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Sample records for least-cost path analysis

  1. Least-cost Paths - Some Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmela Herzog

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with methodological issues connected with least-cost path (LCP calculations in archaeology. The number of LCP studies in archaeology has increased rapidly during the last couple of years, but not all of the approaches applied are based on an appropriate model and implementation. Many archaeologists rely on standard GIS software with default settings for calculating LCPs and are not aware of possible alternatives and the pitfalls that are described in this article. After briefly introducing the aims and applications of LCP methods in archaeology, LCP algorithms are discussed. The outcome of the LCP calculations depends not only on the algorithm but also on the cost model, which often includes several cost components. The discussion of the cost components has a focus on slope, because nearly all archaeological LCP studies take this cost component into account and because several methodological issues are connected with slope-based cost models. Other possible cost components are: the load of the walker, vegetation cover, wetlands or other soil properties, travelling and transport on water, water as barrier and as attractor, aspect, altitude, and social or cultural cost components. Eventually, advantages and disadvantages of different ways of combining cost components are presented. Based on the methodological issues I conclude that both validation checks and variations of the model are necessary to analyse the reliability of archaeological LCP results.

  2. Assessing transhumance corridors on high mountain environments by least cost path analysis: the case of yak herds in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Maaz Maqsood; Frate, Ludovico; Nizami, Syed Moazzam; Carranza, Maria Laura

    2017-09-07

    Mountain environments in the world host highly specialized flora and fauna which are vulnerable because of land use and climate change. Transhumance and other land use traditional practices are present in most of the mountains of the world, and management tools able to cope with new socioeconomic settings and environmental changes are urgently needed. During past centuries, yak (Bos grunniens) herding in Northern Pakistan involved the migration of herds to high mountain international rangelands, but the recent establishment of international borders breaks the traditional transhumance paths, promoting several ecological problems. In this paper, we propose the use of least cost path (LCP) algorithm to identify the most efficient corridors of transhumance for yak herds on northern high altitudes of Pakistan. Specifically, LCP was implemented to identify the critical grazing areas and the connecting zones to be accounted in a new management plan for the yaks in the region. The LCP analysis showed that some grazing areas are connected with several paths, whereas other areas are connected to a lesser extent. The analyses identified a set of best minimum cost paths able to guarantee local connectivity. We also delineated several medium and low efficient paths that could play a crucial role for maintaining regional connectivity which is essential for reducing the isolation of herds and the consequent inbreeding problems. The analytical framework implemented in this study allowed to (1) provide valuable information concerning the movement of yak herds in Gilgit-Baltistan, (2) identify potential corridors that are able to promote herd movement between villages and high mountain rangelands, and (3) identify critical areas for the connectivity of yaks by ranking of the potential corridors according to their length and permeability. The analysis would be extended to other transhumant herds and high mountain areas that are facing sociopolitical transformations and environmental

  3. Ecological Security Pattern Analysis Based on InVEST and Least-Cost Path Model: A Case Study of Dongguan Water Village

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    Qian Lin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The famous “world’s factory” city, Dongguan, like many other places in China, is a typical beneficiary of China’s Reform and Opening-up Policy. However, rapid urban sprawl and economic growth are at the expense of the destruction of the local environment. Therefore, it is of great importance to establish an ecological security network for sustainable development. InVEST models, effective tools to measure sensitivity and intensity of external threats to quantify habitat value, are used to calculate habitat quality of water and land. By combining structural connectivity and the Least-Cost Path model (LCP model, in which corridors are determined based on the minimum accumulative cost path between each critical point, ecological security patterns were calculated. According to the results, the northwest region of Dongguan, having a large quantity of farmlands and water and therefore many corridors and critical patches, is the most essential area in the overall security of ecological environments, which should be protected first. If developed, it should be dominated by eco-tourism and eco-agriculture. We hope that research on the ecological network, which includes critical patches and corridors formed by greenland and rivers, will lead toward better-informed proposals for local urban planning and regional sustainable development.

  4. Analyses of least cost paths for determining effects of habitat types on landscape permeability: wolves in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Maren; Jędrzejewski, Włodzimierz; Borowik, Tomasz; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Nowak, Sabina; Mysłajek, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    Determining ecological corridors is crucial for conservation efforts in fragmented habitats. Commonly employed least cost path (LCP) analysis relies on the underlying cost matrix. By using Ecological Niche Factor Analysis, we minimized the problems connected with subjective cost assessment or the use of presence/absence data. We used data on the wolf presence/absence in Poland to identify LCPs connecting patches of suitable wolf habitat, factors that influence patch occupancy, and compare LCPs between different genetic subpopulations. We found that a lower proportion of cities and roads surrounds the most densely populated patches. Least cost paths between areas where little dispersal takes place (i.e., leading to unpopulated patches or between different genetic subpopulations) ran through a higher proportion of roads and human settlements. They also crossed larger maximal distances over deforested areas. We propose that, apart from supplying the basis for direct conservation efforts, LCPs can be used to determine what factors might facilitate or hinder dispersal by comparing different subsets of LCPs. The methods employed can be widely applicable to gain more in-depth information on potential dispersal barriers for large carnivores.

  5. Planning Landscape Corridors in Ecological Infrastructure Using Least-Cost Path Methods Based on the Value of Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung A Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem service values have rarely been incorporated in the process of planning ecological infrastructure for urban areas. Urban ecological infrastructure is a network system of natural lands and waters that provides ecosystem services. The purpose of this study was to design landscape corridors that maximize the value of ecosystem services in ecological infrastructure planning. We explored the optimal corridors to enhance the connectivity among landscape elements to design an ecological infrastructure for the city of Gwacheon, South Korea, as an example of a small urban area. We calculated the value of ecosystem services using standardized estimation indices based on an intensive review of the relevant literature and employed the least-cost path method to optimize the connectivity of landscape structural elements. The land use type in the city with the highest estimated value of ecosystem services was the riparian zone (i.e., 2011 US$7,312.16/ha. Given areal coverage of all land use types, the estimated value of developed area open spaces was 2011 US$899,803.25, corresponding to the highest contribution to the total value of ecosystem services. Therefore, the optimal configured dispersal corridors for wildlife were found from the riparian zones (source area to the developed area open spaces (destination area in the city. Several challenges remain for improving the estimation of the value of ecosystem services and incorporating these ecosystems in ecological infrastructure planning. Nonetheless, the approaches taken to estimate the value of ecosystem services and design landscape corridors in this study may be of value to future efforts in urban ecological infrastructure planning.

  6. Combining the least cost path method with population genetic data and species distribution models to identify landscape connectivity during the late Quaternary in Himalayan hemlock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibin; Zhang, Yili; Liu, Linshan; Qi, Wei; Li, Shicheng; Hu, Zhongjun

    2015-12-01

    Himalayan hemlock (Tsuga dumosa) experienced a recolonization event during the Quaternary period; however, the specific dispersal routes are remain unknown. Recently, the least cost path (LCP) calculation coupled with population genetic data and species distribution models has been applied to reveal the landscape connectivity. In this study, we utilized the categorical LCP method, combining species distribution of three periods (the last interglacial, the last glacial maximum, and the current period) and locality with shared chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear haplotypes, to identify the possible dispersal routes of T. dumosa in the late Quaternary. Then, both a coalescent estimate of migration rates among regional groups and establishment of genetic divergence pattern were conducted. After those analyses, we found that the species generally migrated along the southern slope of Himalaya across time periods and genomic makers, and higher degree of dispersal was in the present and mtDNA haplotype. Furthermore, the direction of range shifts and strong level of gene flow also imply the existence of Himalayan dispersal path, and low area of genetic divergence pattern suggests that there are not any obvious barriers against the dispersal pathway. Above all, we inferred that a dispersal route along the Himalaya Mountains could exist, which is an important supplement for the evolutionary history of T. dumosa. Finally, we believed that this integrative genetic and geospatial method would bring new implications for the evolutionary process and conservation priority of species in the Tibetan Plateau.

  7. Least cost options for life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, F.; Bradaric, M. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Rehabilitation of existing electric generating capacity offers one of the most cost-effective ways of meeting near-term power needs in many Eastern and Central European countries. In particular, the uncertainty associated with other supply sources and severe capital constraints tends to favor investments which maximize the utilization of existing fossil-fired equipment. However, it is critical that least-cost planning principles, including the consideration of environmental impacts, be applied to the economic analysis of rehabilitation options. This paper draws on Bechtel`s experience in applying least-cost planning to plant rehabilitation studies in Bulgaria, Romania and Slovakia. The examples provided illustrate the importance of least-cost planning and the effect of the value placed on environmental emissions.

  8. Exploring the Connectivity of Ecological Corridors Between Low Elevation Mountains and Pingtung Linhousilin Forest Park of Taiwan by Least-Cost Path Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. L.; Liu, H. F.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, C. T.

    2016-06-01

    The primary purpose of this study was explored the variation of landscape process and its impact on the possibility of ecological corridors on Pingtung Linhousilin Forest Park. Developing the landscape change process in year 2002, 2005, 2012 and 2014 via the land-use definition of IPCC (forest land, cropland, grassland, wetlands, settlements and other land). In the landscape structure analysis, the cropland was gradually changed to forest land in this area. Moreover, the variation of gravity model showed that the interaction between Linhousilin Forest Park and low elevation mountains were gradually increased which means the function of ecological corridors has increased.

  9. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the modeling work carried out in this project was to quantify long-term scenarios for the future emission reduction potentials in the iron and steel sector. The main focus of the project is to examine the impacts of carbon reduction options in the U.S. iron and steel sector under a set of selected scenarios. In order to advance the understanding of carbon emission reduction potential on the national and global scales, and to evaluate the regional impacts of potential U.S. mitigation strategies (e.g., commodity and carbon trading), we also included and examined the carbon reduction scenarios in China’s and India’s iron and steel sectors in this project. For this purpose, a new bottom-up energy modeling framework, the Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM), (Karali et al. 2012) was used to provide detailed annual projections starting from 2010 through 2050. We used the ISEEM modeling framework to carry out detailed analysis, on a country-by-country basis, for the U.S., China’s, and India’s iron and steel sectors. The ISEEM model applicable to iron and steel section, called ISEEM-IS, is developed to estimate and evaluate carbon emissions scenarios under several alternative mitigation options - including policies (e.g., carbon caps), commodity trading, and carbon trading. The projections will help us to better understand emission reduction potentials with technological and economic implications. The database for input of ISEEM-IS model consists of data and information compiled from various resources such as World Steel Association (WSA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), China Steel Year Books, India Bureau of Mines (IBM), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and recent LBNL studies on bottom-up techno-economic analysis of energy efficiency measures in the iron and steel sector of the U.S., China, and India, including long-term steel production in China. In the ISEEM-IS model, production technology and manufacturing details are

  10. A Socio-Ecological Approach to GIS Least-Cost Modelling for Regional Mining Infrastructure Planning: A Case Study from South-East Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Lechner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional planning approaches to mining infrastructure aim to reduce the conflict associated with mining operations and existing land uses, such as urban areas and biodiversity conservation, as well as the cumulative impacts that occur offsite. In this paper, we describe a method for conducting Geographical Information System (GIS least-cost path and least-cost corridor analysis for linear mining infrastructure, such as roads. Least-cost path analysis identifies the optimal pathways between two locations as a function of the cost of traveling through different land use/cover types. In a case study from South-East Sulawesi, Indonesia, we identify potential linear networks for road infrastructure connecting mines, smelters, and ports. The method used interview data from government officials to characterise their orientation (perceived importance and positive/negative attitude toward the social and environmental factors associated with mining infrastructure. A cost-surface was constructed by integrating spatial layers representing the social and environmental factors to identify areas that should be avoided and areas that were compatible with linear infrastructure using the least-cost path analysis. We compared infrastructure scenario outputs from local and national government officials by the degree of spatial overlap and found broad spatial agreement for infrastructure corridors. We conclude by discussing this approach in relation to the wider social-ecological and mine planning literature and how quantitative approaches can reduce the conflict associated with infrastructure planning.

  11. Improving World Health: A Least Cost Strategy. Worldwatch Paper 59.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, William U.

    Least-cost health strategies designed to attack the world's leading causes of unnecessary death are explored. Section 1 emphasizes the value of primary health-care procedures--midwifery, maternal education on breastfeeding and weaning, vaccinations, oral rehydration of victims of diarrhea, and antibiotics against respiratory infections--in…

  12. Least-cost utility planning consumer participation manual. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, C.; Wellinghoff, J.; Goldberg, F.

    1989-12-31

    This manual is designed to provide guidance to state consumer advocates and other state consumer groups interested in either initiating and/or participating in an Least-Cost Utility Planning (LCUP) process in their state. Least cost utility planning examined primarily as a regulatory framework to be implemented by an appropriate state authority -- usually the public utility commission -- for the benefit of the state`s citizens and electric utility customers. LCUP is also a planning process to be used by investor owned and public utilities to select, support and justify future expenditures in resource additions. This manual is designed as a ``How-To`` manual for implementing and participating in a statewide LCUP process. Its goal is to guide the reader through the LCUP maze so that meaningful, forward-looking, and cost minimizing electric utility planning can be initiated and sustained in your state.

  13. Least-cost utility planning consumer participation manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, C.; Wellinghoff, J.; Goldberg, F.

    1989-01-01

    This manual is designed to provide guidance to state consumer advocates and other state consumer groups interested in either initiating and/or participating in an Least-Cost Utility Planning (LCUP) process in their state. Least cost utility planning examined primarily as a regulatory framework to be implemented by an appropriate state authority -- usually the public utility commission -- for the benefit of the state's citizens and electric utility customers. LCUP is also a planning process to be used by investor owned and public utilities to select, support and justify future expenditures in resource additions. This manual is designed as a How-To'' manual for implementing and participating in a statewide LCUP process. Its goal is to guide the reader through the LCUP maze so that meaningful, forward-looking, and cost minimizing electric utility planning can be initiated and sustained in your state.

  14. Applying electrical utility least-cost approach to transportation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, G.A.; Growdon, K.; Lagerberg, B.

    1994-09-01

    Members of the energy and environmental communities believe that parallels exist between electrical utility least-cost planning and transportation planning. In particular, the Washington State Energy Strategy Committee believes that an integrated and comprehensive transportation planning process should be developed to fairly evaluate the costs of both demand-side and supply-side transportation options, establish competition between different travel modes, and select the mix of options designed to meet system goals at the lowest cost to society. Comparisons between travel modes are also required under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). ISTEA calls for the development of procedures to compare demand management against infrastructure investment solutions and requires the consideration of efficiency, socioeconomic and environmental factors in the evaluation process. Several of the techniques and approaches used in energy least-cost planning and utility peak demand management can be incorporated into a least-cost transportation planning methodology. The concepts of avoided plants, expressing avoidable costs in levelized nominal dollars to compare projects with different on-line dates and service lives, the supply curve, and the resource stack can be directly adapted from the energy sector.

  15. A municipal guide to least cost utility planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The recent track record of traditional'' electricity planning, which entails selection of supply side resources to meet forecasted demand, has not been good. There are numerous examples of utilities incorrectly forecasting demand and over-building generating capacity while others underestimated growth and have had to cut demand and find alternate power sources to avoid outages. A potential solution to this problem is the continuing development of Least Cost Utility Plannning (LCUP). Regulatory commissions, consumer advocates and utilities are increasingly relying an LCUP as the most responsible way to avoid construction of new capacity and alleviate anticipated shortages caused by cancellation of construction projects, load growth, or natural replacement of aging capacity. The purpose of this report is to provide municipalities a starting point for evaluating their servicing utilities or states' least cost plan. This was accomplished by: Identifying key issues in LCUP; reviewing examples of the collaborative and classic approaches to LCUP in Illinois, California, New York State and Michigan; cataloging municipal authorities and strategies which can influence or support LCUP activities. Results of the project indicate that through a basic understanding of LCUP processes and issues, municipalities will be in a better position to influence plans or, if necessary, intervene in regulatory proceedings where plans are adopted. Constraints to municipal involvement in LCUP include statutory limitations, resource constraints, and a lack of knowledge of indirect authorities that support the LCUP process.

  16. A municipal guide to least cost utility planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The recent track record of ``traditional`` electricity planning, which entails selection of supply side resources to meet forecasted demand, has not been good. There are numerous examples of utilities incorrectly forecasting demand and over-building generating capacity while others underestimated growth and have had to cut demand and find alternate power sources to avoid outages. A potential solution to this problem is the continuing development of Least Cost Utility Plannning (LCUP). Regulatory commissions, consumer advocates and utilities are increasingly relying an LCUP as the most responsible way to avoid construction of new capacity and alleviate anticipated shortages caused by cancellation of construction projects, load growth, or natural replacement of aging capacity. The purpose of this report is to provide municipalities a starting point for evaluating their servicing utilities or states` least cost plan. This was accomplished by: Identifying key issues in LCUP; reviewing examples of the collaborative and classic approaches to LCUP in Illinois, California, New York State and Michigan; cataloging municipal authorities and strategies which can influence or support LCUP activities. Results of the project indicate that through a basic understanding of LCUP processes and issues, municipalities will be in a better position to influence plans or, if necessary, intervene in regulatory proceedings where plans are adopted. Constraints to municipal involvement in LCUP include statutory limitations, resource constraints, and a lack of knowledge of indirect authorities that support the LCUP process.

  17. An Introduction to Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lee M.

    1977-01-01

    The analytical procedure of path analysis is described in terms of its use in nonexperimental settings in the social sciences. The description assumes a moderate statistical background on the part of the reader. (JKS)

  18. Least Cost Influence Maximization Across Multiple Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Huiyuan; Das, Soham; Zhang, Huiling; Thai, My T

    2016-01-01

    Recently in Online Social Networks (OSNs), the Least Cost Influence (LCI) problem has become one of the central research topics. It aims at identifying a minimum number of seed users who can trigger a wide cascade of information propagation. Most of existing literature investigated the LCI problem only based on an individual network. However, nowadays users often join several OSNs such that information could be spread across different networks simultaneously. Therefore, in order to obtain the best set of seed users, it is crucial to consider the role of overlapping users under this circumstances. In this article, we propose a unified framework to represent and analyze the influence diffusion in multiplex networks. More specifically, we tackle the LCI problem by mapping a set of networks into a single one via lossless and lossy coupling schemes. The lossless coupling scheme preserves all properties of original networks to achieve high quality solutions, while the lossy coupling scheme offers an attractive alte...

  19. The least-cost low-carbohydrate diet is expensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffensperger, John F

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the use of operations research methods to study the minimum possible cost of a low-carbohydrate diet. The study compares this cost to the minimum cost of a diet with no limitation on carbohydrate. The rationale for this study is the popularity of the low-carbohydrate diets and their perceived high cost. The method used was an operations research approach to find a set of least cost diets, varying the required carbohydrate. This method was chosen to avoid potential concerns with real diets that may be nutritionally deficient or could be had for a lower cost. The major finding is that the cheapest possible low-carbohydrate diet costs about triple the cost of the cheapest diet with no constraint on carbohydrate. Furthermore, the minimum cost of a diet low in both carbohydrate and fat is 5 to 10 times the cost of the cheapest diet, depending on the relative amounts of these nutrients. As carbohydrate and fat are constrained, cost increases dramatically and nonlinearly. The study identifies which nutrients had the greatest effect on cost for a low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet.

  20. Survey of state regulatory activities on least cost planning for gas utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, Washington, DC (United States)); Hopkins, M.E. (Fleming Group, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-04-01

    Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. Incorporating the concept of meeting customer energy service needs entails a recognition that customers' costs must be considered along with the utility's costs in the economic analysis of energy options. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. All state commissions were surveyed to assess the current status of gas planning and demand-side management and to identify significant regulatory issues faced by commissions during the next several years. The survey was to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least-cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: (1) status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; (2) type and scope ofnatural gas DSM programs in effect, includeing fuel substitution; (3) economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; (4) relationship between prudence reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; and (5) key regulatory issues facing gas utilities during the next five years. 34 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. A Genetic Algorithm for Delay-constrained Least-cost Multicast Routing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The delay-constrained least-cost multicast routing problem is introduced and then a related genetic algorithm is proposed. Finally, simulation results are shown to prove that the genetic algorithm is fast and effective.

  2. ROMI 3.1 Least-cost lumber grade mix solver using open source statistical software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca A. Buck; Urs Buehlmann; R. Edward. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The least-cost lumber grade mix solution has been a topic of interest to both industry and academia for many years due to its potential to help wood processing operations reduce costs. A least-cost lumber grade mix solver is a rough mill decision support system that describes the lumber grade or grade mix needed to minimize raw material or total production cost (raw...

  3. Stability Analysis of Path-vector Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitri, Papadimitriou

    2012-01-01

    Most studies on path-vector routing stability have been conducted empirically by means of ad-hoc analysis of BGP data traces. None of them consider prior specification of an analytic method including the use of stability measurement metrics for the systematic analysis of BGP traces and associated meta-processing for determining the local state of the routing system. In this paper, we define a set of metrics that characterize the local stability properties of path-vector routing such as BGP (Border Gateway Protocol). By means of these stability metrics, we propose a method to analyze the effects of BGP policy- and protocol-induced instability on local routers.

  4. Analysis of Path-vector Routing Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitri, Papadimitriou

    2012-01-01

    Most studies on path-vector routing stability have been conducted empirically by means of ad-hoc analysis of BGP data traces. None of them consider prior specification of an analytic method including the use of stability measurement metrics for the systematic analysis of BGP traces and associated meta-processing for determining the local state of the routing system. In this paper, we define a set of metrics that characterize the local stability properties of path-vector routing such as BGP (Border Gateway Protocol). By means of these stability metrics, we propose a method to analyze the effects of BGP policy- and protocol-induced instability on local routers.

  5. Path Analysis: A Link between Family Theory and Reseach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Mark R.; Sabatelli, Ronald M.

    This paper discusses path analysis and the applicability of this methodology to the field of family studies. The statistical assumptions made in path analysis are presented along with a description of the two types of models within path analysis, i.e., recursive and non-recursive. Methods of calculating in the path model and the advantages of…

  6. Microstructural path analysis of martensite burst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rangel Rios

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Modeling the martensite reaction requires reckoning with spatial aspects of the reaction. For that, we used formal kinetics, more specifically, the microstructural path method (MPM to analyze the microstructure observed in a burst. The microstructural path analysis revealed that the size of the spread cluster in extended space, characterized by the Vandermeer and Juul-Jensen's impingement compensated mean intercept length, λG, remained constant, independently of the parent austenite grain size. Moreover, current analysis introduced a purely formal description of the reaction progress by taking the parent austenite grain size as the progress variable. This description worked very well and resulted in a relationship between the volume fraction of partially transformed austenite, V VG, and austenite grain size, λG. The significance of these findings in the light of the advantages and disadvantages of formal kinetics is discussed.

  7. Adaptive path planning: Algorithm and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Pang C.

    1995-03-01

    To address the need for a fast path planner, we present a learning algorithm that improves path planning by using past experience to enhance future performance. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions difficult tasks. From these solutions, an evolving sparse work of useful robot configurations is learned to support faster planning. More generally, the algorithm provides a framework in which a slow but effective planner may be improved both cost-wise and capability-wise by a faster but less effective planner coupled with experience. We analyze algorithm by formalizing the concept of improvability and deriving conditions under which a planner can be improved within the framework. The analysis is based on two stochastic models, one pessimistic (on task complexity), the other randomized (on experience utility). Using these models, we derive quantitative bounds to predict the learning behavior. We use these estimation tools to characterize the situations in which the algorithm is useful and to provide bounds on the training time. In particular, we show how to predict the maximum achievable speedup. Additionally, our analysis techniques are elementary and should be useful for studying other types of probabilistic learning as well.

  8. Summing up the parts. Combining Policy Instruments for Least-Cost Climate Mitigation Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Meeting the enormous challenge of decarbonising world energy systems will require a rapid expansion of investment in clean technologies on a global scale. Mobilising these resources will be a daunting task, and it is important to undertake the transition at the lowest cost possible. This paper seeks to provide some guidance on climate change policy-making within real-world constraints, focusing on the justification of policies to supplement a carbon price, interactions between carbon pricing and supplementary policies, and management of these interactions to enable a least-cost policy response.

  9. MOOSE2-A toolbox for least-costly application-oriented input design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annergren, Mariette; Larsson, Christian A.

    MOOSE2 is a MATLAB®-based toolbox for solving least-costly application-oriented input design problems in system identification. MOOSE2 provides the spectrum of the input signal to be used in the identification experiment made to estimate a linear parametric model of the system. The objective is to find a spectrum that minimizes experiment cost while fulfilling constraints imposed in the experiment and on the obtained model. The constraints considered by MOOSE2 are: frequency or power constraints on the signal spectra in the experiment, and application or quality specifications on the obtained model.

  10. MOOSE2—A toolbox for least-costly application-oriented input design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Annergren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MOOSE2 is a MATLAB®-based toolbox for solving least-costly application-oriented input design problems in system identification. MOOSE2 provides the spectrum of the input signal to be used in the identification experiment made to estimate a linear parametric model of the system. The objective is to find a spectrum that minimizes experiment cost while fulfilling constraints imposed in the experiment and on the obtained model. The constraints considered by MOOSE2 are: frequency or power constraints on the signal spectra in the experiment, and application or quality specifications on the obtained model.

  11. Least cost energy planning in Thailand:A case of biogas upgrading in palm oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artite Pattanapongchai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is currently the world’s fourth largest producer of crude palm oil. The palm oil mill effluent is proposed to beused for biogas production. A value added option is then proposed by increasing thermal efficiency of the biogas by removingCO2 content and increasing the percentage of methane, consequently turning the biogas in to green gas. In this study, thebiogas and upgrading process for electricity generation with the subsidy or adder in the long term planning is presented. Thisanalysis uses the MARKAL-based least-cost energy system as an analytical tool. The objective of this study is to investigateupgrading biogas with a selected water scrubbing technique featuring least-cost energy planning. The co-benefit aspect ofbiogas and biogas upgrading project is analyzed by given an adder of 0.3 Baht/kWh. The target of total electricity generationfrom biogas is 60 MW in 2012. The result shows that green gas will account for approximately 44.91 million m3 in 2012 andincrease to 238.89 million m3 in 2030. The cumulative CO2 emission during 2012-2030 is 2,354.92 thousand tonnes of CO2.Results show that under the given adders the upgrading project is competitive with the conventional technologies in electricitygeneration planning.

  12. Environmental protection by cost minimization: Least Cost Planning for traffic. Includes a guide for the application in local communities; Umweltentlastung durch Kostenminimierung: Least Cost Planning im Verkehr. Mit Leitfaden fuer die Anwendung in Kommunen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracher, T.; Diegmann, V.; Eckart, C.F.; Liwicki, M.; Lobenberg, G.; Wetzel, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Informatik, Verkehrs- und Umweltplanung mbH (IVU), Berlin (Germany); Bergmann, M.; Uricher, A.; Lueers, A. [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Becker, U.; Karl, G.; Karl, B.; Voellings, A. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verkehrsoekologie

    1999-08-01

    An intermodal approach for the evaluation of transportation services on the municipal level was developed. Both non-motorised and motorised transportation were included. The approach aims at helping communities to provide an economically and ecologically viable transport policy. Least Cost Transportation Planning (LCTP) was developed to transfer the successful concept of Least Cost Planning from the energy sector to transportation. The conclusion from an analysis of LCTP literature and present evaluation methods was that an improved approach should be intermodal and integrate users, public bodies and transport companies as well as all planning sectors. An approach was developed firstly to identify and clarify transportation expenditures and incomes of a city within a year, and secondly for the evaluation of planning alternatives. This was illustrated for the access system of an industrial area with adjacent railway services in the town of Freiburg. Three alternatives were compared: the extension of a tramway line, the upgrading of the present bus system, and the development of a service and bicycle provision concept for rail stations and companies. Besides income and expenditure for each alternative, the effects on transport demand, the impact on air pollution and noise and on space consumption were presented. As a result, the bicycle concept is in most items better than its alternatives. The final report has three volumes and there is an extra guideline for implementing the method within municipalities. It includes a set of excel sheet tables for an easy application (all in German). (orig.) [German] Fuer die Verkehrsplanung wurde ein verkehrstraegeruebergreifendes Bewertungsverfahren fuer Kommunen entwickelt, das motorisierte und nicht motorisierte Verkehrstraeger einbezieht. Das Verfahren soll Gemeinden unterstuetzen, eine oekonomische und oekologisch vertraegliche Verkehrspolitik zu verfolgen. Least Cost Transportation Planning (LCTP) zielt darauf ab, das fuer

  13. Particle production and complex path analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, K

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses particle production in Schwarzchild-like spacetimes and in an uniform electric field. Both problems are approached using the method of complex path analysis. Particle production in Schwarzchild-like spacetimes with a horizon is obtained here by a new and simple semi-classical method based on the method of complex paths. Hawking radiation is obtained in the (t,r) co-ordinate system of the standard Schwarzchild metric {\\it without} requiring the Kruskal extension. The co-ordinate singularity present at the horizon manifests itself as a singularity in the expression for the semi-classical propagator for a scalar field. We give a prescription whereby this singularity is regularised with Hawking's result being recovered. In the case of the electric field, standard quantum field theoretic methods can be used to obtain particle production in a purely time-dependent gauge. In a purely space-dependent gauge, however, the tunnelling interpretation has to be resorted to. We attempt, in this paper, t...

  14. Adaptive path planning: Algorithm and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Pang C.

    1993-03-01

    Path planning has to be fast to support real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To alleviate this problem, we present a learning algorithm that uses past experience to enhance future performance. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions to difficult tasks. From these solutions, an evolving sparse network of useful subgoals is learned to support faster planning. The algorithm is suitable for both stationary and incrementally-changing environments. To analyze our algorithm, we use a previously developed stochastic model that quantifies experience utility. Using this model, we characterize the situations in which the adaptive planner is useful, and provide quantitative bounds to predict its behavior. The results are demonstrated with problems in manipulator planning. Our algorithm and analysis are sufficiently general that they may also be applied to task planning or other planning domains in which experience is useful.

  15. Optimisation of pipeline route in the presence of obstacles based on a least cost path algorithm and laplacian smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Young Kang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Subsea pipeline route design is a crucial task for the offshore oil and gas industry, and the route selected can significantly affect the success or failure of an offshore project. Thus, it is essential to design pipeline routes to be eco-friendly, economical and safe. Obstacle avoidance is one of the main problems that affect pipeline route selection. In this study, we propose a technique for designing an automatic obstacle avoidance. The Laplacian smoothing algorithm was used to make automatically generated pipeline routes fairer. The algorithms were fast and the method was shown to be effective and easy to use in a simple set of case studies.

  16. Efficient Extraction of Drainage Networks from Massive, Radar-Based Elevation Models with Least Cost Path Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    Planchon and Darboux, 2001; Wang and Liu, 2006). Improved sink filling methods (e.g. Garbrecht and Martz, 1997; Grimaldi et al., 2007; Santini et al...by sink filling, efforts have been made to add a gradient to these flat areas (e.g. Martz and Garbrecht, 1998; Wang and Liu, 2006; Grimaldi et al...Foundation, http://grass.osgeo.org, 2010. Grimaldi , S., Nardi, F., Di Benedotto, F., Istanbulluoglu, E., and Bras, R. L.: A physically-based method for

  17. A least cost energy analysis of US CO sub 2 reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Solomon, B.D. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA)); Hill, D. (Hill (Douglas), Huntington, NY (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Public policy debate on global climate change is increasingly focused on the cost of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Discussion in the US has centered on national energy policy and the desirability and cost of increased energy conversion efficiency and end-use conservation, and on shifting from high greenhouse gas emitting fuels to natural gas, renewable and nuclear-based energy sources. This paper overviews the US MARKAL model, a dynamic linear programming (LP) model of US energy supply and demand. Useful energy projections are specified exogenously to the model, which then determines the optimal energy supply that can meet the demand. We have updated MARKAL with currently available energy technology cost and market penetration data and have applied it to the CO{sub 2} reduction problem for the US. In addition, we have varied some key inputs to the model to test the sensitivity of the energy system to alternative assumptions and to overcome some of the key limitations of the input data. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. An improved least cost routing approach for WDM optical network without wavelength converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonani, Luiz H.; Forghani-elahabad, Majid

    2016-12-01

    Routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) problem has been an attractive problem in optical networks, and consequently several algorithms have been proposed in the literature to solve this problem. The most known techniques for the dynamic routing subproblem are fixed routing, fixed-alternate routing, and adaptive routing methods. The first one leads to a high blocking probability (BP) and the last one includes a high computational complexity and requires immense backing from the control and management protocols. The second one suggests a trade-off between performance and complexity, and hence we consider it to improve in our work. In fact, considering the RWA problem in a wavelength routed optical network with no wavelength converter, an improved technique is proposed for the routing subproblem in order to decrease the BP of the network. Based on fixed-alternate approach, the first k shortest paths (SPs) between each node pair is determined. We then rearrange the SPs according to a newly defined cost for the links and paths. Upon arriving a connection request, the sorted paths are consecutively checked for an available wavelength according to the most-used technique. We implement our proposed algorithm and the least-hop fixed-alternate algorithm to show how the rearrangement of SPs contributes to a lower BP in the network. The numerical results demonstrate the efficiency of our proposed algorithm in comparison with the others, considering different number of available wavelengths.

  19. Tikhonov regularization-based operational transfer path analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Lu, Yingying; Zhang, Zhousuo

    2016-06-01

    To overcome ill-posed problems in operational transfer path analysis (OTPA), and improve the stability of solutions, this paper proposes a novel OTPA based on Tikhonov regularization, which considers both fitting degrees and stability of solutions. Firstly, fundamental theory of Tikhonov regularization-based OTPA is presented, and comparative studies are provided to validate the effectiveness on ill-posed problems. Secondly, transfer path analysis and source contribution evaluations for numerical cases studies on spherical radiating acoustical sources are comparatively studied. Finally, transfer path analysis and source contribution evaluations for experimental case studies on a test bed with thin shell structures are provided. This study provides more accurate transfer path analysis for mechanical systems, which can benefit for vibration reduction by structural path optimization. Furthermore, with accurate evaluation of source contributions, vibration monitoring and control by active controlling vibration sources can be effectively carried out.

  20. Utility planning using least-cost principles and the role of externalities - staff report on a Keystone policy dialogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    For over two years, The Keystone Center facilitated a two-phase dialogue on Utility Planning Using Least-Cost Principles and, in the second phase, on the role of Externalities. The intent of this report is to assist policy-makers faced with decisions about changes to traditional utility regulation and planning. This report is not a consensus document, rather it is staff written summary of two years of discussion on the issues. As a concept, least-cost planning has been discussed since the 1970`s and many states have implemented such programs since the mid-1980`s. Yet, the actual goals and objectives of least-cost planning remain a source of controversy between affected interest groups. Some industry observers believe that least-cost planning can help reconcile the often conflicting demands between increased capacity requirements and concerns about the external costs of power production. In traditional utility regulation practices, capital investments are rewarded and revenue is a direct function of sales. However, a number state public utility commissions have altered their practices to allow for returns on investments in more efficient end-use equipment (also known as ratebasing conservation) and adjusting revenues to account for sales lost due to utility conservation programs. Other states are planning these types of changes. Still others are observing the impacts of the changes before they commit.

  1. Performance analysis of FXLMS algorithm with secondary path modeling error

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xu; CHEN Duanshi

    2003-01-01

    Performance analysis of filtered-X LMS (FXLMS) algorithm with secondary path modeling error is carried out in both time and frequency domain. It is shown firstly that the effects of secondary path modeling error on the performance of FXLMS algorithm are determined by the distribution of the relative error of secondary path model along with frequency.In case of that the distribution of relative error is uniform the modeling error of secondary path will have no effects on the performance of the algorithm. In addition, a limitation property of FXLMS algorithm is proved, which implies that the negative effects of secondary path modeling error can be compensated by increasing the adaptive filter length. At last, some insights into the "spillover" phenomenon of FXLMS algorithm are given.

  2. Vibration Transfer Path Analysis and Path Ranking for NVH Optimization of a Vehicle Interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sakhaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By new advancements in vehicle manufacturing, evaluation of vehicle quality assurance has got a more critical issue. Today noise and vibration generated inside and outside the vehicles are more important factors for customers than before. So far several researchers have focused on interior noise transfer path analysis and the results have been published in related papers but each method has its own limitations. In present work, the vibration transfer path analysis and vibration path ranking of a car interior have been performed. As interior vibration is a source of structural borne noise problem, thus, the results of this research can be used to present the structural borne noise state in a vehicle. The proposed method in this paper does not need to disassemble the powertrain from the chassis. The procedure shows a good ability of vibration path ranking in a vehicle and is an effective tool to diagnose the vibration problem inside the vehicle. The simulated vibration spectrums in different speeds of the engine have a good compliance with the tested results; however, some incompatibilities exist and have been discussed in detail. The simulated results show the strength of the method in engine mount optimization.

  3. Seismic refraction analysis: the path forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth S.; Zelt, Colin; Doll, William

    2012-01-01

    Seismic Refraction Methods: Unleashing the Potential and Understanding the Limitations; Tucson, Arizona, 29 March 2012 A workshop focused on seismic refraction methods took place on 29 May 2012, associated with the 2012 Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems. This workshop was convened to assess the current state of the science and discuss paths forward, with a primary focus on near-surface problems but with an eye on all applications. The agenda included talks on these topics from a number of experts interspersed with discussion and a dedicated discussion period to finish the day. Discussion proved lively at times, and workshop participants delved into many topics central to seismic refraction work.

  4. Automated least-cost pipeline route development in Niger using remotely-sensed imagery and GIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slayter, David L.; Hitchcock, Christopher S. [Fugro William Lettis and Associates, Inc., Walnut Creek, California (United States); Oehlers, Mike; Chiles, Richard [Fugro NPA Ltd., Crockham Park, Edenbridge, Kent (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Fugro William Lettis and Associates, Inc. (Fugro WLA) was engaged to select the best crude oil transmission pipeline route between the Agadem oil field and the Zinder refinery in south-central Niger. In order to do so, geological hazards and anthropogenic features had to be identified along any proposed route. The aim of this paper is to present the methodology they undertook to determine the pipeline route. The assessment of potential pipeline routes was carried out through review and analysis of satellite imagery; the development of a hazard raster integrating total elevation change and exposure to geological hazards and man-made development; and the selection of a recommended pipeline minimizing the risks and providing the safest and shortest route. This study showed that a proper assessment of the optimal pipeline route can be obtained using a combination of multispectral imagery, trained professional inputs and an adequate methodology.

  5. Dynamic Path Analysis in Life-Course Epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael Orland; Boje Jensen, Gorm; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.;

    2011-01-01

    it works through other risk factors. In this paper, the dynamic path analysis model is presented as a tool to analyze these dynamic mechanisms in life-course epidemiology. A key feature of dynamic path analysis is its ability to decompose the total effect of a risk factor into a direct effect (not mediated...... BMI on the risk of CHD is decomposed into a direct effect and indirect effects going through later BMI, concurrent SBP, or later SBP. In conclusion, dynamic path analysis is a flexible tool that by the decomposition of effects can be used to increase the understanding of mechanisms that underlie......Life-course epidemiology seeks to better understand the mechanisms that lead to the development of chronic diseases. An example is the mechanism leading from body size to coronary heart disease (CHD); one way to acquire a better understanding of this mechanism is to investigate to what extent...

  6. Energy Efficiency and Least-Cost Planning: The Best Way to Save Money and Reduce Energy Use in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowris, Robert J.

    1990-05-21

    If the 500 MW geothermal project on the Big Island of Hawaii is developed as planned, the Wao Kele O Puna rain forest will be severely damaged or destroyed. If this happens the State will lose one of its most precious resources. It would be tragic for this to happen, since on a least-cost basis, the geothermal project does not make economic sense. Improving energy efficiency in the commercial and residential sectors of Hawaii can save about 500 MW of power at a cost of $700 million.

  7. Nonlinear reaction coordinate analysis in the reweighted path ensemble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lechner, W.; Rogal, J.; Juraszek, J.; Ensing, B.; Bolhuis, P.G.

    2010-01-01

    We present a flexible nonlinear reaction coordinate analysis method for the transition path ensemble based on the likelihood maximization approach developed by Peters and Trout [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 054108 (2006)] . By parametrizing the reaction coordinate by a string of images in a collective variab

  8. The Path Analysis of Farmers’ Income Structure in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongtian; XIAO; Yu; CUI; Lijia; HU

    2015-01-01

    The problem of farmers’ income growth is the key of issues concerning agriculture,countryside and farmers,so the farmers’ income growth is the fundamental starting point for agricultural and rural economic development. In this paper,we use the statistics concerning farmers’ income in Yunnan Province from 1995 to 2012,to perform the path analysis of components of farmers’ income in Yunnan Province,study the path of influence of components of farmers’ income on farmers’ net income,and then set forth the policy recommendations for increasing farmers’ income in Yunnan Province.

  9. Determination of Some Factors Affecting Honey Yield by Path Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Çelik Güney

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Path analysis is determinate that relationships among variables by using correlation coefficient, partial correlation coefficient and path coefficient. In this study, direct and indirect effects of honey yield between brood rearing area, flight activity, pollen collection, nectar collection and cleaning power were examined with these coefficients. Data which taken from C.U. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Beekeeping Business were used. In the end of this research, the effect of brood rearing area on honey yield was found significant. In the colonies, brood rearing area has the highest direct effect of honey yield. Nectar collection has the highest indirect effect.

  10. KEGG-PATH: Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes-based pathway analysis using a path analysis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Junli; Yuan, Zhifa; Ma, Ziwei; Song, Jiuzhou; Xie, Xiaoli; Chen, Yulin

    2014-07-29

    The dynamic impact approach (DIA) represents an alternative to overrepresentation analysis (ORA) for functional analysis of time-course experiments or those involving multiple treatments. The DIA can be used to estimate the biological impact of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with particular biological functions, for example, as represented by the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) annotations. However, the DIA does not take into account the correlated dependence structure of the KEGG pathway hierarchy. We have developed herein a path analysis model (KEGG-PATH) to subdivide the total effect of each KEGG pathway into the direct effect and indirect effect by taking into account not only each KEGG pathway itself, but also the correlation with its related pathways. In addition, this work also attempts to preliminarily estimate the impact direction of each KEGG pathway by a gradient analysis method from principal component analysis (PCA). As a result, the advantage of the KEGG-PATH model is demonstrated through the functional analysis of the bovine mammary transcriptome during lactation.

  11. COMPLEAT (Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies): A planning tool for publicly owned electric utilities. [Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies (Compleat)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    COMPLEAT takes its name, as an acronym, from Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies. It is an electric utility planning model designed for use principally by publicly owned electric utilities and agencies serving such utilities. As a model, COMPLEAT is significantly more full-featured and complex than called out in APPA's original plan and proposal to DOE. The additional complexity grew out of a series of discussions early in the development schedule, in which it became clear to APPA staff and advisors that the simplicity characterizing the original plan, while highly desirable in terms of utility applications, was not achievable if practical utility problems were to be addressed. The project teams settled on Energy 20/20, an existing model developed by Dr. George Backus of Policy Assessment Associates, as the best candidate for the kinds of modifications and extensions that would be required. The remainder of the project effort was devoted to designing specific input data files, output files, and user screens and to writing and testing the compute programs that would properly implement the desired features around Energy 20/20 as a core program. This report presents in outline form, the features and user interface of COMPLEAT.

  12. Reliability Analysis of Random Vibration Transmission Path Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration transmission path systems are generally composed of the vibration source, the vibration transfer path, and the vibration receiving structure. The transfer path is the medium of the vibration transmission. Moreover, the randomness of transfer path influences the transfer reliability greatly. In this paper, based on the matrix calculus, the generalized second moment technique, and the stochastic finite element theory, the effective approach for the transfer reliability of vibration transfer path systems was provided. The transfer reliability of vibration transfer path system with uncertain path parameters including path mass and path stiffness was analyzed theoretically and computed numerically, and the correlated mathematical expressions were derived. Thus, it provides the theoretical foundation for the dynamic design of vibration systems in practical project, so that most random path parameters can be considered to solve the random problems for vibration transfer path systems, which can avoid the system resonance failure.

  13. Path-sensitive analysis for reducing rollback overheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, John K.P.; Wang, Kai-Ting Amy; Yamashita, Mark; Zhuang, Xiaotong

    2014-07-22

    A mechanism is provided for path-sensitive analysis for reducing rollback overheads. The mechanism receives, in a compiler, program code to be compiled to form compiled code. The mechanism divides the code into basic blocks. The mechanism then determines a restore register set for each of the one or more basic blocks to form one or more restore register sets. The mechanism then stores the one or more register sets such that responsive to a rollback during execution of the compiled code. A rollback routine identifies a restore register set from the one or more restore register sets and restores registers identified in the identified restore register set.

  14. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MINIMAL PATH FAULT TOLERANT ROUTING IN NOC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Ahmed; V. Laxmi; M. S. Gaur

    2011-01-01

    Occurrence of faults in Network on Chip (NoC) is inevitable as the feature size is continuously decreasing and processing elements are increasing in numbers.Faults can be revocable if it is transient.Transient fault may occur inside router,or in the core or in communication wires.Examples of transient faults are overflow of buffers in router,clock skew,cross talk,etc..Revocation of transient faults can be done by retransmission of faulty packets using oblivious or adaptive routing algorithms.Irrevocable faults causes non-functionality of segment and mainly occurs during fabrication process.NoC reliability increases with the efficient routing algorithms,which can handle the maximum faults without deadlock in network.As transient faults are temporary and can be easily revoked using retransmission of packet,permanent faults require efficient routing to route the packet by bypassing the nonfunctional segments.Thus,our focus is on the analysis of adaptive minimal path fault tolerant routing to handle the permanent faults.Comparative analysis between partial adaptive fault tolerance routing West-First,North-Last,Negative-First,Odd Even,and Minimal path Fault Tolerant routing (MinFT) algorithms with the nodes and links failure is performed using NoC Interconnect RoutinG and Application Modeling simulator (NIRGAM) for the 2D Mesh topology.Result suggests that MinFT ensures data transmission under worst conditions as compared to other adaptive routing algorithms.

  15. Sub-optimality analysis of mobile robot rolling path planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纯刚; 席裕庚

    2003-01-01

    Rolling planning is an efficient method for path planning in uncertain environment. In this paper, the general principle and algorithm of mobile robot path planning based on rolling windows are studied. The sub-optimality of rolling path planning is analyzed in details and explained with a concrete example.

  16. Correlation and path coefficient analysis in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Geethanjali, D. Rajkumar and N.Shoba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 43 coconut germplasm accessions were characterized for nut yield and fruit component traits. Correlation analysis showed that most of the fruit traits viz., fruit length, fruit breadth, fruit weight, nut weight, kernel weight and copra weight per nut were positively correlated with each other but showed significant negative correlation with the number of nuts produced per palm per annum. Shell thickness and husk thickness were not correlated with any of the fruit component traits. Path analysis revealed that nut yield and copra content per nut had positive direct effect on the total copra yield per palm. The results of this study showed that equal consideration should be given for both nut yield and copra content per nut while selecting elite genotypes for dual purpose viz., tender nut or culinary use and copra for oil extraction.

  17. An Overview of Path Analysis: Mediation Analysis Concept in Structural Equation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Jenatabadi, Hashem Salarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a tutorial discussion on path analysis structure with concept of structural equation modelling (SEM). The paper delivers an introduction to path analysis technique and explain to how to deal with analyzing the data with this kind of statistical methodology especially with a mediator in the research model. The intended audience is statisticians, mathematicians, or methodologists who either know about SEM or simple basic statistics especially in regression and linear/nonline...

  18. Analysis of construction dynamic plan using fuzzy critical path method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurij Kazimir V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical Path Method (CPM technique has become widely recognized as valuable tool for the planning and scheduling large construction projects. The aim of this paper is to present an analytical method for finding the Critical Path in the precedence network diagram where the duration of each activity is represented by a trapezoidal fuzzy number. This Fuzzy Critical Path Method (FCPM uses a defuzzification formula for trapezoidal fuzzy number and applies it on the total float (slack time for each activity in the fuzzy precedence network to find the critical path. The method presented in this paper is very effective in determining the critical activities and finding the critical paths.

  19. A transduction path method of solid state sensor analysis and investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Dubay, Curtis L.

    1984-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This paper proposes a "transduction path" method of analysis for solid state sensors. It is based upon the idea that a sensor represents a transduction path from some input measurand to an electrical output. The transduction path may consist of one or more transduction or modification principles drawn from all fields of science. Also proposed is a "transduction path diagram" which provides a graphical representation of a transductio...

  20. Path analysis for selection of feijoa with greater pulp weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Donazzolo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper was to identify the direct and indirect effects of feijoa fruits (Acca sellowiana traitson pulp weight, in order to use these traits in indirect genotypes selection. Fruits of five feijoa plants were collected in Rio Grande do Sul, in the years of 2009, 2010 and 2011. Six traits were evaluated: diameter, length, total weight, pulp weight, peel thickness and number of seeds per fruit. In the path analysis, with or without ridge regression, pulp weight was considered as the basic variable, and the other traits were considered as explanatory variables. Total weight and fruit diameter had high direct effect, and are the main traits associated with pulp weight. These traits may serve as criteria for indirect selection to increase feijoa pulp weight, since they are easy to be measured.

  1. Path analysis of self-efficacy and diving performance revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Deborah L; Chow, Graig M; Hepler, Teri J

    2008-06-01

    The Feltz (1982) path analysis of the relationship between diving efficacy and performance showed that, over trials, past performance was a stronger predictor than self-efficacy of performance. Bandura (1997) criticized the study as statistically "overcontrolling" for past performance by using raw past performance scores along with self-efficacy as predictors of performance. He suggests residualizing past performance by regressing the raw scores on self-efficacy and entering them into the model to remove prior contributions of self-efficacy imbedded in past performance scores. To resolve this controversy, we reanalyzed the Feltz data using three statistical models: raw past performance, residual past performance, and a method that residualizes past performance and self-efficacy. Results revealed that self-efficacy was a stronger predictor of performance in both residualized models than in the raw past performance model. Furthermore, the influence of past performance on future performance was weaker when the residualized methods were conducted.

  2. An Analysis of the PLLs With Secondary Control Path

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Ramezani, Malek; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    The phase-locked loops (PLLs) are widely used in different areas of applications particularly for synchronization and control purposes in grid connected applications. A major challenge associated with the PLLs is how to improve their dynamic performance without jeopardizing their stability...... and filtering capability. Recently, some approaches based on adding a secondary control path (SCP) to the PLL structure have been proposed to deal with this challenge. The objective of this letter is to briefly analyze these approaches. The study starts with an overview of the PLLs with SCP. The letter proceeds...... with the small-signal modeling of some of these PLLs, which significantly simplifies the analysis. Using these models, the effects of adding the SCP on the PLL structure are studied. The obtained results show that the SCP may not be a practical approach to improve the PLL dynamic performance as it aggravates...

  3. Variance Analysis and Adaptive Sampling for Indirect Light Path Reuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Qin; Xin Sun; Jun Yan; Qi-Ming Hou; Zhong Ren; Kun Zhou

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the estimation variance of a set of global illumination algorithms based on indirect light path reuse. These algorithms usually contain two passes — in the first pass, a small number of indirect light samples are generated and evaluated, and they are then reused by a large number of reconstruction samples in the second pass. Our analysis shows that the covariance of the reconstruction samples dominates the estimation variance under high reconstruction rates and increasing the reconstruction rate cannot effectively reduce the covariance. We also find that the covariance represents to what degree the indirect light samples are reused during reconstruction. This analysis motivates us to design a heuristic approximating the covariance as well as an adaptive sampling scheme based on this heuristic to reduce the rendering variance. We validate our analysis and adaptive sampling scheme in the indirect light field reconstruction algorithm and the axis-aligned filtering algorithm for indirect lighting. Experiments are in accordance with our analysis and show that rendering artifacts can be greatly reduced at a similar computational cost.

  4. AraPath: a knowledgebase for pathway analysis in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Liming; Liberzon, Arthur; Hennessey, Jason; Jiang, Gaixin; Qi, Jianli; Mesirov, Jill P.; Ge, Steven X.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Studying plants using high-throughput genomics technologies is becoming routine, but interpretation of genome-wide expression data in terms of biological pathways remains a challenge, partly due to the lack of pathway databases. To create a knowledgebase for plant pathway analysis, we collected 1683 lists of differentially expressed genes from 397 gene-expression studies, which constitute a molecular signature database of various genetic and environmental perturbations of Arabidopsis. In addition, we extracted 1909 gene sets from various sources such as Gene Ontology, KEGG, AraCyc, Plant Ontology, predicted target genes of microRNAs and transcription factors, and computational gene clusters defined by meta-analysis. With this knowledgebase, we applied Gene Set Enrichment Analysis to an expression profile of cold acclimation and identified expected functional categories and pathways. Our results suggest that the AraPath database can be used to generate specific, testable hypotheses regarding plant molecular pathways from gene expression data. Availability: http://bioinformatics.sdstate.edu/arapath/ Contact: gexijin@gmail.com Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22760305

  5. Application of critical path analysis in clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical research operates in a strictly regulated environment under various management models, but a distinct management model of clinical trial (CT still needs exploration and research. Critical path analysis (CPA is a management approach can be used for monitoring, analysis, and prediction of success of its time-bound operational activities. A model CT was compiled with 78 activities, which were further merged into 35 major activities. After performing dependence analysis, the list was finalized with 25 activities which were taken in activity predecessor to create a network diagram and perform CPA considering patients, conduct, and outcome. Activities were inclusive, described the trial entirely with accuracy, and were in chronological and logical sequences. This approach does not replace an understanding of or adherence to the requirements contained in all applicable regulations, guidelines or standard operating procedures governing clinical studies but ensures the proper use of operational and decisional approaches including optimal resource management. As the need to meet deadlines becomes more important and the need to produce good, stable project plans, CPA is very useful for determining activities that can lead to project delay. With this approach, project may be effectively monitored, and realistic schedules can be maintained.

  6. Vibrational Analysis of a Shipboard Free Electron Laser Beam Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    42 4. Beam Path “ Racetrack ” ....................................................................44 a. Wave...43 Figure 33. Shock Excitation Beam Dump Z Direction Displacement ..............................44 Figure 34. Top View of Beam Path “ Racetrack ...magnets to merge into the “ racetrack ” prior to entering the LINAC: The motion of the injector assembly and magnets relative to the merge point of the

  7. Dropouts from nursing education: path analysis of a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, B H

    1980-01-01

    Path analysis was used to test a theoretical model of college nursing student dropouts. Multiple regression was used to assess the relative importance of the predictor variables. Students' self-reported reasons for dropping out were studied by contingency and correlational analyses to determine the relationship between these reasons and individual difference variables. Factor analysis was used to develop scales to measure the variables of locus of control, self-esteem, social integration, and institutional commitment. The sample of students was drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Included in the sample were students entering two- and four-year nursing programs full-time in the fall of 1972. These two groups of students were found to be significantly different in measures of cognitive ability and in aspirations for further education. Approximately 27 percent of the two-year and 41 percent of the four-year students withdrew from their nursing programs during this study. Reasons for withdrawal most frequently cited by both groups related to losing interest in nursing and becoming interested in other fields of study. Educational aspirations had the strongest direct effect on persistence in nursing for two-year students; for four-year students, academic ability was the most powerful predictor of persistence.

  8. PATH ANALYSIS SEBAGAI SALAH SATU SARANA STATISTIK DALAM PENELITIAN DAN PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sapariyah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Each good decision making is the result of valid data analysis process and the appropriate analysis model. One of data analysis models that often used in research and decision making is path analysis model. This path analysis has an objective to explain either direct effect or indirect effect, or total effect from a set of cause variables toward effect variables. Mathematically and statistically, path analysis follows structural function model; to describe the structure of causal relationship between cause variables and effect variables.  By using path analysis, for researchers or decision makers can know direct effect, indirect effect and total effect from independent variables toward dependent variables. Besides, path analysis model can decrease the effect of multicolinearity, thus the coefficient value of path analysis partially was better and can solve the real problems from each independent variables toward dependent variables. It means, if the value of path analysis model was not absurd. Thus,  the way of decision making by using this model has a very small risk, so the decision will be more accurate.Keywords: Path analysis, direct effect, indirect effect, total effect.

  9. Progressive collapse analysis using updated models for alternate path analysis after a blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskew, Edward; Jang, Shinae; Bertolaccini, Kelly

    2016-04-01

    Progressive collapse is of rising importance within the structural engineering community due to several recent cases. The alternate path method is a design technique to determine the ability of a structure to sustain the loss of a critical element, or elements, and still resist progressive collapse. However, the alternate path method only considers the removal of the critical elements. In the event of a blast, significant damage may occur to nearby members not included in the alternate path design scenarios. To achieve an accurate assessment of the current condition of the structure after a blast or other extreme event, it may be necessary to reduce the strength or remove additional elements beyond the critical members designated in the alternate path design method. In this paper, a rapid model updating technique utilizing vibration measurements is used to update the structural model to represent the real-time condition of the structure after a blast occurs. Based upon the updated model, damaged elements will either have their strength reduced, or will be removed from the simulation. The alternate path analysis will then be performed, but only utilizing the updated structural model instead of numerous scenarios. After the analysis, the simulated response from the analysis will be compared to failure conditions to determine the buildings post-event condition. This method has the ability to incorporate damage to noncritical members into the analysis. This paper will utilize numerical simulations based upon a unified facilities criteria (UFC) example structure subjected to an equivalent blast to validate the methodology.

  10. Removable partial dentures with rotational paths of insertion: problem analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firtell, D N; Jacobson, T E

    1983-07-01

    Removable partial dentures designed to use a rotational path of insertion are technique sensitive. When indicated and when the principles discussed are followed, a denture that uses a rotational path can be highly successful. Tooth coverage can be decreased, which is an advantage in plaque control, caries reduction, and periodontal support. Esthetics can be improved without resorting to intracoronal retainers, and the number of components subject to distortion is reduced. When properly designed and constructed, use of a rotational path of insertion can result in a removable partial denture that is strong, hygienic, and esthetic.

  11. Analysis of a distributed algorithm to determine multiple routes with path diversity in ad hoc networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosal, Dipak (University of California, Davis, CA); Mueller, Stephen Ng

    2005-04-01

    With multipath routing in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), a source can establish multiple routes to a destination for routing data. In MANETs, mulitpath routing can be used to provide route resilience, smaller end-to-end delay, and better load balancing. However, when the multiple paths are close together, transmissions of different paths may interfere with each other, causing degradation in performance. Besides interference, the physical diversity of paths also improves fault tolerance. We present a purely distributed multipath protocol based on the AODV-Multipath (AODVM) protocol called AODVM with Path Diversity (AODVM/PD) that finds multiple paths with a desired degree of correlation between paths specified as an input parameter to the algorithm. We demonstrate through detailed simulation analysis that multiple paths with low degree of correlation determined by AODVM/PD provides both smaller end-to-end delay than AODVM in networks with low mobility and better route resilience in the presence of correlated node failures.

  12. Path Transmissibility Analysis Considering Two Types of Correlations in Hydropower Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoping Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new vibration model is built by introducing the head-cover vibration transfer path based on a previous analysis of the vertical vibration model for hydropower station units and powerhouses. This research focuses on disturbance- and parameter-related transfer paths in a practical situation. In a complex situation, the application of the stochastic perturbation method is expanded using an algebra synthesis method the Hadamard product, and theoretical analyses, and numerical simulations of transfer paths in the new vibration model are carried out through the expanded perturbation method. The path transfer force, the path transmissibility, and the path disturbance ranges in the frequency domain are provided. The results indicate that the methods proposed in this study can efficiently reduce the disturbance range and can accurately analyze the transfer paths of hydraulic-source vertical vibration in hydropower stations.

  13. Causal Modeling--Path Analysis a New Trend in Research in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, Mina

    2006-01-01

    This article aims at discussing a new statistical trend in research in applied linguistics. This rather new statistical procedure is causal modeling--path analysis. The article demonstrates that causal modeling--path analysis is the best statistical option to use when the effects of a multitude of L2 learners' variables on language achievement are…

  14. An optimization approach for mapping and measuring the divergence and correspondence between paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Shane T; Perelman, Brandon S; Veinott, Elizabeth S

    2016-03-01

    Many domains of empirical research produce or analyze spatial paths as a measure of behavior. Previously, approaches for measuring the similarity or deviation between two paths have either required timing information or have used ad hoc or manual coding schemes. In this paper, we describe an optimization approach for robustly measuring the area-based deviation between two paths we call ALCAMP (Algorithm for finding the Least-Cost Areal Mapping between Paths). ALCAMP measures the deviation between two paths and produces a mapping between corresponding points on the two paths. The method is robust to a number of aspects in real path data, such as crossovers, self-intersections, differences in path segmentation, and partial or incomplete paths. Unlike similar algorithms that produce distance metrics between trajectories (i.e., paths that include timing information), this algorithm uses only the order of observed path segments to determine the mapping. We describe the algorithm and show its results on a number of sample problems and data sets, and demonstrate its effectiveness for assessing human memory for paths. We also describe available software code written in the R statistical computing language that implements the algorithm to enable data analysis.

  15. Path analysis of the productive traits in Sorghum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikanović Jela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the phenotypic correlation coefficients between three Sorghum species, namely forage sorghum S. bicolor Moench. (c. NS-Džin, Sudan grass S. sudanense L. (c. Zora and interspecies hybrid S. bicolor x S. sudanense (c. Siloking. The analyses were performed on plant material samples taken from the first cutting, when plants were in the beginning phase of tasseling. The following morphologic traits were studied: plant height, number of leaves per plant, stem leaf weight and mean stem weight. Additionally, their direct and indirect effect on dependent variable green biomass yield was analyzed, for which path coefficients were calculated. This method enables more quality and full insight into relations existing among the studied traits, more precise establishment of cause-effect connections among them, as well as to separate direct from indirect effects of any particular trait on dependent variable, being biomass yield in this case. The analysis of phenotypic coefficients revealed differences in direct and indirect effect of certain traits on dependent variable. Sudan grass had the highest stem (2.281 m and most leaves per plant (7.917. Forage sorghum had the largest leaf weight per plant (49.05 g, while interspecies hybrid had the highest mean stem weight (80.798 g. Variations of these morphologic traits among species were found to be significant and very significant. Morphologic traits - stem height and weight significantly affected sorghum green biomass yield. Leaf number and leaf portion in total biomass were negatively correlated with yield. Cultivars differed significantly regarding morphologic and productive traits. Sudan grass had the lowest green biomass yield, while forage sorghum and interspecies hybrid had significant yield increase.

  16. Research progress of operational transfer path analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying LU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, the basic principles, the advantages, the disadvantages and the engineering applications of the conventional TPA, OTPA, OPAX and mixed TPA in recent years are comprehensively analyzed. Meanwhile, the potential applications of power flow in the TPA field are especially discussed. Secondly, focused on the OTPA method, an acoustic transfer path system by spherical radiation transfer path simulation system and a vibration transfer path experiment system by a rectangular plate vibrator excitation are designed considering the effects of the distance from reference points. The results show that the relative error between the OTPA values and the theoretical values as well as the experimental values is less than 5% and 8% respectively. At the same time, OTPA is sensitive to noise. When the noise is lower, the nearer reference points can improve the precision of OTPA method. Therefore, it is needed to arrange sensors and design operating conditions reasonably. Finally, the development trend of TPA method is presented.

  17. The shortest-path problem analysis and comparison of methods

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega-Arranz, Hector; Gonzalez-Escribano, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Many applications in different domains need to calculate the shortest-path between two points in a graph. In this paper we describe this shortest path problem in detail, starting with the classic Dijkstra's algorithm and moving to more advanced solutions that are currently applied to road network routing, including the use of heuristics and precomputation techniques. Since several of these improvements involve subtle changes to the search space, it may be difficult to appreciate their benefits in terms of time or space requirements. To make methods more comprehensive and to facilitate their co

  18. Analytic central path, sensitivity analysis and parametric linear programming

    OpenAIRE

    A.G. Holder; Sturm, J.F.; Zhang, Shuzhong

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we consider properties of the central path and the analytic center of the optimal face in the context of parametric linear programming. We first show that if the right-hand side vector of a standard linear program is perturbed, then the analytic center of the optimal face is one-side differentiable with respect to the perturbation parameter. In that case we also show that the whole analytic central path shifts in a uniform fashion. When the objective vector is pertur...

  19. Manifest variable path analysis: potentially serious and misleading consequences due to uncorrected measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A; Preacher, Kristopher J

    2014-06-01

    Despite clear evidence that manifest variable path analysis requires highly reliable measures, path analyses with fallible measures are commonplace even in premier journals. Using fallible measures in path analysis can cause several serious problems: (a) As measurement error pervades a given data set, many path coefficients may be either over- or underestimated. (b) Extensive measurement error diminishes power and can prevent invalid models from being rejected. (c) Even a little measurement error can cause valid models to appear invalid. (d) Differential measurement error in various parts of a model can change the substantive conclusions that derive from path analysis. (e) All of these problems become increasingly serious and intractable as models become more complex. Methods to prevent and correct these problems are reviewed. The conclusion is that researchers should use more reliable measures (or correct for measurement error in the measures they do use), obtain multiple measures for use in latent variable modeling, and test simpler models containing fewer variables.

  20. Comparative Analysis of English Language Student's School Paths at a Mexico University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelo, Octaviano García; Marquez, Jorge Hernández; Pérez, Ileana Casasola

    2017-01-01

    Seven factors related to academic paths of students of the Bachelor of English Language of a public university in Mexico are investigated. With a non-experimental descriptive design, a Likert scale was applied to evaluate the college students' perception of these factors. A comparative analysis between three types of school paths was performed. It…

  1. Analytic central path, sensitivity analysis and parametric linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Holder; J.F. Sturm; S. Zhang (Shuzhong)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we consider properties of the central path and the analytic center of the optimal face in the context of parametric linear programming. We first show that if the right-hand side vector of a standard linear program is perturbed, then the analytic center of the optimal face

  2. Survey and Analysis of Surface Warfare Officer Career Path Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    this specialization alternative are discussed in Swinger [Ref. 2:pp. 98-100]. 1. Hypothesis 1 The null hypothesis states that each specialization...Maior Career Path Change (NPRDC TN 89-5), Navy Personnel Research and Development Center, October 1988. 2. Swinger , A., "Talent at Sea," U. S. Naval

  3. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTI-PATH TCP NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah M A Hijawi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available MPTCP is proposed by IETF working group, it allows a single TCP stream to be split across multiple paths. It has obvious benefits in performance and reliability. MPTCP has implemented in Linux-based distributions that can be compiled and installed to be used for both real and experimental scenarios. In this article, we provide performance analyses for MPTCP with a laptop connected to WiFi access point and 3G cellular network at the same time. We prove experimentally that MPTCP outperforms regular TCP for WiFi or 3G interfaces. We also compare four types of congestion control algorithms for MPTCP that are also implemented in the Linux Kernel. Results show that Alias Linked Increase Congestion Control algorithm outperforms the others in the normal traffic load while Balanced Linked Adaptation algorithm outperforms the rest when the paths are shared with heavy traffic, which is not supported by MPTCP.

  4. Analysis of initial crack path in fretting fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vázquez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The initial crack path is analysed in a fretting fatigue test with cylindrical contact, where there is a stress gradient and a multiaxial and non-proportional stress state. For this, a cylindrical pad is pressed, with a constant normal load, N, against a dog-bone type fatigue test specimen. Then, the test specimen is subjected to a cyclic axial stress, σ. Due to the cyclical axial stress, the assembly used and the friction between the contact pair, a tangential cyclic load Q is generated. In these tests, both components are made of Al7075-T651 alloy. The crack initiation path along the fracture surface is optically measured using a focus variation technique. The contact stress/strain fields obtained analytically, in junction with the Fatemi-Socie (FS and Smith-Watson- Topper (SWT multiaxial fatigue parameters, allow us to determine the controlling parameters of the crack initiation process observed in the tests and to estimate the crack path during the early stage of the crack growth.

  5. Least cost cusp concentrator design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, S.K.; Mullick, S.C.; Annamalai, M.; Iyer, M.V.; Nirmala, K.A.; Venkatesh, P.; Prasad, C.R.; Subramani, C.

    1982-01-01

    Cusp concentrators require larger reflector areas, but can be designed for larger acceptance angles, allowing large mirror tolerances. Design procedures are outlined to compute the optimum combination of acceptance angle and maximum mirror slope for any required concentration ratio, taking into account the material as well as fabrication costs. The cusps are compared with the parabola.

  6. Using Link Analysis Technique with a Modified Shortest-Path Algorithm to Fight Money Laundering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yunkai; MAI Quanwen; LU Zhengding

    2006-01-01

    Effective link analysis techniques are needed to help law enforcement and intelligence agencies fight money laundering.This paper presents a link analysis technique that uses a modified shortest-path algorithms to identify the strongest association paths between entities in a money laundering network.Based on two-tree Dijkstra and Priority-First-Search (PFS) algorithm, a modified algorithm is presented.To apply the algorithm, a network representation transformation is made first.

  7. Fourier optics analysis of phase-mask-based path-length-multiplexed optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Biwei; Dwelle, Jordan; Wang, Bingqing; Wang, Tianyi; Feldman, Marc D; Rylander, Henry G; Milner, Thomas E

    2015-11-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique that constructs a depth-resolved image by measuring the optical path-length difference between broadband light backscattered from a sample and a reference surface. For many OCT sample arm optical configurations, sample illumination and backscattered light detection share a common path. When a phase mask is placed in the sample path, features in the detected signal are observed, which suggests that an analysis of a generic common path OCT imaging system is warranted. In this study, we present a Fourier optics analysis using a Fresnel diffraction approximation of an OCT system with a path-length-multiplexing element (PME) inserted in the sample arm optics. The analysis may be generalized for most phase-mask-based OCT systems. A radial-angle-diverse PME is analyzed in detail, and the point spread function, coherent transfer function, sensitivity of backscattering angular diversity detection, and signal formation in terms of sample spatial frequency are simulated and discussed. The analysis reveals important imaging features and application limitations of OCT imaging systems with a phase mask in the sample path optics.

  8. Analysis of Ice Water Path Retrieval Errors Over Tropical Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Retrieval of multi-layered cloud properties, especially ice water path (IWP), is one of the most perplexing problems in satellite cloud remote sensing. This paper develops a method for improving the IWP retrievals for ice-over-water overlapped cloud systems using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) data. A combined microwave, visible and infrared algorithm is used to identify overlapped clouds and estimate IWP separately from liquid water path. The retrieval error of IWP is then evaluated by comparing the IWP to that retrieved from single-layer ice clouds surrounding the observed overlapping systems. The major IWP retrieval errors of overlapped clouds are primarily controlled by the errors in estimating the visible optical depth. Optical depths are overestimated by about 10-40% due to the influence of the underlying cloud. For the ice-over-warm-water cloud systems (cloud water temperature Tw > 273 K), the globally averaged IWP retrieval error is about 10%. This cloud type accounts for about 15% of all high-cloud overlapping cases. Ice-over-super-cooled water clouds are the predominant overlapped cloud system, accounting for 55% of the cases. Their global averaged error is ~17.2%. The largest IWP retrieval error results when ice clouds occur over extremely super-cooled water clouds (Tw ≤ 255 K). Overall, roughly 33% of the VIRS IWP retrievals are overestimated due to the effects of the liquid water clouds beneath the cirrus clouds. To improve the accuracy of the IWP retrievals,correction models are developed and applied to all three types of overlapped clouds. The preliminary results indicate that the correction models reduce part of the retrieval error.

  9. Cooperative Path Planning and Constraints Analysis for Master-Slave Industrial Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Gan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A strategy of cooperative path planning for a master-slave multiple robot system is presented in this paper. The path planning method is based on motion constraints between the end-effectors of cooperative robots. Cooperation motions have been classified into three types by relative motions between end-effectors of master and slave robots, which is concurrent cooperation, coupled synchronous cooperation and combined synchronous cooperation. Based on this classification, position /orientation constraints and joint velocity constraints are explored in-depth here. In order to validate the path planning method and the theoretical developments in motion constraints analysis, representative experiments based on two industrial robots, Motoman VA1400 and HP20, are provided at the end of the paper. The experimental results have proved both the effectiveness of the path planning method and the correctness of the constraints analysis.

  10. Factors influencing first childbearing timing decisions among men: Path analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariman, Nourossadat; Amerian, Maliheh; Jannati, Padideh; Salmani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Factors that influence men’s childbearing intentions have been relatively unexplored in the literature. Objective: This study aimed to determine the influencing factors about the first childbearing timing decisions of men. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 300 men who were referred to private and governmental healthcare centers in Shahrood, Iran were randomly recruited from April to September 2014. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, the Quality of Life Questionnaire; ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire, Synder’s Hope Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results: After removing the statistically insignificant paths, men’s age at marriage had the highest direct effect (β=0.86) on their first childbearing decision. Marital satisfaction (β=-0.09), social support (β=0.06), economic status (β=0.06), and quality of life (β=-0.08) were other effective factors on men’s first childbearing decisions. Moreover, marital satisfaction and social support had significant indirect effects on men’s childbearing decisions (β=-0.04 and -0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Many factors, including personal factors (age at marriage and quality of life), family factors (marital satisfaction), and social factors (social support), can affect men’s decision to have a child. Policymakers are hence required to develop strategies to promote the socioeconomic and family conditions of the couples and to encourage them to have as many children as they desire at an appropriate time. PMID:27738661

  11. Scientific Influence: An Analysis of the Main Path Structure in the "Journal of Conflict Resolution."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, Kathleen M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of citation networks as a reflection of the intellectual developments in a scientific field focuses on an analysis of citations in the "Journal of Conflict Resolution." Main path analysis is described; the development of the field of conflict resolution is discussed; and interdisciplinarity is explored. (17 references) (LRW)

  12. Design and performance analysis of global path planning techniques for autonomous mobile robots in grid environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Chaari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the 2-year iroboapp research project that aims at devising path planning algorithms for large grid maps with much faster execution times while tolerating very small slacks with respect to the optimal path. We investigated both exact and heuristic methods. We contributed with the design, analysis, evaluation, implementation and experimentation of several algorithms for grid map path planning for both exact and heuristic methods. We also designed an innovative algorithm called relaxed A-star that has linear complexity with relaxed constraints, which provides near-optimal solutions with an extremely reduced execution time as compared to A-star. We evaluated the performance of the different algorithms and concluded that relaxed A-star is the best path planner as it provides a good trade-off among all the metrics, but we noticed that heuristic methods have good features that can be exploited to improve the solution of the relaxed exact method. This led us to design new hybrid algorithms that combine our relaxed A-star with heuristic methods which improve the solution quality of relaxed A-star at the cost of slightly higher execution time, while remaining much faster than A* for large-scale problems. Finally, we demonstrate how to integrate the relaxed A-star algorithm in the robot operating system as a global path planner and show that it outperforms its default path planner with an execution time 38% faster on average.

  13. An Optimization-Driven Analysis Pipeline to Uncover Biomarkers and Signaling Paths: Cervix Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Enery; Camacho-Caceres, Katia; Ropelewski, Alexander J.; Rosas, Juan; Ortiz-Mojer, Michael; Perez-Marty, Lynn; Irizarry, Juan; Gonzalez, Valerie; Rodríguez, Jesús A.; Cabrera-Rios, Mauricio; Isaza, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Establishing how a series of potentially important genes might relate to each other is relevant to understand the origin and evolution of illnesses, such as cancer. High-throughput biological experiments have played a critical role in providing information in this regard. A special challenge, however, is that of trying to conciliate information from separate microarray experiments to build a potential genetic signaling path. This work proposes a two-step analysis pipeline, based on optimization, to approach meta-analysis aiming to build a proxy for a genetic signaling path. PMID:26388997

  14. The Best Path Analysis in Military Highway Transport Based on DEA and Multiobjective Fuzzy Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Juan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Military transport path selection directly affects the transport speed, efficiency, and safety. To a certain degree, the results of the path selection determine success or failure of the war situation. The purpose of this paper is to propose a model based on DEA (data envelopment analysis and multiobjective fuzzy decision-making for path selection. The path decision set is established according to a search algorithm based on overlapping section punishment. Considering the influence of various fuzzy factors, the model of optimal path is constructed based on DEA and multitarget fuzzy decision-making theory, where travel time, transport risk, quick response capability, and transport cost constitute the evaluation target set. A reasonable path set can be calculated and sorted according to the comprehensive scores of the paths. The numerical results show that the model and the related algorithms are effective for path selection of military transport.

  15. Life course path analysis of birth weight, childhood growth, and adult systolic blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Andersen, Per Kragh; Baker, Jennifer L

    2009-01-01

    regression methods. Path analysis produced easily interpretable results, and compared with standard regression methods it produced a noteworthy gain in statistical power. The effect of change in relative body size on adult blood pressure was more pronounced after age 11 years than in earlier childhood......The inverse associations between birth weight and later adverse health outcomes and the positive associations between adult body size and poor health imply that increases in relative body size between birth and adulthood may be undesirable. In this paper, the authors describe life course path...... body size, and thereby the total effect, of size and changes in size on later outcomes. Using data on childhood body size and adult systolic blood pressure from a sample of 1,284 Danish men born between 1936 and 1970, the authors compared results from path analysis with results from 3 standard...

  16. Automatic Beam Path Analysis of Laser Wakefield Particle Acceleration Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, Oliver; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Wu, Kesheng; Prabhat,; Weber, Gunther H.; Ushizima, Daniela M.; Messmer, Peter; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, E. Wes

    2009-10-19

    Numerical simulations of laser wakefield particle accelerators play a key role in the understanding of the complex acceleration process and in the design of expensive experimental facilities. As the size and complexity of simulation output grows, an increasingly acute challenge is the practical need for computational techniques that aid in scientific knowledge discovery. To that end, we present a set of data-understanding algorithms that work in concert in a pipeline fashion to automatically locate and analyze high energy particle bunches undergoing acceleration in very large simulation datasets. These techniques work cooperatively by first identifying features of interest in individual timesteps, then integrating features across timesteps, and based on the information derived perform analysis of temporally dynamic features. This combination of techniques supports accurate detection of particle beams enabling a deeper level of scientific understanding of physical phenomena than hasbeen possible before. By combining efficient data analysis algorithms and state-of-the-art data management we enable high-performance analysis of extremely large particle datasets in 3D. We demonstrate the usefulness of our methods for a variety of 2D and 3D datasets and discuss the performance of our analysis pipeline.

  17. Intimate partner violence, common mental disorders and household food insecurity: an analysis using path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Claudia Leite de; Marques, Emanuele Souza; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Ferreira, Marcela de Freitas; Salles-Costa, Rosana

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the direct and indirect associations between psychological and physical intimate partner violence and the occurrence of common mental disorders (CMD) and how they relate to the occurrence of household food insecurity (HFI). This was a population-based cross-sectional study. Intimate partner violence was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) and HFI was assessed using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. The propositional analytical model was based on a review of the literature and was tested using path analysis. Duque de Caxias, Greater Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (April-December 2010). Women (n 849) who had been in a relationship in the 12 months preceding the interview. Both psychological and physical violence were found to be major risk factors of HFI. Psychological violence was associated with HFI indirectly via physical violence and CMD, and directly by an unidentified path. The effects of physical violence seemed to be manifested exclusively through CMD. Most of the variables in the propositional model related to socio-economic position, demographic characteristics, degree of women's social support and partner alcohol misuse were retained in the 'final' model, indicating that these factors contribute significantly to the increased likelihood of HFI. The results reinforce the importance of considering domestic violence and other psychosocial aspects of family life when implementing interventions designed to reduce/eradicate HFI.

  18. Analysis of Fatigue Crack Paths in Cold Drawn Pearlitic Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Toribio; Beatriz González; Juan-Carlos Matos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a fracto-metallographic analysis was performed on the cracked specimens of cold drawn pearlitic steel subjected to fatigue tests. Fatigue cracks are transcollonial and exhibit a preference for fracturing pearlitic lamellae, with non-uniform crack opening displacement values, micro-discontinuities, branchings, bifurcations and frequent local deflections that create microstructural roughness. At the micro-level, the cold drawn pearlitic steel exhibits higher micro-roughness than ...

  19. PathNet: a tool for pathway analysis using topological information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta Bhaskar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of canonical pathways through enrichment of differentially expressed genes in a given pathway is a widely used method for interpreting gene lists generated from high-throughput experimental studies. However, most algorithms treat pathways as sets of genes, disregarding any inter- and intra-pathway connectivity information, and do not provide insights beyond identifying lists of pathways. Results We developed an algorithm (PathNet that utilizes the connectivity information in canonical pathway descriptions to help identify study-relevant pathways and characterize non-obvious dependencies and connections among pathways using gene expression data. PathNet considers both the differential expression of genes and their pathway neighbors to strengthen the evidence that a pathway is implicated in the biological conditions characterizing the experiment. As an adjunct to this analysis, PathNet uses the connectivity of the differentially expressed genes among all pathways to score pathway contextual associations and statistically identify biological relations among pathways. In this study, we used PathNet to identify biologically relevant results in two Alzheimer’s disease microarray datasets, and compared its performance with existing methods. Importantly, PathNet identified de-regulation of the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis pathway as an important component in Alzheimer’s disease progression, despite the absence of this pathway in the standard enrichment analyses. Conclusions PathNet is a novel method for identifying enrichment and association between canonical pathways in the context of gene expression data. It takes into account topological information present in pathways to reveal biological information. PathNet is available as an R workspace image from http://www.bhsai.org/downloads/pathnet/.

  20. Errata to the Werts-Linn Comments on Boyle's "Path Analysis and Ordinal Data."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werts, Charles E.; Linn, Robert L.

    The Werts-Linn procedure for dealing with categorical errors of measurement in "Comments on Boyle's 'Path Analysis and Ordinal Data'" in The American Journal of Sociology, volume 76, number 6, May 1971, is shown to be inappropriate to the problem of ordered categories. (For related document, see TM 002 301.) (DB)

  1. Mathematics Teaching Anxiety and Self-Efficacy Beliefs toward Mathematics Teaching: A Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between pre-service primary school teachers' mathematics teaching anxiety and their self-efficacy beliefs toward mathematics teaching through path analysis. There were a total of 250 pre-service primary school teachers involved in this study. Of the total, 202 were female and 48 were…

  2. General framework for transfer path analysis: History, theory and classification of techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Seijs, M.V.; De Klerk, D.; Rixen, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) designates the family of test-based methodologies to study the transmission of mechanical vibrations. Since the first adaptation of electric network analogies in the field of mechanical engineering a century ago, a multitude of TPA methods have emerged and found their wa

  3. Social Cognitive Career Theory, Conscientiousness, and Work Performance: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena

    2011-01-01

    We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…

  4. Social Cognitive Career Theory, Conscientiousness, and Work Performance: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena

    2011-01-01

    We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…

  5. On the Explanation of Schooling, Occupation and Earnings: some alternative path analysi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Psacharopoulos (George); J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1978-01-01

    textabstractJencks's well-known sociological path analysis connecting parental socio-economic characteristics and some ability measure of the person investigated with his or her schooling, occupation and income is available for the United States, Sweden and the Netherlands in various versions. For

  6. Analysis of Fatigue Crack Paths in Cold Drawn Pearlitic Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Toribio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fracto-metallographic analysis was performed on the cracked specimens of cold drawn pearlitic steel subjected to fatigue tests. Fatigue cracks are transcollonial and exhibit a preference for fracturing pearlitic lamellae, with non-uniform crack opening displacement values, micro-discontinuities, branchings, bifurcations and frequent local deflections that create microstructural roughness. At the micro-level, the cold drawn pearlitic steel exhibits higher micro-roughness than the hot rolled bar (this is a consequence of the manufacturing process by cold drawing, so that the actual fractured surface in the cold drawn wire is greater than that in the hot rolled bar, due to the fact that the crack deflection events are more frequent and with higher angle in the former (the heavily drawn prestressing steel wire. These findings show the relevant role on the manufacturing process by cold drawing in the fatigue crack propagation in pearlitic steel.

  7. Energy flow lines as light paths a didactical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, M E

    2006-01-01

    Analyses of interviews with secondary school students about their conceptions of light at the University of Potsdam indicate that numerous students have a deterministic view of light. With regard to these results the model of energy flow lines, which has been discussed recently in the didactical literature, is of special interest. Following this model, light is presumed to move along energy flow lines as trajectories. In an analysis of the model of energy flow lines four didactical dimensions (didactical content, internal structure, present-day relevance and future significance) are investigated. It can be shown that a discussion of this model in physics at school can increase the meta-conceptional knowledge of the students about the models of light. On the other hand, this can promote deterministic conceptions and the Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics. But the question remains: Should the nature of light really be described as deterministic?

  8. Analysis of Brownian Particles for finding the shortest path in networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    huan yan qian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a method to analyze the shortest path finding between two nodes in complex networks. In this method, we first find that single Brownian particle follows the shortest path between source node and destination node in the probability of where denotes the shortest path steps between two nodes. To be compared with single particle utilization, then we specially analyze the multiple particles. We compute the probability of particles’ taking the shortest path between and when particles starts simultaneously from the source and head to the destination as . It’s very clear that there must be particles taking the shortest path to arrive at the destination in the multiple particles environment. And with the number of increasing, the arriving probability first arise and then drop down rapidly until to zero. In the end, we make the experiments and confirm our theoretical analysis. Our results would provide valuable usage for some applications such as finding the optimal routing in wireless sensor networks.

  9. Computer-Aided Modelling of Short-Path Evaporation for Chemical Product Purification, Analysis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Alfonso Mauricio; Gani, Rafiqul

    2006-01-01

    An important stage in the design process for many chemical products is its manufacture where, for a class of chemical products that may be thermally unstable (such as, drugs, insecticides, flavours /fragrances, and so on), the purification step plays a major role. Short-path evaporation is a safe...... method, suitable for separation and purification of thermally unstable materials whose design and analysis can be efficiently performed through reliable model-based techniques. This paper presents a generalized model for short-path evaporation and highlights its development, implementation and solution...... glycerol, mono-, di- and triglycerides, and (b) the recovery of a pharmaceutical product from a six-component mixture. Validation of the short-path evaporation model is highlighted through the comparison of experimental data from an industrial pilot plant with the simulated results from the model. Also...

  10. Correlation analysis of couple optical paths for microstereovision with stereo light microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuezong; LI Desheng; YU Yaping

    2007-01-01

    A micro stereovision system with a stereo light microscope (SLM) has been applied in micromanipulation systems.There is a coupling connection between two optical paths of a stereo light microscope.The coupling intension corresponds with two factors:the structure of an SLM and the position of an object point in the view of an SLM.In this paper,a correlation function is proposed to describe the coupling intension between the couple optical paths of an SLM.The quantified results are applied to the error analysis of the imaging model.Experiments show that the correlation of the optical paths of a common main objective of stereo light microscope (CMO-SLM) is little more than that of a G-SLM,and the error must be considered when a pinhole imaging model is used to analyze its correlation.

  11. Counterfactual Graphical Models for Mediation Analysis via Path-Specific Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Shpitser, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    Potential outcome counterfactuals represent variation in the outcome of interest after a hypothetical treatment or intervention is performed. Causal graphical models are a concise, intuitive way of representing causal assumptions, including independence constraints among such counterfactuals. Much of modern causal inference is concerned with expressing cause effect relationships of interest in counterfactual form, showing how the resulting counterfactuals can be identified (that is expressed in terms of available data, using domain-specific causal assumptions), and subsequently estimated using statistical methods. In this paper we will use causal graphical models to analyze the identification problem of the so-called \\emph{path-specific effects}, that is effects of treatment on outcome along certain specified causal paths. Such effects arise in mediation analysis settings where it's important to distinguish direct and indirect effects of treatment. We review existing results on path-specific effects in the fu...

  12. Culminating paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Bousquet-Mélou

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Let a and b be two positive integers. A culminating path is a path of ℤ 2 that starts from (0,0, consists of steps (1,a and (1,-b, stays above the x-axis and ends at the highest ordinate it ever reaches. These paths were first encountered in bioinformatics, in the analysis of similarity search algorithms. They are also related to certain models of Lorentzian gravity in theoretical physics. We first show that the language on a two letter alphabet that naturally encodes culminating paths is not context-free. Then, we focus on the enumeration of culminating paths. A step by step approach, combined with the kernel method, provides a closed form expression for the generating function of culminating paths ending at a (generic height k. In the case a = b, we derive from this expression the asymptotic behaviour of the number of culminating paths of length n. When a > b, we obtain the asymptotic behaviour by a simpler argument. When a < b, we only determine the exponential growth of the number of culminating paths. Finally, we study the uniform random generation of culminating paths via various methods. The rejection approach, coupled with a symmetry argument, gives an algorithm that is linear when a ≥ b, with no precomputation stage nor non-linear storage required. The choice of the best algorithm is not as clear when a < b. An elementary recursive approach yields a linear algorithm after a precomputation stage involving O (n 3 arithmetic operations, but we also present some alternatives that may be more efficient in practice.

  13. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiyong Yang; Wenjie Dong; Jinfeng Xiu; Rufeng Dai; Jieming Chou

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA) has long been used to quantify global and regional environmental impacts and to clarify emission transfers. Structural path analysis (SPA), a technique based on EEIOA, is especially useful for measuring significant flows in this environmental-economic system. This paper constructs an imports-adjusted single-region input-output (SRIO) model considering only domestic final use elements, and it uses the SPA technique to highlight crucial rou...

  14. Analysis of the impact path on factors of China's energy-related CO2 emissions: a path analysis with latent variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhui; Lei, Yalin

    2017-02-01

    Identifying the impact path on factors of CO2 emissions is crucial for the government to take effective measures to reduce carbon emissions. The most existing research focuses on the total influence of factors on CO2 emissions without differentiating between the direct and indirect influence. Moreover, scholars have addressed the relationships among energy consumption, economic growth, and CO2 emissions rather than estimating all the causal relationships simultaneously. To fill this research gaps and explore overall driving factors' influence mechanism on CO2 emissions, this paper utilizes a path analysis model with latent variables (PA-LV) to estimate the direct and indirect effect of factors on China's energy-related carbon emissions and to investigate the causal relationships among variables. Three key findings emanate from the analysis: (1) The change in the economic growth pattern inhibits the growth rate of CO2 emissions by reducing the energy intensity; (2) adjustment of industrial structure contributes to energy conservation and CO2 emission reduction by raising the proportion of the tertiary industry; and (3) the growth of CO2 emissions impacts energy consumption and energy intensity negatively, which results in a negative impact indirectly on itself. To further control CO2 emissions, the Chinese government should (1) adjust the industrial structure and actively develop its tertiary industry to improve energy efficiency and develop low-carbon economy, (2) optimize population shifts to avoid excessive population growth and reduce energy consumption, and (3) promote urbanization steadily to avoid high energy consumption and low energy efficiency.

  15. The Path Analysis and Its Application Study on Cultivated Land Change in Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chunhua; Li Ning; Shi Peijun

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the principle of path analysis, this paper positively analyzes the influence factors of cultivated land change from 1978 to 2002 in Hubei Province. The relationship between the influence factors and cultivated land change is studied by means of the path analysis. The results show that the construction rearrangement of agriculture, grain security and market mechanism are the main factors that decide the cultivated land change. Meanwhile, the impact of investment, urbanization and benefit gap among the different utilizing ways also leads to the change of cultivated land. The result means that though some factors have less direct influence on the change of cultivated land, their indirect influence is significant or vice versa.

  16. Shortest-path network analysis is a useful approach toward identifying genetic determinants of longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J R Managbanag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identification of genes that modulate longevity is a major focus of aging-related research and an area of intense public interest. In addition to facilitating an improved understanding of the basic mechanisms of aging, such genes represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention in multiple age-associated diseases, including cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. To date, however, targeted efforts at identifying longevity-associated genes have been limited by a lack of predictive power, and useful algorithms for candidate gene-identification have also been lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have utilized a shortest-path network analysis to identify novel genes that modulate longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Based on a set of previously reported genes associated with increased life span, we applied a shortest-path network algorithm to a pre-existing protein-protein interaction dataset in order to construct a shortest-path longevity network. To validate this network, the replicative aging potential of 88 single-gene deletion strains corresponding to predicted components of the shortest-path longevity network was determined. Here we report that the single-gene deletion strains identified by our shortest-path longevity analysis are significantly enriched for mutations conferring either increased or decreased replicative life span, relative to a randomly selected set of 564 single-gene deletion strains or to the current data set available for the entire haploid deletion collection. Further, we report the identification of previously unknown longevity genes, several of which function in a conserved longevity pathway believed to mediate life span extension in response to dietary restriction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work demonstrates that shortest-path network analysis is a useful approach toward identifying genetic determinants of longevity and represents the first application of

  17. An Entropy-Based Approach to Path Analysis of Structural Generalized Linear Models: A Basic Idea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuoki Eshima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A path analysis method for causal systems based on generalized linear models is proposed by using entropy. A practical example is introduced, and a brief explanation of the entropy coefficient of determination is given. Direct and indirect effects of explanatory variables are discussed as log odds ratios, i.e., relative information, and a method for summarizing the effects is proposed. The example dataset is re-analyzed by using the method.

  18. Intelligence, previous convictions and interrogative suggestibility: a path analysis of alleged false-confession cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, R; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and previous convictions among 108 defendants in criminal trials, using a path analysis technique. It was hypothesized that previous convictions, which may provide defendants with interrogative experiences, would correlate negatively with 'shift' as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (Gudjonsson, 1984a), after intelligence and memory had been controlled for. The hypothesis was partially confirmed and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. Correlation and path coefficient analysis for protein yield in confectionary sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hladni Nada; Miklič Vladimir; Mijić Anto; Jocić Siniša; Miladinović Dragana

    2015-01-01

    The most important criteria for introducing new confectionary hybrids into the production is high protein yield. Path coefficient analysis was used to obtain information on direct and indirect effects of studied traits (seed oil content, kernel oil content, seed yield, kernel protein content, mass of 1000 seeds, kernel ratio and hull ratio) on protein yield. The research was conducted during three vegetation seasons, on 22 experimental confectionary sunflow...

  20. A Run-Length Encoding Approach for Path Analysis of C. elegans Search Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans explores the environment using a combination of different movement patterns, which include straight movement, reversal, and turns. We propose to quantify C. elegans movement behavior using a computer vision approach based on run-length encoding of step-length data. In this approach, the path of C. elegans is encoded as a string of characters, where each character represents a path segment of a specific type of movement. With these encoded string data, we perform k-means cluster analysis to distinguish movement behaviors resulting from different genotypes and food availability. We found that shallow and sharp turns are the most critical factors in distinguishing the differences among the movement behaviors. To validate our approach, we examined the movement behavior of tph-1 mutants that lack an enzyme responsible for serotonin biosynthesis. A k-means cluster analysis with the path string-encoded data showed that tph-1 movement behavior on food is similar to that of wild-type animals off food. We suggest that this run-length encoding approach is applicable to trajectory data in animal or human mobility data.

  1. A Run-Length Encoding Approach for Path Analysis of C. elegans Search Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongkyun; Furst, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans explores the environment using a combination of different movement patterns, which include straight movement, reversal, and turns. We propose to quantify C. elegans movement behavior using a computer vision approach based on run-length encoding of step-length data. In this approach, the path of C. elegans is encoded as a string of characters, where each character represents a path segment of a specific type of movement. With these encoded string data, we perform k-means cluster analysis to distinguish movement behaviors resulting from different genotypes and food availability. We found that shallow and sharp turns are the most critical factors in distinguishing the differences among the movement behaviors. To validate our approach, we examined the movement behavior of tph-1 mutants that lack an enzyme responsible for serotonin biosynthesis. A k-means cluster analysis with the path string-encoded data showed that tph-1 movement behavior on food is similar to that of wild-type animals off food. We suggest that this run-length encoding approach is applicable to trajectory data in animal or human mobility data. PMID:27462364

  2. A Path Analysis of Mental Health Among Thai Immigrant Employees in Pranakron Si Ayutthaya Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewanuchit, Chonticha; Sawangdee, Yothin

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this research were to study both direct and indirect path analyses of mental health, and to analyse a causal relationship of each variable. A cross-sectional study used stratified random sampling to select Thai immigrant employees in Pranakron Si Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. General data were analysed by number and percentage. The mental health variable was measured by THMHI-15. The latter was analysed by general statistic, and a path analysis. The results found that job conditions and distance travelled between house and workplace had a direct effect on mental health with a standardised regression weight of 0.581, and -0.443, respectively (p value <0.01). It was found that housing conditions had no effect on mental health. The income variable had a direct influence on mental health with a standardised regression weight of 0.68 (p value <0.01). This research indicated that job conditions were an important factor related to mental health.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Empirical Path Loss Model for Cellular Transmission in Rivers State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.O.H Akinwole, Biebuma J.J

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of three empirical path loss models with measured data for urban, suburban, and rural areas in Rivers State. The three models investigated were COST 231 Hata, SUI,ECC-33models. A downlink data was collected at operating frequency of 2100MHz using drive test procedure consisting of test mobile phones to determine the received signal power (RSCP at specified receiver distanceson a Globacom Node Bs located in some locations in the State. This test was carried out for investigating the effectiveness of the commonly used existing models for Cellular transmission. The results analysed were based on Mean Square Error (MSE and Standard Deviation (SD and were simulated on MATLAB (7.5.0. The results show that COST 231 Hata model gives better predictions and therefore recommended for path loss predictions in River State.

  4. Parallel Path Magnet Motor: Development of the Theoretical Model and Analysis of Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirba, I.; Kleperis, J.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical and numerical modelling is performed for the linear actuator of a parallel path magnet motor. In the model based on finite-element analysis, the 3D problem is reduced to a 2D problem, which is sufficiently precise in a design aspect and allows modelling the principle of a parallel path motor. The paper also describes a relevant numerical model and gives comparison with experimental results. The numerical model includes all geometrical and physical characteristics of the motor components. The magnetic flux density and magnetic force are simulated using FEMM 4.2 software. An experimental model has also been developed and verified for the core of switchable magnetic flux linear actuator and motor. The results of experiments are compared with those of theoretical/analytical and numerical modelling.

  5. Risk factors for Parkinson disease and the path analysis: One-to-one paired design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianhua Tan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parkinson disease (PD) results from the reduce of neurotransmitter dopamine that transmits intracellular information in brain caused by some reasons, then leads to the dynamic disequilibrium with another neurotransmitter of acetylcholine which is relatively hyperactive. The main causes for PD are still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To screen out the risk factors of PD by means of univariate analysis and multivariate Logistic regression analysis, and investigate the manner of actions between various factors and PD, so as to provide clues for the etiological study of PD.DESIGN: A paired design, Logistic regression analysis, path analysis.SETTING: Department of Scientific Research, Shandong Institute of Physical Education.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 157 PD patients were selected from the Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University from November 2001 to October 2002. Inclusive criteria: PD was diagnosed according to the standard set by the Fourth National Seminar on Extrapyramidal Disease, Parkinsonian syndromes caused by stroke, carbon monoxide poisoning, encephalitis, drugs, etc. were excluded. Another 157 patients treated in the same department at the same period were selected as the control group, they were the same in sex as those in the patient group, within 3 years older or younger than those in the patient group,and without PD or other extrapyramidal diseases.social behavioral factor, environmental factor, genetic factor, life events, and previous disease; There were 12 main variables, including educational level, family history, mental labour, contact to insecticides, living place before school-age, smoking index, drinking index, tea-drinking index, history of brain trauma, history of SPSS 10.0 software were used in the conditional Logistic regression analysis and path analysis respectively.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The results of 12-variable univariate and multivariate analyses;Correlation between main variables and PD; Effects of the factors.analysis

  6. Correlates of Unwanted Births in Bangladesh: A Study through Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brijesh P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unwanted birth is an important public health concern due to its negative association with adverse outcomes of mothers and children as well as socioeconomic development of a country. Although a number of studies have been investigated the determinants of unwanted births through logistic regression analysis, an extensive assessment using path model is lacking. In the current study, we applied path analysis to know the important covariates for unwanted births in Bangladesh. Methods The study used data extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011. It considered sub-sample consisted of 7,972 women who had given most recent births five years preceding the date of interview or who were currently pregnant at survey time. Correlation analysis was used to find out the significant association with unwanted births. This study provided the factors affecting unwanted births in Bangladesh. The path model was used to determine the direct, indirect and total effects of socio-demographic factors on unwanted births. Results The result exhibited that more than one-tenth of the recent births were unwanted in Bangladesh. The differentials of unwanted births were women’s age, education, age at marriage, religion, socioeconomic status, exposure of mass-media and use of family planning. In correlation analysis, it showed that unwanted births were positively correlated with women age and place of residence and these relationships were significant. On the contrary, unwanted births were inversely significantly correlated with education and social status. The total effects of endogenous variables such as women age, place of residence and use of family planning methods had favorable effect on unwanted births. Conclusion Policymakers and program planners need to design programs and services carefully to reduce unwanted births in Bangladesh, especially, service should focus on helping those groups of women who were identified in the analysis as being at

  7. Multi-Dimensional Path Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    1998-01-01

    We present the path-relationship model that supports multi-dimensional data modeling and querying. A path-relationship database is composed of sets of paths and sets of relationships. A path is a sequence of related elements (atoms, paths, and sets of paths). A relationship is a binary path...... to create nested path structures. We present an SQL-like query language that is based on path expressions and we show how to use it to express multi-dimensional path queries that are suited for advanced data analysis in decision support environments like data warehousing environments...

  8. Path Analysis of Perceived Service Quality, Satisfaction and Loyalty in the Banking Industry of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the path of service quality, satisfaction and loyalty in the Iranian banking industry. A SERVQUAL scale was designed to measure service quality for the Iranian banking industry. A path analysis was conducted to examine the model, which links the constructs of service quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty at the level of individual indices of these constructs. Among the dimensions of the SERVQUAL scale, only “tangible” dimensions have not had an effect on customer satisfaction in Iranian banking system. The limitation of the research is the relevance of this model to another service industry. Another limitation is the available sampling. Banking managers may seek to use the SERVQUAL scale in order to measure banking service quality. Instead of tangible components, they must improve other intangible components and attempt to direct their support towards the increase in the customers who tend to use word of mouth advertisement. This paper deals with the investigation of the path of service quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty at some specific levels originating from the Iranian banking system.

  9. Thermal optical path difference analysis of the telescope correct lens assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming-Ying; Chang, Shenq-Tsong; Huang, Ting-Ming

    2012-12-01

    The effect of correct lens thermal optical path difference (OPD) on the optical performance of the Cassegrain telescope system is presented. The correct lens assembly includes several components such as a set of correct lenses, lens mount, spacer, mount barrel, and retainer. The heat transfer from the surrounding environment to the correct lens barrel will cause optical system aberration. The temperature distribution of the baffle is from 20.546°C to 21.485°C. Meanwhile, the off-axis ray's path of the OPD has taken the lens incidence point and emergence point into consideration. The correct lens temperature distribution is calculated by the lens barrel heat transfer analysis; the thermal distortion and stress are solved by the Finite Element Method (FEM) software. The temperature distribution is weighted to each incidence ray path, and the thermal OPD is calculated. The thermal OPD on the Z direction is transferred to optical aberration by fitting OPD into a rigid body motion and the Zernike polynomial. The aberration results can be used to evaluate the thermal effect on the correct lens assembly in the telescope system.

  10. Substructuring of multibody systems for numerical transfer path analysis in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acri, Antonio; Offner, Guenter; Nijman, Eugene; Rejlek, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Noise legislations and the increasing customer demands determine the Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) development of modern commercial vehicles. In order to meet the stringent legislative requirements for the vehicle noise emission, exact knowledge of all vehicle noise sources and their acoustic behavior is required. Transfer path analysis (TPA) is a fairly well established technique for estimating and ranking individual low-frequency noise or vibration contributions via the different transmission paths. Transmission paths from different sources to target points of interest and their contributions can be analyzed by applying TPA. This technique is applied on test measurements, which can only be available on prototypes, at the end of the designing process. In order to overcome the limits of TPA, a numerical transfer path analysis methodology based on the substructuring of a multibody system is proposed in this paper. Being based on numerical simulation, this methodology can be performed starting from the first steps of the designing process. The main target of the proposed methodology is to get information of noise sources contributions of a dynamic system considering the possibility to have multiple forces contemporary acting on the system. The contributions of these forces are investigated with particular focus on distribute or moving forces. In this paper, the mathematical basics of the proposed methodology and its advantages in comparison with TPA will be discussed. Then, a dynamic system is investigated with a combination of two methods. Being based on the dynamic substructuring (DS) of the investigated model, the methodology proposed requires the evaluation of the contact forces at interfaces, which are computed with a flexible multi-body dynamic (FMBD) simulation. Then, the structure-borne noise paths are computed with the wave based method (WBM). As an example application a 4-cylinder engine is investigated and the proposed methodology is applied on the

  11. Dynamical mechanism in aero-engine gas path system using minimum spanning tree and detrended cross-correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Keqiang; Zhang, Hong; Gao, You

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the mutual interaction in aero-engine gas path system is a crucial problem that facilitates the understanding of emerging structures in complex system. By employing the multiscale multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis method to aero-engine gas path system, the cross-correlation characteristics between gas path system parameters are established. Further, we apply multiscale multifractal detrended cross-correlation distance matrix and minimum spanning tree to investigate the mutual interactions of gas path variables. The results can infer that the low-spool rotor speed (N1) and engine pressure ratio (EPR) are main gas path parameters. The application of proposed method contributes to promote our understanding of the internal mechanisms and structures of aero-engine dynamics.

  12. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of quantitative characters in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddivenkatagari Subbarama Krishna Reddy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred germplasm lines of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, during kharif, 2008. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively, for thirteen quantitative characters, namely plant height (cm, number of branches per plant, internodal length(cm, days to 50% flowering, first flowering node, first fruiting node, fruit length (cm, fruit width (cm, fruit weight (g, total number of fruits per plant, number of marketable fruits per plant, total yield per plant (g and marketable yield per plant (g for the identification of appropriate selection indices. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficient analysis revealed that plant height, fruit length, fruit width, fruit weight, total number of fruits per plant, number of marketable fruits per plant and total yield per plant had significant positive correlation, while number of branches per plant, internodal length, days to 50% flowering, first flowering node and first fruiting node had significant negative correlation with marketable yield per plant.Genotypic path coefficient analysis revealed that fruit weight, total number of fruits per plant and number of marketable fruits per plant had positively high direct effect on marketable pod yield per plant. Correlation and path coefficient analyses revealed that fruit weight, total number of fruits per plant and number of marketable fruits per plant not only had positively significant association with marketable pod yield per plant, but also had positively high direct effect on marketable pod yield per plant and are regarded as the main determinants of marketable pod yield per plant. The improvement in marketable pod yield per plant will be efficient, if the selection is based on fruit weight, total number of fruits per

  13. Epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in the Mexicali Valley, Mexico: results of path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, M D; Meyer, M E; Cramer, J C

    1984-08-01

    Twenty-eight known or hypothesized variables in the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis were examined by path analysis to determine the contribution of each variable to seropositivity of cattle in Mexicali, Mexico. The variables that contributed significantly to bovine seropositivity were area size of farm premises, percentage of animals on a premises that were inseminated artificially, local marketing of the products from a premises, size of investment in the livestock, whether or not dairying was the major agricultural activity of the premises, and the policy of the owner or manager with regard to disposal of reactor animals. The contributions of all other variables were insignificant.

  14. Efficacy-mediated effects of spirituality and physical activity on quality of life: A path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konopack James F

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has been established as an important determinant of quality of life, particularly among older adults. Previous research has suggested that physical activity’s influence on quality of life perceptions is mediated by changes in self-efficacy and health status. In the same vein, spirituality may be a salient quality of life determinant for many individuals. Methods In the current study, we used path analysis to test a model in which physical activity, spirituality, and social support were hypothesized to influence global quality of life in paths mediated by self-efficacy and health status. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of 215 adults (male, n = 51; female, n = 164 over the age of 50 (M age = 66.55 years. Results The analysis resulted in a model that provided acceptable fit to the data (χ2 = 33.10, df = 16, p  Conclusions These results support previous findings of an efficacy-mediated relationship between physical activity and quality of life, with the exception that self-efficacy in the current study was moderately associated with physical health status (.38 but not mental health status. Our results further suggest that spirituality may influence health and well-being via a similar, efficacy-mediated path, with strongest effects on mental health status. These results suggest that those who are more spiritual and physically active report greater quality of life, and the effects of these factors on quality of life may be partially mediated by perceptions of self-efficacy.

  15. Comparison of Damage Path Predictions for Composite Laminates by Explicit and Standard Finite Element Analysis Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogert, Philip B.; Satyanarayana, Arunkumar; Chunchu, Prasad B.

    2006-01-01

    Splitting, ultimate failure load and the damage path in center notched composite specimens subjected to in-plane tension loading are predicted using progressive failure analysis methodology. A 2-D Hashin-Rotem failure criterion is used in determining intra-laminar fiber and matrix failures. This progressive failure methodology has been implemented in the Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard finite element codes through user written subroutines "VUMAT" and "USDFLD" respectively. A 2-D finite element model is used for predicting the intra-laminar damages. Analysis results obtained from the Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard code show good agreement with experimental results. The importance of modeling delamination in progressive failure analysis methodology is recognized for future studies. The use of an explicit integration dynamics code for simple specimen geometry and static loading establishes a foundation for future analyses where complex loading and nonlinear dynamic interactions of damage and structure will necessitate it.

  16. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in open-path configuration for the analysis of distant objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallé, B.; Mauchien, P.; Maurice, S.

    2007-08-01

    A review of recent results on stand-off Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis and applications is presented. Stand-off LIBS was suggested for elemental analysis of materials located in environments where any physical access was not possible but optical access could be envisaged. This review only refers to the use of the open-path LIBS configuration in which the laser beam and the returning plasma light are transmitted through the atmosphere. It does not present the results obtained with a transportation of the laser pulses to the target through an optical fiber. Open-path stand-off LIBS has mainly been used with nanosecond laser pulses for solid sample analysis at distances of tens of meters. Liquid samples have also been analyzed at distances of a few meters. The distances achievable depend on many parameters including the laser characteristics (pulse energy and power, beam divergence, spatial profile) and the optical system used to focus the pulses at a distance. A large variety of laser focusing systems have been employed for stand-off analysis comprising refracting or reflecting telescope. Efficient collection of the plasma light is also needed to obtain analytically useful signals. For stand-off LIBS analysis, a lens or a mirror is required to increase the solid angle over which the plasma light can be collected. The light collection device can be either at an angle from the laser beam path or collinear with the optical axis of the system used to focus the laser pulses on the target surface. These different configurations have been used depending on the application such as rapid sorting of metal samples, identification of material in nuclear industry, process control and monitoring in metallurgical industry, applications in future planetary missions, detection of environmental contamination or cleaning of objects of cultural heritage. Recent stand-off analyses of metal samples have been reported using femtosecond laser pulses to extend LIBS

  17. Understanding hydrological flow paths in conceptual catchment models using uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockler, Eva M.; O'Loughlin, Fiachra E.; Bruen, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Increasing pressures on water quality due to intensification of agriculture have raised demands for environmental modeling to accurately simulate the movement of diffuse (nonpoint) nutrients in catchments. As hydrological flows drive the movement and attenuation of nutrients, individual hydrological processes in models should be adequately represented for water quality simulations to be meaningful. In particular, the relative contribution of groundwater and surface runoff to rivers is of interest, as increasing nitrate concentrations are linked to higher groundwater discharges. These requirements for hydrological modeling of groundwater contribution to rivers initiated this assessment of internal flow path partitioning in conceptual hydrological models. In this study, a variance based sensitivity analysis method was used to investigate parameter sensitivities and flow partitioning of three conceptual hydrological models simulating 31 Irish catchments. We compared two established conceptual hydrological models (NAM and SMARG) and a new model (SMART), produced especially for water quality modeling. In addition to the criteria that assess streamflow simulations, a ratio of average groundwater contribution to total streamflow was calculated for all simulations over the 16 year study period. As observations time-series of groundwater contributions to streamflow are not available at catchment scale, the groundwater ratios were evaluated against average annual indices of base flow and deep groundwater flow for each catchment. The exploration of sensitivities of internal flow path partitioning was a specific focus to assist in evaluating model performances. Results highlight that model structure has a strong impact on simulated groundwater flow paths. Sensitivity to the internal pathways in the models are not reflected in the performance criteria results. This demonstrates that simulated groundwater contribution should be constrained by independent data to ensure results

  18. Effectiveness of thigh-to-thigh current path for the measurement of abdominal fat in bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ki Hwan; Lim, Yong Gyu; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-12-01

    We present a new method measuring body impedance using a thigh-to-thigh current path, which can reflect the abdominal fat portion more sensitively and can be conveniently applied during the daily use on a toilet seat. Two pairs of electrodes were installed on a toilet seat to provide current and to permit voltage measurement through a thigh-to-thigh current path. The effectiveness of the method was compared with conventional foot-to-foot and hand-to-foot current paths by simulation and by experiments referenced to computed tomography (CT) image analysis. Body impedance using three different current paths was measured, and abdominal CT images were acquired for eight subjects. Measured body impedances were compared with the visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio (VF/SF) calculated from the CT-determined abdominal fat volume. The thigh-to-thigh current path was about 75% more sensitive in abdominal fat measurement than the conventional current paths in simulation experiments and displayed a higher VF/SF correlation (r = 0.768) than the foot-to-foot (r = 0.425) and hand-to-foot (r = 0.497) current paths.

  19. Gaussian white noise analysis and its application to Feynman path integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawan, Herry Pribawanto

    2016-02-01

    In applied science, Gaussian white noise (the time derivative of Brownian motion) is often chosen as a mathematical idealization of phenomena involving sudden and extremely large fluctuations. It is also possible to define and study Gaussian white noise in a mathematically rigorous framework. In this survey paper we review the Gaussian white noise as an object in an infinite dimensional topological vector space. A brief construction of Gaussian white noise space and Gaussian white noise distributions will be presented. Gaussian white noise analysis provides a framework which offers various generalization of concept known from finite dimensional analysis to the infinite dimensional case, among them are differential operators, Fourier transform, and distribution theory. We will also present some recent developments and results on the application of Gaussian white noise theory to Feynman's path integral approach for quantum mechanics.

  20. Comparison of Different Dough Rheological Measurement and Path Coefficient Analysis of Bread Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-ling; TIAN Ji-chun; DENG Zhi-ying; HAN Xiang-ming

    2004-01-01

    Farinograph, extensograph and mixograph are the special instruments used to determine dough rheological characteristics. In this study, twenty-seven wheat cultivars of different gluten strength were used to study the correlations among each rheological parameter determined by above instruments. Multiple linear regression analysis and path coefficient analysis were used to study the direct and indirect effects of 11 dough rheological characteristics on bread quality. The results showed significant correlations among the principal parameters. There were significantly or extremely significantly positive correlations among development time (DT), stability time (ST), farinograph quality number (FQN) of farinograph, area, maximum resistance (Rmax), viscoelastic ratio (Rmax/E)of extensograph and mixing time (MT), 8-minute-curve-tail (8MCT) of mixograph.These indexes affected bread-making quality either directly or indirectly. Of all the indexes, ST, maximum Rmax, MT and FQN were the most important ones.

  1. Path Coefficient Analysis of Buffalo Production in Buldana District of Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K U Bidwe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A study entitled “Decomposition analysis of buffalo production in Buldana District was undertaken to ascertain the technological changes in term of breeding, feeding, housing, milking and calf management practices of buffalo. The path coefficient analysis of this study clearly demonstrated that daily milk production in buffaloes was influenced substantially by a single factor i.e management index. A combination of all the management practices in the form of overall management status on the rearing were responsible to influence the daily milk yield. However, rearing of good potential animals, feeding of sufficient amounts of dry and green fodder with required amount of concentrates to fulfill the nutritional requirements could favour the milk production in buffaloes. All these factors exhibited positive direct effect on milk production. The indirect effects were also found in positive direction, resulting a positive significant correlation for these factors. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 103-104

  2. A Path Analysis of Educator Perceptions of Open Educational Resources Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Kelly

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Open educational resources (OER are making their way into a variety of educational contexts from formal lesson planning to just in time learning. Educators and training professionals have been recognized as an important audience for these materials. The concepts of self-efficacy and outcome judgment from social cognitive learning theory serve as theoretical constructs to measure educator perceptions of OER. This study uses a path analysis, based on the technology acceptance model, to understand adoption of these resources by this audience with a particular emphasis on self-efficacy. Among the participants, three main groups were identified: K-12 educators, higher education professionals, and those involved in workplace training. A discriminant function analysis found that K-12 educators stood out as finding OER relevant to improving their practice. Recommendations are made in regards to an emphasis on easy to use designs to improve application self-efficacy of OER and instructional messaging for future K-12 educators.

  3. Contributing death factors in very low-birth-weight infants by path method analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ghojazadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal deaths account for 40% of deaths under the age of 5 years worldwide. Therefore, efforts to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goal 4 of reducing childhood mortality by two-thirds by 2015 are focused on reducing neonatal deaths in high-mortality countries. The aim of present study was to determine death factors among very low-birth-weight infants by path method analysis. Materials and Methods: In this study, medical records of 2,135 infants admitted between years 2008 and 2010 in neonatal intense care unit of Alzahra Educational-Medical centre (Tabriz, Iran were analysed by path method using statistical software SPSS 18. Results: Variables such as duration of hospitalisation, birth weight, gestational age have negative effect on infant mortality, and gestational blood pressure has positive direct effect on infant mortality that at whole represented 66.5% of infant mortality variance (F = 1018, P < 0.001. Gestational age termination in the positive form through birth weight, and also gestational blood pressure in negative form through hospitalisation period had indirect effect on infant mortality. Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that the duration of low-birth-weight infant′s hospitalisation is also associated with infant′s mortality (coefficient -0.7; P < 0.001. This study revealed that among the maternal factors only gestational blood pressure was in relationship with infants′ mortality.

  4. Application of path analysis to urinary findings of cadmium-induced renal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, T; Kobayashi, E; Okubo, Y; Suwazono, Y; Kido, T; Shaikh, Z A; Nogawa, K

    2001-01-01

    In order to identify some causal relations among various urinary indices of cadmium-induced renal dysfunction, such as glucose, total protein, amino nitrogen, beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m), metallothionein (MT), and cadmium (Cd), we applied path analysis method to previous epidemiological studies targeting the residents of the Cd-polluted Kakehashi River basin of Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. We obtained a diagram-termed path model, representing some causal relations among the above urinary indices. It shows that urinary Cd is located at the beginning point in the diagram, and Cd-induced renal dysfunction develops in the following order: Cd exposure-->increase of beta 2-m and/or MT excretion-->increase of amino-N and/or total protein excretion-->increase of glucose excretion. It was proved mathematically, that in the case of both males and females, increased excretions of beta 2-m and/or MT were the most sensitive urinary indices of the early stage of chronic Cd-induced renal dysfunction.

  5. Correlation and path coefficient analysis for yield and its components in vegetable soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawat Sarutayophat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The associations of yield and its components offer important information in breeding plants. A study was conductedat the experimental field of the Faculty of Agricultural Technology, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang,Bangkok on 22 genotypes of the vegetable soybean to determine the association of yield and its components. The associationwas analyzed by correlation coefficient, and further subjected by path coefficient analysis to estimate direct and indirecteffects of each character on pod yield. Positive and significant correlation were found between the plant height and numberof marketable pods/plant (0.821**, plant height and marketable pod yield (0.520*, and number of marketable pods/plant andmarketable pod yield (0.822**. Negative and significance was determined between the plant height and green pod weight(-0.620**, and number of marketable pods/plant and green pod weight (-0.588**. Direct effects of the number of marketablepods/plant and green pod weight on marketable pod yield were positive and significant with path coefficients of 1.310** and0.707**, respectively. Indirect effect of the plant height on marketable pod yield through its association with number ofmarketable pods/plant was positive and significant (1.075**. The results of this study suggested that the number of marketablepods/plant, green pod weight and plant height were important characters that should be taken into account as selectioncriteria in improving marketable pod yield of the vegetable soybean.

  6. Repeatability, correlation and path analysis of physical and chemical characteristics of peach fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gonçalves Pires Matias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the number of measurements necessary to evaluate physical and chemical characteristics of peach fruits, study the relationships between them and their direct and indirect effects on the content of ascorbic acid and total carotenoids. The characteristics skin and pulp color, fruit weight, suture, equatorial and polar diameters, firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/TA ratio, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids were evaluated in 39 cultivars of peach and 3 cultivars of nectarine from the orchard of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa. The repeatability coefficient was estimated by ANOVA and CPCOR. Phenotypic correlation coefficients (rf were estimated and, after the multicollinearity diagnostics, they were unfolded to direct and indirect effects of the explanatory variables on the response variable using path analysis. There was agreement on the magnitude of repeatability coefficients obtained by the two methods; however, they varied among the 14 characteristics. The highest correlations were found between FW, SD, ED and PD. Seven fruits are sufficient to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of peach with a correlation coefficient of 90%. The characteristics considered in the path diagrams (b* skin, hº skin, b* pulp, hº pulp, ED, PD, FIR, SS, SS/AT and TC are not the main determinants of the ascorbic acid. The yellow hue of the pulp (hº pulp has the potential to be used in indirect selection for total carotenoids.

  7. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of quantitative characters in spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliya, F; Begum, H; Reddy, M T; Sivaraj, N; Pandravada, S R; Narshimulu, G

    2014-05-01

    Fifty genotypes of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India during kharif, 2012. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively for twelve quantitative characters namely vine length (m), number of stems per plant, days to first female flower appearance, first female flowering node, days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period (days), fruit length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit weight (g), number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant (kg) for identification of the potential selection indices. Correlation and path coefficient analyses revealed that fruiting period and number of fruits per plant not only had positively significant correlation with fruit yield but also had positively high direct effect on it and are regarded as the main determinants of fruit yield. Days to first fruit harvest had positively moderate direct effect on fruit yield and its association was negatively significant, days to last fruit harvest had negatively high direct effect on fruit yield and its association was significant positively, hence restricted simultaneous selection can be made for days to first fruit harvest and days to last fruit harvest. The improvement in fruit yield can be effective if selection is based on days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period and number of fruits per plant.

  8. Analysis of Two-Phase Path Management Scheme for MPLS Traffic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hitomi; Kawahara, Kenji; Oie, Yuji

    Traffic Engineering (TE) is important for improving QoS in forwarding paths by efficient use of network resources. In fact, MPLS allows several detour paths to be (pre-)established for some source-destination pair as well as its primary path of minimum hops. Thus, we focus on a two-phase path management scheme using these two kinds of paths. In the first phase, each primary path is allocated to a flow on a specific source-destination pair if the path is not congested, i.e., if its utilization is less than some predetermined threshold; otherwise, as the second phase, one of the detour paths is allocated randomly if the path is available. Therefore, in this paper, we analytically evaluate this path management scheme by extending the M/M/c/c queueing system, and through some numerical results we investigate the impact of a threshold on the flow-blocking probability. Through some numerical results, we discuss the adequacy of the path management scheme for MPLS-TE.

  9. A Reliability-based Framework for Multi-path Routing Analysis in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Caleffi, Marcello; Paura, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    Unlike traditional routing procedures that, at the best, single out a unique route, multi-path routing protocols discover proactively several alternative routes. It has been recognized that multi-path routing can be more efficient than traditional one mainly for mobile ad hoc networks, where route failure events are frequent. Most studies in the area of multi-path routing focus on heuristic methods, and the performances of these strategies are commonly evaluated by numerical simulations. The need of a theoretical analysis motivates such a paper, which proposes to resort to the terminal-pair routing reliability as performance metric. This metric allows one to assess the performance gain due to the availability of route diversity. By resorting to graph theory, we propose an analytical framework to evaluate the tolerance of multi-path route discovery processes against route failures for mobile ad hoc networks. Moreover, we derive a useful bound to easily estimate the performance improvements achieved by multi-pa...

  10. Path Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components and Some Agronomic Traits in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janmohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new bread wheat cultivars needs efficient tools to monitor trait association in a breeding program. This investigation was aimed to characterize grain yield components and some agronomic traits related to bread wheat grain yield. The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between different traits and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to grain yield. Correlation and path analysis were carried out in 56 bread wheat genotypes grown under field conditions of Maragheh, Iran. Observations were recorded on 18 wheat traits and correlation coefficient analysis revealed grain yield was positively correlated with stem diameter, spike length, floret number, spikelet number, grain diameter, grain length and 1000 seed weight traits. According to the variance inflation factor (VIF and tolerance as multicollinearity statistics, there are inconsistent relationships among the variables and all traits could be considered as first-order variables (Model I with grain yield as the response variable due to low multicollinearity of all measured traits. In the path coefficient analysis, grain yield represented the dependent variable and the spikelet number and 1000 seed weight traits were the independent ones. Our results indicated that the number of spikelets per spikes and leaf width and 1000 seed weight traits followed by the grain length, grain diameter and grain number per spike were the traits related to higher grain yield. The above mentioned traits along with their indirect causal factors should be considered simultaneously as an effective selection criteria evolving high yielding genotype because of their direct positive contribution to grain yield.

  11. Correlation and path coefficient analysis for protein yield in confectionary sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important criteria for introducing new confectionary hybrids into the production is high protein yield. Path coefficient analysis was used to obtain information on direct and indirect effects of studied traits (seed oil content, kernel oil content, seed yield, kernel protein content, mass of 1000 seeds, kernel ratio and hull ratio on protein yield. The research was conducted during three vegetation seasons, on 22 experimental confectionary sunflower hybrids created in the breeding program at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops. Strong and very strong correlations were found among the largest number of examined traits. A weak negative interdependence was determined between kernel oil content, kernel protein content, mass of 1000 seeds, hull ratio, and protein yield using the analysis of simple correlation coefficients. Positive but weak correlation was determined between protein yield and seed oil content, and kernel ratio. Very strong positive correlation was determined between protein yield and seed yield (0.468**. The seed oil content had a very strong direct negative effect on protein yield (DE=-0.734**. The mass of 1000 seeds had a weak negative direct effect on protein yield. Kernel protein content and kernel oil content demonstrated a weak direct positive effect on protein yield. Path coefficient analysis of protein yield showed a very strong positive direct effect of kernel ratio (DE=1.340**, seed yield (DE=0.657** and hull ratio (DE=0.992*. These findings confirm the effect of seed yield, kernel ratio, and hull ratio on protein yield, and their importance as the selection criteria in confectionary sunflower breeding. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31025: Development of new varieties and production technology improvement of oil crops for different purposes

  12. Path Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Setterfield

    2015-01-01

    Path dependency is defined, and three different specific concepts of path dependency – cumulative causation, lock in, and hysteresis – are analyzed. The relationships between path dependency and equilibrium, and path dependency and fundamental uncertainty are also discussed. Finally, a typology of dynamical systems is developed to clarify these relationships.

  13. Analytical transmissibility based transfer path analysis for multi-energy-domain systems using four-pole parameter theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Mohammad Jalali; Behdinan, Kamran

    2017-10-01

    The increasing demand to minimize undesired vibration and noise levels in several high-tech industries has generated a renewed interest in vibration transfer path analysis. Analyzing vibration transfer paths within a system is of crucial importance in designing an effective vibration isolation strategy. Most of the existing vibration transfer path analysis techniques are empirical which are suitable for diagnosis and troubleshooting purpose. The lack of an analytical transfer path analysis to be used in the design stage is the main motivation behind this research. In this paper an analytical transfer path analysis based on the four-pole theory is proposed for multi-energy-domain systems. Bond graph modeling technique which is an effective approach to model multi-energy-domain systems is used to develop the system model. In this paper an electro-mechanical system is used as a benchmark example to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. An algorithm to obtain the equivalent four-pole representation of a dynamical systems based on the corresponding bond graph model is also presented in this paper.

  14. Class start times, sleep, and academic performance in college: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyper, Serge V; Thacher, Pamela V; Gilbert, Jack W; Gradess, Samuel G

    2012-04-01

    Path analysis was used to examine the relationship between class start times, sleep, circadian preference, and academic performance in college-aged adults. Consistent with observations in middle and high school students, college students with later class start times slept longer, experienced less daytime sleepiness, and were less likely to miss class. Chronotype was an important moderator of sleep schedules and daytime functioning; those with morning preference went to bed and woke up earlier and functioned better throughout the day. The benefits of taking later classes did not extend to academic performance, however; grades were somewhat lower in students with predominantly late class schedules. Furthermore, students taking later classes were at greater risk for increased alcohol consumption, and among all the factors affecting academic performance, alcohol misuse exerted the strongest effect. Thus, these results indicate that later class start times in college, while allowing for more sleep, also increase the likelihood of alcohol misuse, ultimately impeding academic success.

  15. Visualization and analysis of occlusion for human jaws using a "functionally generated path"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszkowski, Karol; Herder, Jens; Kunii, Tosiyasu L.; Ibusuki, Masumi

    1996-03-01

    Dynamic characteristics of occlusion during lower jaw motion are useful in the diagnosis of jaw articulation problems and in computer-aided design/ manufacture of teeth restorations. The Functionally Generated Path (FGP), produced as a surface which envelops the actual occlusal surface of the moving opponent jaw, can be used for compact representation of dynamic occlusal relations. In traditional dentistry FGP is recorded as a bite impression in a patient's mouth. We propose an efficient computerized technique for FGP reconstruction and validate it through implementation and testing. The distance maps between occlusal surfaces of jaws, calculated for multiple projection directions and accumulated for mandibular motion, provide information for FGP computation. Rasterizing graphics hardware is used for fast calculation of the distance maps. Real-world data are used: the scanned shape of teeth and the measured motion of the lower jaw. We show applications of FGP to analysis of the occlusion relations and occlusal surface design for restorations.

  16. [Monitoring and analysis of urban ozone using open path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Gao, Min-guang; Zhang, Yu-jun; Liu, Wen-qing; Xu, Liang; Tong, Jing-jing; Cheng, Si-yang; Jin, Ling; Wei, Xiu-li; Wang, Ya-ping; Chen, Jun

    2011-12-01

    An ozone monitoring system was developed by the method of open path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometry based on our FTIR spectrometer. In order to improve measurement precision and detection limit, the quantitative analysis was completed to get ozone concentration by combining synthetic background spectrum method which uses information from HITRAN database and instrumental line shape, and nonlinear least squares (NLLSQ) method. The measurement methods for system detection limit were discussed and the result is 1.42 nmol x mol(-1) with sixteen times averages. The authors developed continuous monitoring experiments in the suburban area of Hefei. For the day and month measurement results, the authors analyzed their variations with the generation sources. The result has shown that this system is reliable and precise and can be used as a new device and method for national ozone monitoring.

  17. The familial influence of loss and trauma on refugee mental health: a multilevel path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A; Brooks, Robert; Steel, Zachary; Silove, Derrick; Chen, Jack

    2011-02-01

    Although the impact of human rights violations on the mental health of refugees has been well documented, little is known about these effects at a family level. In this study the authors examined the relationships among loss, trauma, and mental health at the individual and family levels in resettled Mandaean refugees (N = 315). Trauma, loss, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, complicated grief, and mental health-related quality of life were assessed. A multilevel path analysis revealed that loss and trauma significantly impacted on psychological outcomes at both the individual and family levels. Effect sizes ranged from .21 to .68 at the individual level, and .38 to .99 at the family level, highlighting the importance of the family when considering the psychological impact of refugee-related trauma. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  18. A path analysis of reading comprehension for adults with low literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari L.

    2010-01-01

    Adult literacy interventions often rely on models of reading validated with children or adult populations with a broad range of reading. Such models do not fully satisfy the need for intervention research and development for adults with low literacy. Thus, the authors hypothesized that a model representing the relationship between reading component skills would be predictive of reading comprehension for an adult population with low literacy and beneficial to adult literacy researchers. Using data from 174 adults participating in adult basic education and secondary education programs, the authors performed a path analysis of component skills' contribution to reading comprehension. The findings are clear that existing reading models do not describe this population. The implications are discussed in terms of instructional and curricular interventions. PMID:20179309

  19. A path analysis of reading comprehension for adults with low literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellard, Daryl F; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari L

    2010-01-01

    Adult literacy interventions often rely on models of reading validated with children or adult populations with a broad range of reading abilities. Such models do not fully satisfy the need for intervention research and development for adults with low literacy. Thus, the authors hypothesized that a model representing the relationship between reading component skills would be predictive of reading comprehension for an adult population with low literacy and beneficial to adult literacy researchers. Using data from 174 adults participating in adult basic education and secondary education programs, the authors performed a path analysis of component skills' contribution to reading comprehension. The findings are clear that existing reading models do not describe this population. The implications are discussed in terms of instructional and curricular interventions.

  20. Analysis of non-rainy attenuation on earth-space path in Ota, Southwest Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omotosho, T. V.; Akinwumi, S. A.; Usikalu, M. R.; Ometan, O. O.; Adewusi, M. O.; Abdullah, M.

    2017-05-01

    Propagation effects due to atmospheric gases and tropospheric scintillation requires accurate modelling in the design of satellite communication systems. The combination of the two attenuation phenomena was observed within the period of August 2014 to December 2015. The result of this paper presents the on-going observation and data analysis of non-rainy attenuation on earth-space path in Ota, Southwest Nigeria. Results of clear-sky attenuation vary between 0 dBm and 4.85 dBm in January and February 2015 respectively. While a value of 4.23 dBm and 4.75 dBm were observed in October 2014 and 2015 respectively. The results will be useful for satellite communication system design and will be submitted to ITU-R Study group 3 Databank.

  1. Choosing organics: a path analysis of factors underlying the selection of organic food among Australian consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Stewart; Lyons, Kristen; Lawrence, Geoffrey; Grice, Janet

    2004-10-01

    Path analysis of attitudinal, motivational, demographic and behavioural factors influencing food choice among Australian consumers who had consumed at least some organic food in the preceding 12 months showed that concern with the naturalness of food and the sensory and emotional experience of eating were the major determinants of increasing levels of organic consumption. Increasing consumption was also related to other 'green consumption' behaviours such as recycling and to lower levels of concern with convenience in the purchase and preparation of food. Most of these factors were, in turn, strongly affected by gender and the level of responsibility taken by respondents for food provisioning within their households, a responsibility dominated by women. Education had a slightly negative effect on the levels of concern for sensory and emotional appeal due to lower levels of education among women. Income, age, political and ecological values and willingness to pay a premium for safe and environmentally friendly foods all had extremely minor effects.

  2. Peer and parental influences on adolescents' substance use: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, R A; Hunter, M; Keats, J A

    1994-04-01

    Five hundred and seven 14-to-16-year-old students gave self-report responses to a substance use questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed adolescents' use, preferences, and norms and also their perceptions of their parents' and peers' use and norms in relation to alcohol, tobacco, and tea/coffee. Path analysis revealed that adolescents' internalization of parental and peer pressures is a stronger predictor of substance use than are direct effects. Internalized effects occur by means of preferences rather than norms, and peer pressure is predominantly through modeling behavior, whereas parental influence is through perceived normative standards. Peers' influence is stronger in relation to tobacco use, parental influence is stronger in relation to tea/coffee use, and both are equally important in relation to alcohol use. These findings are discussed in relation to preventive strategies.

  3. A stochastic analysis of terrain evaluation variables for path selection. [roving vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, J. G.; Shen, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    A stochastic analysis was performed on the variables associated with the characteristics of the terrain encountered by a roving system with an autonomous navigation system. A laser rangefinder is employed to detect terrain features at ranges up to 75 m. Analytic expressions and a numerical scheme were developed to calculate the variance of data on these four variables: (1) body clearance, (2) in-path slope, (3) tilt slope, and (4) wheel deviation. The variance is due to noise in the range data. It was found that the standard deviation of these terrain variables is large enough to warrant the use of a safety margin to aid the roving vehicle in avoiding high risk areas.

  4. Path analysis for physiological traits that influence seed germination of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erneida Coelho de Araújo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of yellow passion fruit seed is determined by fruit storage and the duration of this period. Two orthree harvest dates can thereby be defined to obtain maximum quality. This study aimed to obtain estimates of phenotype,genotype and residual correlation coefficients and evaluate the direct and indirect effects (path analysis of genotype correlationsin seed extracted from fruits stored for 7, 14 and 21 days at cooled (8 ºC and at environment temperature (25 ºC. Thevariables accelerated aging and moisture content explained the higher germination percentage in the refrigerated environment.However, in natural conditions, the variables dry matter and electric conductivity influenced seed germination percentagestrongly, evidencing that the indirect effects of accelerated aging, electric conductivity and weight reduction had the greatestinfluence on dry matter.

  5. ARTICLE - Path analysis of iron and zinc contents and others traits in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane de Oliveira Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect effects of agronomic and culinary traits on iron and zinc contents in 11 cowpea populations. Correlations between traits were estimated and decomposed into direct and indirect effects using path analysis. For the study populations, breeding for larger grain size, higher number of grains per pod, grain yield, reduced cooking time, and number of days to flowering can lead to decreases in the levels of iron and zinc in the grain. Genetic gains for the iron content can be obtained by direct selection for protein content by indirect effects on the number of grains per pod, 100-grain weight and grain yield. The positive direct effect of grain size and protein content on the zinc content indicates the possibility of simultaneous gain by combined selection of these traits.

  6. PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL COMPONENTS OIL YIELD IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MIjić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigation was to analyse oil yield components and their relations by simple coefficient correlations as well as direct and indirect effects to oil yield by path analysis. Twenty-four sunflower hybrids were included in the investigation and their seven traits (plant height, head diameter, 1000 seed weight, hec- tolitar mass, grain yield, oil content and oil yield. Very strong positive correlation was estimated between grain yield and oil yield, strong positive correlation between hectolitar mass and oil yield, and middle corre- lation among oil yield and: 1000 seed weight, plaint height and oil content. There was no correlation between grain yields and oil content. Grain yield showed the strongest effect to oil yield. Oil content had lower effect to oil yield. Other traits showed no significant effect to oil yield, and their effect to oil yield was covered by indirect effect of grain yield.

  7. Intimate partner violence in the eastern part of Iran: a path analysis of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam Hosseini, Vahideh; Asadi, Zahra Sadat; Akaberi, Arash; Hashemian, Masoumeh

    2013-08-01

    Intimate partner violence against women is a widespread phenomenon that is the cause of many deleterious health and social consequences. This study examines the impact of some risk factors on partner violence in the eastern region of Iran, using path analysis. The study used a population-based cross sectional study design. In this study, 251 married women who were referred to the health centers were selected through a proportionally stratified and randomized sampling method. Domestic violence was measured using Conflict Tactics Scale and the socio-demographic variable was assessed by a self-report questionnaire. Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling was used for evaluating the overall path analysis and the direct and indirect p-value was estimated by Bootstrap method. AMOS and SPSS software were used to analyze data. The prevalence of overall violence was 78.1%, with 37.8% and 0.8% of women reporting minor and severe violence, respectively, and 39.8% reporting both severe and minor forms of violence. Psychological violence was the most common type of violence reported (66.5%). The model showed that husbands' drug abuse and women's higher level of education compared to their husbands were the first and second most important factors that significantly and directly influenced the violence. The women's attitude, however, had the least effect on the violence. The findings indicated that higher educated women and women with addicted husbands were more likely to experience violence. Treating the drug abuse disorders, especially mental disorders, using behavioral couple's therapy, as well as modifying certain traditional and cultural biases against women's empowerment are suggested.

  8. Testing an Integrated Self-Determined Work Motivation Model for People With Disabilities: A Path Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, Timothy N; Iwanaga, Kanako; Bezyak, Jill; Ditchman, Nicole

    2017-05-04

    Individuals with disabilities are more likely to live in poverty, have more health issues, and be less likely to be employed than their same-aged peers. Although these issues may be attenuated by vocational rehabilitation services, amotivation and ambivalence to employment can limit the readiness of persons with disabilities to engage in these services. Drawing on self-efficacy, self-determination, and stages of change theories, the purpose of this study was to develop and test an integrated self-determined work motivation model for people with disabilities. Participants included 277 people with disabilities recruited through vocational rehabilitation agencies across 8 states. Path analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of functional disability, self-determination, and social efficacy variables in a hypothesized integrated self-determined work motivation model. Model estimations used maximum likelihood estimation and model-data fit was examined using several goodness-of-fit indices. The initial path analysis indicated a less than optimal fit between the model and the observed data. Post hoc model modifications were conducted based on examination of the critical ratios and modification indices and theoretical consideration. The respecified integrated self-determined work motivation model fit the data very well, χ2/df = 1.88, CFI = .99, and RMSEA = 0.056. The R2 for the endogenous variables in the model ranged from .19 to .54. Findings from this study support the integrated self-determined work motivation model in vocational rehabilitation as a useful framework for understanding the relationship among functioning levels, self-determination and self-efficacy factors, vocational rehabilitation engagement, and readiness for employment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Circular Path and Linear Momentum (CPLM Method for Seismic Response Analysis of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Ram Parajuli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a circular path and linear momentum method for the seismic response analysis of vehicles. This method considers the momentum induced by earthquake excitation and applies the concept of centripetal force acting laterally on the vehicle in addition to longitudinal forces. This method is valid for vehicles at rest as well as those moving at a range of speeds. The vertical responses are calculated using a quarter vehicle model. We also calculate the translational motion of the vehicle using a model with six degrees of freedom. Three vehicle types (car, bus, and truck were used in the analysis. We compared the result with analysis of the response of a shaking vehicle from video footage recorded during the Gorkha earthquake. We used the input ground motion from 10 large earthquakes of moment magnitudes 6.7 to 9.0. All three components of the ground motion were used in the analysis. Vehicles at rest and moving at various speeds were analysed. The lateral and longitudinal responses of the vehicles were calculated for different vehicle speeds ranging from 0 to 30.0 m/s, PGA excitations and orientations of the vehicle.

  10. [Optical Path Difference Analysis and Simulation of Four Typical Rotary Type Interferometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ming-chun; Liu, Wen-qing; Xu, Liang; Gao, Min-guang; Wei, Xiu-li; Tong, Jing-jing; Li, Xiang-xian

    2015-11-01

    The four kinds of the structure characteristics of rotary type interferometer are mainly analyzed from the classical Michelson interferometer structure in the paper. The Optical path difference between the interferometer and the rotation angle is also analyzed. By setting parameters, the four kinds of rotary type optical path difference of the interferometer are simulated based on the optical path difference formula. The rotation velcocity of the four kinds of interferometers is also simulated. By simulation and contrast of the optical path difference, the relationship is intuitively reflect by figure between the optical path difference and the rotation angle. The scope of the rotation angle is discussed within 3% of the velocity errors. It is the very good reference significance to study the structure and properties of the interferometer by analyzing and simulating the optical path difference discussed in the paper.

  11. Leak-Path Factor Analysis for the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaffer, C.; Leonard, M.

    1999-06-13

    Leak-path factors (LPFs) were calculated for the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) located in the Plutonium Facility, Building 41 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 55. In the unlikely event of an accidental fire powerful enough to fail a container holding actinides, the subsequent release of oxides, modeled as PuO{sub 2} aerosols, from the facility and into the surrounding environment was predicted. A 1-h nondestructive assay (NDA) laboratory fire accident was simulated with the MELCOR severe accident analysis code. Fire-driven air movement along with wind-driven air infiltration transported a portion of these actinides from the building. This fraction is referred to as the leak-path factor. The potential effect of smoke aerosol on the transport of the actinides was investigated to verify the validity of neglecting the smoke as conservative. The input model for the NMSF consisted of a system of control volumes, flow pathways, and surfaces sufficient to model the thermal-hydraulic conditions within the facility and the aerosol transport data necessary to simulate the transport of PuO{sub 2} particles. The thermal-hydraulic, heat-transfer, and aerosol-transport models are solved simultaneously with data being exchanged between models. A MELCOR input model was designed such that it would reproduce the salient features of the fire per the corresponding CFAST calculation. Air infiltration into and out of the facility would be affected strongly by wind-driven differential pressures across the building. Therefore, differential pressures were applied to each side of the building according to guidance found in the ASHRAE handbook using a standard-velocity head equation with a leading multiplier to account for the orientation of the wind with the building. The model for the transport of aerosols considered all applicable transport processes, but the deposition within the building clearly was dominated by gravitational settling.

  12. Correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritability for agronomic characters of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaumongkol, Y.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritablity for some agronomic characters of oil palm was investigated during February 1998 to January 2002. The oil palm population used in this experiment was derived from F1 tenera hybrids which were collected from various oil palm plantations in Southern Thailand. One good performance bunch (i.e., big bunch, thin shell was selected from each plantation and four to six seeds per selected bunch were used for cultivation. One thousand thirty eight plants were grown at Klong Hoi Khong Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, in 1989. Forty five palms consisted of Dura, Tenera and Pisifera types with 18, 18 and 9 plants respectively, were selected by randomization and tagged for investigation. The oil palm bunch yield and yield component characters were observed from individual palm for 4 years (February 1998 to January 2002. The bunch composition characters were analysed from a single bunch of each palm, sampled between June to October 1999. The results showed that in F2 plants of oil palm, the correlation and the path coefficient between characters relating to oil yield and %oil/bunch varied according to oil palm types (Dura, Tenera and Pisifera. In Dura and Tenera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, %oil/bunch, %fruit/bunch and %oil/fruit. In case of Pisifera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, number of bunches, single bunch weight, %oil/bunch and %fruit/bunch. However, from all investigated characters in F2 plants, only %mesocarp/fruit, %oil/fruit and %fruit/bunch showed the high values of broad sense heritabilities.

  13. Determinants of participation restriction among community dwelling stroke survivors: A path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Anne M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apart from promoting physical recovery and assisting in activities of daily living, a major challenge in stroke rehabilitation is to minimize psychosocial morbidity and to promote the reintegration of stroke survivors into their family and community. The identification of key factors influencing long-term outcome are essential in developing more effective rehabilitation measures for reducing stroke-related morbidity. The aim of this study was to test a theoretical model of predictors of participation restriction which included the direct and indirect effects between psychosocial outcomes, physical outcome, and socio-demographic variables at 12 months after stroke. Methods Data were collected from 188 stroke survivors at 12 months following their discharge from one of the two rehabilitation hospitals in Hong Kong. The settings included patients' homes and residential care facilities. Path analysis was used to test a hypothesized model of participation restriction at 12 months. Results The path coefficients show functional ability having the largest direct effect on participation restriction (β = 0.51. The results also show that more depressive symptoms (β = -0.27, low state self-esteem (β = 0.20, female gender (β = 0.13, older age (β = -0.11 and living in a residential care facility (β = -0.12 have a direct effect on participation restriction. The explanatory variables accounted for 71% of the variance in explaining participation restriction at 12 months. Conclusion Identification of stroke survivors at risk of high levels of participation restriction, depressive symptoms and low self-esteem will assist health professionals to devise appropriate rehabilitation interventions that target improving both physical and psychosocial functioning.

  14. Global Appearance Applied to Visual Map Building and Path Estimation Using Multiscale Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Amorós

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a topological map building and localization system for mobile robots based on global appearance of visual information. We include a comparison and analysis of global-appearance techniques applied to wide-angle scenes in retrieval tasks. Next, we define multiscale analysis, which permits improving the association between images and extracting topological distances. Then, a topological map-building algorithm is proposed. At first, the algorithm has information only of some isolated positions of the navigation area in the form of nodes. Each node is composed of a collection of images that covers the complete field of view from a certain position. The algorithm solves the node retrieval and estimates their spatial arrangement. With these aims, it uses the visual information captured along some routes that cover the navigation area. As a result, the algorithm builds a graph that reflects the distribution and adjacency relations between nodes (map. After the map building, we also propose a route path estimation system. This algorithm takes advantage of the multiscale analysis. The accuracy in the pose estimation is not reduced to the nodes locations but also to intermediate positions between them. The algorithms have been tested using two different databases captured in real indoor environments under dynamic conditions.

  15. Correlation, Stepwise Regressionand Path Analysis of Traits Affecting Grain Yield of canola (Brassica napus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Soltani Hoveize

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between yield and its components and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to seed yield. This study was conducted to analysis the correlation among seed yield and some important traits in seventhin spring canola (Brassica napus L. cultivars at the farm in safi abad, from 2014 to 2015. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Results analysis of variance showed that highly significant differences were detected among cultivars for all studied traits. The correlation coefficients among the seed yield and 1000-seed weight, number of seed per pod, duration of flowering, and days to physiological maturity were positive and significant (0.61**, 0.72**, 0.66** and 0.65**, respectively. According to stepwise regression seed yield trait is cosidered by dependent variable and other traits by independent variables. Model determination coefficient is R2=0.897. The most of determination coefficients there were for duration of flowering, number of seed per pod and days to physiological maturity (0.51, 0.54 and 0.38, respectively. Path coefficient analysis revealed that the number of seed per pod, duration of flowering and days to physiological maturity had the largest direct effects on the seed yield, its seams possible to use there traits as a selection criteria in breeding programs for improve seed yield of spring rapeseed cultivars.

  16. Exploring Hydrological Flow Paths in Conceptual Catchment Models using Variance-based Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockler, E. M.; O'Loughlin, F.; Bruen, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    Conceptual rainfall runoff (CRR) models aim to capture the dominant hydrological processes in a catchment in order to predict the flows in a river. Most flood forecasting models focus on predicting total outflows from a catchment and often perform well without the correct distribution between individual pathways. However, modelling of water flow paths within a catchment, rather than its overall response, is specifically needed to investigate the physical and chemical transport of matter through the various elements of the hydrological cycle. Focus is increasingly turning to accurately quantifying the internal movement of water within these models to investigate if the simulated processes contributing to the total flows are realistic in the expectation of generating more robust models. Parameter regionalisation is required if such models are to be widely used, particularly in ungauged catchments. However, most regionalisation studies to date have typically consisted of calibrations and correlations of parameters with catchment characteristics, or some variations of this. In order for a priori parameter estimation in this manner to be possible, a model must be parametrically parsimonious while still capturing the dominant processes of the catchment. The presence of parameter interactions within most CRR model structures can make parameter prediction in ungauged basins very difficult, as the functional role of the parameter within the model may not be uniquely identifiable. We use a variance based sensitivity analysis method to investigate parameter sensitivities and interactions in the global parameter space of three CRR models, simulating a set of 30 Irish catchments within a variety of hydrological settings over a 16 year period. The exploration of sensitivities of internal flow path partitioning was a specific focus and correlations between catchment characteristics and parameter sensitivities were also investigated to assist in evaluating model performances

  17. Correlations and path analysis in components of fiber yield in cultivars of upland cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laíse Ferreira de Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the relative contribution of agronomic and technological components on the fiber yield in upland cotton cultivars. The experiment was carried out with 11 upland cotton cultivars in a completely randomized blocks design with three replications. Initially, we performed analysis of variance, with the F test at 5% probability for the effect of cultivar as fixed effects as well as block and environment effects as random. Then the values were ordered according to cluster test Scott-Knott, at 5% probability level. The significance of the null hypothesis that all possible canonical correlations are null was evaluated using the chi-square test. The correlations were estimated through the path analysis. By examining the canonical correlations there was dependence between the two groups of variables and therefore it is possible to promote changes in certain characteristics through the selection of others correlated. Plants of upland cotton with higher fiber yield were influenced by the decrease in average weight of the cotton boll. When there is a reduced fiber yield, there is also an increase in uniformity and strength thereof. The fiber resistance had negative indirect effects on the fiber uniformity and length.

  18. A computable general equilibrium analysis of greenhouse gas reduction paths and scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorwerth, A.A.; Bagnoli, P.; Dissou, Y.; Peluso, T.; Rudin, J. [Department of Finance, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2000-10-31

    Finance Canada conducted an analysis on behalf of the federal-provincial Climate Change Analysis and Modelling Group regarding policy options to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Canadian sectoral general equilibrium model (CaSGEM) was used to simulate the Canadian economy using representative consumers and producers. The model describes the complete economy comprised of 51 sectors producing 59 goods and services. The model does not describe the transition costs of the path taken in adjusting to the new policy environment. Instead, it focuses on the Canadian economy after the impacts of new policies have been in place long enough to work themselves through the economy. It was suggested that at least some producers, particularly in electricity production, could easily replace GHG-intensive inputs with those which are less polluting. A table was included which showed the reduction in emissions from coal and natural gas predicted by the model for the electricity sector. The reduction in fuel use was also reported. It was concluded that there would be a long-run economic cost to implement the Kyoto agreement, but the cost is neither inconsequential nor enormous if the agreement is implemented in a cost-effective way. It was determined that the use of sector-specific emissions targets would add to the overall cost of implementing the Kyoto agreement without reducing the variation in economic impact across sectors. It was noted that technical assumptions have a significant bearing on the general impact and its distribution across sectors and provinces. tabs.

  19. The solubility of (Ba,Sr)SO 4 precipitates: Thermodynamic equilibrium and reaction path analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Rai, Dhanpat; Moore, Dean A.

    1993-09-01

    The solubility of (Ba,Sr)SO 4 precipitates, varying in SrSO 4 mole fraction from 0.05-0.90, was investigated at room temperature with an equilibration period extending to almost three years. The data show that on or before 315 days of equilibration the precipitates reach a reversible equilibrium with the aqueous solution. The reversibility of this equilibrium was verified both by the attainment of steady-state concentrations with time and by heating the samples to perturb the equilibrium and then observing the slow return to the initial equilibrium state. The dissolution of the (Ba,Sr)SO 4 precipitates does not, in general, follow limiting reaction paths as defined by the Lippmann solutus or stoichiometric dissolution curves. In addition, activity coefficient calculations for the BaSO 4 and SrSO 4 components of the solid phase, using either total bulk analysis or near-surface analysis of the component mole fractions, do not satisfy the Gibbs-Duhem equation, demonstrating that a single solid-solution phase does not control both the aqueous Ba and Sr concentrations. Instead, our long-term equilibration data can be explained by the unavoidable formation of small amounts of barite and substitution of Sr into a solid-solution phase with the BaSO 4 component of the solid-solution phase never reaching thermodynamic equilibrium with the aqueous phase.

  20. Least Cost Test Profile. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    Clark AB on mobile medical facilities. These facilities are utilizing 20’ ISO’s for the clinic, laboratory, pharmacy, X-ray, surgery, pre-op and dental ...S-55286D CP 550100-E MIL-STD-XXXX CORE MATERIALl - 4.6.1 4.2.1.3.2.3 DENSITY - 4.6.1.1 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH - 4.6.1.2 4.2.1.3.2.3 a(4) SHEAR STRENGTH

  1. Least cost supply strategies for wood chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark.......The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark....

  2. Least cost supply strategies for wood chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark.......The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark....

  3. Least Cost Test Profile. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    16 0 FORDING 4.6.32 * 2,500 3 19ROOF ACCESS STEPS 4.6.28 200 1 16 DROPS 4.6.23 0 16 24 0 DOES NOT IN- CLUDE COST OF EMI DUMMY LOADS. SUPPRESSION...Adks, 0.L and ,aWe em, J.C., "niouveB Sonding fwr Sheltems," University * ~~Of ORYto Rsearch Institute Interim Technsical Report. Contract Mse. F=1S

  4. Connecting Cultural Models of Home-Based Care and Childminders' Career Paths: An Eco-Cultural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonyan, Holli A.; Nuttall, Joce

    2014-01-01

    Family day care or childminding involves a particularly transient workforce. This paper introduces Eco(logical)-Cultural Theory (ECT) to examine the cultural organisation of childminding and presents an ECT analysis of pilot survey results: asking minders about their daily routines and their career paths. Reasons for becoming a minder and…

  5. Influences of system uncertainties on the numerical transfer path analysis of engine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acri, A.; Nijman, E.; Acri, A.; Offner, G.

    2017-10-01

    Practical mechanical systems operate with some degree of uncertainty. In numerical models uncertainties can result from poorly known or variable parameters, from geometrical approximation, from discretization or numerical errors, from uncertain inputs or from rapidly changing forcing that can be best described in a stochastic framework. Recently, random matrix theory was introduced to take parameter uncertainties into account in numerical modeling problems. In particular in this paper, Wishart random matrix theory is applied on a multi-body dynamic system to generate random variations of the properties of system components. Multi-body dynamics is a powerful numerical tool largely implemented during the design of new engines. In this paper the influence of model parameter variability on the results obtained from the multi-body simulation of engine dynamics is investigated. The aim is to define a methodology to properly assess and rank system sources when dealing with uncertainties. Particular attention is paid to the influence of these uncertainties on the analysis and the assessment of the different engine vibration sources. Examples of the effects of different levels of uncertainties are illustrated by means of examples using a representative numerical powertrain model. A numerical transfer path analysis, based on system dynamic substructuring, is used to derive and assess the internal engine vibration sources. The results obtained from this analysis are used to derive correlations between parameter uncertainties and statistical distribution of results. The derived statistical information can be used to advance the knowledge of the multi-body analysis and the assessment of system sources when uncertainties in model parameters are considered.

  6. A comparison of the classroom dynamics of a problem-solving and traditional laboratory model of instruction using path analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzini, Edward L.; Shepardson, Daniel P.

    The classroom dynamics (class setting, lesson structure, student interactions, and student behaviors) of a traditional laboratory and a problem-solving Search, Solve, Create, and Share (SSCS) model of instruction were compared using path analysis. Class setting was based on small-group/large-group settings. Lesson structure variables were problem finding/refining, research designing, data collecting, data analyzing, and evaluating. The student-student interactions variable was determined by student-student responding, student-student initiating, and student (self-) interaction; while the teacher-student interaction variable was based on teacher-student initiating and teacher-student responding. The dependent variables of student behavior consisted of attending, responding, following, soliciting, and giving. A causal model was hypothesized for both instructional models based on the independent and dependent variables. The hypothesized causal model was tested using path-analysis procedures described by Pedhazur (1982). The hypothesized causal models were adjusted based on path coefficients with levels of significance greater than p = 0.05. While the descriptive data indicated a similarity in the classroom dynamics of the two instructional models, path analysis indicated a difference in the classroom dynamics. In the traditional laboratory model, student behaviors did not correlate to lesson structure, class setting, or student interactions, whereas in the SSCS problem-solving model student behaviors correlated to aspects of the lesson structure, class setting, and student interactions.

  7. ROMANIA ON THE PATH TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardos Mihaela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the issues of sustainable development are of great interest and importance, as countries, organisations, institutions worldwide are still searching for the right solutions leading to human well-being and life quality in a society socially acceptable, economically viable and environmentally sustainable, in an integrated vision between states and generations. Due to the difficulties of measuring such a complex, multi-dimensioned concept, one of the main questions refers to necessity and the possibility of determining countries’ progress towards sustainable development. In this respect, there are a very large number of initiatives and efforts to develop the appropri¬ate indicators; yet, there is no one agreed method. In this generous context of analysis, the paper aims to offer some answers regarding Romania’s progress towards sustainable development, based on a comparative analysis within the European Union, using data provided by three of the most widely used indicators for measuring sustainable development: Human Development Index, Environmental Performance Index and Ecological Footprint. The research methodology uses the comparative analysis and synthesis of data, followed by a dissemination of the results in order to express a personal opinion on the topic. The research results are far from being optimistic, highlighting a serious gap between Romania and the other member states in terms of progress towards sustainable development. Therefore, they call for immediate action and increased efforts, so that European Union’s objectives of real cohesion and of becoming one of the global leaders in supporting sustainable development can be reached. The merit of this study is its contribution with an original research to the efforts of assessing Romania’s progress on the path to sustainable development, which may be particularly important for both researchers and policy makers. Due to some limitations induced by

  8. Cloud Water Path Over China: An Analysis Using ISCCP Data During 1984- 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Guo, X.; Zhu, J.

    2006-12-01

    Analysis of cloud water path (CWP) data over China available by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) is performed for the period 1984-2004. The climatology, trends, and variability of CWP are examined. The climatological distribution and variation of CWP are dependent on the circulation, especially the monsoon circulation, topography and atmospheric moisture. Influenced by the Asia monsoon, China's CWP exhibits very large seasonal variations. All-China average shows the maximum CWP in June and the minimum CWP in October. Under the influences of the Tibetan Plateau and the westerly flow, the largest CWP is found in winter and early spring in the southeastern China. Linear regression analysis is used to characterize seasonal and annual trends in CWP. Increasing trends in CWP are observed over much of China. The northwestern China, especially over the Tibetan Plateau, and the Inner Mongolia show significant increases of CWP. The largest increase in CWP is in winter and the increasing trend is weakest in spring. These increases in CWP are primarily dependent on the enhanced updraft deduced by the variation of circulation, including the weakening of the summer monsoon system. According to the EOF analysis, step-like increase in CWP is also found (EOF1) during 1984-2004 and the variation of CWP is statistically significant correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in EOF2. Interannual variation and trends in CWP and water vapor are closely correlated in China, confirming the enhanced hydrological cycle under the background of global warming. The correlations among CWP, water vapor and precipitation in the southeastern and the northwestern China are investigated. In summertime the higher correlation are found between CWP and precipitation than that between water vapor and precipitation in the both regions.

  9. Stigmatization and self-determination of preregistration nurses: A path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Dana; Brighton, Renee; Patterson, Christopher; Moxham, Lorna; Taylor, Ellie K; Sumskis, Susan; Heffernan, Tim

    2017-04-20

    The concept of stigma and the stigmatizing behaviours of health-care professionals can have a profound influence on people with mental illness. A key construct that has been identified as influencing our behaviours is self-determination. As such, in the present study, we attempted to examine the connection and influence of motivational measures on the stigmatization of preregistration nurses. Data were collected once using three surveys that measured the motivational responses and stigmatizing behaviours of preregistration nurses after an approved mental health clinical placement. Using a path analysis, the results indicated that psychological needs significantly influenced preregistration nurses' self-determination towards work. In addition, self-determination was a significant influence on the stigmatization behaviours of preregistration nurses. The results of the present study provide initial empirical evidence that supports the importance of professional self-determination and the potential connection of quality care, as illustrated with the low stigmatizing behaviours of preregistration nurses who are more self-determined towards their work/career. Because of the significant results of the present study, it is recommended that future research is needed that uses self-determination theory as a lens to understand the application and importance within the field of nurse education. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  10. Testing a model of L2 communication among Iranian EFL learners: A Path Analysis Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Fallah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using willingness to communicate (WTC and socio-educational models as a framework, the present study aimed at examining WTC in English and its underlying variables in a sample of 372 Iranian non-English major EFL learners. The data were collected through self-reported questionnaires. Path analysis framework using the Amos Program with maximum likelihood estimation was also utilized to examine the hypothesized model and the potential relationships between the variables. The final model showed a very good fit to the data. The results of structural equation modeling revealed that self-perceived communication competence (SPCC, international posture and motivation were significant predictors of L2WTC. The findings also showed that L2 communication anxiety (CA, motivation, personality trait of agreeableness and teacher immediacy could exert indirect effects on L2WTC. Furthermore, each of teacher immediacy and agreeableness variables predicted both international posture and CA among the EFL learners. Following these findings, potential factors affecting learners WTC should receive sufficient attention by teachers, administrators and learners alike. By adopting more immediacy behaviors, EFL teachers can also establish relaxing and supportive classroom climate and lower the learners’ affective filter. In such an atmosphere learners are more emotionally secured, suffer less communication apprehension, perceive themselves to be more proficient and motivated, obtain promoted international posture by forming realistic attitudes toward different cultures, and consequently become more willing to communicate in English.

  11. Evaluation of effective factors on low birth weight neonates' mortality using path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaee Gh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study have conducted in order to determine of direct or indirect effective factors on mortality of neonates with low birth weight by path analysis.Methods: In this cohort study 445 paired mothers and their neonates were participated in Tehran city. The data were gathered through an answer sheet contain mother age, gestational age, apgar score, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH and birth weight. Sampling was convenience and neonates of women were included in this study who were referred to 15 government and private hospitals in Tehran city. Live being status of neonates was determined until 24 hours after delivery.Results: The most changes in mortality rate is related to birth weight and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. Second score is related to apgar sore and its negative score means that increasing in apgar score leads to decrease chance of neonate death. Third score is gestational age and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. The less changes in mortality rate is due to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.Conclusion: The methodology has been used could be adopted in other investigations to distinguish and measuring effect of predictive factors on the risk of an outcome.

  12. Fear of cultural extinction and psychopathology among Mandaean refugees: an exploratory path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A; Brooks, Robert; Steel, Zachary; Silove, Derrick

    2009-01-01

    The Mandaeans are a small religious community originating from Iraq and Iran who are facing the possibility of cultural extinction within the next few generations. This study aimed to examine the relationships between life experiences, psychopathology and fear of cultural extinction in Mandaean refugees. A survey was conducted of 315 adult Iraqi Mandaean refugees living in Australia. Past traumatic experiences and current resettlement difficulties were assessed. Mental health outcomes were also examined, including measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Fear of cultural extinction was measured by items developed in consultation with the Mandaean community. A path analysis was employed to investigate the relationship between trauma, living difficulties, PTSD, depression, and fear of cultural extinction. Results indicated that trauma and living difficulties impacted indirectly on fear of cultural extinction, while PTSD (and not depression) directly predicted levels of anxiety about the Mandaean culture ceasing to exist. The current findings indicate that past trauma and symptoms of posttraumatic stress contribute to fear of cultural extinction. Exposure to human rights violations enacted on the basis of religion has significant mental health consequences that extend beyond PTSD. The relationship between perception of threat, PTSD, and fear of cultural extinction is considered in the context of cognitive models of traumatic stress. Government immigration policy must prioritize the reunification of small, endangered groups to sustain cultural traditions. Treatment interventions implemented with cultural groups facing extinction should take into consideration anxiety about loss of culture.

  13. A multilevel path analysis of social networks and social interaction in the neighbourhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline van den Berg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The topic of neighbourhood-based social interactions has gained attention in the last decades in the light of urban policies that aim to deal with problems regarding social segregation and exclusion, quality of life and liveability in urban areas. Social interactions are expected to play an important role in dealing with these problems. However, empirical studies investigating to which extent neighbourhood characteristics can improve social contacts among residents are scarce and inconclusive. Therefore, this paper studies the role of socio-demographics and neighbourhood characteristics in the formation of social network ties and social interactions with neighbours. Based on data collected in 2011 in 70 different neighbourhoods of Eindhoven in the Netherlands in a survey among 751 respondents these relationships are analysed using a multi-level path analysis approach. The results indicate that neighbourhood-based contacts are influenced by personal and household characteristics, such as education, income, work status, ethnicity, household composition, and years at the current address. Neighbourhood characteristics are not found to affect social network size, the share of neighbours in the network or the frequency of interaction with neighbours.

  14. A multilevel path analysis of contact frequency between social network members

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Pauline; Arentze, Theo; Timmermans, Harry

    2012-04-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the role of social networks in spatial-choice and travel behavior. It has been acknowledged that social activities and the travel for these activities can emerge from individuals' social networks and that social activities are responsible for an important portion of travel demand. The influence of information and communication technologies (ICT's) is also important in this respect. The purpose of the paper is to examine the effects of characteristics of egos and ego-alter relationships on the frequency of social interaction by different communication modes, using multilevel path analysis. The analyses are based on social network data collected in 2008 in the Eindhoven region in the Netherlands among 116 respondents. The results indicate a complementary relationship between contact frequencies by different modes. The contact frequencies of the different modes, especially face-to-face and telephone, can also be largely explained by the ego's personal characteristics and the type of relationship and the distance between ego and alter.

  15. The Longitudinal Process of Early Parent Involvement on Student Achievement: A Path Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Momoko; Englund, Michelle M; Warner-Richter, Mallory N; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the process whereby early parent involvement in preschool effects student achievement from kindergarten through 6(th) grade. Participants were 1,539 low-income, mainly African American children and their mothers, in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Program children (N = 989) received one or two years of the Child-Parent Center (CPC) program - a preschool intervention that strongly promoted parents' development of parent involvement skills within the school and at home. Children from similar backgrounds who did not attend the CPC, but participated in available local resources (e.g. day care), were obtained as a comparison group (N = 550). Path analysis revealed an interactive process between parent involvement, academic achievement, and children's motivation. Early parent involvement directly influenced kindergarten achievement, which in turn influenced first grade student motivation. Highly motivated children then encouraged parents to continue involvement. The cyclic nature of this process across elementary school was observed. The model accounted for 61% of the variance in 6(th) grade achievement. Findings suggest that early parent involvement promoted in the CPC program, sets the stage for subsequent parent involvement, student motivation, and academic achievement throughout early and middle childhood.

  16. The Promotion Strategy of Green Construction Materials: A Path Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Fah Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As one of the major materials used in construction, cement can be very resource-consuming and polluting to produce and use. Compared with traditional cement processing methods, dry-mix mortar is more environmentally friendly by reducing waste production or carbon emissions. Despite the continuous development and promotion of green construction materials, only a few of them are accepted or widely used in the market. In addition, the majority of existing research on green construction materials focuses more on their physical or chemical characteristics than on their promotion. Without effective promotion, their benefits cannot be fully appreciated and realized. Therefore, this study is conducted to explore the promotion of dry-mix mortars, one of the green materials. This study uses both qualitative and quantitative methods. First, through a case study, the potential of reducing carbon emission is verified. Then a path analysis is conducted to verify the validity and predictability of the samples based on the technology acceptance model (TAM in this study. According to the findings of this research, to ensure better promotion results and wider application of dry-mix mortar, it is suggested that more systematic efforts be invested in promoting the usefulness and benefits of dry-mix mortar. The model developed in this study can provide helpful references for future research and promotion of other green materials.

  17. EFL teachers’ teaching style, creativity, and burnout: A path analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Ghanizadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study delved into a rarely explored construct in the domain of English as a foreign language (EFL, i.e. teaching style. We hypothesized that teacher creativity plays a role in the styles teachers adopt in language institutes. It was also conjectured that teaching style affects burnout. The role of burnout in teacher creativity was also investigated. To measure teaching style, Grasha’s Teaching Style Inventory comprising five teaching styles (Expert, Authority, Model, Facilitator, and Delegator on a continuum of teacher vs. learner-oriented styles was employed. The educator version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-ES and the English Language Teacher Creativity Scale (ELT-CS were utilized to gauge burnout and creativity, respectively. To examine these causal associations, a path analysis was run. The results demonstrated the role of teachers’ creativity in their preferred teaching style. In particular, it was found that teacher creativity predicts Facilitator and Delegator positively; whereas, it predicts Authority and Expert in a negative direction. The results also revealed that three teaching styles (Model, Facilitator, and Delegator appear to contribute to burnout prevention whereas the other two teaching styles (Expert and Authority have no significant role. Finally, the debilitative role of teacher burnout in creativity was demonstrated.

  18. A path analysis of the cultivated land change in Hubei Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hubei Province is one of the critical grain production regions in China with the quantitative cultivated land and good natural condition; it plays an important role in grain security in China. However, owing to rapid economic growth, population pressures, anthropogenic activities, and natural disasters, the quality of the cultivated land has significantly decreased in recent years and environmental resources are under increasing stress. In order to research on the mechanism of the change of the cultivated land, this paper analyzes qualitatively the influencing factors of the cultivated land change in Hubei Province from 1978 to 2004, and distinguishes the direct factors from indirect influent ones by means of the approach of the path analysis. The result shows that the area of the rent land in the total nonagricultural land, the total population growth and the fixed asset investment are the main factors deciding the change of the cultivated land. Meanwhile, the density of the transportation network, the proportion of per capita income of rural citizens to that of urban citizens, non-agricultural gross domestic production's share of the total GDP has a less direct effect but a more indirect influence on the decrease of the cultivated land in Hubei Province. The result means that while some factors have less direct influence on the change of the cultivated land, its indirect influence are significant, wce versa. Thus it's necessary to adopt a comprehensive measurement to protect the cultivated land.

  19. A path analysis model of factors influencing children's requests for unhealthy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Miller, Caroline; Chapman, Kathy

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the complex combination of factors influencing the extent to which children request unhealthy foods from their parents. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive model of influencing factors to provide insight into potential methods of reducing these requests. A web panel provider was used to administer a national online survey to a sample of 1302 Australian parent-child dyads (total sample n=2604). Initial univariate analyses identified potential predictors of children's requests for and consumption of unhealthy foods. The identified variables were subsequently incorporated into a path analysis model that included both parents' and children's reports of children's requests for unhealthy foods. The resulting model accounted for a substantial 31% of the variance in parent-reported food request frequency and 27% of the variance in child-reported request frequency. The variable demonstrating the strongest direct association with both parents' and children's reports of request frequency was the frequency of children's current intake of unhealthy foods. Parents' and children's exposure to food advertising and television viewing time were also positively associated with children's unhealthy food requests. The results highlight the need to break the habitual provision of unhealthy foods to avoid a vicious cycle of requests resulting in consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genotypic character relationship and phenotypic path coefficient analysis in chili pepper genotypes grown under tropical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Magaji G; Rafii, Mohd Y; Martini, Mohammad Y; Oladosu, Yusuff; Kashiani, Pedram

    2017-03-01

    Studies on genotypic and phenotypic correlations among characters of crop plants are useful in planning, evaluating and setting selection criteria for the desired characters in a breeding program. The present study aimed to estimate the phenotypic correlation coefficients among yield and yield attributed characters and to work out the direct and indirect effects of yield-related characters on yield per plant using path coefficient analysis. Twenty-six genotypes of chili pepper were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Yield per plant showed positive and highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlations with most of the characters studied at both the phenotypic and genotypic levels. By contrast, disease incidence and days to flowering showed a significant negative association with yield. Fruit weight and number of fruits exerted positive direct effect on yield and also had a positive and significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlation with yield per plant. However, fruit length showed a low negative direct effect with a strong and positive indirect effect through fruit weight on yield and had a positive and significant association with yield. Longer fruits, heavy fruits and a high number of fruits are variables that are related to higher yields of chili pepper under tropical conditions and hence could be used as a reliable indicator in indirect selection for yield. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. System analysis and path choice for modem agricultural development: a case study of Suzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhai Rongxin; Liu Yansui

    2009-01-01

    From the view of.system theory,modern agriculture in a region embodies elements conformitv,structure optimization,multi-functionality and sustainable development.This paper first expounds on the relationship among agricultural elements,structure,function and development theoretically,compartmentalizes agriculture types based on human-land elements matching,and depicts the development path of agricultural multi-functionality.It shows that the matching of human-land elements is a key to agricultural types,and the multi:functionality is an indication of agricultural development stages.At last,as a case study of Suzhou in easteru coastal area,the paper analyzes the evolvement situation and developing mechanism and some typical models of modern agriculture which suit to agriculture system evolvement.The results show that in Suzhou the agriculture productivity has improved greatly,And along with the agriculture structure optimizing,agriculture function has translated from "production " to "nonproduction and production ".With simulation of agricultural trend in Suzhou,it is found that Suzhou has a LP,dependence (labor productivity) on agricultural element,so Suzhou will has much more potential in land productivity.Based on the above analysis on agricultural system,some typical patterns on modern agriculture in Suzhou are brought up,such as export-oriented agriculture,enterprises-leading agriculture,science and technology parks agriculture,stereoscopic agriculture,and tourism and sightseeing agriculture.

  2. Transfer path analysis: Current practice, trade-offs and consideration of damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktav, Akın; Yılmaz, Çetin; Anlaş, Günay

    2017-02-01

    Current practice of experimental transfer path analysis is discussed in the context of trade-offs between accuracy and time cost. An overview of methods, which propose solutions for structure borne noise, is given, where assumptions, drawbacks and advantages of methods are stated theoretically. Applicability of methods is also investigated, where an engine induced structure borne noise of an automobile is taken as a reference problem. Depending on this particular problem, sources of measurement errors, processing operations that affect results and physical obstacles faced in the application are analysed. While an operational measurement is common in all stated methods, when it comes to removal of source, or the need for an external excitation, discrepancies are present. Depending on the chosen method, promised outcomes like independent characterisation of the source, or getting information about mounts also differ. Although many aspects of the problem are reported in the literature, damping and its effects are not considered. Damping effect is embedded in the measured complex frequency response functions, and it is needed to be analysed in the post processing step. Effects of damping, reasons and methods to analyse them are discussed in detail. In this regard, a new procedure, which increases the accuracy of results, is also proposed.

  3. Field investigation of preferential fissure flow paths with hydrochemical analysis of small-scale sprinkling experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzeminska, D.M.; Bogaard, T.A.; Debieche, T.-H.; Cervi, F.; Marc, V.; Malet, J.-P.

    2014-01-01

    The unsaturated zone largely controls groundwater recharge by buffering precipitation while at the same time providing preferential flow paths for infiltration. The importance of preferential flow on landslide hydrology is recognised in the literature; however, its monitoring and quantification

  4. Latent variable models an introduction to factor, path, and structural equation analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Loehlin, John C

    2004-01-01

    This fourth edition introduces multiple-latent variable models by utilizing path diagrams to explain the underlying relationships in the models. The book is intended for advanced students and researchers in the areas of social, educational, clinical, ind

  5. Performance Analysis of Node-Disjoint Paths in Multipath Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G. Shiva; D'Souza, R. J.; Varaprasad, G.

    2011-12-01

    Routing in the resource constrained network is still a challenge. To increase the operational lifetme of the wireless senor networks is the major objective of energy efficeint routing protocols. Multipath routing protocols increases the QoS, network reliability, and lifetime. This work analyses the node-dsijoint paths which contribute in realising the objectives of mutlipath routing. This work proposes the three different criteria to select the node-disjoint paths between the source and sink node. They are (i) minimum hop (ii) maximum residual energy and (iii) maximum path cost. End to end delay, residual energy and throughput are the metrics considered to evaluate the performance of three different criteria to select node-disjoint paths between source and destination.

  6. Stress optical path difference analysis of off-axis lens ray trace footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming-Ying; Chan, Chia-Yen; Lin, Wei-Cheng; Wu, Kun-Huan; Chen, Chih-Wen; Chan, Shenq-Tsong; Huang, Ting-Ming

    2013-06-01

    The mechanical and thermal stress on lens will cause the glass refractive index different, the refractive index of light parallel and light perpendicular to the direction of stress. The refraction index changes will introduce Optical Path Difference (OPD). This study is applying Finite Element Method (FEM) and optical ray tracing; calculate off axis ray stress OPD. The optical system stress distribution result is calculated from finite element simulation, and the stress coordinate need to rotate to optical path direction. Meanwhile, weighting stress to each optical ray path and sum the ray path OPD. The Z-direction stress OPD can be fitted by Zernike polynomial, the separated to sag difference, and rigid body motion. The fitting results can be used to evaluate the stress effect on optical component.

  7. Interrelationships between morphometric variables and rounded fish body yields evaluated by path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vilhena Reis Neto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify which morphometric measures and ratios are more directly associated with the weight and body yields of rounded fish. A total of 225 specimens of rounded fish (59 pacus, 61 tambaquis, 52 tambacus and 53 paquis with average weight of 972.43 g (±115.52 g were sampled, stunned, slaughtered, weighed, measured, and processed for morphometric and processing yield analysis. The morphometric measures taken were: standard length (CP; head length (CC; head height (AC; body height (A1; and body width (L1. For completeness, the following morphometric ratios were calculated: CC/CP, AC/CP, A1/CP, L1/CP, CC/A1, AC/A1, L1/A1, CC/AC and L1/CC. The yields of carcass, filet, rib and filet with rib were estimated after processing. Initially, a "stepwise" procedure was performed in order to eliminate multicollinearity problems among the morphometric variables, and the phenotypic correlations were then calculated for the dependent variables (weight and body yields and independent variables (morphometric measurements and ratios. These correlations were later deployed in direct and indirect effects through path analysis, and the direct and indirect contributions of each variable were measured in percentage terms. The CC and A1 measures were important for determining the weight of rounded fish. The CC/A1 ratio was the variable most directly associated with carcass yield. For filet, filet with rib and rib yields, the L1/CC ratio was found to be more appropriate and can be used directly.

  8. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Dong, Wenjie; Xiu, Jinfeng; Dai, Rufeng; Chou, Jieming

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA) has long been used to quantify global and regional environmental impacts and to clarify emission transfers. Structural path analysis (SPA), a technique based on EEIOA, is especially useful for measuring significant flows in this environmental-economic system. This paper constructs an imports-adjusted single-region input-output (SRIO) model considering only domestic final use elements, and it uses the SPA technique to highlight crucial routes along the production chain in both final use and sectoral perspectives. The results indicate that future mitigation policies on household consumption should change direct energy use structures in rural areas, cut unreasonable demand for power and chemical products, and focus on urban areas due to their consistently higher magnitudes than rural areas in the structural routes. Impacts originating from government spending should be tackled by managing onsite energy use in 3 major service sectors and promoting cleaner fuels and energy-saving techniques in the transport sector. Policies on investment should concentrate on sectoral interrelationships along the production chain by setting up standards to regulate upstream industries, especially for the services, construction and equipment manufacturing sectors, which have high demand pulling effects. Apart from the similar methods above, mitigating policies in exports should also consider improving embodied technology and quality in manufactured products to achieve sustainable development. Additionally, detailed sectoral results in the coal extraction industry highlight the onsite energy use management in large domestic companies, emphasize energy structure rearrangement, and indicate resources and energy safety issues. Conclusions based on the construction and public administration sectors reveal that future mitigation in secondary and tertiary industries should be combined with upstream emission intensive industries in a

  9. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Dong, Wenjie; Xiu, Jinfeng; Dai, Rufeng; Chou, Jieming

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA) has long been used to quantify global and regional environmental impacts and to clarify emission transfers. Structural path analysis (SPA), a technique based on EEIOA, is especially useful for measuring significant flows in this environmental-economic system. This paper constructs an imports-adjusted single-region input-output (SRIO) model considering only domestic final use elements, and it uses the SPA technique to highlight crucial routes along the production chain in both final use and sectoral perspectives. The results indicate that future mitigation policies on household consumption should change direct energy use structures in rural areas, cut unreasonable demand for power and chemical products, and focus on urban areas due to their consistently higher magnitudes than rural areas in the structural routes. Impacts originating from government spending should be tackled by managing onsite energy use in 3 major service sectors and promoting cleaner fuels and energy-saving techniques in the transport sector. Policies on investment should concentrate on sectoral interrelationships along the production chain by setting up standards to regulate upstream industries, especially for the services, construction and equipment manufacturing sectors, which have high demand pulling effects. Apart from the similar methods above, mitigating policies in exports should also consider improving embodied technology and quality in manufactured products to achieve sustainable development. Additionally, detailed sectoral results in the coal extraction industry highlight the onsite energy use management in large domestic companies, emphasize energy structure rearrangement, and indicate resources and energy safety issues. Conclusions based on the construction and public administration sectors reveal that future mitigation in secondary and tertiary industries should be combined with upstream emission intensive industries in a

  10. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Yang

    Full Text Available Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA has long been used to quantify global and regional environmental impacts and to clarify emission transfers. Structural path analysis (SPA, a technique based on EEIOA, is especially useful for measuring significant flows in this environmental-economic system. This paper constructs an imports-adjusted single-region input-output (SRIO model considering only domestic final use elements, and it uses the SPA technique to highlight crucial routes along the production chain in both final use and sectoral perspectives. The results indicate that future mitigation policies on household consumption should change direct energy use structures in rural areas, cut unreasonable demand for power and chemical products, and focus on urban areas due to their consistently higher magnitudes than rural areas in the structural routes. Impacts originating from government spending should be tackled by managing onsite energy use in 3 major service sectors and promoting cleaner fuels and energy-saving techniques in the transport sector. Policies on investment should concentrate on sectoral interrelationships along the production chain by setting up standards to regulate upstream industries, especially for the services, construction and equipment manufacturing sectors, which have high demand pulling effects. Apart from the similar methods above, mitigating policies in exports should also consider improving embodied technology and quality in manufactured products to achieve sustainable development. Additionally, detailed sectoral results in the coal extraction industry highlight the onsite energy use management in large domestic companies, emphasize energy structure rearrangement, and indicate resources and energy safety issues. Conclusions based on the construction and public administration sectors reveal that future mitigation in secondary and tertiary industries should be combined with upstream emission intensive

  11. Analysis of strain paths of sheared edges during hole expansion tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebel, Philipp; Van Tyne, Chester J.; Hora, Pavel; Manopulo, Niko

    2013-12-01

    One of the limitations to the widespread use of advanced high strength steel (AHSS) sheets is the cracking of sheared edges during subsequent stretching operations, as nearly all stamped parts are sheared prior to sheet forming. Cracking at the edge occurs at levels below the conventional forming limit criteria. Understanding the strain path of the sheared edge during a hole expansion test should provide insight into the strain path of a sheared edge when it is stretched during production. As a result, experimental as well as finite element simulations are used for analyzing the strain path behavior of a sheared edge during hole expansion tests. The shearing process changes the global behavior in the sheet during a hole expansion, and the finite element results indicate that the strain paths for points near the edge of the hole during expansion are non-linear due to the presence of the shear affected zone (SAZ). These results are consistent with previously measured experimental values for the strain path.

  12. Psychosocial determinants of physical activity in children attending afterschool programs: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jiying; Robbins, Lorraine B; McCarthy, Valerie Lander; Speck, Barbara J

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is important for controlling childhood obesity, but a comprehensive PA model for school-aged children is lacking. Guided by the youth PA promotion (YPAP) model, this study estimated the direct and indirect effects of self-efficacy, enjoyment, parental influence, and environment on self-reported PA and pedometer steps. A secondary purpose was to explore the association between self-reported PA and pedometer steps. An observational and prospective study was conducted among 133 children, aged 8-11 years old, from 10 elementary schools with afterschool programs in a Midwestern U.S. school district from August through October 2013. PA was assessed by a 7-day recall scale and pedometers. Other variables were assessed by validated questionnaires. Approximately 65 (49%) children were overweight or obese-only 17 (13%) met national PA recommendations-and body mass index z-score was negatively correlated with pedometer steps (r = -.18 p = .04). A path analysis showed that self-efficacy had a direct effect on self-reported PA and pedometer steps, enjoyment had only a direct effect on self-reported PA, and parental influence had a direct effect on pedometer steps and an indirect effect on self-reported PA through self-efficacy and enjoyment. The association between self-reported PA and pedometer steps was not significant. Because this study only partially supports the YPAP model, studies with a larger sample size and longitudinal design are essential to further examine this model. The nonsignificant relationship of self-reported PA with pedometer steps may be due to the systematic error resulting from a common method artifact of self-report. Given the importance of parental influence, enjoyment, and self-efficacy, targeting these three determinants in future interventions to increase PA among children is recommended.

  13. Impact of Maternal Death on Household Economy in Rural China: A Prospective Path Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ye

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to explore the inter-relationships among maternal death, household economic status after the event, and potential influencing factors.We conducted a prospective cohort study of households that had experienced maternal death (n = 195 and those that experienced childbirth without maternal death (n = 384 in rural China. All the households were interviewed after the event occurred and were followed up 12 months later. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationship model, utilizing income and expenditure per capita in the following year after the event as the main outcome variables, maternal death as the predictor, and direct costs, the amount of money offset by positive and negative coping strategies, whether the husband remarried, and whether the newborn was alive as the mediators.In the following year after the event, the path analysis revealed a direct effect from maternal death to lower income per capita (standardized coefficient = -0.43, p = 0.041 and to lower expenditure per capita (standardized coefficient = -0.51, p<0.001. A significant indirect effect was found from maternal death to lower income and expenditure per capita mediated by the influencing factors of higher direct costs, less money from positive coping methods, more money from negative coping, and the survival of the newborn.This study analyzed the direct and indirect effects of maternal death on a household economy. The results provided evidence for better understanding the mechanism of how this event affects a household economy and provided a reference for social welfare policies to target the most vulnerable households that have suffered from maternal deaths.

  14. The role of critical ethnic awareness and social support in the discrimination-depression relationship among Asian Americans: path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Isok

    2014-01-01

    This study used a path analytic technique to examine associations among critical ethnic awareness, racial discrimination, social support, and depressive symptoms. Using a convenience sample from online survey of Asian American adults (N = 405), the study tested 2 main hypotheses: First, based on the empowerment theory, critical ethnic awareness would be positively associated with racial discrimination experience; and second, based on the social support deterioration model, social support would partially mediate the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The result of the path analysis model showed that the proposed path model was a good fit based on global fit indices, χ²(2) = 4.70, p = .10; root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; comparative fit index = 0.97; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.92; and standardized root mean square residual = 0.03. The examinations of study hypotheses demonstrated that critical ethnic awareness was directly associated (b = .11, p racial discrimination experience, whereas social support had a significant indirect effect (b = .48; bias-corrected 95% confidence interval [0.02, 1.26]) between the racial discrimination experience and depressive symptoms. The proposed path model illustrated that both critical ethnic awareness and social support are important mechanisms for explaining the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among this sample of Asian Americans. This study highlights the usefulness of the critical ethnic awareness concept as a way to better understand how Asian Americans might perceive and recognize racial discrimination experiences in relation to its mental health consequences.

  15. Self-controlled learning benefits: exploring contributions of self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation via path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ste-Marie, Diane M; Carter, Michael J; Law, Barbi; Vertes, Kelly; Smith, Victoria

    2016-09-01

    Research has shown learning advantages for self-controlled practice contexts relative to yoked (i.e., experimenter-imposed) contexts; yet, explanations for this phenomenon remain relatively untested. We examined, via path analysis, whether self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation are important constructs for explaining self-controlled learning benefits. The path model was created using theory-based and empirically supported relationships to examine causal links between these psychological constructs and physical performance. We hypothesised that self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation would have greater predictive power for learning under self-controlled compared to yoked conditions. Participants learned double-mini trampoline progressions, and measures of physical performance, self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation were collected over two practice days and a delayed retention day. The self-controlled group (M = 2.04, SD = .98) completed significantly more skill progressions in retention than their yoked counterparts (M = 1.3, SD = .65). The path model displayed adequate fit, and similar significant path coefficients were found for both groups wherein each variable was predominantly predicted by its preceding time point (e.g., self-efficacy time 1 predicts self-efficacy time 2). Interestingly, the model was not moderated by group; thus, failing to support the hypothesis that self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation have greater predictive power for learning under self-controlled relative to yoked conditions.

  16. Prograph Based Analysis of Single Source Shortest Path Problem with Few Distinct Positive Lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bhowmik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an experimental study model S3P2 of a fast fully dynamic programming algorithm design technique in finite directed graphs with few distinct nonnegative real edge weights. The Bellman-Ford’s approach for shortest path problems has come out in various implementations. In this paper the approach once again is re-investigated with adjacency matrix selection in associate least running time. The model tests proposed algorithm against arbitrarily but positive valued weighted digraphs introducing notion of Prograph that speeds up finding the shortest path over previous implementations. Our experiments have established abstract results with the intention that the proposed algorithm can consistently dominate other existing algorithms for Single Source Shortest Path Problems. A comparison study is also shown among Dijkstra’s algorithm, Bellman-Ford algorithm, and our algorithm.

  17. Analysis of lifetime of wireless sensor network with base station moving on different paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashutosh Kumar; Purohit, N.; Varma, S.

    2014-05-01

    Energy saving is the top most requirement of the wireless sensor network (WSN) for making it a cost effective technology. In this direction, minimisation of the distance between the communicating nodes should be an obvious choice, as it consumes the biggest chunk of the node energy. But the stationary nature of nodes (including the base station) in the standard WSN does not allow it; thus, the provision of a moving base station has been recently introduced. A few schemes with moving base station have already been developed but they suffer from several drawbacks, for example, the path over which the base station can move has not been considered which is highly unfeasible. An efficient and implementable moving strategy is needed to be developed, which is the primary goal of the present work. The fuzzy logic inference mechanism has been developed and the performance of the same is illustrated in terms of WSN lifetime. Lifetime of a WSN depends on many factors, for example, residual energy of nodes, distance between communicating nodes and base station, etc. Ability of fuzzy logic theory to address more than one factor simultaneously gives it an upper edge over other alternatives. The present work explores the possibilities of building either a circular shaped or a cross-shaped path in the deployment area. A relative study of the movement of base station on these paths has been presented. Simulation results show that the cross path always give better performance than circular path and the lifetime improves with increase in the length of the predefined path.

  18. A moderated mediated path analysis of factors influencing student performance on a standardized high-stakes science test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelkey, Ramona K.

    Gender, ethnicity, family economic status, reading score, mathematics score, and number of science semesters successfully completed were examined for their contributory role to a student's science score on a high-stakes, high school exit examination. Path analysis and analysis of variance procedures were used to quantify each variable's influence on science score. Gender, ethnicity, and family economic status were found to be moderators while reading proved to mediate within the model. The path model was created using a calibration sample and cross-validated using a hold-out validation sample. Bootstrapping was used to verify the goodness of fit of the model. A predictive equation explained 66% (R2 = .66) of the variance in observed TAKS science score.

  19. Development of Selection Criteria on Bean Weight Character of Cocoa (Theobroma cacaoL. through Path Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Anita Sari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Path coefficient analysis is frequently used for development of selection criteria on various type of plants. Path analysis on this research was conducted to find the selection criteria of yield component which directly affect bean weight. In addition to the value of path analysis coefficient, genetic variation coefficient, heritability and the value of genetic progress were also studied. The study was conducted at the Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. The research used randomized complete block design consisting of 14 accession numbers and each consisting of three replications. Pod girth, pod length, pod weight, wet beans weight per pod, number of normal beans per pod, number of abnormal beans per pod, dry weight per normal bean, and shell content were observed. The results showed that the pod weight character had an important role in determining the dry weight of normal bean. The character had a positive genotype correlation coefficient values which was high and significantly different (r=0.46 for dry weight per normal bean, considerable direct influence (P=0.479, moderate of the genotype variation coefficient (9.6%, and high genetic progress (95.23. Character of wet bean weight per pod could also be used indirectly for the selection criteria for dry weight per normal bean based on genetic variation coefficient value (11.88%, genetic progress value (82.48, and direct effect on dry weight per normal bean had positive value (P=0.006. Key words: Selection criteria, dry weight per bean, path analysis,Theobroma cacaoL.

  20. Path analysis suggests phytoene accumulation is the key step limiting the carotenoid pathway in white carrot roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Fernandes Santos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two F2 carrot (Daucus carota L. populations (orange rooted Brasilia x very dark orange rooted High Carotene Mass - HCM cross and the dark orange rooted cultivated variety B493 x white rooted wild carrot Queen Anne's Lace - QAL cross with very unrelated genetic backgrounds were used to investigate intrinsic factors limiting carotenoid accumulation in carrots by applying phenotypic correlation and path analysis to study the relationships between major root carotenes, root color and several other morphological traits. Most of the correlations between traits were close and agreed in sign between the two populations. Root weight had a moderate to highly significant positive correlation with leaf length, root length and top and middle root diameter. Although phenotypic correlations failed to identify the order of the substrates and products in the carotenoid pathway the correct order of substrates and products (phytoene -> zeta-carotene -> lycopene was identified in the causal diagram of beta-carotene for the Brasilia x HCM population. Path analysis of beta-carotene synthesis in the B493 x QAL population suggested that selection for root carotenes had little effect on plant morphological traits. Causal model of beta-carotene and lycopene in the B493 x QAL population suggested that phytoene synthesis is the key step limiting the carotenoid pathway in white carrots. Path analysis, first presented by Sewall Wright to study quantitative traits, appears to be a powerful statistical approach for the identification of key compounds in complex pathways.

  1. Morphological Awareness in Literacy Acquisition of Chinese Second Graders: A Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haomin

    2016-01-01

    The present study tested a path diagram regarding the contribution of morphological awareness (MA) to early literacy acquisition among Chinese-speaking second graders (N = 123). Three facets of MA were addressed, namely derivational awareness, compound awareness and compound structure awareness. The model aimed to test a theory of causal order…

  2. An Investigation of Factors Influencing Student Use of Technology in K-12 Classrooms Using Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Dawson, Kara; Cavanaugh, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of teachers' characteristics, school characteristics, and contextual characteristics on classroom technology integration and teacher use of technology as mediators of student use of technology. A research-based path model was designed and tested based on data gathered from 732 teachers from…

  3. Path and correlation analysis of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) seed yield components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abel, Simon; Gislum, René; Boelt, Birte

    2017-01-01

    path correlation coefficients showed that inflorescence size had the largest positive influence on seed yield via its indirect effects on other seed yield components. Our results will allow seed producers, seed production researchers and plant breeders alike to more efficiently increase harvested seed...

  4. An Investigation of Factors Influencing Student Use of Technology in K-12 Classrooms Using Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Dawson, Kara; Cavanaugh, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of teachers' characteristics, school characteristics, and contextual characteristics on classroom technology integration and teacher use of technology as mediators of student use of technology. A research-based path model was designed and tested based on data gathered from 732 teachers from…

  5. Multigroup Analysis in Partial Least Squares (PLS) Path Modeling: Alternative Methods and Empirical Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarstedt, Marko; Henseler, Jörg; Ringle, Christian M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Partial least squares (PLS) path modeling has become a pivotal empirical research method in international marketing. Owing to group comparisons' important role in research on international marketing, we provide researchers with recommendations on how to conduct multigroup analyses in PLS p

  6. Runtime analysis of ant colony optimization on dynamic shortest path problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissovoi, Andrei; Witt, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    A simple ACO algorithm called λ-MMAS for dynamic variants of the single-destination shortest paths problem is studied by rigorous runtime analyses. Building upon previous results for the special case of 1-MMAS, it is studied to what extent an enlarged colony using $\\lambda$ ants per vertex helps...

  7. Path Planning, Dynamic Trajectory Generation and Control Analysis for Industrial Manipulators

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Many unsolved problems exists in the field of robot control.This text investigates state of the art methods for path finding, trajectory generation and control in order to identify their properties, which problems they are applicable to, and their weaknesses.This is done by applying them to problems with actual real-world relevance.

  8. Feasibility Analysis of Improving On-Campus Learning Paths via a Depth Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen-Fu; Tu, Shih-Chun; Chien, Mei-Ying

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to apply a depth sensor to create a human-body-sensing context for outdoor learning paths; it is conducted by incorporating both quasi-experiment and survey to compare students' cognitive learning outcome within the context and understand students' attitudes toward the context created. The result of ANCOVA indicates…

  9. Analysis on Relation Measuring and Development Innovation Path of Tourism Economy in Shenyang Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang; ZHAO; Xiangye; SONG

    2014-01-01

    This article firstly measures the tourism economy relations in Shenyang Economic Zone,and summarizes the spatial structure of tourism economy in Shenyang Economic Zone. The results show that Shenyang is in the central position and its tourism resource has obvious advantages. Finally,this paper provides the development innovation path of tourism economy in Shenyang Economic Zone.

  10. Analysis of the signal transfer and folding in N-path filters with a series inductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duipmans, L.; Struiksma, R.E.; Klumperink, E.A.M.; Nauta, B.; Vliet, F.E. van

    2015-01-01

    N-path filters exploiting switched-series-R-C networks can realize high-Q blocking-tolerant band-pass filters. Moreover, their center frequency is flexibly programmable by a digital clock. Unfortunately, the time variant nature of these circuits also results in unwanted signal folding. This paper pr

  11. Sequential Path Analysis for Determination of Relationship Between Yield and Yield Components in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum.L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtasham MOHAMMADI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate 295 wheat genotypes in Alpha-Lattice design with two replications. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation of grain yield was 2706 and 950 (kg/ha,respectively. The results of correlation coefficients indicated that grain yield had significant and positive association with plant height, spike length, early growth vigor and agronomic score. Whereas there were negative correlation coefficients between grain yield and days to physiological maturity and canopy temperature before and during anthesis. Path analysis indicated agronomic score and plant height had high positive direct effects on grain yield, while canopy temperature before and during anthesis, and days to maturity, wes another trait having negative direct effect on grain yield. The results of sequential path analysis showed the traits that accounted as a criteria variable for high grain yield were agronomic score, plant height, canopy temperature, spike length, chlorophyll content and early growth vigor, which were determined as first, second and third order variables and had strong effects on grain yield via one or more paths. More important, as canopy temperature, agronomic score and early growth vigor can be evaluated quickly and easily, these traits may be used for evaluation of large populations.

  12. Analysis of rain fade duration models for Earth-to-satellite path based on data measured in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Hassan; Rafiqul, Islam Md; Al-Khateeb, Khalid A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Statistical analysis of rain fade duration is crucial information for system engineer to design and plan a fade mitigation technique (FMT) for the satellite communication system. An investigation is carried out based on data measured of one year period in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from satellite path of MEASAT3. This paper presents statistical analysis of measured fade duration on high elevation angle (77.4°) in Ku-band compared to three prediction models of fade duration. It is found that none of the models could predict measured fade duration distribution accurately.

  13. Evaluation of seed yield-related characters in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) using factor and path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biabani, A R; Pakniyat, H

    2008-04-15

    Fifteen sesame genotypes were grown in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications during 2004, in experimental station of Agricultural College, Shiraz University in Badjgah, Iran. Many plant traits were scored in the field. Path coefficient analysis and factor analysis divided the 15 measured variables into 5 factors. The 5 factors explained 81% of the total genetic variation in the dependence structure. Factor 1 was strongly associated with number of capsules in the main stem, length of floral axis, number of capsules per plant and plant height. Other factors (2, 3, 4 and 5) explained the rest of genetic variations and may not be important in sesame breeding programs.

  14. Calculation of the Model of Coesite Inclusions and Analysis of Their Retrometamorphic Paths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Dawei; DING Xiaokun; WU Xiuling

    2004-01-01

    The process and path of retrometamorphism of coesite have great significance to our understanding of the PT tracks of the exhumation of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks. Most of the coesites in the eclogite from Shima,Anhui Province, the Dabie Mountains, China, are found degraded to quartz partly or wholly, with ruptures occurring in the shells, outside which include the coesite and quartz According to the microscopic observation, the sample of coesite inclusion is composed of garnet, quartz and coesite, based on which we have built a three-shelled composite sphere model to compute the transition of coesite. Based on the crystal growth formulas and pressure conditions of the ruptures in the garnet, we have calculated the radius of the quartz sphere, which depends on temperature, and eventually drawn the different retrometamorphic paths for different retrometamorphism rates.

  15. Excitation of Structures Near Railway Tracks-Analysis of the Wave Propagation Path

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucinskas, Paulius; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    the passengers as close as possible to the city centers. Therefore, railway tracks have to go through densely populated urban areas, which causes a number of issues. One of the biggest complaints from the inhabitants living near such infrastructures is the high vibration and noise levels caused by the passing...... trains. Unfortunately, the prediction of vibrations in nearby structures is difficult, as wave propagation from the vibration source to the structure is a complex phenomenon. The behaviour of the structure is highly dependent on the path along which the vibrations travel between their source....... This work aims to analyse how different features in the wave propagation path affect the excitation of a structure. A numerical model is constructed to account for the track structure and the underlying soil. The model utilizes a finite-element model for the structures together with a semi-analytical model...

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of Material Microstructure Effects on Predicted Crack Paths Using Finite Element Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Anaïs; Mehmanparast, Ali

    2016-07-01

    The effects of microstructure, grain and grain boundary (GB) properties on predicted damage paths and indicative crack propagation direction have been examined for a polycrystalline material using mesoscale finite element simulations. Numerical analyses were carried out on a compact tension specimen geometry containing granular mesh structures with random grain shapes and sizes of average diameter 100μm. Nanoindentation tests were performed to investigate the dependency of mesoscale hardness measurements on the indentation location with respect to grain and GB regions. Finite element results have shown that under tensile loading conditions, the predicted damage paths are very sensitive to the granular mesh structure, GB properties and individual grain properties. Furthermore, finite element results have revealed that the cracking mode (i.e., transgranular/intergranular) and maximum crack deviation angle are strongly dependent on the material microstructures employed in simulations.

  17. Analysis of an Automated Vehicle Routing Problem in Logistics considering Path Interruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of automated vehicles in logistics can efficiently reduce the cost of logistics and reduce the potential risks in the last mile. Considering the path restriction in the initial stage of the application of automated vehicles in logistics, the conventional model for a vehicle routing problem (VRP is modified. Thus, the automated vehicle routing problem with time windows (AVRPTW model considering path interruption is established. Additionally, an improved particle swarm optimisation (PSO algorithm is designed to solve this problem. Finally, a case study is undertaken to test the validity of the model and the algorithm. Four automated vehicles are designated to execute all delivery tasks required by 25 stores. Capacities of all of the automated vehicles are almost fully utilised. It is of considerable significance for the promotion of automated vehicles in last-mile situations to develop such research into real problems arising in the initial period.

  18. Path analysis examining relationships among antecedents of anxiety, multidimensional state anxiety, and triathlon performance

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The official published version of this article can be found at the link below. This is a authors’ draft of the paper: Copyright @ Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1995 The study explored predictive paths for antecedents of anxiety, state anxiety responses, and performance. Male triathletes (N = 175) completed a modified Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 which included the original intensity scale and a direction scale of Jones and Swain. They also completed a 23-item Prerace Questionna...

  19. Worry, Worry Attacks, and PTSD among Cambodian Refugees: A Path Analysis Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Hinton, Devon E.; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    Among traumatized Cambodian refugees, this article investigates worry (e.g., the types of current life concerns) and how worry worsens posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To explore how worry worsens PTSD, we examine a path model of worry to see whether certain key variables (e.g., worry-induced somatic arousal and worry-induced trauma recall) mediate the relationship between worry and PTSD. Survey data were collected from March 2010 until May 2010 in a convenience sample of 201 adult Cambo...

  20. Path loss analysis in millimeter wave cellular systems for urban mobile communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Ramesh; Hoffman, Mitchell

    2016-09-01

    The proliferation in the number of mobile devices and developments in cellular technology has led to an ever increasing demand for mobile data. The global bandwidth shortage facing wireless carriers today has motivated research for fifth generation (5G) cellular systems. In recent years, millimeter wave (mmW) frequencies between 30 and 300 GHz are being considered as a promising technology for 5G systems. Such systems can offer superior user experience by providing data rates that exceed one Gigabit per second and latencies lower than a millisecond. However, there is little research about cellular mmW propagation in densely populated urban environments. Understanding the radio channel is a primary requirement for optimal design of mmW systems. Radio propagation in mmW systems faces significant challenges due to rapidly varying channel conditions and intermittent connectivity. In this paper, we study the propagation of mmW spectrum in an urban environment. We use a statistical model to simulate an urban environment with diverse building distributions. We perform extensive simulations to analyze the path loss behavior for both line of sight (LOS) and non line of sight (NLOS) conditions for 28 GHZ and 73 GHZ mmW frequencies. We observe that the path loss approximates a logarithmic fit for both LOS and NLOS environments. Our simulations show that the omnidirectional free space path loss is approximately 30 dB higher for mmW systems compared to current 3G PP cellular systems. To address this challenge, we propose using highly directional horn antennas with beam forming for reducing the path loss.

  1. Fractal analysis of crack paths in Al2O3-TiC-4%Co composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; YIN Yan-sheng; LIU Ying-cai; MA Lai-peng

    2006-01-01

    Al2O3-TiC-4%Co(volume fraction) composites(ATC) with high toughness (7.8±0.8 MPa·m1/2) and strength (782±60 MPa) were fabricated. In comparison with Al2O3-TiC composites(AT), the fracture toughness was significantly improved by 60%. The crack paths, generated by Vickers indentation on the polished surfaces of both composites, were analyzed from a fractal point of view to distinguish the possible toughening mechanisms involved. Quantitative evaluation of indentation cracks indicates that the crack deflection plays a more effective role. Cracks of the ATC composites show higher deflection angles and more deflections along the path. ATC composites present higher fractal dimension (D=1.07) than AT composites (D=1.02), which is directly related to the higher fracture toughness. A significant relationship between crack path and toughness is evident: the more irregular the geometry of the crack, the higher the fracture toughness.

  2. Moderated path analysis of the relationships between masculinity and men's attitudes toward seeking psychological help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Rankin, Thomas J; Halter, Margaret J; Mellinger, Chris; Williams, Christine M

    2013-07-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of one mediator and 4 moderators of the relationships between 2 masculinity variables (Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Gender Role Conflict) and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Services (Attitudes). Self-stigma was the hypothesized mediator, and the hypothesized moderators were (a) Depression, (b) General Self-efficacy, (c) Precontemplation, and (d) Barriers to Help-seeking. A sample of 654 men responded to an online survey of 9 questionnaires. After evaluating mediation in the absence of moderation, moderated path analyses were conducted for each moderator. The relationship between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes was partially mediated by Self-stigma, whereas that between Gender Role Conflict and Attitudes was completely mediated. No indirect or direct paths involving Gender Role Conflict were moderated by any moderators. Both Depression and Barriers to Help-seeking demonstrated mediated moderation by moderating both Stage 1 (the path from Traditional Masculinity Ideology to Self-stigma) of the mediated relationships and the direct effects between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. Precontemplation moderated the direct effect between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. The findings suggest that the relationships between masculinity variables and men's negative help-seeking attitudes may be better understood through their relationships with other variables that serve as mediators and moderators. Findings from the present study may offer some direction in the design of interventions to remediate men's negative help-seeking attitudes.

  3. Energy saving analysis of segment positioning in shield tunneling machine considering assembling path optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施虎; 龚国芳; 杨华勇; 梅雪松

    2014-01-01

    A motion parameter optimization method based on the objective of minimizing the total energy consumption in segment positioning was proposed for segment erector of shield tunneling machine. The segment positioning process was decomposed into rotation, lifting and sliding actions in deriving the energy calculation model of segment erection. The work of gravity was taken into account in the mathematical modeling of energy consumed by each actuator. In order to investigate the relationship between the work done by the actuator and the path moved along by the segment, the upward and downward directions as well as the operating quadrant of the segment erector were defined. Piecewise nonlinear function of energy was presented, of which the result is determined by closely coupled components as working parameters and some intermediate variables. Finally, the effectiveness of the optimization method was proved by conducting a case study with a segment erector for the tunnel with a diameter of 3 m and drawing comparisons between different assembling paths. The results show that the energy required by assembling a ring of segments along the optimized moving path can be reduced up to 5%. The method proposed in this work definitely provides an effective energy saving solution for shield tunneling machine.

  4. Path Sensitization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵著行; 闵应骅; 等

    1997-01-01

    For different delay models,the concept of sensitization can be very different.Traditonal concepts of sensitization cannot precisely describe circuit behavior when the input vectors change very fast.Using Boolean process aporoach,this paper presents a new definition of sensitization for arbitrary input waveforms.By this new concept it is found that if the inputs of a combinational circuit can change at any time,and each gate's delay varies within an interval (bounded gate delay model),then every path,which is not necessarily a single topological path,is sensitizable.From the experimental results it can be seen that,all nonsensitizable paths for traditional concepts actually can propagate transitions along them for some input waveforms.However,specified time between input transitions(STBIT) and minimum permissible pulse width(ε)are two major factors to make some paths non-sensitizable.

  5. Optimal yield-related attributes of irrigated rice for high yield potential based on path analysis and stability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganghua Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of yield in rice (Oryza sativa L. is vital for ensuring food security in China. Both rice breeders and growers need an improved understanding of the relationship between yield and yield-related traits. New indica cultivars (53 in 2007 and 48 in 2008 were grown in Taoyuan, Yunnan province, to identify important components contributing to yield. Additionally, two standard indica rice cultivars with similar yield potentials, II You 107 (a large-panicle type and Xieyou 107 (a heavy-panicle type, were planted in Taoyuan, Yunnan province and Nanjing, Jiangsu province, from 2006 to 2008 to evaluate the stability of yield and yield-related attributes. Growth duration (GD, leaf area index (LAI, panicles per m2 (PN, and spikelets per m2 (SM were significantly and positively correlated with grain yield (GY over all years. Sequential path analysis identified PN and panicle weight (PW as important first-order traits that influenced grain yield. All direct effects were significant, as indicated by bootstrap analysis. Yield potential varied greatly across locations but not across years. Plant height (PH, days from heading to maturity (HM, and grain weight (GW were stable traits that showed little variation across sites or years, whereas GD (mainly the pre-heading period, PHP and PN varied significantly across locations. To achieve a yield of 15 t ha− 1, a cultivar should have a PH of 110–125 cm, a long GD with HM of approximately 40 days, a PN of 300–400 m− 2, and a GW of 29–31 mg.

  6. Optimal yield-related attributes of irrigated rice for high yield potential based on path analysis and stability analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganghua; Li; Jun; Zhang; Congdang; Yang; Yunpan; Song; Chengyan; Zheng; Shaohua; Wang; Zhenghui; Liu; Yanfeng; Ding

    2014-01-01

    Improvement of yield in rice(Oryza sativa L.) is vital for ensuring food security in China. Both rice breeders and growers need an improved understanding of the relationship between yield and yield-related traits. New indica cultivars(53 in 2007 and 48 in 2008) were grown in Taoyuan,Yunnan province, to identify important components contributing to yield. Additionally, two standard indica rice cultivars with similar yield potentials, II You 107(a large-panicle type) and Xieyou 107(a heavy-panicle type), were planted in Taoyuan, Yunnan province and Nanjing,Jiangsu province, from 2006 to 2008 to evaluate the stability of yield and yield-related attributes.Growth duration(GD), leaf area index(LAI), panicles per m2(PN), and spikelets per m2(SM) were significantly and positively correlated with grain yield(GY) over all years. Sequential path analysis identified PN and panicle weight(PW) as important first-order traits that influenced grain yield. All direct effects were significant, as indicated by bootstrap analysis. Yield potential varied greatly across locations but not across years. Plant height(PH), days from heading to maturity(HM), and grain weight(GW) were stable traits that showed little variation across sites or years, whereas GD(mainly the pre-heading period, PHP) and PN varied significantly across locations. To achieve a yield of 15 t ha-1, a cultivar should have a PH of 110–125 cm, a long GD with HM of approximately 40 days, a PN of 300–400 m-2, and a GW of 29–31 mg.

  7. Path analysis of the chronicity of depression using the comprehensive developmental model framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño-Losada, Andrés; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Lavebratt, Catharina; Forsell, Yvonne

    2016-07-01

    Background Depressive disorder is recognized as recurrent or chronic in the majority of affected individuals; but literature is not consistent about determinants of the disorder course. Aims To analyse the relationships between familial, personal and environmental characteristics in different life phases and their effects on the chronicity of depression in a population-based sample. Methods It was a longitudinal panel study with three waves (W1-W3) for 651 adult men and women with diagnosis of minor/major depression or dysthymia at W1 of the Swedish PART (mental health, work and relations) study. Risk factors and co-morbidities were assessed with questionnaires. The main outcome was an episode of minor/major depression or dysthymia at 10-12 years of follow-up (W3). Liability for depressive episodes was determined using exploratory structural equation modelling (SEM), following a path approach with step-wise specification searches. Results Most of the risk factors determined, directly or indirectly, depression severity at W3. Somatic trait anxiety, partner loss and other negative life events at W1, depressive symptoms at W2, and life difficulties and other dependent life events at W3 had direct effects on the outcome. Conclusions SEM model revealed complex and intertwined psychopathological pathways leading to chronicity of depression, given previous episodes, which could be assembled in two main mechanisms: a depressive-internalizing path and an adversity path comprised of life events. Pathways are simpler than those of depression occurrence, emphasizing the relevance of personality factors as depression determinants, and excluding disability levels, co-morbidities and social support. These novel findings need to be replicated in future studies.

  8. Adjoint analysis of the source and path sensitivities of basin-guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Steven M.; Roten, Daniel; Olsen, Kim B.

    2012-05-01

    Simulations of earthquake rupture on the southern San Andreas Fault (SAF) reveal large amplifications in the San Gabriel and Los Angeles Basins (SGB and LAB) apparently associated with long-range path effects. Geometrically similar excitation patterns can be recognized repeatedly in different SAF simulations (e.g. Love wave-like energy with predominant period around 4 s, channelled southwestwardly from the SGB into LAB), yet the amplitudes with which these distinctive wavefield patterns are excited change, depending upon source details (slip distribution, direction and velocity of rupture). We describe a method for rapid calculation of the sensitivity of such predicted wavefield features to perturbations of the source kinematics, using a time-reversed (adjoint) wavefield simulation. The calculations are analogous to those done in adjoint tomography, and the same time-reversed calculation also yields path-sensitivity kernels that give further insight into the excitation mechanism. For rupture on the southernmost 300 km of SAF, LAB excitation is greatest for slip concentrated between the northern Coachella Valley and the transverse ranges, propagating to the NE and with rupture velocities between 3250 and 3500 m s-1 along that fault segment; that is, within or slightly above the velocity range (between Rayleigh and S velocities) that is energetically precluded in the limit of a sharp rupture front, highlighting the potential value of imposing physical constraints (such as from spontaneous rupture models) on source parametrizations. LAB excitation is weak for rupture to the SW and for ruptures in either direction located north of the transverse transverse ranges, whereas Ventura Basin (VTB) is preferentially excited by NE ruptures situated north of the transverse ranges. Path kernels show that LAB excitation is mediated by surface waves deflected by the velocity contrast along the southern margin of the transverse ranges, having most of their energy in basement rock

  9. Runtime analysis of ant colony optimization on dynamic shortest path problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissovoi, Andrei; Witt, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    A simple ACO algorithm called lambda-MMAS for dynamic variants of the single-destination shortest paths problem is studied by rigorous runtime analyses. Building upon previous results for the special case of 1-MMAS, it is studied to what extent an enlarged colony using lambda ants per vertex helps...... in tracking an oscillating optimum. It is shown that easy cases of oscillations can be tracked by a constant number of ants. However, the paper also identifies more involved oscillations that with overwhelming probability cannot be tracked with any polynomial-size colony. Finally, parameters of dynamic...

  10. Sorority Affiliation and Sexual Assault Victimization: Assessing Vulnerability Using Path Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Cortney A

    2016-07-01

    The current research used survey data from 282 college women to investigate the relationship between female Greek membership and sexual assault victimization. Drawing from routine activity theory, low self-control, and social learning theory, this study tested a theoretical model that identified pertinent factors present among sorority environments to determine the relationships between Greek affiliation and sexual assault. Path analyses revealed that sorority women reported consuming more alcohol and with greater frequency, increased risk-taking behavior, delayed assessments of threat and responses to risk, and increased contact with fraternity men-all of which significantly predicted sexual assault. Future theory, research, and policy directions are proposed.

  11. Micro-macro analysis of granular material behavior along proportional strain paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicot, François; Sibille, Luc; Hicher, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    When granular materials are subjected to proportional strain loading paths, they manifest a variety of behaviors depending on the initial void ratio of the specimen as well as the imposed dilatancy/contractancy rate. In some cases, the stress components may vanish over the duration of the test, and the specimen may progressively liquefy. To investigate this behavior, the authors have developed a kinematic approach to be deployed in two parts. First, numerical simulations are performed by means of a discrete element method. Secondly, two micromechanical models have corroborated the DEM results. The performance of these models may explain a number of microstructural mechanisms responsible for the macroscopic constitutive behavior.

  12. An Analysis of the Assembly Path Planning of Decelerator Based on Virtual Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiangyang; Zhang, Tiefeng; Yang, Hanlin

    According to structural features of different components of decelerator, the general rule of three-dimensional solid modeling of components is summarized, the three-dimensional model of gear stand is built, all components are organized into groups to form a whole partial assembly, and various kinds of assembly relations are added among components, as well as hierarchical relations. Then the assembly path of decelerator is programmed, the sequence of assembling components is decided, and finally the assembly simulation is completed, laying the foundation for component disassembly. Virtual assembly technology helps to introduce advanced design approaches, improve the quality of products, reduce development cost and shorten development cycle.

  13. A Study on the Driving Factors of Food Production in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain Based on Path Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaqi; LIU; Jiazhen; LIU; Jinping; ZHANG; Yongjin; CHEN; Mengchen; XU; Chengxiang; WANG

    2015-01-01

    The effects of 14 factors on food production in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain are analyzed by path analysis in this paper,and then the linear regression models of them are established by SPSS software. The results show that electricity consumption for agriculture,growing area of crops,the affected area,annual average temperature and arable land area at the end of the year have great effects on food production. Finally some recommendations are put forward to improve the food production in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain such as improving the level of agricultural mechanization,stabilizing food production,preventing natural disasters and increasing the effective irrigation area.

  14. Analysis of Average Shortest-Path Length of Scale-Free Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyong Mao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computing the average shortest-path length of a large scale-free network needs much memory space and computation time. Hence, parallel computing must be applied. In order to solve the load-balancing problem for coarse-grained parallelization, the relationship between the computing time of a single-source shortest-path length of node and the features of node is studied. We present a dynamic programming model using the average outdegree of neighboring nodes of different levels as the variable and the minimum time difference as the target. The coefficients are determined on time measurable networks. A native array and multimap representation of network are presented to reduce the memory consumption of the network such that large networks can still be loaded into the memory of each computing core. The simplified load-balancing model is applied on a network of tens of millions of nodes. Our experiment shows that this model can solve the load-imbalance problem of large scale-free network very well. Also, the characteristic of this model can meet the requirements of networks with ever-increasing complexity and scale.

  15. A study on correlation and path analysis for seed yield and yield components in sunflower [Helianthus annuus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.Pandya, P.B.Patel, A.V. Narwade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Correlation and path coefficient analysis was carried out in 40 genotypes of sunflower [Helianthus annuus (L.]. Association analysis between seed yield per plant and other 14 characters revealed that seed yield per plant showed highly significant and positive correlation with head diameter, number of seeds per capitula, number of filled seeds per capitula and 100 seed weight at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. These seed yield per plant also possessed positive association with days to maturity, stem diameter, number of leaves per plant, leaf area at flowering, plant height, oil content and vacant inner diameter. The characters days to 50 per cent flowering, days to initiation of flower and number of unfilled seeds per capitula exhibited negative correlation with seed yield per plant. Path analysis indicated that days to 50 per cent flowering had highest positive direct effect on seed yield per plant followed by number of leaves per plant. The character days to initiation of flower exhibited high negative direct effects.

  16. Path Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    Begrebet Path Dependence blev oprindelig udviklet inden for New Institutionel Economics af bl.a. David, Arthur og North. Begrebet har spredt sig vidt i samfundsvidenskaberne og undergået en udvikling. Dette paper propagerer for at der er sket så en så omfattende udvikling af begrebet, at man nu kan...... tale om 1. og 2. generation af Path Dependence begrebet. Den nyeste udvikling af begrebet har relevans for metodologi-diskusionerne i relation til Keynes...

  17. Point and path performance of light aircraft: A review and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, F. O.; Summey, D. C.; Johnson, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    The literature on methods for predicting the performance of light aircraft is reviewed. The methods discussed in the review extend from the classical instantaneous maximum or minimum technique to techniques for generating mathematically optimum flight paths. Classical point performance techniques are shown to be adequate in many cases but their accuracies are compromised by the need to use simple lift, drag, and thrust relations in order to get closed form solutions. Also the investigation of the effect of changes in weight, altitude, configuration, etc. involves many essentially repetitive calculations. Accordingly, computer programs are provided which can fit arbitrary drag polars and power curves with very high precision and which can then use the resulting fits to compute the performance under the assumption that the aircraft is not accelerating.

  18. Kudi: A free open-source python library for the analysis of properties along reaction paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt-Geisse, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    With increasing computational capabilities, an ever growing amount of data is generated in computational chemistry that contains a vast amount of chemically relevant information. It is therefore imperative to create new computational tools in order to process and extract this data in a sensible way. Kudi is an open source library that aids in the extraction of chemical properties from reaction paths. The straightforward structure of Kudi makes it easy to use for users and allows for effortless implementation of new capabilities, and extension to any quantum chemistry package. A use case for Kudi is shown for the tautomerization reaction of formic acid. Kudi is available free of charge at www.github.com/stvogt/kudi.

  19. Social support, stress, health, and academic success in Ghanaian adolescents: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozah, Franklin N; Pevalin, David J

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the role psychosocial factors play in promoting the health and academic success of adolescents. A total of 770 adolescent boys and girls in Senior High Schools were randomly selected to complete a self-report questionnaire. School reported latest terminal examination grades were used as the measure of academic success. Structural equation modelling indicated a relatively good fit to the posteriori model with four of the hypothesised paths fully supported and two partially supported. Perceived social support was negatively related to stress and predictive of health and wellbeing but not academic success. Stress was predictive of health but not academic success. Finally, health and wellbeing was able to predict academic success. These findings have policy implications regarding efforts aimed at promoting the health and wellbeing as well as the academic success of adolescents in Ghana.

  20. Phenotypic correlations and path analysis for plant architecture traits and grain production in three generations of cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Leonardo Coelho Ribeiro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze the phenotypic correlation and path analysis of traits related to plant architecture, earliness and grain yield in F2, BC1 and BC2 generations, from crosses between cowpea cultivars BRS Carijó and BR14 Mulato. Most phenotypic correlations of the examined traits were concordant in statistical significance, with approximate values ​​among the examined generations. For the trait seed weight, significant and positive phenotypic correlations were observed in the three generations only for the trait number of secondary branches. The values ​​of the direct effects were in agreement with the values ​​of the phenotypic correlations, which indicate true association by the phenotypic correlation among the traits of grain yield examined. Path analysis indicated that the selection of productive plants will result in early plants and an increased number of secondary branches. In F2, plants with shorter length of the main branch and shorter length of secondary branches can be obtained. The causal model explained 15 to 30% of the total variation in grain weight in relation to the traits examined. The analyses indicated the possibility of selecting plants with a higher and early grain yield, shorter length of primary branches and lower number of nodes, which are important variables for mechanical or semi-mechanical harvesting.

  1. Determinants of physical activity based on the theory of planned behavior in Iranian Military Staff's Wives: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamnia Shirvani, Zeinab; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2014-11-30

    Level of physical activity as a key determinant of healthy lifestyle less than is required in individuals particularly women. Applying theories of behavioral change about complex behaviors such as physical activity leads to identify effective factors and their relations. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of physical activity behavior based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in military staff's wives in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was performed in 180 military personnel's spouses residing in organizational houses, in Tehran, Iran in 2014. The participants were randomly selected with multi-stage cluster sampling. The validity and reliability of the theory based scale evaluated before conducting the path analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS16 and LISREL8.8. The results indicated the model explained 77% and 17% of intention and behavior variance. Subjective norms (Beta=0.83) and intention (Beta=0.37) were the strongest predictors of intention and behavior, respectively. The instrumental and affective attitude had no significant path to intention and behavior. The direct relation of perceived behavioral control to behavior was non-significant. This research demonstrated relative importance and relationships of Theory of Planned Behavior constructs in physical activity behavior of military personnel's spouses in Tehran. It is essential to consider these determinants in designing of educational interventions for promoting and maintaining physical activity behavior in this target group.

  2. The concept of the spiritual path in the views of Augustine and Bernard of Clairvaux: comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Timofeev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the transformation of St. Augustine’s anthropological views in virtually unexplored in Ukraine philosophical and theological teachings of the medieval mystic Bernard of Clairvaux. Research field focused on the issues of negative and positive theological approaches, metaphysical and existential position of philosophical view of the problem of man. Based on the study of foreign scientists, outlines the key aspects of Augustinian doctrine of the human desire for God, the theoretical basis for philosophical and theological views of St. Bernard of Clairvaux. The conclusions substantiated regarding the impact of anthropological views of St. Augustine on the formation of existential components in the concept of the spiritual path of Bernard of Clairvaux. Transforming an ontological approach to the problem of man in practical sense of being in God as a form of spiritual path, St. Bernard complements the existential aspect of Christian anthropology. By means of a comparative analysis revealed the originality of the author’s approach St. Bernard to the problem of man’s spiritual development, which finds expression in the symbolic images of the spiritual marriage ­ an allegorical interpretation of the relationship between God and the soul at the highest levels of mystical contemplation. Dominant moral and practical sense in the teaching of St. Bernard is presented as a justification for the tendency to anthropological turning in medieval philosophy.

  3. Ergonomic analysis of New York apple harvest work using a Posture-Activities-Tools-Handling (PATH) work sampling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle-Richardson, G; Fulmer, S; Jenkins, P; Mason, C; Bresee, C; May, J

    2004-08-01

    Although back, neck, and shoulder strains are common among migrant and seasonal orchard workers, little data currently exist regarding the ergonomic factors contributing to this problem. We adapted Posture-Activities-Tools-Handling (PATH) instruments and methods for ergonomic job analysis of apple harvest work in three New York orchards, and used the resulting protocol to quantify hazardous activities, loads, and postures. Using a prototype developed previously, we trained twelve contract orchard observers with classroom training and supervised orchard practice. The PATH data were then collected on 14 orchard workers over four days (2,900 observations). Mean coefficients of variation ranged from a low of 0.212 (standing leg neutral) to a high of 0.603 (trunk moderate flexion). Most frequently observed activities were: picking (62.9%), placing and moving apples in the bag (8. 7%), and walking (8.1%). Weight bearing (>10 lb, >4.54 kg) was observed 78.5% of the time throughout a range of activities. Apple harvest work is comparable with other ergonomically high-risk occupations. Future research should focus on low-cost interventions that reduce load and awkward postures.

  4. pathDIP: an annotated resource for known and predicted human gene-pathway associations and pathway enrichment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Sara; Abovsky, Mark; Pastrello, Chiara; Jurisica, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Molecular pathway data are essential in current computational and systems biology research. While there are many primary and integrated pathway databases, several challenges remain, including low proteome coverage (57%), low overlap across different databases, unavailability of direct information about underlying physical connectivity of pathway members, and high fraction of protein-coding genes without any pathway annotations, i.e. ‘pathway orphans’. In order to address all these challenges, we developed pathDIP, which integrates data from 20 source pathway databases, ‘core pathways’, with physical protein–protein interactions to predict biologically relevant protein–pathway associations, referred to as ‘extended pathways’. Cross-validation determined 71% recovery rate of our predictions. Data integration and predictions increase coverage of pathway annotations for protein-coding genes to 86%, and provide novel annotations for 5732 pathway orphans. PathDIP (http://ophid.utoronto.ca/pathdip) annotates 17 070 protein-coding genes with 4678 pathways, and provides multiple query, analysis and output options. PMID:27899558

  5. The role of experiential avoidance, psychopathology, and borderline personality features in experiencing positive emotions: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Gitta A; Ower, Nicole; Buchholz, Angela

    2013-03-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) is an important factor in maintaining different forms of psychopathology including borderline personality pathology (BPD). So far little is known about the functions of EA, BPD features and general psychopathology for positive emotions. In this study we investigated three different anticipated pathways of their influence on positive emotions. A total of 334 subjects varying in general psychopathology &/or BPD features completed an online survey including self-ratings of BPD features, psychopathology, negative and positive emotions, and EA. Measures of positive emotions included both a general self-rating (PANAS) and emotional changes induced by two positive movie clips. Data were analyzed by means of path analysis. In comparing the three path models, one model was found clearly superior: In this model, EA acts as a mediator of the influence of psychopathology, BPD features, and negative emotions in the prediction of both measures of positive emotions. EA plays a central role in maintaining lack of positive emotions. Therapeutic implications and study limitations are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mathematical analysis study for radar data processing and enchancement. Part 2: Modeling of propagation path errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R.; Brownlow, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    A study is performed under NASA contract to evaluate data from an AN/FPS-16 radar installed for support of flight programs at Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA Ames Research Center. The purpose of this study is to provide information necessary for improving post-flight data reduction and knowledge of accuracy of derived radar quantities. Tracking data from six flights are analyzed. Noise and bias errors in raw tracking data are determined for each of the flights. A discussion of an altitude bias error during all of the tracking missions is included. This bias error is defined by utilizing pressure altitude measurements made during survey flights. Four separate filtering methods, representative of the most widely used optimal estimation techniques for enhancement of radar tracking data, are analyzed for suitability in processing both real-time and post-mission data. Additional information regarding the radar and its measurements, including typical noise and bias errors in the range and angle measurements, is also presented. This report is in two parts. This is part 2, a discussion of the modeling of propagation path errors.

  7. Path analysis of relationship among personality, perceived stress, coping, social support, and psychological outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Feizi, Awat; Afshar, Hamid; Mazaheri, Mina; Behnamfar, Omid; Hassanzadeh-Keshteli, Ammar; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To provide a structural model of the relationship between personality traits, perceived stress, coping strategies, social support, and psychological outcomes in the general population. METHODS: This is a cross sectional study in which the study group was selected using multistage cluster and convenience sampling among a population of 4 million. For data collection, a total of 4763 individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire on demographics, personality traits, life events, coping with stress, social support, and psychological outcomes such as anxiety and depression. To evaluate the comprehensive relationship between the variables, a path model was fitted. RESULTS: The standard electronic modules showed that personality traits and perceived stress are important determinants of psychological outcomes. Social support and coping strategies were demonstrated to reduce the increasing cumulative positive effects of neuroticism and perceived stress on the psychological outcomes and enhance the protective effect of extraversion through decreasing the positive effect of perceived stress on the psychological outcomes. CONCLUSION: Personal resources play an important role in reduction and prevention of anxiety and depression. In order to improve the psychological health, it is necessary to train and reinforce the adaptive coping strategies and social support, and thus, to moderate negative personality traits. PMID:27354968

  8. Path Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnøe, Peter; Garud, Raghu

    2012-01-01

    This paper employs path creation as a lens to follow the emergence of the Danish wind turbine cluster. Supplier competencies, regulations, user preferences and a market for wind power did not pre-exist; all had to emerge in a tranformative manner involving multiple actors and artefacts. Competenc......This paper employs path creation as a lens to follow the emergence of the Danish wind turbine cluster. Supplier competencies, regulations, user preferences and a market for wind power did not pre-exist; all had to emerge in a tranformative manner involving multiple actors and artefacts....... Competencies emerged through processes and mechanisms such as co-creation that implicated multiple learning processes. The process was not an orderly linear one as emergent contingencies influenced the learning processes. An implication is that public policy to catalyse clusters cannot be based...

  9. Relative permeability of hydrate-bearing sediments from percolation theory and critical path analysis: theoretical and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, H.; Rice, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Relative permeabilities to water and gas are important parameters for accurate modeling of the formation of methane hydrate deposits and production of methane from hydrate reservoirs. Experimental measurements of gas and water permeability in the presence of hydrate are difficult to obtain. The few datasets that do exist suggest that relative permeability obeys a power law relationship with water or gas saturation with exponents ranging from around 2 to greater than 10. Critical path analysis and percolation theory provide a framework for interpreting the saturation-dependence of relative permeability based on percolation thresholds and the breadth of pore size distributions, which may be determined easily from 3-D images or gas adsorption-desorption hysteresis. We show that the exponent of the permeability-saturation relationship for relative permeability to water is related to the breadth of the pore size distribution, with broader pore size distributions corresponding to larger exponents. Relative permeability to water in well-sorted sediments with narrow pore size distributions, such as Berea sandstone or Toyoura sand, follows percolation scaling with an exponent of 2. On the other hand, pore-size distributions determined from argon adsorption measurements we performed on clays from the Nankai Trough suggest that relative permeability to water in fine-grained intervals may be characterized by exponents as large as 10 as determined from critical path analysis. We also show that relative permeability to the gas phase follows percolation scaling with a quadratic dependence on gas saturation, but the threshold gas saturation for percolation changes with hydrate saturation, which is an important consideration in systems in which both hydrate and gas are present, such as during production from a hydrate reservoir. Our work shows how measurements of pore size distributions from 3-D imaging or gas adsorption may be used to determine relative permeabilities.

  10. Relative permeability of hydrate-bearing sediments from percolation theory and critical path analysis: theoretical and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas at Austin; Rice, Mary Anna [North Carolina State University; Daigle, Hugh

    2015-12-14

    Relative permeabilities to water and gas are important parameters for accurate modeling of the formation of methane hydrate deposits and production of methane from hydrate reservoirs. Experimental measurements of gas and water permeability in the presence of hydrate are difficult to obtain. The few datasets that do exist suggest that relative permeability obeys a power law relationship with water or gas saturation with exponents ranging from around 2 to greater than 10. Critical path analysis and percolation theory provide a framework for interpreting the saturation-dependence of relative permeability based on percolation thresholds and the breadth of pore size distributions, which may be determined easily from 3-D images or gas adsorption-desorption hysteresis. We show that the exponent of the permeability-saturation relationship for relative permeability to water is related to the breadth of the pore size distribution, with broader pore size distributions corresponding to larger exponents. Relative permeability to water in well-sorted sediments with narrow pore size distributions, such as Berea sandstone or Toyoura sand, follows percolation scaling with an exponent of 2. On the other hand, pore-size distributions determined from argon adsorption measurements we performed on clays from the Nankai Trough suggest that relative permeability to water in fine-grained intervals may be characterized by exponents as large as 10 as determined from critical path analysis. We also show that relative permeability to the gas phase follows percolation scaling with a quadratic dependence on gas saturation, but the threshold gas saturation for percolation changes with hydrate saturation, which is an important consideration in systems in which both hydrate and gas are present, such as during production from a hydrate reservoir. Our work shows how measurements of pore size distributions from 3-D imaging or gas adsorption may be used to determine relative permeabilities.

  11. Meta-Analysis inside and outside Particle Physics: Convergence Using the Path of Least Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dan; Baker, Rose

    2013-01-01

    In this note, we explain how the method proposed by Hartung and Knapp provides a compromise between conventional meta-analysis methodology and "unconstrained averaging", as used by the Particle Data Group.

  12. Linking predators to seasonality of upwelling: Using food web indicators and path analysis to infer trophic connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sarah Ann; Sydeman, William J.; Santora, Jarrod A.; Black, Bryan A.; Suryan, Robert M.; Calambokidis, John; Peterson, William T.; Bograd, Steven J.

    2012-08-01

    Upwelling in eastern boundary current systems is a primary driver of ecosystem productivity. Typically, peak upwelling occurs during spring and summer, but winter upwelling may also be important to ecosystem functions. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that winter and spring/summer upwelling, operating through indirect trophic interactions, are important to a suite of top predators in the California Current. To test this hypothesis, we collated information on upwelling, chlorophyll-a concentrations, zooplankton and forage fish, and related these to predator responses including rockfish growth, salmon abundance, seabird productivity and phenology (timing of egg-laying), and whale abundance. Seabird diets served in part as food web indicators. We modeled pathways of response using path analysis and tested for significance of the dominant paths with multiple regression. We found support for the hypothesis that relationships between upwelling and top predator variables were mediated primarily by intermediate trophic levels. Both winter and summer upwelling were important in path models, as were intermediate lower and mid trophic level functional groups represented by chlorophyll-a, zooplankton, and forage fish. Significant pathways of response explained from 50% to 80% of the variation of seabird (Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) and common murre (Uria aalge)), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) dependent variables, whereas splitnose rockfish (Sebastes diploproa) showed no significant response pathways. Upwelling and trophic responses for salmon were established for both the year of ocean entry and the year of return, with zooplankton important in the year of ocean entry and forage fish important in the year of return. This study provides one of the first comparative investigations between upwelling and predators, from fish to marine mammals and birds within a geographically restricted area

  13. The Effect of Prior Experience with Computers, Statistical Self-Efficacy, and Computer Anxiety on Students' Achievement in an Introductory Statistics Course: A Partial Least Squares Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry M.

    2005-01-01

    A Partial Least Squares Path Analysis technique was used to test the effect of students' prior experience with computers, statistical self-efficacy, and computer anxiety on their achievement in an introductory statistics course. Computer Anxiety Rating Scale and Current Statistics Self-Efficacy Scale were administered to a sample of 64 first-year…

  14. The Perceptions of Temporal Path Analysis of Learners' Self-Regulation on Learning Stress and Social Relationships in Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiu-Ju

    2016-01-01

    This research focus on the temporal path analysis of learning stress, test anxiety, peer stress (classmate relatedness), teacher relatedness, autonomy, and self-regulative performance in junior high school. Owing to the processes of self-determination always combines several negotiations with the interactive perceptions of personal experiences and…

  15. Openness to Experience and Night-Sky Watching Interest as Predictors of Reading for Pleasure: Path Analysis of a Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William E.

    2010-01-01

    The relation between reading for pleasure, night-sky watching interest, and openness to experience were examined in a sample of 129 college students. Results of a path analysis examining a mediation model indicated that the influence of night-sky interest on reading for pleasure was not mediated by the broad personality domain openness to…

  16. The Health Action Process Approach as a Motivational Model of Dietary Self-Management for People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chung-Yi; Lynch, Ruth Torkelson; Chan, Fong; Rose, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the health action process approach (HAPA) as a motivational model for dietary self-management for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Quantitative descriptive research design using path analysis was used. Participants were 209 individuals with MS recruited from the National MS Society and a…

  17. Path Analysis of Work Family Conflict, Job Salary and Promotion Satisfaction, Work Engagement to Subjective Well-Being of the Primary and Middle School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chun-mei; Cui, Shu-jing; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the path analysis of work family conflict, job salary and promotion satisfaction, work engagement to subjective well-being of the primary and middle school principals, and provide advice for enhancing their well-being. Methods: Using convenient sampling, totally 300 primary and middle school principals completed the WFC,…

  18. MMSE and ZF Analysis of Macrodiversity MIMO Systems and Wimax Networks over Flat Rayleigh Fading Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.T.V.S.Prasad Gupta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the large scale MIMO systems in which the number of users are gradually increased at that time the receiving antennas performance also decreased gradually. In contrast, almost no analytical results are available for macro diversity systems where both the sources and receive antennas are widely separated. Here, receive antennas experience unequal average SNRs from a source and receiver antenna receives a different average SNR from each source. Although this is an extremely difficult problem,In this paper, we provide approximate distributions for the output SNR of a ZF receiver and the output signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR of an MMSE receiver. In addition, simple high SNR approximations are provided for the symbol error rate (SER of both receivers assuming M-PSK or M-QAM modulations .For better performance of receivers we can also implement the MMSE and ZF analysis in Wimax networks.

  19. Thermal optical path difference analysis of off-axis lens ray trace foot-print at Cassegrain telescope correct lens assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming-Ying; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Chan, Chia-Yen; Lin, Wei-Cheng; Chan, Shenq-Tsong; Huang, Ting-Ming

    2012-10-01

    The Cassegrain telescope system in this study, is discussion correct lens thermal OPD (Optical Path Difference) effect optical performance. The correct lens assembly are includes several components such as correct lens, lens mount, spacer, mount barrel and retainer. The heat transfer from surrounding to the correct lens barrel will causes optical system aberration. Meanwhile, the off-axis rays path of the OPD must consider lens incidence point and emergence point. The correct lens temperature distribution is calculate the lens barrel heat transfer analysis, the thermal distortion and stress are solve by FEM (Finite Element Method) software. The temperature calculation results can be weighting to each incidence ray path and calculate thermal OPD. The thermal OPD on Z-direction can be fitted by rigid body motion and Zernike polynomial. The fitting results can be used to evaluate the thermal effect on correct lens assembly in telescope system.

  20. Hardware Genetic Algorithm Optimization by Critical Path Analysis using a Custom VLSI Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Smith

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper propose a Virtual-Field Programmable Gate Array (V-FPGA architecture that allows direct access to its configuration bits to facilitate hardware evolution, thereby allowing any combinational or sequential digital circuit to be realized. By using the V-FPGA, this paper investigates two possible ways of making evolutionary hardware systems more scalable: by optimizing the system’s genetic algorithm (GA; and by decomposing the solution circuit into smaller, evolvable sub-circuits. GA optimization is done by: omitting a canonical GA’s crossover operator (i.e. by using a 1+λ algorithm; applying evolution constraints; and optimizing the fitness function. A noteworthy contribution this research has made is the in-depth analysis of the phenotypes’ CPs. Through analyzing the CPs, it has been shown that a great amount of insight can be gained into a phenotype’s fitness. We found that as the number of columns in the Cartesian Genetic Programming array increases, so the likelihood of an external output being placed in the column decreases. Furthermore, the number of used LEs per column also substantially decreases per added column. Finally, we demonstrated the evolution of a state-decomposed control circuit. It was shown that the evolution of each state’s sub-circuit was possible, and suggest that modular evolution can be a successful tool when dealing with scalability.

  1. Dynamic analysis and control PID path of a model type gantry crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina-Henao, P. A.; López-Suspes, Framsol

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents an alternate form for the dynamic modelling of a mechanical system that simulates in real life a gantry crane type, using Euler’s classical mechanics and Lagrange formalism, which allows find the equations of motion that our model describe. Moreover, it has a basic model design system using the SolidWorks software, based on the material and dimensions of the model provides some physical variables necessary for modelling. In order to verify the theoretical results obtained, a contrast was made between solutions obtained by simulation in SimMechanics-Matlab and Euler-Lagrange equations system, has been solved through Matlab libraries for solving equation’s systems of the type and order obtained. The force is determined, but not as exerted by the spring, as this will be the control variable. The objective is to bring the mass of the pendulum from one point to another with a specified distance without the oscillation from it, so that, the answer is overdamped. This article includes an analysis of PID control in which the equations of motion of Euler-Lagrange are rewritten in the state space, once there, they were implemented in Simulink to get the natural response of the system to a step input in F and then draw the desired trajectories.

  2. Trait association and path coefficient analysis for yield and yield attributing traits in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Goudappagoudra, R. Lokesha, and A.R.G. Ranganatha

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation and path coefficient analysis was performed in one hundred and twenty F4 families of sesame, during kharif, 2010 on ten quantitative traits: days to 50 per cent flowering, days to maturity, plant height, distance from ground to first capsule, number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, capsule length, number of seeds per capsule, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. Seed yield per plant showed significant positive association with number of capsules, number of seeds, number of branches per plant, plant height and 1000 seed weight. The magnitude of correlation was the highest in case of number of capsules per plant(r=0.7302. Number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule and 1000 seed weight had high and positive direct effect on seed yield. The indirect effect of number of capsules per plant via days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of branches per plant on seed yield was high and positive. Selection for these characters may be useful in increasing seed yield in sesame.

  3. Childhood sexual abuse, intimate partner violence during pregnancy, and posttraumatic stress symptoms following childbirth: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Aline Gaudard E Silva de; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Howard, Louise Michele; Lobato, Gustavo

    2016-12-28

    The aim of the study was to explore the pathways by which childhood sexual abuse (CSA), psychological and physical intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy, and other covariates relate to each other and to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in the postpartum period. The sample comprised 456 women who gave birth at a maternity service for high-risk pregnancies in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, interviewed at 6-8 weeks after birth. A path analysis was carried out to explore the postulated pathways between exposures and outcome. Trauma History Questionnaire, Conflict Tactics Scales and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist were used to assess information about exposures of main interest and outcome. The link between CSA and PTSD symptoms was mediated by history of trauma, psychiatric history, psychological IPV, and fear of childbirth during pregnancy. Physical IPV was directly associated with postnatal PTSD symptoms, whereas psychological IPV connection seemed to be partially mediated by physical abuse and fear of childbirth during pregnancy. The role of CSA, IPV, and other psychosocial characteristics on the occurrence of PTSD symptoms following childbirth as well as the intricate network of these events should be acknowledged in clinic and intervention approaches.

  4. Electricity Demand Projection Using a Path-Coefficient Analysis and BAG-SA Approach: A Case Study of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunli Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Path-coefficient analysis is utilized to investigate the direct and indirect effects of economic growth, population growth, urbanization rate, industrialization level, and carbon intensity on electricity demand of China. To improve the projection accuracy of electricity demand, this study proposes a hybrid bat algorithm, Gaussian perturbations, and simulated annealing (BAG-SA optimization method. The proposed BAG-SA algorithm not only inherits the simplicity and efficiency of the standard BA with a capability of searching for global optimality but also enhances local search ability and speeds up the global convergence rate. The BAG-SA algorithm is employed to optimize the coefficients of the multiple linear and quadratic forms of electricity demand estimation model. Results indicate that the proposed algorithm has higher precision and reliability than the coefficients optimized by other single-optimization methods, such as genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm, or bat algorithm. And the quadratic form of BAG-SA electricity demand estimation model has better fitting ability compared with the multiple linear form of the model. Therefore, the quadratic form of the model is applied to estimate electricity demand of China from 2016 to 2030. The findings of this study demonstrate that China’s electricity demand will reach 14925200 million KWh in 2030.

  5. The Effects of Visual Attention Span and Phonological Decoding in Reading Comprehension in Dyslexia: A Path Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Schneps, Matthew H; Masyn, Katherine E; Thomson, Jennifer M

    2016-11-01

    Increasing evidence has shown visual attention span to be a factor, distinct from phonological skills, that explains single-word identification (pseudo-word/word reading) performance in dyslexia. Yet, little is known about how well visual attention span explains text comprehension. Observing reading comprehension in a sample of 105 high school students with dyslexia, we used a pathway analysis to examine the direct and indirect path between visual attention span and reading comprehension while controlling for other factors such as phonological awareness, letter identification, short-term memory, IQ and age. Integrating phonemic decoding efficiency skills in the analytic model, this study aimed to disentangle how visual attention span and phonological skills work together in reading comprehension for readers with dyslexia. We found visual attention span to have a significant direct effect on more difficult reading comprehension but not on an easier level. It also had a significant direct effect on pseudo-word identification but not on word identification. In addition, we found that visual attention span indirectly explains reading comprehension through pseudo-word reading and word reading skills. This study supports the hypothesis that at least part of the dyslexic profile can be explained by visual attention abilities. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Science Learning: A path analysis of its links with reading comprehension, question-asking in class and science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Francisco; García, Ángela; Berbén, A. B. G.; Justicia, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to build and test a conceptual model of the complex interrelationships between students' learning in science (learning approaches and self-regulation), their reading comprehension, question-asking in class and science achievement. These variables were measured by means of a test and a series of questionnaires administered to 604 ninth-grade students, and the data collected were analysed using a correlational, cross-sectional design. Results of a path analysis indicated that (a) students' self-regulated and intentional knowledge-constructing activity (self-regulated strategy use, deep approach and knowledge-building) were what chiefly accounted for their question-asking in class; (b) question-asking (high and low levels) was related directly to reading comprehension and indirectly, through its contribution to the this, to academic achievement; (c) reading comprehension was directly and negatively associated with surface approach and indirectly and positively related to deep approach and knowledge-building; and (d) some of these variables, particularly reading comprehension, accounted for academic achievement in science. This model explained nearly 30% of the variance in academic achievement and provided a substantial and distinctive insight into the web of interrelationships among these variables. Implications for future research and science teaching and learning are discussed (e.g. the importance of supporting students' efforts to learn science in a meaningful, active and self-regulated way and of improving their reading comprehension).

  7. CORRELATION AND PATH ANALYSIS OF SEED YIELD AND YIELD CONTRIBUTING COMPONENTS OF BLACKGRAM ( VIGNA MUNGO L. HEPPER UNDER RAINFED CONDITION FROM ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vijay Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation coefficient and path analysis studies werecarried out with seventeen parents (fourteen lines and three testers resulting 42 F1crosses for fifteen yield contributing component characters. The phenotypic and genotypic correlation analysis revealed that seed yield was highly significantly and positively correlated with number of branches, number of clusters, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant pod weight, total biomass and also highly significantly and positively correlated among themselves. Path coefficient analysis for seed yield revealed that significant phenotypic and genotypic direct effect with seeds per plant, 100 seed weight, harvest index, pod weight and number of clusters per plant. Hence selection for these characters may be carried out in the field and lab for overall yield improvement in blackgram.

  8. Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.; Roberts, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences associated with development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in the two less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in the more developed sites. Thematically, people in the two less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community-based solutions, while people in the more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in the two water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in the water-rich sites. Thematically, people in the two water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in the water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.

  9. TRACING EFFICIENT PATH USING WEB PATH TRACING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Joshila Grace

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the fast improving society, people depend on online purchase of goods than spending time physically. So there are lots of resources emerged for this online buying and selling of materials. Efficient and attractive web sites would be the best to sell the goods to people. To know whether a web site is reaching the mind of the customers or not, a high speed analysis is done periodically by the web developers. This works helps for the web site developers in knowing the weaker and stronger section of their web site. Parameters like frequency and utility are used for quantitative and qualitative analysis respectively. Addition to this down loads, book marks and the like/dislike of the particular web site is also considered. A new web path trace tree structure is implemented. A mathematical implementation is done to predict the efficient pattern used by the web site visitors.

  10. Shortest multiple disconnected path for the analysis of entanglements in two- and three-dimensional polymeric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Martin

    2005-06-01

    We present an algorithm which returns a shortest path and related number of entanglements for a given configuration of a polymeric system in 2 or 3 dimensions. Rubinstein and Helfand, and later Everaers et al. introduced a concept to extract primitive paths for dense polymeric melts made of linear chains (a multiple disconnected multibead 'path'), where each primitive path is defined as a path connecting the (space-fixed) ends of a polymer under the constraint of non-interpenetration (excluded volume) between primitive paths of different chains, such that the multiple disconnected path fulfills a minimization criterion. The present algorithm uses geometrical operations and provides a—model independent—efficient approximate solution to this challenging problem. Primitive paths are treated as 'infinitely' thin (we further allow for finite thickness to model excluded volume), and tensionless lines rather than multibead chains, excluded volume is taken into account without a force law. The present implementation allows to construct a shortest multiple disconnected path (SP) for 2D systems (polymeric chain within spherical obstacles) and an optimal SP for 3D systems (collection of polymeric chains). The number of entanglements is then simply obtained from the SP as either the number of interior kinks, or from the average length of a line segment. Further, information about structure and potentially also the dynamics of entanglements is immediately available from the SP. We apply the method to study the 'concentration' dependence of the degree of entanglement in phantom chain systems. Program summaryTitle of program:Z Catalogue number:ADVG Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVG Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: Silicon Graphics (Irix), Sun (Solaris), PC (Linux) Operating systems or monitors under which the

  11. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of yield and yield component in some of broad bean (Vicia faba l. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifi Peyman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean is a grain legume and grown for its high protein content in the seed. It is also serves as a rotational crop which play great role in controlling disease epidemics in areas were cereal mono-cropping is abundant. Yield in faba bean, similar to the other crops, is a complex trait and constitute by many of morphological and physiological traits. This study was carried out during 2011-12 and 2012-13 in two region of Iran including Guilan and Lorestan provinces. Field experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications and ten genotypes. The results of combined analysis of variance indicated that the studied genotypes differed significantly for all of the studied traits. The results indicated also environment effect and environment × genotype interaction effects were significant or highly significant for all of the traits. The highest seed yield were determined for genotype 1 (3159.9 and 4016.9 kg ha-1 at 2012 and 2013, respectively in Guilan and genotype 5 (495.44 kg ha-1 in Lorestan. The results of correlation analysis indicated that there were positive significant correlation coefficients between seed yield and seed length (LS, seed width (WS, pod length (PL and hundred seed weight (HSW in Guilan province at two cropping season. Path coefficient analysis indicated that traits containing number of pod per plant, number of steam per plant, pod length, seed length/width ratio and hundred seed weight had the highest positive direct effects on dry seed yield in studied faba bean genotypes. Attention should be paid to some of characters such as pod length, hundred seed weight, number of pods per plant and number of stems per plant for augmentation of seed yield and these traits could be used as selection criteria in faba bean breeding programs. These findings indicate that selection for each or full of the above traits would be accompanied by high yielding ability under such conditions. It could be

  12. Light extraction efficiency of GaN-based LED with pyramid texture by using ray path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jui-Wen; Wang, Chia-Shen

    2012-09-10

    We study three different gallium-nitride (GaN) based light emitting diode (LED) cases based on the different locations of the pyramid textures. In case 1, the pyramid texture is located on the sapphire top surface, in case 2, the pyramid texture is locate on the P-GaN top surface, while in case 3, the pyramid texture is located on both the sapphire and P-GaN top surfaces. We study the relationship between the light extraction efficiency (LEE) and angle of slant of the pyramid texture. The optimization of total LEE was highest for case 3 among the three cases. Moreover, the seven escape paths along which most of the escaped photon flux propagated were selected in a simulation of the LEDs. The seven escape paths were used to estimate the slant angle for the optimization of LEE and to precisely analyze the photon escape path.

  13. XML Database Storing Strategy Based on Schema Path Analysis%基于Schema路径分析的XML数据库存储策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱震; 左春

    2003-01-01

    With XML standards playing more and more important role at information exchanges in data management,the XML database storing strategy which supports huge amount XML data control from bottom layer of database hasbecome the key part of fields such as content management. This article proposes an efficiently XML storing strategyfrom the perspective of constraint schema of XML instance based on XML Schema path analysis.

  14. [Body image dissatisfaction as a mediator of the association between BMI, self-esteem and mental health in early adolescents: a multiple-group path analysis across gender].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi Heui; Lee, Gyungjoo

    2013-04-01

    This study was done to examine not only the relationships between body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, body image dissatisfaction (BID) and mental health, according to gender, but the mediating role of BID on mental health in relation to BMI and self-esteem among early adolescents. Data from 576 (296 boys and 280 girls) elementary school students in grades 5 to 6 were collected. A multiple-group path analysis was utilized to examine the relationships between BMI, self-esteem, BID and mental health by gender. In the path analysis for all students, poor mental health was related directly to BID, while it was indirectly related to BMI and self-esteem. In the multiple-group path analysis of both genders, BID was found to have a significant direct and indirect effect on mental health for girls alone. The findings suggested that BID should be examined early to prevent poor mental health in early adolescent girls. This study helps to elucidate the role of early adolescent BID on mental health and provides insight for further prevention and intervention programs in school and community mental health settings.

  15. Identification of 'carbon hot-spots' and quantification of GHG intensities in the biodiesel supply chain using hybrid LCA and structural path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaye, Adolf A; Wiedmann, Thomas; Feng, Kuishang; Crawford, Robert H; Barrett, John; Kuylenstierna, Johan; Duffy, Aidan P; Koh, S C Lenny; McQueen-Mason, Simon

    2011-03-15

    It is expected that biodiesel production in the EU will remain the dominant contributor as part of a 10% minimum binding target for biofuel in transportation fuel by 2020 within the 20% renewable energy target in the overall EU energy mix. Life cycle assessments (LCA) of biodiesel to evaluate its environmental impacts have, however, remained questionable, mainly because of the adoption of a traditional process analysis approach resulting in system boundary truncation and because of issues regarding the impacts of land use change and N(2)O emissions from fertilizer application. In this study, a hybrid LCA methodology is used to evaluate the life cycle CO(2) equivalent emissions of rape methyl ester (RME) biodiesel. The methodology uses input-output analysis to estimate upstream indirect emissions in order to complement traditional process LCA in a hybrid framework. It was estimated that traditional LCA accounted for 2.7 kg CO(2)-eq per kg of RME or 36.6% of total life cycle emissions of the RME supply chin. Further to the inclusion of upstream indirect impacts in the LCA system (which accounted for 23% of the total life cycle emissions), emissions due to direct land use change (6%) and indirect land use change (16.5%) and N(2)O emissions from fertilizer applications (17.9%) were also calculated. Structural path analysis is used to decompose upstream indirect emissions paths of the biodiesel supply chain in order to identify, quantify, and rank high carbon emissions paths or 'hot-spots' in the biodiesel supply chain. It was shown, for instance, that inputs from the 'Other Chemical Products' sector (identified as phosphoric acid, H(3)PO(4)) into the biodiesel production process represented the highest carbon emission path (or hot-spot) with 5.35% of total upstream indirect emissions of the RME biodiesel supply chain.

  16. Using path analysis to examine causal relationships among balanced scorecard performance indicators for general hospitals: the case of a public hospital system in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Chin; Tung, Yu-Chi

    2006-01-01

    Examining whether the causal relationships among the performance indicators of the balanced scorecard (BSC) framework exist in hospitals is the aim of this article. Data were collected from all twenty-one general hospitals in a public hospital system and their supervising agency for the 3-year period, 2000-2002. The results of the path analyses identified significant causal relationships among four perspectives in the BSC model. We also verified the relationships among indicators within each perspective, some of which varied as time changed. We conclude that hospital administrators can use path analysis to help them identify and manage leading indicators when adopting the BSC model. However, they should also validate causal relationships between leading and lagging indicators periodically because the management environment changes constantly.

  17. Oscillation Susceptibility Analysis of the ADMIRE Aircraft along the Path of Longitudinal Flight Equilibriums in Two Different Mathematical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Ionita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The oscillation susceptibility of the ADMIRE aircraft along the path of longitudinal flight equilibriums is analyzed numerically in the general and in a simplified flight model. More precisely, the longitudinal flight equilibriums, the stability of these equilibriums, and the existence of bifurcations along the path of these equilibriums are researched in both models. Maneuvers and appropriate piloting tasks for the touch-down moment are simulated in both models. The computed results obtained in the models are compared in order to see if the movement concerning the landing phase computed in the simplified model is similar to that computed in the general model. The similarity we find is not a proof of the structural stability of the simplified system, what as far we know never been made, but can increase the confidence that the simplified system correctly describes the real phenomenon.

  18. PATH: a work sampling-based approach to ergonomic job analysis for construction and other non-repetitive work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, B; Paquet, V; Punnett, L; Lee, D; Moir, S

    1996-06-01

    A high prevalence and incidence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders have been reported in construction work. Unlike industrial production-line activity, construction work, as well as work in many other occupations (e.g. agriculture, mining), is non-repetitive in nature; job tasks are non-cyclic, or consist of long or irregular cycles. PATH (Posture, Activity, Tools and Handling), a work sampling-based approach, was developed to characterize the ergonomic hazards of construction and other non-repetitive work. The posture codes in the PATH method are based on the Ovako Work Posture Analysing System (OWAS), with other codes included for describing worker activity, tool use, loads handled and grasp type. For heavy highway construction, observations are stratified by construction stage and operation, using a taxonomy developed specifically for this purpose. Observers can code the physical characteristics of the job reliably after about 30 h of training. A pilot study of six construction laborers during four road construction operations suggests that laborers spend large proportions of time in nonneutral trunk postures and spend approximately 20% of their time performing manual material handling tasks. These results demonstrate how the PATH method can be used to identify specific construction operations and tasks that are ergonomically hazardous.

  19. Performance analysis of multi-radio routing protocol in cognitive radio ad hoc networks under different path failure rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che-Aron, Z.; Abdalla, A. H.; Abdullah, K.; Hassan, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, Cognitive Radio (CR) technology has largely attracted significant studies and research. Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Network (CRAHN) is an emerging self-organized, multi-hop, wireless network which allows unlicensed users to opportunistically access available licensed spectrum bands for data communication under an intelligent and cautious manner. However, in CRAHNs, a lot of failures can easily occur during data transmission caused by PU (Primary User) activity, topology change, node fault, or link degradation. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the performance of the Multi-Radio Link-Quality Source Routing (MR-LQSR) protocol in CRAHNs under different path failure rate. In the MR-LQSR protocol, the Weighted Cumulative Expected Transmission Time (WCETT) is used as the routing metric. The simulations are carried out using the NS-2 simulator. The protocol performance is evaluated with respect to performance metrics like average throughput, packet loss, average end-to-end delay and average jitter. From the simulation results, it is observed that the number of path failures depends on the PUs number and mobility rate of SUs (Secondary Users). Moreover, the protocol performance is greatly affected when the path failure rate is high, leading to major service outages.

  20. Using meta-analytic path analysis to test theoretical predictions in health behavior: An illustration based on meta-analyses of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Chan, Derwin K C; Protogerou, Cleo; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2016-08-01

    Synthesizing research on social cognitive theories applied to health behavior is an important step in the development of an evidence base of psychological factors as targets for effective behavioral interventions. However, few meta-analyses of research on social cognitive theories in health contexts have conducted simultaneous tests of theoretically-stipulated pattern effects using path analysis. We argue that conducting path analyses of meta-analytic effects among constructs from social cognitive theories is important to test nomological validity, account for mediation effects, and evaluate unique effects of theory constructs independent of past behavior. We illustrate our points by conducting new analyses of two meta-analyses of a popular theory applied to health behaviors, the theory of planned behavior. We conducted meta-analytic path analyses of the theory in two behavioral contexts (alcohol and dietary behaviors) using data from the primary studies included in the original meta-analyses augmented to include intercorrelations among constructs and relations with past behavior missing from the original analysis. Findings supported the nomological validity of the theory and its hypotheses for both behaviors, confirmed important model processes through mediation analysis, demonstrated the attenuating effect of past behavior on theory relations, and provided estimates of the unique effects of theory constructs independent of past behavior. Our analysis illustrates the importance of conducting a simultaneous test of theory-stipulated effects in meta-analyses of social cognitive theories applied to health behavior. We recommend researchers adopt this analytic procedure when synthesizing evidence across primary tests of social cognitive theories in health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Age dating of shallow groundwater with chlorofluorocarbons, tritium/helium 3, and flow path analysis, southern New Jersey coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Z.; Rice, D.E.; Plummer, L.N.; Busenberg, E.; Drenkard, S.; Schlosser, P.

    1996-01-01

    Groundwater age dating through the combination of transient tracer methods (chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and tritium/helium 3 (3H/3He)) and groundwater flow path analysis is useful for investigating groundwater travel times, flow patterns, and recharge rates, as demonstrated by this study of the homogeneous shallow, unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the southern New Jersey coastal plain. Water samples for age dating were collected from three sets of nested observation wells (10 wells) with 1.5-m-long screens located near groundwater divides. Three steady state finite difference groundwater flow models were calibrated by adjusting horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities to match measured heads and head differences (range, 0.002-0.23 m) among the nested wells, with a uniform recharge rate of 0.46 m per year and porosities of 0.35 (sand) and 0.45 (silt) that were assumed constant for all model simulations and travel time calculations. The simulated groundwater travel times increase with depth in the aquifer, ranging from about 1.5 to 6.5 years for the shallow wells (screen bottoms 3-4 m below the water table), from about 10 to 25 years for the medium-depth wells (screen bottoms 8-19 m below the water table), and from about 30 to more than 40 years for the deep wells (screen bottoms 24-26 m below the water table). Apparent groundwater ages based on CFC- and 3H/3He-dating techniques and model-based travel times could not be statistically differentiated, and all were strongly correlated with depth. Confinement of 3He was high because of the rapid vertical flow velocity (of the order of 1 m/yr), resulting in clear delineation of groundwater travel times based on the 3H/3He-dating technique. The correspondence between the 3H/3He and CFC ages indicates that dispersion has had a minimal effect on the tracer-based ages of water in this aquifer. Differences between the tracer-based apparent ages for seven of the 10 samples were smaller than the error values

  2. Comparison of ion sites and diffusion paths in glasses obtained by molecular dynamics simulations and bond valence analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Christian; Zienicke, Egbert; Adams, Stefan; Habasaki, Junko; Maass, Philipp

    2006-01-01

    Based on molecular dynamics simulations of a lithium metasilicate glass we study the potential of bond valence sum calculations to identify sites and diffusion pathways of mobile Li ions in a glassy silicate network. We find that the bond valence method is not well suitable to locate the sites, but allows one to estimate the number of sites. Spatial regions of the glass determined as accessible for the Li ions by the bond valence method can capture up to 90% of the diffusion path. These regio...

  3. Genotypic Variability of the Components and their Effects on the Rice Yield: Correlation and Path Analysis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkhawat Hossain

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty modern Boro rice varieties were evaluated with a view to find variability and genetic association for grain yield and yield components characters. Genotypic and Phenotypic correlation among these characters were computed. Both genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients were significant between plant height and number of effective tillers per plant followed by panicle length. There was a positive significant correlation between yield and number of effective tillers per plant followed by percent filled grain per panicle. Path coefficient showed that number of effective tiller per plant and plant height are the characters that contribute largely to grain yield.

  4. 12 CFR 360.1 - Least-cost resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section 13(c)(4)(G) of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1823 (c)(4)(G)), the FDIC shall not take any action, directly or indirectly, under sections 13(c), 13(d), 13(f), 13(h) or 13(k) of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1823... section 13(c)(4)(A) of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1823(c)(4)(A)), paragraph (a) of this section shall not...

  5. APECS: A family of optimization products for least cost generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrill, E.; Stallings, J. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Shea, S. [Praxis Engineering, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Reducing costs of power generation is the primary focus of many power generators today in efforts to prepare for competition in a deregulated market, to increase profitability, or to retain customers. To help power generators track and manage power generation costs, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) offers APECS{sup plus}, one of EPRI`s APECS - Advisory Plant and Environmental Control System - family of optimization products for fossil power plants. The APECS family of products provides tools and techniques to optimize costs, as well as NO{sub x} emissions and performance, in fossil power plants. These products include APECS{sup plus}, GNOCIS, and ULTRAMAX{reg_sign}. The products have varying degrees of functionality and their application at a power plant will depend on the site-specific needs and resources in each case. This paper describes APECS{sup plus}, the cost management product of the APECS family of optimization products. The other key products in this family, GNOCIS and ULTRAMAX{reg_sign}, are mentioned here and described in more detail in the literature.

  6. Secured electrical supply at least cost: Coal, gas, nuclear, hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavor, J. [ENA Ltd., Prague (Czechoslovakia); Stary, O.; Vasicek, J. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Electric power sector in East Central European countries finds in a difficult period. In the situation of demand stagnation, enormous investments must be realized in a very short time. Today`s decisions in the development strategy will influence the long term future of the industry. The optimal structure of the sources is one of the most important problem to be solved. Paper describes the current structure of the sources in electric power sector in the Czech Republic. The importance of coal, oil and gas, nuclear and hydro in electric power generation is compared. Taking into account the different position in the load coverage, economy of individual sources is evaluated and basic results of discounted cash flow calculations are presented. Information on specific investment programs and projects are included and further trends are estimated.

  7. Social Cognitive Constructs Did Not Mediate the BEAT Cancer Intervention Effects on Objective Physical Activity Behavior Based on Multivariable Path Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Laura Q; Courneya, Kerry S; Anton, Phillip M; Hopkins-Price, Patricia; Verhulst, Steven; Robbs, Randall S; Vicari, Sandra K; McAuley, Edward

    2017-04-01

    Most breast cancer survivors do not meet physical activity recommendations. Understanding mediators of physical activity behavior change can improve interventions designed to increase physical activity in this at-risk population. Study aims were to determine the 3-month Better Exercise Adherence after Treatment for Cancer (BEAT Cancer) behavior change intervention effects on social cognitive theory constructs and the mediating role of any changes on the increase in accelerometer-measured physical activity previously reported. Post-treatment breast cancer survivors (N = 222) were randomized to BEAT Cancer or usual care. Assessments occurred at baseline, 3 months (M3), and 6 months (M6). Adjusted linear mixed model analysis of variance determined intervention effects on walking self-efficacy, outcome expectations, goal setting, and perceived barrier interference at M3. Path analysis determined mediation of intervention effects on physical activity at M6 by changes in social cognitive constructs during the intervention (i.e., baseline to M3). BEAT Cancer significantly improved self-efficacy, goals, negative outcome expectations, and barriers. Total path analysis model explained 24 % of the variance in M6 physical activity. There were significant paths from randomized intervention group to self-efficacy (β = 0.15, p < .05) and barriers (β = -0.22, p < .01). Barriers demonstrated a borderline significant association with M6 physical activity (β = -0.24, p = .05). No statistically significant indirect effects were found. Although BEAT Cancer significantly improved social cognitive constructs, no significant indirect effects on physical activity improvements 3 months post-intervention were observed (NCT00929617).

  8. Characterization of Botrytis-plant interactions using PathTrack(©) -an automated system for dynamic analysis of disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizner, Elad; Ronen, Mordechi; Gur, Yonatan; Gavish, Assaf; Zhu, Wenjun; Sharon, Amir

    2017-05-01

    The measurement of disease development is integral in studies on plant-microbe interactions. To address the need for a dynamic and quantitative disease evaluation, we developed PathTrack(©) , and used it to analyse the interaction of plants with Botrytis cinerea. PathTrack(©) is composed of an infection chamber, a photography unit and software that produces video files and numerical values of disease progression. We identified a previously unrecognized infection stage and determined numerical parameters of pathogenic development. Using these parameters, we identified differences in disease dynamics between seemingly similar B. cinerea pathogenicity mutants, and revealed new details on plant susceptibility to the fungus. We showed that the difference between the lesion expansion rate on leaves and colony spreading rate on artificial medium reflects the levels of the plant immune system, suggesting that this parameter can be used to quantify plant defence. Our results shed new light and reveal new details of the interaction between the model necrotrophic pathogen B. cinerea and plants. The concept that we present is universal and may be applied to facilitate the study of various types of plant-pathogen association. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  9. [Cultivation strategy and path analysis on big brand Chinese medicine for small and medium-sized enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are important components in Chinese medicine industry. However, the lack of big brand is becoming an urgent problem which is critical to the survival of SMEs. This article discusses the concept and traits of Chinese medicine of big brand, from clinical, scientific and market value three aspects. Guided by market value, highlighting clinical value, aiming at the scientific value improvement of big brand cultivation, we put forward the key points in cultivation, aiming at obtaining branded Chinese medicine with widely recognized efficacy, good quality control system and mechanism well explained and meanwhile which can bring innovation improvement to theory of Chinese medicine. According to the characters of SMEs, we hold a view that to build multidisciplinary research union could be considered as basic path, and then, from top-level design, skill upgrading and application three stages to probe the implementation strategy.

  10. Scenario Analysis on Global Hydropower Development Paths and Their Contribution to GHG Mitigation Utilizing a Dynamic CGE Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Z.; Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.; Masaki, Y.; Hijioka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, hydropower accounts for 16% of the worldwide electricity power supply and 86% of the total renewable electricity energy source due to its low cost, low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and relatively high reliability. It is well known that the global hydropower has not yet been fully developed, but the future paths of development and corresponding contribution to GHG mitigation in each region combined with socioeconomic activities are less known. Here we investigated following three questions. How much will hydropower generation increase in the future? Will hydropower generation reach the economically exploitable capability (EEC)? If this will be the case, when and where will it occur? How much GHG emission will be reduced by adding new hydropower? In order to address these questions, we used the AIM/CGE model, a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to quantify the global hydropower development paths and corresponding GHG mitigation contribution for 17 regions in the world associated with a socio-economic scenario termed SSP2. We compared two scenarios with different assumptions on EEC. One is BAU which takes EEC from the report of "World Energy Resources", the other is FIX_BAU which fix EEC at the current hydropower generation amount throughout the research period (2005-2100) or no additional installation of hydropower plants. The comparison between two scenarios indicated that promoting hydropower development contributed to GHG emission reduction globally but the magnitude varied by region. For example we found that in North Africa, hydropower development grew fast because of the rapid economic development, but it reached EEC as soon as in 2040 because of limitation in EEC due to its climatic and geographical conditions. Conversely, in Brazil, it grew steadily and did not reach its abundant EEC. Consequently, GHG mitigation contribution of North Africa is far less than Brazil. This research provides important information for policy makers to

  11. Stress-related psychological symptoms contribute to axial pain persistence after motor vehicle collision: path analysis results from a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Rose K; Hu, JunMei; Weaver, Mark A; Fillingim, Roger B; Swor, Robert A; Peak, David A; Jones, Jeffrey S; Rathlev, Niels K; Lee, David C; Domeier, Robert M; Hendry, Phyllis L; Liberzon, Israel; McLean, Samuel A

    2017-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and pain after traumatic events such as motor vehicle collision (MVC) have been proposed to be mutually promoting. We performed a prospective multicenter study that enrolled 948 individuals who presented to the emergency department within 24 hours of MVC and were discharged home after evaluation. Follow-up evaluations were completed 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after MVC. Path analysis results supported the hypothesis that axial pain after MVC consistently promotes the maintenance of hyperarousal and intrusive symptoms, from the early weeks after injury through 1 year. In addition, path analysis results supported the hypothesis that one or more PTSD symptom clusters had an influence on axial pain outcomes throughout the year after MVC, with hyperarousal symptoms most influencing axial pain persistence in the initial months after MVC. The influence of hyperarousal symptoms on pain persistence was only present among individuals with genetic vulnerability to stress-induced pain, suggesting specific mechanisms by which hyperarousal symptoms may lead to hyperalgesia and allodynia. Further studies are needed to better understand the specific mechanisms by which pain and PTSD symptoms enhance one another after trauma, and how such mechanisms vary among specific patient subgroups, to better inform the development of secondary preventive interventions.

  12. Antenatal depressive symptoms and subjective birth experience in association with postpartum depressive symptoms and acute stress reaction in mothers and fathers: A longitudinal path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürber, Susanne; Baumeler, Luzia; Grob, Alexander; Surbek, Daniel; Stadlmayr, Werner

    2017-08-01

    Postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) and acute stress reactions (ASR) after childbirth are frequently documented in mothers, but research is scarce in fathers. In a longitudinal path analysis, the interplay of depressive symptoms in pregnancy and the subjective childbirth experience of mothers and fathers are examined with regard to the development of PDS and ASR postpartum. One hundred eighty nine expectant couples were recruited between August 2006 and September 2009. They completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in the last trimester of pregnancy. In the first week postpartum, they answered the Salmon's Item List (subjective birth experience), and four weeks after birth the EPDS and the Impact of Event Scale - revised (IES-r). The data were evaluated in a longitudinal path analysis. Compared with fathers, mothers reported more depressive symptoms (pregnancy: pexperience' (p0.10), but moderately correlated four weeks after birth (r=0.387, pexperience were independently predictive of PDS and ASR after childbirth in mothers and fathers controlling for age, mode of delivery, parity, epidural anaesthesia, infant gender and birth weight. Antenatal depressive symptoms were related to subjective childbirth experience only in fathers. Parental prenatal depressive symptoms and subjective birth experience are important predictors of postnatal psychological adjustment in mothers and fathers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Relationships between the quality of blended learning experience, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement of medical students: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Salah Eldin; Al-Shafei, Ahmad I; Salem, Abdel Halim; Otoom, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between the different aspects of students' course experience, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement of medical students in a blended learning curriculum. Perceptions of medical students (n=171) from the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain), on the blended learning experience were measured using the Student Course Experience Questionnaire (SCEQ), with an added e-Learning scale. In addition, self-regulated learning was measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Academic achievement was measured by the scores of the students at the end of the course. A path analysis was created to test the relationships between the different study variables. Path analysis indicated that the perceived quality of the face-to-face component of the blended experience directly affected the motivation of students. The SCEQ scale "quality of teaching" directly affected two aspects of motivation: control of learning and intrinsic goal orientation. Furthermore, appropriate course workload directly affected the self-efficacy of students. Moreover, the e-Learning scale directly affected students' peer learning and critical thinking but indirectly affected metacognitive regulation. The resource management regulation strategies, time and study environment, and effort regulation directly affected students' examination scores (17% of the variance explained). However, there were no significant direct relationships between the SCEQ scales and cognitive learning strategies or examination scores. The results of this study will have important implications for designing blended learning courses in medical schools.

  14. A path analysis: a model of depression in Korean women with breast cancer-mediating effects of self-esteem and hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae, Young Sook; Heitkemper, Margaret; Kim, Mi Yea

    2012-01-01

    To test a hypothetical model of depression in Korean women with breast cancer and to test the mediating effects of self-esteem and hope. Cross-sectional design. Participants were recruited from three general hospitals and one cancer hospital in Busan, South Korea. 214 Korean women diagnosed with breast cancer (stages I-III). All participants completed questionnaires (e.g., Zung Self-Rating Depression scale, Herth Hope Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Health Self-Rating Scale in Health and Activity survey, Kang's Family Support Scale). Based on the literature, Mplus, version 3.0, was used to determine the best depression model with path analysis. Depression, self-esteem, hope, perceived health status, religious beliefs, family support, economic status, and fatigue. Self-esteem was directly affected by perceived health status, religious beliefs, family support, economic status, and fatigue. Hope was directly affected by family support, self-esteem, and how patients perceived their health status. Depression was directly affected by self-esteem and hope. The path analysis model explained 31% of the variance in depression in Korean women with breast cancer. A model of depression in Korean women with breast cancer was developed, and self-esteem and hope were mediating factors of depression. Self-esteem and hope must be considered when developing services to reduce depression in Korean women with breast cancer.

  15. Dissolved organic carbon dynamics in a UK podzolic moorland catchment: linking storm hydrochemistry, flow path analysis and sorption experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Stutter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Better knowledge of spatial and temporal delivery of dissolved organic carbon (DOC in small catchments is required to understand the mechanisms behind reported long-term changes in C fluxes from some peatlands. We monitored two storms with contrasting seasons and antecedent conditions in a small upland UK moorland catchment. We examined DOC concentrations and specific UV absorbance (SUVA at 285 nm, together with solute concentrations required to undertake end-member mixing analyses to define dominant flow paths contributing to streamflow. This was combined with laboratory soil-solution equilibrations. We aimed to resolve how seasonal biogeochemical processing of DOC and flowpath changes in organo-mineral soils combine to affect DOC exported via the stream. An August storm following a dry period gave maximum DOC concentration of 10 mg l−1. Small DOC:DON ratios (16–28 and SUVA (2.7–3.6 l mg−1 m−1 was attributed to filtration of aromatic compounds associated with up to 53% B horizon flow contributions. This selective filtration of high SUVA DOC was reproduced in the experimental batch equilibration system. For a November storm, wetter antecedent soil conditions led to enhanced soil connectivity with the stream and seven times greater DOC stream-load (maximum concentration 16 mg l−1. This storm had a 63% O horizon flow contribution at its peak, limited B horizon buffering and consequently more aromatic DOC (SUVA 3.9–4.5 l mg−1 m−1 and DOC:DON ratio 35–43. We suggest that simple mixing of waters from different flow paths cannot alone explain the differences in DOC compositions between August and November and biogeochemical processing of DOC is required to fully explain the observed stream DOC dynamics. This preliminary evidence is in contrast to other studies proposing hydrological controls on the nature of DOC delivered to streams. Although our study is based only

  16. Dissolved organic carbon dynamics in a UK podzolic moorland catchment: linking storm hydrochemistry, flow path analysis and sorption experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Stutter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Better knowledge of spatial and temporal delivery of dissolved organic Carbon (DOC in small catchments is required to understand the mechanisms behind reported long-term changes in C fluxes from some peatlands. We monitored two storms with contrasting seasons and antecedent conditions in a small upland UK moorland catchment. We examined DOC concentrations and specific UV absorbance (SUVA at 285 nm, together with solute concentrations required to undertake end member mixing analyses to define dominant flow paths contributing to streamflow. This was combined with laboratory soil-solution equilibrations. We aimed to resolve how seasonal biogeochemical processing of DOC and flowpath changes in organo-mineral soils combine to affect DOC exported via the stream. An August storm following a dry period gave maximum DOC concentration of 10 mg l−1. Small DOC:DON ratios (16–28 and SUVA (2.7–3.6 l mg−1 m−1 was attributed to filtration of aromatic compounds associated with up to 53% B horizon flow contributions. This selective filtration of high SUVA DOC was reproduced in the experimental batch equilibration system. For a November storm, wetter antecedent soil conditions led to enhanced soil connectivity with the stream and seven times greater DOC stream-load (maximum concentration 16 mg l−1. This storm had a 63% O horizon flow contribution at its peak, limited B horizon buffering and consequently more aromatic DOC (SUVA 3.9–4.5 l mg−1 m−1 and DOC:DON ratio 35–43. We suggest that simple mixing of waters from different flow paths cannot alone explain the differences in DOC compositions between August and November and biogeochemical processing of DOC is required to fully explain the observed stream DOC dynamics. This is in contrast to other studies proposing hydrological controls and provides evidence that DOC biogeochemistry must be incorporated in modelling to predict the

  17. Dissolved organic carbon dynamics in a UK podzolic moorland catchment: linking storm hydrochemistry, flow path analysis and sorption experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutter, M. I.; Dunn, S. M.; Lumsdon, D. G.

    2012-06-01

    Better knowledge of spatial and temporal delivery of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in small catchments is required to understand the mechanisms behind reported long-term changes in C fluxes from some peatlands. We monitored two storms with contrasting seasons and antecedent conditions in a small upland UK moorland catchment. We examined DOC concentrations and specific UV absorbance (SUVA at 285 nm), together with solute concentrations required to undertake end-member mixing analyses to define dominant flow paths contributing to streamflow. This was combined with laboratory soil-solution equilibrations. We aimed to resolve how seasonal biogeochemical processing of DOC and flowpath changes in organo-mineral soils combine to affect DOC exported via the stream. An August storm following a dry period gave maximum DOC concentration of 10 mg l-1. Small DOC:DON ratios (16-28) and SUVA (2.7-3.6 l mg-1 m-1) was attributed to filtration of aromatic compounds associated with up to 53% B horizon flow contributions. This selective filtration of high SUVA DOC was reproduced in the experimental batch equilibration system. For a November storm, wetter antecedent soil conditions led to enhanced soil connectivity with the stream and seven times greater DOC stream-load (maximum concentration 16 mg l-1). This storm had a 63% O horizon flow contribution at its peak, limited B horizon buffering and consequently more aromatic DOC (SUVA 3.9-4.5 l mg-1 m-1 and DOC:DON ratio 35-43). We suggest that simple mixing of waters from different flow paths cannot alone explain the differences in DOC compositions between August and November and biogeochemical processing of DOC is required to fully explain the observed stream DOC dynamics. This preliminary evidence is in contrast to other studies proposing hydrological controls on the nature of DOC delivered to streams. Although our study is based only on two storms of very different hydrological and biogeochemical periods, this should promote wider

  18. Emergence of multilateral proto-institutions in global health and new approaches to governance: analysis using path dependency and institutional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The role of multilateral donor agencies in global health is a new area of research, with limited research on how these agencies differ in terms of their governance arrangements, especially in relation to transparency, inclusiveness, accountability, and responsiveness to civil society. We argue that historical analysis of the origins of these agencies and their coalition formation processes can help to explain these differences. We propose an analytical approach that links the theoretical literature discussing institutional origins to path dependency and institutional theory relating to proto institutions in order to illustrate the differences in coalition formation processes that shape governance within four multilateral agencies involved in global health. We find that two new multilateral donor agencies that were created by a diverse coalition of state and non-state actors, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and GAVI, what we call proto-institutions, were more adaptive in strengthening their governance processes. This contrasts with two well-established multilateral donor agencies, such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, what we call Bretton Woods (BW) institutions, which were created by nation states alone; and hence, have different origins and consequently different path dependent processes. PMID:23663485

  19. Analysis on Source and Path of Gushing Water in Karst Tunnel%岩溶隧道突涌水来源及路径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 刘运来; 徐志华; 荣耀; 孙洋

    2016-01-01

    A geological analysis and a field investigation of the Nanshibi T unnel were conducted. T he source and the flow path of the sudden gushing water in the tunnel were analyzed with high density resistivity method,tracer experiment and geological radar method. T he results show that the gushing water is from the ground surface rainfall collection. It also may happen when the reservoir water level reaches to a degree. T he karst development in the vicinity of the tunnel provides water flow path,leading to the sudden gushing water.%通过对南石壁隧道地质条件的分析和地表现场踏勘,结合高密度电法、化学示踪法及地质雷达探测法,对隧道突涌水的来源和通道进行分析。结果发现:隧道突涌水主要由地表降水汇集而成,当附近水库的水位超过一定范围时也会发生突涌水;隧道突涌水严重地段附近岩溶发育,为隧道突涌水提供了渗漏路径。

  20. Emergence of multilateral proto-institutions in global health and new approaches to governance: analysis using path dependency and institutional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J; Atun, Rifat

    2013-05-10

    The role of multilateral donor agencies in global health is a new area of research, with limited research on how these agencies differ in terms of their governance arrangements, especially in relation to transparency, inclusiveness, accountability, and responsiveness to civil society. We argue that historical analysis of the origins of these agencies and their coalition formation processes can help to explain these differences. We propose an analytical approach that links the theoretical literature discussing institutional origins to path dependency and institutional theory relating to proto institutions in order to illustrate the differences in coalition formation processes that shape governance within four multilateral agencies involved in global health. We find that two new multilateral donor agencies that were created by a diverse coalition of state and non-state actors, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and GAVI, what we call proto-institutions, were more adaptive in strengthening their governance processes. This contrasts with two well-established multilateral donor agencies, such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, what we call Bretton Woods (BW) institutions, which were created by nation states alone; and hence, have different origins and consequently different path dependent processes.

  1. Energy landscape analysis of native folding of the prion protein yields the diffusion constant, transition path time, and rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Gupta, Amar Nath; Liu, Xia; Neupane, Krishna; Brigley, Angela M; Sosova, Iveta; Woodside, Michael T

    2012-09-04

    Protein folding is described conceptually in terms of diffusion over a configurational free-energy landscape, typically reduced to a one-dimensional profile along a reaction coordinate. In principle, kinetic properties can be predicted directly from the landscape profile using Kramers theory for diffusive barrier crossing, including the folding rates and the transition time for crossing the barrier. Landscape theory has been widely applied to interpret the time scales for protein conformational dynamics, but protein folding rates and transition times have not been calculated directly from experimentally measured free-energy profiles. We characterized the energy landscape for native folding of the prion protein using force spectroscopy, measuring the change in extension of a single protein molecule at high resolution as it unfolded/refolded under tension. Key parameters describing the landscape profile were first recovered from the distributions of unfolding and refolding forces, allowing the diffusion constant for barrier crossing and the transition path time across the barrier to be calculated. The full landscape profile was then reconstructed from force-extension curves, revealing a double-well potential with an extended, partially unfolded transition state. The barrier height and position were consistent with the previous results. Finally, Kramers theory was used to predict the folding rates from the landscape profile, recovering the values observed experimentally both under tension and at zero force in ensemble experiments. These results demonstrate how advances in single-molecule theory and experiment are harnessing the power of landscape formalisms to describe quantitatively the mechanics of folding.

  2. [Path analysis of the Influence of Hospital Ethical Climate Perceived by Nurses on Supervisor Trust and Organizational Effectiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Yoon Goo; Jung, Myun Sook

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the paths of influence that a hospital's ethical climate exerts on nurses' organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior, with supervisor trust as the mediating factor, and verify compatibility of the models in hospital nurses. The sample consisted of 374 nurses recruited from four hospitals in 3 cities in Korea. The measurements included the Ethical Climate Questionnaire, Supervisor Trust Questionnaire, Organizational Commitment Questionnaire and Organizational Citizenship Behavior Questionnaire. Ethical Climate Questionnaire consisted of 6 factors; benevolence, personal morality, company rules and procedures, laws and professional codes, self-interest and efficiency. Data were analysed using SPSS version 18.0 and AMOS version 18.0. Supervisor trust was explained by benevolence and self-interest (29.8%). Organizational commitment was explained by benevolence, supervisor trust, personal morality, and rules and procedures (40.4%). Organizational citizenship behavior was explained by supervisor trust, laws and codes, and benevolence (21.8%). Findings indicate that managers need to develop a positive hospital ethical climate in order to improve nurses' trust in supervisors, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior.

  3. How to Succeed in Low-Energy Housing—Path Creation Analysis of Low-Energy Innovation Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Pässilä

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The low-energy and the nearly zero-energy buildings trend is calling for radical new innovations from the construction industry. This study uses path creation theory to examine two innovation concepts for low-energy housing in Northern Europe with contrasting outcomes—with one being an apparent market success and the other a disappointment. The results highlight two issues behind the success, one of a systemic nature and the other concerning innovation management. First, the development of energy efficiency regulations and the dominant technological trajectory regarding low-energy houses are interdependent. However, it seems that while supporting the trajectory of the innovation developed in the first case, regulators created virtually insurmountable cognitive and normative obstacles to finding alternative technological pathways. Second, the significance of proof of concepts for new innovations cannot be underestimated. The importance of a pilot project rests not only on showcasing and testing the technology, but also on its ability to increase political support, investments, and public awareness. The study implies that low-energy construction seems to be the next great challenge, one where genuine co-operation between the industry, public authorities and academia is a prerequisite for success.

  4. Path Integrals and Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.

    2014-03-01

    1. Synopsis; Part I. Fundamental Principles: 2. The mathematical structure of quantum mechanics; 3. Operators; 4. The Feynman path integral; 5. Hamiltonian mechanics; 6. Path integral quantization; Part II. Stochastic Processes: 7. Stochastic systems; Part III. Discrete Degrees of Freedom: 8. Ising model; 9. Ising model: magnetic field; 10. Fermions; Part IV. Quadratic Path Integrals: 11. Simple harmonic oscillators; 12. Gaussian path integrals; Part V. Action with Acceleration: 13. Acceleration Lagrangian; 14. Pseudo-Hermitian Euclidean Hamiltonian; 15. Non-Hermitian Hamiltonian: Jordan blocks; 16. The quartic potential: instantons; 17. Compact degrees of freedom; Index.

  5. Path Problems in Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Baras, John

    2010-01-01

    The algebraic path problem is a generalization of the shortest path problem in graphs. Various instances of this abstract problem have appeared in the literature, and similar solutions have been independently discovered and rediscovered. The repeated appearance of a problem is evidence of its relevance. This book aims to help current and future researchers add this powerful tool to their arsenal, so that they can easily identify and use it in their own work. Path problems in networks can be conceptually divided into two parts: A distillation of the extensive theory behind the algebraic path pr

  6. Structural model of self-care agency in patients with diabetes: A path analysis of the Instrument of Diabetes Self-Care Agency and body self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waki, Sachiko; Shimizu, Yasuko; Uchiumi, Kyoko; Asou, Kawai; Kuroda, Kumiko; Murakado, Naoko; Seto, Natsuko; Masaki, Harue; Ishii, Hidetoki

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine a causal model of self-care agency by exploring the relationship between the structure of "body self-awareness" and the structure of the Instrument of Diabetes Self-Care Agency (IDSCA). The participants were 353 patients with diabetes. The internal consistency of the six items for body self-awareness was examined by calculating the factor structure using principal factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha. In order to examine the relationship between the seven factors in the IDSCA, a path analysis was conducted. With regard to the factor structure, the factor loading of these five items was 0.511-0.743 (α = 0.739). In the path analysis, "body self-awareness" was influenced by the "ability to acquire knowledge" and had a direct effect (0.33) on the "motivation to self-manage", while "motivation to self-manage" had an effect (-0.32) on the "ability to self-manage". The Goodness-of-Fit Index was 0.974. "Body self-awareness" plays a part in the self-care operation process and serves as an intermediary factor to enable the performance of self-care operations by making the most use of self-care agency. Moreover, striking a proper balance between self-management that is focused on the treatment of diabetes and a person's ability for self-management of diabetes was found to be important. © 2016 The Authors Japan Journal of Nursing Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  7. Path Planning Control for Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amenah A.H. Salih

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous motion planning is important area of robotics research. This type of planning relieves human operator from tedious job of motion planning. This reduces the possibility of human error and increase efficiency of whole process. This research presents a new algorithm to plan path for autonomous mobile robot based on image processing techniques by using wireless camera that provides the desired image for the unknown environment . The proposed algorithm is applied on this image to obtain a optimal path for the robot. It is based on the observation and analysis of the obstacles that lying in the straight path between the start and the goal point by detecting these obstacles, analyzing and studying their shapes, positions and points of intersection with the straight path to find the nearly optimal path which connects the start and the goal point.This work has theoretical part and experimental part. The theoretical part includes building a MATLAB program which is applied to environment image to find the nearly optimal path .MATLAB - C++.NET interface is accomplished then to supply the path information for C++.NET program which is done for programming the pioneer mobile robot to achieve the desired path. The experimental part includes using wireless camera that takes an image for the environment and send it to the computer which processes this image and sends ( by wireless connection the resulted path information to robot which programmed in C++.NET program to walk according to this path.So, the overall system can be represented by:Wireless camera – computer – wireless connection for the mobile robot .The experimental work including some experiments shows that the developed mobile robot (pioneer p3-dx travels successfully from the start point and reach the goal point across the optimal path (according to time and power which is obtained as result of the proposed path planning algorithm introduced in this paper.

  8. Path Analysis to Enhance the Employability Competitiveness of College Students%提升大学生就业竞争力的路径探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦文

    2014-01-01

    随着高等教育改革和发展的不断深入,大学生的就业形势越来越严峻,高校对大学生就业竞争力的培养越来越重视。本文以大学生就业竞争力的影响因素为出发点,分析提升大学生就业竞争力的路径。%With the deepening of reform and development of higher education, college students' employment situation is in-creasingly severe, college to students' increasingly competitive training attached more and more attention. In this paper, the factors affecting the competitiveness of employment of university students as a starting point to enhance the employability and competitiveness analysis of the path to college.

  9. Designing a performance measurement system for supply chain using balanced scorecard, path analysis, cooperative game theory and evolutionary game theory: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hootan Eskafi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, supply chain management is known as the key factor for achieving competitive advantage. Better customer service, revenue improvement and cost reduction are the results of this philosophy. Organizations can manage the performance of their firms by appropriate goal setting, identifying criteria and continuous performance measurement, which creates a good view for the business circumstances. Developing and defining appropriate indicators at different levels of chain is necessary for implementing a performance measurement system. In this study, we propose a new method to determine the measurement indicators and strategies of the company in term of balanced scorecard. The study is a combination of balanced scorecard, path analysis, evolutionary game theory and cooperative game theory for strategic planning. The study offers an appropriate program for future activities of organizations and determines the present status of the firm. The implementation of the proposed method is introduced for a food producer and the results are analyzed.

  10. Innovative development path of ethnomedicines: the interpretation of the path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhaoyun; Fu, Dehuan; Gui, Yali; Cui, Tao; Wang, Jingkun; Wang, Ting; Yang, Zhizhong; Niu, Yanfei; She, Zhennan; Wang, Li

    2017-03-01

    One of the primary purposes of the innovative development of ethnomedicines is to use their excellent safety and significant efficacy to serve a broader population. To achieve this purpose, modern scientific and technological means should be referenced, and relevant national laws and regulations as well as technical guides should be strictly followed to develop standards and to perform systemic research in producing ethnomedicines. Finally, ethnomedicines, which are applied to a limited extent in ethnic areas, can be transformed into safe, effective, and quality-controllable medical products to relieve the pain of more patients. The innovative development path of ethnomedicines includes the following three primary stages: resource study, standardized development research, and industrialization of the achievements and efforts for internationalization. The implementation of this path is always guaranteed by the research and development platform and the talent team. This article is based on the accumulation of long-term practice and is combined with the relevant disciplines, laws and regulations, and technical guidance from the research and development of ethnomedicines. The intention is to perform an in-depth analysis and explanation of the major research thinking, methods, contents, and technical paths involved in all stages of the innovative development path of ethnomedicines to provide useful references for the development of proper ethnomedicine use.

  11. Relationships among sense of coherence, oral health status, nutritional status and care need level of older adults according to path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewake, Nanae; Hamasaki, Tomoko; Sakai, Rie; Yamada, Shima; Nima, Yuko; Tomoe, Miki; Kakuta, Satoko; Iwasaki, Masanori; Soh, Inho; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Ansai, Toshihiro

    2017-03-27

    Sense of coherence (SOC) is a measurement of ability of an individual to cope with psychological stress and remain in good health. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships among SOC score, oral health status, nutritional status and care need level of older adults using path analysis. We enrolled 53 older adults (17 men and 36 women) who were attending a day care service (mean age 80.4 ± 6.5 years). SOC was assessed using a 13-item, seven-scale instrument. Oral health status (number of present teeth, denture use) and nutritional status (assessed with Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short-Form) were also evaluated. Path analysis was used to examine the relationship of SOC with other related factors, including care need level. The mean SOC score was 57.0 ± 13.9. Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short-Form results showed that one participant (1.8%) was malnourished, 26 (49.1%) were at risk of malnutrition and 26 (49.1%) had normal nutritional status. Participants with high SOC scores showed a strong positive attitude, had a relatively large number of teeth, were in good nutritional condition and showed low care need levels. The present results showed that maintaining a high SOC level and good oral health help to reduce care need levels in older adults, and also prevent a worsening of their nutritional condition. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; ••:••-••. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  13. Path dependence and creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garud, Raghu; Karnøe, Peter

    the place of agency in these theories that take history so seriously. In the end, they are as interested in path creation and destruction as they are in path dependence. This book is compiled of both theoretical and empirical writing. It shows relatively well-known industries such as the automobile...

  14. Free path groupoid grading on Leavitt path algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalves, Daniel; Yoneda, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    In this work we realize Leavitt path algebras as partial skew groupoid rings. This yields a free path groupoid grading on Leavitt path algebras. Using this grading we characterize free path groupoid graded isomorphisms of Leavitt path algebras that preserves generators.

  15. Path Creation, Path Dependence and Breaking Away from the Path

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jens Erik; Hedman, Jonas; Tuunainen, Virpi Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    The explanation of how and why firms succeed or fail is a recurrent research challenge. This is particularly important in the context of technological innovations. We focus on the role of historical events and decisions in explaining such success and failure. Using a case study of Nokia, we develop...... the importance of intermediate outcomes, which in the case of Nokia was the importance of software ecosystems and adaptable mobile devices. Furthermore, we show how the layers of path dependence mutually reinforce each other and become stronger....

  16. Conseqüências da multicolinearidade sobre a análise de trilha em canola Multicolinearity consequence on path analysis in canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luís Meirelles Coimbra

    2005-04-01

    limitations. In order to evaluate the degree of association among different characters of agronomic importance with an estimative reliable in biological terms, it is striking to quantify the multicolinearity among the studied variables. In addition, the types of statistical and mathematical models used in determining this linear dependence between classifying or independent variables may or may not be adequate for estimatives of biological parameters evaluated. The present work has as objective to present a critical evaluation on the degree of multicolinearity identified and evaluated on the path analysis performed on parts of a canola experiment. The results allow to postulate that path analysis application on the degree of severe multicolinearity produces results with no biological importance for the plant breeder. However, this limitation can be easily identified and corrected through path analysis with colinearity employing a constant (k on diagonal axis of X’X matrix. The model of analysis with severe multicolinearity, however overestimated the single correlation coefficient values comparatively with the weak multicolinearity. Even so, it may not be necessarily more precise, mainly regarding the evaluation of a restricted number of variables included in the analysis or an overlapping of the explainable variables.

  17. Zero-Slack, Noncritical Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Jacob V., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The critical path method/program evaluation and review technique method of project scheduling is based on the importance of managing a project's critical path(s). Although a critical path is the longest path through a network, its location in large projects is facilitated by the computation of activity slack. However, logical fallacies in…

  18. Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Wheeler, David R.; Simonson, Robert J.

    2010-09-21

    A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

  19. Career Path Descriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Charkiewicz, A

    2000-01-01

    Before the Career Path system, jobs were classified according to grades with general statutory definitions, guided by the "Job Catalogue" which defined 6 evaluation criteria with example illustrations in the form of "typical" job descriptions. Career Paths were given concise statutory definitions necessitating a method of description and evaluation adapted to their new wider-band salary concept. Evaluations were derived from the same 6 criteria but the typical descriptions became unusable. In 1999, a sub-group of the Standing Concertation Committee proposed a new guide for describing Career Paths, adapted to their wider career concept by expanding the 6 evaluation criteria into 9. For each criterion several levels were established tracing the expected evolution of job level profiles and personal competencies over their longer salary ranges. While providing more transparency to supervisors and staff, the Guide's official use would be by services responsible for vacancy notices, Career Path evaluations and rela...

  20. Structural Fluctuations in Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions: Determinants of Reactivity in Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase from Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodola, Alessio; Sirirak, Jitnapa; Fey, Natalie; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2010-09-14

    The effects of structural fluctuations, due to protein dynamics, on enzyme activity are at the heart of current debates on enzyme catalysis. There is evidence that fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an enzyme for which reaction proceeds via a high-energy, reactive conformation, distinct from the predominant enzyme-substrate complex (Lodola et al. Biophys. J. 2007, 92, L20-22). Identifying the structural causes of differences in reactivity between conformations in such complex systems is not trivial. Here, we show that multivariate analysis of key structural parameters can identify structural determinants of barrier height by analysis of multiple reaction paths. We apply a well-tested quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method to the first step of the acylation reaction between FAAH and oleamide substrate for 36 different starting structures. Geometrical parameters (consisting of the key bond distances that change during the reaction) were collected and used for principal component analysis (PCA), partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis, and multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. PCA indicates that different "families" of enzyme-substrate conformations arise from QM/MM molecular dynamics simulation and that rarely sampled, catalytically significant conformational states can be identified. PLS and MLR analyses allowed the construction of linear regression models, correlating the calculated activation barriers with simple geometrical descriptors. These analyses reveal the presence of two fully independent geometrical effects, explaining 78% of the variation in the activation barrier, which are directly correlated with transition-state stabilization (playing a major role in catalysis) and substrate binding. These results highlight the power of statistical approaches of this type in identifying crucial structural features that contribute to enzyme reactivity.

  1. Path Optimization Using APSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Goyal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the malicious node detection and path optimization problem for wireless sensor networks. Malicious node detection in neighborhood is a needed because that node may cause incorrect decisions or energy depletion. In this paper APSO (combination of Artificial bee colony and particular swarm optimization is used to choose an optimized path. Through this improved version we will overcome the disadvantage of local optimal which comes when we use PSO approach.

  2. Transition Path Times for Nucleic Acid Folding Determined from Energy-Landscape Analysis of Single-Molecule Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Krishna; Ritchie, Dustin B.; Yu, Hao; Foster, Daniel A. N.; Wang, Feng; Woodside, Michael T.

    2012-08-01

    The duration of structural transitions in biopolymers is only a fraction of the time spent searching diffusively over the configurational energy landscape. We found the transition time, τTP, and the diffusion constant, D, for DNA and RNA folding using energy landscapes obtained from single-molecule trajectories under tension in optical traps. DNA hairpins, RNA pseudoknots, and a riboswitch all had τTP˜10μs and D˜10-13-14m2/s, despite widely differing unfolding rates. These results show how energy-landscape analysis can be harnessed to characterize brief but critical events during folding reactions.

  3. A Path Analysis of Latino Parental, Teenager and Cultural Variables in Teenagers' Sexual Attitudes, Norms, Self-Efficacy, and Sexual Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pirani Gaioso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to test a theoretical model based on the Parent-Based Expansion of the Theory of Planned Behavior examining relation between selected parental, teenager and cultural variables and Latino teenagers' intentions to engage in sexual behavior.METHOD: a cross-sectional correlational design based on a secondary data analysis of 130 Latino parent and teenager dyads.RESULTS: regression and path analysis procedures were used to test seven hypotheses and the results demonstrated partial support for the model. Parent familism and knowledge about sex were significantly associated with parents' attitudes toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Parent Latino acculturation was negatively associated with parents' self-efficacy toward sexual communication with their teenagers and positevely associated with parents' subjective norms toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Teenager knowledge about sex was significantly associated with higher levels of teenagers' attitudes and subjective norms about sexual communication with parents. Only the predictor of teenagers' attitudes toward having sex in the next 3 months was significantly associated with teenagers' intentions to have sex in the next 3 months.CONCLUSION: the results of this study provide important information to guide future research that can inform development of interventions to prevent risky teenager sexual behavior among Latinos.

  4. A Path Analysis of the Effects of Principal Professional Orientation towards Leadership, Professional Teacher Behavior, and School Academic Optimism on School Reading Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne M. Mitchell

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effects of the principal’s professional orientation towards leadership/enabling school structure (ESS on two mediating variables, school academic optimism (SAO and professional teacher behavior (PTB, on the outcome variable school reading achievement (RA. Data were drawn from a sample of 54 schools (including 45 elementary schools and nine middle schools; the school was the unit of analysis. Data analysis supported a path to RA in which a structural variable, ESS was the immediate antecedent of SAO and PTB. Two control variables, school level and SES, were included in the model. SES had a significant effect on SAO but not on PTB. School level had a negative effect on both PTB and SAO suggesting that both variables were higher in elementary school and declined in middle school. SES paired with SAO in predicting RA. As expected, SAO had a greater effect on RA than SES. The significance of the findings lies in the confirmation of SAO as an important influence on RA and in demonstrating the importance of ESS in establishing a context in which AO and PTB can flourish.

  5. 舟山国际物流岛建设路径分析与选择%Path Analysis and Choice on Construction of Zhoushan International Logistic Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄韶辉

    2012-01-01

    Based on the construction connotation and objectives of Zhoushan International Logistic Island, an analysis has been made on the internal and extemal environment which influences the fulfillment of the objectives under the SWOT analytical method. In accordance with the analysis, and also followed by the principles of "Making full use of opportunities, avoiding threats, developing strengths and overcoming weaknesses" ,coping strategies have been tentatively proposed in response to different environmental combination in this paper, which are also used as the basic path of the construction of Zhoushan International Logistic Island.%文章在提出舟山国际物流岛建设内涵及目标的基础上,运用SWOT分析方法,对影响目标达成的内、外部环境进行了分析,根据分析情况并遵循“利用机遇,回避威胁,发挥优势,克服劣势”的原则,拟定了不同环境组合下的应对策略,以此作为舟山国际物流岛建设的基本路径。

  6. Paths to nursing leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondas, Terese

    2006-07-01

    The aim was to explore why nurses enter nursing leadership and apply for a management position in health care. The study is part of a research programme in nursing leadership and evidence-based care. Nursing has not invested enough in the development of nursing leadership for the development of patient care. There is scarce research on nurses' motives and reasons for committing themselves to a career in nursing leadership. A strategic sample of 68 Finnish nurse leaders completed a semistructured questionnaire. Analytic induction was applied in an attempt to generate a theory. A theory, Paths to Nursing Leadership, is proposed for further research. Four different paths were found according to variations between the nurse leaders' education, primary commitment and situational factors. They are called the Path of Ideals, the Path of Chance, the Career Path and the Temporary Path. Situational factors and role models of good but also bad nursing leadership besides motivational and educational factors have played a significant role when Finnish nurses have entered nursing leadership. The educational requirements for nurse leaders and recruitment to nursing management positions need serious attention in order to develop a competent nursing leadership.

  7. Stochastic control with rough paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Joscha [University of California San Diego (United States); Friz, Peter K., E-mail: friz@math.tu-berlin.de [TU & WIAS Berlin (Germany); Gassiat, Paul [CEREMADE, Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University (France)

    2017-04-15

    We study a class of controlled differential equations driven by rough paths (or rough path realizations of Brownian motion) in the sense of Lyons. It is shown that the value function satisfies a HJB type equation; we also establish a form of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Deterministic problems of this type arise in the duality theory for controlled diffusion processes and typically involve anticipating stochastic analysis. We make the link to old work of Davis and Burstein (Stoch Stoch Rep 40:203–256, 1992) and then prove a continuous-time generalization of Roger’s duality formula [SIAM J Control Optim 46:1116–1132, 2007]. The generic case of controlled volatility is seen to give trivial duality bounds, and explains the focus in Burstein–Davis’ (and this) work on controlled drift. Our study of controlled rough differential equations also relates to work of Mazliak and Nourdin (Stoch Dyn 08:23, 2008).

  8. Density-dependent analysis of nonequilibrium paths improves free energy estimates II. A Feynman-Kac formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, David D L; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan

    2011-01-21

    The nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems have paved the way for estimating equilibrium thermodynamic properties, such as free energy differences, using trajectories from driven nonequilibrium processes. While many statistical estimators may be derived from these identities, some are more efficient than others. It has recently been suggested that trajectories sampled using a particular time-dependent protocol for perturbing the Hamiltonian may be analyzed with another one. Choosing an analysis protocol based on the nonequilibrium density was empirically demonstrated to reduce the variance and bias of free energy estimates. Here, we present an alternate mathematical formalism for protocol postprocessing based on the Feynmac-Kac theorem. The estimator that results from this formalism is demonstrated on a few low-dimensional model systems. It is found to have reduced bias compared to both the standard form of Jarzynski's equality and the previous protocol postprocessing formalism.

  9. STUDIES ON GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PIGEON PEA AND DETERMINATION OF SELECTION CRITERIA WITH PATH CO-EFFICIENT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Vanisree

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analysis and association studies were conducted in 128 germplasm lines of pigeon pea received from NBPGR for yield and yield attributing characters. Higher amount of variation was observed for seed yield per plant followed by number of pods per plant and plant height. High heritability with high genetic advance as percentage of mean were obtained for seed yield and number of pods per plant indicated the presence of additive gene action influencing the inheritance of these characters. Significant positive correlations were observed for 100 seed weight, number of primary branches per plant, number of pods per plant and plant height on seed yield per plant were high and positive. Selection for higher seed weight, days to maturity, primary branches, pods per plant and plant height would be the best criteria for increasing the seed yield per plant in pigeon pea.

  10. Genome Analysis of a Transmissible Lineage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Reveals Pathoadaptive Mutations and Distinct Evolutionary Paths of Hypermutators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Molin, Søren

    2013-01-01

    infections. For example, it remains unclear what genes are mutated to facilitate the establishment of long-term existence in the human host environment, and in which way acquisition of a hypermutator phenotype with enhanced rates of spontaneous mutations influences the evolutionary trajectory of the pathogen....... Here we perform a retrospective study of the DK2 clone type of P. aeruginosa isolated from Danish patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF), and analyze the genomes of 55 bacterial isolates collected from 21 infected individuals over 38 years. Our phylogenetic analysis of 8,530 mutations in the DK2...... targeted by mutations to optimize pathogen fitness (pathoadaptive mutations). These genes were related to antibiotic resistance, the cell envelope, or regulatory functions, and we find that the prevalence of pathoadaptive mutations correlates with evolutionary success of co-evolving sub-lineages. The long...

  11. Path integral distance for data interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Volchenkov, D

    2015-01-01

    The process of data interpretation is always based on the implicit introduction of equivalence relations on the set of walks over the database. Every equivalence relation on the set of walks specifies a Markov chain describing the transitions of a discrete time random walk. In order to geometrize and interpret the data, we propose the new distance between data units defined as a "Feynman path integral", in which all possible paths between any two nodes in a graph model of the data are taken into account, although some paths are more preferable than others. Such a path integral distance approach to the analysis of databases has proven its efficiency and success, especially on multivariate strongly correlated data where other methods fail to detect structural components (urban planning, historical language phylogenies, music, street fashion traits analysis, etc. ). We believe that it would become an invaluable tool for the intelligent complexity reduction and big data interpretation.

  12. Stability of Bilocal Relationships – Conditions and Development PathsAn Analysis of the First and Second Wave of Pairfam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Dorbritz

    2013-03-01

    When looking at wave one and wave two in comparison (i.e. a time period of one year, profound changes have already occurred regarding continuation or breakup. From those bilocal relationships found in wave one, more than half of the age-group questioned had not changed their chosen relationship type. The smaller portion of respondents had separated and thus ended bilocality (just over 10 %. The remaining bilocal relationships had increased their level of institutionalisation by becoming spouses or cohabitants. As regarding the development from wave one to wave two, it becomes apparent through the results of a multivariate analysis that the general circumstances of older respondents should be judged differently than those of younger ones. The work-related constellation between the two partners, spatial proximity, educational homogamy, previous experience in cohabitating and intentions in regard to separation or moving in together are explaining factors for the continuation of a bilocal relationship, the set-up of a shared household or a breakup.

  13. The Impact of Photon Flight Path on S1 Pulse Shape Analysis in Liquid Xenon Two-phase Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Moongweluwan, M

    2015-01-01

    The LUX dark matter search experiment is a 350 kg dual-phase xenon time projection chamber located at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. The success of two-phase xenon detectors for dark matter searches relies on their ability to distinguish electron recoil (ER) background events from nuclear recoil (NR) signal events. Typically, the NR-ER discrimination is obtained from the ratio of the electroluminescence light (S2) to the prompt scintillation light (S1). Analysis of the S1 pulse shape is an additional discrimination technique that can be used to distinguish NR from ER. Pulse-shape NR-ER discrimination can be achieved based on the ratio of the de-excitation processes from singlet and triplet states that generate the S1. The NR S1 is dominated by the de-excitation process from singlet states with a time constant of about 3 ns while the ER S1 is dominated by the de-excitation process from triplet states with a time constant of about 24 ns. As the size of the detectors ...

  14. A comparative analysis of conventional cytopreparatory and liquid based cytological techniques (Sure Path) in evaluation of serous effusion fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, Hrishikesh; Toi, Pampa Ch; Siddaraju, Neelaiah; Sevvanthi, Kalidas

    2016-11-01

    Clinically, detection of malignant cells in serous body fluids is critical, as their presence implies the upstaging of the disease. Cytology of body cavity fluids serves as an important tool when other diagnostic tests cannot be performed. In most laboratories, currently, the effusion fluid samples are analysed chiefly by the conventional cytopreparatory (CCP) technique. Although, there are several studies comparing the liquid-based cytology (LBC), with CCP technique in the field of cervicovaginal cytology; the literature on such comparison with respect to serous body fluid examination is sparse. One hundred samples of serous body fluids were processed by both CCP and LBC techniques. Slides prepared by these techniques were studied using six parameters. A comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques in detection of malignant cells was carried out with appropriate statistical tests. The samples comprised 52 pleural, 44 peritoneal and four pericardial fluids. No statistically significant difference was noted with respect to cellularity (P values = 0.22), cell distribution (P values = 0.39) and diagnosis of malignancy (P values = 0.20). As for the remaining parameters, LBC provided statistically significant clearer smear background (P values cytologic interpretation point of view. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:874-879. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Performance Analysis of Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP Over Open Shortest Path First (OSPF Protocol with Opnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibrika Bright Selorm Kodzo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increase in the easy accessibility of computers and mobile phones alike, routing has become indispensable in deciding how computes communicate especially modern computer communication networks. This paper presents performance analysis between EIGRP and OSPFP for real time applications using Optimized Network Engineering Tool (OPNET. In order to evaluate OSPF and EIGRP’s performance, three network models were designed where 1st, 2nd and 3rd network models are configured respectively with OSPF, EIGRP and a combination of EIGRP and OSPF. Evaluation of the proposed routing protocols was performed based on quantitative metrics such as Convergence Time, Jitter, End-to-End delay, Throughput and Packet Loss through the simulated network models. The evaluation results showed that EIGRP protocol provides a better performance than OSPF routing protocol for real time applications. By examining the results (convergence times in particular, the results of simulating the various scenarios identified the routing protocol with the best performance for a large, realistic and scalable network.

  16. The effect of varying path properties in path steering tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Liere, R. van

    2010-01-01

    Path steering is a primitive 3D interaction task that requires the user to navigate through a path of a given length and width. In a previous paper, we have conducted controlled experiments in which users operated a pen input device to steer a cursor through a 3D path subject to fixed path propertie

  17. Genome analysis of a transmissible lineage of pseudomonas aeruginosa reveals pathoadaptive mutations and distinct evolutionary paths of hypermutators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Lykke Marvig

    Full Text Available Genome sequencing of bacterial pathogens has advanced our understanding of their evolution, epidemiology, and response to antibiotic therapy. However, we still have only a limited knowledge of the molecular changes in in vivo evolving bacterial populations in relation to long-term, chronic infections. For example, it remains unclear what genes are mutated to facilitate the establishment of long-term existence in the human host environment, and in which way acquisition of a hypermutator phenotype with enhanced rates of spontaneous mutations influences the evolutionary trajectory of the pathogen. Here we perform a retrospective study of the DK2 clone type of P. aeruginosa isolated from Danish patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF, and analyze the genomes of 55 bacterial isolates collected from 21 infected individuals over 38 years. Our phylogenetic analysis of 8,530 mutations in the DK2 genomes shows that the ancestral DK2 clone type spread among CF patients through several independent transmission events. Subsequent to transmission, sub-lineages evolved independently for years in separate hosts, creating a unique possibility to study parallel evolution and identification of genes targeted by mutations to optimize pathogen fitness (pathoadaptive mutations. These genes were related to antibiotic resistance, the cell envelope, or regulatory functions, and we find that the prevalence of pathoadaptive mutations correlates with evolutionary success of co-evolving sub-lineages. The long-term co-existence of both normal and hypermutator populations enabled comparative investigations of the mutation dynamics in homopolymeric sequences in which hypermutators are particularly prone to mutations. We find a positive exponential correlation between the length of the homopolymer and its likelihood to acquire mutations and identify two homopolymer-containing genes preferentially mutated in hypermutators. This homopolymer facilitated differential

  18. Watch and Wait Management of Inactive Cystic Echinococcosis - Does the Path to Inactivity Matter - Analysis of a Prospective Patient Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovic, Marija; Rosenberger, Kerstin Daniela; Steudle, Franziska; Junghanss, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Overdiagnosis and overtreatment are rarely discussed in the context of NTDs despite their relevance for patients under the care of health services with limited resources where the risks of therapy induced complications are often disproportionate to the benefit. The advantages of cyst staging-based management of patients with cystic echinococcosis (CE) are not yet fully explored. Questions are: Do inactive cysts (CE 4 and CE 5) need treatment and is there a difference between cysts which reach CE4 and CE5 naturally or by benzimidazole therapy? Analysis of long-term follow-up data from a prospective CE patient cohort of 223 patients of a national clinical center for echinococcosis. The event of interest "relapse" was defined as the reversal of a cyst from an inactive stage (CE4, CE5) back to an active stage. The watch &wait (ww) group included 30 patients with 46 inactive cysts who never received medical treatment. The benzimidazole-treated (med) group included 15 patients with 17 cysts. There was no relapse in the ww-group whereas 8/17 cysts showed relapse within 18 months after treatment in the med-group. Loss to follow-up was 15.5%. Data from the watch & wait group impressively show how stable naturally inactivated cysts are in contrast to cysts which reach inactivity through treatment with benzimidazoles. A substantial proportion of patients can be spared from treatment through cyst staging. Cysts which inactivated through a natural course do not relapse with very high likelihood. We recommend follow up of 5 years to confirm the stability of the inactive stage. Cysts driven into inactivity through benzimidazole therapy instead need careful monitoring to identify those which reactivate (around 50% within 18 months). 5 years follow-up appears safe to make a final decision on the need for further monitoring.

  19. Dressed coordinates: The path-integral approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casana, R.; Flores-Hidalgo, G.; Pimentel, B. M.

    2007-02-01

    The recently introduced dressed coordinates are studied in the path-integral approach. These coordinates are defined in the context of a harmonic oscillator linearly coupled to massless scalar field and it is shown that in this model the dressed coordinates appear as a coordinate transformation preserving the path-integral functional measure. The analysis also generalizes the sum rules established in a previous work.

  20. Shortest Paths in Microseconds

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Rachit; Godfrey, P Brighten; Zhao, Ben Y

    2013-01-01

    Computing shortest paths is a fundamental primitive for several social network applications including socially-sensitive ranking, location-aware search, social auctions and social network privacy. Since these applications compute paths in response to a user query, the goal is to minimize latency while maintaining feasible memory requirements. We present ASAP, a system that achieves this goal by exploiting the structure of social networks. ASAP preprocesses a given network to compute and store a partial shortest path tree (PSPT) for each node. The PSPTs have the property that for any two nodes, each edge along the shortest path is with high probability contained in the PSPT of at least one of the nodes. We show that the structure of social networks enable the PSPT of each node to be an extremely small fraction of the entire network; hence, PSPTs can be stored efficiently and each shortest path can be computed extremely quickly. For a real network with 5 million nodes and 69 million edges, ASAP computes a short...

  1. Faster Replacement Paths

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Virginia Vassilevska

    2010-01-01

    The replacement paths problem for directed graphs is to find for given nodes s and t and every edge e on the shortest path between them, the shortest path between s and t which avoids e. For unweighted directed graphs on n vertices, the best known algorithm runtime was \\tilde{O}(n^{2.5}) by Roditty and Zwick. For graphs with integer weights in {-M,...,M}, Weimann and Yuster recently showed that one can use fast matrix multiplication and solve the problem in O(Mn^{2.584}) time, a runtime which would be O(Mn^{2.33}) if the exponent \\omega of matrix multiplication is 2. We improve both of these algorithms. Our new algorithm also relies on fast matrix multiplication and runs in O(M n^{\\omega} polylog(n)) time if \\omega>2 and O(n^{2+\\eps}) for any \\eps>0 if \\omega=2. Our result shows that, at least for small integer weights, the replacement paths problem in directed graphs may be easier than the related all pairs shortest paths problem in directed graphs, as the current best runtime for the latter is \\Omega(n^{2.5...

  2. Effects of optimism, social support, fighting spirit, cancer worry and internal health locus of control on positive affect in cancer survivors: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Kayleigh; Winstanley, Sue

    2012-12-01

    The psychological impact of a cancer diagnosis can extend through treatment, well into cancer survivorship and can be influenced by a range of psychosocial resources. At different stages in this trajectory, optimism is known to affect well-being directly. This study focusing upon the potential to flourish after cancer, investigates the relationship between optimism and positive affect during cancer survivorship together with four possible mediators: social support, fighting spirit, internal health locus of control and cancer worry, all of which have been shown to be important predictors of well-being in cancer patients. Participants (n = 102) from online cancer forums completed standardized questionnaires, and path analysis confirmed that optimism had a direct effect on positive affect in cancer survivors. Social support and fighting spirit were also shown to be significant mediators of this relationship, accounting collectively for 50% of the variance in positive affect. Whilst cancer worry and internal health locus of control could be predicted from levels of optimism, they did not mediate the optimism-positive affect relationship. Efforts to promote optimism and thus encourage fighting spirit at diagnosis through treatment may be worthwhile interventions, as would ensuring appropriate social support through the trajectory.

  3. First-principles mode-by-mode analysis for electron-phonon scattering channels and mean free path spectra in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Te-Huan; Zhou, Jiawei; Liao, Bolin; Singh, David J.; Chen, Gang

    2017-02-01

    We present a first-principles framework to investigate the electron scattering channels and transport properties for polar materials by combining the exact solution of the linearized electron-phonon (e-ph) Boltzmann transport equation in its integral-differential form associated with the e-ph coupling matrices obtained from the polar Wannier interpolation scheme. No ad hoc parameter is required throughout this calculation, and GaAs, a well-studied polar material, is used as an example to demonstrate this method. In this work, the long-range and short-range contributions as well as the intravalley and intervalley transitions in the e-ph interactions (EPIs) have been quantitatively addressed. Promoted by such mode-by-mode analysis, we find that in GaAs, the piezoelectric scattering is comparable to deformation-potential scattering for electron scatterings by acoustic phonons in EPI even at room temperature, and it makes a significant contribution to mobility. Furthermore, we achieved good agreement with experimental data for the mobility, and we identified that electrons with mean free paths between 130 and 210 nm provide the dominant contribution to the electron transport at 300 K. Such information provides a deeper understanding of the electron transport in GaAs, and the presented framework can be readily applied to other polar materials.

  4. Analysis of Confidence in Our Path,Theories and System%解析道路自信、理论自信、制度自信

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任福全; 张小飞

    2013-01-01

    Report to the Eighteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China came up with idea for the first time that the whole party should have every confidence in our path ,in our theories and in our system of socialism with Chinese characteristics .Three firm confidence has a far-reaching influence when the party leads the Chinese people of all ethnic groups to withstand risks ,overcome difficulties ,promote the construction of socialist modernization ,and realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation .In-depth analysis of the"three"self -confidence ,accurate interpretation of the path ,thoeries and sys-tem of socialism with Chinese characteristics ,correct evaluation of the "three confidence" searching experience and achieve-ments ,and exploration of correct way to stick to the three confidence ,these are of great significance for continuously creating the new situation of the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics .%党的十八大报告首次提出全党要坚定中国特色社会主义道路自信、理论自信、制度自信。坚定“三个自信”对于党领导全国各族人民抵御风险、攻坚克难,推进社会主义现代化建设,实现中华民族伟大复兴具有深远影响。深入分析“三个自信”,准确把握中国特色社会主义道路、理论、制度的内涵,正确评价“三个自信”探索历程与成就经验,探索坚定道路自信、理论自信、制度自信的途径必将不断开创中国特色社会主义事业的新局面。

  5. 企业战略管理组织结构变革路径分析%Path Analysis on Organizational Structure Revolution of Corporate Strategic Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宏奇

    2013-01-01

      传统上,路径依赖理论强调历史因素与偶发性事件的影响,解释虽然合理,但也存在着某些缺陷;这些问题推动着研究者将研究视角从历史角度转向行为主体者的能动性来解析路径突破和路径创造。企业管理战略行为具有路径依赖的特征,根据“战略决定结构”的思想,组织结构系统内生地蕴含着路径依赖特性。从企业战略管理的角度对组织中的路径依赖形成机制和路径创造机制进行研究,并讨论了组织结构变革中的环境变化造成组织变革的路径依赖和路径突破相互之间的关系。%Traditionally, Path dependence theory suggests that the historical factors and accidental factors play a decisive role in the development process of path. The explanation for path developing is reasonable, it has an internal defect. These questions move the research scope of researchers from historical angle to the mobility of behavior subjects in order to find explanation for path breakthroughs and path creations. The strategic movement of corporate governance has the attribute of path dependence. According to the doctrine of strategic dominates direction, direction dominates framework, the institution framework contains the attribute of path dependence. The paper analyzes both the formation of path dependence and path creation in institutions from an corporate strategic management angle, and the impact of institution framework environment changes on path dependence and path creation in institution changes.

  6. Smoothing of Piecewise Linear Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Waringo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We present an anytime-capable fast deterministic greedy algorithm for smoothing piecewise linear paths consisting of connected linear segments. With this method, path points with only a small influence on path geometry (i.e. aligned or nearly aligned points are successively removed. Due to the removal of less important path points, the computational and memory requirements of the paths are reduced and traversing the path is accelerated. Our algorithm can be used in many different applications, e.g. sweeping, path finding, programming-by-demonstration in a virtual environment, or 6D CNC milling. The algorithm handles points with positional and orientational coordinates of arbitrary dimension.

  7. 甘蔗品质指标的通径分析和主成分分析%Path and Principal Component Analysis for Quality Indexes of Sugarcane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢静; 吴建涛; 杨俊贤; 陈月桂; 谭佳娜; 刘福业; 吴文龙; 潘方胤

    2012-01-01

    Fifteen quality indexes of seventy-eight Yuetang series of sugarcane lines were analyzed by correlarion, path and principal component analysis in this paper. The result of correlation analysis showed that the sucrose in cane was very significantly or significantly correlated with the twelve quality indexes except for fiber in cane and fiber in bagasse. Fiber in cane was extremely associated with juice extraction rate, brix in bagasse, water content in bagasse, polarimeter reading in bagasse, sucrose in bagasse and fiber in bagasse, and not significantly related with seven quality indexes of juice. The results of path analysis showed that sucrose in cane was mainly influenced by the direct effects of sucrose in cane juice, polarization by sodium chloride and sucrose in bagasse, and the indirect effects of polsrization of cane juice and gravity purity. Fiber in cane was primarily controlled by the direct effects of polarization by sodium chloride, fiber in bagasse, juice extraction rate, water content in bagasse, the indirect effects of polarization of cane juice and polarimeter reading in bagasse. The thirteen quality indexes of sugarcane could be divided into three principal component factors with the cumulative variance contribution of 86.52 % by principal component analysis. Three principal component factors were juice indexes, bagasse indexes and water indexes of cane.%应用相关分析、通径分析和主成分分析方法,对78份粤糖系列甘蔗新品系的15个品质指标数据进行分析.相关分析结果表明,甘蔗蔗糖分除与甘蔗纤维分、蔗渣纤维分没有显著相关外,与其他12个品质指标均有极显著或显著相关性;甘蔗纤维分与出汁率、蒸煮液糖锤度、蔗渣水分、蒸煮液旋光读数、蔗渣糖度和蔗渣纤维分呈板显著相关,与其它7个蔗汁品质指标的相关性不显著.通径分析结果表明,甘蔗蔗糖分主要受蔗汁蔗糖分、蔗汁直接转光度、蔗渣糖度的直接作

  8. Euclidean shortest paths

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Fajie

    2011-01-01

    This unique text/reference reviews algorithms for the exact or approximate solution of shortest-path problems, with a specific focus on a class of algorithms called rubberband algorithms. Discussing each concept and algorithm in depth, the book includes mathematical proofs for many of the given statements. Topics and features: provides theoretical and programming exercises at the end of each chapter; presents a thorough introduction to shortest paths in Euclidean geometry, and the class of algorithms called rubberband algorithms; discusses algorithms for calculating exact or approximate ESPs i

  9. Analysis on Low Carbon City Construction Path in China at Current Stage%我国现阶段低碳城市建设路径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫桂焕; 许崇庆; 吕月霞; 郭东彦; 肖琦

    2014-01-01

    The present paper focuses on city scale to firstly analyze the importance and urgency of low carbon city construction at current stage. The research strategy was proposed that Low carbon city development strategy has been established based on the analysis on socioeconomic development status, compilation of greenhouse gas emission inventory, low carbon scenario prediction and analysis. Implementation path for low carbon city construction has been given from the aspects of low carbon industrial production, low carbon building, low carbon traffic and low carbon life. In addition, the obstacles hindering the construction of domestic low carbon cities at current stage have been analyzed and several suggestions have been correspondingly proposed. The research results of this paper may provide support and decision reference for the construction of low carbon cities in China at current stage.%本文聚焦城市尺度,首先分析了我国现阶段进行低碳城市建设的重要性和紧迫性;提出了低碳城市建设方案的研究策略,在城市现状分析、清单编制、低碳情景预测分析基础上制定城市的低碳发展战略;指出了低碳城市建设的实施路径,主要包括低碳生产、低碳建筑、低碳交通和低碳生活四个方面;最后分析了我国现阶段低碳城市建设的障碍,并给出了若干建议。本文研究结果以期对现阶段我国各地低碳城市的建设提供科学决策参考。

  10. SHP: Smooth Hypocycloidal Paths with Collision-Free and Decoupled Multi-Robot Path Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Ravankar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Generating smooth and continuous paths for robots with collision avoidance, which avoid sharp turns, is an important problem in the context of autonomous robot navigation. This paper presents novel smooth hypocycloidal paths (SHP for robot motion. It is integrated with collision-free and decoupled multi-robot path planning. An SHP diffuses (i.e., moves points along segments the points of sharp turns in the global path of the map into nodes, which are used to generate smooth hypocycloidal curves that maintain a safe clearance in relation to the obstacles. These nodes are also used as safe points of retreat to avoid collision with other robots. The novel contributions of this work are as follows: (1 The proposed work is the first use of hypocycloid geometry to produce smooth and continuous paths for robot motion. A mathematical analysis of SHP generation in various scenarios is discussed. (2 The proposed work is also the first to consider the case of smooth and collision-free path generation for a load carrying robot. (3 Traditionally, path smoothing and collision avoidance have been addressed as separate problems. This work proposes integrated and decoupled collision-free multi-robot path planning. ‵Node caching‵ is proposed to improve efficiency. A decoupled approach with local communication enables the paths of robots to be dynamically changed. (4 A novel ‵multi-robot map update‵ in case of dynamic obstacles in the map is proposed, such that robots update other robots about the positions of dynamic obstacles in the map. A timestamp feature ensures that all the robots have the most updated map. Comparison between SHP and other path smoothing techniques and experimental results in real environments confirm that SHP can generate smooth paths for robots and avoid collision with other robots through local communication.

  11. An Unplanned Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Lynn M.; Sterenberg, Gladys Y.; Long, Julie S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors elucidate what they saw as three important challenges to overcome along the path to becoming elementary school mathematics teacher leaders: marginal interest in math, low self-confidence, and teaching in isolation. To illustrate how these challenges were mitigated, they focus on the stories of two elementary school teachers--Laura and…

  12. Reparametrizations of Continuous Paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenberg, Uli; Raussen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    compare it to the distributive lattice of countable subsets of the unit interval. The results obtained are used to analyse the space of traces in a topological space, i.e., the space of continuous paths up to reparametrization equivalence. This space is shown to be homeomorphic to the space of regular...

  13. MEASURING PATH DEPENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Juhasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While risk management gained popularity during the last decades even some of the basic risk types are still far out of focus. One of these is path dependency that refers to the uncertainty of how we reach a certain level of total performance over time. While decision makers are careful in accessing how their position will look like the end of certain periods, little attention is given how they will get there through the period. The uncertainty of how a process will develop across a shorter period of time is often “eliminated” by simply choosing a longer planning time interval, what makes path dependency is one of the most often overlooked business risk types. After reviewing the origin of the problem we propose and compare seven risk measures to access path. Traditional risk measures like standard deviation of sub period cash flows fail to capture this risk type. We conclude that in most cases considering the distribution of the expected cash flow effect caused by the path dependency may offer the best method, but we may need to use several measures at the same time to include all the optimisation limits of the given firm

  14. Genetic Correlations and Path Analysis in Butternut Squash Cucurbita moschata Duch / Correlaciones Genéticas y Análisis de Sendero en Zapallo Cucurbita moschata Duch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanín Ortiz Grisales

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A genetic correlation and path analysis was carried out for yield and fruit quality components of diallel crosses of butternut squash Cucurbita moschata Duch, using openpollinated introductions, S0 and inbred lines S1 and S2 at two sites: Candelaria and Buga, located in the Department of Valle delCauca, Colombia. A split-plot experimental design with arranged, random blocks and four replicates was used. The average fruit weight presented positive genetic correlations with the total production per plant in all three generations and at both test sites. The total plant dry matter and total production per plant presented a high genetic correlation, and the fruit dry matter was inversely correlated with the total carotene. The total carotene and fruit color were independent. The path analysis confirmed high genetic correlations between the number of fruits per plant, average fruitweight, and total plant dry matter, with direct, positive effects, that were significantly greater than zero for the variables of number of fruits per plant and average fruit weight in regards to the total plant dry matter. The total production per plant expressed a direct, negative effect on the total plant dry matter. The fruit dry matter presented an indirect, negative effect on the total plant dry matter through the average fruit weight and an indirect, positive effect through the total production per plant. / Resumen. Se estudiaron las correlaciones genéticas y el análisis de sendero para los componentes del rendimiento y calidad del fruto de zapallo Cucurbita moschata Duch, en cruzamientos dialélicos entre introducciones de libre polinización S0 y sus líneas S1 y S2 en dos localidades, Candelaria y Buga, ubicadas en el Departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Se usó un diseño experimental en parcelas divididas, arregladas en bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. El peso promedio del fruto presentó correlación gen

  15. Impact of socio-demographic factors on the mitigating actions for climate change: a path analysis with mediating effects of attitudinal variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Akhatr, Rulia; Nasrin, Shamima; Adamu, Ibrahim Mohammed

    2017-09-25

    Socio-demographic factors play a significant role in increasing the individual's climate change awareness and in setting a favorable individual attitude towards its mitigation. To better understand how the adversative effects of climate change can be mitigated, this study attempts to investigate the impact of socio-demographic factors on the mitigating actions of the individuals (MAOI) on climate change. Qualitative data were collected from a face-to-face survey of 360 respondents in the Kuala Lumpur region of Malaysia through a close-ended questionnaire. Analysis was conducted on the mediating effects of attitudinal variables through the path model by using the SEM. Findings indicate that the socio-demographic factors such as gender, age, education, income, and ethnicity can greatly influence the individual's awareness, attitude, risk perception, and knowledge of climate change issues. The results drawn from this study also revealed that the attitudinal factors act as a mediating effect between the socio-demographic factors and the MAOI, thereby, indicating that both the socio-demographic factors and the attitudinal factors have significant effects on the MAOI towards climate change. The outcome of this study can help policy makers and other private organizations to decide on the appropriate actions to take in managing climate change effects. These actions which encompass improving basic climate change education and making the public more aware of the local dimensions of climate change are important for harnessing public engagement and support that can also stimulate climate change awareness and promote mitigating actions to n protect the environment from the impact of climate change.

  16. Ancient DNA analysis of mid-holocene individuals from the Northwest Coast of North America reveals different evolutionary paths for mitogenomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinqiu Cui

    Full Text Available To gain a better understanding of North American population history, complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes were generated from four ancient and three living individuals of the northern Northwest Coast of North America, specifically the north coast of British Columbia, Canada, current home to the indigenous Tsimshian, Haida, and Nisga'a. The mitogenomes of all individuals were previously unknown and assigned to new sub-haplogroup designations D4h3a7, A2ag and A2ah. The analysis of mitogenomes allows for more detailed analyses of presumed ancestor-descendant relationships than sequencing only the HVSI region of the mitochondrial genome, a more traditional approach in local population studies. The results of this study provide contrasting examples of the evolution of Native American mitogenomes. Those belonging to sub-haplogroups A2ag and A2ah exhibit temporal continuity in this region for 5000 years up until the present day. Of possible associative significance is that archaeologically identified house structures in this region maintain similar characteristics for this same period of time, demonstrating cultural continuity in residence patterns. The individual dated to 6000 years before present (BP exhibited a mitogenome belonging to sub-haplogroup D4h3a. This sub-haplogroup was earlier identified in the same general area at 10300 years BP on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, and may have gone extinct, as it has not been observed in any living individuals of the Northwest Coast. The presented case studies demonstrate the different evolutionary paths of mitogenomes over time on the Northwest Coast.

  17. Ancient DNA Analysis of Mid-Holocene Individuals from the Northwest Coast of North America Reveals Different Evolutionary Paths for Mitogenomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yinqiu; Lindo, John; Hughes, Cris E.; Johnson, Jesse W.; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Kemp, Brian M.; Ma, Jian; Cunningham, Ryan; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycellyn; Archer, David; Cybulski, Jerome S.; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2013-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of North American population history, complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) were generated from four ancient and three living individuals of the northern Northwest Coast of North America, specifically the north coast of British Columbia, Canada, current home to the indigenous Tsimshian, Haida, and Nisga’a. The mitogenomes of all individuals were previously unknown and assigned to new sub-haplogroup designations D4h3a7, A2ag and A2ah. The analysis of mitogenomes allows for more detailed analyses of presumed ancestor–descendant relationships than sequencing only the HVSI region of the mitochondrial genome, a more traditional approach in local population studies. The results of this study provide contrasting examples of the evolution of Native American mitogenomes. Those belonging to sub-haplogroups A2ag and A2ah exhibit temporal continuity in this region for 5000 years up until the present day. Of possible associative significance is that archaeologically identified house structures in this region maintain similar characteristics for this same period of time, demonstrating cultural continuity in residence patterns. The individual dated to 6000 years before present (BP) exhibited a mitogenome belonging to sub-haplogroup D4h3a. This sub-haplogroup was earlier identified in the same general area at 10300 years BP on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, and may have gone extinct, as it has not been observed in any living individuals of the Northwest Coast. The presented case studies demonstrate the different evolutionary paths of mitogenomes over time on the Northwest Coast. PMID:23843972

  18. An analysis of apparent polar wander path for southwest Japan suggests no relative movement with respect to Eurasia during the Cretaceous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Koji; Furukawa, Kuniyuki; Hatanaka, Yuri

    2017-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that southwest Japan was involved in large-scale tectonic movement with southward translation as far as 2000 km with respect to Eurasia during the Cretaceous, we examined Cretaceous paleomagnetic poles from southwest Japan to compare with those from Eurasia. Red and gray sandstone samples from the Upper Cretaceous Onogawa Group were collected from twelve sites in the Onogawa Basin in the western part of southwest Japan for paleomagnetic analysis. This group formed over the time span in which the proposed tectonic event is hypothesized to have occurred. A characteristic remanent magnetization component was isolated from red sandstone at ten sites; it is interpreted to be of primary Late Cretaceous origin. The primary directions combined with previously reported data provide a mean direction (D = 76.8°, I = 44.6°, α95 = 11.1°, N = 15) and a paleomagnetic pole (24.4°N, 202.6°E, A95 = 11.0°) for the Onogawa area. This pole is consistent with other Late Cretaceous poles from a wide area of southwest Japan, and a mean Late Cretaceous pole (28.4°N, 202.5°E, A95 = 7.5°, N = 6) is calculated and regarded as representative of this region. The Late Cretaceous pole, together with mid- and Early Cretaceous poles, constitutes an apparent polar wander path (APWP) for southwest Japan during the Cretaceous. After restoration of post-Cretaceous tectonic rotation, each Cretaceous pole for southwest Japan shows agreement with the coeval poles for Eurasia; therefore, it is unlikely that the previously proposed tectonic model that includes southward translation of southwest Japan occurred in the Late Cretaceous. Southwest Japan is considered to have behaved as a stable part of the Eurasian continental margin during the Cretaceous.

  19. The Influence of Localized Glacial Erosion on Exhumation Paths in Accreting Coulomb Wedges: Insights from Particle Velocimetry Analysis of Sandbox Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, P. J.; Davis, K.; Haq, S. S. B.; Ridgway, K.

    2015-12-01

    Glacial erosion can have an impact on the location and development of faults in mountain belts. The rapid removal and deposition of rock, in some cases, is thought to affect the initiation of slip on older fault structures, or cause the development of new structures within the older part of the wedge. We present cross-sectional data from both erosional and non-erosional sandbox models of Coulomb wedges in order to quantify the impact of localized erosion on the location of and slip on deformational structures, as well as the general path of material through a wedge. To do this, we employ Lagrangian particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) using the open-source Python PTV toolkit trackpy, among a suite of other data analysis tools. We are able to extract robust and reliable sets of particle trajectories from a series of images without the need for predefined markers or marker-beds, instead identifying and tracking natural variations in sand color as individual particles. By comparing the motion of particles in cross-section to the local surface topography over an entire experiment, we determine a high-resolution record of exhumation rates, in addition to simple uplift rates. These comparisons are further informed by the use of high-definition Eulerian particle image velocimetry (PIV), which provides quantitative data about the distribution of deformation and instantaneous material displacements throughout a cross-sectional view of a Coulomb wedge. This allows us to interpret these pathways in relation to the behavior of active structures and general wedge morphology. In our experiments, we observe that localized glacial erosion has an impact on material pathways, in the form of an increased rate of exhumation locally, more vertical trajectories towards surface below the zone of erosion, and reactivation of older structures to maintain force balance within the entire wedge.

  20. A Path Algorithm for Constrained Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Many least-square problems involve affine equality and inequality constraints. Although there are a variety of methods for solving such problems, most statisticians find constrained estimation challenging. The current article proposes a new path-following algorithm for quadratic programming that replaces hard constraints by what are called exact penalties. Similar penalties arise in l1 regularization in model selection. In the regularization setting, penalties encapsulate prior knowledge, and penalized parameter estimates represent a trade-off between the observed data and the prior knowledge. Classical penalty methods of optimization, such as the quadratic penalty method, solve a sequence of unconstrained problems that put greater and greater stress on meeting the constraints. In the limit as the penalty constant tends to ∞, one recovers the constrained solution. In the exact penalty method, squared penalties!are replaced by absolute value penalties, and the solution is recovered for a finite value of the penalty constant. The exact path-following method starts at the unconstrained solution and follows the solution path as the penalty constant increases. In the process, the solution path hits, slides along, and exits from the various constraints. Path following in Lasso penalized regression, in contrast, starts with a large value of the penalty constant and works its way downward. In both settings, inspection of the entire solution path is revealing. Just as with the Lasso and generalized Lasso, it is possible to plot the effective degrees of freedom along the solution path. For a strictly convex quadratic program, the exact penalty algorithm can be framed entirely in terms of the sweep operator of regression analysis. A few well-chosen examples illustrate the mechanics and potential of path following. This article has supplementary materials available online.

  1. Analysis of Development Path for Low-Carbon Pilot Provinces in China%中国低碳试点省份发展路径研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘健; 王润; 孙艳伟; 舒舍玉; 肖黎姗

    2012-01-01

    To mitigate climate change, reducing greenhouse gas emissions has become the consensus of the international community. As the largest developing country and one of the largest emitters of CO2 in the world, China has participated actively in the action of mitigating climate change. In this study we try to explore low-carbon development paths for 5 provinces, namely Shaanxi, Yunnan, Guangdong, Iiaoning, and Hubei in China, which were assigned as national pilot provinces for low-carbon development by the National Development and Reform Commission in August 2010. Based on the data from 1995 to 2009, a quantitative analysis of carbon emissions in 5 pilot provinces are conducted involving 5 factors such as population, urbanization, wealth, industrial structure and energy intensity in STIRPAT model. The results show; Shaanxi should focus on industrial restructuring and decreasing energy intensity. In addition to controlling population growth, Guangdong province should optimize the energy structure and advocate a low-carbon lifestyle. Lowering energy intensity should be the main measure to reduce carbon emissions in Iiaoning; reducing energy intensity, optimizing industrial structure and controlling population growth play an important role on the path to low-carbon development for Hubei; Yunnan should make great effort in controlling population growth as well as improving population quality in order to realize its carbon emission target.%近百年来,全球气候正经历以变暖为主要特征的显著变化.为应对气候变化,减少温室气体排放已经成为国际社会的共识.作为世界上最大的发展中国家和最大的二氧化碳排放国之一,应对气候变化离不开中国的参与.2010年8月,中国国家发展和改革委员会确定在陕西、广东、辽宁、湖北、云南五省开展低碳试点工作.本文以这五个省份为研究对象,根据1995-2009年统计年鉴数据,基于STIRPAT模型定量分析了人口规模、城市化水

  2. To Solve Pipeline Layout Problem with the Improved Shortest Path Model%利用改进的最短路径模型解决输油管的布置问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余淼

    2011-01-01

    2010年去过数学建模大赛c题“输油管的布置”数学建模的目的是设计最优化的路线,建立一条费用最省的输油管线路,但是不同于普遍的最短路径问题,该题需要考虑多种情况,例如,城区和郊区费用的不同,采用共用管线和非公用管线价格的不同等等。我们基于最短路径模型,对于题目实际情况进行研究和分析,基于光的传播原理,设计了一种改进的最短路径模型,对问题设计了合适的数学模型并做出了相应的解答和处理。%Mathematical Modeling Contest in 2010 been to C title"pipeline layout,"The purpose of mathematical modeling is to design the most optimal route to establish a pipeline of least cost route,but unlike the general shortest path problem,the problem needs consider a variety of situations,for example,the cost of different urban and suburban areas,the use of shared pipeline and the price of different non-public lines and so on.On the basis of the shortest path model for the actual subject of research and analysis,based on the principle of light transmission,an improved design of the shortest path model,the appropriate design of the problem and make the corresponding mathematical model answers and treatment.

  3. Jan Åge Riseth; Sámi reindeer management under technological change 1960-1990: Implications for Common-Pool Resource Use Under Various Natural and Instututional Conditions. A comparative analysis of regional development paths....

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Egil Haugerud (ed.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available On June 22, Cand. Agric. Jan Åge Riseth successfully defended his dissertation "Sami reindeer management under technological change 1960-1990: Implications for Common-Pool Resource Use Under Various Natural And Institutional Conditions. A comparative analysis of regional development paths in West Finnmark, North Trøndelag, and South Trøndelag/Hedmark, Norway." for the degree Dr. Scient, at the Agricultural University of Norway (AUN, Dept. of Economics and Social Sciences.

  4. Jan Åge Riseth; Sámi reindeer management under technological change 1960-1990: Implications for Common-Pool Resource Use Under Various Natural and Instututional Conditions. A comparative analysis of regional development paths....

    OpenAIRE

    Rolf Egil Haugerud (ed. in chief)

    2000-01-01

    On June 22, Cand. Agric. Jan Åge Riseth successfully defended his dissertation "Sami reindeer management under technological change 1960-1990: Implications for Common-Pool Resource Use Under Various Natural And Institutional Conditions. A comparative analysis of regional development paths in West Finnmark, North Trøndelag, and South Trøndelag/Hedmark, Norway." for the degree Dr. Scient, at the Agricultural University of Norway (AUN), Dept. of Economics and Social Sciences.

  5. Analysis of shortest path for vector data model based on ArcGIS%基于ArcGIS对矢量数据模型的最短路径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晟

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, using the module of network analysis in ArcGis, problems of how to find different the shortest path in different circumstances discussed are given respectively.%利用ArcGIS中网络分析模块对最短路径问题分情况进行了探讨,分别给出了在不同情况下如何找到不同最短路径。

  6. Cosmological Feynman Paths

    CERN Document Server

    Chew, Geoffrey F

    2008-01-01

    Arrowed-time divergence-free rules or cosmological quantum dynamics are formulated through stepped Feynman paths across macroscopic slices of Milne spacetime. Slice boundaries house totally-relativistic rays representing elementary entities--preons. Total relativity and the associated preon Fock space, despite distinction from special relativity (which lacks time arrow), are based on the Lorentz group. Each path is a set of cubic vertices connected by straight, directed and stepped arcs that carry inertial, electromagnetic and gravitational action. The action of an arc step comprises increments each bounded by Planck's constant. Action from extremely-distant sources is determined by universe mean energy density. Identifying the arc-step energy that determines inertial action with that determining gravitational action establishes both arc-step length and universe density. Special relativity is accurate for physics at laboratory spacetime scales far below that of Hubble and far above that of Planck.

  7. Nonadiabatic transition path sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, M. C.; Corcelli, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    Fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) is combined with transition path sampling (TPS) to produce a new method called nonadiabatic path sampling (NAPS). The NAPS method is validated on a model electron transfer system coupled to a Langevin bath. Numerically exact rate constants are computed using the reactive flux (RF) method over a broad range of solvent frictions that span from the energy diffusion (low friction) regime to the spatial diffusion (high friction) regime. The NAPS method is shown to quantitatively reproduce the RF benchmark rate constants over the full range of solvent friction. Integrating FSSH within the TPS framework expands the applicability of both approaches and creates a new method that will be helpful in determining detailed mechanisms for nonadiabatic reactions in the condensed-phase.

  8. Correlation and Path Analysis for Reproductive Traits of Songliao Black Swine%松辽黑猪繁殖性的相关及通径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆雨; 张树敏; 于永生; 金鑫; 李娜; 李兆华; 赵晓东

    2012-01-01

    Seven reproductive traits including total number of farrowed piglets(x1), number of living newborn piglets(x2), average weight of newborn piglets(x3), litter weight of newborn piglets(x4), litter weight of 20-day old piglets(x5), number of weaned piglets(x6) and litter weight of 35-day old weaned piglets(y) of Songliao black pig were analyzed with Path analysis and regression analysis. The results shows that a major portion of reproductive traits were correlated with another, and the most factor influenced on the litter weight of 35-day old weaned piglets was the number of weaned piglets ,and secondly were the litter weight of 20-day old piglets, number of weaned piglets and number of living newborn piglets .The optimum regression equation of reproductive traits, y=20.031-1.958xt+0.405xs+8.201 x6,was established in Songliao black swine.%对松辽黑猪总产仔数(X1)、产活仔数(X2)、出生均重(X3)、出生窝重(X4)、20日龄窝重(X5)、断奶仔猪数(X6)、35日龄断奶窝重(y)7个繁殖性状进行了通径分析和回归分析。结果表明各个繁殖性状在表型值上都存在不同程度的相关,其中对断奶窝重影响最大的为断奶仔猪数,其次为20日龄窝重、产活仔数及总产仔数。建立最优回归方程为y=20.031—1.958x1O.405x5+8.201x6

  9. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  10. ESTIMATION OF OPTIMAL PATH ON URBAN ROAD NETWORKS USING AHP ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Kukadapwar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes to develop a multi criteria decision based methodology to find optimal path in real urban road network. Over the year several studies were conducted but most of which rely on single variable like travel distance or travel time as cost function. In this study, seven different attributes influencing the traffic network i.e. distance, time, traffic volume, road width, no. of intersection, parking and encroachment on road are used to define cost function using multi criterion decision making approach. These variables are combined using a Multi-Dimensional Cost Model (MDCM using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP. The models developed were implemented and closely evaluated in Nagpur city of India. Model is considered for determining optimal path between various Origins and Destinations in real urban traffic network. Composite weighted AHP scored were used to generate AHP decision surface. Finally, the best decision was proposed by generating the least cost path which is considered as optimal path. The resulting routes showed to be more accurate than those obtained utilizing one-dimensional cost functions and AHP is found to be effective tool to deal with optimal route selection problem.

  11. 基于路径中断概率的VANETs连接模型及性能分析%Path outage probability-based VANETs connection model and performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪颖; 张堑

    2014-01-01

    车载网VANETs(Vehicular Ad hoc Networks)在道路安全、车流量管理和娱乐应用具有广阔的前景,而这些应用依赖数据有效的传输。为此,VANETs的数据传输技术成为研究的焦点。然而,VANETs的拓扑动态变化、车辆快速移动加速了车间通信链路的断裂,降低了链路的可靠性,为数据有效传输提出了挑战。据此,分析了VANETs的多跳通信连接特性。通过研究端到端中断概率,提出多跳连接的分析模型。通过模型,可得出在一定的平均端到端中断概率所需的最小发射功率以及最大传输跳数。通过仿真,验证理论模型的正确性。仿真进一步表明,通过合适的功率控制算法有利于改善数据传输路径。%Data transmission technology in VANETs(Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks)obtains more attention since that VANETs is able to provide road safety, vehicle traffic management and infotainment service. However, the changed topology and fast moving vehicle accelerate the fracture of communication link between vehicles, and reduce the reliability of commu-nication links. Therefore,the multi-hop connectivity properties of VANETs based on a physical layer based Quality of Ser-vice(QoS)criterion in terms of average end-to-end path outage probability are analyzed.Under this approach, a multi-hop path joining a pair of vehicles is considered to be connected if and only if the average end-to-end path outage probability meets a target requirement. An analytical model to compute the average end-to-end path outage probability of a connected path is presented. This paper then investigates the minimum transmit power and maximum number of hops satisfying an average path outage probability constraint. The validity of the theoretical analysis is verified by simulation.Simulation results show that a suitable power control algorithm can improve the data transmission path.

  12. The path exchange method for hybrid LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Manfred; Crawford, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Hybrid techniques for Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) provide a way of combining the accuracy of process analysis and the completeness of input-output analysis. A number of methods have been suggested to implement a hybrid LCA in practice, with the main challenge being the integration of specific process data with an overarching input-output system. In this work we present a new hybrid LCA method which works at the finest input-output level of detail: structural paths. This new Path Exchange method avoids double-counting and system disturbance just as previous hybrid LCA methods, but instead of a large LCA database it requires only a minimum of external information on those structural paths that are to be represented by process data.

  13. Path planning in dynamic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.P. van den

    2007-01-01

    Path planning plays an important role in various fields of application, such as CAD design, computer games and virtual environments, molecular biology, and robotics. In its most general form, the path planning problem is formulated as finding a collision-free path for a moving entity between a start

  14. 多因素斜交模型的煤矿员工安全行为作用路径分析%Analysis on Action Path of Coal Mine Employees' Safe Behavior Based on Multifactor Oblique Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱艳娜; 何刚; 朱先飞; 乔国通; 张贵生

    2015-01-01

    In order to effectively reduce the occurrence rate of coal mine accidents, to develop a safe and efficient path analysis model of the coal mine employees' safety behaviors is an urgent problem to be faced and solved by our coal enterprises. In this paper, the analysis algorithm of the employees' safety behavior path was proposed by taking the safety behaviors as the management theory and SPSS and AMOS methods as the research base, the regression equation was set up and comparative analysis was made on the employees' safety behavior action path. The results showed that the structure of the multifactor oblique model was adapted to the actual data and the coal mine employees' safety behaviors were affected by the working environment and personal factors. So, improving the employees ' working environment is a feasible path to enhance the level of their safety behaviors.%为有效降低煤矿事故发生率,开发安全高效的煤矿员工安全行为路径分析模型,是解决我国煤炭行业面临的迫在眉睫的难题. 以安全行为管理理论、SPSS和AMOS方法为研究基础,提出员工安全行为路径分析算法,并建立回归方程,对比分析员工安全行为作用路径. 结果表明,多因素斜交结构模型与实际数据适配,煤矿员工安全行为受作业环境和个人因素影响,改善员工作业环境是提升员工安全行为水平的可行路径.

  15. Path modeling and process control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar; Rodionova, O.; Pomerantsev, A.

    2007-01-01

    and having three or more stages. The methods are applied to a process control of a multi-stage production process having 25 variables and one output variable. When moving along the process, variables change their roles. It is shown how the methods of path modeling can be applied to estimate variables...... of the next stage with the purpose of obtaining optimal or almost optimal quality of the output variable. An important aspect of the methods presented is the possibility of extensive graphic analysis of data that can provide the engineer with a detailed view of the multi-variate variation in data.......Many production processes are carried out in stages. At the end of each stage, the production engineer can analyze the intermediate results and correct process parameters (variables) of the next stage. Both analysis of the process and correction to process parameters at next stage should...

  16. The association of parent's outcome expectations for child TV viewing with parenting practices and child TV viewing: an examination using path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauren; Chen, Tzu-An; Hughes, Sheryl O; O'Connor, Teresia M

    2015-05-28

    Television (TV) viewing has been associated with many undesirable outcomes for children, such as increased risk of obesity, but TV viewing can also have benefits. Although restrictive parenting practices are effective in reducing children's TV viewing, not all parents use them and it is currently unclear why. The current study examined parenting practices related to TV viewing in the context of social- cognitive theory. Specifically, we hypothesized that positive and negative Parental Outcome Expectations for child's TV Viewing (POETV) would be associated with social co-viewing and restrictive parenting practices, and that POETV and parenting practices influence the amount of TV viewed by child. Data were collected from an internet survey of 287 multi-ethnic parents and their 6-12 year old children on participants' sociodemographic information, parenting practices related to TV use, POETV, and parent and child TV viewing. Path analysis was used to examine the relationship amongst variables in separate models for weekday and weekend TV viewing. controlling for child age, household education, and parental TV viewing. The results provided partial support for the hypotheses, with notable differences between weekday and weekend viewing. The models explained 13.6% and 23.4% of the variance in children's TV viewing on weekdays and weekends respectively. Neither positive nor negative POETV were associated with restrictive TV parenting in either model. One subscale each from positive and negative POETV were associated with social co-viewing parenting on both weekends and weekdays in the expected direction. Restrictive parenting practices were directly negatively associated with children's TV viewing on weekdays, but not weekends. Social co-viewing parenting was directly positively associated with children's TV viewing on weekends, but not weekdays. The strongest influence on children's TV viewing was having a TV in the child's bedroom. Negative POETV was weakly associated

  17. Path analysis on the influencing factors of depression among college freshmen%大学新生抑郁状态影响因素路径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余毅震; 秦泰然; 孙琳; 刘卓娅; 张萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the influencing factors of depression among college freshmen and the relationship between these factors.Methods A total of 1 247 freshmen were drawn from some colleges of one university located in Wuhan urban area by cluster sampling. Depression,personality and parents' rearing pattern of freshmen were assessed by using Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale, Eysonck Personality Questionnaire and Egma Minnen av Bardndosnauppforstran. The path analysis was employed to analyze the influence factors of depression of those participants. Results Personality characteristics such as psychoticism, neuroticism and extraversion had direct impact on depression of freshmen. Parents' rearing pattern such as father's punishment and over protection, mother's warm care or understanding, refusal and denial, favor and whether single child or not had indirect effect on depression of freshmen. Conclusion Depression among college freshmen is closely related with personality and parents' rearing styles, and should be prevented and treated with comprehonsive measures early.%目的 探讨大学新生抑郁状态影响因素及各因素之间的相互影响,为预防和干预工作提供参考.方法 整群抽取武汉某高校一年级新生1 247名,采用抑郁自评量表、艾森克人格问卷、父母教育方式问卷等进行调查,对影响大学新生抑郁状态的可能因素进行路径分析.结果 大学新生人格因素中的精神质、神经质和内外向性直接影响抑郁状态,父母教育方式(父亲惩罚严厉、父亲过度保护、母亲情感温暖、母亲拒绝否认、母亲偏爱被试)和是否独生子女则间接影响抑郁状态.结论 大学新生抑郁情绪与人格特质和家庭养育方式密切相关,应针对具体原因及早进行综合干预.

  18. Análise de trilha de caracteres forrageiros do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. Path coefficient analysis of forage characteristics of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum schum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Figueiredo Daher

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho consistiram em obter estimativas de coeficientes de correlação fenotípicos, genotípicos e residuais, e avaliar os desdobramentos das correlações genotípicas em efeitos diretos e indiretos (análise de trilha das variáveis altura média das plantas, diâmetro médio do colmo e número de perfilhos por metro linear (variáveis independentes explicativas na produção de matéria seca (variável dependente principal de clones de capim-elefante em dois cortes realizados nas condições edafoclimáticas do norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Houve grande diferença nas estimativas obtidas nos dois cortes, entretanto o estudo permitiu concluir que a altura das plantas no corte exerce influência na produção de matéria seca principalmente nas situações de clones de alta capacidade de perfilhamento. As características número de perfilhos por metro linear e diâmetro de perfilhos foram capazes de explicar melhor o potencial de produção de matéria seca, atuando, respectivamente, de forma direta e inversamente proporcionais sobre a variável básica, alternando-se em função das condições ambientais ocorridas durante o crescimento.The main goals of this work was to obtain estimates of phenotype, genotype and residual correlation coefficients and display genotype correlations in direct and indirect effects (path analysis of height, diameter of stem at the base and number of tillers per meter (explanatory independent variables on dry matter production (basic dependent variable of elephantgrass clones in two harvest periods at conditions of northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Great differences among estimates in two harvest periods were observed, however it could be concluded that height of plants at cutting influenced dry matter production mainly in conditions of high tillering capable clones. Number of tillers per meter and diameter of stem explained better dry matter production potential, acting

  19. 气象因子对麦田土壤呼吸速率影响的通径分析%Path Analysis on the Meteorological Factors Impacting Soil Respiration Rate of Wheat Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江晓东; 李永秀

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The experiment aimed to study the effects of meteorological factors under different weather conditions on soil respiration. [Method] The path analysis was used to analyze meteorological factors which influenced soil respiration of wheat field under different weather condition and at jointing stage. [Result] In sunny day, the correlations between ground temperature at 5 cm, solar radiation, air relative humidity, air temperature and soil respiration were all at significant level while solar radiation and ground temperature at 5 cm were the major factors which influenced soil respiration. In cloudy day, solar radiation was a major factor which influenced soil respiration. [Conclusion] The soil respiration and surplus path coefficient in sunny day were all higher than these in cloudy day, which demonstrated that except influenced by ground temperature, air temperature, solar radiation and air relative humidity, the soil respiration was also influenced by other factors especially biological factor.

  20. Lexicographic Path Induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Programming languages theory is full of problems that reduce to proving the consistency of a logic, such as the normalization of typed lambda-calculi, the decidability of equality in type theory, equivalence testing of traces in security, etc. Although the principle of transfinite induction...... an induction principle that combines the comfort of structural induction with the expressive strength of transfinite induction. Using lexicographic path induction, we give a consistency proof of Martin-Löf’s intuitionistic theory of inductive definitions. The consistency of Heyting arithmetic follows directly...

  1. JAVA PathFinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehhtz, Peter

    2005-01-01

    JPF is an explicit state software model checker for Java bytecode. Today, JPF is a swiss army knife for all sort of runtime based verification purposes. This basically means JPF is a Java virtual machine that executes your program not just once (like a normal VM), but theoretically in all possible ways, checking for property violations like deadlocks or unhandled exceptions along all potential execution paths. If it finds an error, JPF reports the whole execution that leads to it. Unlike a normal debugger, JPF keeps track of every step how it got to the defect.

  2. Rocket Flight Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Waters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.

  3. Path Through the Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Middleton

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hillside’s tidal waves of yellow-green Break downward into full-grown stalks of wheat In which a peasant, shouldering his hoe Passes along a snaking narrow path -- A teeming place through which his hard thighs press And where his head just barely stays above The swaying grain, drunken in abundance, Farm buildings almost floating on the swells Beyond which sea gulls gliding white in air Fly down on out of sight to salty fields, Taking the channel fish off Normandy, A surfeit fit for Eden i...

  4. 路径依赖与路径锁定理论辨析--基于国内外文献研究视角%Differentiation and Analysis on the Theory of Path Dependence and Path Lock-in---Based on the Perspective of Literatures Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵莉

    2014-01-01

    基于Kay于2013年在Research Policy上发表的论文引起的激辩,围绕David于1985年发表的关于路径依赖与路径锁定的开创性研究,系统梳理了路径依赖研究领域支持与反对 David 观点的国内外文献。从理论推断、实证研究方法、未来研究方向3个方面进行了归纳总结,并从正反两方面阐述了研究者的观点。通过深入的文献分析,指出了现有研究在理论及实证方面的不足,为未来研究指明了方向。%Based on the intense debate caused by Kay's(2013)published paper on Research Policy and David's (1985)seminal research on path dependence and path locked-in,this paper collects domestic and abroad literatures on support and oppose David's perspective in path dependence research field.Three aspects of contents on theoretical induction,empirical research methodology and future research are summarized,the researchers'viewpoint are elaborated from positive and negative side.Through indepth analysis of literatures,this paper dedicates to point out the shortcomings of current research,and indicates the directions of future research.

  5. Airway Tree Extraction with Locally Optimal Paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Sporring, Jon; Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to extract the airway tree from CT images by continually extending the tree with locally optimal paths. This is in contrast to commonly used region growing based approaches that only search the space of the immediate neighbors. The result is a much more robust method...... for tree extraction that can overcome local occlusions. The cost function for obtaining the optimal paths takes into account of an airway probability map as well as measures of airway shape and orientation derived from multi-scale Hessian eigen analysis on the airway probability. Significant improvements...

  6. Gas Path Sealing in Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of gas path seals is presented with particular attention given to sealing clearance effects on engine component efficiency. The effects on compressor pressure ratio and stall margin are pointed out. Various case-rotor relative displacements, which affect gas path seal clearances, are identified. Forces produced by nonuniform sealing clearances and their effect on rotor stability are discussed qualitatively, and recent work on turbine-blade-tip sealing for high temperature is described. The need for active clearance control and for engine structural analysis is discussed. The functions of the internal-flow system and its seals are reviewed.

  7. Comparison of an Ultrasonic Phased Array Evaluation with Destructive Analysis of a Documented Leak Path in a Nozzle Removed from Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Hanson, Brady D.; Mathews, Royce

    2012-09-24

    Non-destructive and destructive testing methods were employed to evaluate a documented boric acid leakage path through an Alloy 600 control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) penetration from the North Anna Unit 2 reactor pressure vessel head that was removed from service in 2002. A previous ultrasonic in-service-inspection (ISI) conducted by industry prior to the head removal, identified a probable leakage path in Nozzle 63 located in the interference fit between the penetration tube and the vessel head. In this current examination, Nozzle 63 was examined using phased array (PA) ultrasonic testing with a 5.0-MHz, eight-element annular array; immersion data were acquired from the nozzle inner diameter (ID) surface. A variety of focal laws were employed to evaluate the signal responses from the interference fit region. These responses were compared to responses obtained from a mockup specimen that was used to determine detection limits and characterization capabilities for wastage and boric acid presence in the interference fit region. Nozzle 63 was destructively examined after the completion of the ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) to visually assess the leak paths. These destructive and nondestructive results compared favorably

  8. Optimal Path Planning for Mobile Robot Using Tailored Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xiao Xian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During routine inspecting, mobile robot may be requested to visit multiple locations to execute special tasks occasionally. This study aims at optimal path planning for multiple goals visiting task based on tailored genetic algorithm. The proposed algorithm will generate an optimal path that has the least idle time, which is proven to be more effective on evaluating a path in our previous work. In proposed algorithm, customized chromosome representing a path and genetic operators including repair and cut are developed and implemented. Afterwards, simulations are carried out to verify the effectiveness and applicability. Finally, analysis of simulation results is conducted and future work is addressed.

  9. Tool path planning based on conformal parameterization for meshes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Jibin; Zou Qiang; Li Lun; Zhou Bo

    2015-01-01

    The similarity property of conformal parameterization makes it able to locally preserve the shapes between a surface and its parameter domain, as opposed to common parameterization methods. A parametric tool path planning method is proposed in this paper through such parameterization of triangular meshes which is furthermore based on the geodesic on meshes. The parameterization has the properties of local similarity and free boundary which are exploited to simplify the formulas for computing path parameters, which play a fundamentally important role in tool path planning, and keep the path boundary-conformed and smooth. Experimental results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods, as well as the error analysis.

  10. Path dependence of truss-like mixed mode cohesive laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2012-01-01

    A general theoretical analysis is presented to prove that, under mixed mode fracture, truss-like mixed mode cohesive laws (cohesive laws that are coupled in a special manner such that the traction vector follows the separation/opening vector) are path independent only in the limited case where th...... and numerically that these cohesive laws are path dependent....

  11. 应力路径对超固结土峰值强度特性的影响分析%ANALYSIS OF EFFECT OF STRESS PATHS ON PEAK STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF OVER-CONSOLIDATED CLAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗汀; 高明

    2014-01-01

    超固结土的峰值强度不仅与超固结度有关,也受到应力路径的影响。基于统一硬化模型( UH模型)和广义非线性强度准则,对超固结土的峰值强度特性进行分析,预测超固结土在常规三轴压缩、等p路径、不排水路径下的峰值强度,得到其峰值强度大小关系。利用广义非线性强度准则描述三种路径下的超固结土峰值强度的非线性,并确定其表达式。通过与试验结果对比表明所建议分析方法的有效性。%The peak strength of over-consolidated clay is not only related to the degree of consolidation , it is also impacted by stress paths .The method based on the unified hardening model ( UH model ) and the generalized nonlinear strength criterion was analyzed the peak strength of over-consolidated clay and offered the theory basis for the over-consolidated clay under complex stress paths .By describing the peak strength of over-consolidated clay under the triaxial compression,constant principal stress,and undrainage consolidation stress path , the relationship of their peak strength could get by UH model .Generalized nonlinear strength criterion was used to describe the non-linear degree of the three paths and to determine the expression equation .The comparation with the test results showed that the proposed analysis method was effective .

  12. Path analysis of factors influencing nurses' work-family conflict%护士工作-家庭冲突影响因素路径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈长蓉; 陈亚淳; 况文霞; 陈昌平

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨护士工作-家庭冲突的影响因素,并分析它们之间的相互作用,为护理人力资源管理提供理论参考.方法 采取便利整群取样法抽取重庆市3所医院513名护士,采用组织公平感量表、职业承诺量表、工作日程灵活性量表、工作超负荷量表和工作-家庭冲突量表进行调查,用AMOS6.0软件进行路径分析.结果 护士工作-家庭冲突与工作超负荷呈正相关,其余因子与工作-家庭冲突呈负相关(均P<0.01).工作日程灵活性、工作超负荷和组织公平感对工作-家庭冲突具有直接效应,同时组织公平感、职业承诺和工作日程灵活性对工作-家庭冲突具有间接效应.工作超负荷是中介变量,对工作-家庭冲突预测力为正向且最强.结论 护理管理者应增加护士人员编制,减轻工作负荷,增强护士组织公平感及职业承诺,从而降低护士的工作-家庭冲突.%Objective To explore the influencing factors of nurse’ work-family conflict, to analyze the interaction among these variables, and to provide reference basis for human resource management. Methods A total of 513 nurses working in three hospitals of Chongqing metropolitan were recruited by convenience sampling method. They were asked to complete the questionnaires designed to measure their organizational justice, occupational commitment, work schedule flexibility, work overload and work-family conflict. The data collected were analyzed with path analysis methods in AMOS 6.0. Results Nurses’ work-family conflict was positively correlated with work overload, and negatively correlated with the other factors (P<0.01 for all). Work schedule flexibility,work overload and organizational justice directly influenced nurses’ work-family conflict. Organizational justice, occupational commitment and work schedule flexibility also indirectly influenced nurses’ work-family conflict. Work overload was the intermediate variable, and positively

  13. Path Integrals in Quantum Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfelder, R

    2012-01-01

    These lectures aim at giving graduate students an introduction to and a working knowledge of path integral methods in a wide variety of fields in physics. Consequently, the lecture notes are organized in three main parts dealing with non-relativistic quantum mechanics, many-body physics and field theory. In the first part the basic concepts of path integrals are developed in the usual heuristic, non-mathematical way followed by standard examples and special applications including numerical evaluation of (euclidean) path integrals by Monte-Carlo methods with a program for the anharmonic oscillator. The second part deals with the application of path integrals in statistical mechanics and many-body problems treating the polaron problem, dissipative quantum systems, path integrals over ordinary and Grassmannian coherent states and perturbation theory for both bosons and fermions. Again a simple Fortran program is included for illustrating the use of strong-coupling methods. Finally, in the third part path integra...

  14. Shortest Paths and Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn

    This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle R...... Routing Problem based on partial paths is presented. Finally, a practical application of finding shortest paths in the telecommunication industry is shown.......This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle...

  15. Path integrals for awkward actions

    CERN Document Server

    Amdahl, David

    2016-01-01

    Time derivatives of scalar fields occur quadratically in textbook actions. A simple Legendre transformation turns the lagrangian into a hamiltonian that is quadratic in the momenta. The path integral over the momenta is gaussian. Mean values of operators are euclidian path integrals of their classical counterparts with positive weight functions. Monte Carlo simulations can estimate such mean values. This familiar framework falls apart when the time derivatives do not occur quadratically. The Legendre transformation becomes difficult or so intractable that one can't find the hamiltonian. Even if one finds the hamiltonian, it usually is so complicated that one can't path-integrate over the momenta and get a euclidian path integral with a positive weight function. Monte Carlo simulations don't work when the weight function assumes negative or complex values. This paper solves both problems. It shows how to make path integrals without knowing the hamiltonian. It also shows how to estimate complex path integrals b...

  16. Entanglement by Path Identity

    CERN Document Server

    Krenn, Mario; Lahiri, Mayukh; Zeilinger, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Quantum entanglement is one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and forms the basis of quantum information technologies. Here we present a novel method for the creation of quantum entanglement in multipartite and high-dimensional photonic systems, exploiting an idea introduced by the group of Leonard Mandel 25 years ago. The two ingredients are 1) superposition of photon pairs with different origins and 2) aligning photon paths such that they emerge from the same output mode. We explain examples for the creation of various classes of multiphoton entanglement encoded in polarization as well as in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces -- starting only from separable (non-entangled) photon pairs. For two photons, we show how arbitrary high-dimensional entanglement can be created. Interestingly, a common source for two-photon polarization entanglement is found as a special case. We discovered the technique by analyzing the output of a computer algorithm designing quantum experiments, and generalized it ...

  17. innovation path exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world has entered the information age, all kinds of information technologies such as cloud technology, big data technology are in rapid development, and the “Internet plus” appeared. The main purpose of “Internet plus” is to provide an opportunity for the further development of the enterprise, the enterprise technology, business and other aspects of factors combine. For enterprises, grasp the “Internet plus” the impact of the market economy will undoubtedly pave the way for the future development of enterprises. This paper will be on the innovation path of the enterprise management “Internet plus” era tied you study, hope to be able to put forward some opinions and suggestions.

  18. Propagators and path integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holten, J.W. van

    1995-08-22

    Path-integral expressions for one-particle propagators in scalar and fermionic field theories are derived, for arbitrary mass. This establishes a direct connection between field theory and specific classical point-particle models. The role of world-line reparametrization invariance of the classical action and the implementation of the corresponding BRST-symmetry in the quantum theory are discussed. The presence of classical world-line supersymmetry is shown to lead to an unwanted doubling of states for massive spin-1/2 particles. The origin of this phenomenon is traced to a `hidden` topological fermionic excitation. A different formulation of the pseudo-classical mechanics using a bosonic representation of {gamma}{sub 5} is shown to remove these extra states at the expense of losing manifest supersymmetry. (orig.).

  19. 职业流动的途径及其相关因素对上海市劳动力市场的实证分析%Paths of Job Mobility and Their Predictors:Results from an Empirical Analysis of the Chinese Urban Labor Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆德梅

    2005-01-01

    When studying job mobility, economists and sociologists have different focuses: The former tend to emphasize "pure rationality" and "maximized profit" as the driving forces; whereas the latter usually focus on the societal and non-economic factors. Further differences are seen in their discussion of the paths of job mobility: In addition to the formal paths based on the "human (intellectual) capital" illustrated by economists, sociologists emphasize the informal or relational paths based on the "social capital." This paper presents the results of an empirical analysis of the job mobility paths in the Chinese urban labor market in transition. Workers with low levels of education tend to rely upon their "social capital" when they have to change jobs. In contrast, those with higher education tend to obtain job mobility via formal paths, reflecting the value of their "human capital", which is an indicator of a highly effective labor market.

  20. Path integral in Snyder space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignemi, S., E-mail: smignemi@unica.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); Štrajn, R. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy)

    2016-04-29

    The definition of path integrals in one- and two-dimensional Snyder space is discussed in detail both in the traditional setting and in the first-order formalism of Faddeev and Jackiw. - Highlights: • The definition of the path integral in Snyder space is discussed using phase space methods. • The same result is obtained in the first-order formalism of Faddeev and Jackiw. • The path integral formulation of the two-dimensional Snyder harmonic oscillator is outlined.

  1. Path indexing for term retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Different methods for term retrieval in deduction systems have been introduced in literature. This report eviews the three indexing techniques discrimination indexing, path indexing, and abstraction tree indexing. A formal approach to path indexing is presented and algorithms as well as data structures of an existing implementation are discussed. Eventually, experiments will show that our implementation outperforms the implementation of path indexing in the OTTER theorem prover.

  2. CAD/CAM数控编程刀路策略分析与应用%Analysis and Application of Tool-Path Strategy for CAD/CAM Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付新梅

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics and usage of tool-path strategy for some famous CAD/CAM softwares (NX CAM, Cimatron and MasterCAM)were main analyzed, it will help CAD/CAM programmers to improve the technological level further.%主要分析了世界多种知名CAD/CAM软件(NXCAM、Cimatron与Mastercam)刀路策略的特点及用法,有助于进一步提高CAD/CAM编程人员的技术应用水平。

  3. Transmission error and load distribution analysis of spur and double helical gear pairs used in a split path helicopter transmission design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochmann, David; Houser, Donald R.; Thomas, Jacob

    1991-05-01

    Because the reduction of gear noise in next-generation rotorcraft depends on the reduction of transmission errors, attention is presently given to the prediction of such errors and the load distributions of both a spur-gear pair and a double helical gear train used in a split-path helicopter transmission. Two cases are examined: (1) the spur gear mesh between the spur shaft and the lower spur/helical shaft, and (2) the double helical gear mesh between the lower spur/helical shaft and the output bull bear shaft.

  4. An introduction to critical paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Richard J; Richards, Janet S; Remmert, Carl S; LeRoy, Sarah S; Schoville, Rhonda R; Baldwin, Phyllis J

    2005-01-01

    A critical path defines the optimal sequencing and timing of interventions by physicians, nurses, and other staff for a particular diagnosis or procedure. Critical paths are developed through collaborative efforts of physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and others to improve the quality and value of patient care. They are designed to minimize delays and resource utilization and to maximize quality of care. Critical paths have been shown to reduce variation in the care provided, facilitate expected outcomes, reduce delays, reduce length of stay, and improve cost-effectiveness. The approach and goals of critical paths are consistent with those of total quality management (TQM) and can be an important part of an organization's TQM process.

  5. DF100 kW PSM Transmitter Audio Path Analysis%DF100 kW PSM发射机音频通路分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘毅

    2015-01-01

    DF100 kW PSM transmitter as an important model of Press and Publication Administration of Radio, the radio station plays an irreplaceable role in the country’s short-covering task, while maintaining the audio path is one of the means to ensure that the transmitter normal broadcast. Actual work situation, analyzed and summarized DF100 kW PSM transmitter audio path and typical fault in order to provide a reference for future maintenance staff.%DF100 kW PSM发射机作为国家新闻出版广电总局无线局的重要机型,在全国的短波覆盖任务中起着不可替代的作用,而音频通路的维护是保证发射机正常播音的手段之一。结合实际工作情况,分析总结了DF100 kW PSM发射机的音频通路和典型故障,以期为维护人员日后的工作提供一定的参考。

  6. Chromatic roots and hamiltonian paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    We present a new connection between colorings and hamiltonian paths: If the chromatic polynomial of a graph has a noninteger root less than or equal to t(n) = 2/3 + 1/3 (3)root (26 + 6 root (33)) + 1/3 (3)root (26 - 6 root (33)) = 1.29559.... then the graph has no hamiltonian path. This result...

  7. Two Generations of Path Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

      Even if there is no fully articulated and generally accepted theory of Path Dependence it has eagerly been taken up across a wide range of social sciences - primarily coming from economics. Path Dependence is most of all a metaphor that offers reason to believe, that some political, social...

  8. Sustainable Energy Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Yamamoto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The uses of fossil fuels cause not only the resources exhaustion but also the environmental problems such as global warming. The purposes of this study are to evaluate paths toward sustainable energy systems and roles of each renewable. In order to realize the purposes, the authors developed the global land use and energy model that figured the global energy supply systems in the future considering the cost minimization. Using the model, the authors conducted a simulation in C30R scenario, which is a kind of strict CO2 emission limit scenarios and reduced CO2 emissions by 30% compared with Kyoto protocol forever scenario, and obtained the following results. In C30R scenario bioenergy will supply 33% of all the primary energy consumption. However, wind and photovoltaic will supply 1.8% and 1.4% of all the primary energy consumption, respectively, because of the limits of power grid stability. The results imply that the strict limits of CO2 emissions are not sufficient to achieve the complete renewable energy systems. In order to use wind and photovoltaic as major energy resources, we need not only to reduce the plant costs but also to develop unconventional renewable technologies.

  9. 基于Web日志的用户访问路径提取与分析%Extraction and Analysis of Users' Visit Paths Based on Web Log

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 彭赓; 吕本富; 陈杰; 梅梅

    2009-01-01

    线上购物相对线下购物的一个特点是可以将用户的购物过程记录到网站的Web日志中,为研究用户网上行为特征提供必要的数据支持.本文详细介绍了对Web日志数据进行预处理的一系列步骤和方法,并以某出版社网站18天的日志数据为实证,提取出用户的访问路径(访问页面的先后次序),分析路径信息得到用户在不同页面之间访问的转换概率,从而定量地衡量购物流程中各步骤之间的转换率和贡献率,提炼出用户最有可能的前向转换路径和后向转换路径,以期对网站流程优化和商品促销设置提供决策支持.%Recording users' shopping process in Web log is a feature of shopping online relative to shopping offline, and provides the necessary data for studying users' characteristic behaviors online. This paper introduces a series of steps and methods of Web log data preprocessing, and empirically analyzes the 18 days of log data of one publishing house, extracts the users' visit path (the sequence of visit pages), calculates the transit probability which users visit among the different pages, so as to quantitatively measure the transit rate and contribution rate among the steps of shopping process, and find out users' most likely forward transit path and backward transit path. We hope this paper could help making decision for process optimization and promotion online.

  10. 潜艇艇员心理应激因素的路径分析%Path analysis on influential factors of mental stress in submariners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊波; 俞云峰; 田苗; 刘俊松

    2008-01-01

    Objective To probe into the influential factors of mental stress in submariners and the ways of interaction among them.Methods 460 submariners were evaluated by Psychosocial Stress Survey for Groups (PSSG),Life Event Scale(LES),Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire(EPQ),Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ)and Perceived Social Support Scale(PSSS).A database was established with SPSS15.0 and a path analysis was employed with Amos7.0.Results ①There was a significant difference in the different rank groups on mental stress in submariners(F=12.12,P<0.01).including the officers and senior noncommissioned officers group(51.46±25.19)was the highest,and the conscripts group(35.63±16.94)Wag the lowest.②The mental stress in submariners was positively correlated with neurotism(r=0.768),disappearing coping style(r=0.634),life event(r=0.404)and psychoticism(r=0.329),and negatively correlated with social support(r=-0.326),positive coping style(r=-0.325)and extraversion(r=-0.117).③Neurotism,life event,social support,disappearing coping style,psychoticism,extraversion,positive coping style had total effects on mental stress in submariners(r=0.724,0.399,-0.135,0.119,0.055,-0.027,-0.026 respectively).Conclusion Mental stress in submariners Wag affected by life event,personality,coping style,social support and other factors.%目的 探讨潜艇艇员心理应激的影响因素及其相互作用方式和途径.方法 对460名潜艇艇员进行量表测评,包括心理社会应激调查表(PSSG)、生活事件量表(LES)、艾森克人格问卷(EPQ)、特质应对问卷(TCSQ)和领悟社会支持量表(PSSS),采用SPSS15.0建立数据库和Ames7.0进行路径分析.结果 ①潜艇艇员不同衔级组间心理应激水平存在高度显著性差异(F=12.12,P<0.01),其中高级士官及军官组[(51.46±25.19)分]心理应激水平最高,而义务兵组[(35.63±16.94)分]最低.②潜艇艇员心理应激水平与神经质(r=0.768)、消极应对(r=0.634)

  11. Path analysis on China Tobacco’s transnational merger and acquisition%中国烟草跨国并购的路径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅敏

    2014-01-01

    Transnational merger and acquisition were reviewed. Feasibility of China Tobacco’s transnational merger and acquisition was analyzed take into consideration of international market situation, risk management. Suggestions were made in such aspects as future target market, implementation path, domestic legal supervision and approval procedures.%阐述了跨国并购的概念及类型,从跨国并购的国际市场环境、风险分析及管控、中国烟草跨国并购的可行性路径分析入手,对未来目标市场、实施路径、国内法律监管及审批流程等方面提出了建议。

  12. Associations among correlates of schedule adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART): a path analysis of a sample of crack cocaine using sexually active African-Americans with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, J S; Schönnesson, L Nilsson; Williams, M L; Timpson, S C

    2008-02-01

    Adherence to HIV medication regimens is a function of multiple dimensions including psychological functioning, social support, adherence self-efficacy and optimism regarding treatment. Active substance use can also negatively affect adherence. An understanding of the nature of the associations among the correlates of adherence can better inform the design of interventions to improve adherence. This study developed an exploratory path model of schedule adherence using data from a sample 130 African-American HIV-positive crack cocaine users on highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART). This model was based on the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping developed by Lazarus and Folkman. Following the theory, the effects of psychological distress on schedule adherence were mediated by patients' relationship with their doctor and optimism towards antiretroviral treatment. Adherence was also associated with patients' self-efficacy regarding their medical regimen which, in turn, was associated with their social support.

  13. Does the Component Processes Task Assess Text-Based Inferences Important for Reading Comprehension? A Path Analysis in Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenburg, Stephanie I; de Koning, Björn B; de Vries, Meinou H; van der Schoot, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Using a component processes task (CPT) that differentiates between higher-level cognitive processes of reading comprehension provides important advantages over commonly used general reading comprehension assessments. The present study contributes to further development of the CPT by evaluating the relative contributions of its components (text memory, text inferencing, and knowledge integration) and working memory to general reading comprehension within a single study using path analyses. Participants were 173 third- and fourth-grade children. As hypothesized, knowledge integration was the only component of the CPT that directly contributed to reading comprehension, indicating that the text-inferencing component did not assess inferential processes related to reading comprehension. Working memory was a significant predictor of reading comprehension over and above the component processes. Future research should focus on finding ways to ensure that the text-inferencing component taps into processes important for reading comprehension.

  14. Genetic variability, character association, and path analysis for economic traits in menthofuran rich half-sib seed progeny of Mentha piperita L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Birendra; Mali, Himanshi; Gupta, Ekta

    2014-01-01

    Menthofuran rich eight half-sib seed progeny of Mentha piperita (MPS-36) were studied for various genetic parameters, namely, coefficient of variation, heritability, genetic advance, correlation, and path of various plant and oil attributes, namely, plant height, L:S ratio, herb yield, β -myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, menthone, menthofuran, neomenthone, pulegone, and menthol. Maximum genotypic coefficient of variation and genetic advance as percentage of mean were recorded for pulegone, followed by menthofuran and 1,8-cineole. The genotypic correlation in general was higher than phenotypic; positive significant correlation was recorded for limonene with 1,8-cineole and menthone, β -myrcene with limonene, and 1,8-cineole and menthofuran with neomenthol. A high direct positive effect on menthofuran was of neomenthol.

  15. Path analysis on educational fiscal decision-making mechanism in China%中国教育财政决策机制的路径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宏斌; 孙百才

    2007-01-01

    中国现行的教育财政决策中存在无法可依、有法不依、教育财政决策缺乏公平和效率性、决策过程不规范等问题.因此,需要建立有效的教育财政决策机制和设计合理的依赖路径.%In China's current educational fiscal decision making, problems are as follows: no law to trust or not abiding by available laws, absence of equity and efficiency, as well as the standardization of decision-making procedures. It is necessary to set up effective fiscal decision-making mechanism in education and rationally devise reliable paths.

  16. [Which route leads from chronic back pain to depression? A path analysis on direct and indirect effects using the cognitive mediators catastrophizing and helplessness/hopelessness in a general population sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahland, R A; Kohlmann, T; Hasenbring, M; Feng, Y-S; Schmidt, C O

    2012-12-01

    Chronic pain and depression are highly comorbid; however, the longitudinal link is only partially understood. This study examined direct and indirect effects of chronic back pain on depression using path analysis in a general population sample, focussing on cognitive mediator variables. Analyses are based on 413 participants (aged 18-75 years) in a population-based postal survey on back pain who reported chronic back pain at baseline. Follow-up data were collected after 1 year. Depression was measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Fear-avoidance-beliefs (FABQ), catastrophizing and helplessness/hopelessness (KRSS) were considered as cognitive mediators. Data were analyzed using path analysis. Chronic back pain had no direct effect on depression at follow-up when controlling for cognitive mediators. A mediating effect emerged for helplessness/hopelessness but not for catastrophizing or fear-avoidance beliefs. These results support the cognitive mediation hypothesis which assumes that psychological variables mediate the association between pain and depression. The importance of helplessness/hopelessness is of relevance for the treatment of patients with chronic back pain.

  17. Cytomorphological characteristics of low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma for differential diagnosis from benign papillary urothelial lesions: logistic regression analysis in SurePath(™) liquid-based voided urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y R; Won, J K; Park, I A; Moon, K C; Chung, S Y; Lee, K; Ryu, H S

    2016-04-01

    The diagnosis of low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (LGPUC) in urine cytology specimens is challenging because of its subtle, minimally atypical findings. Furthermore, as SurePath(™) liquid-based cytology (LBC) is becoming a widely used method in urine cytology, the inevitable cytomorphological alterations resulting from this technique call for new morphological diagnostic criteria in LGPUC. Logistic regression analysis was carried out on SurePath slides from surgically proven voided urine specimens. The study was designed to include a test set (n = 141) and a validation set (n = 61), and evaluated significant discriminative parameters between LGPUC and benign papillary urothelial neoplasm (BPUN). Of the seven cytological findings that were found to have statistical significance in univariate analysis, five were found to be independent variables: loss of polarity of papillaroid clusters, irregular contours, absence of columnar cells, hobnail features and hyperchromasia. These independent variables had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.781. The distinctive cytological criteria identified above may prove to be helpful in cases in which other conventional criteria for LGPUC are insufficient for diagnosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Learning to improve path planning performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Pang C.

    1995-04-01

    In robotics, path planning refers to finding a short. collision-free path from an initial robot configuration to a desired configuratioin. It has to be fast to support real-time task-level robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To remedy this situation, we present and analyze a learning algorithm that uses past experience to increase future performance. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions to difficult tasks. From these solutions, an evolving sparse network of useful robot configurations is learned to support faster planning. More generally, the algorithm provides a speedup-learning framework in which a slow but capable planner may be improved both cost-wise and capability-wise by a faster but less capable planner coupled with experience. The basic algorithm is suitable for stationary environments, and can be extended to accommodate changing environments with on-demand experience repair and object-attached experience abstraction. To analyze the algorithm, we characterize the situations in which the adaptive planner is useful, provide quantitative bounds to predict its behavior, and confirm our theoretical results with experiments in path planning of manipulators. Our algorithm and analysis are sufficiently, general that they may also be applied to other planning domains in which experience is useful.

  19. Path-Analytic investigation of some Psycho-Social variables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight instruments used were: Students Academic Achievement Motivation scale ... Emotional Intelligence Scale (α= 0.87), Academic Adjustment Scale (α= ... Data were analysed using multiple regression, backward solution and path analysis.

  20. Número necessário de experimentos para a análise de trilha em feijão Number of necessary experiments for the path analysis in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A fim de obter confiabilidade nas estimativas, geradas por meio da análise de trilha, é importante definir o número necessário de experimentos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o número de experimentos necessários para a análise de trilha do número de vagens por planta, do número de sementes por vagem e da massa de cem grãos sobre a produtividade de grãos de cultivares de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Treze cultivares de feijão foram avaliadas em nove experimentos conduzidos em Santa Maria, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, entre os anos agrícolas de 2000/2001 e 2004/2005. Foram mensurados os caracteres produtividade de grãos, número de vagens por planta, número de sementes por vagem e massa de cem grãos. Foram planejadas 511 matrizes de dados (13 cultivares e 4 caracteres e realizadas análises de correlação, de diagnóstico de multicolinearidade e de trilha, além de construir diagramas de dispersão. O número de experimentos, necessários para a análise de trilha, foi determinado a partir das estimativas dos parâmetros do modelo quadrático de resposta com platô. Na região da depressão central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sete experimentos são suficientes para a análise de trilha em feijão.In order to obtain reliable estimates, generated through path analysis, it is important to define the necessary number of experiments. The objective of this work was to determine the number of experiments necessary for the path analysis the number of pods per plant, number seed per pod and weight of 100 grains on grain yield the common bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Thirteen common bean cultivars were evaluated in nine experiments conducted in Santa Maria, in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in the growing seasons between 2000/2001 and 2004/2005. We measured the characters grain yield, number of pods per plant, number seed per pod and weight of 100 grains. Were planned 511 data matrices (13 cultivars and four

  1. 14 CFR 23.57 - Takeoff path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff path. 23.57 Section 23.57... path. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff path is as follows: (a) The takeoff path extends... completed; and (1) The takeoff path must be based on the procedures prescribed in § 23.45; (2) The...

  2. Geodesic flows on path spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG; Kainan

    2001-01-01

    [1] Cruzeiro, A. B., Malliavin, P., Renormalized differential geometry on path spaces: Structural equation, curvature, J. Funct. Anal., 1996, 139: 119-181.[2] Stroock, D. W., Some thoughts about Riemannian structures on path spaces, preprint, 1996.[3] Driver, B., A Cameron-Martin type quasi-invariance theorem for Brownian motion on a compact manifold, J. Funct. Anal., 1992, 109: 272-376.[4] Enchev, O., Stroock, D. W., Towards a Riemannian geometry on the path space over a Riemannian manifold, J. Funct. Anal., 1995, 134: 392-416.[5] Hsu, E., Quasi-invariance of the Wiener measure on the path space over a compact Riemannian manifold, J. Funct. Anal., 1995, 134: 417-450.[6] Lyons, T. J., Qian, Z. M., A class of vector fields on path space, J.Funct. Anal., 1997, 145: 205-223.[7] Li, X. D., Existence and uniqueness of geodesics on path spaces, J. Funct. Anal., to be published.[8] Driver, B., Towards calculus and geometry on path spaces, in Proc. Symp. Pure and Appl. Math. 57 (ed. Cranston, M., Pinsky, M.), Cornell: AMS, 1993, 1995.

  3. The universe as an eigenstate: spacetime paths and decoherence

    CERN Document Server

    Seidewtz, E

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes how the entire universe might be considered an eigenstate determined by classical limiting conditions within it. This description is in the context of an approach in which the path of each relativistic particle in spacetime represents a fine-grained history for that particle, and a path integral represents a coarse-grained history as a superposition of paths meeting some criteria. Since spacetime paths are parametrized by an invariant parameter, not time, histories based on such paths do not evolve in time but are rather histories of all spacetime. Measurements can then be represented by orthogonal states that correlate with specific points in such coarse-grained histories, causing them to decohere, allowing a consistent probability interpretation. This conception is applied here to the analysis of the two slit experiment, scattering and, ultimately, the universe as a whole. The decoherence of cosmological states of the universe then provides the eigenstates from which our "real" universe...

  4. Civil Society and Paths to Abolition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seymour DRESCHER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Through a comparative analysis, this article aims to present an overview of British, French, Russian, American and Brazilian abolitionist action, between the late eighteenth century and throughout the nineteenth century. Indicating the struggles of pro-abolition civil associations, the paths taken in Britain, France, the US and Brazil are presented in parallel - either to emphasize approaches, either to highlight the undeniable peculiarities - revealing the marks of violence and negotiation present in the emancipation process.

  5. Path integrals and quantum processes

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, Marc S

    1992-01-01

    In a clearly written and systematic presentation, Path Integrals and Quantum Processes covers all concepts necessary to understand the path integral approach to calculating transition elements, partition functions, and source functionals. The book, which assumes only a familiarity with quantum mechanics, is ideal for use as a supplemental textbook in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory courses. Graduate and post-graduate students who are unfamiliar with the path integral will also benefit from this contemporary text. Exercise sets are interspersed throughout the text to facilitate self-

  6. Path Integration in Conical Space

    OpenAIRE

    Inomata, Akira; Junker, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Quantum mechanics in conical space is studied by the path integral method. It is shown that the curvature effect gives rise to an effective potential in the radial path integral. It is further shown that the radial path integral in conical space can be reduced to a form identical with that in flat space when the discrete angular momentum of each partial wave is replaced by a specific non-integral angular momentum. The effective potential is found proportional to the squared mean curvature of ...

  7. On the Reaction Path Hamiltonian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙家钟; 李泽生

    1994-01-01

    A vector-fiber bundle structure of the reaction path Hamiltonian, which has been introduced by Miller, Handy and Adams, is explored with respect to molecular vibrations orthogonal to the reaction path. The symmetry of the fiber bundle is characterized by the real orthogonal group O(3N- 7) for the dynamical system with N atoms. Under the action of group O(3N- 7). the kinetic energy of the reaction path Hamiltonian is left invariant. Furthermore , the invariant behaviour of the Hamiltonian vector fields is investigated.

  8. 混合所有制改革的路径分析%Analysis on the Path of Mixed-ownership Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱霞

    2015-01-01

    混合所有制是国有企业改革的基本方向,国有企业的混合所有制改革绝不仅仅是产权的简单混合,更主要的是治理机制的规范;其中,产权制度改革是基础,只有建立了与现代企业制度相适应的产权制度,才能够完善企业的治理结构。国有企业产权制度改革主要有整体上市、民营企业参股、国有企业并购和员工持股四条基本路径,国家应在充分考虑不同路径的适用条件和绩效差异的基础上,稳步推进混合所有制改革:一是将整体上市作为混合所有制改革的首选路径;二是“国退民进”与“国进民退”相结合,在母公司层面更多采取整体上市、民营企业参股的方式,而在子(孙)公司层面可以更多采用国有企业并购的方式,实现不同层面的混合所有制;三是平稳有序地推进员工持股计划。%As the main trend of state-owned-enterprise reform,mixed-ownership reform of state-owned-enterprise is not only to mix property right but also to regulate administrative mechanism,of which the property rights system reform is fundamental and only the property system matching up with modern enterprise system can improve enterprise administrative structure.There are 4 paths of state-owned-enterprise property system reform,i.e.holistic listing,private enterprise share holding,state-owned-enterprise acquisition and employee share holding.The government should accelerate the mixed-ownership reform taking into consideration application condition for each path and performance difference.Firstly,holistic listing should be the top choice;secondly,the strategy of“ownership out and private-ownership in”should combine with the strategy of “ownership in and private-ownership out”.To realize mixed-ownership at different levels parent company should mainly take the strategy of holistic listing and private enterprise share holding,while subsidiary company take path of

  9. Transition Path Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanden-Eijnden, E.

    The dynamical behavior of many systems arising in physics, chemistry, biology, etc. is dominated by rare but important transition events between long lived states. For over 70 years, transition state theory (TST) has provided the main theoretical framework for the description of these events [17,33,34]. Yet, while TST and evolutions thereof based on the reactive flux formalism [1, 5] (see also [30,31]) give an accurate estimate of the transition rate of a reaction, at least in principle, the theory tells very little in terms of the mechanism of this reaction. Recent advances, such as transition path sampling (TPS) of Bolhuis, Chandler, Dellago, and Geissler [3, 7] or the action method of Elber [15, 16], may seem to go beyond TST in that respect: these techniques allow indeed to sample the ensemble of reactive trajectories, i.e. the trajectories by which the reaction occurs. And yet, the reactive trajectories may again be rather uninformative about the mechanism of the reaction. This may sound paradoxical at first: what more than actual reactive trajectories could one need to understand a reaction? The problem, however, is that the reactive trajectories by themselves give only a very indirect information about the statistical properties of these trajectories. This is similar to why statistical mechanics is not simply a footnote in books about classical mechanics. What is the probability density that a trajectory be at a given location in state-space conditional on it being reactive? What is the probability current of these reactive trajectories? What is their rate of appearance? These are the questions of interest and they are not easy to answer directly from the ensemble of reactive trajectories. The right framework to tackle these questions also goes beyond standard equilibrium statistical mechanics because of the nontrivial bias that the very definition of the reactive trajectories imply - they must be involved in a reaction. The aim of this chapter is to

  10. Decision paths in complex tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    Complex real world action and its prediction and control has escaped analysis by the classical methods of psychological research. The reason is that psychologists have no procedures to parse complex tasks into their constituents. Where such a division can be made, based say on expert judgment, there is no natural scale to measure the positive or negative values of the components. Even if we could assign numbers to task parts, we lack rules i.e., a theory, to combine them into a total task representation. We compare here two plausible theories for the amalgamation of the value of task components. Both of these theories require a numerical representation of motivation, for motivation is the primary variable that guides choice and action in well-learned tasks. We address this problem of motivational quantification and performance prediction by developing psychophysical scales of the desireability or aversiveness of task components based on utility scaling methods (Galanter 1990). We modify methods used originally to scale sensory magnitudes (Stevens and Galanter 1957), and that have been applied recently to the measure of task 'workload' by Gopher and Braune (1984). Our modification uses utility comparison scaling techniques which avoid the unnecessary assumptions made by Gopher and Braune. Formula for the utility of complex tasks based on the theoretical models are used to predict decision and choice of alternate paths to the same goal.

  11. 福岛核泄漏污染物漂移轨迹影响分析%Drift-path Analysis of the Fukushima Nuclear Leakage Pollutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李占桥; 吴宝勤; 袁延茂; 薄文波

    2011-01-01

    日本东北部海域地震引发的海啸造成福岛第一核电站核泄漏事故,已经成为全世界关注的环境问题,大量受污染海水排人太平洋.基于北太平洋多年Argos漂流浮标海流资料在去除涡旋运动的基础上进行了分析,分段计算了污染海水前锋到达北太平洋不同区域的路径及时间,并与日本公布的计算结果进行了比较,结果表明二者之间存在较大差异.%The tsunami that was caused by the earthquake in the northeast sea-area of Japan brought on nuclear leakage accident at Fukushima number 1 nuclear power plant. It had been a notorious environment problem. Mass polluted sea water was poured into Pacific Ocean. This paper analyzed the ocean current data and wiped off eddy configuration based on Argos data. Then this paper calculated the path and time that the forward of the polluted sea water flowing into the different area of North Pacific. Compared with Japan' s result, the study indicated that there was much difference between the two.

  12. Analysis of the Sufficient Path Elimination Window for the Maximum-Likelihood Sequential-Search Decoding Algorithm for Binary Convolutional Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Shieh, Shin-Lin; Han, Yunghsiang S

    2007-01-01

    A common problem on sequential-type decoding is that at the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) below the one corresponding to the cutoff rate, the average decoding complexity per information bit and the required stack size grow rapidly with the information length. In order to alleviate the problem in the maximum-likelihood sequential decoding algorithm (MLSDA), we propose to directly eliminate the top path whose end node is $\\Delta$-trellis-level prior to the farthest one among all nodes that have been expanded thus far by the sequential search. Following random coding argument, we analyze the early-elimination window $\\Delta$ that results in negligible performance degradation for the MLSDA. Our analytical results indicate that the required early elimination window for negligible performance degradation is just twice of the constraint length for rate one-half convolutional codes. For rate one-third convolutional codes, the required early-elimination window even reduces to the constraint length. The suggestive theore...

  13. Complete Path of Rural Poverty Alleviation System in Guizhou Province Based on Empirical Investigation and Analysis of 4 Typical Counties in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Guizhou Province has the highest incidence and severity of poverty throughout the country.The investigation on its poverty alleviation is of typical significance for the poverty relief and development of concentrated and continuous destitute areas in the new time.On the basis of in-depth research,the 4 typical counties on poverty relief and development in Guizhou Province- Changshun,Yinjiang,Qinglong and Weining have been studied intensively.In the meanwhile,their common successful experiences and existing problems have been summarized.With regard to the complete path for the next stage of poverty alleviation system in Guizho Province,the following recommendations have been proposed: establish a multi-level system for sending agricultural technicians down to the countryside; improve the autonomy of primary-level organizations,especially the anti-poverty organizations at the county level; standardize the allocation of welfare projects; promote agricultural insurance; and improve the sustainable development capacity and market competition ability of farmer specialized cooperative economy organizations.

  14. Finite Element Analysis of Residual Stress in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Plate Induced by Deep Rolling Process under Complex Roller Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Liou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinematics of the deep rolling tool, contact stress, and induced residual stress in the near-surface material of a flat Ti-6Al-4V alloy plate are numerically investigated. The deep rolling tool is under multiaxis nonlinear motion in the process. Unlike available deep rolling simulations in the open literature, the roller motion investigated in this study includes penetrative and slightly translational motions. A three-dimensional finite element model with dynamic explicit technique is developed to simulate the instantaneous complex roller motions during the deep rolling process. The initial motion of the rollers followed by the penetration motion to apply the load and perform the deep rolling process, the load releasing, and material recovery steps is sequentially simulated. This model is able to capture the transient characteristics of the kinematics on the roller and contacts between the roller and the plate due to variations of roller motion. The predictions show that the magnitude of roller reaction force in the penetration direction starts to decrease with time when the roller motion changes to the deep rolling step and the residual stress distributions in the near-surface material after the material recovery step varies considerably along the roller path.

  15. 法治认同的理论辨析与路径探索%Theoretical Analysis and the Path Exploration of Nomocracy Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻名峰

    2015-01-01

    Nomocracy recognition is an important part and goal of nomocracy construction. Nomocracy recognition needs the transition of govern thinking from the rule of man to the rule of law;In the nomocracy acception theory,the formulation of nomocracy recognition is more rational than the law of faith;the base of nomocracy recognition is not the legal tools of domination but the the value of human care;Legalization of building small community,justice of adminis-tration and judicature,and education of nomocracy ideal are important paths to nomocracy recognition.%法治认同是法治建设的重要内容和目标。法治认同需要治理思维从人治思维向法治思维转变;法治接受理论中的法治认同的提法比法律信仰更为理性;法治认同的基础在于作为人性关怀的法治价值而非作为统治的法律工具;建设法治化的小共同体、执法司法正义和法治理念教育是法治认同的重要路径。

  16. Scattering theory with path integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfelder, R. [Particle Theory Group, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    Starting from well-known expressions for the T-matrix and its derivative in standard nonrelativistic potential scattering, I rederive recent path-integral formulations due to Efimov and Barbashov et al. Some new relations follow immediately.

  17. Scattering Theory with Path Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfelder, R

    2013-01-01

    Starting from well-known expressions for the $T$-matrix and its derivative in standard nonrelativistic potential scattering I rederive recent path-integral formulations due to Efimov and Barbashov et al. Some new relations follow immediately.

  18. The Internet's unexploited path diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Arjona-Villicaña, Pedro David; Stepanenko, Alexander S

    2009-01-01

    The connectivity of the Internet at the Autonomous System level is influenced by the network operator policies implemented. These in turn impose a direction to the announcement of address advertisements and, consequently, to the paths that can be used to reach back such destinations. We propose to use directed graphs to properly represent how destinations propagate through the Internet and the number of arc-disjoint paths to quantify this network's path diversity. Moreover, in order to understand the effects that policies have on the connectivity of the Internet, numerical analyses of the resulting directed graphs were conducted. Results demonstrate that, even after policies have been applied, there is still path diversity which the Border Gateway Protocol cannot currently exploit.

  19. Equivariant Localization of Path Integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    We review equivariant localization techniques for the evaluation of Feynman path integrals. We develop systematic geometric methods for studying the semi-classical properties of phase space path integrals for dynamical systems, emphasizing the relations with integrable and topological quantum field theories. Beginning with a detailed review of the relevant mathematical background -- equivariant cohomology and the Duistermaat-Heckman theorem, we demonstrate how the localization ideas are relat...

  20. Path Integrals in Quantum Physics

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    These lectures aim at giving graduate students an introduction to and a working knowledge of path integral methods in a wide variety of fields in physics. Consequently, the lecture notes are organized in three main parts dealing with non-relativistic quantum mechanics, many-body physics and field theory. In the first part the basic concepts of path integrals are developed in the usual heuristic, non-mathematical way followed by standard examples and special applications including numerical ev...

  1. Formal language constrained path problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.

    1997-07-08

    In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.

  2. Asteroidal Quadruples in non Rooted Path Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Marisa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A directed path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a directed tree. A rooted path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a rooted tree. Rooted path graphs are directed path graphs. Several characterizations are known for directed path graphs: one by forbidden induced subgraphs and one by forbidden asteroids. It is an open problem to find such characterizations for rooted path graphs. For this purpose, we are studying in this paper directed path graphs that are non rooted path graphs. We prove that such graphs always contain an asteroidal quadruple.

  3. Path planning of the robot assembly based on Voronoi diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Zhuang; ZHAO Yan-zheng

    2008-01-01

    Based on the concepts of Voronoi diagram that describes geometry information of the robot assembly in C space, the position vector path parameter equation of the assembly movement between the step shaft and two-sided beating bracket was given. And the path planning strategy of the component initiative assembly was put forward as well. Theoretical analysis proves that using the Voronoi diagram to do the geometry reasoning on the assembly space can evaluate the feasibility of the component assembly, and can present the reference posi-tion vector path of the component movement from the initial configuration to the objective configuration, there-fore improves the flexibility of the robot initiative assembly.

  4. Anomalous paths in quantum mechanical path-integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimsmo, Arne L., E-mail: arne.grimsmo@ntnu.no [Department of Physics, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Department of Physics, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Klauder, John R., E-mail: klauder@phys.ufl.edu [Departments of Physics and Mathematics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Skagerstam, Bo-Sture K., E-mail: bo-sture.skagerstam@ntnu.no [Department of Physics, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California at Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4030 (United States); CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics at the University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2013-11-25

    We investigate modifications of the discrete-time lattice action, for a quantum mechanical particle in one spatial dimension, that vanish in the naïve continuum limit but which, nevertheless, induce non-trivial effects due to quantum fluctuations. These effects are seen to modify the geometry of the paths contributing to the path-integral describing the time evolution of the particle, which we investigate through numerical simulations. In particular, we demonstrate the existence of a modified lattice action resulting in paths with any fractal dimension, d{sub f}, between one and two. We argue that d{sub f}=2 is a critical value, and we exhibit a type of lattice modification where the fluctuations in the position of the particle becomes independent of the time step, in which case the paths are interpreted as superdiffusive Lévy flights. We also consider the jaggedness of the paths, and show that this gives an independent classification of lattice theories.

  5. Double global optimum genetic algorithm-particle swarm optimization-based welding robot path planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewu; Shi, Yingpan; Ding, Dongyan; Gu, Xingsheng

    2016-02-01

    Spot-welding robots have a wide range of applications in manufacturing industries. There are usually many weld joints in a welding task, and a reasonable welding path to traverse these weld joints has a significant impact on welding efficiency. Traditional manual path planning techniques can handle a few weld joints effectively, but when the number of weld joints is large, it is difficult to obtain the optimal path. The traditional manual path planning method is also time consuming and inefficient, and cannot guarantee optimality. Double global optimum genetic algorithm-particle swarm optimization (GA-PSO) based on the GA and PSO algorithms is proposed to solve the welding robot path planning problem, where the shortest collision-free paths are used as the criteria to optimize the welding path. Besides algorithm effectiveness analysis and verification, the simulation results indicate that the algorithm has strong searching ability and practicality, and is suitable for welding robot path planning.

  6. Analysis on the path patterns of local governmental management innovation and the selection rules%我国地方政府管理创新的路径模式及抉择规律分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张廷君

    2011-01-01

    文章以2000—2010年间五届"中国地方政府创新奖"获奖的地方政府管理创新项目作为分析单位,运用内容分析法从中探索近年来中国地方政府管理创新路径模式,通过定量分析总结并提出中国地方政府管理创新的四种路径模式,即并进型创新、行政-前驱型创新、政治-前驱型创新与缓进型创新,在此基础上,探索路径抉择规律,并提出进一步完善中国地方政府管理创新路径的政策建议。%Based on the"Prize for the Reinvention of Chinese Local Government "during the 10 years from 2000 to 2010,the paper explores the innovation patte rns of Chinese local governments in recent years by content analysis,and summar izes four innovation patterns by quantitative analysis,i.e.,hand-type innovat ion,administration-precursor-based innovation,politics-precursor-based inn ovation,and slow improvement innovation.Finally the paper explores the path of choice rules,and puts forward some suggestions on how to improve the path of local governmental management innovation.

  7. 基于统计分析的弱变异测试可执行路径生成%Feasible Path Generation of Weak Mutation Testing Based on Statistical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党向盈; 巩敦卫; 姚香娟

    2016-01-01

    Mutation testing is a fault-based testing technique.The high cost,however,limits its widespread applications in practical testing.Papadakis et al.transformed the problem of weak mutation testing of a program into that of covering the true branches of mutant statements of another program,with the purpose of generating mutation test data by using previous methods of branch coverage.The converted program contains,however,a great number of mutant branches by using the above approach,thus having a difficulty in generating test data that cover these branches.If appropriate methods are employed to reduce the mutant branches in the converted program,and the reduced mutant branches are grouped according to the paths to which they belong,mutation test data with high quality will be generated by using previous methods of path coverage,hence improving the efficiency of weak mutation testing.Effective methods for generating feasible paths based on a program and its mutants are,however,of absence up to date.In view of this,this paper proposes an approach to generate feasible paths for weak mutation testing by considering the correlation of the true branches of mutant statements,with the purpose of killing all mutants by test data that cover all these feasible paths.To fulfill this task,the dominance relation of the true branches of mutant statements is first determined and employed to reduce the dominated true branches.Following that the non-dominated branches of mutant statements are instrumented into the program to form another program.The true branches of mutant statements that are generated by mutating the same statement are transformed into a new one based on their correlation.Then feasible sub-paths that contain these new branches and the original statement are produced based on the correlation among the original statement and the new branches.Finally, a correlation matrix is generated and reduced based on the execution of these sub-paths using statistical analysis,and one

  8. Path dependence in technologies and organizations: a concise guide

    OpenAIRE

    Castaldi, C Carolina; Dosi, G; Paraskevopoulou, E

    2011-01-01

    The note on which an entry for the Palgrave Encyclopedia of Strategic Management will draw offers a beginner's guide to path dependency in technologies and organizations. We address the very meaning of the concept and its centrality in various aspects of economic analysis. We outline the various levels of the ecomic system in which it is observable, its sources, concequences and different formal representations of path dependent processes.

  9. Where Are the Women? And Other Questions, Asked within an Historical Analysis of Sociology of Music Education Research Publications: Being a Self-Reflective Ethnographic Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a meta-analysis of one area of sociological literature in music education: Where are the women and "others"? Where do we raise concerns about social values? Institutional Ethnography provides the basis for the meta-analysis, presented in two historical periods, pre-1960 and 2007-2012. A short story of an actual…

  10. Crystallographic Location and Mutational Analysis of Zn and Cd Inhibitory Sites and Role of Lipidic Carboxylates in Rescuing Proton Path Mutants in Cytochrome c Oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Ling; Mills, Denise A.; Hiser, Carrie; Murphree, Anna; Garavito, R. Michael; Ferguson-Miller, Shelagh; Hosler, Jonathan (MSU); (UMMC)

    2009-01-15

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) transfers protons from the inner surface of the enzyme to the buried O{sub 2} reduction site through two different pathways, termed K and D, and from the outer surface via an undefined route. These proton paths can be inhibited by metals such as zinc or cadmium, but the sites of inhibition have not been established. Anomalous difference Fourier analyses of Rhodobacter sphaeroides CcO crystals, with cadmium added, reveal metal binding sites that include the proposed initial proton donor/acceptor of the K pathway, Glu-101 of subunit II. Mutant forms of CcO that lack Glu-101{sub II} (E101A and E101A/H96A) exhibit low activity and eliminate metal binding at this site. Significant activity is restored to E101A and E101A/H96A by adding the lipophilic carboxylic compounds, arachidonic acid and cholic acid, but not by their non-carboxylic analogues. These amphipathic acids likely provide their carboxylic groups as substitute proton donors/acceptors in the absence of Glu-101{sub II}, as previously observed for arachidonic acid in mutants that alter Asp-132{sub I} of the D pathway. The activity of E101A/H96A is still inhibited by zinc, but this remaining inhibition is nearly eliminated by removal of subunit III, which is known to alter the D pathway. The results identify the Glu-101/His-96 site of subunit II as the site of metal binding that inhibits the uptake of protons into the K pathway and indicate that subunit III contributes to zinc binding and/or inhibition of the D pathway. By removing subunit III from E101A/H96A, thereby eliminating zinc inhibition of the uptake of protons from the inner surface of CcO, we confirm that an external zinc binding site is involved in inhibiting the backflow of protons to the active site.

  11. 聚众淫乱去罪路径之刑法教义学分析%Dogmatic Analysis on Criminal Law of Decriminalization Path on Mob Adultery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志恒; 张霞

    2016-01-01

    Decriminalization path for mob adultery is the complete abolition of the crime,while the es-tablishment of crime on undisguised indecency is to punish violations on public’s sentiment of sex,especially the non-public sexual abuse in social order. From the perspective of criminal law hermeneutics,"undis-guised"refers to the state known by unspecific number of or majority of people. Indecent means everything to meet or appetite sexual desire,including sexual behavior,which could hurt the normal sense of shame and vi-olate good sexual morality or concept. After the establishment of crime on undisguised indecency,there is no need for the existence of crime on enticing juveniles’ mob adultery due to defects in itself on the one hand and perfection or protection on reasonable rights by application of other accusation on the other hand. So, crime on enticing juveniles’ mob adultery and crime on mob adultery should be abolished together.%将聚众淫乱罪去罪化的路径应是完全的废除聚众淫乱罪,同时设立公然猥亵罪来处罚公开进行的侵害公众对性的感情的行为,尤其是侵害性行为非公开化的社会秩序的行为。从刑法解释学的角度,公然是指能够被参与人以外的不特定或者多数人所认识的状态,猥亵是指包括性行为在内的一切可以满足或者刺激行为人或者他人的性欲,使一般人正常的性的羞耻感受到伤害,违反善良性道德观念的行为。设立公然猥亵罪后,一方面由于本身缺陷,另一方面由于可通过公然猥亵罪以及其他罪名的运用实现对法益的完善保护,因此,引诱未成年人聚众淫乱罪已无存在必要,应当与聚众淫乱罪一并废除。

  12. Analysis of the Development Path of New-Type Urbanization in China%我国新型城镇化发展路径研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻惠中

    2013-01-01

      New-type urbanization is a strategic fulcrum of China's economic development. To boost the construction of new-type urban-ization, the Chinese government should free the mind, forge ahead with determination, vigorously propel the progress on the one hand and make careful decisions, go ahead steadily and seek for pragmatic outcomes on the other hand. On the basis of a clear understanding of the scientific connotation of new-type urbanization, it should summarize the successful cases of new-type urbanization to explore the develop-ment path of socialist new-type urbanization with Chinese characteristics in an effort to meet the fundemental requirements in terms of in-tegrated layout, overall planning, piloting by economy, supporting by industries, adjusting to local conditions, stressing on features,"Five in One", comprehensive coordination, an overall urban-rural development, mutual benefits, people first, and prioritizing people's livelihood.%  新型城镇化是我国未来经济发展的战略支点。加快推进新型城镇化建设,我国政府既要解放思想、锐意进取、积极推进,又要缜密决策、稳扎稳打、注重实效。要在准确理解和把握新型城镇化的科学内涵的前提下,按照整体布局、统筹规划,经济领航、产业支撑,因地制宜、突出特色,“五位一体”、全面协调,城乡统筹、互利双赢,以人为本、民生优先的基本要求,认真总结新型城镇化建设的成功案例,努力探索具有中国特色的社会主义新型城镇化发展道路。

  13. Discrete Coherent State Path Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioro, Thomas L., II

    1990-01-01

    The quantum theory provides a fundamental understanding of the physical world; however, as the number of degrees of freedom rises, the information required to specify quantum wavefunctions grows geometrically. Because basis set expansions mirror this geometric growth, a strict practical limit on quantum mechanics as a numerical tool arises, specifically, three degrees of freedom or fewer. Recent progress has been made utilizing Feynman's Path Integral formalism to bypass this geometric growth and instead calculate time -dependent correlation functions directly. The solution of the Schrodinger equation is converted into a large dimensional (formally infinite) integration, which can then be attacked with Monte Carlo techniques. To date, work in this area has concentrated on developing sophisticated mathematical algorithms for evaluating the highly oscillatory integrands occurring in Feynman Path Integrals. In an alternative approach, this work demonstrates two formulations of quantum dynamics for which the number of mathematical operations does not scale geometrically. Both methods utilize the Coherent State basis of quantum mechanics. First, a localized coherent state basis set expansion and an approximate short time propagator are developed. Iterations of the short time propagator lead to the full quantum dynamics if the coherent state basis is sufficiently dense along the classical phase space path of the system. Second, the coherent state path integral is examined in detail. For a common class of Hamiltonians, H = p^2/2 + V( x) the path integral is reformulated from a phase space-like expression into one depending on (q,dot q). It is demonstrated that this new path integral expression contains localized damping terms which can serve as a statistical weight for Monte Carlo evaluation of the integral--a process which scales approximately linearly with the number of degrees of freedom. Corrections to the traditional coherent state path integral, inspired by a

  14. Career Paths in Educational Leadership: Examining Principals' Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parylo, Oksana; Zepeda, Sally J.; Bengtson, Ed

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study analyzes the career path narratives of active principals. Structural narrative analysis was supplemented with sociolinguistic theory and thematic narrative analysis to discern the similarities and differences, as well as the patterns in the language used by participating principals. Thematic analysis found four major themes…

  15. Paths of movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2013-01-01

    as narrative material and as a storytelling tool.With her GPS receiver, Polak experiments with ways of access- ing and discussing the many (spatial) narratives that humans, animals, machines, and goods (e.g., dairy products) create in their everyday trajectories. Through an analysis of Polak’s works......As GPS technologies are embedded into mobile devices—and thus everyday life—it has become common to track the location and trajectories of humans as well as objects.While knowing where people and things actually are and have actually been can be interesting, by also engaging with the lives and (hi)stories...

  16. Ternary diffusion path in terms of eigenvalues and eigenvectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram-Mohan, L. R.; Dayananda, Mysore A.

    2016-04-01

    Based on the transfer matrix methodology, a new analysis is presented for the description of slopes of the ternary diffusion path for a solid-solid diffusion couple. Concentration profiles and diffusion paths for isothermal, ternary diffusion couples are examined in the context of eigenvalues and eigenvectors obtained from the diagonalisation of the ? ternary interdiffusion coefficients employed for their representation. New relations are derived relating the decoupled interdiffusion fluxes to combinations of concentration gradients through the major and minor eigenvalues, and the diffusion path becomes parallel to the major eigenvector at each path end. General expressions for the slope of the ternary diffusion path at any section of the couple are also derived in terms of eigenvalue and eigenvector parameters. Expressions for the path slope at the Matano plane involve only concentrations, major and minor eigenvalues and eigenvector parameters. New constraints relating the eigenvalues and the concentration gradients of the individual components are also presented at selected sections, where the diffusion path is parallel to the straight line joining the terminal composition points on an isotherm. Applications of the various relations are illustrated with the aid of a hypothetical couple and an experimental Cu-Ni-Zn diffusion couple.

  17. Finding Heavy Paths in Graphs: A Rank Join Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Khabbaz, Mohammad; Lakshmanan, Laks V S

    2011-01-01

    In applications such as playlist recommendation, flow analysis in information networks, and itinerary planning, we face the problem of finding the heaviest path(s) in a graph under a given length constraint. More precisely, in these applications, we are given a graph with non-negative edge weights, and a monotone function such as sum, which aggregates edge weights into a single value that defines a path weight. We are required to find the top-$k$ heaviest simple paths, i.e., the $k$ simple (i.e., cycle-free) paths with the greatest weight, whose length equals a given parameter $\\ell$. We call this the Heavy Path Problem (HPP). The problem is known to be NP-Hard, and in general not approximable. In this work, we develop a practical approach to solve the Heavy Path problem by establishing a strong connection with the well-known Rank Join paradigm. We present an adaptation of the Rank Join algorithm and tailor it to self-joins over the list of edges. We present novel thresholding strategies and develop exact and...

  18. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bänziger

    Full Text Available We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness. While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars.

  19. Purely geometric path integral for spin foams

    CERN Document Server

    Shirazi, Atousa Chaharsough

    2013-01-01

    Spin-foams are a proposal for defining the dynamics of loop quantum gravity via path integral. In order for a path integral to be at least formally equivalent to the corresponding canonical quantization, at each point in the space of histories it is important that the integrand have not only the correct phase -- a topic of recent focus in spin-foams -- but also the correct modulus, usually referred to as the measure factor. The correct measure factor descends from the Liouville measure on the reduced phase space, and its calculation is a task of canonical analysis. The covariant formulation of gravity from which spin-foams are derived is the Plebanski-Holst formulation, in which the basic variables are a Lorentz connection and a Lorentz-algebra valued two-form, called the Plebanski two-form. However, in the final spin-foam sum, one sums over only spins and intertwiners, which label eigenstates of the Plebanski two-form alone. The spin-foam sum is therefore a discretized version of a Plebanski-Holst path integ...

  20. Analyzing Complex Reaction Mechanisms Using Path Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, Titus S; Moqadam, Mahmoud; Riccardi, Enrico; Lervik, Anders

    2016-11-08

    We introduce an approach to analyze collective variables (CVs) regarding their predictive power for a reaction. The method is based on already available path sampling data produced by, for instance, transition interface sampling or forward flux sampling, which are path sampling methods used for efficient computation of reaction rates. By a search in CV space, a measure of predictiveness can be optimized and, in addition, the number of CVs can be reduced using projection operations which keep this measure invariant. The approach allows testing hypotheses on the reaction mechanism but could, in principle, also be used to construct the phase-space committor surfaces without the need of additional trajectory sampling. The procedure is illustrated for a one-dimensional double-well potential, a theoretical model for an ion-transfer reaction in which the solvent structure can lower the barrier, and an ab initio molecular dynamics study of water auto-ionization. The analysis technique enhances the quantitative interpretation of path sampling data which can provide clues on how chemical reactions can be steered in desired directions.

  1. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness). While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research) and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars).

  2. New sufficient conditions for Hamiltonian paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Sohel; Kaykobad, M; Firoz, Jesun Sahariar

    2014-01-01

    A Hamiltonian path in a graph is a path involving all the vertices of the graph. In this paper, we revisit the famous Hamiltonian path problem and present new sufficient conditions for the existence of a Hamiltonian path in a graph.

  3. Population Monotonic Path Schemes for Simple Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftci, B.B.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    A path scheme for a simple game is composed of a path, i.e., a sequence of coalitions that is formed during the coalition formation process and a scheme, i.e., a payoff vector for each coalition in the path.A path scheme is called population monotonic if a player's payoff does not decrease as the pa

  4. Gas-path seal technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    Improved gas-path seals are needed for better fuel economy, longer performance retention, and lower maintenance, particularly in advanced, high-performance gas turbine engines. Problems encountered in gas-path sealing are described, as well as new blade-tip sealing approaches for high-pressure compressors and turbines. These include a lubricant coating for conventional, porous-metal, rub-strip materials used in compressors. An improved hot-press metal alloy shows promise to increase the operating surface temperatures of high-pressure-turbine, blade-tip seals to 1450 K (2150 F). Three ceramic seal materials are also described that have the potential to allow much higher gas-path surface operating temperatures than are possible with metal systems.

  5. Rainbow paths with prescribed ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alishahi, Meysam; Taherkhani, Ali; Thomassen, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    It was conjectured in [S. Akbari, F. Khaghanpoor, and S. Moazzeni. Colorful paths in vertex coloring of graphs. Preprint] that, if G is a connected graph distinct from C-7, then there is a chi(G)-coloring of G in which every vertex v is an element of V(G) is an initial vertex of a path P with chi......(G) vertices whose colors are different. In[S. Akbari, V. Liaghat, and A. Nikzad. Colorful paths in vertex coloring of graphs. Electron. J. Combin. 18(1):P17, 9pp, 2011] this was proved with left perpendicular chi(G)/2right perpendicular vertices instead of chi(G) vertices. We strengthen this to chi(G) - 1...

  6. Analysis of Exhaust Noise Contribution to Vehicle’s Interior Noise Based on Single Path Inversion%基于单一源求逆法的排气噪声对车内噪声贡献量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐猛; 张俊红; 李基芳; 何伟举; 翟乃斌

    2013-01-01

    以某车型车内噪声声压级为目标,以单一源求逆法辨识排气噪声体积加速度,并测试排气口到车内噪声目标点的声学传递函数。计算排气管口通过空气传递路径到车内噪声的贡献量,得知在发动机1730rpm附近排气噪声的2阶激励频率是车内噪声的主要贡献源,此时车内噪声主要是排气噪声过大引起的。增加车辆的吸隔音措施效果不明显,应优化排气管消声器以降低排气噪声。实验验证了分析结果。%Analysis of noise transfer path from exhaust noise source to vehicle’s interior position was carried out based on exhaust volume acceleration estimation using single path inversion method. The acoustic transfer function from the exhaust outlet to the vehicle’s internal objective points was tested, and the noise contribution of the exhaust to the internal noise was calculated. It was found that the exhaust noise with the second order excitation frequency at the engine speed 1730rpm is the main noise source of the vehicle’s interior noise, and the high sound pressure level of the interior noise is induced by the overlarge volume acceleration of the exhaust instead of the transfer path function from the exhaust orifice to vehicle’s interior objective points. Thus, to reduce the exhaust noise, the exhaust silencer should be optimized. By measuring and comparing the sound pressure levels at driver’s right ear with and without exhaust noise insulation respectively, this conclusion was validated.

  7. miRNAs芯片数据的聚类分析与羽扇豆醇抗癌途径预测%Cluster analysis of miRNAs microarray data and prediction of lupeol anti- cancer path

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大川; 代翠红; 徐德昌

    2011-01-01

    Lupeol is an extract from natural plants that has an effective and low - toxic anticancer function. It is of very high value to the drug exploitation. However, the mechanism of its anticancer function still remains unclear. We analyzed the differential expression of miRNA from hela cells which are pretreated with lupeol to investigate the anticancer molecular paths of lupeol. The method of TaqMan MicroRNA Assay was employed through our research. Datas are analyzed with the method of cluster analysis. Targetscan and RNAfold are performed to analyze the gene sequences. With the help of NCBI and Gene Ontology searching, we find the molecular paths of lupeol from hela cells to inhibit cancer,namely, a path that pivots with ERBB4 and involvs in has - miR -23b,has - miR -200b.%羽扇豆醇是一种植物天然提取物,具有高效低毒的抗癌活性,对于药物开发领域有很高价值.目前对其抗癌机制还不是十分明确.使用TaqMan MicroRNA Assay芯片技术,从羽扇豆醇处理的hela细胞中miRNA的差异表达入手,探索扇豆醇抗癌分子途径.运用聚类分析等统计学方法和targetscan,RNAfold等序列分析工具进行信号组分的预测筛选,再结合对NCBI,Gene Ontology等大型生物信息数据库的检索,最终在生物信息学层面上,分析得到hela细胞中羽扇豆醇抗癌的分子调控途径,即以受体酪氨酸激酶ERBB4介导的,hsa - miR -23b,hsa -miR - 200b等几种miRNA参与的分子通路.

  8. Path Decomposition of Graphs with Given Path Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-qing Zhai; Chang-hong Lü

    2006-01-01

    A path decomposition of a graph G is a list of paths such that each edge appears in exactly one path in the list. G is said to admit a {Pl}-decomposition if G can be decomposed into some copies of Pl, where Pl is a path of length ι - 1. Similarly, G is said to admit a {Pl, Pκ}-decomposition if G can be decomposed into some copies of Pl or Pκ. An κ-cycle, denoted by Cκ, is a cycle with κ vertices. An odd tree is a tree of which all vertices have odd degree. In this paper, it is shown that a connected graph G admits a {P3, P4}-decomposition if and only if G is neither a 3-cycle nor an odd tree. This result includes the related result of Yan, Xu and Mutu. Moreover, two polynomial algorithms are given to find {P3}-decomposition and {P3, P4}-decomposition of graphs, respectively. Hence, {P3}-decomposition problem and {P3, P4}-decomposition problem of graphs are solved completely.

  9. Analysis of Path and Effect of Carbon Tax Achieving Carbon Emission Reduction%碳税减排路径与效果辨析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽萍; 李彤; 杨红雄

    2013-01-01

      中国面临着温室气体减排的巨大压力,碳税辅以碳排放权交易是适合我国国情的有效减排政策工具。文章深入分析了我国实行碳税的现实条件,对碳税税制要素、税率、征税环节、税收收入的归属与使用、税收减免与补偿等相关政策配套的相互作用机制和减排效果进行了探讨,提出通过多种模型和方法的综合应用对碳税的技术路径进行设计;揭示动态条件下碳税税制要素的构成与选择;指出税率是碳税政策实施的关键环节,且存在最优的碳税减排税率;辨析中性税收实施方式下多方利益关系的协调和最优税收返还模式;分析碳税及其政策配套的减排效果、对经济活动的影响,提出适合我国实际的碳税政策实施建议。%Abatract:China is facing the huge pressure of reducing greenhouse gas emissions.Carbon tax with complementary of carbon emissions trading is an effective policy tool of reducing emissions adapting to Chinese national situation.The paper analyzes the current conditions of implementing carbon tax,researched deeply carbon tax key factors,tax rate,taxation procedure,al⁃location and use of revenue,remission and compensation of revenue,mechanism of reciprocity and effect of reducing emission. The paper inculdes that the technological path of carbon tax is designed by integrating models and methodologies,the composi⁃tion and selection of key factors of carbon tax system are proposed in dynamic condition.It is pointed that the key of implement⁃ing carbon tax policy is tax rate and optimal tax rate is existed.Then,coordination of multilateral benefits and pattern of opti⁃mal revenue return under neutral tax are analyzed.Finally,the effect of carbon tax and it’s correlative policies,and the ef⁃fect on economy are analyzed,and the advice of implementing carbon tax policy adapting to Chinese situation is put forward.

  10. 基于时序路径的FPGA时序分析技术研究%Research of FPGA Timing Sequence Analysis Technology Based on Timing Sequence Path

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周珊; 王金波; 王晓丹

    2016-01-01

    For the significance of high reliable FPGA test timing sequence analysis technology on Spaceflight , depending on the FPGA design and test experience for several years ,timing sequence analysis technology is analyzed deeply ,and a set of feasible solution is extracted ,and the analysis target of timing sequence analysis is clarified . The interface signal timing sequence calculation rules of timing sequence analysis and analysis rules of timing sequence test results are presented by the main method of timing sequence analysis technology ;this set of technology is applied successfully on the tests of several high reliable software on Spaceflight ,many significant functional disabled problems ,caused by timing sequence problems ,can be found ,and the common timing sequence problems are classified and summarized .%针对于航天高可靠FPGA测试时时序分析技术的重要性 ,根据多年FPGA设计测试经验对时序分析技术进行深入剖析 ,提炼出一套切实可行的时序分析技术 ,阐明了时序分析的分析对象 ,时序分析技术的主要方法 ,给出了时序分析时接口信号时序计算法则 ,以及时序测试结果的分析准则 ;并把这套分析技术成功的应用到了多个航天高可靠软件的测试中 ,发现了很多由时序问题引起功能失效的重大问题 ,对其中常见的时序问题给予归类总结 .

  11. Spin Observables and Path Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    López, J A

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the formulation of spin observables associated to a non-relativistic spinning particles in terms of grassmanian differential operators. We use as configuration space variables for the pseudo-classical description of this system the positions $x$ and a Grassmanian vector quantum amplitudes as path integrals in this superspace. We compute the quantum action necessary for this description including an explicit expression for the boundary terms. Finally we shown how for simple examples, the path integral may be performed in the semi-classical approximation, leading to the correct quantum propagator.

  12. Paths of algebraic hyperbolic curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-juan LI; Li-zheng LU; Guo-zhao WANG

    2008-01-01

    Cubic algebraic hyperbolic (AH) Bezier curves and AH spline curves are defined with a positive parameter α in the space spanned by {1, t, sinht, cosht}. Modifying the value of α yields a family of AH Bezier or spline curves with the family parameter α. For a fixed point on the original curve, it will move on a defined curve called "path of AH curve" (AH Bezier and AH spline curves) when α changes. We describe the geometric effects of the paths and give a method to specify a curve passing through a given point.

  13. Strings, paths, and standard tableaux

    CERN Document Server

    Dasmahapatra, S

    1996-01-01

    For the vacuum sectors of regime-III ABF models, we observe that two sets of combinatorial objects: the strings which parametrize the row-to-row transfer matrix eigenvectors, and the paths which parametrize the corner transfer matrix eigenvectors, can both be expressed in terms of the same set of standard tableaux. Furthermore, the momenta of the strings, the energies of the paths, and the charges of the tableaux are such that there is a weight-preserving bijection between the two sets of eigenvectors, wherein the tableaux play an interpolating role. This bijection is so natural, that we conjecture that it exists in general.

  14. Risk Factors Identification and Risk Path Analysis on Green Building Project%绿色建筑项目的风险因素识别与风险路径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景慧; 秦旋; 万欣

    2012-01-01

    The risk management of green building project is a complex problem, and the risk factors are mutually interactive. The method of system dynamics (SD) was proposed for risk factor identification and risk path analysis. From the contractors' perspective, a green building projects risk identification feedback model was built using the SD theory. The relationship between the project objectives risk and individual risk factors were analyzed as well as the sources of risks. The target risks' cause tree and risk path feedback figures were drawn. These analyses can help the contractors identify the key risk factors of green buildings and be prepared for dealing with the risks.%针对绿色建筑项目的风险管理问题是一个复杂系统问题,各风险因素之间具有交叉关联关系,提出了运用系统动力学(system dynamics,SD)方法来进行风险因素识别与风险路径分析的构想.以承包商视角采用系统动力学理论为基础建立了绿色建筑项目风险识别反馈模型图,分析了项目目标风险与各风险因素之间的相互关系以及风险来源,绘制影响目标风险的原因树及风险路径反馈图.通过这些分析,可以帮助承包商辨识绿色建筑的关键风险因素,并为有效应对绿色建筑的风险做准备.

  15. 大学生考试焦虑相关影响因素的路径分析%The path analysis of influential factor related to test anxiety among undergraduate students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马欢; 左振; 汤艳清; 刘盈

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨大学生社会支持、应对和个性对考试焦虑发生的作用大小和途径.方法 应用Sarason考试焦虑量表(TAS)、特质应对问卷、社会支持量表和艾森克人格问卷对552名大学生进行调查,并采用相关、回归和路径分析探讨各影响因素与考试焦虑的相关性及其对焦虑的作用大小和途径.结果 TAS得分在12~20分之间的占15.59%,分数大于20分的占7.78%;考试焦虑与社会支持总分、积极应对、及个性的外倾性成极显著或显著负相关,相关系数分别为-0.309,-0.269,-0.272,焦虑和消极应对、精神质、神经质成极显著或显著正相关,相关系数分别为0.144,0.275,0.298;多元逐步回归分析发现,影响考试焦虑的因素为神经质、外倾性、积极应对、社会支持总分;路径分析显示社会支持、积极应对、精神质、内外向和神经质均对考试焦虑的发生具有显著的直接作用,路径系数分别为-0.247,-0.278,0.194,-0.213,0.326,个性、应对又可以通过间接途径对焦虑的发生产生作用,社会支持既缓冲了个性、应对对焦虑发生的作用,同时对焦虑也有一定的直接缓解作用,路径系数为-0.247.结论 大学生考试焦虑的发生受多因素直接和间接的影响,应从多途径多环节进行预防和干预.%Objective To explore the relation between personality,coping style and social support and the effects and paths to test anxiety.Methods Test Anxiety Scale(TAS),Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ),social support questionnaire and EPQ were applied to 552 undergraduate students.All data were analyzed by Pearson correlation,regression and path analysis.Results The students whose score of TAS from 12 to 20 were 15.59%,above 20 were 7.78%.There was significant negative correlation between test anxiety and so cial support(r=-0.309),positive coping(r=-0.269)and extraversion(r=-0.272),there was significant positive correlation between test anxiety and

  16. Global path following control for underactuated stratospheric airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zewei; Wu, Zhe

    2013-10-01

    This paper develops a nonlinear path following control method that drives an underactuated stratospheric airship onto a predefined planar path with a given speed profile. The dynamic model of the airship used for controller design is first introduced with kinematics and dynamics equations. In order to render good pilot behavior for the control action, a guidance controller by referring to the guidance-based path following principle is derived. Then the controller is extended to cope with the airship attitude and velocity by resorting to the backstepping and Lyapunov-based techniques. The designed control system finally possesses a cascaded structure which consists of guidance loop, attitude control loop and velocity control loop. Stability analysis shows that the controlled closed-loop system is globally asymptotically stable, and the sway velocity which cannot be directly controlled is bounded. Simulation results for the airship following typical paths are illustrated to verify effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. Efficiently Discovering Hammock Paths from Induced Similarity Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, M Shahriar; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2010-01-01

    Similarity networks are important abstractions in many information management applications such as recommender systems, corpora analysis, and medical informatics. For instance, by inducing similarity networks between movies rated similarly by users, or between documents containing common terms, and or between clinical trials involving the same themes, we can aim to find the global structure of connectivities underlying the data, and use the network as a basis to make connections between seemingly disparate entities. In the above applications, composing similarities between objects of interest finds uses in serendipitous recommendation, in storytelling, and in clinical diagnosis, respectively. We present an algorithmic framework for traversing similarity paths using the notion of `hammock' paths which are generalization of traditional paths. Our framework is exploratory in nature so that, given starting and ending objects of interest, it explores candidate objects for path following, and heuristics to admissib...

  18. Ab-initio path integral techniques for molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, D; Shumway, J; Ho, Ming-Chak; Shin, Daejin

    2006-01-01

    Path integral Monte Carlo with Green's function analysis allows the sampling of quantum mechanical properties of molecules at finite temperature. While a high-precision computation of the energy of the Born-Oppenheimer surface from path integral Monte Carlo is quite costly, we can extract many properties without explicitly calculating the electronic energies. We demonstrate how physically relevant quantities, such as bond-length, vibrational spectra, and polarizabilities of molecules may be sampled directly from the path integral simulation using Matsubura (temperature) Green's functions (imaginary-time correlation functions). These calculations on the hydrogen molecule are a proof-of-concept, designed to motivate new work on fixed-node path-integral calculations for molecules.

  19. Numerical Tool Path Optimization for Conventional Sheet Metal Spinning Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentsch, Benedikt; Manopulo, Niko; Hora, Pavel

    2016-08-01

    To this day, conventional sheet metal spinning processes are designed with a very low degree of automation. They are usually executed by experienced personnel, who actively adjust the tool paths during production. The practically unlimited freedom in designing the tool paths enables the efficient manufacturing of complex geometries on one hand, but is challenging to translate into a standardized procedure on the other. The present study aims to propose a systematic methodology, based on a 3D FEM model combined with a numerical optimization strategy, in order to design tool paths. The accurate numerical modelling of the spinning process is firstly discussed, followed by an analysis of appropriate objective functions and constraints required to obtain a failure free tool path design.

  20. Solving the constrained shortest path problem using random search strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an improved walk search strategy to solve the constrained shortest path problem. The proposed search strategy is a local search algorithm which explores a network by walker navigating through the network. In order to analyze and evaluate the proposed search strategy, we present the results of three computational studies in which the proposed search algorithm is tested. Moreover, we compare the proposed algorithm with the ant colony algorithm and k shortest paths algorithm. The analysis and comparison results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is an effective tool for solving the constrained shortest path problem. It can not only be used to solve the optimization problem on a larger network, but also is superior to the ant colony algorithm in terms of the solution time and optimal paths.