WorldWideScience

Sample records for learning-and teaching-friendly environment

  1. Designing an Interactive Multimedia Environment for Learning and Aiding Troubleshooting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kolodner, Janet

    1997-01-01

    .... However troubleshooting is a complex process both to learn and perform. This report examines the prospects for designing an interactive learning environment that helps users acquire and engage in effective troubleshooting...

  2. Evaluation of the learning and teaching environment of the Faculty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The study aimed at evaluating the learning and teaching environment of undergraduate students of the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Nigeria. Methods: The study was a descriptive, cross‑sectional survey. The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) questionnaire was ...

  3. Learning and Teaching in a Synchronous Collaborative Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Olivera

    1999-01-01

    Describes a new synchronous collaborative environment that combines interactive learning and Group Support Systems for computer-mediated collaboration. Illustrates its potential to improve critical thinking, problem solving, and communication skills, and describes how teachers' roles are changed. (Author/LRW)

  4. Education for Knowledge Society: Learning and Scientific Innovation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander O. Karpov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive-active learning research-type environment is the fundamental component of the education system for the knowledge society. The purpose of the research is the development of conceptual bases and a constructional model of a cognitively active learning environment that stimulates the creation of new knowledge and its socio-economic application. Research methods include epistemic-didactic analysis of empirical material collected as a result of the study of research environments at schools and universities; conceptualization and theoretical modeling of the cognitively active surrounding, which provides an infrastructure of the research-type cognitive process. The empirical material summarized in this work was collected in the research-cognitive space of the “Step into the Future” program, which is one of the most powerful systems of research education in present-day Russia. The article presents key points of the author's concept of generative learning environments and a model of learning and scientific innovation environment implemented at Russian schools and universities.

  5. Education for Knowledge Society: Learning and Scientific Innovation Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander O. Karpov

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-active learning research-type environment is the fundamental component of the education system for the knowledge society. The purpose of the research is the development of conceptual bases and a constructional model of a cognitively active learning environment that stimulates the creation of new knowledge and its socio-economic application. Research methods include epistemic-didactic analysis of empirical material collected as a result of the study of research environments at school...

  6. Evaluation of the Learning and Teaching Environment of the Faculty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... perceptions of atmosphere, and social self-perceptions. Results: The ... to Bloom, the learning environment is a network of physical, social, as well as ..... Medical Licensure Examination in Japan. BMC Med Educ. 2010;10:35.

  7. New Approaches and Trends in the Philosophy of Educational Technology for Learning and Teaching Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, Ismail; Ziatdinov, Rushan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss instructional design and technology (IDT) model strategies for developing learning and teaching environments, based on philosophical approaches to educational technology theory. The study begins with a discussion of IDT models to define the history of educational technology or instructional technology…

  8. The effects of different learning environments on students' motivation for learning and their achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Marlies; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien

    2013-09-01

    Research in higher education on the effects of student-centred versus lecture-based learning environments generally does not take into account the psychological need support provided in these learning environments. From a self-determination theory perspective, need support is important to study because it has been associated with benefits such as autonomous motivation and achievement. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of different learning environments on students' motivation for learning and achievement, while taking into account the perceived need support. First-year student teachers (N= 1,098) studying a child development course completed questionnaires assessing motivation and perceived need support. In addition, a prior knowledge test and case-based assessment were administered. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design was set up consisting of four learning environments: (1) lectures, (2) case-based learning (CBL), (3) alternation of lectures and CBL, and (4) gradual implementation with lectures making way for CBL. Autonomous motivation and achievement were higher in the gradually implemented CBL environment, compared to the CBL environment. Concerning achievement, two additional effects were found; students in the lecture-based learning environment scored higher than students in the CBL environment, and students in the gradually implemented CBL environment scored higher than students in the alternated learning environment. Additionally, perceived need support was positively related to autonomous motivation, and negatively to controlled motivation. The study shows the importance of gradually introducing students to CBL, in terms of their autonomous motivation and achievement. Moreover, the study emphasizes the importance of perceived need support for students' motivation. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  9. An instrument to characterize the environment for residents' evidence-based medicine learning and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Misa; Moseley, James L; Green, Michael L

    2012-02-01

    Many residency programs offer training in evidence-based medicine (EBM). However, these curricula often fail to achieve optimal learning outcomes, perhaps because they neglect various contextual factors in the learning environment. We developed and validated an instrument to characterize the environment for EBM learning and practice in residency programs. An EBM Environment Scale was developed following scale development principles. A survey was administered to residents across six programs in primary care specialties at four medical centers. Internal consistency reliability was analyzed with Cronbach's coefficient alpha. Validity was assessed by comparing predetermined subscales with the survey's internal structure as assessed via factor analysis. Scores were also compared for subgroups based on residency program affiliation and residency characteristics. Out of 262 eligible residents, 124 completed the survey (response rate 47%). The overall mean score was 3.89 (standard deviation=0.56). The initial reliability analysis of the 48-item scale had a high reliability coefficient (Cronbach α=.94). Factor analysis and further item analysis resulted in a shorter 36-item scale with a satisfactory reliability coefficient (Cronbach α=.86). Scores were higher for residents with prior EBM training in medical school (4.14 versus 3.62) and in residency (4.25 versus 3.69). If further testing confirms its properties, the EBM Environment Scale may be used to understand the influence of the learning environment on the effectiveness of EBM training. Additionally, it may detect changes in the EBM learning environment in response to programmatic or institutional interventions.

  10. Effect of Cognitive Style on Learning and Retrieval of Navigational Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddalena Boccia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Field independence (FI has been found to correlate with a wide range of cognitive processes requiring cognitive restructuring. Cognitive restructuring, that is going beyond the information given by the setting, is pivotal in creating stable mental representations of the environment, the so-called “cognitive maps,” and it affects visuo-spatial abilities underpinning environmental navigation. Here we evaluated whether FI, by fostering cognitive restructuring of environmental cues on the basis of an internal frame of reference, affects the learning and retrieval of a novel environment. Fifty-four participants were submitted to the Embedded Figure Test (EFT for assessing their Cognitive Style (CS and to the Perspective Taking/Spatial Orientation Test (PTSOT and the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale (SBSOD for assessing their spatial perspective taking and orientation skills. They were also required to learn a path in a novel, real environment (route learning, RL, to recognize landmarks of this path among distracters (landmark recognition, LR, to order them (landmark ordering, LO and to draw the learned path on a map (map drawing, MD. Retrieval tasks were performed both immediately after learning (immediate-retrieval and the day after (24 h-retrieval. Performances on EFT significantly correlated with the time needed to learn the path, with MD (both in the immediate- and in the 24 h- retrievals, results on LR (in 24-retrieval and performances on PTSOT. Interestingly, we found that gender interacted with CS on RL (time of learning and MD. Females performed significantly worse than males only if they were classified as FD, but did not differ from males if they were classified as FI. These results suggest that CS affects learning and retrieval of navigational environment, especially when a map-like representation is required. We propose that CS may be pivotal in forming the cognitive map of the environment, likely due to the higher ability of FI

  11. Distributed interactive virtual environments for collaborative experiential learning and training independent of distance over Internet2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverson, Dale C; Saiki, Stanley M; Jacobs, Joshua; Saland, Linda; Keep, Marcus F; Norenberg, Jeffrey; Baker, Rex; Nakatsu, Curtis; Kalishman, Summers; Lindberg, Marlene; Wax, Diane; Mowafi, Moad; Summers, Kenneth L; Holten, James R; Greenfield, John A; Aalseth, Edward; Nickles, David; Sherstyuk, Andrei; Haines, Karen; Caudell, Thomas P

    2004-01-01

    Medical knowledge and skills essential for tomorrow's healthcare professionals continue to change faster than ever before creating new demands in medical education. Project TOUCH (Telehealth Outreach for Unified Community Health) has been developing methods to enhance learning by coupling innovations in medical education with advanced technology in high performance computing and next generation Internet2 embedded in virtual reality environments (VRE), artificial intelligence and experiential active learning. Simulations have been used in education and training to allow learners to make mistakes safely in lieu of real-life situations, learn from those mistakes and ultimately improve performance by subsequent avoidance of those mistakes. Distributed virtual interactive environments are used over distance to enable learning and participation in dynamic, problem-based, clinical, artificial intelligence rules-based, virtual simulations. The virtual reality patient is programmed to dynamically change over time and respond to the manipulations by the learner. Participants are fully immersed within the VRE platform using a head-mounted display and tracker system. Navigation, locomotion and handling of objects are accomplished using a joy-wand. Distribution is managed via the Internet2 Access Grid using point-to-point or multi-casting connectivity through which the participants can interact. Medical students in Hawaii and New Mexico (NM) participated collaboratively in problem solving and managing of a simulated patient with a closed head injury in VRE; dividing tasks, handing off objects, and functioning as a team. Students stated that opportunities to make mistakes and repeat actions in the VRE were extremely helpful in learning specific principles. VRE created higher performance expectations and some anxiety among VRE users. VRE orientation was adequate but students needed time to adapt and practice in order to improve efficiency. This was also demonstrated successfully

  12. Spatial learning and memory is preserved in rats after early development in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Meredith D.; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Steward, Oswald

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the cognitive mapping abilities of rats that spent part of their early development in a microgravity environment. Litters of male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups were launched into space aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space shuttle Columbia on postnatal day 8 or 14 and remained in space for 16 days. These animals were designated as FLT groups. Two age-matched control groups remained on Earth: those in standard vivarium housing (VIV) and those in housing identical to that aboard the shuttle (AGC). On return to Earth, animals were tested in three different tasks that measure spatial learning ability, the Morris water maze (MWM), and a modified version of the radial arm maze (RAM). Animals were also tested in an open field apparatus to measure general activity and exploratory activity. Performance and search strategies were evaluated in each of these tasks using an automated tracking system. Despite the dramatic differences in early experience, there were remarkably few differences between the FLT groups and their Earth-bound controls in these tasks. FLT animals learned the MWM and RAM as quickly as did controls. Evaluation of search patterns suggested subtle differences in patterns of exploration and in the strategies used to solve the tasks during the first few days of testing, but these differences normalized rapidly. Together, these data suggest that development in an environment without gravity has minimal long-term impact on spatial learning and memory abilities. Any differences due to development in microgravity are quickly reversed after return to earth normal gravity.

  13. Adaptive Semantic and Social Web-based learning and assessment environment for the STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Hassan; Atchison, Chris; Sunderraman, Rajshekhar

    2014-05-01

    We are building a cloud- and Semantic Web-based personalized, adaptive learning environment for the STEM fields that integrates and leverages Social Web technologies to allow instructors and authors of learning material to collaborate in semi-automatic development and update of their common domain and task ontologies and building their learning resources. The semi-automatic ontology learning and development minimize issues related to the design and maintenance of domain ontologies by knowledge engineers who do not have any knowledge of the domain. The social web component of the personal adaptive system will allow individual and group learners to interact with each other and discuss their own learning experience and understanding of course material, and resolve issues related to their class assignments. The adaptive system will be capable of representing key knowledge concepts in different ways and difficulty levels based on learners' differences, and lead to different understanding of the same STEM content by different learners. It will adapt specific pedagogical strategies to individual learners based on their characteristics, cognition, and preferences, allow authors to assemble remotely accessed learning material into courses, and provide facilities for instructors to assess (in real time) the perception of students of course material, monitor their progress in the learning process, and generate timely feedback based on their understanding or misconceptions. The system applies a set of ontologies that structure the learning process, with multiple user friendly Web interfaces. These include the learning ontology (models learning objects, educational resources, and learning goal); context ontology (supports adaptive strategy by detecting student situation), domain ontology (structures concepts and context), learner ontology (models student profile, preferences, and behavior), task ontologies, technological ontology (defines devices and places that surround the

  14. Experiential Learning and Learning Environments: The Case of Active Listening Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Wong, Juan Enrique; Schoech, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Social work education research frequently has suggested an interaction between teaching techniques and learning environments. However, this interaction has never been tested. This study compared virtual and face-to-face learning environments and included active listening concepts to test whether the effectiveness of learning environments depends…

  15. Smart Home : A Social, Technological and Virtual Learning and Development Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Heimovaara-Kotonen, Essi (ed.)

    2014-01-01

    All people have the right to good housing regardless of their age or functional capacity. The objective of the Smart Home environment is to present solutions that enable accessible and safe housing and promote meaningful assistance and life at home. The goal of building the Smart Home environment was to find a useroriented, comprehensive solution for the client, which maintains the client’s own control over his or her home environment. The Smart Home was also built to serve the developme...

  16. The Effects of Different Learning Environments on Students' Motivation for Learning and Their Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Marlies; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research in higher education on the effects of student-centred versus lecture-based learning environments generally does not take into account the psychological need support provided in these learning environments. From a self-determination theory perspective, need support is important to study because it has been associated with…

  17. Students' Conception of Learning Environment and Their Approach to Learning and Its Implication on Quality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaineh, Matheas Shemelis

    2017-01-01

    Quality of education in higher institutions can be affected by different factors. It partly rests on the learning environment created by teachers and the learning approach students are employing during their learning. The main purpose of this study is to examine the learning environment at Mizan Tepi University from students' perspective and their…

  18. Toward Project-based Learning and Team Formation in Open Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, Howard; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Sloep, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Open Learning Environments, MOOCs, as well as Social Learning Networks, embody a new approach to learning. Although both emphasise interactive participation, somewhat surprisingly, they do not readily support bond creating and motivating collaborative learning opportunities. Providing project-based

  19. Co-Evolution of Social Learning and Evolutionary Preparedness in Dangerous Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Björn; Selbing, Ida; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Danger is a fundamental aspect of the lives of most animals. Adaptive behavior therefore requires avoiding actions, objects, and environments associated with danger. Previous research has shown that humans and non-human animals can avoid such dangers through two types of behavioral adaptions, (i) genetic preparedness to avoid certain stimuli or actions, and (ii) social learning. These adaptive mechanisms reduce the fitness costs associated with danger but still allow flexible behavior. Despite the empirical prevalence and importance of both these mechanisms, it is unclear when they evolve and how they interact. We used evolutionary agent-based simulations, incorporating empirically based learning mechanisms, to clarify if preparedness and social learning typically both evolve in dangerous environments, and if these mechanisms generally interact synergistically or antagonistically. Our simulations showed that preparedness and social learning often co-evolve because they provide complimentary benefits: genetic preparedness reduced foraging efficiency, but resulted in a higher rate of survival in dangerous environments, while social learning generally came to dominate the population, especially when the environment was stochastic. However, even in this case, genetic preparedness reliably evolved. Broadly, our results indicate that the relationship between preparedness and social learning is important as it can result in trade-offs between behavioral flexibility and safety, which can lead to seemingly suboptimal behavior if the evolutionary environment of the organism is not taken into account.

  20. College Seniors' Plans for Graduate School: Do Deep Approaches Learning and Holland Academic Environments Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocconi, Louis M.; Ribera, Amy K.; Nelson Laird, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which college seniors' plans for graduate school are related to their tendency to engage in deep approaches to learning (DAL) and their academic environments (majors) as classified by Holland type. Using data from the National Survey of Student Engagement, we analyzed responses from over 116,000 seniors attending…

  1. A PKI Approach for Deploying Modern Secure Distributed E-Learning and M-Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambourakis, Georgios; Kontoni, Denise-Penelope N.; Rouskas, Angelos; Gritzalis, Stefanos

    2007-01-01

    While public key cryptography is continuously evolving and its installed base is growing significantly, recent research works examine its potential use in e-learning or m-learning environments. Public key infrastructure (PKI) and attribute certificates (ACs) can provide the appropriate framework to effectively support authentication and…

  2. Learning and Digital Environment of Dance--The Case of Greek Traditional Dance in Youtube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratsiouni, Dimitra; Koutsouba, Maria; Venetsanou, Foteini; Tyrovola, Vasiliki

    2016-01-01

    The incorporation of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education has changed the educational procedures through the creation and use of new teaching and learning environments with the use of computers and network applications that afford new dimensions to distance education. In turn, these emerging and in progress technologies,…

  3. Effects of a Facility Dog on Student Learning and Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jordana; Maldonado, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Educators must consider alternative teaching strategies. Facility dogs as an instructional enhancement are an innovative teaching approach. This case study, guided by human-animal bond theory, investigated how the presence of a trained facility dog, Smooch, affected the school environment. Interviews, field notes and observations were used to…

  4. Problem-Based Learning and Problem-Solving Tools: Synthesis and Direction for Distributed Education Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert S.; Deek, Fadi P.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how the design and implementation of problem-solving tools used in programming instruction are complementary with both the theories of problem-based learning (PBL), including constructivism, and the practices of distributed education environments. Examines how combining PBL, Web-based distributed education, and a problem-solving…

  5. A Working Model for Intercultural Learning and Engagement in Collaborative Online Language Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Given the emerging focus on the intercultural dimension in language teaching and learning, language educators have been exploring the use of information and communications technology ICT-mediated language learning environments to link learners in intercultural language learning communities around the globe. Despite the potential promise of…

  6. Ethics teaching in a medical education environment: preferences for diversity of learning and assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMahmoud, Tahra; Hashim, M Jawad; Elzubeir, Margaret Ann; Branicki, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Ethics and professionalism are an integral part of medical school curricula; however, medical students' views on these topics have not been assessed in many countries.  The study aimed to examine medical students' perceptions toward ethics and professionalism teaching, and its learning and assessment methods. A self-administered questionnaire eliciting views on professionalism and ethics education was distributed to a total of 128 final-year medical students. A total of 108 students completed the survey, with an 84% response rate. Medical students reported frequently encountering ethical conflicts during training but stated only a moderate level of ethics training at medical school (mean = 5.14 ± 1.8). They noted that their education had helped somewhat to deal with ethical conflicts (mean = 5.39 ± 2.0). Students strongly affirmed the importance of ethics education (mean = 7.63 ± 1.03) and endorsed the value of positive role models (mean = 7.45 ± 1.5) as the preferred learning method. The cohort voiced interest in direct faculty supervision as an approach to assessment of knowledge and skills (mean = 7.62 ± 1.26). Female students perceived greater need for more ethics education compared to males (p = methods for learning.

  7. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-12-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old from public schools participate in science clubs outside of their regular school schedule. A comparison study was performed between different groups, in order to assess GLOBE's applicability as a learning science atmosphere and the motivation and interest it generates in students toward science. Internationally applied scales were used as tools for measuring such indicators, adapted to the Costa Rican context. The results provide evidence statistically significant that the students perceive the GLOBE atmosphere as an enriched environment for science learning in comparison with the traditional science class. Moreover, students feel more confident, motivated and interested in science than their peers who do not participate in the project. However, the results were not statistically significant in this last respect.

  8. Educational Game Design. Bridging the gab between computer based learning and experimental learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristine

    2007-01-01

    Considering the rapidly growing amount of digital educational materials only few of them bridge the gab between experimental learning environments and computer based learning environments (Gardner, 1991). Observations from two cases in primary school and lower secondary school in the subject...... with a prototype of a MOO storyline. The aim of the MOO storyline is to challenge the potential of dialogue, user involvement, and learning responsibility and to use the children?s natural curiosity and motivation for game playing, especially when digital games involves other children. The paper proposes a model......, based on the narrative approach for experimental learning subjects, relying on ideas from Csikszentmihalyis notion of flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991), storyline-pedagogy (Meldgaard, 1994) and ideas from Howard Gardner (Gardner, 1991). The model forms the basis for educational games to be used in home...

  9. Baccalaureate nursing students' perceptions of learning and supervision in the clinical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadou, Maria; Papastavrou, Evridiki; Efstathiou, Georgios; Theodorou, Mamas

    2015-06-01

    This study is an exploration of nursing students' experiences within the clinical learning environment (CLE) and supervision provided in hospital settings. A total of 357 second-year nurse students from all universities in Cyprus participated in the study. Data were collected using the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher instrument. The dimension "supervisory relationship (mentor)", as well as the frequency of individualized supervision meetings, were found to be important variables in the students' clinical learning. However, no statistically-significant connection was established between successful mentor relationship and team supervision. The majority of students valued their mentor's supervision more highly than a nurse teacher's supervision toward the fulfillment of learning outcomes. The dimensions "premises of nursing care" and "premises of learning" were highly correlated, indicating that a key component of a quality clinical learning environment is the quality of care delivered. The results suggest the need to modify educational strategies that foster desirable learning for students in response to workplace demands. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Spatial Learning and Wayfinding in an Immersive Environment: The Digital Fulldome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedge, Craig; Weaver, Ruth; Schnall, Simone

    2017-05-01

    Previous work has examined whether immersive technologies can benefit learning in virtual environments, but the potential benefits of technology in this context are confounded by individual differences such as spatial ability. We assessed spatial knowledge acquisition in male and female participants using a technology not previously examined empirically: the digital fulldome. Our primary aim was to examine whether performance on a test of survey knowledge was better in a fulldome (N = 28, 12 males) relative to a large, flat screen display (N = 27, 13 males). Regression analysis showed that, compared to a flat screen display, males showed higher levels of performance on a test of survey knowledge after learning in the fulldome, but no benefit occurred for females. Furthermore, performance correlated with spatial visualization ability in male participants, but not in female participants. Thus, the digital fulldome is a potentially useful learning aid, capable of accommodating multiple users, but individual differences and use of strategy need to be considered.

  11. Innovating Training through Immersive Environments: Generation Y, Exploratory Learning, and Serious Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Over the next decade, those entering Service and Joint Staff positions within the military will come from a different generation than the current leadership. They will come from Generation Y and have differing preferences for learning. Immersive learning environments like serious games and virtual world initiatives can complement traditional training methods to provide a better overall training program for staffs. Generation Y members desire learning methods which are relevant and interactive, regardless of whether they are delivered over the internet or in person. This paper focuses on a project undertaken to assess alternative training methods to teach special operations staffs. It provides a summary of the needs analysis used to consider alternatives and to better posture the Department of Defense for future training development.

  12. Learning environment, approaches to learning and learning preferences: medical students versus general education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Raza

    2016-05-01

    The main objective of the study was to see whether medical students use more desirable approaches to studying than general education students. Survey method was used to collect data from both the medical students and the general education students. The survey of the medical students was carried out between January and March, 2012. The survey was administered to all the medical students present in lecture halls on day of data collection, while general education students were randomly selected from four subject areas at two universities. In total, 976 medical students and 912 general students participated in the study. Of the general students, 494(54%) were boys and 418(46%)were girls with an overall mean age of 20.53±1.77 years (range: 17-27 years). The medical students' perceptions of their learning environment and their learning preferences were broadly similar to that of general education students with the exception of workload. The medical students perceived the workload to be less appropriate (Mean = 2.06±0.72) than the students in general education (Mean = 2.84±0.90). The medical students were more likely to use the deep approach to studying (Mean = 3.66±0.59) than the students in general education (Mean = 3.16±0.91). The students in general education were slightly more likely to use the organized studying (Mean = 3.44±0.90) than the medical students (Mean =3.23±0.90). Both medical students and the students in general education tended to use the surface approaches along with other approaches to studying. There was not a great difference between the medical students and the students pursuing general education with regard to perceptions of the learning environment and approaches to learning.

  13. Students' Adoption of Social Networks as Environments for Learning and Teaching: The Case of the Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeeh M. Daher

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the conditions and consequences of using the Facebook in learning. This research attempts to describe such conditions and consequences when teachers experiment using it as students in a second degree course. Fifteen students/teachers aged from 24 to 53 years old participated in the course in which they were required to attend mathematical Facebook sites. The research findings arrived at using the grounded theory show that the conditions which affected the teachers/students' work in the Facebook were: (1 causal conditions: the course's requirement; (2 intervening conditions: the participant's image of the Facebook, the participant's work characteristics and the participant's competence in computers and the internet; (3 contextual conditions: The site's subject and the environment's characteristics or conditions. These conditions influenced students' learning actions and interactions in the Facebook, especially their level of participation. The actions/interactions of the participants, together with the various conditions influenced the consequences of students' educational work in the social networking site. These consequences varied, starting from discovering how to utilize the Facebook for teaching and being aware of the advantages/ disadvantages of doing so, to proceeding with the use of the Facebook in contexts other than those being suggested in the course.

  14. Eco-Dialogical Learning and Translanguaging in Open-Ended 3D Virtual Learning Environments: Where Place, Time, and Objects Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dongping; Schmidt, Matthew; Hu, Ying; Liu, Min; Hsu, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the relationships between design, learning, and translanguaging in a 3D collaborative virtual learning environment for adolescent learners of Chinese and English. We designed an open-ended space congruent with ecological and dialogical perspectives on second language acquisition. In such a space,…

  15. Determination of Motivation of 5th Grade Students Living in Rural and Urban Environments towards Science Learning and Their Attitudes towards Science-Technology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenar, Ismail; Köse, Mücahit; Demir, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In this research, determination of motivation of 5th grade students living in rural and urban environments towards science learning and their attitudes towards science-technology course is aimed. This research is conducted based on descriptive survey model. Samples are selected through teleological model in accordance with the aim of this…

  16. Conference Report: "Knowledge Organization in Cooperative Learning and Working Environments". 8th Conference of the International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO), German Chapter

    OpenAIRE

    Doris A. Ohnesorge; H. Peter Ohly

    2003-01-01

    The report gives an overview of a conference that recognized and focused upon the fundamentals of knowledge organization as well asked questions and offered solutions for practice. The primary emphasis was given to the application of cooperative learning and working environments. The special value of this conference was the focus of the presentations and detailed discussions on current topics in the information sciences. Although the spectrum ranged from scientific to organizational environme...

  17. Early-Life Nutritional Programming of Cognition-The Fundamental Role of Epigenetic Mechanisms in Mediating the Relation between Early-Life Environment and Learning and Memory Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Laura; Chen, Hong; Pan, Yuan-Xiang

    2017-03-01

    The perinatal period is a window of heightened plasticity that lays the groundwork for future anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral outcomes. During this time, maternal diet plays a pivotal role in the maturation of vital organs and the establishment of neuronal connections. However, when perinatal nutrition is either lacking in specific micro- and macronutrients or overloaded with excess calories, the consequences can be devastating and long lasting. The brain is particularly sensitive to perinatal insults, with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders having been linked to a poor in utero environment. Diseases characterized by learning and memory impairments, such as autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer disease, are hypothesized to be attributed in part to environmental factors, and evidence suggests that the etiology of these conditions may date back to very early life. In this review, we discuss the role of the early-life diet in shaping cognitive outcomes in offspring. We explore the endocrine and immune mechanisms responsible for these phenotypes and discuss how these systemic factors converge to change the brain's epigenetic landscape and regulate learning and memory across the lifespan. Through understanding the maternal programming of cognition, critical steps may be taken toward preventing and treating diseases that compromise learning and memory. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Learning and teaching in the regional learning environment : enabling students and teachers to cross boundaries in multi-stakeholder practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Finding solutions for complex societal problems requires cross-boundary collaboration between multiple stakeholders who represent various practices, disciplines and perspectives. The authentic, multi-stakeholder Regional Learning Environment (RLE) is expected to develop higher education students’

  19. Challenges and Opportunities of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans with Disabilities Transitioning into Learning and Workplace Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovary, Fariba; Dapprich, Janet

    2011-01-01

    This article presents issues related to disabled military servicemen and women who are transitioning to civilian life. The emphasis is on the experience of veterans serving in the Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) as they reintegrate into civilian workplace and learning environments. The authors begin with an…

  20. Students' perspectives on e-learning and the use of a virtual learning environment in dance education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijen, Ä.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838446; Admiraal, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/120226340; Wildschut, L.; Simons, P.R.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068032994

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find out how dance students experienced learning in an international distance education program delivered in an e-learning format using a virtual learning environment platform. In order to organize the students’ experiences with the various learning assignments, we

  1. Resting-state fMRI activity predicts unsupervised learning and memory in an immersive virtual reality environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Wah Wong

    Full Text Available In the real world, learning often proceeds in an unsupervised manner without explicit instructions or feedback. In this study, we employed an experimental paradigm in which subjects explored an immersive virtual reality environment on each of two days. On day 1, subjects implicitly learned the location of 39 objects in an unsupervised fashion. On day 2, the locations of some of the objects were changed, and object location recall performance was assessed and found to vary across subjects. As prior work had shown that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI measures of resting-state brain activity can predict various measures of brain performance across individuals, we examined whether resting-state fMRI measures could be used to predict object location recall performance. We found a significant correlation between performance and the variability of the resting-state fMRI signal in the basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, insula, and regions in the frontal and temporal lobes, regions important for spatial exploration, learning, memory, and decision making. In addition, performance was significantly correlated with resting-state fMRI connectivity between the left caudate and the right fusiform gyrus, lateral occipital complex, and superior temporal gyrus. Given the basal ganglia's role in exploration, these findings suggest that tighter integration of the brain systems responsible for exploration and visuospatial processing may be critical for learning in a complex environment.

  2. Key skills for co-learning and co-inquiry in two open platforms: a massive portal (EDUCARED and a personal environment (weSPOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Okada

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a qualitative investigation on key skills for co-learning and co-inquiry in the digital age. The method applied was cyber-ethnography with asynchronous observation (forum and wiki and synchronous discussions (webconference for analysing skills developed by a co-learning community. This study focuses on participants from different countries who interacted during nine months in two open platforms: the massive educational portal EDUCARED of the “7th International Conference on Education 2012-2013" and weSPOT, an European “Working Environment with Social Personal and Open Technologies for inquiry based learning”. As a result of this study, it was observed that the EDUCARED portal led to the development of more explicit digital literacies, possibly because it was a simpler and familiar interface (forum. And in the weSPOT environment, experienced participants with digital technologies had more opportunities to develop other skills related to Critical-Creative Thinking and Scientific Reasoning.

  3. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  4. Using Interactive Animations to Enhance Teaching, Learning, and Retention of Respiration Pathway Concepts in Face-to-Face and Online High School, Undergraduate, and Continuing Education Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sederick C. Rice

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One major tool set teachers/instructors can use is online interactive animations, which presents content in a way that helps pique students' interest and differentiates instructional content.  The Virtual Cell Animation Collections (VCAC, developed from the Molecular and Cellular Biology Learning Center, has developed a series of online interactive animations that provide teacher/instructors and students with immersive learning tools for studying and understanding respiration processes.  These virtual tools work as powerful instructional devices to help explain and reinforce concepts of metabolic pathways that would normally be taught traditionally using static textbook pages or by neumonic flashcards. High school, undergraduate, and continuing education students of today learn and retain knowledge differently than their predecessors.  Now teachers face new challenges and must engage and assess students, within a small window during classroom instruction, but also have the skills to provide useful content in distance learning environments.  Educators have to keep up with changing trends in education as a result of technological advances, higher student/teacher ratios, and the influence of social media on education. It is critical for teachers/instructors to be able to present content that not only keeps students interested but also helps bridge learning gaps. VCAC provides high school, undergraduate, and continuing education biology or life science teachers/instructors with classroom strategies and tools for introducing respiration content through free open source online resources. VCAC content supports the development of more inquiry-based classroom and distance-learning environments that can be facilitated by teachers/instructors, which helps improve retention of important respiration subject content and problem-based learning skills for students.

  5. Facilitating Geoscience Education in Higher-Education Institutes Worldwide With GeoBrain -- An Online Learning and Research Environment for Classroom Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, M.; di, L.

    2006-12-01

    Higher education in geosciences has imminent goals to prepare students with modern geoscience knowledge and skills to meet the increased demand on trained professionals for working on the big challenges faced by geoscience disciplines, such as the global environmental change, world energy supplies, sustainable development, etc. In order to reach the goal, the geoscience education in post-secondary institutes worldwide has to attract and retain enough students and to train students with knowledge and skills needed by the society. The classroom innovations that can encourage and support student investigations and research activities are key motivation mechanisms that help to reach the goal. This presentation describes the use of GeoBrain, an innovative geospatial knowledge system, as a powerful educating tool for motivating and facilitating innovative undergraduate and graduate teaching and research in geosciences. Developed in a NASA funded project, the GeoBrain system has adopted and implemented the latest Web services and knowledge management technologies for providing innovative methods in publishing, accessing, visualizing, and analyzing geospatial data and in building/sharing geoscience knowledge. It provides a data-rich online learning and research environment enabled by wealthy data and information available at NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS). Students, faculty members, and researchers from institutes worldwide can easily access, analyze, and model with the huge amount of NASA EOS data just like they possess such vast resources locally at their desktops. The online environment provided by GeoBrain has brought significant positive changes to geosciences education in higher-education institutes because of its new concepts and technologies, motivation mechanisms, free exploration resources, and advanced geo- processing capabilities. With the system, the used-to-be very challenging or even impossible teaching tasks has

  6. Linkages between motivation, self-efficacy, self-regulated learning and preferences for traditional learning environments or those with an online component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Auld

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed 96 law school students’ preferences for online, hybrid, or traditional learning environments, and their reasons for these preferences, learning strategies, and motivational orientations. A discriminant analysis revealed that non-traditional learning environment familiarity, self-efficacy, and employment status were the strongest predictors of preferences for non-traditional learning environments. Preferences for traditional environments were attributed to students’ familiarity and ability to engage in and foster personal interaction. Preferences for hybrid and online environments were attributed to opportunities for enhanced learning given the convenience and flexible manner in which students with time and familial constraints could access these environments.

  7. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  8. Learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Anna-Katharine; Ran, Kathy; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Learning and memory functions are crucial in the interaction of an individual with the environment and involve the interplay of large, distributed brain networks. Recent advances in technologies to explore neurobiological correlates of neuropsychological paradigms have increased our knowledge about human learning and memory. In this chapter we first review and define memory and learning processes from a neuropsychological perspective. Then we provide some illustrations of how noninvasive brain stimulation can play a major role in the investigation of memory functions, as it can be used to identify cause-effect relationships and chronometric properties of neural processes underlying cognitive steps. In clinical medicine, transcranial magnetic stimulation may be used as a diagnostic tool to understand memory and learning deficits in various patient populations. Furthermore, noninvasive brain stimulation is also being applied to enhance cognitive functions, offering exciting translational therapeutic opportunities in neurology and psychiatry. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Learning to Swim in New Waters: A Meta-Narrative about the Design and Implementation of a Virtual Learning Environment for Language Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    In the past 5 years, the Language Centre at the University of Warwick has designed and implemented a blended learning environment in order to meet two important challenges to our Institution-Wide Language Programme (IWLP) language teaching mission. These were to connect teachers and learners together online in order to better support progress…

  10. PROSPECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODERN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS' LEARNING AND RESEARCH ENVIRONMENT: TO THE 15TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES AND LEARNING TOOLS OF NAPS OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Shyshkina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During 15 years the Institute of Information technology and training of NAPS of Ukraine carries out research work aimed at solving actual problems of the creation, implementation and use of ICT in education, construction and development of computer-based learning environment of open education and e-learning, electronic educational resources, managing and supporting of the researches, technologies of cloud computing. The article considers the main activities of the Institute of Information Technologies and Learning Tools of NAPS of Ukraine. The experience of actual pedagogical issues developing, cooperation among research institutions and universities within activities of joint research laboratories, are reflected. The prospective research directions that will contribute to the modernization and further development of modern learning and scientific environment of educational institutions of Ukraine, in particular, the introduction of cloud oriented tools and technologies, the learning e-resources quality assurance, are outlined. The aim of the paper is to outline the main activities of the Institute of Information technology and training of NAPS of Ukraine during last 15 years and reflect the experience and perspectives of scientific and pedagogical cooperation of national research institutions and universities.

  11. Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Mission EARTH (GME) program delivers climate change science content, pedagogy, and data resources to K12 educators, future teachers, and professional development providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, T.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will include a series of visuals that discuss how hands-on learning activities and field investigations from the the Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Mission EARTH (GME) program deliver climate change science content, pedagogy, and data resources to K12 educators, future teachers, and professional development providers. The GME program poster presentation will also show how teachers strengthen student preparation for Science, Technology, Engineering, Art and Mathematics (STEAM)-related careers while promoting diversity in the future STEM workforce. In addition to engaging students in scientific inquiry, the GME program poster will show how career exploration and preparation experiences is accomplished through direct connection to scientists and real science practices. The poster will show which hands-on learning activities that are being implemented in more than 30,000 schools worldwide, with over a million students, teachers, and scientists collecting environmental measurements using the GLOBE scientific protocols. This poster will also include how Next Generation Science Standards connect to GME learning progressions by grade strands. The poster will present the first year of results from the implementation of the GME program. Data is currently being agrigated by the east, midwest and westen regional operations.

  12. Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Victor C. X.

    2010-01-01

    As adult learners and educators pioneer the use of technology in the new century, attention has been focused on developing strategic approaches to effectively integrate adult learning and technology in different learning environments. "Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches" provides innovative…

  13. Learning and Active Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie; Lovie-Kitchin, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Learning is an important aspect of aging productively. This paper describes results from 2645 respondents (aged from 50 to 74+ years) to a 165-variable postal survey in Australia. The focus is on learning and its relation to work; social, spiritual, and emotional status; health; vision; home; life events; and demographic details. Clustering…

  14. Human Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  15. Organizational Learning and Unlearning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, William H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to summarize four decades of research into organizational adaptation, learning and unlearning. Design/methodology/approach: The most important contributions to this stream of research have been case studies of organizations struggling to survive serious crises. Findings: Very diverse kinds of organizations run into serious…

  16. Learning and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gr ver Aukrust, Vibeke, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This collection of 58 articles from the recently-published third edition of the International Encyclopedia of Education focuses on learning, memory, attention, problem solving, concept formation, and language. Learning and cognition is the foundation of cognitive psychology and encompasses many topics including attention, memory, categorization,…

  17. Informal Learning and Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Minette

    2009-01-01

    In her book title "Music, Informal Learning and the School," Lucy Green has ineluctably taken teachers to a place where potentially, students can really participate in an interactive pedagogy where student-centeredness is applied in its full sense. For this reason, the author found the potential contribution of the book to music education…

  18. Unsupervised Learning and Generalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    The concept of generalization is defined for a general class of unsupervised learning machines. The generalization error is a straightforward extension of the corresponding concept for supervised learning, and may be estimated empirically using a test set or by statistical means-in close analogy ...... with supervised learning. The empirical and analytical estimates are compared for principal component analysis and for K-means clustering based density estimation......The concept of generalization is defined for a general class of unsupervised learning machines. The generalization error is a straightforward extension of the corresponding concept for supervised learning, and may be estimated empirically using a test set or by statistical means-in close analogy...

  19. Learn and gain

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Alami, Suhair Eyad Jamal

    2013-01-01

    Initiating the slogan ""love it, live it"", Learn and Gain includes eight short stories, chosen to illustrate various modes of narration, as well as to provoke reflection and discussion on a range of issues. All texts utilized here illustrate how great writers can, with their insight and gift for words, help us to see the world we live in, in new probing and exciting ways. What characterises the book, the author believes, is the integration of the skills of literary competence, communicative c...

  20. A constructivist approach to learning and teaching | Venter | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In richer environments the lecturers should put more control of the environment in the hands of the learners (Wilson 1995). In this article I would like to propose a constructivist approach to learning and teaching in the education and training of teachers to enable them to use it in their own classrooms. South African Journal of ...

  1. Learning and Communicative Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    The paper is an attempt to outline Habermas' contributions to a theory of learning. Such contributions are found in his work on individual learning and socialization, the constitution and reproduction of lifeworlds, the character of social evolution, the processes of public delibearation...... and democracy and the idea and role of universities. A "theory of learning" is not taken in a very formalised sense, rather the idea is to identify themes where Habermas' theoretical framework provide the opportunity for locating important aspects of learning in modern society....

  2. The Greenfoot Programming Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Greenfoot is an educational integrated development environment aimed at learning and teaching programming. It is aimed at a target audience of students from about 14 years old upwards, and is also suitable for college- and university-level education. Greenfoot combines graphical, interactive output with programming in Java, a standard, text-based…

  3. Learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. J. Ryke

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Under various circumstances and in different species the outward expression of learning varies considerably, and this has led to the classification of different categories of learning. Just as there is no generally agreed on definition of learning, there is no one system of classification. Types of learning commonly recognized are: Habituation, sensitization, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, trial and error, taste aversion, latent learning, cultural learning, imprinting, insight learning, learning-set learning and instinct. The term memory must include at least two separate processes. It must involve, on the one hand, that of learning something and on the other, at some later date, recalling that thing. What lies between the learning and (he remembering must be some permanent record — a memory trace — within the brain. Memory exists in at least two forms: memory for very recent events (short-term which is relatively labile and easily disruptable; and long-term memory, which is much more stable. Not everything that gets into short-term memory becomes fixed in the long-term store; a filtering mechanism selects things that might be important and discards the rest.

  4. Machine Learning and Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  5. Machine learning and radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Lifelong learning and participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Jan Jaap; Molpeceres, Mariangeles; Hansen, Helle Krogh

    2014-01-01

    in involvement of older people in voluntary social work as mentors for young people. The challenge of the ageing societies is quite often discussed as the ‘burden of the elderly’ and discussed as an economic problem. However, the challenge is not only economical. It is also a social and cultural challenge, among...... other things because a unilateral focus on the economic aspects may cause dissolution of the social cohesion and decrease in well-being for far too many people. The HEAR ME project aimed at developing strategies for lifelong learning and new roles for older people based on their competences, network...... and an assumed desire of generativity. Action learning seems to be an appropriate learning concept in relation to keeping older people engaged in the community. The authors thus point at participating and lifelong learning as part of the answers to the demographic challenges, and they suggest what you might call...

  7. Exploring the opinions of registered nurses working in a clinical transfusion environment on the contribution of e-learning to personal learning and clinical practice: results of a small scale educational research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Susan; Donaldson, Jayne H

    2013-05-01

    To explore the opinions of registered nurses on the Learnbloodtransfusion Module 1: Safe Transfusion Practice e-learning programme to meeting personal learning styles and learning needs. A qualitative research methodology was applied based on the principles of phenomenology. Adopting a convenience sampling plan supported the recruitment of participants who had successfully completed the e-learning course. Thematic analysis from the semi-structured interviews identified common emerging themes through application of Colaizzis framework. Seven participants of total sample population (89) volunteered to participate in the study. Five themes emerged which included learning preferences, interactive learning, course design, patient safety and future learning needs. Findings positively show the e-learning programme captures the learning styles and needs of learners. In particular, learning styles of a reflector, theorist and activist as well as a visual learner can actively engage in the online learning experience. In an attempt to bridge the knowledge practice gap, further opinions are offered on the course design and the application of knowledge to practice following completion of the course. The findings of the small scale research study have shown that the e-learning course does meet the diverse learning styles and needs of nurses working in a clinical transfusion environment. However, technology alone is not sufficient and a blended approach to learning must be adopted to meet bridging the theory practice gap supporting the integration of knowledge to clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adult Learning and Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Nancy

    1984-01-01

    The author argues that most work environments still conform to a hierarchical, bureaucratic pattern--an outdated system. She urges a move to a more andragogical model. The author discusses bureaucratic structure, organizational culture, the influence of leadership, the quality of learning at the workplace, and the employer-employee relationship.…

  9. Malnutrition, Learning, and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Merrill S.; Felson, David

    The problems of those children who are chronically malnourished, the cultural environment of malnutrition, and the extent to which children are temporarily or permanently handicapped in learning because of malnutrition are discussed in this booklet. It also describes hunger and its effects on child development. The topics addressed are: definition…

  10. learning and soft skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2000-01-01

    Learning of soft skills are becoming more and more necessary due to the complexe development of modern companies and their environments. However, there seems to be a 'gap' between intentions and reality regarding need of soft skills and the possiblities to be educated in this subject in particular...

  11. Procedural learning and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolson, R I; Fawcett, A J; Brookes, R L; Needle, J

    2010-08-01

    Three major 'neural systems', specialized for different types of information processing, are the sensory, declarative, and procedural systems. It has been proposed (Trends Neurosci., 30(4), 135-141) that dyslexia may be attributable to impaired function in the procedural system together with intact declarative function. We provide a brief overview of the increasing evidence relating to the hypothesis, noting that the framework involves two main claims: first that 'neural systems' provides a productive level of description avoiding the underspecificity of cognitive descriptions and the overspecificity of brain structural accounts; and second that a distinctive feature of procedural learning is its extended time course, covering from minutes to months. In this article, we focus on the second claim. Three studies-speeded single word reading, long-term response learning, and overnight skill consolidation-are reviewed which together provide clear evidence of difficulties in procedural learning for individuals with dyslexia, even when the tasks are outside the literacy domain. The educational implications of the results are then discussed, and in particular the potential difficulties that impaired overnight procedural consolidation would entail. It is proposed that response to intervention could be better predicted if diagnostic tests on the different forms of learning were first undertaken. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Intercultural learning and skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Surian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of intercultural competence is associated in the literature lists both abilities to be "successful" as an individual and an organization in cross-cultural relations, as most critical visions and interested in different contexts and social roles that play a role in the definition and perception of these relations.The concept of intercultural competence authors as Earley and Ang (2003, p. 59 prefer the concept of cultural intelligence in relation to how people can adapt to new cultural contexts, and in continuity with the work on intelligence of educational psychologists (H. Gardner, RJ Sternberg, and in relation to the interaction between cognitive styles and management of daily activities (Zhang, Sternberg, 2001, p. 198-200.From different approaches, has occurred in recent years a significant number of tools for assessing intercultural competence (Earley and Ang 2003, p. 193-199; Fowler and Blohm 2004, p. 37-84, Paige 2004, pp. 85-128.In this contribution we investigate the relevant aspects and implications of the discourses on intercultural skills for learning and for education policies that integrate an intercultural approach.

  13. Learning and knowing collectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norgaard, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    Scholars from multiple epistemic communities using a variety of models and approaches are working together to understand climate change, biodiversity loss, and other large-scale phenomena stemming from how people interact with the environment. No single model is adequate, no single mind can grasp the multiple models and their numerous implications. Yet collectively, scientists are putting the parts together and reaching a shared understanding. How is this happening, how can it be done better, and what are the implications for ecological economics?

  14. Fulfilling a European Vision through Flexible Learning and Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret S. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the value of flexibility and free choice in learning, and examines the increasing recognition of the evolving and wide range of appropriate environments for learning, such as the workplace, the home, the community, and the virtual world. This "Lifeplace Learning" is compared to the requirements and visions of the…

  15. Internationalizing Student Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dennis C.; Komives, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Best practices in internationalizing student learning and development require cultural critical analysis before transferring, adapting, hedging, or avoiding existing practices in cross-border applications both in and beyond the classroom.

  16. Mobile learning and computational thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Freixo Nunes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Computational thinking can be thought of as an approach to problem solving which has been applied to different areas of learning and which has become an important field of investigation in the area of educational research. [continue

  17. Mobile learning and computational thinking

    OpenAIRE

    José Manuel Freixo Nunes; Teresa Margarida Loureiro Cardoso

    2017-01-01

    Computational thinking can be thought of as an approach to problem solving which has been applied to different areas of learning and which has become an important field of investigation in the area of educational research. [continue

  18. Liberal Learning and the Worker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Walter G.

    1978-01-01

    Planning for vocational education in 1980 and beyond should take into consideration technological advancements and the effects of economic conditions on tax revenues available for education, the plight of the disadvantaged, lifelong learning, and educational activities of labor organizations. (SW)

  19. Visual Perceptual Learning and Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosher, Barbara; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2017-09-15

    Visual perceptual learning through practice or training can significantly improve performance on visual tasks. Originally seen as a manifestation of plasticity in the primary visual cortex, perceptual learning is more readily understood as improvements in the function of brain networks that integrate processes, including sensory representations, decision, attention, and reward, and balance plasticity with system stability. This review considers the primary phenomena of perceptual learning, theories of perceptual learning, and perceptual learning's effect on signal and noise in visual processing and decision. Models, especially computational models, play a key role in behavioral and physiological investigations of the mechanisms of perceptual learning and for understanding, predicting, and optimizing human perceptual processes, learning, and performance. Performance improvements resulting from reweighting or readout of sensory inputs to decision provide a strong theoretical framework for interpreting perceptual learning and transfer that may prove useful in optimizing learning in real-world applications.

  20. Personal Learning Environments in Black and White

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Kalz, M. (2010, 22 January). Personal Learning Environments in Black and White. Presentation provided during the workshop "Informal Learning and the use of social software in veterinary medicine" of the Noviceproject (http://www.noviceproject.eu), Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  1. Towards Intelligence and Flexibility of Learning and Knowledge Testing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerijus AUKSTAKALNIS

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The proposed goal oriented knowledge acquisition and assessment are based on the flexible educational model and allows to implement an adaptive control of the enhanced learning process according to the requirements of student's knowledge level, his state of cognition and subject learning history. The enhanced learner knowledge model specifies how the cognition state of the user will be achieved step by step. The use case actions definition is a starting point of the specification, which depends on different levels of learning scenarios and user cognition sub goals. The use case actions specification is used as a basis to set the requirements for service software specification and attributes of learning objects respectively. The paper presents the enhanced architecture of the student self-evaluation and on-line assessment system TestTool. The system is explored as an assessment engine capable of supporting and improving the individualized intelligent goal oriented self-instructional and simulation based mode of learning, grounded on the GRID distributed service architecture.

  2. Career learning and career learning environment in Dutch higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, Frans; Kuijpers, Marinka

    2018-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to focus on the effects of career development and guidance among students (age 17-23) enrolled in higher education in The Netherlands. First the paper explores whether the development of career competencies contribute to career identity, learning motivation,

  3. Career learning and career learning environment in Dutch higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinka Kuijpers; dr. Frans Meijers

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on the effects of career development and guidance among students (age 17-23) enrolled in higher education in The Netherlands. First the paper explores whether the development of career competencies contribute to career identity, learning motivation,

  4. Learning and Role of the Family in New Media Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimic, Jasmina Vrkic; Petani, Rozana; Tolic, Mirela

    2012-01-01

    Media are inseparable from upbringing and education. Different information sources should be a supplement to the basic educational relation between the teacher and students. But, immediate and dialogue based relation between the students and teacher, and between parents and their children, cannot be replaced or suppressed by any type of media…

  5. Science learning and teaching in a Creole-speaking environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, Wilton

    2017-09-01

    The focus of this response to Charity Hudley and Christine Mallinson's article, `"Its worth our time": A model of culturally and linguistically responsive professional development for K-12 STEM educators', is to underpin a pedagogy that encourages and provides opportunities for the use of non-standard language in the description and practice of science. I discuss this within the context of Jamaica and provide an alternative way of science teaching, one which promotes Jamaican Creole as a mode of instruction for classroom talk and printed material.

  6. Coaching: Learning and Using Environment and Agent Models for Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-31

    indicate what section(s) of the thesis use that citation. Mazda Ahmadi, Abolfazl Keighobadi Lamjiri, Mayssam M. Nevisi, Jafar Habibi, and Kambiz...and W.L. Johnson. Animated agents for procedural training in virtual reality: Perception, cognition, and motor control. Applied Artificial Intelligence

  7. Enabling organisational learning and knowledge sharing through employee involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Eva; Dahl, Susanne

    In this paper we want to suggest that involving the employees in the development of the new workspaces is an important element in organisational learning and that it makes good sense to rethink space in order to support both tacit knowledge and collaboration. We want to argue that involving...... the employees in the design of their future workplace is key to giving the employee ownership for the change and may provide the organisation with invaluable ideas for the new work environment and the process of enabling organisational learning and knowledge sharing. We base our argument on a series of research...

  8. Prefrontal Dopamine in Associative Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, M. Victoria; Antzoulatos, Evan G.; Miller, Earl K.

    2014-01-01

    Learning to associate specific objects or actions with rewards and remembering the associations are everyday tasks crucial for our flexible adaptation to the environment. These higher-order cognitive processes depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and frontostriatal circuits that connect areas in the frontal lobe with the striatum in the basal ganglia. Both structures are densely innervated by dopamine (DA) afferents that originate in the midbrain. Although the activity of DA neurons is thought to be important for learning, the exact role of DA transmission in frontostriatal circuits during learning-related tasks is still unresolved. Moreover, the neural substrates of this modulation are poorly understood. Here, we review our recent work in monkeys utilizing local pharmacology of DA agents in the PFC to investigate the cellular mechanisms of DA modulation of associative learning and memory. We show that blocking both D1 and D2 receptors in the lateral PFC impairs learning of new stimulus-response associations and cognitive flexibility, but not the memory of highly familiar associations. In addition, D2 receptors may also contribute to motivation. The learning deficits correlated with reductions of neural information about the associations in PFC neurons, alterations in global excitability and spike synchronization, and exaggerated alpha and beta neural oscillations. Our findings provide new insights into how DA transmission modulate associative learning and memory processes in frontostriatal systems. PMID:25241063

  9. Prefrontal dopamine in associative learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, M V; Antzoulatos, E G; Miller, E K

    2014-12-12

    Learning to associate specific objects or actions with rewards and remembering the associations are everyday tasks crucial for our flexible adaptation to the environment. These higher-order cognitive processes depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and frontostriatal circuits that connect areas in the frontal lobe with the striatum in the basal ganglia. Both structures are densely innervated by dopamine (DA) afferents that originate in the midbrain. Although the activity of DA neurons is thought to be important for learning, the exact role of DA transmission in frontostriatal circuits during learning-related tasks is still unresolved. Moreover, the neural substrates of this modulation are poorly understood. Here, we review our recent work in monkeys utilizing local pharmacology of DA agents in the PFC to investigate the cellular mechanisms of DA modulation of associative learning and memory. We show that blocking both D1 and D2 receptors in the lateral PFC impairs learning of new stimulus-response associations and cognitive flexibility, but not the memory of highly familiar associations. In addition, D2 receptors may also contribute to motivation. The learning deficits correlated with reductions of neural information about the associations in PFC neurons, alterations in global excitability and spike synchronization, and exaggerated alpha and beta neural oscillations. Our findings provide new insights into how DA transmission modulates associative learning and memory processes in frontostriatal systems. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Crossmodal Perceptual Learning and Sensory Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Proulx

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A sensory substitution device for blind persons aims to provide the missing visual input by converting images into a form that another modality can perceive, such as sound. Here I will discuss the perceptual learning and attentional mechanisms necessary for interpreting sounds produced by a device (The vOICe in a visuospatial manner. Although some aspects of the conversion, such as relating vertical location to pitch, rely on natural crossmodal mappings, the extensive training required suggests that synthetic mappings are required to generalize perceptual learning to new objects and environments, and ultimately to experience visual qualia. Here I will discuss the effects of the conversion and training on perception and attention that demonstrate the synthetic nature of learning the crossmodal mapping. Sensorimotor experience may be required to facilitate learning, develop expertise, and to develop a form of synthetic synaesthesia.

  11. Innovation, learning and industrial organisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B

    Innovation, learning and organisation are analysed from a perspective which seeks to integrate evolutionary economics, the resource/competence view of the firm, an extended theory of transaction costs and insights derived from cognitive science. Firms are subject to selection by competitive forces,

  12. Organizational Learning and Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia

    2007-01-01

    The impact of crises on organizations has been stronger than ever. This article explores the role of organizational learning in crisis management, an area that has received little attention from HRD community. Recognizing the dynamics and interconnectedness of crisis management, organizational learning, and organizational change, the article…

  13. Machine Learning and Applied Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Vajjala, Sowmya

    2018-01-01

    This entry introduces the topic of machine learning and provides an overview of its relevance for applied linguistics and language learning. The discussion will focus on giving an introduction to the methods and applications of machine learning in applied linguistics, and will provide references for further study.

  14. Technology, Learning, and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Anne A. Ghost

    2012-01-01

    The learning needs for adults that result from the constant increase in technology are rooted in the adult learning concepts of (a) andragogy, (b) self-directed learning, (c) learning-how-to-learn, (d) real-life learning, and (e) learning strategies. This study described the learning strategies that adults use in learning to engage in an online…

  15. Machine learning and medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Dinggang; Sabuncu, Mert

    2016-01-01

    Machine Learning and Medical Imaging presents state-of- the-art machine learning methods in medical image analysis. It first summarizes cutting-edge machine learning algorithms in medical imaging, including not only classical probabilistic modeling and learning methods, but also recent breakthroughs in deep learning, sparse representation/coding, and big data hashing. In the second part leading research groups around the world present a wide spectrum of machine learning methods with application to different medical imaging modalities, clinical domains, and organs. The biomedical imaging modalities include ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), histology, and microscopy images. The targeted organs span the lung, liver, brain, and prostate, while there is also a treatment of examining genetic associations. Machine Learning and Medical Imaging is an ideal reference for medical imaging researchers, industry scientists and engineers, advanced undergraduate and graduate students, a...

  16. Organizational learning and organizational design

    OpenAIRE

    Curado, Carla

    2006-01-01

    Literature review Approach This paper explores a new idea presenting the possible relationship between organizational learning and organizational design. The establishment of this relation is based upon extensive literature review. Findings Organizational learning theory has been used to understand several organizational phenomena, like resources and competencies, tacit knowledge or the role of memory in the organization; however, it is difficult to identify fits and consequent misf...

  17. Learning and strategic asset allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Kearns, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates whether or not models that portray the relationship between what an investor learns and how he allocates his portfolio can explain phenomena related to household behaviour in the stock market. Endogenous modelling of household learning is utilised, which builds on a growing literature called bounded rationality with increasing explanatory power, offering an alternative to the classical rational expectations theory. Such phenomena include firstly why households often h...

  18. Gendered learning environments in managerial work

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsson, Maria; Fogelberg Eriksson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The aim is to investigate female and male managers’ learning environments with particular focus on their opportunities for and barriers to learning and career development in the managerial work of a male-dominated industrial company. In the case study 42 managers, 15 women and 27 men in the company were interviewed. The findings demonstrate that the male managers were provided with significantly richer opportunities to participate in activities conducive to learning and career development tha...

  19. Cross-Analysis of Data Collected on Knowledge Management Practices in Canadian Forces Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lecocq, R; Gauvin, M

    2004-01-01

    ...) practices, namely on Knowledge Creation, Learning and Collaboration, the present work performs a detailed comparison of the states of these practices between the different military environments...

  20. The Influences of Emotion on Learning and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai M. Tyng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Emotion has a substantial influence on the cognitive processes in humans, including perception, attention, learning, memory, reasoning, and problem solving. Emotion has a particularly strong influence on attention, especially modulating the selectivity of attention as well as motivating action and behavior. This attentional and executive control is intimately linked to learning processes, as intrinsically limited attentional capacities are better focused on relevant information. Emotion also facilitates encoding and helps retrieval of information efficiently. However, the effects of emotion on learning and memory are not always univalent, as studies have reported that emotion either enhances or impairs learning and long-term memory (LTM retention, depending on a range of factors. Recent neuroimaging findings have indicated that the amygdala and prefrontal cortex cooperate with the medial temporal lobe in an integrated manner that affords (i the amygdala modulating memory consolidation; (ii the prefrontal cortex mediating memory encoding and formation; and (iii the hippocampus for successful learning and LTM retention. We also review the nested hierarchies of circular emotional control and cognitive regulation (bottom-up and top-down influences within the brain to achieve optimal integration of emotional and cognitive processing. This review highlights a basic evolutionary approach to emotion to understand the effects of emotion on learning and memory and the functional roles played by various brain regions and their mutual interactions in relation to emotional processing. We also summarize the current state of knowledge on the impact of emotion on memory and map implications for educational settings. In addition to elucidating the memory-enhancing effects of emotion, neuroimaging findings extend our understanding of emotional influences on learning and memory processes; this knowledge may be useful for the design of effective educational

  1. Mosaic model for sensorimotor learning and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruno, M; Wolpert, D M; Kawato, M

    2001-10-01

    Humans demonstrate a remarkable ability to generate accurate and appropriate motor behavior under many different and often uncertain environmental conditions. We previously proposed a new modular architecture, the modular selection and identification for control (MOSAIC) model, for motor learning and control based on multiple pairs of forward (predictor) and inverse (controller) models. The architecture simultaneously learns the multiple inverse models necessary for control as well as how to select the set of inverse models appropriate for a given environment. It combines both feedforward and feedback sensorimotor information so that the controllers can be selected both prior to movement and subsequently during movement. This article extends and evaluates the MOSAIC architecture in the following respects. The learning in the architecture was implemented by both the original gradient-descent method and the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Unlike gradient descent, the newly derived EM algorithm is robust to the initial starting conditions and learning parameters. Second, simulations of an object manipulation task prove that the architecture can learn to manipulate multiple objects and switch between them appropriately. Moreover, after learning, the model shows generalization to novel objects whose dynamics lie within the polyhedra of already learned dynamics. Finally, when each of the dynamics is associated with a particular object shape, the model is able to select the appropriate controller before movement execution. When presented with a novel shape-dynamic pairing, inappropriate activation of modules is observed followed by on-line correction.

  2. Learning and the Instructional System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Robert B.

    1977-01-01

    Faculty members can use information about six components of the learning situation to increase student learning. The nature, function, and interrelationships of the following elements are described: instructor, content, medium, student, evaluation, environment, and implementation. (Editor/LBH)

  3. Reactive behavior, learning, and anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Steven D.; Ballard, Dana H.

    1989-01-01

    Reactive systems always act, thinking only long enough to 'look up' the action to execute. Traditional planning systems think a lot, and act only after generating fairly precise plans. Each represents an endpoint on a spectrum. It is argued that primitive forms of reasoning, like anticipation, play an important role in reducing the cost of learning and that the decision to act or think should be based on the uncertainty associated with the utility of executing an action in a particular situation. An architecture for an adaptable reactive system is presented and it is shown how it can be augmented with a simple anticipation mechanism that can substantially reduce the cost and time of learning.

  4. Project Learning and Virtual Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fibiger, Bo; Nielsen, Janni; Sorensen, Elsebeth

    2005-01-01

    to the modularity and flexibility that characterize the study and allow admission of part-time students, full-time students and students who only sign up for one accredited module. The methodology will be illustrated through empirical snapshots from selected modules in the start-up phase, and the focus...... will be directed towards problems experienced by the students. From an analytical perspective, the paper will identify and discuss fundamental problems related to the organization, flexibility, and implementation of project pedagogy online. MIL is organized around ICT and Learning and the study theme focuses...... on ICT and Learning. In addition, MIL provides a learning space where practice is under constant negotiation and reconstruction as an inherent, integrated part of the learning process. Consequently, we argue that MIL may be seen as an example of best practice in blended learning....

  5. Perceptual learning and human expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellman, Philip J; Garrigan, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    We consider perceptual learning: experience-induced changes in the way perceivers extract information. Often neglected in scientific accounts of learning and in instruction, perceptual learning is a fundamental contributor to human expertise and is crucial in domains where humans show remarkable levels of attainment, such as language, chess, music, and mathematics. In Section 2, we give a brief history and discuss the relation of perceptual learning to other forms of learning. We consider in Section 3 several specific phenomena, illustrating the scope and characteristics of perceptual learning, including both discovery and fluency effects. We describe abstract perceptual learning, in which structural relationships are discovered and recognized in novel instances that do not share constituent elements or basic features. In Section 4, we consider primary concepts that have been used to explain and model perceptual learning, including receptive field change, selection, and relational recoding. In Section 5, we consider the scope of perceptual learning, contrasting recent research, focused on simple sensory discriminations, with earlier work that emphasized extraction of invariance from varied instances in more complex tasks. Contrary to some recent views, we argue that perceptual learning should not be confined to changes in early sensory analyzers. Phenomena at various levels, we suggest, can be unified by models that emphasize discovery and selection of relevant information. In a final section, we consider the potential role of perceptual learning in educational settings. Most instruction emphasizes facts and procedures that can be verbalized, whereas expertise depends heavily on implicit pattern recognition and selective extraction skills acquired through perceptual learning. We consider reasons why perceptual learning has not been systematically addressed in traditional instruction, and we describe recent successful efforts to create a technology of perceptual

  6. Perceptual learning and human expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellman, Philip J.; Garrigan, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    We consider perceptual learning: experience-induced changes in the way perceivers extract information. Often neglected in scientific accounts of learning and in instruction, perceptual learning is a fundamental contributor to human expertise and is crucial in domains where humans show remarkable levels of attainment, such as language, chess, music, and mathematics. In Section 2, we give a brief history and discuss the relation of perceptual learning to other forms of learning. We consider in Section 3 several specific phenomena, illustrating the scope and characteristics of perceptual learning, including both discovery and fluency effects. We describe abstract perceptual learning, in which structural relationships are discovered and recognized in novel instances that do not share constituent elements or basic features. In Section 4, we consider primary concepts that have been used to explain and model perceptual learning, including receptive field change, selection, and relational recoding. In Section 5, we consider the scope of perceptual learning, contrasting recent research, focused on simple sensory discriminations, with earlier work that emphasized extraction of invariance from varied instances in more complex tasks. Contrary to some recent views, we argue that perceptual learning should not be confined to changes in early sensory analyzers. Phenomena at various levels, we suggest, can be unified by models that emphasize discovery and selection of relevant information. In a final section, we consider the potential role of perceptual learning in educational settings. Most instruction emphasizes facts and procedures that can be verbalized, whereas expertise depends heavily on implicit pattern recognition and selective extraction skills acquired through perceptual learning. We consider reasons why perceptual learning has not been systematically addressed in traditional instruction, and we describe recent successful efforts to create a technology of perceptual

  7. [Healthy school environments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Corzo, Josefina; Munévar-Molina, Raúl A; Munévar-Quintero, Fabio I

    2015-04-01

    Objective To determine factors that characterizes school environments and their relationship with student learning, welfare and health. Method This is a case study supported by a comprehensive qualitative paradigm applied to classroom ecology. The fieldwork was carried out in six public schools for students in economic strata one and two that use computers in virtual classrooms. The information was collected through field journals, film recordings, observation, and recordings of interviews. The information was analyzed by categories in open general and focused cycles. Results The virtual era has enriched the debate about the importance of the environment in pedagogical processes. Nonetheless, the emergence of new diseases is a risk which students are exposed to. Pollution and overcrowding factors prevail in traditional classroom activities, while in the computer rooms the environment is healthier. Hence the need to incorporate these issues into the curriculum reforms and action plans to guide healthy living of schoolchildren and their families. Despite budget constraints, innovative ideas and projects were found. Schools have developed free preventive and corrective strategies such as workshops, talks and lectures by invited specialists, trainees, and students writing theses. They have also introduced controlled Internet access. Conclusion The educational community understands that the concept of health is at the heart of a comprehensive concept of education. In addition, classroom ecology has determining implications for learning and living together in pleasant and healthy environments that are incorporated into institutional educational projects.

  8. Identity, Language Learning, and Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Bonny; Toohey, Kelleen

    2011-01-01

    In this review article on identity, language learning, and social change, we argue that contemporary poststructuralist theories of language, identity, and power offer new perspectives on language learning and teaching, and have been of considerable interest in our field. We first review poststructuralist theories of language, subjectivity, and…

  9. The meaning of learning and knowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, E.J.; Hamer, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    The Meaning of Learning and Knowing contains three parts. In part 1 the authors describe their own six-stage developmental model of linked learning and teaching conceptions. This model is based on the written essays of over 600 students of higher education. The authors compare their model to five

  10. Co-Operative Learning and Development Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, V.; McConnell, D.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the theory, nature, and benefits of cooperative learning. Considers the Cooperative Learning and Development Network (CLDN) trial in the JITOL (Just in Time Open Learning) project and examines the relationship between theories about cooperative learning and the reality of a group of professionals participating in a virtual cooperative…

  11. Achieving Sustainability in Learning and Teaching Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Angela; Cahir, Jayde

    2014-01-01

    Universities have a long history of change in learning and teaching to suit various government initiatives and institutional priorities. Academic developers now are frequently required to address strategic learning and teaching priorities. This paper asks how, in such a context, academic developers can ensure that work they do in relation to one…

  12. Learning and Teaching Art: Through Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Social media practices are increasingly woven into the everyday lives of teens and adults, becoming a significant part of how they relate, know, and learn. In this article, I present findings from a design-based research study that explored how the dynamics of learning and teaching art shift through social media. Learning and teaching through…

  13. The nucleus accumbens and learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlow, B

    1997-09-01

    Recent research on the nucleus accumbens (NA) indicates that this brain region is involved in learning and memory processes in a way that is separable from its other well-known roles in behavior, such as motivation, reward, and locomotor activity. These findings have suggested that 1) the NA may be involved in declarative, or hippocampal formation-dependent learning and memory, and not in several other non-declarative forms of learning and memory, and 2) the NA may be selectively involved in certain stages of learning and memory. These characteristics suggest that the NA may be part of a larger striatal system which subserves acquisition and consolidation, but is not a site of long-term storage, of different forms of learning and memory.

  14. The Future of Learning and Training in Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangdon Lee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Students acquire knowledge and skills through different modes of instruction that include classroom lectures with textbooks, computers, and the like. The availability and choice of learning innovation depends on the individual’s access to technologies and on the infrastructure environment of the surrounding community. In this rapidly changing society, information needs to be adopted and applied at the right time and right place to maintain efficiency in all settings. Augmented reality is one technology that dramatically shifts the timing and location of learning. This paper describes augmented reality, how it applies to learning, and its potential impact on future education.

  15. Cooperative Learning and Interpersonal Synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Roy; Wijnants, Maarten L; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Bosman, Anna M T

    2017-04-01

    Cooperative learning has been shown to result in better task performance, compared to individual and competitive learning, and can lead to positive social effects. However, potential working mechanisms at a micro level remain unexplored. One potential working mechanism might be the level of interpersonal synchrony between cooperating individuals. It has been shown that increased levels of interpersonal synchrony are related to better cognitive performance (e.g., increased memory). Social factors also appear to be affected by the level of interpersonal synchrony, with more interpersonal synchrony leading to increased likeability. In the present study, interpersonal synchrony of postural sway and its relation to task performance and social factors (i.e., popularity, social acceptance, and likeability) was examined. To test this, 183 dyads performed a tangram task while each child stood on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board that recorded their postural sway. The results showed that lower levels of interpersonal synchrony were related to better task performance and those dyads who were on average more popular synchronized more. These results contradict previous findings. It is suggested that for task performance, a more loosely coupled system is better than a synchronized system. In terms of social competence, dyad popularity was associated with more interpersonal synchrony.

  16. Mobile Learning and Student Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Inder Fozdar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Student retention in open and distance learning (ODL is comparatively poor to traditional education and, in some contexts, embarrassingly low. Literature on the subject of student retention in ODL indicates that even when interventions are designed and undertaken to improve student retention, they tend to fall short. Moreover, this area has not been well researched. The main aim of our research, therefore, is to better understand and measure students’ attitudes and perceptions towards the effectiveness of mobile learning. Our hope is to determine how this technology can be optimally used to improve student retention at Bachelor of Science programmes at Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU in India. For our research, we used a survey. Results of this survey clearly indicate that offering mobile learning could be one method improving retention of BSc students, by enhancing their teaching/ learning and improving the efficacy of IGNOU’s existing student support system. The biggest advantage of this technology is that it can be used anywhere, anytime. Moreover, as mobile phone usage in India explodes, it offers IGNOU easy access to a larger number of learners. This study is intended to help inform those who are seeking to adopt mobile learning systems with the aim of improving communication and enriching students’ learning experiences in their ODL institutions.

  17. Encapsulated environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, Tom M.; Daanen, Hein A M; Cheung, Stephen S.

    2013-01-01

    In many occupational settings, clothing must be worn to protect individuals from hazards in their work environment. However, personal protective clothing (PPC) restricts heat exchange with the environment due to high thermal resistance and low water vapor permeability. As a consequence, individuals

  18. Encapsulated Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, T.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Cheung, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    In many occupational settings, clothing must be worn to protect individuals from hazards in their work environment. However, personal protective clothing (PPC) restricts heat exchange with the environment due to high thermal resistance and low water vapor permeability. As a consequence, individuals

  19. E-learning and blended learning in orthodontic education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to evaluate how effective and efficient e-learning and blended learning is when compared with traditional face-to-face learning in orthodontic education. This article also provides a comparison between face-to-face learning, e-learning, and blended learning. An open PubMed literature search was done from 1980 to 2015, and a total of 23 relevant key articles were reviewed. Information emerging from studies in orthodontic education has indicated that e-learning classes are at least as good as and/or better than face-to-face classroom learning. Till date, only one study stated that the face-to-face conventional learning is better than e-learning. Two studies stated that blended approach using both traditional face-to-face learning and e-learning is the best method. In one study, the advantages of e-learning observed in the theoretical fields of orthodontics were not achieved in learning practical procedures for manual skills. Few studies found improvements in the efficiency of learning with e-learning program. Studies performed through questionnaires showed that student's attitude and acceptance toward the use of e-learning was positive and favorable; however, blended learning was always rated high. Future research should be based on experiences of both faculty and student on a large scale for implementation of e-learning and blended learning in academic institutions. There is also need to provide professional development for faculty who will be teaching both in the physical and virtual environments.

  20. [Learning and implicit memory: mechanisms and neuroplasticity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, S; Portella, C E; Silva, J G; Velasques, B; Bastos, V H; Cunha, M; Basile, L; Cagy, M; Piedade, R A; Ribeiro, P

    Learning and memory are complex processes that researchers have been attempting to unravel for over a century in order to gain a clear view of the underlying mechanisms. To review the basic cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the process of procedural retention, to offer an overall view of the fundamental mechanisms involved in storing information by means of theories and models of memory, and to discuss the different types of memory and the role played by the cerebellum as a modulator of procedural memory. Experimental results from recent decades have opened up new areas of study regarding the participation of the biochemical and cellular processes related to the consolidation of information in the nervous system. The neuronal circuits involved in acquiring and consolidating memory are still not fully understood and the exact location of memory in the nervous system remains unknown. A number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors interfere in these processes, such as molecular (long-term potentiation and depression) and cellular mechanisms, which respond to communication and transmission between nerve cells. There are also factors that have their origin in the outside environment, which use the association of events to bring about the formation of new memories or may divert the subject from his or her main focus. Memory is not a singular occurrence; it is sub-divided into declarative and non-declarative or, when talking about the time it lasts, into short and long-term memory. Moreover, given its relation with neuronal mechanisms of learning, memory cannot be said to constitute an isolated process.

  1. Learning and plasticity in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhrmann, Delia Ute Dorothea

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is the period of life between puberty and relative independence. It is a time during which the human brain undergoes protracted changes - particularly in the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices. These changes have been linked to improvements in cognitive performance; and are thought to render adolescence a period of relatively high levels of plasticity, during which the environment has a heightened impact on brain development and behaviour. This thesis investigates learning an...

  2. Lifelong learning and special libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Marjeta Oven; Vlasta Zabukovec

    2005-01-01

    Lifelong learning is becoming an important part in the development of modern society.In the lifelong learning society endeavours are being made for the education of all individuals regardless of their social and/or economic background. Lifelong learning should,therefore, be regarded as a permanent activity and as such, a significant element of socialization, inspired by common values. It represents a dynamic interaction with cultural, working and social environment. In this respect, the role ...

  3. Teaching, learning, and planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    The progress accomplished in the first five months of the three-year grant period of Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration is presented. The objectives of this project are to discover new education products and services based on space science, particularly planetary exploration. An Exploration in Education is the umbrella name for the education projects as they are seen by teachers and the interested public. As described in the proposal, our approach consists of: (1) increasing practical understanding of the potential role and capabilities of the research community to contribute to basic education using new discoveries; (2) developing an intellectual framework for these contributions by supplying criteria and templates for the teacher's stories; (3) attracting astronomers, engineers, and technical staff to the project and helping them form productive education partnerships for the future, (4) exploring relevant technologies and networks for authoring and communicating the teacher's stories; (5) enlisting the participation of potential user's of the teacher's stories in defining the products; (6) actually producing and delivering many educationally useful teacher's stories; and (7) reporting the pilot study results with critical evaluation. Technical progress was made by assembling our electronic publishing stations, designing electronic publications based on space science, and developing distribution approaches for electronic products. Progress was made addressing critical issues by developing policies and procedures for securing intellectual property rights and assembling a focus group of teachers to test our ideas and assure the quality of our products. The following useful materials are being produced: the TOPS report; three electronic 'PictureBooks'; one 'ElectronicArticle'; three 'ElectronicReports'; ten 'PrinterPosters'; and the 'FaxForum' with an initial complement of printed materials. We have coordinated with planetary scientists and astronomers

  4. Gendered Learning Environments in Managerial Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Maria; Eriksson, Anna Fogelberg

    2010-01-01

    The aim is to investigate female and male managers' learning environments with particular focus on their opportunities for and barriers to learning and career development in the managerial work of a male-dominated industrial company. In the case study 42 managers, 15 women and 27 men in the company were interviewed. The findings demonstrate that…

  5. Evaluating Interdisciplinary Collaborative Learning and Assessment in the Creative Arts and Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Melissa; Rainbird, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article responds to the rising emphasis placed on interdisciplinary collaborative learning and its implications for assessment in higher education. It presents findings from a research project that examined the effectiveness of an interdisciplinary collaborative student symposium as an assessment task in an art school/humanities environment.…

  6. A Peer-Assisted Learning Experience in Computer Programming Language Learning and Developing Computer Programming Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Tugba; Gunes, Ali; Sayan, Hamiyet

    2016-01-01

    Peer learning or, as commonly expressed, peer-assisted learning (PAL) involves school students who actively assist others to learn and in turn benefit from an effective learning environment. This research was designed to support students in becoming more autonomous in their learning, help them enhance their confidence level in tackling computer…

  7. Associative Learning and Sensory Neuroplasticity: How Does It Happen and What Is It Good For?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the body's sensory systems have been presumed to provide the brain with raw information about the external environment, which the brain must interpret to select a behavioral response. Consequently, studies of the neurobiology of learning and memory have focused on circuitry that interfaces between sensory inputs and behavioral…

  8. Effects of Corporal Punishment and Psychological Treatment on Students' Learning and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Muhammad Shahbaz; Rafi, Muhammad Shaban

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to test the effects of corporal punishment and psychological treatment on students' learning and on their behavior. A pilot study, followed with experimental test, was framed in a demographically controlled environment on homogeneous variables at Punjab University Laboratory School, Pakistan over the period of six months.…

  9. Designing for learning and empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Lise Høgh

    2017-01-01

    worked together to develop five new visual and digital methods for interviewing in special education. Thereby enhancing students’ competences, knowledge and proficiency in innovation and research as well as designing a solution aiding people with learning disabilities to communicate with peers......This paper proposes design-based research as a teaching approach to enhance the learning environment of university college students and as a potential tool for empowerment in practice. The paper depicts how students, professors, professional educationalists, and people with learning disabilities...

  10. Lifelong learning and special libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Oven

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lifelong learning is becoming an important part in the development of modern society.In the lifelong learning society endeavours are being made for the education of all individuals regardless of their social and/or economic background. Lifelong learning should,therefore, be regarded as a permanent activity and as such, a significant element of socialization, inspired by common values. It represents a dynamic interaction with cultural, working and social environment. In this respect, the role of motivation should be specifically emphasized, as it can explain the causes for human behaviour.

  11. Learning and Memory in Children with Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation between learning and memory and epilepsy in school children with recently diagnosed idiopathic and/or cryptogenic seizures was evaluated at Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, the Netherlands.

  12. Robotic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic architectural environments to be implemented and tested in the last decade in virtual and physical prototypes. These prototypes are incorporating sensing-actuating

  13. Performative Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bo Stjerne

    2008-01-01

    The paper explores how performative architecture can act as a collective environment localizing urban flows and establishing public domains through the integration of pervasive computing and animation techniques. The NoRA project introduces the concept of ‘performative environments,' focusing on ...... of local interactions and network behaviour, building becomes social infrastructure and prompts an understanding of architectural structures as quasiobjects, which can retain both variation and recognisability in changing social constellations.......The paper explores how performative architecture can act as a collective environment localizing urban flows and establishing public domains through the integration of pervasive computing and animation techniques. The NoRA project introduces the concept of ‘performative environments,' focusing...

  14. Experience Learning and Community Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Mijoč

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of education, carried out in living and working environment, which has undergone so profound changes recently, is of extreme importance. In schools, courses and seminars, one cannot prepare him/herself for the changes as these are often so rapid that it is impossible to foresee them. Therefore, one can only learn by experience. In defining the term 'experience learning', the teoreticians vary greatly. In this paper, experience learning is understood as a process of learning taking part mainly outside the planned educational process and including an active and participative attitude towards environment and people. Original and direct experience can thus serve as a basis for gaining new comprehensions, for planning future activities as well as for a reinterpretation of the past experiences. Let us first mention the basic factors of successful experience learning, such as an individual's character features, possibilities for learning, learning atmosphere and positive stimulations. It has been estimated that local community can increase or decrease the possibilities for experience learning. However, the relation is active in other direction too: the more experience learning bas been asserted in a community, the greater its influence on social and cultural development of the community. On has to bear in mind that well-planned education for local community and stimulating sociocultural animation can facilitate the development of local community.

  15. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  16. Enacting Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    Enacting Environments is an ethnography of the midst of the encounter between corporations, sustainable development and climate change. At this intersection 'environmental management' and 'carbon accounting' are put into practice. Purportedly, these practices green capitalism. Drawing on fieldwork...... of day-to-day practices of corporate environmental accountants and managers, Ingmar Lippert reconstructs their work as achieving to produce a reality of environment that is simultaneously stable and flexible enough for a particular corporate project: to stage the company, and in consequence capitalism......, as in control over its relations to an antecedent environment. Not confined to mere texts or meetings between shiny stakeholders co-governing the corporation – among them some of the world's biggest auditing firms, an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) and standards – control is found...

  17. Heuristic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Giunta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is the identification of a paradigm which fixes the basic concepts and the type of logical relationships between them, whereby direct, govern and evaluate choises on new technologies. The contribution is based on the assumption that the complexity of knowledge is correlated with the complexity of the learning environment. From the existence of this correlation will descend a series of consequences that contribute to the definition of a theoretical construct in which the logical categories of learning become the guiding criteria on which to design learning environments and, consequently, also the indicators on by which to evaluate its effectiveness.

  18. Ubiquitous Learning Environments in Higher Education: A Scoping Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Mari Aulikki; Haavisto, Elina; Liikanen, Eeva; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Ubiquitous learning and the use of ubiquitous learning environments heralds a new era in higher education. Ubiquitous learning environments enhance context-aware and seamless learning experiences available from any location at any time. They support smooth interaction between authentic and digital learning resources and provide personalized…

  19. Construction of a Digital Learning Environment Based on Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jihong; Xiong, Caiping; Liu, Huazhong

    2015-01-01

    Constructing the digital learning environment for ubiquitous learning and asynchronous distributed learning has opened up immense amounts of concrete research. However, current digital learning environments do not fully fulfill the expectations on supporting interactive group learning, shared understanding and social construction of knowledge.…

  20. Psychobiology of the amniotic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Luigi; Accorsi, Francesca; Marconi, Lorenza; Benassi, Gianluca

    2004-01-01

    Water, basic element of amniotic fluid (A.F.), is closely related to Life, Fertility and Motherhood in several cultures and religions. Through material evidences of an essential growth medium and useful diagnostic source, a new concept grow up: the fluid as a first real environment in which fetus lives and acts. Many studies confirm that in A.F. fetus starts his character-building, his memory and his intelligence. The fluid seems to be the first means of learning and acknowledgement. Sounds, smells and tastes are perceived as well as emotions and fears. Urinoterapy and staminal cells sampling shows how A.F. can be considered as an additional terapeutic resource.

  1. African Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Studies and Regional Planning Bulletin African Environment is published in French and English, and for some issues, in Arabic. (only the issue below has been received by AJOL). Vol 10, No 3 (1999). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of ...

  2. Architecture & Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  3. Nigerian Physiotherapy Clinical Students' Perception of Their Learning Environment Measured by the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odole, Adesola C.; Oyewole, Olufemi O.; Ogunmola, Oluwasolape T.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of the learning environment and the understanding of how students learn will help teacher to facilitate learning and plan a curriculum to achieve the learning outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate undergraduate physiotherapy clinical students' perception of University of Ibadan's learning environment. Using the…

  4. Explanatory Preferences Shape Learning and Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombrozo, Tania

    2016-10-01

    Explanations play an important role in learning and inference. People often learn by seeking explanations, and they assess the viability of hypotheses by considering how well they explain the data. An emerging body of work reveals that both children and adults have strong and systematic intuitions about what constitutes a good explanation, and that these explanatory preferences have a systematic impact on explanation-based processes. In particular, people favor explanations that are simple and broad, with the consequence that engaging in explanation can shape learning and inference by leading people to seek patterns and favor hypotheses that support broad and simple explanations. Given the prevalence of explanation in everyday cognition, understanding explanation is therefore crucial to understanding learning and inference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Problem-based learning and radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurley, P.; Dennick, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Royal College of Radiologists recently published documents setting out guidelines to improve the teaching of radiology to medical students. These included recommendations that clinicians who teach radiology should be aware of newer educational techniques, such as problem-based learning, and should be involved in the development of curricula and assessment in medical schools. This review aims to introduce the educational theories behind problem-based learning and describe how a problem-based learning tutorial is run. The relevance of problem-based learning to radiology and the potential advantages and disadvantages are discussed

  6. Imaging learning and memory: classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, B G; Alkon, D L

    2001-12-15

    The search for the biological basis of learning and memory has, until recently, been constrained by the limits of technology to classic anatomic and electrophysiologic studies. With the advent of functional imaging, we have begun to delve into what, for many, was a "black box." We review several different types of imaging experiments, including steady state animal experiments that image the functional labeling of fixed tissues, and dynamic human studies based on functional imaging of the intact brain during learning. The data suggest that learning and memory involve a surprising conservation of mechanisms and the integrated networking of a number of structures and processes. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Interactivity, Game Creation, Design, Learning, and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the proceedings of two conferences: The 5th International Conference on ArtsIT, Interactivity and Game Creation (ArtsIT 2016) and the First International Conference on Design, Learning and Innovation (DLI 2016). ArtsIT is reflecting trends in the expanding field of digital art......, interactive art, and how game creation is considered an art form. The decision was made to augment the title of ArtsIT to be in future known as “The International Conference on Interactivity, Game Creation, Design, Learning, and Innovation”. The event was hosted in Esbjerg, Denmark in May 2016 and attracted...

  8. Learning and memory in zebrafish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Adam C.; Bill, Brent R.; Glanzman, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promising new experimental technologies currently being used in larval zebrafish that are likely to contribute major insights into the processes that underlie learning and memory. PMID:23935566

  9. Language learning and the technology of international communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batley, Edward

    1991-03-01

    The author posits a reciprocal relationship between the recent popularisation of computer-based technology and the democratisation of Central and Eastern Europe. Brief reference is made to their common denominator, language and language change. The advent of the communicative approach to language learning and the new wave of language authenticity arising from it, both enhanced by the technological revolution, have made the defining of acceptability in the classroom and of communication in the process of testing more problematic than ever, although several advantages have also accrued. Advances in technology have generally outstripped our ability to apply their full or characteristic potential. While technology can personalise learning and in this way make learning more efficient, it can also impede motivation. Old methods, drills and routines are tending to be sustained by it. Lack of technology can also widen the gulf between developed, developing and underdeveloped countries of the world. The author proposes international partnerships as a means of preventing an imbalance which could threaten stability. Single language dominance is another threat to international understanding, given the growing awareness of our multilingual and multicultural environment. Enlightened language policies reaching from the individual to beyond the national community are needed, which adopt these aspects of language learning, explain decisions about the state's choice of languages and, at the same time, promote individual choice wherever practicable.

  10. Putting the PLE into PLD: Virtual Professional Learning and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Owen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The range of affordances that a virtual environment offers can provide opportunities for more formal Professional Learning and Development (PLD that has flexibility of choice, time and approach for educators. It was this potential that inspired the design of the Virtual Professional Learning and Development (VPLD program that was instigated in October 2009 by the NZ Ministry of Education, who also funded the project. The findings from the pilot of the VPLD program in 2010 indicated that when professional learning was situated within the practitioner's context, and with complementary, easily-accessible opportunities for sharing of practice within an online Community of Practice, participants demonstrated high levels of engagement as well as changes in their own teaching practice. The VPLD Programme was facilitated and researched again during 2011, building on findings from 2010. Findings to date suggest that the educators developed a sense of self-efficacy that motivated them to trial alternative approaches, and to initiate iterative cycles of trial, error, and improvement.

  11. Records management: a basis for organizational learning and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Aragão Pedroza Cunha

    Full Text Available The understanding of (transformations related to organizational learning processes and knowledge recording can promote innovation. The objective of this study was to review the conceptual contributions of several studies regarding Organizational Learning and Records Management and to highlight the importance of knowledge records as an advanced management technique for the development and attainment of innovation. To accomplish this goal, an exploratory and multidisciplinary literature review was conducted. The results indicated that the identification and application of management models to represent knowledge is a challenge for organizations aiming to promote conditions for the creation and use of knowledge in order to transform it into organizational innovation. Organizations can create spaces and environments for local, regional, national, and global exchange with the strategic goal of generating and sharing knowledge, provided they know how to utilize Records Management mechanisms.

  12. The new CIEMAT strategies for learning and knowledge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco Arboli, M.

    2008-01-01

    Educational and training systems are a determining factor in the potential for excellence, innovation and competitiveness in the framework of research as a means to improve know-how, capabilities and skills. In recent years, the EU has supported open and distance education through its innovation, education, training and research programs. The European initiatives promote efficiency by improving quality and occupational training in different sectors and by fostering the use of the information technologies. Having followed the new trends in training and the advantages obtained by using the net in training, the CIEMAT has also taken an interest in improving the learning and knowledge transfer environments through its virtual center. It is a space for developing online educational activities in certain areas, in which the center can be considered as expert, such as all subjects related to energy and environment: renewable, radiological protection, atmospheric contamination, fusion, nuclear power, etc. This virtual space includes a Virtual Classroom and a specialized Thematic Portals, and it aims to be a place of reference for the areas of knowledge related to energy and environment. (Author) 5 refs

  13. Learning and Development Expertise: An Australian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Steven; Harvey, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Learning and development (L&D) practitioners draw on a distinctive range of knowledge, skills and techniques in their work. Over the years, there have been attempts to capture this range and identify typical L&D roles. The research presented here was undertaken to identify characteristic areas of expertise (AOEs) of L&D practice in…

  14. Leading to Learning and Competitive Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Trong Tuan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to examine whether there is the chain effect from corporate social responsibility (CSR) and emotional intelligence (EI) to organizational learning and competitive intelligence in chemical companies in a Vietnam business setting. Design/methodology/approach: Structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to analyze…

  15. Word Lists for Vocabulary Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Within the communicative approach, often the assumption has been that with the right exposure, students will simply "pick up" the vocabulary required for learning and using English, and thus there is no need to focus on or teach it. Yet, as many teachers can attest, this is frequently not the case, and there have been recent efforts to…

  16. Flexible learning and the design of instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Nikolova, Iliana

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of designing flexible learning and instruction. Flexibility is considered both from the learner's and the designer's perspective. The potential of telematics in the design, development and implementation of flexible and distance learning is discussed. A Method for

  17. Research into Practice: Grammar Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This selective review of the second language acquisition and applied linguistics research literature on grammar learning and teaching falls into three categories: where research has had little impact (the non-interface position), modest impact (form-focused instruction), and where it potentially can have a large impact (reconceiving grammar).…

  18. Animation, Incidental Learning, and Continuing Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieber, Lloyd P.

    1991-01-01

    Effects of animated graphics presentations on incidental learning and the degree to which various computer practice activities contain intrinsically motivating characteristics were studied with 70 fourth graders learning about Newton's laws of motion. Incidental learning occurred without sacrifice of intentional learning. Students were highly…

  19. Chapter Five: Language Learning and Discursive Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter is framed by the three questions related to learning in Practice Theory posed by Johannes Wagner (2008): (1) What is learned?; (2) Who is learning?; and (3) Who is participating in the learning? These questions are addressed in two learning theories: Language Socialization and Situated Learning theory. In Language Socialization, the…

  20. Service Learning and STEM Education Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichart Prasertsang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Community service allowed learners to meet their real Competency in leadership classroom. Thinking and doing by problem Solving togethers among learners, teacher, and Community seem to be STEM education. It aimed to create and innovate thing for supporting Community. STEM education as a final stage that meet service learning and community based knowledge.

  1. Counselling strategies for students learning and career ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper was to identify counselling strategies applicable in classroom where teaching and learning take place. The concepts guidance and counselling were defined to show meaning and relevance towards promoting learning and career development of students in secondary school. This paper also ...

  2. Investigation of learning and experience curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thornton, J.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    The applicability of learning and experience curves for predicting future costs of solar technologies is assessed, and the major test case is the production economics of heliostats. Alternative methods for estimating cost reductions in systems manufacture are discussed, and procedures for using learning and experience curves to predict costs are outlined. Because adequate production data often do not exist, production histories of analogous products/processes are analyzed and learning and aggregated cost curves for these surrogates estimated. If the surrogate learning curves apply, they can be used to estimate solar technology costs. The steps involved in generating these cost estimates are given. Second-generation glass-steel and inflated-bubble heliostat design concepts, developed by MDAC and GE, respectively, are described; a costing scenario for 25,000 units/yr is detailed; surrogates for cost analysis are chosen; learning and aggregate cost curves are estimated; and aggregate cost curves for the GE and MDAC designs are estimated. However, an approach that combines a neoclassical production function with a learning-by-doing hypothesis is needed to yield a cost relation compatible with the historical learning curve and the traditional cost function of economic theory.

  3. Team Learning and Team Composition in Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Olaf; Van Linge, Roland; Van Petegem, Peter; Elseviers, Monique; Denekens, Joke

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore team learning activities in nursing teams and to test the effect of team composition on team learning to extend conceptually an initial model of team learning and to examine empirically a new model of ambidextrous team learning in nursing. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative research utilising exploratory…

  4. Urban Myths about Learning and Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruyckere, Pedro; Kirschner, Paul A.; Hulshof, Casper

    2016-01-01

    In this book, the most common popular myths relating to learning and education are discussed with respect to whether there is any truth in the myth and what good educational and psychological research has to say about them. Examples of such myths range from: learning styles to neuromyths such as

  5. Online Collaborative Learning and Communication Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havard, Byron; Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the dynamics of online collaborative learning and communication media regarding team projects. Media richness and social presence theories are well-accepted rational theories that explain media choices and media behaviors, and serve as the theoretical framework. Quantitative and qualitative data collection…

  6. Learning and Teaching with a Computer Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, G.; Gregorcic, B.; Etkina, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the readers to simple inquiry-based activities (experiments with supporting questions) that one can do with a computer scanner to help students learn and apply the concepts of relative motion in 1 and 2D, vibrational motion and the Doppler effect. We also show how to use these activities to help students think like…

  7. Personality Traits, Learning and Academic Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in personality traits (especially the five-factor model) in relation to education and learning over the last decade. Previous studies have shown a relation between personality traits and learning, and between personality traits and academic achievement. The latter is typically described in terms of Grade Point…

  8. Personality traits in learning and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B.

    Personality traits judged relevant for the context of learning and education are identified as a subset of a comprehensive set of 1203 trait descriptive adjectives, constructed by Brokken (1979). The identification procedure is described and relevant statistics are provided. Self- and peer-ratings

  9. Acacia Gender Learning and Capacity Strengthening | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will serve a dual purpose: to develop a process of learning and reflection on gender within IDRC's Acacia (Communities and the Information Society in Africa) program initiative; and to undertake an evaluation of Acacia's gender strategy. This will be accomplished in three phases. During the preparatory phase, ...

  10. Students' Plans for Lifelong Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavšic, Marlena; Dikovic, Marina

    2015-01-01

    One of the roles of higher education is to prepare and encourage students for lifelong learning. However, no evidence can be found about students' plans for further learning and teaching related to formal, non-formal and informal context. The purpose of this study was to explore these students' plans in relation to their study group, level of…

  11. Precarious Learning and Labour in Financialized Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Our current globalized economic regimes of financialized capital have systematically altered relations of learning and labour through the dynamics of precarity, debt, and the political economy of new wars. The risks of these regimes are absorbed unevenly across transnational landscapes, creating cartographies of violence and dispossession,…

  12. Acacia Gender Learning and Capacity Strengthening | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will serve a dual purpose: to develop a process of learning and reflection on gender within IDRC's Acacia (Communities and the Information Society in Africa) program initiative; and to undertake an evaluation of Acacia's gender strategy. This will be accomplished in three phases. During the preparatory phase, ...

  13. ICTs to improve learning and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2014-01-01

    1. Content Some 20 years ago, expectations for Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) were rather ambitious. ICTs were expected to improve both personal and institutional performance, leading to higher outcomes and a better life for all. Learning and ICTs also became important issues in

  14. Student Involvement in Learning and School Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between selected student characteristics, student involvement in learning, and achievement. Both naturalistic (n = 28, 27) and experimental studies were conducted. In the experimental study, two classes (n = 29, 26) learned a sequence of matrix arithmetic by mastery learning strategies.…

  15. Cybernetic Principles of Learning and Educational Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karl U.; Smith, Margaret Foltz

    This book presents the cybernetic theory of learning and the evidence which supports it. Learning is more than the openloop forming of new stimulus-response associations--it is a process of reorganization of sensory feedback within a closed loop, or pattern, which increases the learner's level of control over his own behavior and the stimuli in…

  16. The Biological Basis of Learning and Individuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Eric R.; Hawkins, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the biological basis of learning and individuality. Presents an overview of recent discoveries that suggest learning engages a simple set of rules that modify the strength of connection between neurons in the brain. The changes are cited as playing an important role in making each individual unique. (MCO)

  17. Translanguaging, Learning and Teaching in Deaf Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanwick, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    This paper critiques the role of translanguaging in deaf education by examining how, and under what conditions, translanguaging practices can enhance learning and teaching. The paper explores the premise that translanguaging represents an additive view of bilingualism and multilingualism for deaf learners and offers an innovative departure from,…

  18. The Vietnam War: History, Learning, and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tricia

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the curriculum entitled "Echoes from the Wall: History, Learning and Leadership through the Lens of the Vietnam War Era." Discusses the purpose of the materials. States that the curriculum incorporates primary resources into the classroom while making history more immediate to students. (CMK)

  19. Organic Determinants of Learning and Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, William H.; And Others

    Theories regarding organic determinants of learning and behavior disorders are reviewed historically. Cases illustrating how a bio-ecologic examination can isolate the substances to which a person reacts and some of the reasons for those reactions are presented; and the role of various disorders in relation to the central nervous system is…

  20. Morphosyntactic Learning and the Development of Tense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legate, Julie Anne; Yang, Charles

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we propose that the Root Infinitive (RI) phenomenon in child language is best viewed and explained as the interaction between morphological learning and syntactic development. We make the following specific suggestions: The optionality in RI reflects the presence of a grammar such as Chinese which does not manifest tense marking.…

  1. Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the growth of technology use in early learning settings, the U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services collaborated in the development of the "Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief" to promote developmentally appropriate use of technology in homes and early learning…

  2. NOTE FOR EDITOR: Twitter As An Educational Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Selami AYDIN

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to present a review of Twitter as an educational environment, as research is relatively new. The reviewed studies have been categorized into three sections: Ø Reasons to use Twitter, Ø Twitter as an educational environment, and Ø some drawbacks. Twitter and language teaching and learning and Twitter and libraries were subtitled under the section of Twitter as an educational environment. To conclude, current literature reflects that Twitter has a positi...

  3. An intelligent service-based layered architecture for e learning and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaid, Q.; Arif, F.

    2017-01-01

    The rapid advancement in ICT (Information and Communication Technology) is causing a paradigm shift in eLearning domain. Traditional eLearning systems suffer from certain shortcomings like tight coupling of system components, lack of personalization, flexibility, and scalability and performance issues. This study aims at addressing these challenges through an MAS (Multi Agent System) based multi-layer architecture supported by web services. The foremost objective of this study is to enhance learning process efficiency by provision of flexibility features for learning and assessment processes. Proposed architecture consists of two sub-system namely eLearning and eAssesssment. This architecture comprises of five distinct layers for each sub-system, with active agents responsible for miscellaneous tasks including content handling, updating, resource optimization, load handling and provision of customized environments for learners and instructors. Our proposed architecture aims at establishment of a facilitation level to learners as well as instructors for convenient acquisition and dissemination of knowledge. Personalization features like customized environments, personalized content retrieval and recommendations, adaptive assessment and reduced response time, are believed to significantly enhance learning and tutoring experience. In essence characteristics like intelligence, personalization, interactivity, usability, laidback accessibility and security, signify aptness of proposed architecture for improving conventional learning and assessment processes. Finally we have evaluated our proposed architecture by means of analytical comparison and survey considering certain quality attributes. (author)

  4. Aberrant Learning and Memory in Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrossa, Mary M.; Corlett, Philip R.; Taylor, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, drug addiction has increasingly been accepted to be a disease of the brain as opposed to simply being due to a lack of willpower or personality flaw. Exposure to addictive substances has been shown to create enduring changes in brain structure and function that are thought to underlie the transition to addiction. Specific genetic and environmental vulnerability factors also influence the impact of drugs of abuse on the brain and can enhance the likelihood of becoming an addict. Long-lasting alterations in brain function have been found in neural circuits that are known to be responsible for normal appetitive learning and memory processes and it has been hypothesized that drugs of abuse enhance positive learning and memory about the drug while inhibiting learning about the negative consequences of drug use. Therefore, the addict's behavior becomes increasingly directed towards obtaining and using drugs of abuse, while at the same time developing a poorer ability to stop using, even when the drug is less rewarding or interferes with functioning in other facets of life. In this review we will discuss the clinical evidence that addicted individuals have altered learning and memory and describe the possible neural substrates of this dysfunction. In addition, we will explore the preclinical evidence that drugs of abuse cause a progressive disorder of learning and memory, review the molecular and neurobiological changes that may underlie this disorder, determine the genetic and environmental factors that may increase vulnerability to addiction, and suggest potential strategies for treating addiction through manipulations of learning and memory. PMID:21376820

  5. Fetal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinare, Arun

    2008-01-01

    The intrauterine environment has a strong influence on pregnancy outcome. The placenta and the umbilical cord together form the main supply line of the fetus. Amniotic fluid also serves important functions. These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby. An insult to the intrauterine environment has an impact on the programming of the fetus, which can become evident in later life, mainly in the form of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain learning disabilities. The past two decades have witnessed major contributions from researchers in this field, who have included ultrasonologists, epidemiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Besides being responsible for these delayed postnatal effects, abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid also have associations with structural and chromosomal disorders. Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations. USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area. This article aims at reviewing the USG-related developments in this area and the anatomy, physiology, and various pathologies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid

  6. Towards an intelligent environment for distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Morales

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mainstream distance learning nowadays is heavily influenced by traditional educational approaches that produceshomogenised learning scenarios for all learners through learning management systems. Any differentiation betweenlearners and personalisation of their learning scenarios is left to the teacher, who gets minimum support from the system inthis respect. This way, the truly digital native, the computer, is left out of the move, unable to better support the teachinglearning processes because it is not provided with the means to transform into knowledge all the information that it storesand manages. I believe learning management systems should care for supporting adaptation and personalisation of bothindividual learning and the formation of communities of learning. Open learner modelling and intelligent collaborativelearning environments are proposed as a means to care. The proposal is complemented with a general architecture for anintelligent environment for distance learning and an educational model based on the principles of self-management,creativity, significance and participation.

  7. Digital Learning Environments: New possibilities and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Peters

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the general problem whether and, if so, how far the impact of the digitised learning environment on our traditional distance education will change the way in which teachers teach and learners learn. Are the dramatic innovations a menace to established ways of learning and teaching or are they the panacea to overcome some of the difficulties of our system of higher learning and to solve some of our educational problems caused by the big and far-reaching educational paradigm shift? This paper will not deal with technical or technological achievements in the field of information and communication which are, of course, revolutionary and to be acknowledged and admired. Rather, the digital learning environment will be analysed from a pedagogical point of view in order to find out what exactly are the didactic possibilities and opportunities and what are its foreseeable disadvantages.

  8. Georgia - Improved Learning Environment

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The school rehabilitation activity seeks to decrease student and teacher absenteeism, increase students’ time on task, and, ultimately, improve learning and labor...

  9. ASPECTS REGARDING THE ROLE OF FACILITATORS IN CREATIVE LEARNING AND INNOVATIVE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODORUȚ AMALIA VENERA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I have analysed a series of facilitators that determine creativity and innovation in teaching learning processes, emphasising the role of assessment, organizational culture and information technologies as relevant and essential elements within this challenging approach to create the conditions for an intelligent development of the educational processes. Also I approached issues related to creative learning and innovative teaching in a society in which knowledge takes more and more intense forms and, they require changes and deep transformations in all educational environments. The fundamental objective was to underline the need to learn creatively and to teach innovatively, given the conditions of the development of information technologies and a deeper and deeper immersion in this information environment, with effects on involving more effectively the students in their own learning approach. Based on scientific researches, observation and comparative analyzes, I identified the facilitators which, along with the technologies, support the creative learning and innovative teaching.

  10. Facilitators' perceptions of problem-based learning and community-based education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annali E Fichardt

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1997 the School for Nursing, University of the Orange Free State, changed from the traditional lecture method of teaching to problem-based learning and from a curative to a community-based approach. Lecturers from a traditional environment became facilitators and new skills such as listening, dialogue, negotiation, counselling and problemsolving were expected from them. Besides the role change, the environment changed from a structural classroom to an unstructured community. The aim of this research was to determine the perceptions and experiences of facilitators in problem-based learning and community-base education. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  11. Playing SNES in the Retro Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bhonker, Nadav; Rozenberg, Shai; Hubara, Itay

    2016-01-01

    Mastering a video game requires skill, tactics and strategy. While these attributes may be acquired naturally by human players, teaching them to a computer program is a far more challenging task. In recent years, extensive research was carried out in the field of reinforcement learning and numerous algorithms were introduced, aiming to learn how to perform human tasks such as playing video games. As a result, the Arcade Learning Environment (ALE) (Bellemare et al., 2013) has become a commonly...

  12. Learning Environment Facilitating Educational Achievements of Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Šūmane, Ilze

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The doctoral thesis of Ilze Šūmane in pedagogy science, school pedagogy sub-discipline ”Learning environment facilitating educational achievements of teenagers” was worked out in the Department of Pedagogy, Faculty of Pedagogy, Psychology and Arts, University of Latvia, under the supervision of Dr.paed., professor Rudīte Andersone from2001 till 2011. The topicality of the research determined by the necessity to improve quality learning and education. During an effective study ...

  13. A Review of Machine Learning and Data Mining Approaches for Business Applications in Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Evis Trandafili; Marenglen Biba

    2013-01-01

    Social networks have an outstanding marketing value and developing data mining methods for viral marketing is a hot topic in the research community. However, most social networks remain impossible to be fully analyzed and understood due to prohibiting sizes and the incapability of traditional machine learning and data mining approaches to deal with the new dimension in the learning process related to the large-scale environment where the data are produced. On one hand, the birth and evolution...

  14. Family experiences, the motivation for science learning and science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family experiences, the motivation for science learning and science achievement of ... active learning and achievement goals); boys perceived family experiences ... Recommendations were made as to how schools can support families in ...

  15. Dopamine, reward learning, and active inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eFitzgerald

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signalling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behaviour. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings.

  16. Dopamine, reward learning, and active inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Thomas H B; Dolan, Raymond J; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signaling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behavior. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings.

  17. Social Networks: Rational Learning and Information Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    predecessor, Gale and Kariv (2003) who generalize the payoff equalization result of Bala and Goyal (1998) in connected social networks (discussed below...requires more notation. Using Bayes’ Rule and the assumption of equal priors on the state θ, we have that the social belief given by observing... Social Networks: Rational Learning and Information Aggregation by Ilan Lobel B.Sc., Pontif́ıcia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (2004

  18. Learning and memory in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlai, R

    2016-01-01

    Learning and memory are defining features of our own species inherently important to our daily lives and to who we are. Without our memories we cease to exist as a person. Without our ability to learn individuals and collectively our society would cease to function. Diseases of the mind still remain incurable. The interest in understanding of the mechanisms of learning and memory is thus well founded. Given the complexity of such mechanisms, concerted efforts have been made to study them under controlled laboratory conditions, ie, with laboratory model organisms. The zebrafish, although new in this field, is one such model organism. The rapidly developing forward- and reverse genetic methods designed for the zebrafish and the increasing use of pharmacological tools along with numerous neurobiology techniques make this species perhaps the best model for the analysis of the mechanisms of complex central nervous system characteristics. The fact that it is an evolutionarily ancient and simpler vertebrate, but at the same time it possesses numerous conserved features across multiple levels of biological organization makes this species an excellent tool for the analysis of the mechanisms of learning and memory. The bottleneck lies in our understanding of its cognitive and mnemonic features, the topic of this chapter. The current paper builds on a chapter published in the previous edition and continues to focus on associative learning, but now it extends the discussion to other forms of learning and to recent discoveries on memory-related features and findings obtained both in adults and larval zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. EMPLOYEE LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT IN ORGANISATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VNOUČKOVÁ, Lucie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of all organisations is efficiency of human resources. Therefore activities as HR controlling, performance management but also cutting costs are the main theme. Current organisations need to monitor human resources to keep their competitiveness. Thus paper describes the key factor of organisational efficiency - employee education, talent management and the necessity to retain skilled employees. The aim of the paper is to reveal the current approach in organisations to education and learning based on primary survey of employees. The data were collected using quantitative primary survey in Czech organisations across sectors. The questionnaire was compiled based on the theoretical background. The paper has been processed based on the analysis of secondary sources, outcome synthesis and the evaluation of results of a questionnaire survey. The data were analysed using descriptive statistic, correlation analysis and factor analysis. The SPSS programme was used for the analyses. The outcomes were categorized and the analyses revealed the main factors affecting organisational approach to employee learning and development. The results identify three possible approaches in organisations to employee learning and development. The first type of organisations educates employees by their own rules, second type does not support education of employees in any way, it is only an interest of employees themselves and thirdly knowledgeable employees were identified as those employees do as much as possible to learn and grow and they choose job position in order to develop constantly. The results can be taken into account in further analysis and in organisation of adult education.

  20. 77 FR 27015 - Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Funding for FY 2012 of the Distance Learning and... awards for its Distance Learning and Telemedicine (DLT) Grant Program. For Fiscal Year 2012, $15 million...

  1. Social Emotional Learning and Educational Stress: A Predictive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Serhat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between social emotional learning and educational stress. Participants were 321 elementary students. Social emotional learning and educational stress scale were used as measures. The relationships between social emotional learning and educational stress were examined using correlation…

  2. Online Learning and Teaching in Higher Education, a book review

    OpenAIRE

    Sancho Vinuesa, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Peer-reviewed Online Learning and Teaching in Higher Education provides a very interesting overview of theory and practice in online learning and teaching for higher education. In fact, authors focus on how technology can be applied to learning and what is the role of online learning in higher education policy and practice.

  3. Skill learning and the evolution of social learning mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Post, Daniel J; Franz, Mathias; Laland, Kevin N

    2016-08-24

    Social learning is potentially advantageous, but evolutionary theory predicts that (i) its benefits may be self-limiting because social learning can lead to information parasitism, and (ii) these limitations can be mitigated via forms of selective copying. However, these findings arise from a functional approach in which learning mechanisms are not specified, and which assumes that social learning avoids the costs of asocial learning but does not produce information about the environment. Whether these findings generalize to all kinds of social learning remains to be established. Using a detailed multi-scale evolutionary model, we investigate the payoffs and information production processes of specific social learning mechanisms (including local enhancement, stimulus enhancement and observational learning) and their evolutionary consequences in the context of skill learning in foraging groups. We find that local enhancement does not benefit foraging success, but could evolve as a side-effect of grouping. In contrast, stimulus enhancement and observational learning can be beneficial across a wide range of environmental conditions because they generate opportunities for new learning outcomes. In contrast to much existing theory, we find that the functional outcomes of social learning are mechanism specific. Social learning nearly always produces information about the environment, and does not always avoid the costs of asocial learning or support information parasitism. Our study supports work emphasizing the value of incorporating mechanistic detail in functional analyses.

  4. Keep Taking the Tablets? Assessing the Use of Tablet Devices in Learning and Teaching Activities in the Further Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Khristin; MacLean, Donald

    2014-01-01

    This article summarises the methodology and outcomes of an interventionist/action research project to assess the benefits, and potential pitfalls, of the use of mobile devices in learning and teaching activities in a Further Education environment. A bank of 15 tablet devices were purchased and prepared for classroom use. Staff members were…

  5. The Effect of Classroom Web Applications on Teaching, Learning and Academic Performance among College of Education Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljraiwi, Seham Salman

    2017-01-01

    The current study proposes web applications-based learning environment to promote teaching and learning activities in the classrooms. It also helps teachers facilitate learners' contributions in the process of learning and improving their motivation and performance. The case study illustrated that female students were more interested in learning…

  6. Problem-solving in a Constructivist Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chien Sing

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic challenges of an increasingly borderless world buoyed by advances in telecommunications and information technology has resulted in educational reform and subsequently, a reconceptualisation of what constitutes a learner, learning and the influence of the learning environment on the process of learning. In keeping up with the changing trends and challenges of an increasingly networked, dynamic and challenging international community, means to provide an alternative environment that stimulates inquiry and equips learners with the skills needed to manage technological change and innovations must be considered. This paper discusses the importance of interaction, cognition and context, collaboration in a networked computer-mediated environment, the problem-solving approach as a catalyst in stimulating creative and critical thinking and in providing context for meaningful interaction and whether the interactive environment created through computer-mediated collaboration will motivate learners to be responsible for their own learning and be independent thinkers. The sample involved learners from three schools in three different countries. Findings conclude that a rich interactive environment must be personally relevant to the learner by simulating authentic problems without lowering the degree of cognitive complexity. Review in curriculum, assessment and teacher training around constructivist principles are also imperative as these interrelated factors form part of the learning process system.

  7. Allocentric spatial learning and memory deficits in Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela A Banta Lavenex

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that persons with Down Syndrome (DS exhibit relatively poor language capacities, and impaired verbal and visuoperceptual memory, whereas their visuospatial memory capacities appear comparatively spared. Individuals with DS recall better where an object was previously seen than what object was previously seen. However, most of the evidence concerning preserved visuospatial memory comes from tabletop or computerized experiments which are biased towards testing egocentric (viewpoint-dependent spatial representations. Accordingly, allocentric (viewpoint-independent spatial learning and memory capacities may not be necessary to perform these tasks. Thus, in order to more fully characterize the spatial capacities of individuals with DS, allocentric processes underlying real-world navigation must also be investigated. We tested 20 participants with DS and 16 mental age-matched, typically developing (TD children in a real-world, allocentric spatial memory task. During local cue (LC trials, participants had to locate three rewards marked by local color cues, among 12 locations distributed in a 4 m X 4 m arena. During allocentric spatial (AS trials, participants had to locate the same three rewards, in absence of local cues, based on their relations to distal environmental cues. All TD participants chose rewarded locations in LC and AS trials at above chance level. In contrast, although all but one of the participants with DS exhibited a preference for the rewarded locations in LC trials, only 50% of participants with DS chose the rewarded locations at above chance level in AS trials. As a group, participants with DS performed worse than TD children on all measures of task performance. These findings demonstrate that individuals with DS are impaired at using an allocentric spatial representation to learn and remember discrete locations in a controlled environment, suggesting persistent and pervasive deficits in hippocampus

  8. Comparative Study of Learning Using E-Learning and Printed Materials on Independent Learning and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyu Utami, Niken; Aziz Saefudin, Abdul

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to determine: 1) differences in students taking independent learning by using e-learning and the students who attend the learning by using the print instructional materials ; 2) differences in the creativity of students who follow learning with e-learning and the students who attend the learning by using the print instructional materials ; 3) differences in learning independence and creativity of students attend learning with e-learning and the students who attend lessons using printed teaching materials in the subject of Mathematics Instructional Media Development. This study was a quasi-experimental research design using only posttest control design. The study population was all students who take courses in Learning Mathematics Media Development, Academic Year 2014/2015 100 students and used a random sample (random sampling) is 60 students. To test the hypothesis used multivariate analysis of variance or multivariable analysis of variance (MANOVA) of the track. The results of this study indicate that 1) There is a difference in student learning independence following study using the e-learning and the students who attend lessons using printed teaching materials in the lecture PMPM ( F = 4.177, p = 0.046 0.05) ; No difference learning independence and creativity of students attend learning by using e-learning and the students who attend the learning using printed teaching materials in the lecture PMPM (F = 2.452, p = 0.095 > 0.05). Based on these studies suggested that the learning using e -learning can be used to develop student creativity, while learning to use e -learning and teaching materials can be printed to use to develop students’ independence.

  9. The impairment of learning and memory and synaptic loss in mouse after chronic nitrite exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongfang; Cui, Zhanjun; Wang, Lai; Liu, Hongliang; Fan, Wenjuan; Deng, Jinbo; Deng, Jiexin

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the impairment of learning and memory in mouse after chronic nitrite exposure. The animal model of nitrite exposure in mouse was created with the daily intubation of nitrite in adult healthy male mice for 3 months. Furthermore, the mouse's learning and memory abilities were tested with Morris water maze, and the expression of Synaptophysin and γ-Synuclein was visualized with immunocytochemistry and Western blot. Our results showed that nitrite exposure significantly prolonged the escape latency period (ELP) and decreased the values of the frequency across platform (FAP) as well as the accumulative time in target quadrant (ATITQ) compared to control, in dose-dependent manner. In addition, after nitrite exposure, synaptophysin (SYN) positive buttons in the visual cortex was reduced, in contrast the increase of γ-synuclein positive cells. The results above were supported by Western blot as well. We conclude that nitrite exposure could lead to a decline in mice's learning and memory. The overexpression of γ-synuclein contributed to the synaptic loss, which is most likely the cause of learning and memory impairment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1720-1730, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Editorial: Models, technologies and approaches toward widening the open access to learning and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Benlamri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This special issue is devoted to novel models and technologies as well as current methodical approaches and best practices in the field of Open Learning and Open Education as enablers of personal growth, social inclusion, open innovation, and sustainable economic development in the challenging conditions of globalization and world-wide competition in productivity and services. The Open Access to Learning and Education embraces not only various technologies, such as mobile and intelligent technologies, content and data management, user-centered design, but also diverse directions of use, such as e-learning and training, organizational development, Massive Open Online Courses, special needs education, all building an excellent basis for various educational and business arrangements that widen the learning and education opportunities for all people around the globe. Against this background, this special issue demonstrates the immense speed and relentlessness of the Open Access concept growth presenting a wide range of examples toward supporting competency and skills development to ensure highly capable human capital, and solve individual, business, urban, demographic, health as well as social inclusion issues in today’s highly demanding digital economy environment.

  11. Maladaptive learning and memory in hybrids as a reproductive isolating barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amber M; McQuillan, Michael A

    2018-05-30

    Selection against hybrid offspring, or postzygotic reproductive isolation, maintains species boundaries in the face of gene flow from hybridization. In this review, we propose that maladaptive learning and memory in hybrids is an important, but overlooked form of postzygotic reproductive isolation. Although a role for learning in premating isolation has been supported, whether learning deficiencies can contribute to postzygotic isolation has rarely been tested. We argue that the novel genetic combinations created by hybridization have the potential to impact learning and memory abilities through multiple possible mechanisms, and that any displacement from optima in these traits is likely to have fitness consequences. We review evidence supporting the potential for hybridization to affect learning and memory, and evidence of links between learning abilities and fitness. Finally, we suggest several avenues for future research. Given the importance of learning for fitness, especially in novel and unpredictable environments, maladaptive learning and memory in hybrids may be an increasingly important source of postzygotic reproductive isolation. © 2018 The Author(s).

  12. Genistein improves spatial learning and memory in male rats with elevated glucose level during memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Yumi; Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Kuwahara, Rika; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction due to higher blood glucose level has been reported previously. Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen that we hypothesized might lead to improved memory, despite elevated blood glucose levels at the time of memory consolidation. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared the effects of orally administered GEN on the central nervous system in normal versus glucose-loaded adult male rats. A battery of behavioral assessments was carried out. In the MAZE test, which measured spatial learning and memory, the time of normal rats was shortened by GEN treatment compared to the vehicle group, but only in the early stages of testing. In the glucose-loaded group, GEN treatment improved performance as mazes were advanced. In the open-field test, GEN treatment delayed habituation to the new environment in normal rats, and increased the exploratory behaviors of glucose-loaded rats. There were no significant differences observed for emotionality or fear-motivated learning and memory. Together, these results indicate that GEN treatment improved spatial learning and memory only in the early stages of testing in the normal state, but improved spatial learning and memory when glucose levels increased during memory consolidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Preference Learning and Ranking by Pairwise Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürnkranz, Johannes; Hüllermeier, Eyke

    This chapter provides an overview of recent work on preference learning and ranking via pairwise classification. The learning by pairwise comparison (LPC) paradigm is the natural machine learning counterpart to the relational approach to preference modeling and decision making. From a machine learning point of view, LPC is especially appealing as it decomposes a possibly complex prediction problem into a certain number of learning problems of the simplest type, namely binary classification. We explain how to approach different preference learning problems, such as label and instance ranking, within the framework of LPC. We primarily focus on methodological aspects, but also address theoretical questions as well as algorithmic and complexity issues.

  14. Learning and instruction with computer simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The present volume presents the results of an inventory of elements of such a computer learning environment. This inventory was conducted within a DELTA project called SIMULATE. In the project a learning environment that provides intelligent support to learners and that has a simulation as its

  15. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old…

  16. Students' Opinions on Facebook Supported Blended Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Mukaddes; Kibar, Pinar Nuhoglu

    2014-01-01

    The first purpose of this study was to determine students' opinions on blended learning and its implementation. The other purpose was to explore the students' opinions on Facebook integration into blended learning environment. The participants of this study were 40 undergraduate students in their fourth semester of the program.…

  17. The Effects of Integrating Social Learning Environment with Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspopovic, Miroslava; Cvetanovic, Svetlana; Medan, Ivana; Ljubojevic, Danijela

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the learning and teaching styles using the Social Learning Environment (SLE), which was developed based on the computer supported collaborative learning approach. To avoid burdening learners with multiple platforms and tools, SLE was designed and developed in order to integrate existing systems, institutional…

  18. How to Create Healthy Indoor Environments in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Diane; Di Nella, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A green and healthy indoor environment should be a fundamental concern in the place where kids learn and grow. Good indoor air quality (IAQ) has been shown to have positive effects on student and staff productivity, performance, comfort and attendance. Conversely, poor IAQ in classrooms--caused by mold and moisture issues, problems with HVAC…

  19. Development of Digital Instruction for Environment for Global Warming Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praneetham, Chuleewan; Thathong, Kongsak

    2016-01-01

    Technological education and instruction are widely used in the present education trend. Using of digital instruction for environmental subject can encourage students in learning and raise their awareness and attitude on environmental issues. The purposes of this research were: 1) to construct and develop the digital instruction for environment for…

  20. Creative Learning Environments in Education--A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Dan; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Collier, Chris; Digby, Rebecca; Hay, Penny; Howe, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic review of 210 pieces of educational research, policy and professional literature relating to creative environments for learning in schools, commissioned by Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS). Despite the volume of academic literature in this field, the team of six reviewers found comparatively few empirical…

  1. Procrastination, Participation, and Performance in Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michinov, Nicolas; Brunot, Sophie; Le Bohec, Olivier; Juhel, Jacques; Delaval, Marine

    2011-01-01

    The present study focuses on a specific learner characteristic in the management of time--procrastination--, and its role in an online learning environment. More specifically, it was expected that procrastination would influence the successfulness of online learning and that this could be explained by the level of participation of learners in…

  2. E-Learning and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly CAREY

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available E-Learning and Economic Development Kelly CAREY West Valley College Saratoga, CA, USA Stanko BLATNIK Institute for Symbolic Analysis and Development of Information Technologies Velenje, SLOVENIA ABSTRACT In this article, our experience in the development and realization of e-Learning courses in Slovenia is described and discussed. Slovenia, the most developed republic of former Yugoslavia, became an EU member in May 2004. In 1991, after its independence from Yugoslavia, Slovenia’s transition to a free market economy resulted in lost jobs and an unemployment rate of 12%. In 1999, as the Institute for Symbolic Analysis and Development of Information Technologies, located in Velenje, Slovenia, we decided to offer several online courses to help unemployed people gain the skills and knowledge needed for employability in information technology. We drew on our previous experience teaching online courses at Sarajevo University after the Bosnian war and on the experience of West Valley College from Saratoga, Silicon Valley in e-Learning. Over the last four years, we organized and delivered e-Learning courses in digital media design and production, with good results. Several students found jobs and changed their perception and attitude as they became more self-confident. We believe e-Learning can efficiently enhance lifelong learning and support economic development, especially in new member countries transitioning from former socialistic to free market economies.

  3. Learning and digital inclusion: the ELAMP project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate D'Arcy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Electronic Learning and Mobility Project (ELAMP was a nationally funded project by the Department for Children, Schools and Families, which ran from 2004 to 2010. The main aim of ELAMP was to improve the education of Traveller children, particularly highly mobile learners. ELAMP focussed upon the use of mobile technology and distance learning to support, enhance and extend young Travellers’ educational and vocational opportunities. This article will reflect upon the learning and technological experiences and opportunities that the ELAMP project provided for Traveller children, young people and their families. In doing so it will critically consider the value of information technology in working with Traveller communities and advancing their educational opportunities. Reviewing ELAMP work will also demonstrate how the use of mobile technology can improve educational outcomes and Traveller families’ digital inclusion. Now that the project has ended, this article will question why we are not using what we learnt from ELAMP to move forward. The author was a tutor on the project who also evaluated the Strand B, Wider Key Skills element of ELAMP for The University of Sheffield between 2008 and 2010, which is the main focus of this particular article.

  4. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF FEAR LEARNING AND MEMORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Joshua P.; Cain, Christopher K.; Ostroff, Linnaea E.; LeDoux, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    Pavlovian fear conditioning is a useful behavioral paradigm for exploring the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory because a well-defined response to a specific environmental stimulus is produced through associative learning processes. Synaptic plasticity in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) underlies this form of associative learning. Here we summarize the molecular mechanisms that contribute to this synaptic plasticity in the context of auditory fear conditioning, the form of fear conditioning best understood at the molecular level. We discuss the neurotransmitter systems and signaling cascades that contribute to three phases of auditory fear conditioning: acquisition, consolidation, and reconsolidation. These studies suggest that multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including those triggered by activation of Hebbian processes and neuromodulatory receptors, interact to produce neural plasticity in the LA and behavioral fear conditioning. Together, this research illustrates the power of fear conditioning as a model system for characterizing the mechanisms of learning and memory in mammals, and potentially for understanding fear related disorders, such as PTSD and phobias. PMID:22036561

  5. Molecular mechanisms of fear learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Joshua P; Cain, Christopher K; Ostroff, Linnaea E; LeDoux, Joseph E

    2011-10-28

    Pavlovian fear conditioning is a particularly useful behavioral paradigm for exploring the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory because a well-defined response to a specific environmental stimulus is produced through associative learning processes. Synaptic plasticity in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) underlies this form of associative learning. Here, we summarize the molecular mechanisms that contribute to this synaptic plasticity in the context of auditory fear conditioning, the form of fear conditioning best understood at the molecular level. We discuss the neurotransmitter systems and signaling cascades that contribute to three phases of auditory fear conditioning: acquisition, consolidation, and reconsolidation. These studies suggest that multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including those triggered by activation of Hebbian processes and neuromodulatory receptors, interact to produce neural plasticity in the LA and behavioral fear conditioning. Collectively, this body of research illustrates the power of fear conditioning as a model system for characterizing the mechanisms of learning and memory in mammals and potentially for understanding fear-related disorders, such as PTSD and phobias. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The modern research environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topsøe, Flemming

    1993-01-01

    Information Technology, research environment, structured documents, networked information retrieval......Information Technology, research environment, structured documents, networked information retrieval...

  7. Investigating the Impact of Lighting Educational Spaces on Learning and Academic Achievement of Elementary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Gilavand

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background In modern education, physical space is considered as a dynamic factor in students' educational activities. This study was conducted to investigating the impact of lighting educational spaces on learning and academic achievement of elementary students. Materials and Methods At a cross-sectional study (2015-2016, a total of 210 students were selected randomly as sample of study. Cluster sampling was done by appropriate allocation and questionnaires were randomly divided among students. Data collection tools included Hermance’s achievement motivation questionnaire and researcher-constructed questionnaire (observation checklist to examine the physical parameters of learning environment lighting and interviews with students. Data of study were analyzed using SPSS- 21 software. Results Results of this study showed that lighting educational spaces has a significant impact on learning and academic achievement of elementary school students in Ahvaz, Iran (P

  8. Saving-enhanced memory: the benefits of saving on the learning and remembering of new information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Benjamin C; Stone, Sean M

    2015-02-01

    With the continued integration of technology into people's lives, saving digital information has become an everyday facet of human behavior. In the present research, we examined the consequences of saving certain information on the ability to learn and remember other information. Results from three experiments showed that saving one file before studying a new file significantly improved memory for the contents of the new file. Notably, this effect was not observed when the saving process was deemed unreliable or when the contents of the to-be-saved file were not substantial enough to interfere with memory for the new file. These results suggest that saving provides a means to strategically off-load memory onto the environment in order to reduce the extent to which currently unneeded to-be-remembered information interferes with the learning and remembering of other information. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. The Learning Impact of a 4-Dimensional Digital Construction Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Landorf; Stephen Ward

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses a virtual environment approach to work integrated learning for students in construction-related disciplines. The virtual approach provides a safe and pedagogically rigorous environment where students can apply theoretical knowledge in a simulated real-world context. The paper describes the development of a 4-dimensional digital construction environment and associated learning activities funded by the Australian Office for Learning and Teaching. The environment was trialle...

  10. Machine Learning and Data Mining Methods in Diabetes Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavakiotis, Ioannis; Tsave, Olga; Salifoglou, Athanasios; Maglaveras, Nicos; Vlahavas, Ioannis; Chouvarda, Ioanna

    2017-01-01

    The remarkable advances in biotechnology and health sciences have led to a significant production of data, such as high throughput genetic data and clinical information, generated from large Electronic Health Records (EHRs). To this end, application of machine learning and data mining methods in biosciences is presently, more than ever before, vital and indispensable in efforts to transform intelligently all available information into valuable knowledge. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is defined as a group of metabolic disorders exerting significant pressure on human health worldwide. Extensive research in all aspects of diabetes (diagnosis, etiopathophysiology, therapy, etc.) has led to the generation of huge amounts of data. The aim of the present study is to conduct a systematic review of the applications of machine learning, data mining techniques and tools in the field of diabetes research with respect to a) Prediction and Diagnosis, b) Diabetic Complications, c) Genetic Background and Environment, and e) Health Care and Management with the first category appearing to be the most popular. A wide range of machine learning algorithms were employed. In general, 85% of those used were characterized by supervised learning approaches and 15% by unsupervised ones, and more specifically, association rules. Support vector machines (SVM) arise as the most successful and widely used algorithm. Concerning the type of data, clinical datasets were mainly used. The title applications in the selected articles project the usefulness of extracting valuable knowledge leading to new hypotheses targeting deeper understanding and further investigation in DM.

  11. Outcome Mapping: Building Learning and Reflection into ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and affirmation that being attentive along the journey is as important as, and critical to, arriving at ... More and more, development organizations are under pressure to ... is essentially about people relating to each other and their environment.

  12. A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan L

    2016-03-01

    Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about abstract causal constraints? Recent empirical studies have revealed that experience with one set of causal cues can dramatically alter subsequent learning and performance with entirely different cues, suggesting that learning involves abstract transfer, and such transfer effects involve sequential presentation of distinct sets of causal cues. It has been demonstrated that pre-training (or even post-training) can modulate classic causal learning phenomena such as forward and backward blocking. To account for these effects, we propose a Bayesian theory of sequential causal learning. The theory assumes that humans are able to consider and use several alternative causal generative models, each instantiating a different causal integration rule. Model selection is used to decide which integration rule to use in a given learning environment in order to infer causal knowledge from sequential data. Detailed computer simulations demonstrate that humans rely on the abstract characteristics of outcome variables (e.g., binary vs. continuous) to select a causal integration rule, which in turn alters causal learning in a variety of blocking and overshadowing paradigms. When the nature of the outcome variable is ambiguous, humans select the model that yields the best fit with the recent environment, and then apply it to subsequent learning tasks. Based on sequential patterns of cue-outcome co-occurrence, the theory can account for a range of phenomena in sequential causal learning, including various blocking effects, primacy effects in some experimental conditions, and apparently abstract transfer of causal knowledge. Copyright © 2015

  13. Technology enhanced peer learning and peer assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian Bugge; Bregnhøj, Henrik; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the application of learning designs featuring formalised and structured technology enhanced peer learning. These include student produced learning elements, peer review discussions and peer assessment in the BSc/MSc level summer course Restoration of European Ecosystems...... and Freshwaters (REEF), the Master thesis preparation seminars for the Master of Public Health (MPH) and the MOOC course Global Environmental Management (GEM). The application of student produced learning elements and peer review discussions is investigated by analyzing quotes from course evaluations...... and performing focus group interviews. The application of peer assessment is investigated by analyzing the agreement of peer assessment between students assessing the same assignment. Our analyses confirm previous research on the value of peer learning and peer assessment and we argue that there could also...

  14. Technology enhanced peer learning and peer assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian Bugge; Bregnhøj, Henrik; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the application of learning designs featuring formalised and structured technology enhanced peer learning. These include student produced learning elements, peer review discussions and peer assessment in the BSc/MSc level summer course Restoration of European Ecosystems and Fr...... be a huge benefit from developing learning design patterns that facilitate informal peer learning and reinforce knowledge sharing practices.......This paper explores the application of learning designs featuring formalised and structured technology enhanced peer learning. These include student produced learning elements, peer review discussions and peer assessment in the BSc/MSc level summer course Restoration of European Ecosystems...... and Freshwaters (REEF), the Master thesis preparation seminars for the Master of Public Health (MPH) and the MOOC course Global Environmental Management (GEM). The application of student produced learning elements and peer review discussions is investigated by analyzing quotes from course evaluations...

  15. Role of organizational learning and knowledge management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleem Fazal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is based on Electrocell, a US battery manufacturing company, which was facing problems in its marketing and sales departments as evidenced by its low performance. Following a short introduction to the firm, literature reviews the two recently emerged and widely debated topics, that is, organizational learning and knowledge management. It is followed by the reasons for Electrocell’s declination and revival before and after acquisition by Restart, a US cosmetic manufacturing company. Then, Knowledge Sharing Model, General Hierarchical Model of Organizational Commitment, Knowledge Management, and Learning Organization Capacity, and Three Dimensional Model are described and critically analyzed. At the end, Knowledge Management System Conceptual Model is applied on the case study thoroughly and critically analyzed followed by summary. The research contributes to the literature and offers important implications for academics, managers and strategists that why learning is important and how does it matter to an organization.

  16. Precarious Learning and Labour in Financialized Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Magnusson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Our current globalized economic regimes of financialized capital have systematically altered relations of learning and labour through the dynamics of precarity, debt, and the political economy of new wars. The risks of these regimes are absorbed unevenly across transnational landscapes, creating cartographies of violence and dispossession, particularly among youth, indigenous, working class, and racialized women. Presently there is surprisingly little discussion on the relevance of financialization for adult educators. Transnational resistances organizing against neoliberal restructuring, austerity policies, and debt crises are emerging at the same time that massive investments are being made into homeland security and the carceral state. This paper opens up discussion on the implications of financialized times for educators, and develops an analytic framework for examining how these global realities are best addressed at local sites of adult and higher education.

  17. Perceptual learning and adult cortical plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Charles D; Li, Wu; Piech, Valentin

    2009-06-15

    The visual cortex retains the capacity for experience-dependent changes, or plasticity, of cortical function and cortical circuitry, throughout life. These changes constitute the mechanism of perceptual learning in normal visual experience and in recovery of function after CNS damage. Such plasticity can be seen at multiple stages in the visual pathway, including primary visual cortex. The manifestation of the functional changes associated with perceptual learning involve both long term modification of cortical circuits during the course of learning, and short term dynamics in the functional properties of cortical neurons. These dynamics are subject to top-down influences of attention, expectation and perceptual task. As a consequence, each cortical area is an adaptive processor, altering its function in accordance to immediate perceptual demands.

  18. Three Cases of Hashtags Used as Learning and Professional Development Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veletsianos, George

    2017-01-01

    Hashtags offer exciting opportunities for professional development, teaching, and learning. However, their use reflects users' needs and desires. To illustrate and problematize the ways hashtags are used in professional development settings, this study reports on users' participation patterns, users' roles, and content contributed to three unique…

  19. Multi-agent models of spatial cognition, learning and complex choice behavior in urban environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arentze, Theo; Timmermans, Harry; Portugali, J.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of ongoing research projects in the DDSS research program at TUE related to multi-agents. Projects include (a) the use of multi-agent models and concepts of artificial intelligence to develop models of activity-travel behavior; (b) the use of a multi-agent model to

  20. An Interactive Learning Environment Designed to Increase the Possibilities for Learning and Communicating about Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Sonja M.

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is a natural part of most people's everyday life, and has also been introduced in schools. Previous studies have tended to focus on issues related to competency of teachers and lack of computer technology in schools. Focus now seems to be moving towards studies that help us understand how ICT may be…

  1. A Distributed Model for Mobile Robot Environment-Learning and Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    are unex- pectedly removed, the bats continue to navigate around, as if they continue to be present [ Gallistel 89]. This behavior indicates the...itself ( Gallistel 80]. 11.2.2 Bees The behavior of bees has been intriguing biologists, behaviorists, and ethol- ogists for centuries. Bee hives...corresponding to their previous length [ Gallistel 80]. In experiments with rotated radial mazes, rats enter already sampled arms without realizing the

  2. How to facilitate freshmen learning and support their transition to a university study environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Jari; Rantanen, Elisa; Kettunen, Lauri

    2017-11-01

    Most freshmen enter universities with high expectations and with good motivation, but too many are driven into performing instead of true learning. The issues are not only related to the challenge of comprehending the substance, social and other factors have an impact as well. All these multifaceted needs should be accounted for to facilitate student learning. Learning is an individual process and remarkable improvement in the learning practices is possible, if proper actions are addressed early enough. We motivate and describe a study of the experience obtained from a set of tailor-made courses that were given alongside standard curriculum. The courses aimed to provide a 'safe community' to address the multifaceted needs. Such support was integrated into regular coursework where active learning techniques, e.g. interactive small groups were incorporated. To assess impact of the courses we employ the feedback obtained during the courses and longitudinal statistical data about students' success.

  3. A Framework for Evaluating Common Operating Environments: Piloting, Lessons Learned, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    defined set of terminology definitions, which include illustra- tive elaborations, architectural descriptions, and commonly understood commercial exam ...Because the technical solution under review used many aspects of service-oriented architectures ( SOAs ), the SEI team leveraged insights gleaned...systems solutions. Examples included in this paper are intended only to provide illustrative insight into the definitions in- dependent of the

  4. Adaptive Learning and Thinking Style to Improve E-Learning Environment Using Neural Network (ALTENN) Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dagez, Hanan Ettaher; Ambarka, Ali Elghali

    2015-01-01

     In recent years we have witnessed an increasingly heightened awareness of the potential benefits of adaptively in e-learning. This has been mainly driven by the realization that the ideal of individualized learning (i.e., learning tailored to the specific requirements and preferences of the individual) cannot be achieved, especially at a “massive” scale, using traditional approaches. In e-learning when the learning style of the student is not compatible with the teaching style of the teacher...

  5. An Investigation of the Effects of a Facility Dog on Student Learning and the Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jordana

    2013-01-01

    According to No Child Left Behind, teachers must consider alternative teaching strategies to improve student achievement. The use of a facility dog as an instructional enhancement is an innovative teaching approach that deserves further research. The theoretical framework for the study was human-animal bond theory, which postulates that…

  6. STRUCTURED LEARNING AND TRAINING ENVIRONMENTS--A PREPARATION LABORATORY FOR ADVANCED MAMMALIAN PHYSIOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FIEL, NICHOLAS J.; JOHNSTON, RAYMOND F.

    A PREPARATION LABORATORY WAS DESIGNED TO FAMILIARIZE STUDENTS IN ADVANCED MAMMALIAN PHYSIOLOGY WITH LABORATORY SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES AND THUS SHORTEN THE TIME THEY SPEND IN SETTING UP ACTUAL EXPERIMENTS. THE LABORATORY LASTS 30 MINUTES, IS FLEXIBLE AND SIMPLE OF OPERATION, AND DOES NOT REQUIRE A PROFESSOR'S PRESENCE. THE BASIC TRAINING UNIT IS THE…

  7. Inquiry Based Learning and Meaning Generation through Modelling on Geometrical Optics in a Constructionist Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsari, Constantina; Smyrnaiou, Zacharoula

    2017-01-01

    The central roles that modelling plays in the processes of scientific enquiry and that models play as the outcomes of that enquiry are well established (Gilbert & Boulter, 1998). Besides, there are considerable similarities between the processes and outcomes of science and technology (Cinar, 2016). In this study, we discuss how the use of…

  8. An Action Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Brand, Mark; Iversen, Jørgen; Mosses, Peter David

    2004-01-01

    constructs underlying Core ML. The paper also describes the Action Environment, a new environment supporting use and validation of ASDF descriptions. The Action Environment has been implemented on top of the ASF+SDF Meta-Environment, exploiting recent advances in techniques for integration of different...... formalisms, and inheriting all the main features of the Meta-Environment....

  9. Social network analysis of study environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Divjak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Student working environment influences student learning and achievement level. In this respect social aspects of students’ formal and non-formal learning play special role in learning environment. The main research problem of this paper is to find out if students' academic performance influences their position in different students' social networks. Further, there is a need to identify other predictors of this position. In the process of problem solving we use the Social Network Analysis (SNA that is based on the data we collected from the students at the Faculty of Organization and Informatics, University of Zagreb. There are two data samples: in the basic sample N=27 and in the extended sample N=52. We collected data on social-demographic position, academic performance, learning and motivation styles, student status (full-time/part-time, attitudes towards individual and teamwork as well as informal cooperation. Afterwards five different networks (exchange of learning materials, teamwork, informal communication, basic and aggregated social network were constructed. These networks were analyzed with different metrics and the most important were betweenness, closeness and degree centrality. The main result is, firstly, that the position in a social network cannot be forecast only by academic success and, secondly, that part-time students tend to form separate groups that are poorly connected with full-time students. In general, position of a student in social networks in study environment can influence student learning as well as her/his future employability and therefore it is worthwhile to be investigated.

  10. Discussion of the enabling environments for decentralised water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglia, M; Alexander, K S; Sharma, A

    2011-01-01

    Decentralised water supply systems are becoming increasingly affordable and commonplace in Australia and have the potential to alleviate urban water shortages and reduce pollution into natural receiving marine and freshwater streams. Learning processes are necessary to support the efficient implementation of decentralised systems. These processes reveal the complex socio-technical and institutional factors to be considered when developing an enabling environment supporting decentralised water and wastewater servicing solutions. Critical to the technological transition towards established decentralised systems is the ability to create strategic and adaptive capacity to promote learning and dialogue. Learning processes require institutional mechanisms to ensure the lessons are incorporated into the formulation of policy and regulation, through constructive involvement of key government institutions. Engagement of stakeholders is essential to the enabling environment. Collaborative learning environments using systems analysis with communities (social learning) and adaptive management techniques are useful in refining and applying scientists' and managers' knowledge (knowledge management).

  11. Environmental impoverishment and aging alter object recognition, spatial learning, and dentate gyrus astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Daniel G; Foro, César A R; Rego, Carla M D; Gloria, David A; de Oliveira, Fabio R R; Paes, Juliana M P; de Sousa, Aline A; Tokuhashi, Tatyana P; Trindade, Lucas S; Turiel, Maíra C P; Vasconcelos, Erick G R; Torres, João B; Cunnigham, Colm; Perry, Victor H; Vasconcelos, Pedro F da Costa; Diniz, Cristovam W P

    2010-08-01

    Environmental and age-related effects on learning and memory were analysed and compared with changes observed in astrocyte laminar distribution in the dentate gyrus. Aged (20 months) and young (6 months) adult female albino Swiss mice were housed from weaning either in impoverished conditions or in enriched conditions, and tested for episodic-like and water maze spatial memories. After these behavioral tests, brain hippocampal sections were immunolabeled for glial fibrillary acid protein to identify astrocytes. The effects of environmental enrichment on episodic-like memory were not dependent on age, and may protect water maze spatial learning and memory from declines induced by aging or impoverished environment. In the dentate gyrus, the number of astrocytes increased with both aging and enriched environment in the molecular layer, increased only with aging in the polymorphic layer, and was unchanged in the granular layer. We suggest that long-term experience-induced glial plasticity by enriched environment may represent at least part of the circuitry groundwork for improvements in behavioral performance in the aged mice brain.

  12. Debating Life on Mars: The Knowledge Integration Environment (KIE) in Varied School Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, Linda

    Technology-enabled learning environments are beginning to come of age. Tools and frameworks are now available that have been shown to improve learning and are being deployed more widely in varied school settings. Teachers are now faced with the formidable challenge of integrating these promising new environments with the everyday context in which…

  13. Environment | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Argonne National Laboratory Toggle Navigation Toggle Search Energy Environment Laboratory About Safety News Careers Education Community Diversity Directory Energy Environment National Security User Facilities Science Work with Us Environment Atmospheric and Climate Science Ecological

  14. 39 Peer tutors as learning and teaching partners: a cumulative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that of learning and teaching partners to both lecturers and students. ... learning and growth using a balanced approach, which included scholarly research and .... peer tutors to be the kind of academic advisors to students that universities ... In terms of advantages, student peer tutors are closer in experience to the students.

  15. The effect of early administration of glucocorticoids on learning and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been observed that steroids administered postnatally may have transient retarding effect on learning and memory functions, and that animal age and sex may modify such effects. This study aims to illustrate the effect of early administration of glucocorticoids on learning and spatial memory. Wistar rat pups were ...

  16. An Elegant Mind: Learning and Memory in "Caenorhabditis elegans"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiel, Evan L.; Rankin, Catharine H.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on learning and memory in the soil-dwelling nematode "Caenorhabditis elegans." Paradigms include nonassociative learning, associative learning, and imprinting, as worms have been shown to habituate to mechanical and chemical stimuli, as well as learn the smells, tastes, temperatures, and oxygen levels that…

  17. Current Trends in Higher Education Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    Current trends in higher education learning and teaching focuses on the use of technology, integrated learning through "blended learning" and writing for academic purposes. This introductory article initiates the debate around the context of South African higher education teaching and learning. It does so by contextualizing the South…

  18. The Roles of Protein Kinases in Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Karl Peter; Mizuno, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, more than 250 protein kinases are expressed, but only a few of these kinases are currently known to enable learning and memory. Based on this information it appears that learning and memory-related kinases either impact on synaptic transmission by altering ion channel properties or ion channel density, or regulate…

  19. E-learning and education in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Antonio; Brunese, Luca; Pinto, Fabio; Acampora, Ciro; Romano, Luigia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate current applications of e-learning in radiology. Material and methods: A Medline search was performed using PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD) for publications discussing the applications of e-learning in radiology. The search strategy employed a single combination of the following terms: (1) e-learning, and (2) education and (3) radiology. This review was limited to human studies and to English-language literature. We reviewed all the titles and subsequent the abstract of 29 articles that appeared pertinent. Additional articles were identified by reviewing the reference lists of relevant papers. Finally, the full text of 38 selected articles was reviewed. Results: Literature data shows that with the constant development of technology and global spread of computer networks, in particular of the Internet, the integration of multimedia and interactivity introduced into electronic publishing has allowed the creation of multimedia applications that provide valuable support for medical teaching and continuing medical education, specifically for radiology. Such technologies are valuable tools for collaboration, interactivity, simulation, and self-testing. However, not everything on the World Wide Web is useful, accurate, or beneficial: the quality and veracity of medical information on the World Wide Web is variable and much time can be wasted as many websites do not meet basic publication standards. Conclusion: E-learning will become an important source of education in radiology.

  20. E-learning and education in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Antonio; Brunese, Luca; Pinto, Fabio; Acampora, Ciro; Romano, Luigia

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate current applications of e-learning in radiology. A Medline search was performed using PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD) for publications discussing the applications of e-learning in radiology. The search strategy employed a single combination of the following terms: (1) e-learning, and (2) education and (3) radiology. This review was limited to human studies and to English-language literature. We reviewed all the titles and subsequent the abstract of 29 articles that appeared pertinent. Additional articles were identified by reviewing the reference lists of relevant papers. Finally, the full text of 38 selected articles was reviewed. Literature data shows that with the constant development of technology and global spread of computer networks, in particular of the Internet, the integration of multimedia and interactivity introduced into electronic publishing has allowed the creation of multimedia applications that provide valuable support for medical teaching and continuing medical education, specifically for radiology. Such technologies are valuable tools for collaboration, interactivity, simulation, and self-testing. However, not everything on the World Wide Web is useful, accurate, or beneficial: the quality and veracity of medical information on the World Wide Web is variable and much time can be wasted as many websites do not meet basic publication standards. E-learning will become an important source of education in radiology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. E-learning and education in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Antonio, E-mail: antopin1968@libero.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, A. Cardarelli Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Brunese, Luca, E-mail: lucabrunese@libero.it [Department of Health Science, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Molise, I-86100 Campobasso (Italy); Pinto, Fabio, E-mail: fpinto1966@libero.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, A. Cardarelli Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Acampora, Ciro, E-mail: itrasente@libero.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, A. Cardarelli Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Romano, Luigia, E-mail: luigia.romano@fastwebnet.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, A. Cardarelli Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate current applications of e-learning in radiology. Material and methods: A Medline search was performed using PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD) for publications discussing the applications of e-learning in radiology. The search strategy employed a single combination of the following terms: (1) e-learning, and (2) education and (3) radiology. This review was limited to human studies and to English-language literature. We reviewed all the titles and subsequent the abstract of 29 articles that appeared pertinent. Additional articles were identified by reviewing the reference lists of relevant papers. Finally, the full text of 38 selected articles was reviewed. Results: Literature data shows that with the constant development of technology and global spread of computer networks, in particular of the Internet, the integration of multimedia and interactivity introduced into electronic publishing has allowed the creation of multimedia applications that provide valuable support for medical teaching and continuing medical education, specifically for radiology. Such technologies are valuable tools for collaboration, interactivity, simulation, and self-testing. However, not everything on the World Wide Web is useful, accurate, or beneficial: the quality and veracity of medical information on the World Wide Web is variable and much time can be wasted as many websites do not meet basic publication standards. Conclusion: E-learning will become an important source of education in radiology.

  2. Instrumental learning and cognitive flexibility processes are impaired in children exposed to early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Madeline B; Shannon Bowen, Katherine E; Hanson, Jamie L; Pollak, Seth D

    2017-10-19

    Children who experience severe early life stress show persistent deficits in many aspects of cognitive and social adaptation. Early stress might be associated with these broad changes in functioning because it impairs general learning mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we examined whether individuals who experienced abusive caregiving in childhood had difficulties with instrumental learning and/or cognitive flexibility as adolescents. Fifty-three 14-17-year-old adolescents (31 exposed to high levels of childhood stress, 22 control) completed an fMRI task that required them to first learn associations in the environment and then update those pairings. Adolescents with histories of early life stress eventually learned to pair stimuli with both positive and negative outcomes, but did so more slowly than their peers. Furthermore, these stress-exposed adolescents showed markedly impaired cognitive flexibility; they were less able than their peers to update those pairings when the contingencies changed. These learning problems were reflected in abnormal activity in learning- and attention-related brain circuitry. Both altered patterns of learning and neural activation were associated with the severity of lifetime stress that the adolescents had experienced. Taken together, the results of this experiment suggest that basic learning processes are impaired in adolescents exposed to early life stress. These general learning mechanisms may help explain the emergence of social problems observed in these individuals. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Contextual learning and context effects during infancy: 30 years of controversial research revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revillo, D A; Cotella, E; Paglini, M G; Arias, C

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 30years a considerable number of reports have explored learning about context during infancy in both humans and rats. This research was stimulated by two different theoretical frameworks. The first, known as the neuromaturational model, postulates that learning and behavior are context-independent during early ontogeny, a hypothesis based on the idea that contextual learning is dependent on the hippocampal function, and that this brain structure does not reach full maturity until late in infancy. The second theoretical framework views infants not as immature organisms, but rather as perfectly matured ones, given that their behavioral and cognitive capacities allow them to adapt appropriately to the demands of their specific environment in accordance with their maturational level. This model predicts significant ontogenetic variations in learning and memory due to developmental differences in what is perceived and attended to during learning episodes, which can result in ontogenetic differences in contextual learning depending on the specific demands of the task. The present manuscript reviews those studies that have examined potential developmental differences in contextual learning and context effects in rats. The reviewed results show that, during infancy, context can exert a similar influence over learning and memory as that described for the adult rat. Moreover, in some cases, contextual learning and context effects were greater in infants than in adults. In contrast, under other experimental conditions, no evidence of contextual learning or context effects was observed. We analyzed the procedural factors of these studies with the aim of detecting those that favor or impede contextual learning during infancy, and we discussed whether existing empirical evidence supports the claim that the functionality of the hippocampus is a limiting factor for this type of learning during infancy. Finally, conclusions from human research into contextual learning

  4. International environment, enterprise environment and energy environment giving different look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Shunsuke

    1987-04-01

    0he international environment, enterprise environment and energy environment surrounding Japan are changing their looks. In such situation, what Japan should do for the development of the world was discussed. Internationally, in the Western Pacific economical block including Japan and Asian NICs, Japan promotes the international exchange of materials, capital, technology, information and people, and creates various international public properties. Enterprisers should have global mind, and cope with the internationalization, technical innovation and information orientation which are in progress at present through international exchange, interindustrial exchange, industry-university-government exchange and so on. In the aspect of energy environment, Japan carries out the technical development of energy conservation, energy, creation and the exploration of energy resources, in this way, contributes to the stabilization of energy in the world. (3 figs, 1 tab)

  5. Keep taking the tablets? Assessing the use of tablet devices in learning and teaching activities in the Further Education sector

    OpenAIRE

    Khristin Fabian; Donald MacLean

    2014-01-01

    This article summarises the methodology and outcomes of an interventionist/action research project to assess the benefits, and potential pitfalls, of the use of mobile devices in learning and teaching activities in a Further Education environment. A bank of 15 tablet devices were purchased and prepared for classroom use. Staff members were approached to scope potential activities and uses for the tablet devices. Three departments took part in the research activity: the Language School, Social...

  6. Pesticides and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Home Page Pesticides and the Environment Related Topics: What Happens to Pesticides Released into the Environment? Pesticide Storage Pesticide Disposal Pesticide Products Integrated Pest Management (IPM) How Safe

  7. Global Environment Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    environment Countries pledge US$4.1 billion to the Global Environment Facility Ringtail lemur mom with two of paradise Nations rally to protect global environment Countries pledge US$4.1 billion to the Global Environment Facility Stockholm, Sweden birds-eye view Events GEF-7 Replenishment Trung Truong Son Landscapes

  8. Effect of Royal Jelly on Improving Passive Avoidance Learning and Spatial Learning and Memory in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Alaei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies have proposed that royal jelly(RJ has various biological activities in different cells and tissues. Since it has been demonstrated that RJ contains compounds having desirable effects on central neurons system and neural functions, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of royal jelly on learning and memory in rats. Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into two groups, the royal jelly and the control. In the RJ group, the rats received a food that contained 3% RJ instead of regular food for 10 days. Then learning and memory were investigated in these animals through both passive avoidance learning test(1 day and 1 week after receiving electrical shock and Morris water maze test(1 day and 1 week after a 4-day learning period. Results: The study results indicated that the food containing RJ in the RJ group significantly increased the time of the first entrance to the dark room one week after the electrical shock in passive avoidance learning test. In other words, the findings suggest an improvement of learning and memory in RJ group. In the acquisition phase of Morris water maze test, rats receiving RJ found the underwater escape plate during less time and distance comparing with the control group. Furthermore, one week after the acquisition phase, in the retention phase, rats spent more time in the quadrant in which the escape plate was previously located. Conclusion: The present study findings propose that Royal Jelly can improve cognitive processes through positive effects on neural functions and probably has a significant influence on prevention and therapy of some neuronal disorders.

  9. Sleep disturbance induces neuroinflammation and impairment of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Biao; Dong, Yuanlin; Xu, Zhipeng; Gompf, Heinrich S; Ward, Sarah A P; Xue, Zhanggang; Miao, Changhong; Zhang, Yiying; Chamberlin, Nancy L; Xie, Zhongcong

    2012-12-01

    Hospitalized patients can develop cognitive function decline, the mechanisms of which remain largely to be determined. Sleep disturbance often occurs in hospitalized patients, and neuroinflammation can induce learning and memory impairment. We therefore set out to determine whether sleep disturbance can induce neuroinflammation and impairment of learning and memory in rodents. Five to 6-month-old wild-type C57BL/6J male mice were used in the studies. The mice were placed in rocking cages for 24 h, and two rolling balls were present in each cage. The mice were tested for learning and memory function using the Fear Conditioning Test one and 7 days post-sleep disturbance. Neuroinflammation in the mouse brain tissues was also determined. Of the Fear Conditioning studies at one day and 7 days after sleep disturbance, twenty-four hour sleep disturbance decreased freezing time in the context test, which assesses hippocampus-dependent learning and memory; but not the tone test, which assesses hippocampus-independent learning and memory. Sleep disturbance increased pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 levels and induced microglia activation in the mouse hippocampus, but not the cortex. These results suggest that sleep disturbance induces neuroinflammation in the mouse hippocampus, and impairs hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in mice. Pending further studies, these findings suggest that sleep disturbance-induced neuroinflammation and impairment of learning and memory may contribute to the development of cognitive function decline in hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Toward a conceptualization of retrohippocampal contributions to learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, David J; Robinson, Siobhan

    2014-12-01

    A wealth of data supports the notion that the hippocampus binds objects and events together in place and time. In support of this function, a cortical circuit that includes the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) and various structures in the parahippocampal region is thought to provide the hippocampus with essential information regarding the physical and temporal context in which the object/event occurs. However, it remains unclear if and how individual components of this so-called 'where' circuit make unique contributions to processing context-related information. Here we focus on the RSC and the postrhinal cortex (POR; homologous with parahippocampal cortex (PHC) in primates), two of the most strongly interconnected components of the where pathway and the foci of an increasing amount of recent research. Much of the behavioral evidence to date suggests that RSC and POR/PHC work closely together as a functional unit. We begin by briefly reviewing studies that have investigated the involvement of RSC and POR/PHC in contextual and spatial learning, both of which involve learning associations and relationships between the individual stimuli that compose an environment (i.e., where information). However, we propose that potential differences have been overlooked because most studies to date have relied on behavioral paradigms and experimental approaches that are not well suited for distinguishing between different aspects of information processing. We then consider the anatomical differences between RSC and POR/PHC and emerging behavioral evidence that gives rise to a working model of how these regions may differentially contribute to hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. We then discuss experimental designs and behavioral methods that may be useful in testing the model. Finally, approaches are described that may be valuable in probing the nature of information processing and neuroplasticity in the myriad of local circuits that are nested within the where pathway

  11. Distance learning and the internet in respiratory therapy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekojis, Sarah M; Sergakis, Georgianna G; Dunlevy, Crystal L; Foote, Elbie; Clutter, Jill

    2011-11-01

    The profession of respiratory therapy (RT) continues to grow both in number, due to population growth and an ever-increasing aging population, and scope of practice, due to both new and expanded roles and responsibilities in divergent areas of clinical practice. Instructional technology, including distance learning, will probably play a key role in training, educating, and assessing RT students to meet the increasing demand for practitioners. To assess current uses of distance learning and opinions concerning the appropriate use of distance education in RT education programs nationwide. A 13-item on-line survey was designed to collect information about the frequency of use of various types of distance education typically utilized in RT education programs. The survey was sent to directors of 343 Committee on Accreditation for Respiratory Care accredited programs of RT education that offer entry-level or advanced courses of study. The response rate was 50% (169 respondents). Fifty-two percent of the respondents indicated that their courses included some form of on-line learning component. Most directors anticipated that the distance composition of their course offerings will remain unchanged or increase in the near future. Our results indicate that, while distance education plays an important supportive role in RT education, there is still a preference for face-to-face instruction and Internet-facilitated courses among program directors. Program directors continue to view the laboratory and clinical settings as hands-on environments that require instructor supervision in order for students to demonstrate proficiency and critical thinking skills. When used appropriately, distance learning may be an efficient and effective approach to address the many barriers to education faced by the health workforce in general, including budget constraints, overloaded schedules, the need for on-the-job learning opportunities, and lack of access.

  12. School-based nutrition education: lessons learned and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodrigo , C; Aranceta , J

    2001-02-01

    Nutrition is a major environmental influence on physical and mental growth and development in early life. Food habits during infancy can influence preferences and practices in later life and some evidence suggests fair to moderate tracking of food habits from childhood to adolescence. Studies support that good nutrition contributes to improving the wellbeing of children and their potential learning ability, thus contributing to better school performance. Children and young people who learn healthy eating habits, are encouraged to be physically active, to avoid smoking and to learn to manage stress, have the potential for reduced impact of chronic diseases in adulthood. Nutrition education is a key element to promoting lifelong healthy eating and exercise behaviours and should start from the early stages of life; it should also address the specific nutritional needs associated with pregnancy, including reinforcing breastfeeding. Food habits are complex in nature and multiple conditioning factors interact in their development. Young children do not choose what they eat, but their parents decide and prepare the food for them. During infancy and early childhood the family is a key environment for children to learn and develop food preferences and eating habits. As they grow and start school, teachers, peers and other people at school, together with the media and social leaders, become more important. Progressively children become more independent and start making their own food choices. The peer group is very important for adolescents and has a major influence in developing both food habits and lifestyles. Community trials suggest that nutrition education is an accessible effective tool in health promotion programmes with a focus on the development of healthy eating practices.

  13. Physician Self-directed Learning and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Tagawa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Physicians are expected to be life-long learners because updated and effective patient care should be provided while medical and clinical knowledge and skills and social requirements for patient care are rapidly changing. Also, qualified clinical competence needs long periods of training and each physician has to continually learn as long as he/she works as a professional. Self-directed learning is an important factor in adult learning. Medical students' readiness for self-directed learning is not high, and should be improved by medical school and postgraduate training curricula. Garrison proposed a comprehensive model of self-directed learning, and it has dimensions of motivation (entering and task, self-monitoring (responsibility, and self-management (responsibility. To teach individual self-directed learning competencies, the following are important: (1 situate learners to experience “real” problems; (2 encourage learners to reflect on their own performance; (3 create an educational atmosphere in clinical training situations. In 2005, a 2-year mandatory residency program was implemented in Japan, and fewer medical school graduates took residency programs in medical school hospitals and advanced specialty programs provided by medical school departments. Medical school departments provide traditional, but life-long clinical training opportunities. Under the new residency program, an additional postgraduate and continuing medical training system has to be built up to maintain and confirm a physician's competencies. If physicians do clinical work using a scholarly way of thinking with critical analysis of their own competencies and improvement by reflection, they will become an excellent life-long learner.

  14. Resilience engineering and the built environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    important to understand the range of conditions about why and how the system functions in the desired' mode as well as unwanted' modes. Resilience is the capacity to sustain operations under both expected and unexpected conditions. The unexpected conditions are not only threats but also opportunities.......The possible relations between resilience engineering and built environments are explored. Resilience engineering has been concerned with the safe and efficient functioning of large and small industrial systems. These may be described as built systems or artefacts. The resilience engineering...... approach argues that if the performance of systems is to be resilient, then they must be able to respond, monitor, learn and anticipate. The last ability in particular means that they must be able to consider themselves vis-a-vis their environment, i.e. be sentient and reflective systems. In practice...

  15. Personal Learning Environment – a Conceptual Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Mühlburger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of digital technologies as well as the World Wide Web on education rises dramatically. In former years Learning Management Systems (LMS were introduced on educational institutes to address the needs both their institutions and their lecturers. Nowadays a shift from an institution-centered approach to a learner-centered one becomes necessary to allow individuality through the learning process and to think about learning strategies in general. In this paper a first approach of a Personal Learning Environment (PLE is described. The technological concept is pointed out as well as a study about the graphical user-interface done at Graz University of Technology (TU Graz. It can be concluded that PLEs are the next generation environments, which help to improve the learning and teaching behavior

  16. Promoting Science Learning and Scientific Identification through Contemporary Scientific Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horne, Katie

    tools and means of contemporary scientific inquiry allows them to gain conceptual development and proficiency with the scientific practices within the contexts of their lives, in ways that provided access to resources that promoted students' stabilization of practice-linked identities. For teachers implementing this instructional model in their classrooms, it brought up dilemmas and opportunities related to their school contexts and their personal history of instructional practices. The work collectively informs how interest-driven project-based science instruction can happen across a range of school contexts and how such models can support meaningful science learning and identification.

  17. Transformed Telepresence and Its Association with Learning in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: A Case Study in English Learning and Its Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Yu-Liang; Tai, Yaming; Chen, Jun-Horng

    2017-01-01

    Telepresence has been playing an important role in a mediated learning environment. However, the current design of telepresence seems to be dominated by the emulation of physical human presence. With reference to social constructivism learning and the recognition of individuals as intelligent entities, this study explored the transformation of…

  18. See me, touch me, heal me : the role of visuo-spatial ability in virtual anatomical learning and surgical simulator training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Medical learning and training are fields in transition. Catalyst in this change is the introduction of digital technology, for example in the form of simulator technology in surgical training, and virtual learning environments in anatomical learning. The primary aim of this thesis is to help

  19. Climate for Learning: A Symposium. Creating a Climate for Learning, and the Humanizing Process. The Principal and School Discipline. Curriculum Bulletin Vol. XXXII, No. 341.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Simon O.; Chaky, June

    This publication contains two articles focusing on creating a climate for learning. In "Creating a Climate for Learning, and the Humanizing Process," Simon O. Johnson offers practical suggestions for creating a humanistic learning environment. The author begins by defining the basic concepts--humanism, affective education, affective situation,…

  20. EDUCATION REFORMS TOWARDS 21ST CENTURY SKILLS: TRANSFORMING STUDENTS' LEARNING EXPERIENCES THROUGH EFFECTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Harriet Wambui Njui

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on learning environments with a view to making recommendations on how teachers could create effective and high-quality learning environments that provide learners with transformative learning experiences as they go through the process of education. An effective learning environment is critical because quality education, which is essential to real learning and human development, is influenced by factors both inside and outside the classroom. Learning institutions ...

  1. The role of virtual reality and 3D modelling in built environment education

    OpenAIRE

    Horne, Margaret; Thompson, Emine Mine

    2007-01-01

    This study builds upon previous research on the integration of Virtual Reality (VR) within the built environment curriculum and aims to investigate the role of Virtual Reality and three-dimensional (3D) computer modelling on learning and teaching in a school of the built environment. In order to achieve this aim a number of academic experiences were analysed to explore the applicability and viability of 3D computer modelling and Virtual Reality (VR) into built environment subject areas. Altho...

  2. Pre- and/or postnatal protein restriction in rats impairs learning and motivation in male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Castro, L A; Rodriguez, J S; Rodríguez-González, G L; Wimmer, R D; McDonald, T J; Larrea, F; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2011-04-01

    Suboptimal developmental environments program offspring to lifelong health complications including affective and cognitive disorders. Little is known about the effects of suboptimal intra-uterine environments on associative learning and motivational behavior. We hypothesized that maternal isocaloric low protein diet during pregnancy and lactation would impair offspring associative learning and motivation as measured by operant conditioning and the progressive ratio task, respectively. Control mothers were fed 20% casein (C) and restricted mothers (R) 10% casein to provide four groups: CC, RR, CR, and RC (first letter pregnancy diet and second letter lactation diet), to evaluate effects of maternal diet on male offspring behavior. Impaired learning was observed during fixed ratio-1 operant conditioning in RC offspring that required more sessions to learn vs. the CC offspring (9.4±0.8 and 3.8±0.3 sessions, respectively, pmotivational effects during the progressive ratio test revealed less responding in the RR (48.1±17), CR (74.7±8.4), and RC (65.9±11.2) for positive reinforcement vs. the CC offspring (131.5±7.5, plearning and motivation behavior with the nutritional challenge in the prenatal period showing more vulnerability in offspring behavior. Copyright © 2010 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Error amplification to promote motor learning and motivation in therapy robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2012-01-01

    To study the effects of different feedback error amplification methods on a subject's upper-limb motor learning and affect during a point-to-point reaching exercise, we developed a real-time controller for a robotic manipulandum. The reaching environment was visually distorted by implementing a thirty degrees rotation between the coordinate systems of the robot's end-effector and the visual display. Feedback error amplification was provided to subjects as they trained to learn reaching within the visually rotated environment. Error amplification was provided either visually or through both haptic and visual means, each method with two different amplification gains. Subjects' performance (i.e., trajectory error) and self-reports to a questionnaire were used to study the speed and amount of adaptation promoted by each error amplification method and subjects' emotional changes. We found that providing haptic and visual feedback promotes faster adaptation to the distortion and increases subjects' satisfaction with the task, leading to a higher level of attentiveness during the exercise. This finding can be used to design a novel exercise regimen, where alternating between error amplification methods is used to both increase a subject's motor learning and maintain a minimum level of motivational engagement in the exercise. In future experiments, we will test whether such exercise methods will lead to a faster learning time and greater motivation to pursue a therapy exercise regimen.

  4. Flexible Learning and Teaching: Looking Beyond the Binary of Full ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    common knowledge' (Edwards, 2010) will need to be co-constructed which understands flexible learning and teaching in ways which will meet needs of a diversity of students, including working students. It will require 'resourceful leadership' ...

  5. Service-learning in nursing: Integrating student learning and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Service-learning in nursing: Integrating student learning and community-based service experience through reflective practice. ... the students' reflective journals, group project reports and a focus-group discussion as the primary data sources.

  6. Institute for Advanced Learning and Research names new executive director

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Tech News

    2008-01-01

    Virginia Tech's Institute for Advanced Learning and Research has named Liam E. Leightley as executive director, effective Oct. 6, 2008, according to Mike Henderson, chair of the institute's board of trustees.

  7. [Involvement of aquaporin-4 in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Gao, Jian-Feng

    2017-06-25

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) is the predominant water channel in the central nervous system (CNS) and primarily expressed in astrocytes. Astrocytes have been generally believed to play important roles in regulating synaptic plasticity and information processing. However, the role of AQP-4 in regulating synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, cognitive function is only beginning to be investigated. It is well known that synaptic plasticity is the prime candidate for mediating of learning and memory. Long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD) are two forms of synaptic plasticity, and they share some but not all the properties and mechanisms. Hippocampus is a part of limbic system that is particularly important in regulation of learning and memory. This article is to review some research progresses of the function of AQP-4 in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, and propose the possible role of AQP-4 as a new target in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction.

  8. Affordance Realization in Climbing: Learning and Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Ludovic; Orth, Dominic; Mantel, Bruno; Boulanger, Jérémie; Hérault, Romain; Dicks, Matt

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the affordances of an indoor climbing wall changed for intermediate climbers following a period of practice during which hold orientation was manipulated within a learning and transfer protocol. The learning protocol consisted of four sessions, in which eight climbers randomly ascended three different routes of fixed absolute difficulty (5c on the French scale), as fluently as possible. All three routes were 10.3 m in height and composed of 20 hand-holds at the same locations on an artificial climbing wall; only hold orientations were altered: (i) a horizontal-edge route (H) was designed to afford horizontal hold grasping, (ii) a vertical-edge route (V) afforded vertical hold grasping, and (iii), a double-edge route (D) was designed to afford both horizontal and vertical hold grasping. Five inertial measurement units (IMU) (3D accelerometer, 3D gyroscope, 3D magnetometer) were attached to the hip, feet and forearms to analyze the vertical acceleration and direction (3D unitary vector) of each limb and hip in ambient space during the entire ascent. Segmentation and classification processes supported detection of movement and stationary phases for each IMU. Depending on whether limbs and/or hip were moving, a decision tree distinguished four states of behavior: stationary (absence of limb and hip motion), hold exploration (absence of hip motion but at least one limb in motion), hip movement (hip in motion but absence of limb motion) and global motion (hip in motion and at least one limb in motion). Results showed that with practice, the learners decreased the relative duration of hold exploration, suggesting that they improved affordance perception of hold grasp-ability. The number of performatory movements also decreased as performance increased during learning sessions, confirming that participants' climbing efficacy improved as a function of practice. Last, the results were more marked for the H route, while the D route

  9. Affordance Realization in Climbing: Learning and Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Seifert

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate how the affordances of an indoor climbing wall changed for intermediate climbers following a period of practice during which hold orientation was manipulated within a learning and transfer protocol. The learning protocol consisted of four sessions, in which eight climbers randomly ascended three different routes of fixed absolute difficulty (5c on the French scale, as fluently as possible. All three routes were 10.3 m in height and composed of 20 hand-holds at the same locations on an artificial climbing wall; only hold orientations were altered: (i a horizontal-edge route (H was designed to afford horizontal hold grasping, (ii a vertical-edge route (V afforded vertical hold grasping, and (iii, a double-edge route (D was designed to afford both horizontal and vertical hold grasping. Five inertial measurement units (IMU (3D accelerometer, 3D gyroscope, 3D magnetometer were attached to the hip, feet and forearms to analyze the vertical acceleration and direction (3D unitary vector of each limb and hip in ambient space during the entire ascent. Segmentation and classification processes supported detection of movement and stationary phases for each IMU. Depending on whether limbs and/or hip were moving, a decision tree distinguished four states of behavior: stationary (absence of limb and hip motion, hold exploration (absence of hip motion but at least one limb in motion, hip movement (hip in motion but absence of limb motion and global motion (hip in motion and at least one limb in motion. Results showed that with practice, the learners decreased the relative duration of hold exploration, suggesting that they improved affordance perception of hold grasp-ability. The number of performatory movements also decreased as performance increased during learning sessions, confirming that participants' climbing efficacy improved as a function of practice. Last, the results were more marked for the H route, while the D

  10. The role of physicality in rich programming environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Allison S.; Schunn, Christian D.; Flot, Jesse; Shoop, Robin

    2013-12-01

    Computer science proficiency continues to grow in importance, while the number of students entering computer science-related fields declines. Many rich programming environments have been created to motivate student interest and expertise in computer science. In the current study, we investigated whether a recently created environment, Robot Virtual Worlds (RVWs), can be used to teach computer science principles within a robotics context by examining its use in high-school classrooms. We also investigated whether the lack of physicality in these environments impacts student learning by comparing classrooms that used either virtual or physical robots for the RVW curriculum. Results suggest that the RVW environment leads to significant gains in computer science knowledge, that virtual robots lead to faster learning, and that physical robots may have some influence on algorithmic thinking. We discuss the implications of physicality in these programming environments for learning computer science.

  11. School and workplace as learning environments in VET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    as limitations for learning, and thus frame the opportunities for learning. The second, the socio-cultural learning environment is constituted by the social and cultural relations and communities in the workplace and in school. I distinguish between three different types of social relations in the workplace......The aim of this paper is to present an analytical model to study school and workplace as different learning environments and discuss some findings from the application of the model on a case study. First the paper tries to answer the question: what is a learning environment? In most other studies...... schools and workplaces are not only considered to be different learning environment, but are also analysed using different approaches. In this paper I will propose a common model to analyse and compare the two learning environments, drawing on sociology of work (Kern & Schumann 1984; Braverman 1976...

  12. Nociceptin and the nociceptin receptor in learning and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Andero, Raül

    2015-01-01

    There are many processes in which the neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ or nociceptin) is involved in the brain. The role of nociceptin in learning and memory holds promise in modulating these processes in health and disease in the human brain. This review summarizes the body of research focused on N/OFQ and its specific receptor, the nociceptin receptor (NOP receptor), in learning and memory, and its potential mechanisms of action, in which acetylcholine, NMDA receptor and noradrena...

  13. ENGAGE: A Game Based Learning and Problem Solving Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    Gamification Summit 2012  Mensa Colloquium 2012.2: Social and Video Games  Seattle Science Festival  TED Salon Vancouver : http...From - To) 6/1/2012 – 6/30/2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ENGAGE: A Game Based Learning and Problem Solving Framework 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b...Popović ENGAGE: A Game Based Learning and Problem Solving Framework (Task 1 Month 4) Progress, Status and Management Report Monthly Progress

  14. Editorial: Technology for higher education, adult learning and human performance

    OpenAIRE

    Minhong Wang; Chi-Cheng Chang; Feng Wu

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to technology-enabled approaches for improving higher education, adult learning, and human performance. Improvement of learning and human development for sustainable development has been recognized as a key strategy for individuals, institutions, and organizations to strengthen their competitive advantages. It becomes crucial to help adult learners and knowledge workers to improve their self-directed and life-long learning capabilities. Meanwhile, advances in t...

  15. Learning and Development Policy available on HR web

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The full text of CERN’s “Learning and Development Policy” is now available in English and French on the HR training website: cern.ch/hr-training/. This new policy was presented to all personnel in the HR Public meeting held on Monday 25 June, and the slides and the video recording remain available on Indico. Pascale Goy, Head of the Learning and Development Group in HR, is available for more information: pascale.goy@cern.ch , tel. 62232.

  16. Emergent learning and learning ecologies in Web 2.0

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Roy; Karousou, Regina; Mackness, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes emergent learning and situates it within learning networks and systems and the broader learning ecology of Web 2.0. It describes the nature of emergence and emergent learning and the conditions that enable emergent, self-organised learning to occur and to flourish. Specifically, it explores whether emergent learning can be validated and self-correcting and whether it is possible to link or integrate emergent and prescribed learning. It draws on complexity theory, commu...

  17. Two Programs Educating the Public in Animal Learning and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Estep, Daniel Q.

    2002-01-01

    Two educational programs have been developed that teach basic principles of animal learning and behavior and how they can be used in day to day interactions with companion animals. The first program educates violators of animal control laws about animal learning and cat and dog behavior to help them resolve their problems with their animals and avoid future animal control violations. The second educates home service providers concerning basic principles of animal communication, dog behavior, ...

  18. Effects of glutamine pretreatment on learning and memory in heat-exposed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenghao Zhao; Lei Wang; Qin Wang; Siyi Wang; Chundi Deng; Xianfei Xie; Youe Yan; Hui Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glutamine (Gln) pretreatment can protect neural cells from injuries due to heat, ischemia, hypoxia, endotoxemia, and inflammatory factors.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Gln pretreatment on learning and memory, survival time, and rectal temperature in heat-exposed rats.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The present randomized grouping, neurobehavioral experiment was performed at the Laboratory of Department of Pharmacology, Basic School of Medicine, Wuhan University between March and September 2007.MATERIALS: Twenty-four healthy, Wistar rats were included in this study. SPX-160B biochemistry incubator (Shanghai Experimental Equipment Co., Ltd., China), probe electronic thermometer (11000 type, Maikepai Science and Technology Co., Ltd., China), Y-type maze box used in conjunction with MG-2 maze stimulator (Zhangjiagang Biomedical Instrument Factory, China), L-Gin (Batch No. 061218, 5 g/bottle, prepared into 10% aqueous solution, Amresco Company, USA) were used.METHODS: Twenty-four rats were randomly and evenly divided into 3 groups: heat-exposed, Gln low-lose, and Gln high-dose. Following learning and memory testing with the Y-maze, rats in the heat-exposed group were subjected to heat injury (40.5-41.5℃) in a biochemistry incubator. Rectal temperature was measured every 5 minutes. Thirty-five minutes after heat exposure, rats were removed and placed in the Y-type maze to test learning and memory again. Subsequently, the rats were returned to the same environment of thermal stimulation until they died. Rat survival time was recorded. Subsequent to learning and memory testing, rats in the Gln low-dose and high-dose groups received an i.p. injection of Gln (0.4 g/kg and 0.8 g/kg, respectively), and were exposed to heat injury. The remaining experimental procedures remained the same as for the heat-exposed group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rat learning and memory, rectal temperature, and survival time in heat exposure environment.RESULTS: (1) In the Y

  19. Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Sandeep Vasant; Kumar, Hemant; Cho, Duk-Yeon; Yun, Yo-Sep; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2016-09-01

    Animal models for learning and memory have significantly contributed to novel strategies for drug development and hence are an imperative part in the assessment of therapeutics. Learning and memory involve different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval and each stage can be characterized using specific toxin. Recent studies have postulated the molecular basis of these processes and have also demonstrated many signaling molecules that are involved in several stages of memory. Most insights into learning and memory impairment and to develop a novel compound stems from the investigations performed in experimental models, especially those produced by neurotoxins models. Several toxins have been utilized based on their mechanism of action for learning and memory impairment such as scopolamine, streptozotocin, quinolinic acid, and domoic acid. Further, some toxins like 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and amyloid-β are known to cause specific learning and memory impairment which imitate the disease pathology of Parkinson's disease dementia and Alzheimer's disease dementia. Apart from these toxins, several other toxins come under a miscellaneous category like an environmental pollutant, snake venoms, botulinum, and lipopolysaccharide. This review will focus on the various classes of neurotoxin models for learning and memory impairment with their specific mechanism of action that could assist the process of drug discovery and development for dementia and cognitive disorders.

  20. Pharmacological effects of cannabinoids on learning and memory in Lymnaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunada, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takayuki; Hatakeyama, Dai; Lee, Sangmin; Forest, Jeremy; Sakakibara, Manabu; Ito, Etsuro; Lukowiak, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Cannabinoids are hypothesized to play an important role in modulating learning and memory formation. Here, we identified mRNAs expressed in Lymnaea stagnalis central nervous system that encode two G-protein-coupled receptors ( Lymnaea CBr-like 1 and 2) that structurally resemble mammalian cannabinoid receptors (CBrs). We found that injection of a mammalian CBr agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN 55) into the snail before operant conditioning obstructed learning and memory formation. This effect of WIN 55 injection persisted for at least 4 days following its injection. A similar obstruction of learning and memory occurred when a severe traumatic stimulus was delivered to L. stagnalis In contrast, injection of a mammalian CBr antagonist AM 251 enhanced long-term memory formation in snails and reduced the duration of the effects of the severe traumatic stressor on learning and memory. Neither WIN 55 nor AM 251 altered normal homeostatic aerial respiratory behaviour elicited in hypoxic conditions. Our results suggest that putative cannabinoid receptors mediate stressful stimuli that alter learning and memory formation in Lymnaea This is also the first demonstration that putative CBrs are present in Lymnaea and play a key role in learning and memory formation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Environmental stimulation rescues maternal high fructose intake-impaired learning and memory in female offspring: Its correlation with redistribution of histone deacetylase 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kay L H; Wu, Chih-Wei; Tain, You-Lin; Huang, Li-Tung; Chao, Yung-Mei; Hung, Chun-Ying; Wu, Jin-Cheng; Chen, Siang-Ru; Tsai, Pei-Chia; Chan, Julie Y H

    2016-04-01

    Impairment of learning and memory has been documented in the later life of offspring to maternal consumption with high energy diet. Environmental stimulation enhances the ability of learning and memory. However, potential effects of environmental stimulation on the programming-associated deficit of learning and memory have not been addressed. Here, we examined the effects of enriched-housing on hippocampal learning and memory in adult female offspring rats from mother fed with 60% high fructose diet (HFD) during pregnancy and lactation. Impairment of spatial learning and memory performance in HFD group was observed in offspring at 3-month-old. Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was decreased in the offspring. Moreover, the HFD group showed an up-regulation of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) in the nuclear fractions of hippocampal neurons. Stimulation to the offspring for 4weeks after winning with an enriched-housing environment effectively rescued the decrease in cognitive function and hippocampal BDNF level; alongside a reversal of the increased distribution of nuclear HDAC4. Together these results suggest that later life environmental stimulation effectively rescues the impairment of hippocampal learning and memory in female offspring to maternal HFD intake through redistributing nuclear HDAC4 to increase BDNF expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Environment, Trade, and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environment, trade, and investment are fundamentally linked as the environment provides many basic inputs of economic activity – forests, fisheries, metals, minerals – as well as the energy used to process those materials.

  3. Molds in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Molds in the Environment What are molds? What are some of the ... molds found? Molds are found in virtually every environment and can be detected, both indoors and outdoors, ...

  4. BISEN: Biochemical simulation environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanlier, J.; Wu, F.; Qi, F.; Vinnakota, K.C.; Han, Y.; Dash, R.K.; Yang, F.; Beard, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Biochemical Simulation Environment (BISEN) is a suite of tools for generating equations and associated computer programs for simulating biochemical systems in the MATLAB® computing environment. This is the first package that can generate appropriate systems of differential equations for

  5. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  6. Enhancing students’ vocabulary knowledge using the Facebook environment

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan; Tuti Zalina Mohamed Ernes Zahar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of using Facebook in enhancing vocabulary knowledge among Community College students. Thirty-three (33) Community College students are exposed to the use of Facebook as an environment of learning and enhancing their English vocabulary. They are given a pre-test and a post-test and the findings indicate that students perform significantly better in the post-test compared to the pre-test. It appears that Facebook could be considered as a supplementary l...

  7. Promoting children's learning and development in conflict-affected countries: Testing change process in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, J Lawrence; Tubbs, Carly; Torrente, Catalina; Halpin, Peter F; Johnston, Brian; Starkey, Leighann; Shivshanker, Anjuli; Annan, Jeannie; Seidman, Edward; Wolf, Sharon

    2017-02-01

    Improving children's learning and development in conflict-affected countries is critically important for breaking the intergenerational transmission of violence and poverty. Yet there is currently a stunning lack of rigorous evidence as to whether and how programs to improve learning and development in conflict-affected countries actually work to bolster children's academic learning and socioemotional development. This study tests a theory of change derived from the fields of developmental psychopathology and social ecology about how a school-based universal socioemotional learning program, the International Rescue Committee's Learning to Read in a Healing Classroom (LRHC), impacts children's learning and development. The study was implemented in three conflict-affected provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and employed a cluster-randomized waitlist control design to estimate impact. Using multilevel structural equation modeling techniques, we found support for the central pathways in the LRHC theory of change. Specifically, we found that LRHC differentially impacted dimensions of the quality of the school and classroom environment at the end of the first year of the intervention, and that in turn these dimensions of quality were differentially associated with child academic and socioemotional outcomes. Future implications and directions are discussed.

  8. Trade-off between learning and exploitation: the Pareto-optimal versus evolutionarily stable learning schedule in cumulative cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Miura, Chiaki

    2014-02-01

    Inheritance of culture is achieved by social learning and improvement is achieved by individual learning. To realize cumulative cultural evolution, social and individual learning should be performed in this order in one's life. However, it is not clear whether such a learning schedule can evolve by the maximization of individual fitness. Here we study optimal allocation of lifetime to learning and exploitation in a two-stage life history model under a constant environment. We show that the learning schedule by which high cultural level is achieved through cumulative cultural evolution is unlikely to evolve as a result of the maximization of individual fitness, if there exists a trade-off between the time spent in learning and the time spent in exploiting the knowledge that has been learned in earlier stages of one's life. Collapse of a fully developed culture is predicted by a game-theoretical analysis where individuals behave selfishly, e.g., less learning and more exploiting. The present study suggests that such factors as group selection, the ability of learning-while-working ("on the job training"), or environmental fluctuation might be important in the realization of rapid and cumulative cultural evolution that is observed in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hacking the hospital environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Boisen, Anne Bank; Thomsen, Stine Legarth

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a need for youth-friendly hospital environments as the ward environment may affect both patient satisfaction and health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To involve young people in designing youth-friendly ward environment. METHODS: We arranged a design competition lasting 42 h (Hackathon...

  10. The PSIM environment architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossenaerts, J.B.M.; Reyneri, C.; van den Berg, R.J.; Eijnatten, van F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract. This chapter describes the architecture of the PSIM environment. It briefly presents the PSIM objectives and the role the PSIM environment plays in meeting these objectives. It then states the role and place of each of technological components of the environment: the ontology, the

  11. Computing environment logbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbourn, Gordon C; Bouchard, Ann M

    2012-09-18

    A computing environment logbook logs events occurring within a computing environment. The events are displayed as a history of past events within the logbook of the computing environment. The logbook provides search functionality to search through the history of past events to find one or more selected past events, and further, enables an undo of the one or more selected past events.

  12. Libre knowledge, libre learning and global development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tucker, KC

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rishab Ghosh     48 Findings: formal learning In comparison with formal ICT courses: ● FLOSS provides a better, practical learning  environment for many technical skills: – Writing re­usable code & debugging – Working... run and maintain complex software systems Basic / introductory programming skills To look for and fix bugs To become familiar with different programming languages To write code in a way that it can be re­ used To design modular code To document code To create new algorithms a...

  13. INNOVATION CLUSTERS: SOCIAL LEARNING AND BUSINESS INCUBATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Deac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable innovation is more expensive than a regular one but it may lead to long termbenefits and durable competitive advantage, especially if many firms from the networkcollude or act within constrained environments such as business incubators. The opinionformation process, which leads to sustainable innovation, may be viewed as a collectivecognitive process resembling that of branding and re-branding. Technological innovationscan be viewed as sequences of cost reduction events and, in a many-firm setting, sociallearning which leads to sustainability-oriented behaviour depends on (mutual trustrelations. The experimental modelling part of the paper illustrates selected aspects of theconcept just outlined by developing a stylized dynamic model of the firm.

  14. Decision theory, reinforcement learning, and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Peter; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2008-12-01

    Decision making is a core competence for animals and humans acting and surviving in environments they only partially comprehend, gaining rewards and punishments for their troubles. Decision-theoretic concepts permeate experiments and computational models in ethology, psychology, and neuroscience. Here, we review a well-known, coherent Bayesian approach to decision making, showing how it unifies issues in Markovian decision problems, signal detection psychophysics, sequential sampling, and optimal exploration and discuss paradigmatic psychological and neural examples of each problem. We discuss computational issues concerning what subjects know about their task and how ambitious they are in seeking optimal solutions; we address algorithmic topics concerning model-based and model-free methods for making choices; and we highlight key aspects of the neural implementation of decision making.

  15. A Proposed Functional Abilities Classification Tool for Developmental Disorders Affecting Learning and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Klein

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with developmental disorders affecting learning and behaviour (DDALB (e.g., attention, social communication, language, and learning disabilities, etc. require individualized support across multiple environments to promote participation, quality of life, and developmental outcomes. Support to enhance participation is based largely on individual profiles of functioning (e.g., communication, cognitive, social skills, executive functioning, etc., which are highly heterogeneous within medical diagnoses. Currently educators, clinicians, and parents encounter widespread difficulties in meeting children’s needs as there is lack of universal classification of functioning and disability for use in school environments. Objective: a practical tool for functional classification broadly applicable for children with DDALB could facilitate the collaboration, identification of points of entry of support, individual program planning, and reassessment in a transparent, equitable process based on functional need and context. We propose such a tool, the Functional Abilities Classification Tool (FACT based on the concepts of the ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. FACT is intended to provide ability and participation classification that is complementary to medical diagnosis. For children presenting with difficulties, the proposed tool initially classifies participation over several environments. Then, functional abilities are classified and personal factors and environment are described. Points of entry for support are identified given an analysis of functional ability profile, personal factors, environmental features, and pattern of participation. Conclusion: case examples, use of the tool and implications for children, agencies, and the system are described.

  16. Adult Learners' Learning Environment Perceptions and Satisfaction in Formal Education--Case Study of Four East-European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovan, Marko; Makovec, Danijela

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore attitudes towards learning and perceptions of the learning environment. Our theoretical examination is based on the social-cognitive theory of motivation and research that emphasizes the connections between an individual's perceptions of the learning environment and his/her motivation, interest, attitudes…

  17. How Customer Facing Professionals Adapt to Changing Customer Needs in a Digital Environment: A Single Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative single case study explored how customer facing professionals (CFPs) adapt to changing customer needs in a digital environment. This study focuses on: (1) Changing customer needs; (2) Competencies needed in a digital environment; (3) How they learn; and (4) What factors help or hinder their success. The site is a global Human…

  18. Environment-quality demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfini, M.G.; Leenhouts, H.P.

    1988-12-01

    In the framework of the Environment Quality Requirements (MKE) project a model has been designed in which environment-quality demands have been defined and quantified, and a measuring strategy has been developed. In the model it is required for the quality of the environment that the radionuclide concentration in the various environment compartiments remains limited in order to keep the effective dose equivalence for the 'reference man' under a certain reference level. In order to be able to determine the maximum nuclide concentration it is necessary to quantify the relation between the concentration in the environment and the dose for the people. The quantitative relation between concentration and dose has been established on the base of parameters (Derived Activity Limits (DAL's) which have to be calculated for each environment compartiment, each nuclide and each exposure pathway. This model has been described and, as example, the DAL's have been calculated for the compartiment air (for which the two exposure pathways inhalation and direct radiation were considered). For the other environment compartiments a similar elaboration is needed. The feasibility of application of the MKE-model in the actual practice of measurements in the environment and examination of dose for the population depends upon the possibility for performing nuclide specific measurements in all environment compartiments, the level of the dose resulting from the contamination of the environment and the related accurateness of the measurements

  19. Hybrid chickadees are deficient in learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Michael A; Roth, Timothy C; Huynh, Alex V; Rice, Amber M

    2018-05-01

    Identifying the phenotypes underlying postzygotic reproductive isolation is crucial for fully understanding the evolution and maintenance of species. One potential postzygotic isolating barrier that has rarely been examined is learning and memory ability in hybrids. Learning and memory are important fitness-related traits, especially in scatter-hoarding species, where accurate retrieval of hoarded food is vital for winter survival. Here, we test the hypothesis that learning and memory ability can act as a postzygotic isolating barrier by comparing these traits among two scatter-hoarding songbird species, black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis), and their naturally occurring hybrids. In an outdoor aviary setting, we find that hybrid chickadees perform significantly worse on an associative learning spatial task and are worse at solving a novel problem compared to both parental species. Deficiencies in learning and memory abilities could therefore contribute to postzygotic reproductive isolation between chickadee species. Given the importance of learning and memory for fitness, our results suggest that these traits may play an important, but as yet overlooked, role in postzygotic reproductive isolation. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Postnatal TLR2 activation impairs learning and memory in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Ravit; Rotter, Aviva; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Mughal, Mohamed R; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Wood, W H; Becker, K G; Mattson, Mark P; Okun, Eitan

    2015-08-01

    Neuroinflammation in the central nervous system is detrimental for learning and memory, as evident form epidemiological studies linking developmental defects and maternal exposure to harmful pathogens. Postnatal infections can also induce neuroinflammatory responses with long-term consequences. These inflammatory responses can lead to motor deficits and/or behavioral disabilities. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a family of innate immune receptors best known as sensors of microbial-associated molecular patterns, and are the first responders to infection. TLR2 forms heterodimers with either TLR1 or TLR6, is activated in response to gram-positive bacterial infections, and is expressed in the brain during embryonic development. We hypothesized that early postnatal TLR2-mediated neuroinflammation would adversely affect cognitive behavior in the adult. Our data indicate that postnatal TLR2 activation affects learning and memory in adult mice in a heterodimer-dependent manner. TLR2/6 activation improved motor function and fear learning, while TLR2/1 activation impaired spatial learning and enhanced fear learning. Moreover, developmental TLR2 deficiency significantly impairs spatial learning and enhances fear learning, stressing the involvement of the TLR2 pathway in learning and memory. Analysis of the transcriptional effects of TLR2 activation reveals both common and unique transcriptional programs following heterodimer-specific TLR2 activation. These results imply that adult cognitive behavior could be influenced in part, by activation or alterations in the TLR2 pathway at birth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Progress on metaplasticity and its role in learning and memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Li; Lu, Wei

    2016-08-25

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are two major forms of synaptic plasticity that are widely considered as important cellular models of learning and memory. Metaplasticity is defined as the plasticity of synaptic plasticity and thus is an advanced form of plasticity. The history of synaptic activity can affect the subsequent synaptic plasticity induction. Therefore, it is important to study metaplasticity to explore new mechanisms underlying various brain functions including learning and memory. Since the concept of metaplasticity was proposed, it has aroused widespread concerns and attracted numerous researchers to dig more details on this topic. These new-found experimental phenomena and cellular mechanisms have established the basis of theoretical studies on metaplasticity. In recent years, researchers have found that metaplasticity can not only affect the synaptic plasticity, but also regulate the neural network to encode specific content and enhance the learning and memory. These findings have greatly enriched our knowledge on plasticity and opened a new route to study the mechanism of learning and memory. In this review, we discuss the recent progress on metaplasticity on following three aspects: (1) the molecular mechanisms of metaplasticity; (2) the role of metaplasticity in learning and memory; and (3) the outlook of future study on metaplasticity.

  2. Professional identity development: Learning and journeying together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Stephanie J

    2018-03-01

    Pharmacy students start to develop their professional values through engagement with the course, practice exposure, staff and fellow students. Group working is an element of pedagogy which draws on the social aspects of learning to facilitate knowledge and skills development, but its potential role in facilitating professional identity formation has as yet been under researched. This study aimed to explore the potential of mutual learning through group work to contribute not only to academic knowledge and understanding, but also to the development of students' professional values and selves. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 home and international first year undergraduate pharmacy students in a UK School of Pharmacy, to explore their experiences of interacting for learning with other students on the course. Thematic analysis of the interview data highlighted four main benefits of mutual learning, which are that it: promotes friendly interactions; aids learning about the subject and the profession; opens the mind through different opinions and ways of thinking; and enables learning about other people. Through working together students developed their communication skills and confidence; reflectively considered their own stance in the light of others' experiences and healthcare perspectives; and started to gain a wider worldview, potentially informing their future interactions with patients and colleagues. Some difficulties arose when group interactions functioned less well. Opportunity for collaboration and exchange can positively influence development of students' professional outlook and values. However, careful management of group working is required, in order to create a mutually supportive environment wherein students feel able to interact, share and develop together. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Case-Study for Life-Long Learning and Adaptation in Cooperative Robot Teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, L.E.

    1999-01-01

    While considerable progress has been made in recent years toward the development of multi-robot teams, much work remains to be done before these teams are used widely in real-world applications. Two particular needs toward this end are the development of mechanisms that enable robot teams to generate cooperative behaviors on their own, and the development of techniques that allow these teams to autonomously adapt their behavior over time as the environment or the robot team changes. This paper proposes the use of the Cooperative Multi-Robot Observation of Multiple Moving Targets (CMOMMT) application as a rich domain for studying the issues of multi-robot learning and adaptation. After discussing the need for learning and adaptation in multi-robot teams, this paper describes the CMOMMT application and its relevance to multi-robot learning. We discuss the results of the previously- developed, hand-generated algorithm for CMOMMT and the potential for learning that was discovered from the hand-generated approach. We then describe the early work that has been done (by us and others) to generate multi- robot learning techniques for the CMOMMT application, as well as our ongoing research to develop approaches that give performance as good, or better, than the hand-generated approach. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop techniques for multi-robot learning and adaptation in the CMOMMT application domain that will generalize to cooperative robot applications in other domains, thus making the practical use of multi-robot teams in a wide variety of real-world applications much closer to reality

  4. Understanding psychiatric disorder by capturing ecologically relevant features of learning and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Jacqueline; Klein-Flügge, Miriam

    2017-09-28

    Recent research in cognitive neuroscience has begun to uncover the processes underlying increasingly complex voluntary behaviours, including learning and decision-making. Partly this success has been possible by progressing from simple experimental tasks to paradigms that incorporate more ecological features. More specifically, the premise is that to understand cognitions and brain functions relevant for real life, we need to introduce some of the ecological challenges that we have evolved to solve. This often entails an increase in task complexity, which can be managed by using computational models to help parse complex behaviours into specific component mechanisms. Here we propose that using computational models with tasks that capture ecologically relevant learning and decision-making processes may provide a critical advantage for capturing the mechanisms underlying symptoms of disorders in psychiatry. As a result, it may help develop mechanistic approaches towards diagnosis and treatment. We begin this review by mapping out the basic concepts and models of learning and decision-making. We then move on to consider specific challenges that emerge in realistic environments and describe how they can be captured by tasks. These include changes of context, uncertainty, reflexive/emotional biases, cost-benefit decision-making, and balancing exploration and exploitation. Where appropriate we highlight future or current links to psychiatry. We particularly draw examples from research on clinical depression, a disorder that greatly compromises motivated behaviours in real-life, but where simpler paradigms have yielded mixed results. Finally, we highlight several paradigms that could be used to help provide new insights into the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fermi UNIX trademark environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, J.

    1991-03-01

    The introduction of UNIX at Fermilab involves multiple platforms and multiple vendors. Additionally, a single user may have to use more than one platform. This heterogeneity and multiplicity makes it necessary to define a Fermilab environment for UNIX so that as much as possible the systems ''look and feel'' the same. We describe our environment, including both the commercial products and the local tools used to support it. Other products designed for the UNIX environment are also described. 19 refs

  6. The marketing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The tourism marketing environment consists of internal and external forces which could impact the organisations’ performance. To be successful, companies must adapt to ongoing trends and developments in their macro and micro environments. When organisations scan their marketing environment they will be in a position to deal with any possible threats from the market and to capitalise on any available opportunities. Therefore, this chapter explains the external environmental factors, including;...

  7. Environment, safety and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzianovich, L.Ch.; Fardeau, J.C.; Darras, M.

    2000-01-01

    Environment, safety and health were the three topics discussed by the WOC 8 working group of the worldwide gas congress. Environment protection has become a major preoccupation and constraint for natural gas industry at the dawn of the new millennium. It is closely linked with the safety of installation and with the health of workmen who exploit or use natural gas energy: methane emissions, health and safety in gas industry, environment management and evaluation. (J.S.)

  8. USE OF FACEBOOK FOR LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT IN GEOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ELIZA DULAMĂ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research was analysed 120 twelfth grade students’ behaviour, of “Iulian Pop” Economic High School in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, regarding the use of the Facebook social network for learning and assessment in Geography. Students were organised in five discussion groups on the social network Facebook. To achieve the research objectives, we analysed students' answers at a questionnaire and the contents of the dialogue between teacher and students and also between students. Students perceived positively the learning and assessment activities and they perceived their teacher as their equal. At the cognitive level, the activity was focused on clarifying certain aspects, revision, knowledge learning and assessment. The disadvantages of the learning activity in the Facebook discussion group were that the posted materials cannot be classified and can be found with difficulty.

  9. 2015 International Conference on Machine Learning and Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Woo, Wai; Sulaiman, Hamzah; Othman, Mohd; Saat, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This book presents important research findings and recent innovations in the field of machine learning and signal processing. A wide range of topics relating to machine learning and signal processing techniques and their applications are addressed in order to provide both researchers and practitioners with a valuable resource documenting the latest advances and trends. The book comprises a careful selection of the papers submitted to the 2015 International Conference on Machine Learning and Signal Processing (MALSIP 2015), which was held on 15–17 December 2015 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam with the aim of offering researchers, academicians, and practitioners an ideal opportunity to disseminate their findings and achievements. All of the included contributions were chosen by expert peer reviewers from across the world on the basis of their interest to the community. In addition to presenting the latest in design, development, and research, the book provides access to numerous new algorithms for machine learni...

  10. Students' views of cooperative learning and group testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Today's radiologic technology students must learn to collaborate and communicate to function as part of the health care team. Innovative educational techniques such as cooperative learning (working collectively in small groups) and group testing (collaborating on tests) can foster these skills. Assess students' familiarity with and opinions about cooperative learning and group testing before and after participation in a semester-long course incorporating these methods. Twenty-eight students enrolled in a baccalaureate-level radiologic technology program in Louisiana were surveyed at the beginning and end of the semester. Results showed that students were more knowledgeable about and more accepting of cooperative learning and group testing after participating in the course. However, some students continued to prefer independent learning. Students are open to new learning methods such as cooperative learning and group testing. These techniques can help them develop the skills they will need to function collaboratively in the workplace.

  11. High intraocular pressure produces learning and memory impairments in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuxiang; Chen, Zhiqi; Li, Lu; Li, Xing; Xia, Qian; Zhang, Hong; Duan, Qiming; Zhao, Yin

    2017-11-15

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Previous MRI studies have revealed that POAG can be associated with alterations in hippocampal function. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate a relationship between chronic high intraocular pressure (IOP) and hippocampal changes in a rat model. We used behavioural tests to assess learning and memory ability, and additionally investigated the hippocampal expression of pathological amyloid beta (Aβ), phospho-tau, and related pathway proteins. Chronic high IOP impaired learning and memory in rats and concurrently increased Aβ and phospho-tau expression in the hippocampus by altering the activation of different kinase (GSK-3β, BACE1) and phosphatase (PP2A) proteins in the hippocampus. This study provides novel evidence for the relationship between high IOP and hippocampal alterations, especially in the context of learning and memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Multilingual and social semiotic perspectives on literacy learning and teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia

    to the complex processes involved in biliterate meaning making and script learning. Multilingual and social semiotic perspectives on literacy learning and teaching – summaryOn the basis of data from the longitudinal study Signs of Language, I focus on how a social semiotic perspective on literacy learning...... and teaching can contribute to expanding the conceptualization of literacy to be more sensitive to the complex processes involved in biliterate meaning making and script learning.......Multilingual and social semiotic perspectives on literacy learning and teaching – abstract In the context of an increasing multilingualism, literacy teaching has become a central and contested issue in public and political debate. International comparisons of levels of literacy have been...

  13. Energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives and the proceedings are presented of the conference ''Energy and the environment'' held in Pardubice, Czechoslovakia, on 9-10 June, 1987. A total of 31 papers were presented; 4 papers were centred on nuclear power: an assessment of the impact of ionizing radiation from power generation on the health of the population and on the environment; an assessment of the impact of the nuclear power plant complex in the Jaslovske Bohunice locality on the environment; an assessment of the impact of the Vychodni Cechy (Eastern Bohemia) plant on the environment; and a paper on the ecological optimization of the landscape during the development of the uranium industry. (J.B.)

  14. Parliamentarians and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boy, D.

    2004-01-01

    The data presented in this report come from an inquiry carried out by Sofres between March 5 and April 23, 2003, with a sample of 200 parliamentarians (122 deputies and 78 senators) who explained their attitude with respect to the question of environment. The questionnaire comprises 5 main dimensions dealing with: the relative importance of the environment stake, the attitudes with respect to past, present and future environment policies, the attitude with respect to specific stakes (energy, wastes), the attitude with respect to some problems of conservation of the natural heritage, and the attitude with respect to the participation of the public to some environment-related decisions. (J.S.)

  15. Virtual interface environment workstations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, S. S.; Wenzel, E. M.; Coler, C.; Mcgreevy, M. W.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed at NASA's Ames Research Center for use as a multipurpose interface environment. This Virtual Interface Environment Workstation (VIEW) system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, research scenarios, and research directions are described.

  16. Virtual Environments for Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stiles, R

    1998-01-01

    .... Progress on productization of the VET Training Studio software includes increased robustness for Vista virtual environment display and interaction services, a new capability to use the STEVE visual...

  17. Mining the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J.; Krishnan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Individuals spend a majority of their time in their home or workplace and for many, these places are our sanctuaries. As society and technology advance there is a growing interest in improving the intelligence of the environments in which we live and work. By filling home environments with sensors and collecting data during daily routines, researchers can gain insights on human daily behavior and the impact of behavior on the residents and their environments. In this article we provide an overview of the data mining opportunities and challenges that smart environments provide for researchers and offer some suggestions for future work in this area. PMID:25506128

  18. Mining the Home Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Krishnan, Narayanan

    2014-12-01

    Individuals spend a majority of their time in their home or workplace and for many, these places are our sanctuaries. As society and technology advance there is a growing interest in improving the intelligence of the environments in which we live and work. By filling home environments with sensors and collecting data during daily routines, researchers can gain insights on human daily behavior and the impact of behavior on the residents and their environments. In this article we provide an overview of the data mining opportunities and challenges that smart environments provide for researchers and offer some suggestions for future work in this area.

  19. Can blended learning and the flipped classroom improve student learning and satisfaction in Saudi Arabia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad R; Laheji, Abrar F; Abothenain, Fayha; Salam, Yezan; AlJayar, Dina; Obeidat, Akef

    2016-09-04

    To evaluate student academic performance and perception towards blended learning and flipped classrooms in comparison to traditional teaching. This study was conducted during the hematology block on year three students. Five lectures were delivered online only. Asynchronous discussion boards were created where students could interact with colleagues and instructors. A flipped classroom was introduced with application exercises. Summative assessment results were compared with previous year results as a historical control for statistical significance. Student feedback regarding their blended learning experience was collected. A total of 127 responses were obtained. Approximately 22.8% students felt all lectures should be delivered through didactic lecturing, while almost 35% felt that 20% of total lectures should be given online. Students expressed satisfaction with blended learning as a new and effective learning approach. The majority of students reported blended learning was helpful for exam preparation and concept clarification. However, a comparison of grades did not show a statistically significant increase in the academic performance of students taught via the blended learning method. Learning experiences can be enriched by adopting a blended method of instruction at various stages of undergraduate and postgraduate education. Our results suggest that blended learning, a relatively new concept in Saudi Arabia, shows promising results with higher student satisfaction. Flipped classrooms replace passive lecturing with active student-centered learning that enhances critical thinking and application, including information retention.

  20. Can blended learning and the flipped classroom improve student learning and satisfaction in Saudi Arabia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad R.; Abothenain, Fayha; Salam, Yezan; AlJayar, Dina; Obeidat, Akef

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate student academic performance and perception towards blended learning and flipped classrooms in comparison to traditional teaching. Methods This study was conducted during the hematology block on year three students. Five lectures were delivered online only. Asynchronous discussion boards were created where students could interact with colleagues and instructors. A flipped classroom was introduced with application exercises. Summative assessment results were compared with previous year results as a historical control for statistical significance. Student feedback regarding their blended learning experience was collected. Results A total of 127 responses were obtained. Approximately 22.8% students felt all lectures should be delivered through didactic lecturing, while almost 35% felt that 20% of total lectures should be given online. Students expressed satisfaction with blended learning as a new and effective learning approach. The majority of students reported blended learning was helpful for exam preparation and concept clarification. However, a comparison of grades did not show a statistically significant increase in the academic performance of students taught via the blended learning method. Conclusions Learning experiences can be enriched by adopting a blended method of instruction at various stages of undergraduate and postgraduate education. Our results suggest that blended learning, a relatively new concept in Saudi Arabia, shows promising results with higher student satisfaction. Flipped classrooms replace passive lecturing with active student-centered learning that enhances critical thinking and application, including information retention.  PMID:27591930

  1. Memristive learning and memory functions in polyvinyl alcohol polymer memristors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polymer based memristive devices can offer simplicity in fabrication and at the same time promise functionalities for artificial neural applications. In this work, inherent learning and memory functions have been achieved in polymer memristive devices employing Polyvinyl Alcohol. The change in conduction in such polymer devices strongly depends on the pulse amplitude, duration and time interval. Through repetitive stimuli training, temporary short-term memory can transfer into consolidated long-term memory. These behaviors bear remarkable similarities to certain learning and memory functions of biological systems.

  2. Advances in machine learning and data mining for astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Way, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Advances in Machine Learning and Data Mining for Astronomy documents numerous successful collaborations among computer scientists, statisticians, and astronomers who illustrate the application of state-of-the-art machine learning and data mining techniques in astronomy. Due to the massive amount and complexity of data in most scientific disciplines, the material discussed in this text transcends traditional boundaries between various areas in the sciences and computer science. The book's introductory part provides context to issues in the astronomical sciences that are also important to health

  3. Heterogeneity, learning and information stickiness in inflation expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfajfar, Damjan; Santoro, Emiliano

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose novel techniques for the empirical analysis of adaptive learning and sticky information in inflation expectations. These methodologies are applied to the distribution of households’ inflation expectations collected by the University of Michigan Survey Research Center....... To account for the evolution of the cross-section of inflation forecasts over time and measure the degree of heterogeneity in private agents’ forecasts, we explore time series of percentiles from the empirical distribution. Our results show that heterogeneity is pervasive in the process of inflation...... hand side of the median formed in accordance with adaptive learning and sticky information....

  4. Disinhibition, an emerging pharmacology of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhler, Hanns; Rudolph, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Learning and memory are dependent on interactive excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. In this review, we discuss a mechanism called disinhibition, which is the release of an inhibitory constraint that effectively results in an increased activity in the target neurons (for example, principal or projection neurons). We focus on discussing the role of disinhibition in learning and memory at a basic level and in disease models with cognitive deficits and highlight a strategy to reverse cognitive deficits caused by excess inhibition, through disinhibition of α5-containing GABA A receptors mediating tonic inhibition in the hippocampus, based on subtype-selective negative allosteric modulators as a novel class of drugs.

  5. Hippocampal Structure Predicts Statistical Learning and Associative Inference Abilities during Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Margaret L; Guarino, Katharine F; Schapiro, Anna C; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B; Preston, Alison R

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of learning and remembering across the lifespan, little is known about how the episodic memory system develops to support the extraction of associative structure from the environment. Here, we relate individual differences in volumes along the hippocampal long axis to performance on statistical learning and associative inference tasks-both of which require encoding associations that span multiple episodes-in a developmental sample ranging from ages 6 to 30 years. Relating age to volume, we found dissociable patterns across the hippocampal long axis, with opposite nonlinear volume changes in the head and body. These structural differences were paralleled by performance gains across the age range on both tasks, suggesting improvements in the cross-episode binding ability from childhood to adulthood. Controlling for age, we also found that smaller hippocampal heads were associated with superior behavioral performance on both tasks, consistent with this region's hypothesized role in forming generalized codes spanning events. Collectively, these results highlight the importance of examining hippocampal development as a function of position along the hippocampal axis and suggest that the hippocampal head is particularly important in encoding associative structure across development.

  6. Chronic stress during adolescence impairs and improves learning and memory in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Evelyn Chaby

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to acute stress can cause a myriad of cognitive impairments, but whether negative experiences continue to hinder individual as they age is not well understood. We determined how chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence affects multiple learning and memory processes in adulthood. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, we measured learning (both associative and reversal and memory (both reference and working starting 110 days after completion of the adolescent-stress treatment. We found that adolescent stress affected adult cognitive abilities in a context-dependent way. Compared to rats reared without stress, adolescent-stressed rats exhibited enhanced reversal learning, an indicator of behavioral flexibility, but showed no change in associative learning and reference memory abilities. Working memory, which in humans is thought to underpin reasoning, mathematical skills, and reading comprehension, may be enhanced by exposure to adolescent stress. However, when adolescent-stressed animals were tested after a novel disturbance, they exhibited a 5-fold decrease in working memory performance while unstressed rats continued to exhibit a linear learning curve. These results emphasize the capacity for stress during adolescence to transform the cognitive abilities of adult animals, even after stress exposure has ceased and animals have resided in safe environments for the majority of their lifespans.

  7. Designing Websites for Learning and Enjoyment: A study of museum experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleck C. H. Lin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on an exploratory research study that examined the design of websites that encourage both learning and enjoyment. This study examines museum websites that offer educational materials. As part of their mission, most museums provide the general public with educational materials for study and enjoyment. Many museums use the Internet in support of their mission. Museum websites offer excellent opportunity to study learning environments designed for enjoyment. Computer-supported learning of various types has been studied over the years, including computer-aided learning, computer-aided instruction, computer-managed learning, and more recently, learning via the Internet. Some relevant work appears in the literature on pleasure; however, the concept of online learning for enjoyment – specifically when learning is not part of a formal instructional undertaking – has not been well studied and thus is not well understood. This study seeks to redress this gap in the literature, specifically ‘learning for enjoyment,’ by reporting on a number of semi-structured in-depth interviews with museum and educational experts in Taiwan. Our study identified a number of characteristics required of online learning websites, and we conclude some suggested guidelines for developing an online learning website for enjoyment.

  8. Learning Landscapes: Playing the Way to Learning and Engagement in Public Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenna Hassinger-Das

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Children from under-resourced communities regularly enter formal schooling lagging behind their peers. These deficits in areas such as language development, reading readiness, and even in the kind of spatial skills that predict later mathematical knowledge, may persist throughout their lifespan. To address such gaps, policymakers have focused largely on schooling as the great equalizer. Yet, children only spend 20% of their waking hours in school. How can developmental scientists and educators address this “other 80%” for the benefit of children’s development? One answer is the Learning Landscapes initiative, which involves crafting carefully planned play experiences that focus on learning outcomes, particularly for children and families from under-resourced communities. Playful learning, a broad pedagogical approach featuring child-directed play methods, provides a unique way to foster learning and engagement organically within the built environment. Learning Landscapes already incorporates several well-documented projects. The Ultimate Block Party brought over 50,000 people to Central Park to engage in playful learning activities. Supermarkets became hotspots for caregiver-child interaction by simply adding prompts for caregiver-child interaction through signage in everyday “trapped” experiences. Urban Thinkscape transformed a bus stop and adjacent lot into a hub for playful learning while families were waiting for public transportation. Finally, Parkopolis is a life-size human board game that fosters STEM and reasoning skills in public spaces. This paper reflects on data from these projects while reflecting on lessons learned and future directions.

  9. Large-scale machine learning and evaluation platform for real-time traffic surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichel, Justin A.; Mishra, Akshaya; Miller, Nicholas; Jankovic, Nicholas; Thomas, Mohan A.; Abbott, Tyler; Swanson, Douglas; Keller, Joel

    2016-09-01

    In traffic engineering, vehicle detectors are trained on limited datasets, resulting in poor accuracy when deployed in real-world surveillance applications. Annotating large-scale high-quality datasets is challenging. Typically, these datasets have limited diversity; they do not reflect the real-world operating environment. There is a need for a large-scale, cloud-based positive and negative mining process and a large-scale learning and evaluation system for the application of automatic traffic measurements and classification. The proposed positive and negative mining process addresses the quality of crowd sourced ground truth data through machine learning review and human feedback mechanisms. The proposed learning and evaluation system uses a distributed cloud computing framework to handle data-scaling issues associated with large numbers of samples and a high-dimensional feature space. The system is trained using AdaBoost on 1,000,000 Haar-like features extracted from 70,000 annotated video frames. The trained real-time vehicle detector achieves an accuracy of at least 95% for 1/2 and about 78% for 19/20 of the time when tested on ˜7,500,000 video frames. At the end of 2016, the dataset is expected to have over 1 billion annotated video frames.

  10. Environment stakes and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronquoy, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    This document devoted to the environment discusses on the following topics: the environmental policies, the threats for the environment (climatic change, water management and risks), the deforestation, the sustainable development of cities, the safety first principle, the energy challenge, the international cooperation, the North-South relations. (A.L.B.)

  11. Precision in harsh environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, P.; Krijnen, G.; Roozeboom, F.

    2016-01-01

    Microsystems are increasingly being applied in harsh and/or inaccessible environments, but many markets expect the same level of functionality for long periods of time. Harsh environments cover areas that can be subjected to high temperature, (bio)-chemical and mechanical disturbances,

  12. Designing Creative Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cochrane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Designing creative learning environments involves not only facilitating student creativity, but also modeling creative pedagogical practice. In this paper we explore the implementation of a framework for designing creative learning environments using mobile social media as a catalyst for redefining both lecturer pedagogical practice, as well as redesigning the curriculum around student generated m-portfolios.

  13. Environment annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the 1993 Environment Annual Report for BNFL, data are presented for radioactive discharges to the environment and their associated doses to the criteria group members of the public in the vicinity of Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst. Similarly, data are also presented for non-radioactive discharges to water and air for each site. (UK)

  14. Environment control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammarone, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a system for controlling the environment of an enclosed area in nuclear reactor installations. The system permits the changing of the environment from nitrogen to air, or from air to nitrogen, without the release of any radioactivity or process gas to the outside atmosphere

  15. School education on energy and environment problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imakita, Manami

    2005-01-01

    In Japanese school, elementary and junior- and senior-high, it is widely agreed that teaching of energy and environment is desirable, as has been adopted in a course of study of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. This paper reports the present state of affairs on these problems from elementary schools to high schools, describing of each school year or grade and each lessons separately. It contains the results of the author's investigation on curriculum and syllabus including some classroom practices and measurement of natural radioactivity and radiation with the help of adequate measuring instruments and visits to some related facilities. Methods of learning and teaching are also studied together with some future prospect. (S. Ohno)

  16. CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anette Boye; Laursen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    in obligatory evaluations of physical, psychological and aesthetic environmental dimensions of learning and education. The present study aims to elucidate how professionals and children co-operate in order to develop 'best child environments' and further study the impact of children's perspectives on pedagogy...... in Denmark inspired by Montessori and Froebel pedagogical ideas.Danish ECE pedagogues practice with reference to a double concept of 'bildung'. They navigate towards personal development of the individual child as well as neoliberal management mechanisms with focus on objectives and competencies.......Danish pedagogues mention space and material conditions, psychological dimensions and to a less extent aesthetical dimensions such as play and artwork when they are asked to describe the best child environmental practice.Relevance for Nordic educational researchThe study offers practical knowledge regarding...

  17. Blended synchronous learning environment: Student perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conklina Sheri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Distance education environments can take many forms, from asynchronous to blended synchronous environments. Blended synchronous learning environment (BSLE can be defined as an innovative setting in which students can decide to attend classes either face-to-face or via a synchronous virtual connection. Many educators are unfamiliar teaching in BSLE because of lack of experience or exposure to this delivery method. Thus, it is important to understand the optimal organisational structures and the effective management of BSLE courses to facilitate student learning and interaction. Seeking to understand this teaching method, an exploratory mixed-method study was conducted to examine graduate students’ perceptions of the BSLE. Quantitative and qualitative data was collected from a questionnaire and analysed. The findings revealed that students were satisfied with the BSLE, interactions, and the instructor. However, findings showed that the instructor divided attention between face-to-face and online synchronous students, which can cause cognitive overload and compromise the quality of instruction. Additionally, this study suggests that technical difficulties can affect students’ satisfaction with BSLE courses. Implications for further research and limitations are discussed.

  18. The Development Of Virtual Educational Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken STEVENS

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of inter-school electronic networks has added a new dimension to education in Canada that has many implications for students who attend schools in rural communities. Collaborative internet-based teaching and learning and the creation of virtual classes within regional intranets now complement traditional on-site instruction in many schools that are located beyond major centres of population. Five stages in the advent of virtual educational environments can be identified starting with the introduction of computers in schools as a foundation for the development of collaborative teaching and learning environments. Inter-school collaboration in rural Canada and the extension of curriculum options for senior students has, in turn, provided a basis for the integration of virtual classes and traditional face to face instruction. Instruction in classes that are electronically-linked to other classes requires different skills from traditional face to face teaching and the development of new strategies and protocols. The implications of open and flexible teaching and learning for the future organization of classes, the preparation of teachers, articulation with higher education and in particular, regional economic development are now significant educational policy issues. The linking of virtual and face to face classes through cybercells is a possible next step in the development of virtual educational environments.

  19. Environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paavola, Jouni; Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews socio-economic research on the environment and sustainability. The chapter first explores core aspects of socio-economics, examines how socio-economics has related to the agenda of research on the environment, and assesses how socio-economic research on the environment became...... institutionalized. We consider that the environment has not been high on the agenda of the socio-economic research community but that there is a substantial amount of socio-economic research on the environment in the ecological economics and other research communities. The chapter then examines the research...... on institutional sources of environmental problems on monetary valuation and environmental decision-making as two areas where socio-economics has had a particularly strong influence. The chapter concludes that the acknowledgement in these areas of research of ecological and social embeddedness has given rise...

  20. Perennial Environment Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plas, Frederic

    2014-07-01

    The Perennial Environment Observatory [Observatoire Perenne de l'Environnement - OPE] is a unique approach and infrastructure developed and implemented by ANDRA, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, as part of its overall project of deep geological disposal for radioactive waste. Its current mission is to assess the initial state of the rural (forest, pasture, open-field and aquatic) environment, prior to repository construction. This will be followed in 2017 (pending construction authorizations) and for a period exceeding a century, by monitoring of any impact the repository may have on the environment. In addition to serving its own industrial purpose of environmental monitoring, ANDRA also opens the OPE approach, infrastructure and acquired knowledge (database...) to the scientific community to support further research on long term evolution of the environment subjected to natural and anthropogenic stresses, and to contribute to a better understanding of the interaction between the various compartments of the environment

  1. Neural correlates of reinforcement learning and social preferences in competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Wouter; Talwar, Arjun; McClure, Samuel M

    2013-01-30

    In competitive social environments, people often deviate from what rational choice theory prescribes, resulting in losses or suboptimal monetary gains. We investigate how competition affects learning and decision-making in a common value auction task. During the experiment, groups of five human participants were simultaneously scanned using MRI while playing the auction task. We first demonstrate that bidding is well characterized by reinforcement learning with biased reward representations dependent on social preferences. Indicative of reinforcement learning, we found that estimated trial-by-trial prediction errors correlated with activity in the striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Additionally, we found that individual differences in social preferences were related to activity in the temporal-parietal junction and anterior insula. Connectivity analyses suggest that monetary and social value signals are integrated in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and striatum. Based on these results, we argue for a novel mechanistic account for the integration of reinforcement history and social preferences in competitive decision-making.

  2. Designing for Learning and Play - The Smiley Model as a Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke

    is relevant to the professional creation of small digital learning games as well as the big Game [3], that is, the learning and play situations that exist surrounding the use of small learning games, when students discuss, negotiate, develop, and decide what to do next inside the learning games. The desired...... balance is lost if the learning processes become shallow – at a low level of cognitive complexity – though it may be great fun [4]. Conversely, a game may facilitate good learning processes and many learning activities but result in low motivation among students because it is considered boring.......When seeking to create ideal learning environments for students and teachers, it can be a challenge to find a balance between facilitating learning processes at high levels of cognitive complexity [1] and creating playful and engaging experiences for students and teachers [2]. This challenge...

  3. The Internet and computer enhanced foreign language learning and intercultural communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Uzun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at discussing the potential of the Internet and computer-mediated artefacts for education. The understanding of digitalised and technology utilised education, which is the current trend of our age, is highlighted and some computer-mediated artefacts such as the so called modular object-oriented dynamic learning environment (MOODLE, the online virtual reality chatting game Second Life, and some others are introduced in a unified connection to show how they can be practically integrated in education, and how they can foster foreign language learning and practice, and intercultural communication. It is emphasised that the current situation of the physical conditions, and also the needs, interests and abilities of the new-age learners should be considered more carefully to give education a correct direction in the future.

  4. CASES ON COLLABORATION IN VIRTUAL LEARNIONG ENVIRONMENTS: Processes and Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Yasin OZARSLAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration in Virtual Learning Environment brings meaningful learning interactions between learners in virtual environments. This book collects case studies of collaborative virtual learning environments focusing on the nature of human interactions in virtual spaces and defining the types and qualities of learning processes in these spaces from the perspectives of learners, teachers, designers, and professional and academic developers in various disciplines, learning communities and universities from around the world. This book addresses the research cases on experiences, implementations, and applications of virtual learning environments.The book's broader audience is anyone who is interested in areas such as collaborative virtual learning environments, interactive technologies and virtual communities, social interaction and social competence, distance education and collaborative learning. The book is edited by Donna Russell who is an Assistant Professor at the University of Missouri-Kansas City and co-owner of Arete‘ Consulting, LLC. It is consisted of 358 pages covering 19 articles and provides information about context for characteristics and implications of the varied virtual learning environments. Topics covered in this book are argumentative interactions and learning, collaborative learning and work in digital libraries, collaborative virtual learning environments , digital communities to enhance retention, distance education ,interactive technologies and virtual communities, massively multi-user virtual environments, online graduate community, online training programs, social interaction and social competence and virtual story-worlds.

  5. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such

  6. Do the Math: Course Redesign's Impact on Learning and Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, John; Faulkner, Jerry; Hite, Carl

    2009-01-01

    The math department at Cleveland State Community College embarked upon course redesign in 2008. As a result of this project, student engagement, learning, and success rates have increased dramatically. By including both developmental and college level math courses in the redesign, the department has been able to implement innovative scheduling and…

  7. Innovation Partnerships to Enhance Student Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dennis C.; Komives, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Following chapters that have offered examples and tools relevant to higher education institutions that wish to enhance student learning and development, this chapter summarizes and extends the conversation of how true partnerships in international higher education can be cultivated to achieve the deepest impact.

  8. Family Concepts in Early Learning and Development Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Sanchez, Claudia; Lee, Angela M.; Casillas, Nicole; Hansen, Caitlynn

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the use of concepts related to families, parents, and the home in 51 state-level early learning and development standards documents. Guidelines from six national family involvement, engagement, and school-partnership models were used to create the Family Involvement Models Analysis Chart (FIMAC), which served as…

  9. Taking a Societal Sector Perspective on Youth Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Milbrey; London, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    A societal sector perspective looks to a broad array of actors and agencies responsible for creating the community contexts that affect youth learning and development. We demonstrate the efficacy of this perspective by describing the Youth Data Archive, which allows community partners to define issues affecting youth that transcend specific…

  10. Taiwanese University Students' Perspectives on Experiential Learning and Psychosocial Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yii-Nii; Lai, Pi-Hui; Chiu, Yi-Hsing Claire; Hsieh, Hui-Hsing; Chen, Yueh-Hua

    2016-01-01

    This study described the relations of experiential learning and psychosocial development of Taiwanese university students through the qualitative method of phenomenology. Thirty-six students, age ranged from 19 to 25 years, from three research-oriented universities in northern Taiwan were interviewed. Seven themes were delineated: (1) discovering…

  11. Rethinking Early Learning and Development Standards in the Ugandan Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2013-01-01

    Concerns that the African child is being tailored to be a "global child," alongside other homogenizing and dominating projections, such as early learning and development standards (ELDS), have increased. African communities need to be assured that global standards and global indicators will not further homogenize nations and thereby risk…

  12. Certification and Validation of Priori Learning and Competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2004-01-01

    The article examines forms of recognition and validation of prior learning and competences in Europe and Australia, and discusses the need to create validation systems that connect formal education, non-formal training and informal learning as a tool for lifelong learning policies in Colombia...

  13. What Pokemon Can Teach Us about Learning and Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Vivian

    2003-01-01

    Highlights opportunities for engaging pleasurable and powerful literacies by looking closely at a student's appropriations of the popular text Pokemon. Shows the literacies he learned and used while participating as a member of a Pokemon club and in creating his own Pokemon cards. Discusses the powerful and creative learning students can bring to…

  14. Olfactory learning and memory in the bumblebee Bombus occidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Andre J.; Gronenberg, Wulfila

    2009-07-01

    In many respects, the behavior of bumblebees is similar to that of the closely related honeybees, a long-standing model system for learning and memory research. Living in smaller and less regulated colonies, bumblebees are physiologically more robust and thus have advantages in particular for indoor experiments. Here, we report results on Pavlovian odor conditioning of bumblebees using the proboscis extension reflex (PER) that has been successfully used in honeybee learning research. We examine the effect of age, body size, and experience on learning and memory performance. We find that age does not affect learning and memory ability, while body size positively correlates with memory performance. Foraging experience seems not to be necessary for learning to occur, but it may contribute to learning performance as bumblebees with more foraging experience on average were better learners. The PER represents a reliable tool for learning and memory research in bumblebees and allows examining interspecific similarities and differences of honeybee and bumblebee behavior, which we discuss in the context of social organization.

  15. Enhancing Learning and Teaching with Technology: What the Research Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckin, Rosemary, Ed.

    2018-01-01

    The educational technology sector is growing fast, with schools, colleges and universities more than ever looking for the best ways to use technology in the classroom. At the same time, there is an increasing appetite for learning and teaching practices to be backed up by evidence. However, there are few resources that bring these two things…

  16. Using Television to Stimulate Learning and Develop Evaluative Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M.; Wright, Ian

    1980-01-01

    Poses two questions regarding use of television in the social studies classroom--"How can television be used as motivation for learning?" and "How can teachers assist students to make rational evaluations concerning the issues presented on television?" Answers to these questions focus on teaching methods involving television in the classroom.…

  17. Student Organizations as Avenues for Leader Learning and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Valerie I; Alonso, Nicole; Farago, Pamela; Schettino, Gaynell; Tacchi, Kelcie; Bragger, Jennifer D

    2017-09-01

    This chapter describes theory and research demonstrating that the experiences students have within student organizations, and the people with whom they interact within those organizations, are powerful triggers for leader learning and development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  18. Learning and evolution in games and oligopoly models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Possajennikov, A.

    2000-01-01

    Dynamic models of adjustment, as well as static models of equilibrium, are important to understand economic reality. This thesis considers such dynamic models applied to economic games. The models can broadly be divided into two categories: learning and evolution. This thesis analyzes reinforcement

  19. E-Learning and Social Media Motivation Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Mohd Shafie; Saleh, Nor Shela; Aris, Baharuddin; Ahmad, Maizah Hura; Sejzi, Abbas Abjoli; Shamsudin, Nur Amalina

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study are to probe into the motivational factors toward the usage of e-learning and social media among educational technology postgraduate students in the Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. This study had involved 70 respondents via the means of a questionnaire. Four factors have been studied, named, the factor…

  20. Blended Learning and Student Engagement in an Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Courtney

    2017-01-01

    A metropolitan school district wanted to understand blended learning as it existed in one of their high schools. Blended learning had been school-wide for four years, and district administrators wanted to know how students, teachers, and school administrators perceived blended learning and its impact on student engagement. This was a…

  1. Understanding Collective Learning and Human Agency in Diverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-07

    May 7, 2018 ... made between students' lives, their African identities and local natural places. Introduction to the Think Piece Collection: 'Collective Learning and Change ... is increasingly recognised in the social-ecological and global change sciences. For example, ..... processes that allow for the change agent to act.

  2. Impact of Arts Education on Children's Learning and Wider Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Beng Huat; Kokotsaki, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    Almost every educational system in the world regards numeracy and literacy as more important than the arts. In the UK arts interest groups and politicians have, for years, asked for arts education to be accorded the same priority arguing that arts contribute to learning and development of useful skills. It is not clear if these claims were based…

  3. Validation of a Comprehensive Executive Learning and Development Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrofi, Solomon; Clarke, Nicholas; Vernon, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating the returns on intangible assets in general and executive human capital in particular is still a challenging endeavour. One possible means of addressing this challenge involves developing a broad measure of executive learning and development (L&D), encapsulating both the formal and informal activities that closely reflect the dynamic…

  4. Effect of group conselling on learning and remembering strategies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Study investigated the effect of group counseling on learning and remembering strategies of diploma students in University of Maiduguri and its implications for examination malpractices. Two objectives and two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The population consisted of all the diploma students in ...

  5. Integration of Learning and Practice for Job Sharing Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Krausse, Pamela Marie

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the forces that support the proliferation of the flexible work arrangement called job sharing. Moreover, the paper will illuminate the need for integrating learning and practice as a way to develop and support job sharing partners, or "Partners in Practice" (PiPs). The author puts forth a model derived from learning in…

  6. Learning and Understanding System Stability Using Illustrative Dynamic Texture Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaping; Xiao, Wei; Zhao, Hongyan; Sun, Fuchun

    2014-01-01

    System stability is a basic concept in courses on dynamic system analysis and control for undergraduate students with computer science backgrounds. Typically, this was taught using a simple simulation example of an inverted pendulum. Unfortunately, many difficult issues arise in the learning and understanding of the concepts of stability,…

  7. Organisational Problem Based Learning and Social Communities for SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Emma; Hamburg, Ileana

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights reasons for SMEs low uptake of training and argues that current offerings are not suitable for their needs. It highlights the need to leverage the benefits of work based learning through the use of technology. Social media and web 2.0 has significantly changed the way people learn and access knowledge. The body of knowledge…

  8. Emotional and behavioural barriers to learning and development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emotional and behavioural barriers to learning and development in the inclusive education classrooms in South Africa: Developing a training programme for teachers. ... The training affected teachers' attitudes, teacher–learner interaction, learner behaviour and school organisation. Conclusion: In-service training for ...

  9. Advances in Temporal Analysis in Learning and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Inge

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on a trend to analyse temporal characteristics of constructs important to learning and instruction. Different researchers have indicated that we should pay more attention to time in our research to enhance explanatory power and increase validity. Constructs formerly viewed as personal traits, such as self-regulated learning and…

  10. Drosophila Courtship Conditioning As a Measure of Learning and Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koemans, T.S.; Oppitz, C.; Donders, R.; Bokhoven, H. van; Schenck, A.; Keleman, K.; Kramer, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Many insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory have been elucidated through the use of simple behavioral assays in model organisms such as the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila is useful for understanding the basic neurobiology underlying cognitive deficits

  11. Learning and Teaching L2 Collocations: Insights from Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szudarski, Pawel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present and summarize the main research findings in the area of learning and teaching second language (L2) collocations. Being a large part of naturally occurring language, collocations and other types of multiword units (e.g., idioms, phrasal verbs, lexical bundles) have been identified as important aspects of L2…

  12. Blogging for Information Management, Learning, and Social Support during Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Samuel K. W.; Kwan, Alvin C. M.; Warning, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The functions and possibilities afforded by blogging have been suggested to be relevant to learning and information management. Its increasing use in the business and education sectors is documented, but currently its use in professional education or internship is limited. The social nature of blogging appears to support the applicability of blogs…

  13. Cross cultural dimensions to the learning and practice of learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper focused on the question of cultural dimension to learning and the practice of learning in different schools. It can be argues that values mould a culture and this influences the interactions through their adherence to the daily practices. Thus the different schools experience different kinds of conflicts between their ...

  14. The History of Language Learning and Teaching in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    This article provides an introduction, based on the most recent research available, to the history of language learning and teaching (HoLLT) in Britain. After an overview of the state of research, I consider which languages have been learnt, why and how that has changed; the role of teachers and tests in determining what was taught; changes in how…

  15. Research on Adult Learning and Memory: Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, David F.; Pentz, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Descriptions of cognitive development are determined by the metamodel on which theories and data are based. The associative and information processing approaches have generated much of the research on adult learning and memory. A contextual approach, emphasizing perceiving, comprehending, and remembering, is emerging in the present historical…

  16. Personality, Self-Regulated Learning, and Academic Entitlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Chelsea K.; Jackson, Dennis L.

    2017-01-01

    The current study explored the relation between the Big-Five personality domains, self-regulated learning, and academic entitlement. Academic entitlement is defined as the tendency to possess expectations of unearned academic success, unearned/undeserved academic services, and/or the expectation of unrealistic accommodation (Chowning and Campbell…

  17. The nature of learning and work transitioning in boundaryless work ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper uses theoretical constructs from the literature on boundaryless career discourse as well as learning and on work transitioning in order to explore the learning pathways of environmental engineers. It thus contributes to empirical work that articulates ongoing transitions (beyond the first job) within 'occupational and ...

  18. Organisational Learning and Organisational Memory for SMS and FRMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, F.; Stewart, S.; Akselsson, R.; Ward, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 1: Organisational Learning and Organisational Memory for SMS and FRMS The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into theLifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors

  19. Self-Directed Learning and the Millennial Athletic Training Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brian J.; Berry, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Athletic training educators (ATEs) have a responsibility to remain aware of the current student population, particularly how they learn and give meaning to what they have learned. Just as clinical athletic trainers (ATs) must adapt to ever changing work schedules and demands, so too must athletic training educators. In addition to adapting to…

  20. Building machines that learn and think like people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Brenden M; Ullman, Tomer D; Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Gershman, Samuel J

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress in artificial intelligence has renewed interest in building systems that learn and think like people. Many advances have come from using deep neural networks trained end-to-end in tasks such as object recognition, video games, and board games, achieving performance that equals or even beats that of humans in some respects. Despite their biological inspiration and performance achievements, these systems differ from human intelligence in crucial ways. We review progress in cognitive science suggesting that truly human-like learning and thinking machines will have to reach beyond current engineering trends in both what they learn and how they learn it. Specifically, we argue that these machines should (1) build causal models of the world that support explanation and understanding, rather than merely solving pattern recognition problems; (2) ground learning in intuitive theories of physics and psychology to support and enrich the knowledge that is learned; and (3) harness compositionality and learning-to-learn to rapidly acquire and generalize knowledge to new tasks and situations. We suggest concrete challenges and promising routes toward these goals that can combine the strengths of recent neural network advances with more structured cognitive models.

  1. A Corpus-Based Comparative Study of "Learn" and "Acquire"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    As an important yet intricate linguistic feature in English language, synonymy poses a great challenge for second language learners. Using the 100 million-word British National Corpus (BNC) as data and the software Sketch Engine (SkE) as an analyzing tool, this article compares the usage of "learn" and "acquire" used in natural…

  2. Collaborative Learning and Competence Development in School Health Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Wistoft, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the process and learning outcomes of peer collaboration in a Danish health developmental project in school health nursing. The paper explores how peer collaboration influences the school nurses' collaborative learning and competence development. Design/methodology/approach: The article is based…

  3. Biologically Predisposed Learning and Selective Associations in Amygdalar Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ain; Barot, Sabiha K.; Kim, Jeansok J.; Bernstein, Ilene L.

    2011-01-01

    Modern views on learning and memory accept the notion of biological constraints--that the formation of association is not uniform across all stimuli. Yet cellular evidence of the encoding of selective associations is lacking. Here, conditioned stimuli (CSs) and unconditioned stimuli (USs) commonly employed in two basic associative learning…

  4. Learning and Technology in Alberta (1975 to 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alberta's education system is a leader in the use of technology in teaching and learning. New information technologies create options for how teachers teach, how students learn, and how classrooms look and operate. This document chronicles the history of computer technology in Alberta from 1975-2009. The information is arranged in a tabulated…

  5. Play School: Where Children and Families Learn and Grow Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Lori Berger

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of national research confirms that significant levels of learning and growth occur during early childhood, and that it is important, from a public policy perspective, to increase access to quality programs and services that support the development of skills and attitudes children need to succeed. Clearly, no one-size-fits-all…

  6. Cultural Historical Activity Theory, Expansive Learning and Agency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper focuses on how contradictions were used as sources of learning and development leading to 'real life expansions'. This demonstrates and reflects on the value of an interventionist research theory and methodology employed in the study to enhance participants' agency in sustainable agriculture workplaces.

  7. Learning and Teaching Traditional Music in Cambodia: Challenges and Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Substantial efforts have been made since the Khmer Rouge regime to revitalize traditional Cambodian music genres. While they have met with some success, local circumstances still present many difficulties for the transmission of traditional music to the younger generations. This study explores the challenges in learning and teaching traditional…

  8. Emotional and behavioural barriers to learning and development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The interaction between teachers, classroom strategies and learners experiencing emotional and behavioural barriers to learning and development in a system of inclusive education results in multiple dynamics on different levels. Many teachers in mainstream education lack training to deal with learners ...

  9. Learning and generalization errors for the 2D binary perceptron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klymovskiy, A.

    2005-01-01

    The statistical mechanics model of the binary perceptron learning is considered. It is proved that under the regularity conditions learning and generalization errors for the binary perceptron with two inputs tend to 0 at the average; the first term of the asymptotics is provided; its behavior with

  10. Informal Learning and Non-Formal Education for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchem, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The following article examines the issues of open, distance and technology-based informal learning and non-formal education for individual and community development. It argues that these two modes of education, which are estimated to constitute 70-90% of lifelong learning, are insufficiently represented in the literature of open and distance…

  11. Women's Learning and Leadership Styles: Impact on Crew Resource Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Mary Ann

    With an increasing number of women becoming members of flight crews, the leadership styles of men and women are at issue. A study explored three basic questions: (1) How do male and female learning and leadership styles differ? (2) What barriers to gender integration and crew teamwork are perceived by pilot crew members? and (3) What…

  12. The Effects of Framing Grades on Student Learning and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bies-Hernandez, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether framing effects, in terms of losses and gains, can be extended to student learning and grading preferences. In Experiment 1, participants rated psychology course syllabi to investigate preferences for differently framed grading systems: a loss versus gain grading system. The results showed a clear framing effect…

  13. Organisational Learning and Performance--An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothibabu, C.; Pradhan, Bibhuti Bhusan; Farooq, Ayesha

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the important question "how the learning entities--individual, group or organisation--are affecting organisational performance". The answer is important for promoting learning and improving performance. This empirical study in the leading power utility in India found that there is a positive relation between…

  14. Information Literacy and technology to improve learning and education

    OpenAIRE

    Mooij, Ton; Smeets, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Mooij, T., & Smeets, E. (2011, 13-16 September). Information Literacy and technology to improve learning and education. Presentation and discussion in a cross-network symposium of networks 16 and 12 at the ‘European Conference on Educational Research’ of the “European Educational Research Association” (EERA), Berlin, Germany.

  15. Mathematical Models of Elementary Mathematics Learning and Performance. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppes, Patrick

    This project was concerned with the development of mathematical models of elementary mathematics learning and performance. Probabilistic finite automata and register machines with a finite number of registers were developed as models and extensively tested with data arising from the elementary-mathematics strand curriculum developed by the…

  16. Learning and Emotion: Perspectives for Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hascher, Tina

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest in and knowledge about the interplay of learning and emotion. However, the different approaches and empirical studies correspond to each other only to a low extent. To prevent this research field from increasing fragmentation, a shared basis of theory and research is needed. The presentation aims at giving an overview of…

  17. The Relationship between Organizational Learning and SME Performance in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michna, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and define dimensions of organizational learning and the way it affects small- or medium-size enterprise (SME) performance. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical research is carried out in Polish SMEs (the sample size is 211 enterprises). In order to test the constructed hypotheses we use…

  18. Creating Leaders through the Teacher Learning and Leadership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is a skill that can be learned through professional development, mentoring, and leadership development programs. In Ontario, the Teacher Learning and Leadership Program (TLLP) helps educators develop their leadership skills through a Ministry of Education--funded project that addresses student learning needs in their classrooms. This…

  19. Comparing dictionary-induced vocabulary learning and inferencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research examines dictionary-induced vocabulary learning and inferencing in the context of reading. One hundred and four intermediate English learners completed one of two word-focused tasks: reading comprehension and dictionary consultation, and reading comprehen-sion and inferencing. In addition to ...

  20. Information Literacy and technology to improve learning and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton; Smeets, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Mooij, T., & Smeets, E. (2011, 13-16 September). Information Literacy and technology to improve learning and education. Presentation and discussion in a cross-network symposium of networks 16 and 12 at the ‘European Conference on Educational Research’ of the “European Educational Research

  1. Advances in Machine Learning and Data Mining for Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Michael J.; Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Ali, Kamal M.; Srivastava, Ashok N.

    2012-03-01

    Advances in Machine Learning and Data Mining for Astronomy documents numerous successful collaborations among computer scientists, statisticians, and astronomers who illustrate the application of state-of-the-art machine learning and data mining techniques in astronomy. Due to the massive amount and complexity of data in most scientific disciplines, the material discussed in this text transcends traditional boundaries between various areas in the sciences and computer science. The book's introductory part provides context to issues in the astronomical sciences that are also important to health, social, and physical sciences, particularly probabilistic and statistical aspects of classification and cluster analysis. The next part describes a number of astrophysics case studies that leverage a range of machine learning and data mining technologies. In the last part, developers of algorithms and practitioners of machine learning and data mining show how these tools and techniques are used in astronomical applications. With contributions from leading astronomers and computer scientists, this book is a practical guide to many of the most important developments in machine learning, data mining, and statistics. It explores how these advances can solve current and future problems in astronomy and looks at how they could lead to the creation of entirely new algorithms within the data mining community.

  2. Difficulties in Learning and Teaching Statistics: Teacher Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koparan, Timur

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define teacher views about the difficulties in learning and teaching middle school statistics subjects. To serve this aim, a number of interviews were conducted with 10 middle school maths teachers in 2011-2012 school year in the province of Trabzon. Of the qualitative descriptive research methods, the…

  3. Hitting Restart: Learning and Gaming in an Australian Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altura, Gerard J.; Curwood, Jen Scott

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that video games can foster deep engagement, critical thinking, and collaborative learning. To highlight how video games promote student achievement, we focus on a year 9 elective class in Australia. Our findings suggest that this games-based class encouraged student learning and motivated students to develop advanced literacy…

  4. Agroecology Education: Action-Oriented Learning and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Francis, Charles; Ostergaard, Edvin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines and evaluates the potential contributions from action learning and action research with stakeholders to higher education in agriculture and food systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research is based on our experiences over the past two decades of running PhD courses and an MSc degree programme in Agroecology in…

  5. A review of theoretical perspectives on language learning and acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbahira Mohamad Nor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews three main theoretical perspectives on language learning and acquisition in an attempt to elucidate how people acquire their first language (L1 and learn their second language (L2. Behaviorist, Innatist and Interactionist offer different perspectives on language learning and acquisition which influence the acceptance of how an L2 should be taught and learned. This paper also explicates the relationship between L1 and L2, and elaborates on the similarities and differences between the two. This paper concludes that there is no one solid linguistic theory which can provide the ultimate explanation of L1 acquisition and L2 learning as there are many interrelated factors that influence the success of language acquisition or language learning. The implication is that teachers should base their classroom management practices and pedagogical techniques on several theories rather than a single theory as learners learn and acquire language differently. It is hoped that this paper provides useful insights into the complex process involved in language acquisition and learning, and contributes to the increased awareness of the process among the stakeholders in the field of language education. Keywords: behaviorist, innatist, interactionist, language acquisition, second language learning

  6. Learning Process Questionnaire Manual. Student Approaches to Learning and Studying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, John B.

    This manual describes the theory behind the Learning Process Questionnaire (LPQ) used in Australia and defines what the subscale and scale scores mean. The LPQ is a 36-item self-report questionnaire that yields scores on three basic motives for learning and three learning strategies, and on the approaches to learning that are formed by these…

  7. Study Process Questionnaire Manual. Student Approaches to Learning and Studying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, John B.

    This manual describes the theory behind the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) and explains what the subscale and scale scores mean. The SPQ is a 42-item self-report questionnaire used in Australia to assess the extent to which a tertiary student at a college or university endorses different approaches to learning and the motives and strategies…

  8. Autoethnographic Journeys in Learning and Teaching in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trahar, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how the methodological approach of autoethnography enabled her to interrogate the philosophical underpinnings of the learning and teaching practices that she espoused as a university academic. This critical questioning was provoked through her interactions with postgraduate students from a range of contexts…

  9. The Effects of "Mere Exposure" on Learning and Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, David J.

    The mediating role of learning in the relationship between repeated exposure and affect was explored and supported in three experiments involving a total of 229 undergraduate participants. It was found that both learning and affect measures behaved in essentially the same way as a function of exposure duration (experiments I and III), serial…

  10. Course Convenience, Perceived Learning, and Course Satisfaction across Course Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Douglas; Ross, Douglas; Rosenbloom, Alfred; Singer, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Students' desire for course convenience may lead to their preference for online courses. But in their desire for convenience, are students sacrificing satisfaction or perceived learning? This article investigates the moderating impact of course format on the relationship between convenience and both perceived learning and satisfaction. Moderated…

  11. Active learning and adaptive sampling for non-parametric inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents a general discussion of active learning and adaptive sampling. In many practical scenarios it is possible to use information gleaned from previous observations to focus the sampling process, in the spirit of the "twenty-questions" game. As more samples are collected one can

  12. Cats and Portals: Video Games, Learning, and Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    2008-01-01

    The author builds on arguments he has made elsewhere that good commercial video games foster deep learning and problem solving and that such games in fact promote mastery as a form of play. Here he maintains that some good video games engage players with an important type of play, namely of play as discovery, of play as surmising new possibilities…

  13. DAILY RUNNING PROMOTES SPATIAL LEARNING AND MEMORY IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HojjatAllah Alaei

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that physical activity improves learning and memory. Present study was performed to determine the effects of acute, chronic and continuous exercise with different periods on spatial learning and memory recorded as the latency and length of swim path in the Morris water maze testing in subsequent 8 days. Four rat groups were included as follows: 1- Group C (controls which did not exercise. 2- Group A (30 days treadmill running before and 8 days during the Morris water maze testing period. 3- Group B (30 days exercise before the Morris water maze testing period only and 4- Group D (8 days exercise only during the Morris water maze testing period. The results showed that chronic (30 days and continuous (during 8 days of Morris water maze testing days treadmill training produced a significant enhancement in spatial learning and memory which was indicated by decreases in path length and latency to reach the platform in the Morris water maze test (p < 0.05. The benefits in these tests were lost in three days, if the daily running session was abandoned. In group D with acute treadmill running (8 days exercise only the difference between the Group A disappeared in one week and benefit seemed to be obtained in comparison with the controls without running program. In conclusion the chronic and daily running exercises promoted learning and memory in Morris water maze, but the benefits were lost in few days without daily running sessions in adult rats

  14. Sex Influences on the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreano, Joseph M.; Cahill, Larry

    2009-01-01

    In essentially every domain of neuroscience, the generally implicit assumption that few, if any, meaningful differences exist between male and female brain function is being challenged. Here we address how this development is influencing studies of the neurobiology of learning and memory. While it has been commonly held that males show an…

  15. "Wide-Awake Learning": Integrative Learning and Humanities Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the development of integrative learning and argues that it has an important role to play in broader conceptions of the undergraduate curriculum recently advanced in the UK. It suggests that such a focus might also provide arts and humanities educators with a hopeful prospect in difficult times: a means by which the distinctive…

  16. Civil Society, Adult Learning and Action in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Rajesh

    2000-01-01

    Five case studies of individual and collective learning projects in India demonstrate that (1) the impetus for civic action arises from local conditions; (2) transformative action requires sustained adult learning; and (3) civil society is a complex concept reflecting diverse priorities and perspectives. (SK)

  17. Council for the Advancement of Standards Learning and Developmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) promotes standards to enhance opportunities for student learning and development from higher education programs and services. Responding to the increased shift in attention being paid by educators and their stakeholders from higher education inputs (i.e., standards and…

  18. Using a Virtual Learning Environment to Manage Group Projects: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Yvonne; Marcus-Quinn, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) are increasingly used by Higher Education Institutions to manage and enhance teaching and learning, and research. Discussion, chat, scheduling, and other collaboration tools make VLEs especially useful systems for designing and managing complex group projects. In the spring semester of 2006, students at the…

  19. Virtual Environments and the Ongoing Work of Becoming a Singapore Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiker, Steven J.; Ang, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    The study explores the intersection between cyberinfrastructure and models of teacher education and professional development in Singapore. A case study explores how a pre-service and an in-service workshop in a virtual environment support efforts to understand and enlist constructivist pedagogies for classroom learning and to foster continuous…

  20. Using Visualization to Motivate Student Participation in Collaborative Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sung-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Online participation in collaborative online learning environments is instrumental in motivating students to learn and promoting their learning satisfaction, but there has been little research on the technical supports for motivating students' online participation. The purpose of this study was to develop a visualization tool to motivate learners…

  1. Effects of Collaborative Learning Styles on Performance of Students in a Ubiquitous Collaborative Mobile Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakomogbon, Michael Ayodele; Bolaji, Hameed Olalekan

    2017-01-01

    Collaborative learning is an approach employed by instructors to facilitate learning and improve learner's performance. Mobile learning can accommodate a variety of learning approaches. This study, therefore, investigated the effects of collaborative learning styles on performance of students in a mobile learning environment. The specific purposes…

  2. Nature and the Outdoor Learning Environment: The Forgotten Resource in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies now confirm the economic, academic, and social importance of high-quality early childhood education. At the same time, a substantial body of research indicates that an outdoor learning and play environment with diverse natural elements advances and enriches all of the domains relevant to the development, health, and well-being…

  3. Flexible Learning Environments: Leveraging the Affordances of Flexible Delivery and Flexible Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janette R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the key features of "flexible learning environments" (FLEs). Key principles associated with FLEs are explained. Underlying tenets and support mechanisms necessary for the implementation of FLEs are described. Similarities and differences in traditional learning and FLEs are explored. Finally, strategies…

  4. The Effect of Scaffolding Strategies for Inscriptions and Argumentation in a Science Cyberlearning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Cindy L.; Crippen, Kent J.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific inscriptions--graphs, diagrams, and data--and argumentation are integral to learning and communicating science and are common elements in cyberlearning environments--those involving the use of networked learning technologies. However, previous research has indicated that learners struggle to use inscriptions and when they engage in…

  5. Leading the Quality Management of Online Learning Environments in Australian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Dale; Palmer, Stuart; Munro, Judy; Solomonides, Ian; Gosper, Maree; Hicks, Margaret; Sankey, Michael; Allan, Garry; Hollenbeck, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of the first year of a nationally funded Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) project on the quality management of online learning environments by and through distributed leadership. The project is being undertaken by five Australian universities with major commitments to online and distance education.…

  6. Quality of Learning Facilities and Learning Environment: Challenges for Teaching and Learning in Kenya's Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndirangu, Mwangi; Udoto, Maurice O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to report findings on the perceptions of quality of educational facilities in Kenyan public universities, and the implications for teaching/learning, and the learning environment. Design/methodology/approach: The study adopted an exploratory descriptive design. A total of 332 and 107 undergraduate students…

  7. Identifying Key Stakeholders in Blended Tertiary Environments: Experts' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuapawa, Kimberley

    2017-01-01

    Although key stakeholders in blended tertiary environments (BTEs) fulfil an extraordinary role in higher education, significant gaps in knowledge about their identities may be impeding the provision of stakeholder support, limiting their ability to promote effective learning and teaching. As online growth intensifies, it is critical that tertiary…

  8. Investigation of the Relationship between Learning Process and Learning Outcomes in E-Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurdugül, Halil; Menzi Çetin, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: Learners can access and participate in online learning environments regardless of time and geographical barriers. This brings up the umbrella concept of learner autonomy that contains self-directed learning, self-regulated learning and the studying process. Motivation and learning strategies are also part of this umbrella…

  9. What Students Really Learn: Contrasting Medical and Nursing Students' Experiences of the Clinical Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljedahl, Matilda; Boman, Lena Engqvist; Fält, Charlotte Porthén; Bolander Laksov, Klara

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores and contrasts undergraduate medical and nursing students' experiences of the clinical learning environment. Using a sociocultural perspective of learning and an interpretative approach, 15 in-depth interviews with medical and nursing students were analysed with content analysis. Students' experiences are described using a…

  10. Language and EFL Teacher Preparation in Non-English-Speaking Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Arna S.

    Linguistic and paralinguistic problems faced by non-native-English speakers training to be teachers of English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) in non-English-speaking environments are discussed. Relevant theories of second language learning and acquisition are reviewed, and the affective factors and sociocultural variables that appear to…

  11. EEG correlates of task engagement and mental workload in vigilance, learning, and memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berka, Chris; Levendowski, Daniel J; Lumicao, Michelle N; Yau, Alan; Davis, Gene; Zivkovic, Vladimir T; Olmstead, Richard E; Tremoulet, Patrice D; Craven, Patrick L

    2007-05-01

    The ability to continuously and unobtrusively monitor levels of task engagement and mental workload in an operational environment could be useful in identifying more accurate and efficient methods for humans to interact with technology. This information could also be used to optimize the design of safer, more efficient work environments that increase motivation and productivity. The present study explored the feasibility of monitoring electroencephalo-graphic (EEG) indices of engagement and workload acquired unobtrusively and quantified during performance of cognitive tests. EEG was acquired from 80 healthy participants with a wireless sensor headset (F3-F4,C3-C4,Cz-POz,F3-Cz,Fz-C3,Fz-POz) during tasks including: multi-level forward/backward-digit-span, grid-recall, trails, mental-addition, 20-min 3-Choice Vigilance, and image-learning and memory tests. EEG metrics for engagement and workload were calculated for each 1 -s of EEG. Across participants, engagement but not workload decreased over the 20-min vigilance test. Engagement and workload were significantly increased during the encoding period of verbal and image-learning and memory tests when compared with the recognition/ recall period. Workload but not engagement increased linearly as level of difficulty increased in forward and backward-digit-span, grid-recall, and mental-addition tests. EEG measures correlated with both subjective and objective performance metrics. These data in combination with previous studies suggest that EEG engagement reflects information-gathering, visual processing, and allocation of attention. EEG workload increases with increasing working memory load and during problem solving, integration of information, analytical reasoning, and may be more reflective of executive functions. Inspection of EEG on a second-by-second timescale revealed associations between workload and engagement levels when aligned with specific task events providing preliminary evidence that second

  12. DCE. Future IHEP's computing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Guorui; Liu Xiaoling

    1995-01-01

    IHEP'S computing environment consists of several different computing environments established on IHEP computer networks. In which, the BES environment supported HEP computing is the main part of IHEP computing environment. Combining with the procedure of improvement and extension of BES environment, the authors describe development of computing environments in outline as viewed from high energy physics (HEP) environment establishment. The direction of developing to distributed computing of the IHEP computing environment based on the developing trend of present distributed computing is presented

  13. The Influence of Social Media on Collaborative Learning in a Cohort Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha James-Waldon; Debbi Bromley; Zandra Henry; Silas Wandera

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the impact that social media has on the development of collaborative learning within a cohort environment in a doctoral program. The researchers surveyed doctoral students in an education program to determine how social media use has influenced the doctoral students. The study looked at the following areas: a) the ability of social media use to develop a collaborative learning environment, b) access to social media content which supports learning, and c) whe...

  14. Design A Situated Learning Environment Using Mixed Reality Technology - A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rasimah Che Mohd Yusoff; Halimah Badioze Zaman; Azlina Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Mixed Reality (MR) is one of the newest technologies explored in education. It promises the potential to promote teaching and learning and making learners- experience more "engaging". However, there still lack of research on designing a virtual learning environment using MR technology. In this paper, we describe the Mixed Reality technology, the characteristics of situated learning as instructional design for virtual environment using mixed reality technology. We also exp...

  15. Global environment and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Atsushi

    1992-01-01

    The environment problems on global scale have been highlighted in addition to the local problems due to the rapid increase of population, the increase of energy demand and so on. The global environment summit was held in Brazil. Now, global environment problems are the problems for mankind, and their importance seems to increase toward 21st century. In such circumstances, cogeneration can reduce carbon dioxide emission in addition to energy conservation, therefore, attention has been paid as the countermeasure for global environment. The background of global environment problems is explained. As to the effectiveness of cogeneration for global environment, the suitability of city gas to environment, energy conservation, the reduction of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides emission are discussed. As for the state of spread of cogeneration, as of March, 1992, those of 2250 MW in terms of power generation capacity have been installed in Japan. It is forecast that cogeneration will increase hereafter. As the future systems of cogeneration, city and industry energy center conception, industrial repowering, multiple house cogeneration and fuel cells are described. (K.I.)

  16. Factors Influencing Learning Environments in an Integrated Experiential Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koci, Peter

    environments and how they influence learning and behaviour. Keywords: learning environments; integrated experiential programs; environmental education.

  17. Intracerebroventricular administration of taurine impairs learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koichi; Arko, Matevž; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Kikusui, Takefumi; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Tsubone, Hirokazu

    2012-03-01

    Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid widely distributed in the body and we take in it from a wide range of nutritive-tonic drinks to improve health. To date, we have elucidated that oral supplementation of taurine does not affect learning and memory in the rat. However, there are few studies concerning the direct effects of taurine in the brain at the behavior level. In this study, we intracerebroventricularly administered taurine to rats and aimed to elucidate the acute effects on learning and memory using the Morris water maze method. Escape latency, swim distance, and distance to zone, which is the integral of the distance between the rats and the platform for every 0.16 seconds, were adopted as parameters of the ability of learning and memory. We also tried to evaluate the effect of intraperitoneal taurine administration. Escape latency, swim distance, and distance to zone were significantly longer in the intracerebroventricularly taurine-administered rats than in the saline-administered rats. Mean swimming velocity was comparable between these two groups, although the physical performance was improved by taurine administration. Probe trials showed that the manner of the rats in finding the platform was comparable. In contrast, no significant differences were found between the intraperitoneally taurine-administered rats and the saline-administered rats. These results indicate that taurine administered directly into the brain ventricle suppresses and delays the ability of learning and memory in rats. In contrast, it is implied that taurine administered peripherally was not involved in learning and memory.

  18. Virtual interface environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1986-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed for use as a multipurpose interface environment. The system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, application scenarios, and research directions are described.

  19. Actions for the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Colloca, C

    2003-01-01

    As an International Organization, one the most important issues that CERN has to respect and guarantee is the protection of the environment. Several of ST activities and operations have a direct impact on the environment: civil engineering works, electrical (transformers) and air-cooling operation, chemical products storage, various waste disposal etc.... Important measures, taken in the past, have to be kept and new ones should be applied in order to insure the conformity of the infrastructure with existing legislation, the correct operation of equipment and systems, the constant monitoring of the different situations and the traceability of the events. Moreover good management of the environment would bring large savings to CERN.

  20. Work environment quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman; Busck, Ole Gunni; Lind, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The article explores how employee participation influences the quality of the work environment and workers’ well-being at 11 Danish workplaces from within six different industries. Both direct participation and representative forms of participation at the workplace level were studied. Statistical...... as well as qualitative comparative analyses reveal that work environment quality and high levels of participation go hand in hand. Within a typology of participation models the highest level of participation, including strong elements of collective participation, and also the best work environment...

  1. ENVIRONMENTS and EOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Schnetzer, Julia

    2015-01-01

    are needed to facilitate large-scale analyses. Therefore, we developed ENVIRONMENTS, a fast dictionary-based tagger capable of identifying Environment Ontology (ENVO) terms in text. We evaluate the accuracy of the tagger on a new manually curated corpus of 600 Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) species pages. We use...... the tagger to associate taxa with environments by tagging EOL text content monthly, and integrate the results into the EOL to disseminate them to a broad audience of users. Availability and implementation: The software and the corpus are available under the open-source BSD and the CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 licenses...

  2. A palliative environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Connie; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Høybye, Mette Terp

    2015-01-01

    The findings show a tension between clinical and technical sensory impressions and more aesthetic ones in the hospital environment. Aesthetic elements in an environment dominated by many clinical impressions proved important for the patients’ positive thoughts and feelings. Aesthetic sensory...... impressions caused a sense of homeliness and familiarity in the hospital environment that was perceived by the patients as carrying a positive meaning. Clinical impressions, on the other hand, were generally associated with unfamiliarity and insecurity and were experienced as creating a negative mood....

  3. Environment and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horii, Ryo; Ikefuji, Masako

    . In a less developed country, this link, which we call “limits to growth,” emerges as the “poverty-environment trap,” which explains the persistent international inequality both in terms of income and environment. This link also threatens the sustainability of the world’s economic growth, particularly when...... the emission of greenhouse gases raises the risk of natural disasters. Stronger environmental policies are required to overcome this link. While there is a trade-off between the environment and growth in the short run, we show that an appropriate policy can improve both in the long run....

  4. DEGAS: Dynamic Exascale Global Address Space Programming Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmel, James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-02-23

    The Dynamic, Exascale Global Address Space programming environment (DEGAS) project will develop the next generation of programming models and runtime systems to meet the challenges of Exascale computing. The Berkeley part of the project concentrated on communication-optimal code generation to optimize speed and energy efficiency by reducing data movement. Our work developed communication lower bounds, and/or communication avoiding algorithms (that either meet the lower bound, or do much less communication than their conventional counterparts) for a variety of algorithms, including linear algebra, machine learning and genomics. The Berkeley part of the project concentrated on communication-optimal code generation to optimize speed and energy efficiency by reducing data movement. Our work developed communication lower bounds, and/or communication avoiding algorithms (that either meet the lower bound, or do much less communication than their conventional counterparts) for a variety of algorithms, including linear algebra, machine learning and genomics.

  5. Environment compendium 1999. The environment in figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The detailed information in this compendium forms the basis for the condition of the environment in the Netherlands and for measures to be taken to stabilize or improve the environmental quality. First, an overview is given of the social developments, e.g. economic and volume developments within target sectors (section A), the use of natural resources (section B) and the resulting environmental pressure (section C). The environmental load is described according to the environmental themes and the target groups as formulated and distinguished in the Dutch environmental policy. Next, the environmental quality is described (section D), effected by the continuous emission of materials into the air, surface water, ground water and soil. Also attention is paid to noise pollution and odor pollution, the impacts on the external safety and ionizing radiation of radioactive materials. The final effects on nature and public health are dealt with in section E. The costs of environmental measures to be taken by the Dutch government and businesses to stabilize or improve the environmental quality are dealt with in section F. Finally, in section G, attention is paid to the relation and integration of environment and economy, based on the system of National Accounts (so-called NAMEA). refs

  6. Environment compendium 2001. The environment in figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The detailed information in this compendium forms the basis for the condition of the environment in the Netherlands and for measures to be taken to stabilize or improve the environmental quality. First, an overview is given of the social developments, e.g. economic and volume developments within target sectors (section A), the use of natural resources (section B) and the resulting environmental pressure (section C). The environmental load is described according to the environmental themes and the target groups as formulated and distinguished in the Dutch environmental policy (section D). Next, the environmental quality is described (section E), effected by the continuous emission of materials into the air, surface water, ground water and soil. Also attention is paid to noise pollution and odor pollution, the impacts on the external safety and ionizing radiation of radioactive materials. The final effects on nature and public health are dealt with in section F. The costs of environmental measures to be taken by the Dutch government and businesses to stabilize or improve the environmental quality are dealt with in section G. Finally, in section H, attention is paid to the relation and integration of environment and economy, based on the system of National Accounts (so-called NAMEA). refs

  7. Environment and World Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larre, Dominique

    1979-01-01

    Tourism can create significant impacts on both the social and natural environment; however, many nations have avoided the negative impacts. Consideration of the effects of tourism should be part of national policy toward the tourist industry. (RE)

  8. Learning Networks Distributed Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Harrie; Vogten, Hubert; Koper, Rob; Tattersall, Colin; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Sloep, Peter; Van Bruggen, Jan; Spoelstra, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Learning Networks Distributed Environment is a prototype of an architecture that allows the sharing and modification of learning materials through a number of transport protocols. The prototype implements a p2p protcol using JXTA.

  9. Space radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, H.B.

    1998-01-01

    Coupled with the increasing concern over trapped radiation effects on microelectronics, the availability of new data, long term changes in the Earth's magnetic field, and observed variations in the trapped radiation fluxes have generated the need for better, more comprehensive tools for modeling and predicting the Earth's trapped radiation environment and its effects on space systems. The objective of this report is to describe the current status of those efforts and review methods for attacking the issues associated with modeling the trapped radiation environment in a systematic, practical fashion. The ultimate goal will be to point the way to increasingly better methods of testing, designing, and flying reliable microelectronic systems in the Earth's radiation environment. The review will include a description of the principal models of the trapped radiation environment currently available--the AE8 and AP8 models. Recent results rom radiation experiments on spacecraft such as CRRES, SAMPEX, and CLEMENTINE will then be described. (author)

  10. Wheel inspection system environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-18

    International Electronic Machines Corporation (IEM) has developed and is now marketing a state-of-the-art Wheel Inspection System Environment (WISE). WISE provides wheel profile and dimensional measurements, i.e. rim thickness, flange height, flange ...

  11. Connected vehicle applications : environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation has developed a number of connected vehicle environmental applications, including the Applications for the Environment Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) research program applications and road weather applic...

  12. CERN and the environment

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    New webpages answer common questions about CERN and the environment.   One of the new public webpages dedicated to CERN and the environment. Do your neighbours ever ask you about CERN’s environmental impact? And about radiation in particular? If so, the answers to those questions can now be found online on a new set of public webpages dedicated to CERN and the environment. These pages, put together by the Occupational Health, Safety and Environmental Protection (HSE) unit and the groups responsible for CERN's site maintenance, contain a wealth of information on topics linked to the environment, such as biodiversity at CERN, waste management, ionising radiation, and water and electricity consumption. “CERN forms part of the local landscape, with its numerous sites and scientific activities. It’s understandable that people living nearby have questions about the impact of these activities and it’s important that we respond with complete transp...

  13. Environment, epigenetics and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Michael K

    2017-07-01

    A conference summary of the third biannual Kenya Africa Conference "Environment, Epigenetics and Reproduction" is provided. A partial special Environmental Epigenetics issue containing a number of papers in Volume 3, Issue 3 and 4 are discussed.

  14. Visualization Design Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomplun, A.R.; Templet, G.J.; Jortner, J.N.; Friesen, J.A.; Schwegel, J.; Hughes, K.R.

    1999-02-01

    Improvements in the performance and capabilities of computer software and hardware system, combined with advances in Internet technologies, have spurred innovative developments in the area of modeling, simulation and visualization. These developments combine to make it possible to create an environment where engineers can design, prototype, analyze, and visualize components in virtual space, saving the time and expenses incurred during numerous design and prototyping iterations. The Visualization Design Centers located at Sandia National Laboratories are facilities built specifically to promote the ''design by team'' concept. This report focuses on designing, developing and deploying this environment by detailing the design of the facility, software infrastructure and hardware systems that comprise this new visualization design environment and describes case studies that document successful application of this environment.

  15. Environment, 1980-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Environment issued during the period 1980-1993. It gives a short abstract and contents of these issues along with their costs in Austrian Schillings

  16. Transformers For Extreme Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Imagine a revolutionary way to remotely control the environment surrounding one or more roving vehicles exploring remote and unexplored areas of the Solar System,...

  17. Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2014-01-01

    an environmental transmission electron microscope to an in situ X-ray diffractometer through a dedicated transmission electron microscope specimen transfer holder, capable of sealing the specimen in a gaseous environment at elevated temperatures. Two catalyst material systems have been investigated; Cu/ZnO/Al2O3...... transferred in a reactive environment to the environmental transmission electron microscope where further analysis on the local scale were conducted. The Co/Al2O3 catalyst was reduced in the environmental microscope and successfully kept reduced outside the microscope in a reactive environment. The in situ......Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking...

  18. Space Environment Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes presentation materials and outputs from operational space environment models produced by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and...

  19. Built environment and diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasala, Sudhir Kumar; Rao, Allam Appa; Sridhar, G. R.

    2010-01-01

    Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus is influenced by built environment, which is, ‘the environments that are modified by humans, including homes, schools, workplaces, highways, urban sprawls, accessibility to amenities, leisure, and pollution.’ Built environment contributes to diabetes through access to physical activity and through stress, by affecting the sleep cycle. With globalization, there is a possibility that western environmental models may be replicated in developing countries such as India, where the underlying genetic predisposition makes them particularly susceptible to diabetes. Here we review published information on the relationship between built environment and diabetes, so that appropriate modifications can be incorporated to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. PMID:20535308

  20. Assessing Educational Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Directions for Testing and Measurement, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Educational environment data derived from classroom settings strongly suggest the positive contribution that climate variables can make in accounting for learning performance. Such measures are not only related to productivity but may constitute criterion variables in and of themselves. (Author)

  1. Some effects of a modern university educational environment informatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Noskova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the effects that occur in the process of the educational environment informatization. The following effects were analyzed: information richness, openness, individualization of learning and collaboration. Examples of educational practice, illustrating the significant changes of the university educational environment associated with the manifestation of these effects, are presented. The aim of the pilot study carried out in Herzen University was to identify the attitude to the listed effects of teachers and students who are using information and communication technology in the educational interactions. The leading method of study were a series of surveys addressed to teachers and students. Groups of questions were related to basic information effects, manifested in the educational environment of the university. The total number of the survey participants is 200 students (bachelors and masters and 100 teachers, most actively using electronic environment for research, education and professional activities. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results showed that information richness, spatial and temporal freedom of educational interactions are demanded by students, but at the same time, the data indicated a lack of systematic pedagogical support for the information and educational activities of students. A large part of students show a high autonomy in the information educational environment, but also demands implementing individualized information and communication educational request. Students and teachers are actively using a variety of information and communication opportunities of the electronic environment, but students’ activeness in the electronic environment is largely determined by the recommendations of teachers, rather than by a free choice of educational opportunities. The participants of the educational environment acquire a significant degree of freedom in relation to the time and place of interaction with

  2. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  3. Indoor Environment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports progress during the year 1992 in the Indoor Environment Program in the Energy and Environment Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Studies in the following areas are reported: energy performance and ventilation in buildings; physical and chemical characterization of indoor air pollutants; indoor radon; indoor air quality; exposure to indoor air pollutants and risk analysis. Pollutants of particular interest include: radon; volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions including environmental tobacco smoke, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides

  4. Precision in harsh environments

    OpenAIRE

    French, P.; Krijnen, G.; Roozeboom, F.

    2016-01-01

    Microsystems are increasingly being applied in harsh and/or inaccessible environments, but many markets expect the same level of functionality for long periods of time. Harsh environments cover areas that can be subjected to high temperature, (bio)-chemical and mechanical disturbances, electromagnetic noise, radiation, or high vacuum. In the field of actuators, the devices must maintain stringent accuracy specifications for displacement, force, and response times, among others. These new requ...

  5. Individually Controlled Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    The thermal environment and inhaled air quality in buildings to which occupants are exposed has an effect on their health, comfort, performance and productivity. Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) of buildings today is designed to provide a uniform environment. However, large...... individual differences in physiological and psychological response, clothing insulation, activity, preference for air temperature and movement, etc., exist between people. Environmental conditions acceptable for most of the occupants in buildings may be achieved by providing each occupant...

  6. Elephant logging and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin-Aung-Hla

    1995-01-01

    The natural environment comprises non-biological elements such as air, water, light, heat and biological elements of animal and plant life; all interact with each other to create an ecosystem. Human activities like over-exploitation of forest results in deforestation and desertification. This consequently changes ecological balance. Topics on: (1) history of elephants utilization; (2) elephant logging; (3) classification of elephants; (4) dragging gear; (5) elephant power; (6) elephant logging and environment, are discussed

  7. Components of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    This report of the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic deals with the components of the environment. The results of monitoring of air (emission situation), ambient air quality, atmospheric precipitation, tropospheric ozone, water (surface water, groundwater resources, waste water and drinking water), geological factors (geothermal energy, fuel deposits, ore deposits, non-metallic ore deposits), soil (area statistics, soil contamination. soil reaction and active extractable aluminium, soil erosion), flora and fauna (national strategy of biodiversity protection) are presented

  8. Development of Web-based Virtual Training Environment for Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhixin; Wong, S. F.

    2010-05-01

    With the booming in the manufacturing sector of shoe, garments and toy, etc. in pearl region, training the usage of various facilities and design the facility layout become crucial for the success of industry companies. There is evidence that the use of virtual training may provide benefits in improving the effect of learning and reducing risk in the physical work environment. This paper proposed an advanced web-based training environment that could demonstrate the usage of a CNC machine in terms of working condition and parameters selection. The developed virtual environment could provide training at junior level and advanced level. Junior level training is to explain machining knowledge including safety factors, machine parameters (ex. material, speed, feed rate). Advanced level training enables interactive programming of NG coding and effect simulation. Operation sequence was used to assist the user to choose the appropriate machining condition. Several case studies were also carried out with animation of milling and turning operations.

  9. A virtual reality task based on animal research – spatial learning and memory in patients after the first episode of schizophrenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fajnerová, Iveta; Rodriguez, M.; Levčík, David; Konrádová, L.; Mikoláš, P.; Brom, C.; Stuchlík, Aleš; Vlček, Kamil; Horáček, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, May 27 (2014), s. 157 ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NT14291; GA MZd(CZ) NT13843 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : schizophrenia * spatial navigation * learning and memory * virtual reality environment * cognitive deficit * Morris Water Maze (MWM) * psychotic disorders * spatial behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.270, year: 2014

  10. Learning and teaching entrepreneurship: Dilemmas, reflections and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blenker, Per; Dreisler, Poul; Færgemann, Helle Meibom

    2006-01-01

    The question as to whether entrepreneurship could be learned - and whether it should be taught as part of University Studies in general, more particularly as part of business studies, has been discussed for a number of years. The most widespread answer today seems to be positive; yes......, entrepreneurship can be learned and should be taught. A major problem is that the traditional forms of teaching at universities and business schools have shown themselves quite inappropriate for enhancing the motivation and competencies of students towards innovation and entrepreneurship. This phenomenon has...... the secure context of the university auditorium or in small firms - or perhaps somewhere in between academia and practice. A fourth dilemma is whether students should work individually or collectively and a fifth is the question of how the substance of what is taught is formulated; whether entrepreneurship...

  11. PDAs: Revolutionizing The Way We Learn and Teach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly McDONOUGH

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Miniature handheld computers called PDA’s are not only bombarding corporate America, but they are also noticeably making their mark on college campuses. The question is, how much impact are they making on the way students learn and instructors teach. These devices were born from a simple calculator and over two decades have transformed into a walking computer complete with Internet access. This paper identifies how PDAs have transformed over the years as well as their benefits and limitations. Although there are many pros and cons to using PDAs, it was clear that they can be used to enhance both learning and teaching if used and accepted in the appropriate manner. With the advancement in technology and data speeds it is evident PDA’s will continue to add value to education in the future.

  12. Learning and Socializing Preferences in Hong Kong Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eva E; Corriveau, Kathleen H; Lai, Veronica K W; Poon, Sze Long; Gaither, Sarah E

    2018-04-30

    The impact of social group information on the learning and socializing preferences of Hong Kong Chinese children were examined. Specifically, the degree to which variability in racial out-group exposure affects children's use of race to make decisions about unfamiliar individuals (Chinese, White, Southeast Asian) was investigated. Participants (N = 212; M age  = 60.51 months) chose functions for novel objects after informants demonstrated their use; indicated with which peer group member to socialize; and were measured on racial group recognition, preference, and identification. Overall, children preferred in-group members, though out-group exposure and the relative social status of out-groups mattered as well. At a young age, children's specific experiences with different races influence how they learn and befriend others across racial group lines. © 2018 Society for Research in Child Development.

  13. The role of NPY in learning and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, C. R.; Woldbye, D. P. D.

    2016-01-01

    with Y1 receptor-mediated neurogenesis could constitute necessary steps in consolidation and long-term retention of spatial memory. Altogether, NPY-induced effects on learning and memory seem to be biphasic, anatomically and temporally differential, and in support of a modulatory role of NPY at keeping......High levels of NPY expression in brain regions important for learning and memory together with its neuromodulatory and neurotrophic effects suggest a regulatory role for NPY in memory processes. Therefore it is not surprising that an increasing number of studies have provided evidence for NPY...... acting as a modulator of neuroplasticity, neurotransmission, and memory. Here these results are presented in relation to the types of memory affected by NPY and its receptors. NPY can exert both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on memory, depending on memory type and phase, dose applied, brain region...

  14. Service-Learning and Social Entrepreneurship: From Strangers to Allies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lewellyn Jones

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Service-learning and social entrepreneurship share a common goal of engaging students in work to achieve the public good, and a desire to link education to addressing social problems and needs. Yet an examination of the two initiatives reveals that they generally co-exist on college and university campuses with little or no collaboration or communication between the two programs. This paper examines the definitions and core identities of service-learning and social entrepreneurship, exploring the potential for how the two initiatives might complement and support one another’s work in higher education. This examination includes identifying the values, philosophies, and practices that might provide common ground as well as those that might present points of conflict and tension. KEYWORDSService-learning; Social Entrepreneurship; Civic Engagement

  15. Teach, learn, and motivate: tools to reliability, availability, and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, D.

    1986-01-01

    The recent introduction of performance-based training by the Institute for Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) should not be a surprise to the nuclear industry. The recommended performance-based training method by INPO in one form or another addresses the techniques of teaching and sets the atmosphere for employee learning and motivation. The purpose of this paper is to explore the underlying concepts of why performance-based training yields such high results. The main emphasis will be on the general topics of teaching, learning, and student motivation as each applies to hands-on training. To support each of these topics, ancient philosophers' theories are presented. the intent is to show that hands-on performance-based training applies to engineers and other professional disciplines as well as technicians and operators

  16. Nociceptin and the nociceptin receptor in learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andero, Raül

    2015-10-01

    There are many processes in which the neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ or nociceptin) is involved in the brain. The role of nociceptin in learning and memory holds promise in modulating these processes in health and disease in the human brain. This review summarizes the body of research focused on N/OFQ and its specific receptor, the nociceptin receptor (NOP receptor), in learning and memory, and its potential mechanisms of action, in which acetylcholine, NMDA receptor, and noradrenaline may be critical. Finally, the association between NOP receptor and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a psychiatric disorder with altered fear learning, is examined as one of the potential outcomes resulting from pathological consequences of dysregulation of N/OFQ-NOP receptor in the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bluetooth helper environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junbiao

    2001-10-01

    Handheld devices are gaining great popularity and becoming a common commodity on the market primarily due to their small sizes and mobile nature. However, these devices are all limited in capabilities, especially in terms of screen display, processing power, storage space and network access. Some of these limitations, such as the small screen sizes, are inherently difficult to improve given the usage model of these devices. In this paper, we propose a framework in which small handheld devices can use their environment, the devices around them, to expand their limited capabilities. Such an environment can be deployed in the office, at home for user convenience or in a public access area as a revenue generating service. A handheld device interacts with the helper environment through several essential steps including device discovery, service query, request transfer and remote control. In order to ensure the proper operation of such an environment, the framework provides essential system components for admission control, resource allocation, task scheduling and device coordination. We refer to such a framework as the device helper environment and discuss its system architecture and usage scenarios in this paper.

  18. FEMME, a flexible environment for mathematically modelling the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetaert, K.E.R.; DeClippele, V.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    A new, FORTRAN-based, simulation environment called FEMME (Flexible Environment for Mathematically Modelling the Environment), designed for implementing, solving and analysing mathematical models in ecology is presented. Three separate phases in ecological modelling are distinguished: (1) the model

  19. Hilar GABAergic Interneuron Activity Controls Spatial Learning and Memory Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews-Zwilling, Yaisa; Gillespie, Anna K.; Kravitz, Alexxai V.; Nelson, Alexandra B.; Devidze, Nino; Lo, Iris; Yoon, Seo Yeon; Bien-Ly, Nga; Ring, Karen; Zwilling, Daniel; Potter, Gregory B.; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Kreitzer, Anatol C.; Huang, Yadong

    2012-01-01

    Background Although extensive research has demonstrated the importance of excitatory granule neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in normal learning and memory and in the pathogenesis of amnesia in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the role of hilar GABAergic inhibitory interneurons, which control the granule neuron activity, remains unclear. Methodology and Principal Findings We explored the function of hilar GABAergic interneurons in spatial learning and memory by inhibiting their activity through Cre-dependent viral expression of enhanced halorhodopsin (eNpHR3.0)—a light-driven chloride pump. Hilar GABAergic interneuron-specific expression of eNpHR3.0 was achieved by bilaterally injecting adeno-associated virus containing a double-floxed inverted open-reading frame encoding eNpHR3.0 into the hilus of the dentate gyrus of mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of an enhancer specific for GABAergic interneurons. In vitro and in vivo illumination with a yellow laser elicited inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneurons and consequent activation of dentate granule neurons, without affecting pyramidal neurons in the CA3 and CA1 regions of the hippocampus. We found that optogenetic inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneuron activity impaired spatial learning and memory retrieval, without affecting memory retention, as determined in the Morris water maze test. Importantly, optogenetic inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneuron activity did not alter short-term working memory, motor coordination, or exploratory activity. Conclusions and Significance Our findings establish a critical role for hilar GABAergic interneuron activity in controlling spatial learning and memory retrieval and provide evidence for the potential contribution of GABAergic interneuron impairment to the pathogenesis of amnesia in AD. PMID:22792368

  20. Hilar GABAergic interneuron activity controls spatial learning and memory retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaisa Andrews-Zwilling

    Full Text Available Although extensive research has demonstrated the importance of excitatory granule neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in normal learning and memory and in the pathogenesis of amnesia in Alzheimer's disease (AD, the role of hilar GABAergic inhibitory interneurons, which control the granule neuron activity, remains unclear.We explored the function of hilar GABAergic interneurons in spatial learning and memory by inhibiting their activity through Cre-dependent viral expression of enhanced halorhodopsin (eNpHR3.0--a light-driven chloride pump. Hilar GABAergic interneuron-specific expression of eNpHR3.0 was achieved by bilaterally injecting adeno-associated virus containing a double-floxed inverted open-reading frame encoding eNpHR3.0 into the hilus of the dentate gyrus of mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of an enhancer specific for GABAergic interneurons. In vitro and in vivo illumination with a yellow laser elicited inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneurons and consequent activation of dentate granule neurons, without affecting pyramidal neurons in the CA3 and CA1 regions of the hippocampus. We found that optogenetic inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneuron activity impaired spatial learning and memory retrieval, without affecting memory retention, as determined in the Morris water maze test. Importantly, optogenetic inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneuron activity did not alter short-term working memory, motor coordination, or exploratory activity.Our findings establish a critical role for hilar GABAergic interneuron activity in controlling spatial learning and memory retrieval and provide evidence for the potential contribution of GABAergic interneuron impairment to the pathogenesis of amnesia in AD.