are made and the thought given to the causes underlying hunger and the food crisis (social, economic and political discrimination and exclusion has gone largely unheeded. The first Millennium Development Goal, which calls for cutting the percentage of hungry people by half by 2015, is clearly out of reach. But the food crisis might lead to a new world food order based on the three pillars of food assistance, food security and the right to food.

  19. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerens, H [Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France); Saint-Lebe, L

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment.

  20. Safe Food

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    A healthy diet is important, but if food is mishandled or improperly prepared, a wholesome meal can result in a severe illness. In this podcast, Dr. Hannah Gould discusses ways to avoid foodborne illnesses.

  1. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or aluminum foil to keep the food from drying out. Eat any leftovers within 3 to 4 days or freeze them. Don't freeze any dishes that contain uncooked fruit or veggies, hard-cooked eggs, or mayonnaise. If ...

  2. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Price Tag Read the Food Label Kitchen Timesavers Cooking for Your Family Tasty & Low-Cost Recipes Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for Professionals MyPlate Tip Sheets Print Materials Infographics 5 Ways ...

  3. Food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Food additives URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerens, H.; Saint-Lebe, L.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment [fr

  5. "Convenience Food."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Colette

    1980-01-01

    Defines the meaning of the American expression "convenience food," quoting definitions given by dictionaries and specialized publications. Discusses the problem of finding the exact equivalent of this expression in French, and recommends some acceptable translations. (MES)

  6. Future food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-12-01

    Food systems have changed markedly with human settlement and agriculture, industrialisation, trade, migration and now the digital age. Throughout these transitions, there has been a progressive population explosion and net ecosystem loss and degradation. Climate change now gathers pace, exacerbated by ecological dysfunction. Our health status has been challenged by a developing people-environment mismatch. We have regarded ecological conquest and innovative technology as solutions, but have not understood how ecologically dependent and integrated we are. We are ecological creatures interfaced by our sensoriness, microbiomes, shared regulatory (endocrine) mechanisms, immune system, biorhythms and nutritional pathways. Many of us are 'nature-deprived'. We now suffer what might be termed ecological health disorders (EHD). If there were less of us, nature's resilience might cope, but more than 9 billion people by 2050 is probably an intolerable demand on the planet. Future food must increasingly take into account the pressures on ecosystem-dependent food systems, with foods probably less biodiverse, although eating in this way allows optimal health; energy dysequilibrium with less physical activity and foods inappropriately energy dense; and less socially-conducive food habits. 'Personalised Nutrition', with extensive and resource-demanding nutrigenomic, metabolomic and microbiomic data may provide partial health solutions in clinical settings, but not be justified for ethical, risk management or sustainability reasons in public health. The globally prevalent multidimensional malnutritional problems of food insecurity, quality and equity require local, regional and global action to prevent further ecosystem degradation as well as to educate, provide sustainable livelihoods and encourage respectful social discourse and practice about the role of food.

  7. Canadian International Food Security Research Fund

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    diets are heavily dependent on cereals and root crops that contain minimal protein and deplete the soil of nitrogen. Combatting stunting and ... case approaches. The project will increase access to high-yielding pulse seeds for more than ...

  8. Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research team will test innovative mechanisms such as elec- tronic vouchers to target vulnerable groups on a large scale. E-voucher discounts delivered by mobile phone to 65,000 lactat- ing mothers will provide a temporary price incentive to help build a market for the product. The scheme will also enable researchers.

  9. Traditional and ayurvedic foods of Indian origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetam Sarkar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ayurveda contains a wealth of knowledge on health sciences. Accordingly traditional foods and their dietary guidelines are prescribed in Ayurveda. There is so much similarity in ayurvedic dietetics and traditional foods that many of the traditional health foods in India can be called ayurvedic foods. This review article introduces the concepts of ayurvedic health foods in India and describes several traditional heath foods across various regions of India. Recommended dietary guidelines according to age and health condition of the consumer, and seasonal considerations are presented for each of the traditional health foods of India. In the era of globalization of the population and international food trading, health conscious citizens around the globe will benefit from the wealth of knowledge on traditional Indian and ayurvedic health foods of Indian origin.

  10. FOOD SAFETY CONTROL SYSTEM IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wei-jun; Wei Yi-min; Han Jun; Luo Dan; Pan Jia-rong

    2007-01-01

    Most countries have expended much effort to develop food safety control systems to ensure safe food supplies within their borders. China, as one of the world's largest food producers and consumers,pays a lot of attention to food safety issues. In recent years, China has taken actions and implemented a series of plans in respect to food safety. Food safety control systems including regulatory, supervisory,and science and technology systems, have begun to be established in China. Using, as a base, an analysis of the current Chinese food safety control system as measured against international standards, this paper discusses the need for China to standardize its food safety control system. We then suggest some policies and measures to improve the Chinese food safety control system.

  11. Wholesomeness data on irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    There is no item of more primary importance to the welfare of the human race than food. It has long been realized that even small increases in the quality and/or quantity of food mean great benefits to people everywhere, particularly to those who are undernourished or on the threshold of starvation. Therefore, the application of food preservation technology to prevent food losses has become a major factor in solving the world's food problems. Some of the chemical additives used to preserve food have caused harmful effects on the well-being of the consumer, but the newly-developing commercial treatment of a number of food products with low doses of ionizing radiation has been shown to be technologically advantageous and economically viable.The Food Preservation Section of the Joint FA O/lAEA Division decided to set up a data system whereby wholesomeness information on irradiated food can be easily obtained and disseminated by means of publication. The data will be related to toxicological safety, nutritive value and microbial innocuity. To do this the Division has sent a questionnaire to institutes and scientists involved in programmes dealing with wholesomeness of irradiated food, requesting them to provide information on investigations already completed, on those which are currently in progress and on programmes projected for the future. Based on the responses received, a list of wholesomeness investigations recently carried out in Member Countries on different food items, can be found. Summarily it can be stated that the results from these investigations do not indicate any detrimental effects on health. Detailed data will be published periodically by the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation in 'Food Irradiation Information'. The project has been established under the auspices of FAO, IAEA and OECD (NEA) with 22 countries at present contributing financially to the Project

  12. Food Irradiation Regulations And Code Of Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimba, B.W. Centre For Energy Research And Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria,

    1996-01-01

    Official attitude towards irradiated food is determined by factors such as: level of scientific knowledge, consumer habits, food shortages, agricultural production and technological know-how. To date, 39 countries have accepted the process for one or more food items while 27 nations carry out the process on a commercial basis. Regulations and codes of practice is essential for consumer confidence while uniformity of regulations, at the international level, will enhance international trade in irradiated food items. The internationally accepted Codex Standard on irradiated food and Codes of Practice for the operation of irradiation facilities, adopted in 1983, forms the basis for International regulations and a template for nations in the development of regulations. This paper discusses the basic legal requirements for licensing the process, procedures, facility and the operator and suggests a framework for a national regulation based on experiences of Hungary, Brazil and Israel

  13. Global Food Security Governance: Civil Society Engagement in the Reformed Committee on World Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, J.A.B.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007/8 world food prices spiked and global economic crisis set in, leaving hundreds of millions of people unable to access adequate food. The international reaction was swift. In a bid for leadership, the 123 member countries of the United Nations’ Committee on World Food Security (CFS) adopted a

  14. Cooperation and competence in global food chains : perspectives on food quality and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.; Boselie, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Supermarket chains, retailers and wholesalers have made food safety and food quality an integral element of their business strategies. What does this mean for producers in the South, who have to comply with international standards for good agricultural practices as well as with strict food safety

  15. Food preservation by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-02-15

    As shortages of food and energy still continue to constitute the major threats to the well-being of the human race, all actions aiming at overcoming these problems must be assigned vital importance. Of the two complementary ways of solving the food problem (i.e., increasing the production of food and decreasing the spoilage of food) a novel method designed to contribute to the latter purpose has been discussed at this symposium hosted by The Netherlands and held under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization. Progress made since the last symposium of this kind (Bombay, India, 1972) was reviewed from the technological, economic and wholesomeness points of view by participants from 39 countries (60% of the latter were of the developing world). From the reports presented on the use of radiations to control physiological changes in plants, feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions, garlic, as well as of some tropical and subtropical fruits (mangoes, papayas, litchis and avocado) was confirmed. For potatoes, onions and mangoes, optimal conditions of treatment and storage were established on a larger scale, combined with sizeable consumer trials. Combinations of ionizing radiation with chemicals (salycilic acid, for potatoes), and physical agents (ultraviolet rays, for papayas) have been reported to be successful against the incidence of rot. A considerable number of papers dealt with the control of microbiological spoilage of foods. Work since 1972 has shown that radurization of fruits and vegetables (bananas, mangoes, dried dates, endive, chickory, onions, soup-greens), meat, poultry, marine products (mackerel, cod and plaice fillets, shrimps), decontamination of food ingredients and food technology aids (enzyme preparations, proteins, starch, spices), radappertization of meat and animal feedstuffs as well as combination treatments with salt, heat

  16. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    As shortages of food and energy still continue to constitute the major threats to the well-being of the human race, all actions aiming at overcoming these problems must be assigned vital importance. Of the two complementary ways of solving the food problem (i.e., increasing the production of food and decreasing the spoilage of food) a novel method designed to contribute to the latter purpose has been discussed at this symposium hosted by The Netherlands and held under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization. Progress made since the last symposium of this kind (Bombay, India, 1972) was reviewed from the technological, economic and wholesomeness points of view by participants from 39 countries (60% of the latter were of the developing world). From the reports presented on the use of radiations to control physiological changes in plants, feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions, garlic, as well as of some tropical and subtropical fruits (mangoes, papayas, litchis and avocado) was confirmed. For potatoes, onions and mangoes, optimal conditions of treatment and storage were established on a larger scale, combined with sizeable consumer trials. Combinations of ionizing radiation with chemicals (salycilic acid, for potatoes), and physical agents (ultraviolet rays, for papayas) have been reported to be successful against the incidence of rot. A considerable number of papers dealt with the control of microbiological spoilage of foods. Work since 1972 has shown that radurization of fruits and vegetables (bananas, mangoes, dried dates, endive, chickory, onions, soup-greens), meat, poultry, marine products (mackerel, cod and plaice fillets, shrimps), decontamination of food ingredients and food technology aids (enzyme preparations, proteins, starch, spices), radappertization of meat and animal feedstuffs as well as combination treatments with salt, heat

  17. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. The International Journal of Agricultureand Rural Development (IJARD) is an International Journal designed to provide ... Forestry and Wildlife resources, Soil Science, Agricultural Engineering and Food Processing.

  18. Developing and maintaining national food safety control systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The establishment of effective food safety systems is pivotal to ensuring the safety of the national food supply as well as food products for regional and international trade. The development, structure and implementation of modern food safety systems have been driven over the years by a number of developments.

  19. Food Engineering within Sciences of Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Kostaropoulos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to clarify the identity of food engineering in sciences of food. A short historical description of the evolution of the branch in the Anglo Saxon and the Continental educational systems is given. Furthermore, the distinction of basic definitions such as food science, food science and technology, food technology, and food engineering is made. Finally, the objectives of food engineering within the branch of sciences of food are described.

  20. Food Allergies: Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Manufacturers aren't required to include warnings about food allergens accidentally introduced during manufacturing or packaging (cross-contamination). This potentially can cause trouble if you're ...

  1. Societal benefits of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Food irradiation has a direct impact on society by reducing the occurrence of food-borne illness, decreasing food spoilage and waste, and facilitating global trade. Food irradiation is approved in 40 countries around the world to decontaminate food of disease and spoilage causing microorganisms, sterilize insect pests, and inhibit sprouting. A recent estimate suggests that 500,000 metric of food is currently irradiated worldwide, primarily to decontaminate spices. Since its first use in the 1960s the use of irradiation for food has grown slowly, but it remains the major technology of choice for certain applications. The largest growth sector in recent years has been phytosanitary irradiation of fruit to disinfest fruit intended for international shipment. For many countries which have established strict quarantine standards, irradiation offers as an effective alternative to chemical fumigants some of which are being phased out due to their effects on the ozone layer. Insects can be sterilized at very low dose levels, thus quality of fruit can be maintained. Irradiation is also highly effective in destroying microbial pathogens such as Salmonella spp., E. coli, and Listeria, hence its application for treatment of spices, herbs, dried vegetables, frozen seafood, poultry, and meat and its contribution to reducing foodborne illnesses. Unfortunately the use of irradiation for improving food safety has been under-exploited. This presentation will provide details on the use, benefits, opportunities, and challenges of food irradiation. (author)

  2. International recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, Bo

    1986-01-01

    Full text: This short presentation will indicate the general radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances. A number of international organizations are involved in various aspects of radiation protection, for example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Two international organizations, however, provide the basic background. These are the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR provides the scientific information on radiation levels and effects. It consists of 21 member countries, with truly international coverage. It issues reports to the UN General Assembly, including comprehensive scientific annexes. Its latest comprehensive report was issued in 1982, the next is expected to be published in 1988. That report will include an assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The ICRP is a non-governmental organization. It has issued recommendations on radiation protection since 1928. The postulated biological basis for radiation protection recommendations involves two types of biological effects. The so-called non-stochastic effects, mainly due to cell death, appear only when the radiation doses exceed a certain threshold value. These effects, therefore, can only appear after high accidental exposures. After the Chernobyl accident, they only affected about 200 individuals involved in fire extinction and rescue work at the damaged nuclear power plant. Stochastic effects, with some simplification, may be seen as the result of initial changes in the genetic code of some surviving cells. If these cells are germ cells, this may lead to hereditary harm. If they are somatic cells, the result could be cancer

  3. Luminescence detection of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, D.C.W.

    1990-01-01

    The need for forensic tests to identify irradiated foods has been widely recognised at a time of growing international trade in such products and impending changes in UK and EEC legislation to control the process. This paper outlines the requirements for and of such tests, and discusses recent developments in luminescence approaches aimed at meeting the needs of public analysts, retailers and consumers. Detecting whether or not food has been irradiated, and if so to what dose, is one of the challenges which food irradiation poses to the scientist. (author)

  4. Braycott Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Mortimer, Gerry

    1993-01-01

    This case study deals with the following issues: product development; positioning and rationalisation; consumer research; channels of distribution; international marketing; synergy in acquisition; developing a marketing plan.

  5. Findings from the Caring International Research Collaborative: Using Caring Science To Assess and Support Food Sustainability Systems for Women Living with HIV/AIDS in a Village in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relindis Oyebog Moffor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes Caring Science as an innovative way to facilitate food systems sustainability in areas of the world that continue to suffer from food insecurity and food shortages. An interdisciplinary group that included a nurse, an agronomist, an environmentalist, and a statistical analyst collaborated to study food sustainability in a village in Bambui, Cameroon. The village was composed of only women and children, and all the women were diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. This interdisciplinary approach not only met the food needs of the village, but, within the assessment process, identified other needs as well. This interdisciplinary approach facilitated holistic assessment of food, finances, personal self-worth and health.

  6. Comparisons of Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency risk management implementation for recent pharmaceutical approvals: report of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and outcomes research risk benefit management working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Yvonne; Roberts, Melissa H; Kamble, Shital; J Guo, Jeff; Raisch, Dennis W

    2012-12-01

    1) To compare the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) and European Medicines Agency's (EMA's) Risk Management Plan (RMP) guidances and 2) to compare REMS and RMPs for specific chemical entities and biological products. FDA, EMA, and pharmaceutical company Web sites were consulted for details pertaining to REMS and RMPs. REMS requirements include medication guides, communication plans, elements to ensure safe use, implementation systems, and specified assessment intervals. RMP requirements are increased pharmacovigilance and risk minimization activities. We compared these requirements for drugs requiring both REMS and RMPs. We identified 95 drugs on FDA's REMS list as of March 2010. Of these, there were 29 drugs (11 biologics and 18 new chemical entities) with EMA RMPs. REMS and RMPs are similar in objectives, with comparable toolkits. Both allow flexibility in product-specific actions, recognizing adverse effects of potential concern. Of the 29 drugs reviewed, REMS requirements not included in RMPs were patient medication guides (100% of the drugs), provider communication plans (38%), and routine monitoring of REMS (66%). RMP requirements not included in REMS were specific adverse event reporting (45% of the drugs), prospective registry studies (34%), prospective epidemiology studies (24%), additional trial data (28%), and Summary of Product Characteristics contraindications (76%). Both REMS and RMPs provide positive guidance for identification, monitoring, and minimization of risk to patient safety. Currently, neither agency provides specific guidance on how risk should be related to benefit either qualitatively or quantitatively. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The international atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-12-31

    The film explains in basic terms nuclear fission, the use of nuclear power (propulsion of ships), the production and use of radioisotopes (medicine-radioactive tracers, sterilization of instruments; agriculture-fertilizers, screw-worm elimination, irradiation of food; industry). Demonstrates international co-operation and research in the nuclear field

  8. International Chernobyl project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The film documents the work of the radiation experts of 8 international organizations in the area around the damaged Chernobyl nuclear power plant. During this evaluation, radiation measurements and medical examinations of the population were carried out and samples of soil, water, plants and food taken

  9. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author) [es

  10. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoerr, M.; Ehlermann, D.A.E.; Delincee, H.

    1999-01-01

    The conference was a combined event and at the same time was a meeting of the FAIR programme of the EU, under the responsibility of the General Directorate XII, participating countries including Iceland, Norway, Hungary, and Switzerland in addition to the 15 EU member states. Under this roof, research work is sponsored in the fields of food technology, fishing industry, agriculture, forestry, and water resources management. Also, financial support is available for the mid-range food and agricultural industry, or for projects promoting rural development. There currently are over 120 transnational FAIR projects, involving more than 2000 researchers in 233 EU-sponsored research projects devoted to food aspects, some having been presented at the conference. (orig./CB) [de

  11. Open innovation and supply chain management in food machinery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open innovation and supply chain management in food machinery supply chain: a ... This paradigm describes a new approach to internal R&D management, which ... a picture of the adoption of open innovation in the food machinery industry.

  12. Hungry Cities Initiative: Informality, Inclusive Growth, and Food ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Hungry Cities Initiative: Informality, Inclusive Growth, and Food Security in ... Within this context, the urban food economy is an important laboratory for ... The International Partnerships for Sustainable Societies program is funding this project.

  13. Food Irradiation. Standing legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo S, M.

    1997-01-01

    The standing legislation in Mexico on food irradiation matter has its basis on the Constitutional Policy of the Mexican United States on the 4 Th. article by its refers to Secretary of Health, 27 Th. article to the Secretary of Energy and 123 Th. of the Secretary of Work and Social Security. The laws and regulations emanated of the proper Constitution establishing the general features which gives the normative frame to this activity. The general regulations of Radiological Safety expedited by the National Commission for Nuclear Safety and Safeguards to state the specifications which must be fulfill the industrial installations which utilizing ionizing radiations, between this line is founded, just as the requirements for the responsible of the radiological protection and the operation of these establishments. The project of Regulation of the General Health Law in matter of Sanitary Control of Benefits and Services, that in short time will be officialized, include a specific chapter on food irradiation which considers the International Organizations Recommendations and the pertaining harmonization stated for Latin America, which elaboration was in charge of specialized group where Mexico was participant. Additionally, the Secretary of Health has a Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-SSA1-1993 named 'Food irradiation; permissible doses in foods, raw materials and support additives' standing from the year 1995, where is established the associated requirements to the control registers, service constancies and dose limits for different groups of foods, moreover of the specific guidelines for its process. This standard will be adequate considering the updating Regulation of Benefits and Services and the limits established the Regulation for Latin America. The associated laws that cover in general terms it would be the requirements for food irradiation although such term is not manageable. (Author)

  14. Genetically engineered foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioengineered foods; GMOs; Genetically modified foods ... helps speed up the process of creating new foods with desired traits. The possible benefits of genetic engineering include: More nutritious food Tastier food Disease- and ...

  15. Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  16. Use of ionising radiation for food processing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninjoor, V.

    1989-01-01

    Food irradiation is a recently developed technique used to sterilize and preserve food. Food products are exposed to ionising radiations such as X-rays, gamma rays or high energy electrons which destroy food borne pathogens and parasites and inhibit sprouting. Shelf life of food is extended. The following aspects of radiation processing of food are discussed in the monograph: radiation sources, choice of dose for specific results, safety and nutritional quality of radiation processed food, international status of acceptance of food irradiation, and cost. (M.G.B.). 6 tabs

  17. Food Irradiation Newsletter. V. 14, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This issue reports specific training activities on Food Irradiation Process Control School, both for technical supervisors of irradiation facilities and food control officials/inspectors, and summary reports of Workshops on dosimetry techniques for food irradiation and on techno-economic feasibility of food irradiation for Latin American countries are included. After 12 years of operation, the International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology (IFFIT) will cease to function after 31 December 1990. This issue reports the last inter-regional training course organized by IFFIT, and also features reports on food irradiation in Asia. Active developments in the field in several Asian countries may be found in the reports of the Workshop on the Commercialization of Food Irradiation, Shanghai, and the Research Co-ordination Meeting on the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Food Irradiation (with emphasis on acceptance and process control), Bombay. Status reports of programmes in these countries are also included. Refs and tabs

  18. Search Results | Page 799 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 7981 - 7990 of 8490 ... New Partnerships Stimulate Agricultural Innovation, Greater Food Security. Despite some relief from recent skyrocketing food prices, many poor consumers in developing countries are paying much more for their food than they were just a few years ago. Research in Action. International ...

  19. Food Allergies

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of food allergies and the need to be aware if any friends or classmates have them.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  20. Food Entrepreneur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum; Christensen, Marie Ernst; Matzen, Peter

    The project investigates the learning outcome and the identity work going on at the course in a setting that provides opportunities to develop new activities, products and knowledge within the food and health industry. The study is based on qualitative interviews with five participants from...

  1. Food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods that are not stored at the proper temperature or are not reheated to the right temperature Raw fish or oysters Raw fruits or vegetables ... proper amount of fluids. Getting enough fluids and learning what to eat will help keep you comfortable. ...

  2. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    or fertilizers. Learn more about the costs and benefits of going organic for you and your family. To Ingredients Low-Risk Pesticides Organic Pesticide Ingredients Pesticide Incidents Human Exposure Pet Exposure veggies? Federal Pesticide Regulation Pesticides and Human Health Regulating Organic Food Production

  3. Experiências internacionais de regulamentação das alegações de saúde em rótulos de alimentos International experiences with health claims in food labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Giuberti Coutinho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available With ever-increasing frequency, consumers are seeking information on the foods they eat. Food labels are an important source of this type of information, and the Codex Alimentarius, created by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, provides a global reference for coordinated food quality and identification standards. The Codex Alimentarius agenda includes nutritional information and "health claims," which are defined as any representation that states, suggests, or implies that a relationship exists between a food or a constituent of that food and health. Although food labeling seems to effectively assist consumers in choosing among processed foods, consumers are not always capable of reading or interpreting nutritional information correctly, so health claims may allow for more precise decision-making for these products. The present paper examines the use of health claims in countries and regions that have already implemented this type of regulation (Brazil, Chile, Canada, United States of America, the European Union, and Japan.

  4. International Year of Pulses 2016 | 2016 International Year of Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    the Year in collaboration with Governments, relevant organizations, non-governmental organizations and the composition of pulses Image 4 Wrapping up the International Year of Pulses The 5 key messages to food security Infographic Pulses and climate change International Year of Pulses 2016 The 68th UN

  5. Search | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Social exclusion, poor economic opportunities, restrictive gender roles, and lack of access to basic services for certain groups are some of the main factors ... Canadian International Food Security Research Fund | IDRC ... The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF) invests in scaling up solutions that ...

  6. Search Results | Page 5 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 41 - 50 of 282 ... ... Food, Environment, and Health 198 Apply Food, Environment, and ... International Research Initiative on Adaptation to Climate Change 5 ... Reduction of Gender and Institutional Violence against Mesoamerican Migrant Women ... of sexual violence, according to reports from Amnesty International.

  7. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  8. Food Safety While Hiking, Camping and Boating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... veal steaks, chops, and roasts to a minimum internal temperature of 145 °F as measured with a food thermometer before removing meat from the heat source. For safety and quality, allow meat to rest for at least three ...

  9. High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... veal steaks, chops, and roasts to a minimum internal temperature of 145 °F as measured with a food thermometer before removing meat from the heat source. For safety and quality, allow meat to rest for at least three ...

  10. Food Safety Tips for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... veal steaks, chops, and roasts to a minimum internal temperature of 145 °F as measured with a food thermometer before removing meat from the heat source. For safety and quality, allow meat to rest for at least three ...

  11. Fairtrade, Food Security and Globalization: Building Alternative Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Calisto Friant

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the politics and practices of Fairtrade certification in order to assess whether this alternative trading system could contribute to innovative solutions for global food security. The analysis begins by assessing the main challenges and problems characterizing the contemporary global food system. It then explores the history, vision and certification standards of the Fairtrade label. In the third section, the results of the impact studies of Fairtrade certification on producer livelihoods are discussed, analyzing the various strengths and weaknesses. Finally the article analyzes whether, and how, the Fairtrade system could positively contribute to improving global food security. To conclude this paper argues that the greatest strength of Fairtrate is not the certification mechanism itself but rather the social and environmental principles it represents. Fairtrade standards could serve to inform broader international policies, which could lead to a sustainable transformation of the global food system.

  12. Nuclear techniques in food and agriculture and international cooperation in their use; Les sciences nucleaires dans l'alimentation et l'agriculture et la cooperation internationale dans ce domaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, M.; Sigurbjörnsson, B. [Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1970-01-15

    that the medfly attacking citrus, the olive fly, the codling moth attacking apples, the tsetse fly and a number of other insects can be eliminated in this way. Radiation can be used to attenuate parasitic larvae attacking animals. The parasites which have thus lost their virulence are used in the production of animal vaccines. In fact, this is still the only known method of producing such vaccines. Isotopic tracers are used to study the movement and metabolism of nutrients in animal production and are particularly useful in studies of essential micronutrients. This unique ability of isotopic tracers to enable detection of chemicals in minute quantities forms the basis for a new program on studies of harmful pesticide residues on plant and animal foods. The sterilizing and killing effect of radiation has been shown to be uniquely effective in preventing or delaying spoilage in a variety of food commodities. Radiation preservation can, for example, be applied to perishable products which do not tolerate cooking or freezing - even after the products are packed. To foster international activities in the field of nuclear science in food and agriculture, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture carries out a single joint program of work approved by the two parent organizations. To carry out work in all these fields, the Division relies heavily on the concept of coordinated research based on research contracts or research agreements. A large part of the work is carried out under various technical assistance projects including expert advice, equipment and training and through the two UNDP Special Fund Projects executed by the IAEA. The IAEA Laboratory plays an indispensable role in the Division’s programs by providing various coordinating services, research, and specialized training. (author) [French] Les méthodes nucléaires sont employées dans la recherche et la production à tous les niveaux successifs de la chaîhe alimentaire: sol et eau

  13. Perceptions of the Slow Food Cultural Trend among the Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Lelia Voinea; Anca Atanase; Ion Schileru

    2016-01-01

    As they become increasingly aware of the importance of healthy eating and of the serious food imbalance caused by the overconsumption of industrial, ultra-processed and superorganoleptic food, consumers are now beginning to turn their attention to food choices guaranteeing both individual health and also of the environment . Thus, in recent years we are witnessing the rise of a cultural trend ‒ Slow Food. Slow Food has become an international movement that advocates for satisfying culinary pl...

  14. Implementation of food safety management systems in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Mensah, L. D.; Julien, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the first stage of work being undertaken to understand the factors that have impacted on the current state of food safety in the UK food manufacturing sector. The paper first explores developments in international food safety regulation in general and in particular, the UK. Using a survey and case study methodology, the paper examines the response of food manufacturing enterprises to food safety regulation, and uses statistical techniques to investigate th...

  15. Homogenized thermal conduction model for particulate foods

    OpenAIRE

    Chinesta , Francisco; Torres , Rafael; Ramón , Antonio; Rodrigo , Mari Carmen; Rodrigo , Miguel

    2002-01-01

    International audience; This paper deals with the definition of an equivalent thermal conductivity for particulate foods. An homogenized thermal model is used to asses the effect of particulate spatial distribution and differences in thermal conductivities. We prove that the spatial average of the conductivity can be used in an homogenized heat transfer model if the conductivity differences among the food components are not very large, usually the highest conductivity ratio between the foods ...

  16. Radiation processing of food and allied products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  17. Food fears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumney, R.

    1988-01-01

    Radurisation can give a new lease of shelf life to food and cut down contamination, but it is bound to cause problems - even among comparatively tame South African consumers. In this article the facts about radurization are discussed: the labelling of irradiated products, the problem of making a bad product good by using irradiation, consumer pressure, attitudes, fears and resistance. The economics of radurised foodstuffs are also discussed

  18. Food microbiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain); Moss, M. O; Adams, M. R

    2008-01-01

    ... is directed primarily at students of Microbiology, Food Science and related subjects up to Master's level and assumes some knowledge of basic microbiology. We have chosen not to burden the text with references to the primary literature in order to preserve what we hope is a reasonable narrative flow. Some suggestions for further reading for each chapter are included in Chapter 12. These are largely review articles and monographs which develop the overview provided and can also give access to...

  19. Review on applied foods and analyzed methods in identification testing of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Hoo Chul; Park, Sung Hyun; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Kwan Soo; Jeong, Il Yun; Lee, Ju Woon; Yook, Hong Sun

    2010-01-01

    Identification methods of irradiated foods have been adopted as official test by EU and Codex. PSL, TL, ESR and GC/MS methods were registered in Korea food code on 2009 and put in force as control system of verification for labelling of food irradiation. But most generally applicable PSL and TL methods are specified applicable foods according to domestic approved items. Unlike these specifications, foods unpermitted in Korea are included in applicable items of ESR and GC/MS methods. According to recent research data, numerous food groups are possible to effective legal control by identification and these items are demanded to permit regulations for irradiation additionally. Especially, the prohibition of irradiation for meats or seafoods is not harmonized with international standards and interacts as trade friction or industrial restrictions due to unprepared domestic regulation. Hence, extension of domestic legal permission for food irradiation can contrive to related industrial development and also can reduce trade friction and enhance international competitiveness

  20. African Journal of Food and Nutritional Security

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Food and Nutritional Security, as an international journal, is intended to act as a forum for researchers working on food and nutritional security issues in Africa and the Third World in their widest range and perspectives. We believe this journal to have ceased publishing ...

  1. Recent progress in food irradiation in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joong-ho Kwon

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses progress in research into food irradiation and government approval of the process in Korea. The development of the first cobalt-60 food irradiator is described and the role of international, trade and consumer associations in its commercialization discussed. (U.K.)

  2. The GM foods debate in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    The debate on genetically modified (GM) foods has been led on multiple levels in Europe, including such diverse frames of reference as economic policy and international trade, environmental risk, bioethics, consumer protection and food safety. The shifting frames of reference are traced over...

  3. Progress in authentication of food and wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authentication of foods, wines and beverages for varietal, country- (or region-) of-origin, and processing conditions is becoming of increasing concern to consumers and regulators both in the U.S. and internationally. As markets become more globalized and foods and beverages are sourced from many lo...

  4. Facts about food irradiation: Status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet introduces the concept of irradiating food to reduce post-harvest losses from infestation, contamination and spoilage, to lower the incidence of foodborne diseases and to assist international trade in food products by offering an alternative to fumigation or some other treatments that may not be acceptable to the importing countries

  5. Canada helps build food irradiation centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.

    1990-01-01

    In a project backed by the Canadian International Development Agency, Nordion has built a new food irradiation research and development centre in Thailand, and trained Thai personnel in its operation. Consumer market tests of suitably labelled Thai irradiated foods are planned in Canada, once regulatory approval is obtained. Papayas, mangoes and shrimp are of particular interest

  6. Educative campaign about information on irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna C, P.C.

    1991-07-01

    The irradiation of foods is accepted by international agencies (FAO, OMS) like a healthy and effective technology at the moment the irradiated foods are marketed easily in many countries, however in other countries exist several factors that affect the practical application of this process. In this work is planned about an educational campaign about the irradiation process directed to the consumers. (Author)

  7. Food contamination : lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, F.

    1987-01-01

    This brief survey of radioactive contamination of food suggests at least four areas in which action needs to be taken so that we might be better prepared to respond to any possible future nuclear accident. More research is needed on the way that radiation enters the food chain, and the measures that can be taken to counter the health hazards posed by fallout. A second clear need is for a global radioactivity monitoring system. Third, international standards need to be established for methods of sampling, analysis and reporting of the radioactive levels in foods. Finally, an effort must be made to inform the public so it can distinguish between the real and the imaginary hazards posed by radioactively contaminated foods

  8. Food irradiation and combination processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell-Platt, G.; Grandison, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    International approval of food irradiation is being given for the use of low and medium doses. Uses are being permitted for different categories of foods with maximum levels being set between 1 and 10 kGy. To maximize the effectiveness of these mild irradiation treatments while minimizing any organoleptic quality changes, combination processes of other technologies with irradiation will be useful. Combinations most likely to be exploited in optimal food processing include the use of heat, low temperature, and modified-atmosphere packaging. Because irradiation does not have a residual effect, the food packaging itself becomes an important component of a successful process. These combination processes provide promising alternatives to the use of chemical preservatives or harsher processing techniques. (author)

  9. 'Food for thought': New MBA with focus on the food sector at Aarhus School of Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Julia; Brunsø, Karen; Andersen, Lone Schreiber

    2002-01-01

    During the autumn of 2002, Aarhus School of Business decided to launch a new international MBA - with focus on the food sector. Prior to this decision lay thorough groundwork in the shape of a positive demand study among the largest food companies in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland. The concl......During the autumn of 2002, Aarhus School of Business decided to launch a new international MBA - with focus on the food sector. Prior to this decision lay thorough groundwork in the shape of a positive demand study among the largest food companies in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland...

  10. Weather, Climate and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, T.

    2016-12-01

    To climatologists food security is dominated by the impacts of weather and climate on food systems. But the link between the atmosphere and food security is more complex. Extreme weather events such as tropical cyclones impact directly on agriculture, but they also impact on the logistical distribution of food and can thus disrupt the food supply chain, especially in urban areas. Drought affects human life and health as well as impacting dramatically on the sustainable development of society. It represents a pending danger for vulnerable agricultural systems that depend on the rainfall, water supply and reservoirs. Developed countries are affected, but the impact is disproportionate within the developing world. Drought, especially when it results in famine, can change the life and economic development of developing nations and stifle their development for decades. A holistic approach is required to understand the phenomena, to forecast catastrophic events such as drought and famine and to predict their societal consequences. In the Food Security recommendations of the Rio+20 Forum on Science, Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Development it states that it is important "To understand fully how to measure, assess and reduce the impacts of production on the natural environment including climate change, recognizing that different measures of impact (e.g. water, land, biodiversity, carbon and other greenhouse gases, etc) may trade-off against each other..." This talk will review the historical link between weather, climate, drought and food supplies; examine the international situation; and summarise the response of the scientific community

  11. Food Irradiation Newsletter. V. 11, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This issue includes a report of the ICGFI's Workshop on Food Irradiation for Food Control Officials, convened in Budapest, Hungary, May 1987. To provide further assurance on the safety and wholesomeness of irradiated food in general and details about polyploidy (increase in number of chromosomes) resulting from consumption of freshly irradiated wheat in particular, ICGFI Secretariat issued a fact sheet on ''Safety and Wholesomeness of Irradiated Foods: International Status - Facts and Figures'' to its member countries in July 1987. The Newsletter also contains summary reports of two important market testings of irradiated food, i.e. papaya in California in March and strawberries in France in June, which proved that consumers will buy irradiated foods, and status reports on food irradiation in France and Mexico. Ref, 1 tab

  12. Ethical food standard schemes and global trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Botterill, Linda Courtenay

    2012-01-01

    Global food trade embodies a range of different interpretations of the nature of food and its role in society. On the one hand, the WTO food regulation regime, in particular the SPS agreement, is based upon a somewhat instrumental value of food consumption in which food is seen as a commodity...... base of each institution while giving expression to both materialist and postmaterialist understandings of the nature of food....... to be traded in accordance with international trade rules. At the same time, a number of private standards, such as GlobalG.A.P and various organic standards, are emerging which embody broadly postmaterialist values that suggest that food purchasing and consumption are also social, ethical and perhaps even...

  13. Norovirus: Food Handlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology For Food Workers Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... trabajadores del sector alimentario Norovirus and Working With Food CDC Vital Signs Report Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks, Food ...

  14. Development of data base on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Kume, Tamikazu; Hashimoto, Shoji; Izumi, Fumio.

    1995-12-01

    For the exact understanding on food irradiation in Japan, it is important to provide information of food irradiation to consumers, industries and government offices. However, many of information on food irradiation are only restricted in a few experts or institutes relating to this field. For this reason, data base of food irradiation has been completed together with the systems necessary for input the data using computer. In this data base, about 630 data with full reports were inputted in computer in the field of wholesomeness studies, irradiation effects on food, radiation engineering, detection methods of irradiated food and Q and A of food irradiation for easy understanding. Many of these data are inputted by Japanese language. Some English reports on wholesomeness studies are also included which were mainly obtained from international projects of food irradiation. Many of data on food irradiation are responsible in the fields of food science, dietetics, microbiology, radiation biology, molecular biology, medical science, agricultural science, radiation chemistry, radiation engineering and so on. Data base of food irradiation contains many useful data which can apply to many other fields of radiation processing not only on food irradiation but also on sterilization of medical equipments, upgrading of agricultural wastes and others. (author)

  15. Development of data base on food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Kume, Tamikazu; Hashimoto, Shoji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Izumi, Fumio

    1995-12-01

    For the exact understanding on food irradiation in Japan, it is important to provide information of food irradiation to consumers, industries and government offices. However, many of information on food irradiation are only restricted in a few experts or institutes relating to this field. For this reason, data base of food irradiation has been completed together with the systems necessary for input the data using computer. In this data base, about 630 data with full reports were inputted in computer in the field of wholesomeness studies, irradiation effects on food, radiation engineering, detection methods of irradiated food and Q and A of food irradiation for easy understanding. Many of these data are inputted by Japanese language. Some English reports on wholesomeness studies are also included which were mainly obtained from international projects of food irradiation. Many of data on food irradiation are responsible in the fields of food science, dietetics, microbiology, radiation biology, molecular biology, medical science, agricultural science, radiation chemistry, radiation engineering and so on. Data base of food irradiation contains many useful data which can apply to many other fields of radiation processing not only on food irradiation but also on sterilization of medical equipments, upgrading of agricultural wastes and others. (author).

  16. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio; Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  17. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  18. Radioactivity: radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.E.; Baratta, E.J.; Jelinek, C.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are summarized of the analysis for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, ruthenium-106, and potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, in samples of total diet and selected import commodities in the foods compliance program of the Food and Drug Administration. On the basis of the radionuclide intake guidelines established by the Federal Radiation Council (FRC), the low content of radionuclides found in the total diet samples for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 demonstrates the need for surveillance only at the present level. The low levels of radionuclides found in a limited number of edible imported commodities indicate that their contribution to the total diet would not increase the levels of these radionuclides above those recommended for only periodic surveillance by the FRC. The potassium levels, determined from potassium-40 activity, found in meats and fish agree with the value for normal muscle tissue for the reference man reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. Of the other commodities, nuts contained the highest levels, while sugar, beverages, and processed foods contained the lowest levels of potassium. Although cesium and potassium are chemical analogs with similar metabolic properties, because of their variable content in some leafy samples as a result of surface contamination, a correlation between cesium-137 levels and the cesium-137-to-potassium ratio was inconclusive

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecher, O.

    1979-01-01

    Limitations of existing preserving methods and possibilities of improved food preservation by application of nuclear energy are explained. The latest state-of-the-art in irradiation technology in individual countries is described and corresponding recommendations of FAO, WHO and IAEA specialists are presented. The Sulzer irradiation equipment for potato sprout blocking is described, the same equipment being suitable also for the treatment of onions, garlic, rice, maize and other cereals. Systems with a higher power degree are needed for fodder preserving irradiation. (author)

  20. How do Student Clients of a University-based Food Bank Cope with Food Insecurity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahbakhsh, Jasmine; Ball, Geoff D C; Farmer, Anna P; Maximova, Katerina; Hanbazaza, Mahitab; Willows, Noreen D

    2015-12-01

    To describe the food security status, food insecurity coping strategies, characteristics, and experiences of student clients of the Campus Food Bank (CFB) at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. A convenience sample of 58 students completed a survey from April 2013 to April 2014. Food security status was determined using the "Adult Food Security Survey Module". Ninety percent of CFB student clients who participated in this study were food insecure, which included both moderately and severely food insecure groups. The most prevalent coping strategies for food insecurity included applying for a loan or bursary (86.2%), seeking employment or working more hours (84.5%), and purchasing food using a credit card (77.6%). Participants were a diverse mix of students, including graduate students (50.0%), international students (46.6%), and caregivers of children (24.1%). The most common primary sources of income were government student loans (29.3%) and research assistantships (20.7%). Most participants (82.8%) liked the food they received from the food bank. Food insecurity is highly prevalent among student clients of this university-based food bank. Students used a variety of coping strategies to increase their disposable income, highlighting the need for additional strategies to alleviate food insecurity among vulnerable students.

  1. Recent progress in food preservation by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vas, K [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy)

    1977-01-01

    The possible use of ionizing radiations in food preservation is discussed. It has been recognized that treatment of foods with ionizing radiations not only serves the purpose of stabilizing them in their original state, but may also enhance the hygienic properties of certain foodstuffs. Several examples conerning improvements in food quality and preservation by irradiation in different countries have been reported. The economic viewpoint and the possibilities for use of irradiated products in international trade are discussed. The development of international cooperation in sharing of research results and information and sharing of costs of wholesomeness testing have been pointed out.

  2. Recent progress in food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vas, K.

    1977-01-01

    The possible use of ionizing radiations in food preservation is discussed. It has been recognized that treatment of foods with ionizing radiations not only serves the purpose of stabilizing them in their original state, but may also enhance the hygienic properties of certain foodstuffs. Several examples conerning improvements in food quality and preservation by irradiation in different countries have been reported. The economic viewpoint and the possibilities for use of irradiated products in international trade are discussed. The development of international cooperation in sharing of research results and information and sharing of costs of wholesomeness testing have been pointed out. (G.C.)

  3. FOOD II: an interactive code for calculating concentrations of radionuclides in food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, R.

    1978-11-01

    An interactive code, FOOD II, has been written in FORTRAN IV for the PDP 10 to allow calculation of concentrations of radionuclides in food products and internal doses to man under chronic release conditions. FOOD II uses models unchanged from a previous code, FOOD, developed at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. The new code has different input and output features than FOOD and a number of options have been added to increase flexibility. Data files have also been updated. FOOD II takes into account contamination of vegetation by air and irrigation water containing radionuclides. Contamination can occur simultaneously by air and water. Both direct deposition of radionuclides on leaves, and their uptake from soil are possible. Also, animals may be contaminated by ingestion of vegetation and drinking water containing radionuclides. At present, FOOD II provides selection of 14 food types, 13 diets and numerous radionuclides. Provisions have been made to expand all of these categories. Six additional contaminated food products can also be entered directly into the dose model. Doses may be calculated for the total body and six internal organs. Summaries of concentrations in food products and internal doses to man can be displayed at a local terminal or at an auxiliary high-speed printer. (author)

  4. Radiation exposure mitigation through food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Yukawa, Masae; Watanabe, Yoshito; Shiraishi, Kunio; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Uchida, Shigeo; Watabe, Teruhisa; Miyazaki, Taeko

    2001-01-01

    137 CsCl 2 was incorporated into plants (tomyao and broccoli) and these homogenized solutions were administered to rats. The whole-body retention was determined with an Armac counter. The whole body retention patterns of 137 Cs incorporated into the plants were not significantly different from that of the 137 CsCl 2 solution. Chitosan is derived from chitin, which is a cellulose-like biopolymer distributed widely in nature, especially in crustaceans, insects, fungi and yeast. The present study was to investigate whether chitosan can be applied to animal and human bodies in order to reduce the bioavailability of radio-iron and -zinc in food. Chitosan inhibits dietary iron absorption only when rats eat on iron-deficient diet. The effectiveness of phytate (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis dihydrogen phosphate) and chitosan in reducing the bioavailability of radio-zinc depend on the concentration of phytate and chitosan. Recently, the share of imported foods increased ca. 40% of Japanese total food consumption. Radioactivities in imported foods must be checked from the viewpoints of internal radiation for Japanese subjects. Concentrations of 232 Th and 238 U in some imported mineral waters were higher than domestic waters. However, internal doses of portable waters are negligible. Individual foodstuffs in major food groups (fish and shellfish, meats, mushrooms, root vegetables and so on), which contributed to some radionuclide intakes in Japanese, were also analyzed to clarify the critical pathway in Japanese subjects. (author)

  5. Food Price Volatility and Decadal Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    The agriculture system is under pressure to increase production every year as global population expands and more people move from a diet mostly made up of grains, to one with more meat, dairy and processed foods. Weather shocks and large changes in international commodity prices in the last decade have increased pressure on local food prices. This paper will review several studies that link climate variability as measured with satellite remote sensing to food price dynamics in 36 developing countries where local monthly food price data is available. The focus of the research is to understand how weather and climate, as measured by variations in the growing season using satellite remote sensing, has affected agricultural production, food prices and access to food in agricultural societies. Economies are vulnerable to extreme weather at multiple levels. Subsistence small holders who hold livestock and consume much of the food they produce are vulnerable to food production variability. The broader society, however, is also vulnerable to extreme weather because of the secondary effects on market functioning, resource availability, and large-scale impacts on employment in trading, trucking and wage labor that are caused by weather-related shocks. Food price variability captures many of these broad impacts and can be used to diagnose weather-related vulnerability across multiple sectors. The paper will trace these connections using market-level data and analysis. The context of the analysis is the humanitarian aid community, using the guidance of the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network and the United Nation's World Food Program in their response to food security crises. These organizations have worked over the past three decades to provide baseline information on food production through satellite remote sensing data and agricultural yield models, as well as assessments of food access through a food price database. Econometric models and spatial analysis are used

  6. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  7. ARRRG/FOOD, Doses from Radioactive Release to Food Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Roswell, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Strenge, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ARRRG calculates radiation doses to humans for radionuclides released to bodies of water from which people might obtain fish, other aquatic foods, or drinking water, and in which they might fish, swim, or boat. FOOD calculates radiation doses to humans from deposition on farm or garden soil and crops during either an atmospheric or water release of radionuclides. Deposition may be either directly from the air or from irrigation water. With both programs, doses may be calculated for either a maximum- exposed individual or for a population group. Doses calculated are a one-year dose and a committed dose from one year of exposure. The exposure is usually considered as chronic; however, equations are included to calculate dose and dose commitment from acute, one-time, exposure. 2 - Method of solution: The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated farm fields or shorelines are calculated assuming an 'infinite' flat plane source of radionuclides. A factor of two is included for surface roughness, and a modifying factor is used to compensate for finite extent in the shoreline calculations. The radionuclide concentrations in aquatic and irrigated food products are based on the radionuclide concentration in the contaminated water, which is based on the release rate of radioactive contamination and the characteristics of the receiving water body. Concentration of radionuclides in plants depends on the concentrations in the soil, air, and water. Concentration of radionuclides in farm animal products, such as milk, meat, or eggs, depends on the animal's consumption of feed, forage, and water containing radionuclides. For persons swimming in contaminated water, the dose is calculated assuming that the body of water is an infinite medium relative to the range of emitted radiations. Persons boating on the water are assumed to be exposed to a dose rate half that of swimmers. Internal doses are calculated as a function of

  8. Food supply reliance on groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Puma, Michael; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water resources, essential to sustain human life, livelihoods and ecosystems, are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and global climate change. As the largest freshwater resource on Earth, groundwater is key for human development and food security. Yet, excessive abstraction of groundwater for irrigation, driven by an increasing demand for food in recent decades, is leading to fast exhaustion of groundwater reserves in major agricultural areas of the world. Some of the highest depletion rates are observed in Pakistan, India, California Central Valley and the North China Plain aquifers. In addition, the growing economy and population of several countries, such as India and China, makes prospects of future available water and food worrisome. In this context, it is becoming particularly challenging to sustainably feed the world population, without exhausting our water resources. Besides, food production and consumption across the globe have become increasingly interconnected, with many areas' agricultural production destined to remote consumers. In this globalisation era, trade is crucial to the world's food system. As a transfer of water-intensive goods, across regions with varying levels of water productivity, food trade can save significant volumes of water resources globally. This situation makes it essential to address the issue of groundwater overuse for global food supply, accounting for international food trade. To do so, we quantify the current, global use of non-renewable groundwater for major crops, accounting for various water productivity and trade flows. This will highlight areas requiring quickest attention, exposing major exporters and importers of non-renewable groundwater, and thus help explore solutions to improve the sustainability of global food supply.

  9. Modern technologies and food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić Radoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available To resolve the problem of lack of food in the World within primary food production, processing and procedures of preserving, new methods have been implemented (implementation of materials for protection, medications utilization of new areas for production purposes, use of GM microorganisms plants, even animals, utilization of food additives, introduction of new procedures of preservation, etc However, these procedures do not always move in the direction of ensuring food safety. Implementation of mentioned procedures creates resistance by consumers. The opinion and the attitude about this issue are very important all over the World. According to recent research performed in last five years, most of the population of developed and semi-developed countries considers food safety a priority, as second place the presence of ingredients that can be harmful for human health and as third the content of nutrients required for normal functioning of the body. The WHO, CAC, WTO and other international institutions support these attitudes of consumers. There is more and more obvious pressure on food producers to preserve the environment, which has resulted in the introduction of production procedures known as "cleaning production".Regardless of which procedure is involved, it is necessary to implement the efficient quality control system and food safety. It is mandatory to request the compulsory implementation of different systems that are defined through the GMR GHR HACCR ISO 9000. In food production, these systems are complementary and only with full implementation of all of them in practice will if be possible to ensure the continuous production of quality and safe products. Food production must be seen as an undisturbed chain: primary production, transport, processing, storage, distribution and consumption. With strict implementation of the mentioned standards in all parts of the chain, the risk of injuries and poisoning of consumers will be decreased to

  10. Safety evaluation of food flavorings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrankel, Kenneth R.

    2004-01-01

    Food flavorings are an essential element in foods. Flavorings are a unique class of food ingredients and excluded from the legislative definition of a food additive because they are regulated by flavor legislation and not food additive legislation. Flavoring ingredients naturally present in foods, have simple chemical structures, low toxicity, and are used in very low levels in foods and beverages resulting in very low levels of human exposure or consumption. Today, the overwhelming regulatory trend is a positive list of flavoring substances, e.g. substances not listed are prohibited. Flavoring substances are added to the list following a safety evaluation based on the conditions of intended use by qualified experts. The basic principles for assessing the safety of flavoring ingredients will be discussed with emphasis on the safety evaluation of flavoring ingredients by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the US Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Expert Panel (FEXPAN). The main components of the JECFA evaluation process include chemical structure, human intake (exposure), metabolism to innocuous or harmless substances, and toxicity concerns consistent with JECFA principles. The Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) evaluation is very similar to the JECFA procedure. Both the JECFA and FEMA evaluation procedures are widely recognized and the results are accepted by many countries. This implies that there is no need for developing countries to conduct their own toxicological assessment of flavoring ingredients unless it is an unique ingredient in one country, but it is helpful to survey intake or exposure assessment. The global safety program established by the International Organization of Flavor Industry (IOFI) resulting in one worldwide open positive list of flavoring substances will be reviewed

  11. South Asia | Page 199 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language French ... Ruth Meinzen-Dick (Senior Research Fellow, International Food Policy Research ... This publication explores the meaning of agriculture and guides the reader into new territory, where food, ecology, and culture converge.

  12. Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamtsyan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import-export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Food irradiation newsletter. V.18, no.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This newsletter contains a report on the 10th Annual Meeting of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiations, summaries of the Second Research Co-ordination Meetings(RCMs) and Final RCM of the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Food Irradiation with Emphasis on Process Control and Applications(RPFI-Pase III), the resolutions and considerations of food irradiation by the IAEA Board and summaries of the Regional Project for Research, Developing and Training on the Application of Nuclear Techniques to Food Preservation in the Near East. Reviews and order information for new publications and a listing of future meetings and workshops are located in the back of this newsletter

  14. User guide for computer program food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.

    1977-02-01

    An interactive code, FOOD, has been written in BASIC for the UNIVAC 1108 to facilitate calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products. In the dose model, vegetation may be contaminated by either air or irrigation water containing radionuclides. The model considers two mechanisms for radionuclide contamination of vegetation: direct deposition of leaves, and uptake from soil through the root system. The user may select up to 14 food categories with corresponding consumption rates, growing periods, and either irrigation rates or atmospheric deposition rates. These foods include various kinds of produce, grains, and animal products. At present, doses may be calculated for the total body and six internal organs from 186 radionuclides. Dose summaries can be displayed at the local terminal. Further details on percent contribution to dose by nuclide and by food type are available from an auxiliary high-speed printer. This output also includes estimated radionuclide concentrations in soil, plants, and animal products

  15. Irradiation's potential for preserving food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The first experimental studies on the use of ionizing radiation for the preservation of foods were published over thirty years ago (1, 2) . After a period of high expectations and perhaps exaggerated optimism a series of disappointments occurred in the late '60s .The first company specifically created to operate a food irradiation plant, Newfield Products Inc, ran into financial difficulties and had to close its potato irradiation facility in 1966. The irradiator, designed to process 15,000t of potatoes per month for inhibition of sprouting, was in operation during one season only. In 1968 the US Food an Drug Administration refused approval for radiation-sterilisation of ham and withdrew the approval it had granted in 1963 for irradiated bacon. An International Project on the Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit juices, created in 1965 at Seibersdorf, Austria, with the collaboration or 9 countries, ended with general disappointment after three years. The first commercial grain irradiator, built in the Turkish harbour town of Iskenderun by the International Atomic Energy Agency with funds from the United Nations Development Program, never received the necessary operating licence from the Turkish Government and had to be dismantled in 1968. The US Atomic Energy Commission terminated its financial support to all research programmes on food irradiation in 1970. For a number of years, little chance seemed to remain that the new process would ever be practically used. However, research and development work was continued in a number of laboratories all over the world, and it appears that the temporary setbacks now have been overcome. Growing quantities of irradiated foods are being marketed in several countries and indications are that irradiated foods will eventually be as generally accepted as are frozen, dried or heatsterilised foods

  16. World Food Day 2015 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 mai 2016 ... Our $124-million Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF) with Global Affairs Canada, and $15-million Cultivating Africa's ... Read the latest results ... Four former IDRC researchers have won the prestigious World Food Prize, also known as the “Nobel Prize for Food and Agriculture.”.

  17. Irradiation as an effective method of food conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachowicz, W.

    1994-01-01

    Irradiation as an effective method for food preservation has been introduced. The worldwide history of radiation methods development has been shown. The state of art of international legislation connected with food irradiation and licensing of that technology in different countries has been reviewed. The list of food products commonly accepted for radiation conservation has also been performed

  18. Utilization of INIS and AGRIS by the food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefflerova, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Technical Information Centre of the Food Industry has begun publishing user handbooks on various foreign services, such as Chemical Abstracts and the CAS, the International Food Information Service - Food Science and Technology Abstracts, the magnetic tape service Engineering Index - COMPENDEX, the DERWENT patent service, a handbook on the services provided by INIS and by AGRIS/FAO. (M.D.)

  19. Food sovereignty: the debate, the deadlock, and a suggested detour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospes, O.

    2014-01-01

    Whereas hundreds of social movements and NGOs all over the world have embraced the concept of food sovereignty, not many public authorities at the national and international level have adopted the food sovereignty paradigm as a normative basis for alternative agriculture and food policy. A common

  20. Food waste drivers in Europe, from identification to possible interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canali, Massimo; Amani, Pegah; Aramyan, Lusine; Gheoldus, Manuela; Moates, Graham; Östergren, Karin; Silvennoinen, Kirsi; Waldron, Keith; Vittuari, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    The growing volumes of food globally lost or wasted and implications for food security and sustainability have raised the concern of researchers, governments, international organizations and grass-root movements. Much research and experiences investigating food waste causes and drivers focus on