WorldWideScience

Sample records for learning usaf doctrine

  1. U-CrAc Flexible Interior Doctrine, Agile Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    2012-01-01

    The research domain of this article is flexible learning environment for immediate use. The research question is: How can the learning environment support an agile learning process? The research contribution of this article is a flexible interior doctrine. The research method is action research...

  2. Questioning the cerebellar doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliano, Elisa; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2014-01-01

    The basic principles of cerebellar function were originally described by Flourens, Cajal, and Marr/Albus/Ito, and they constitute the pillars of what can be considered to be the classic cerebellar doctrine. In their concepts, the main cerebellar function is to control motor behavior, Purkinje cells are the only cortical neuron receiving and integrating inputs from climbing fiber and mossy-parallel fiber pathways, and plastic modification at the parallel fiber synapses onto Purkinje cells constitutes the substrate of motor learning. Yet, because of recent technical advances and new angles of investigation, all pillars of the cerebellar doctrine now face regular re-examination. In this review, after summarizing the classic concepts and recent disputes, we attempt to synthesize an integrated view and propose a revisited version of the cerebellar doctrine. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  4. USAF Weapon System Evaluation Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    During this task period, Schafer Corporation provided engineering services and analysis to the USAF at Eglin AFB, Florida in direct support of the USAF Air-to-Surface Weapon System Evaluation Program (WSEP...

  5. Establishing Cyber Warfare Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Colarik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, advances in technology have transformed communications and the ability to acquire, disseminate, and utilize information in a range of environments. Modern societies and their respective militaries have taken advantage of a robust information space through network-centric systems. Because military and commercial operations have increasingly converged, communication and information infrastructures are now high-priority military objectives in times of war. This article examines the theoretical underpinning of current cyber warfare research, what we have learned so far about its application, and some of the emerging themes to be considered; it also postulates the development of a (national cyber warfare doctrine (CWD. An endeavor of this scale requires lots of considerations and preparation for its development if it is to be cooperatively embraced. This article considers why information technology systems and their supporting infrastructures should be considered legitimate military targets in conflicts, and offers several events that support this supposition. In addition, it identifies the various forms of doctrine that will become the basis for developing a CWD, discusses a CWD's possible components, and proposes a national collaborative and discussion framework for obtaining a nation's stakeholder buy-in for such an endeavor.

  6. On China's Nuclear Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liping

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear weapons have played an important role in China's national strategy. China’s nuclear doctrine has a very strong continuity. Nevertheless, China has made readjustments in its nuclear doctrine according to the changes of its internal and external situation and its general strategic threat perception. China’s nuclear doctrine has experienced a process of evolution from anti-nuclear blackmail to minimum deterrence. There are five major parts in China's nuclear doctrine: policy of declaration, nuclear development, nuclear deployment, nuclear employment, and nuclear disarmament. Because China is faced with a different situation from other nuclear powers and has its own strategic culture, China has a nuclear doctrine with its own characteristics. China’s nuclear doctrine has been affiliated with and has served the national development strategy, national security strategy, national defense policy and military strategy of China.

  7. India's draft nuclear doctrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, A.

    2000-01-01

    India's draft nuclear doctrine and its nuclear and missile testing are a response to recent international, regional and domestic developments. Nehru's policy of nuclear disarmament, non-discriminatory international arrangements and unilateral restraint has been overturned in favour of self-reliant security and negotiated nuclear restraints. The draft nuclear doctrine is aimed at transparency and formalization of existing capacities. It is anchored in the United Nations Charter, based on the legitimacy of self-defence and espouses minimum nuclear deterrence. After the launching of Pokhran II, the debate in India has been settled on weaponization and deployment. The doctrine is not country-specific with respect to threat perceptions, but the author posits that the long-term focus is on China and the short-term on Pakistan. The doctrine emphasizes civilian command and control. India's decision to test incurred diplomatic and other economic costs, but afforded new opportunities for the country to assert itself militarily and politically in Asia and in the world. There were no diplomatic costs in issuing the draft nuclear doctrine, but the author estimates the economic costs of a full-blown (triad) Indian nuclear deterrent. (author)

  8. VATICANO II CONCILIO DOCTRINAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Bojorge

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a century since the army of Victor Manuel invaded Rome and put an end to Vatican I. In this article we try to understand Vatican II linking it to the previous circumtances and binding it to its doctrinal and pastoral character. Vatican II omitted many subjects that seemed important, e. g. not giving any dogmatic definitions. Contrasting with the Tridentine and Vatican I, that were mostly doctrinal, Vatican II was pastoral. But it was also doctrinal as were the two previous also pastoral. The Constitution "Dei Verbum" brings forth the intentions that led John XXIII to summon the Council in 5-8-1962. The world looked confused and agitated. What could the Church do?

  9. Military Strategy vs. Military Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The article argues that while doctrine represents the more scientific side of warfare, strategy represents the artistic side. Existing doctrine will almost never meet the requirements for winning the next war; it is through the artistic application of generic peacetime doctrine to the specific st...... strategic and operational context, using doctrine as building blocks for a context specific military strategy, that the military commander outwits and defeats or coerces the adversary and achieves the military objectives....

  10. Fairness Doctrine in Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles Vance

    After a decade of debate, numerous Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rulings, and many court decisions, the application of the "fairness doctrine"--an act that mandates objectivity in the presentation of facts concerning controversial issues--remains unsettled. This report discusses issues involved in the application of the…

  11. Questioning the cerebellar doctrine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galliano, Elisa; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2014-01-01

    The basic principles of cerebellar function were originally described by Flourens, Cajal, and Marr/Albus/Ito, and they constitute the pillars of what can be considered to be the classic cerebellar doctrine. In their concepts, the main cerebellar function is to control motor behavior, Purkinje cells

  12. Repugnancy Doctrine and Customary Law in Nigeria: A Positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Keywords: customary law, repugnancy doctrine, British colonialism. Introduction ... When the British arrived, they met about 350 different tribal or independent ... socialization: social learning theory, cognitive developmental theory and symbolic ... codes, which protected citizens from arbitrary rule. As the boundaries.

  13. Airland Battle Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Professional Paper 463 / September 1988 OTIC - EL cOPY V 0- 00 00 N Airland Battle Doctrine DTIC S ELECTE DEC 2 81988D Douglas W. Skinner Dcb A...missiles to ground targets. Initial deployment will be on the Army’s OV-i Bronco and the Air Force’s TR-l and C-18. This is another outgrowth of the

  14. Symposium on nuclear doctrines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The world is cold-war free for a decade, but there is a growing concern about continued reliance by the most powerful military states on nuclear weapons of inconceivable mass destructive capacity. Question revolve around not only the amount of nuclear weapons deployed and in storage, but also the reasons why stets need to retain military doctrines that include the possible use of their awesome power. NATO adopted a new strategic concept at the Washington summit in April 1999, at the heart of which still is nuclear deterrence. The US Senate rejected ratification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in October 1999. The Russian Federation draft nuclear doctrine is increasing reliance on nuclear weapons. The nuclear test in South Asia in May 1998 challenged the viability of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Earlier in 1999, India floated a nuclear doctrine in draft that includes reliance on a minimum nuclear deterrent. This publication aimed to extend the insights and opinions on the disarmament and real effectiveness of nuclear deterrence

  15. USAF Institute for National Security Studies 1998 Research Results Conference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    The USAF Institute for National Security Studies (INSS), in cooperation with HQ USAF Nuclear and Counterproliferation Directorate, sponsored its 6th annual Research Results Conference on 19 - 20 November 1998...

  16. Operational Reach: Is Current Army Doctrine Adequate?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heintzelman, Scott

    2003-01-01

    The term operational reach, an element of operational design, is new to U.S. Army doctrine. Operational reach is not found in the previous edition of the Army's basic operational doctrine, Field Manual...

  17. Modernism and catholic political doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry T. Sardaryan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the perception of Modernism by the Catholic Church as a movement within the clerical structure and philosophy that existed during the 19-20th centuries in the framework of general skepticism and rejection of tradition, prioritization of individualism, formal equality, faith in inevitability of social, scientific and technological progress, rationalization and professionalization. A distinctive feature of this movement is the participation of the priests themselves, especially in France and Italy. The object of research is the Catholic political doctrine during the pontificate of Pius X. Modernist movement in Catholicism, in opinion of many scientists had a decisive impact on the reform direction during the Second Vatican Council, but on closer study of the discourse that took place in the late 19th - early 20th centuries, it becomes obvious that this is not true. The focus of the article is the political doctrine of Catholicism - the issue of state political structure, its relationship with church institutions, status of the individual in societyc. In this regard, the modernists gave priority to necessity of secularization and complete separation of secular and spiritual power. In the article different scientifical methods, ave used such as dialectical, logical, comparative, systematic. The main conclusion of the author is that modernism should be regarded as an unsuccessful attempt to reform the Catholic Church that could have lead to its another schism, rather than a route towards the Second Vatican Council. The desire to change the structure, methods of church mission, its hierarchy and a number of other formal elements – was implemented by church itself for multiple times before. However, revision of the foundations of Christian ethics and its ontology, including its political doctrine, ran into resistance of the Holy See, causing, in essence, a rhetorical question - whether scientific and technical progress should

  18. Sampling and Data Gathering Strategies for Future USAF Anthropometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    1973 USAF 1946 27 178.13 195u 23 178.49 - 0.36 cm It is difficult in light of data such as these to accept the ikea that changes in stature are solely...studying the size and shape factors which differentiate the successful from the unsuccessful ejectors. B0 .1," The official end of USAF activities in

  19. Doctrinal gnosis in Islam: Position and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halilović Tehran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical, rational and intuitive methods in scientific considerations formulate various scientific disciplines. Doctrinal gnosis and philosophy are two rational-demonstrative doctrines that consider ontological questions. Although the basis of their Gnostic experience is intuitive knowledge, Gnostics describe and explain their experience in a rational way, with a view to making the content of such Gnostic knowledge in their scientific work available to the general public. In that way, doctrinal gnosis is established which, like philosophy, uses general terms. To get a clear picture of the essence of doctrinal gnosis in Islam, in this paper we will try to present the main characteristics of doctrinal gnosis and its relationship with similar disciplines. On this front, in addition to the importance of clarifying the differences between doctrinal gnosis and other aspects of the Gnostic knowledge in Islam, such as transmitted gnosis and practical gnosis, special attention will have to be paid to a clear analysis of the differences between doctrinal gnosis and philosophy.

  20. The Evolution of Peace Operations Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lovelock, Richard

    2002-01-01

    .... Capable warfighting forces must operate among the people, using the guidelines provided by maneuverist doctrine and adapted to local conditions to enable the military, in cooperation with the police, to find (locate), fix (control or shape...

  1. Medical Doctrine - Are We Really Joint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siniscalchi, Kimberly

    1997-01-01

    ... 4.02, Doctrine for Health Service Support in Joint Operations, is analyzed to determine if it provides adequate guidance for seamless health service support in joint operations for war and contingencies other than war...

  2. Ancient Doctrines of Passions: Plato and Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskra-Paczkowska Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this essay is a discussion of the doctrines of emotions of Plato and Aristotle. According to both them it is impossible to oust the passions from the good, i.e. happy life. On the contrary, emotions are an important component of human excellence. We investigate this question with reference to Plato’s doctrine of the soul and his concept of a perfect life, and Aristotle’s ethics, poetics and rhetoric.

  3. Redefined Soviet military doctrine in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menning, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    On May 29, 1987, the Warsaw Pact's Political Consultative Committee issued a communique proclaiming that the military doctrine of the Warsaw Pact member states is strictly defensive and proceeds from the fact that the application of military means to resolve any dispute is inadmissible under current conditions. Following this declaration, a corresponding redefinition of Soviet military doctrine to emphasize defensiveness and war prevention has evoke lively commentary and debate in both the West and the East. Because doctrinal issues are likely to retain significance during arms control and security negotiations. The purpose of this paper is to highlight important trends associated with a continuing dialogue over Soviet military doctrine and to assess what the future portends as doctrinal discussions unfold. Since 1987 the accelerating pace of change has accentuated the importance of doctrinally related concerns. As a result of the INF Treaty and the Stockholm agreement, there has been greater transparency regarding Soviet and Warsaw Pact military developments. On December 7, 1988, General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev announced unilateral troop reduction over the next two years, which, when completed, would reduce the offensive capabilities of Soviet forces in Eastern Europe. In March 1989 talks on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures (CSBM) opened in Vienna, with suggestions for exchanges of views on military policy. At the very same time, NATO and the Warsaw Pact began formal negotiations on reduction of Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) with a specific mandate to reduce those asymmetries that most favored prosecution of deep operations

  4. Determining Effective Leadership Behaviors for USAF Company Grade Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berry, Warren

    1998-01-01

    ... (Yukl and Van Fleet, 1986). The purpose of this investigation is to determine the critical leadership behaviors required by junior officers at the direct level of responsibility in the USAF, and to determine differences...

  5. Short of War: Major USAF Contingency Operations, 1947-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Evacuation Control Center at Tan Son Nhut. They collaborated with Col. Garvin McCurdy, USAF, DAO Air Attache, and Brig. Gen. Richard T. Drury , USAF, Pacific...cargo went by air until ships could arrive. Once they did, sea lift quickly surpassed airlift in terms of tonnage delivered . General Colin L. Powell...Roland I . Haitian Democracy Restored, 1991-1995 . New York: University Press of America, 1995. Powell, Colin L. My American Journey. New York: Random

  6. Motivating administrative acts - doctrinal and jurisprudential issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Cristian APOSTOLACHE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches the topic of administrative acts motivation, analyzed from the doctrinal and jurisprudential perspective. If at first, motivation was considered merely a formal condition of the administrative act, as a result of the national and European, doctrinal and jurisprudential evolution, motivation is now regarded as one of the most important conditions of validity for the administrative act. Motivating administrative acts represents also a manifestation of the right to information, sealed by the Romanian Constitution, and a dimension of the right to a good administration, as stipulated in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.

  7. Repugnancy Doctrine and Customary Law in Nigeria: A Positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The doctrine of repugnancy owes it origin to the medieval period and evolution of English equity. The doctrine was introduced into Nigeria by the end of the 19th century via the received English laws to test our customary law for acceptability. The issue has been whether the application of the doctrine by Nigerian courts has ...

  8. Russian Military Politics and Russia’s 2010 Defense Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    63 Jacob W. Kipp 3. Russian Defense Doctrine .............................. 153 Alexander G. Savelyev About...DOCTRINE Alexander G. Savelyev After President Vladimir Putin of Russian Fed- eration (RF) approved the Military Doctrine in April 2000, experts and...from the Pennsylvania State University. ALEXANDER SAVELYEV has been head of the Strategic Studies Department, Center of International Security

  9. Thunderbolts and Eggshells: Composite Air Operations During Desert Storm and Implications for USAF Doctrine and Force Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    2-5. 60. See UT Col Mark A. Welsh, "lay ot the Killer Scouts." Air Porne Magazine, April 1993, 66-70. 61. T’imothy T’. Lupfer, "The D)ynamics of D...TFW - Tactical Fighter Wing TFW(P) - Tactical Fighter Wing (Provisional) TLFE - Theater Large Force Employment Exercise UAE - United Arab Emirates

  10. An exploration of warfighting and firefighting doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. DeGrosky; Alen Slijepcevic

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, wildland fire professionals have been confronted with worsening conditions and complex challenges that cry out for change and new ways of thinking. However, change requires a framework within which people reliably translate policy into timely, effective action. Doctrine, or a body of teachings, instructions, taught principles, or positions,...

  11. Doctrinal controversies and ecumenical councils | Ogbonnaya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work focused on the doctrinal controversies that have confronted the Church in the course of its development and the accompanying councils that sought to resolve these theological controversies. The paper did this historically, by showing the origin of the problems, the factors and features involved in the controversies ...

  12. Assessing a Suitable Contribution of the French Armor Branch to the Doctrinal Development of Violence: Mastering Operations in the Urban Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millet, Jean-Michel

    2003-01-01

    .... This study analyzes the current state of the French Army doctrinal development of armor employment in the violence-mastering mode in the urban environment and compare it to the lessons learned...

  13. An Assessment of the USAFE School Board Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    2000. USAFE Strategic Plan on Dependent Education, Headquarters, USAFE, October 1998. Vajont ES, http://www.vajo-es.eu.odedodea.edu/ Vogelweh ES...Pordenone ES K–6 109 2/2/0 Vajont ES K–6 157 2/2/0 Aviano AB 4 1,365 11/11/1 4/4/1 10/0 Incirlik ES K–6 475 3/3/0 Incirlik HS 7–12 217...Aviano) K–6 109 AF SB VAJONT ES (Aviano) K–6 157 AVIANO ES K–6 629 AVIANO HS 7–12 470 VICENZA ES K–6 480 A IAC VICENZA HS 7–12 251

  14. Effective Measurement of Reliability of Repairable USAF Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    ix I. Introduction ...RELIABILITY OF REPAIRABLE USAF SYSTEMS I. Introduction General Issue The United States relies on complex systems to protect and project the national...Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, Implementing a Lifecycle Mangement Framework, Washington DC, DC: DoD, 2008

  15. An Empirical Investigation of USAF Logistics Readiness Officer Mission Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    xi I. Introduction ...USAF LOGISTICS READINESS OFFICER MISSION SETS I. Introduction Background “While its mission and purpose are constant, the logistics...one can see that information mangement and business acumen are near the top in each one. Acquisitions and process improvement were the KSAs with

  16. Heritage, Image and Identity: The Evolution of USAF Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    up-in-coming “ Generation Z ” (also known as the “Net or Digital Generation”), which is the most connected and high-tech generation ever seen. 40...for future RPA warrior leaders. 43 The USAF has already set the ground work to position “ Generation Z ” RPA pilots for future senior leadership

  17. Features of Islamic Health-Treatment Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Alinouri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Islam has particular style and doctrine about health and treatment that makes it different from other treatment methods. The aim of this article is studying the principles and methods of Islamic health treatment and the attitudes of this religion toward appearance of disease caused by material or immaterial factors. This article is review type and it is presented by descriptive analysis method from religious sources. Islam is a religion which is oriented towards health with health-treatment features, priority of prevention over treatment by reforming nutritional principles, tolerance of disease and avoidance of taking medicine if the disease is not sever, paying attention to spiritual causes of illness in addition to physical factors and necessity of treatment as a Divine Will and avoidance of treatment by Haraam because God has not placed healing in Haraam. These features have made Islamic health - treatment doctrine as unique.

  18. Operational Initiative in Theory and Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    in terms of the offense. French General Pierre-Joseph de Bourcet, Napoleon Bonaparte , US Colonel Gustave Fiebeger, and Sun Tzu described initiative...1994), vii. 42 Napoleon Bonaparte , Napoleon’s Maxims of War, trans. George Charles D’Aguilar (Richmond, VA: West & Johnson, 1862), 10. 43...Counterinsurgency and Contingency Operations Doctrine: 1860- 1941. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1998. Bonaparte , Napoleon . Napoleon’s

  19. Special Operations Doctrine: Is it Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-07

    AOB), eight Special Forces Operational Detachment-Alphas (SFODAs)2, and Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations teams working alongside two bat...Operations doctrine. Sixty years after the Army’s first special operations units were formed, the time had arrived for writing how Army special operations...Affairs, Psychological Operations, and Special Forces, the effort inte- grated the roles and missions of the Ranger Regiment, Special Mission Units, and

  20. HISTORICAL PARALLELS OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMIC DOCTRINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avtandil SILAGADZE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Historical experience shows that problems of economic development in certain countries are linked to the rational use of economic resources. It is not accidental that this issue was of high importance as early as in the 19th century in Georgia. An outstanding Georgian writer Ilia Tchavtchavadze (1951-1961 and other researchers (see References dedicated interesting works to studying this problem. Like German national economic doctrines, Ilia Tchavtchavadze was much concerned with the priorities of national economy. Based on the research results, the present work provides conclusions that Ilia Tchavtchavadze’s economic doctrine complies with German as well as classic economic doctrines with the only difference that development of Georgian economy should start with the development of agriculture; complies with free trade policy; gives great importance to building railway network and Batumi-Baku pipeline, development of oil industry, co-existence of private and community ownership and inadmissibility of forceful infringement of such ownership; lays foundation to building of an independent banking system in Georgia.

  1. The End of Doctrine?
    On the Symbolic Function of Doctrine in Substantive Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry de Jong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been various developments within Dutch substantive criminal-law doctrine that in some important ways suggest a shift towards a common-law conception of judicial interpretation in different topics which are central to substantive criminal law. The developments suggest that criminal-law doctrine in the Netherlands is becoming sketchier and is losing some theoretical profundity. Building on Cassirer's philosophy of symbolic forms, Shapiro's planning theory of law, and Wittgenstein's considerations on rule-following, this article aims to contribute to a description of the independent function of doctrine in substantive criminal law, by addressing the question as to how, and in what sense, doctrine 'helps' the court in applying the statutory and non-statutory criminal-law norms. It is argued that the law constitutes a 'symbolic form' that is to some extent disassociated from the social life-world, and that is construed by way of sophisticated, shared forms of 'social planning'. These forms of social planning form parts of a 'practice' governed by a specific 'legal point of view'. It is further argued that criminal-law doctrine, in a radical sense, comprises a form of proceduralization, by means of which the adjudicating judge is 'directed' to a certain position within the criminal law's symbolically construed space. It is concluded that criminal-law doctrine fulfils an important function in 'situating' the judge, and in 'prompting' or 'compelling' the judge, from his subjective position, to apply a criminal-law norm in an objectively correct manner.

  2. Changes in Russia's Military and Nuclear Doctrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolkov, Benjamin M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balatsky, Galya I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-26

    In 1993, the Russian Federation set out a new military doctrine that would determine the direction of its armed forces until President Putin set out the next doctrine in 2000. The Russian Federation creating the doctrine was new; the USSR had recently collapsed, Gorbachev - the creator of the predecessor to this doctrine in 1987 - was out of office, and the new Russian military had only been formed in May, 1992.1 The analysis of the 1993 doctrine is as follows: a definition of how doctrine is defined; a short history of Russian military doctrine leading up to the 1993 doctrine (officially the Basic Provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation); and finally, what the doctrine established. An overview of the 1993 doctrine is: (1) Russia's 1993 doctrine was a return to older, more aggressive doctrine as a result of stability concerns surrounding the recent collapse of the USSR; (2) Russia turned from Gorbachev's 'defensive defense' in the 1987 doctrine to aggressive defense with the option of preempting or striking back against an aggressor; (3) Russia was deeply concerned about how nationalism would affect the former Soviet Republics, particularly in respect to the ethnic Russians still living abroad; and (4) Nuclear doctrine pledged to not be the first to use nuclear weapons but provided for the potential for escalation from a conventional to a nuclear war. The 2000 doctrine (officially the Russian Federation Military Doctrine) was created in a more stable world than the 1993 doctrine was. The Russian Federation had survived independence and the 'threat of direct military aggression against the Russian Federation and its allies' had diminished. It had secured all of the nuclear weapons from its neighbors Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, and had elected a new president, Vladimir Putin, to replace Boris Yeltsin. Yet, even as the doctrine took more defensive tones than the 1993 doctrine, it expanded its nuclear options

  3. The theoretical tenability of the doctrine of double effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bole, T J

    1991-10-01

    The doctrine of double effect shows that for which the moral agent is responsible, by explicating the relationship between the act directly intended and the consequences of that act. I contend that this doctrine is necessary not only for natural law absolutism, but also for Donagan's Kantianism and for Quinn's revised construal of the doctrine, and even for consequentialism, as bioethical implications of the doctrine make clear. For those who do not accept this necessity, I contend that it is necessary metatheoretically, in order to deal with those moral agents with irreconcilably different notions of the morally good.

  4. USAF/SCEEE Summer Faculty Research Program (1979). Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    K. Schwarzschild , Math. Phys, Kiasse, Grottingen Nachrichten, p. 41 (1906). . 28-21 I -. 4; 1979 USAF - SCEEE SUMMER FACULTY RESEARCH PROGRAM...Wollam, 1968, p. 57. 22. Richard H. Hall, Organizations Structure and Process (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2nd ed., 1978). 23. Karl E. Weick, The...The Analysis of the U.S. Army Aircraft Maintenance System, Battelle Memorial Institute, 1970. (AD703839) Weick, Karl E. The Social Psychology of

  5. Moral Law in the doctrine of Zaratushtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasulova T. S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available the article is dedicated to one of the important problem of the morals and morality of the human society, and necessity of upbringing young people in the traditional family values. The morals and morality laws are considering on the example of the Zaratushtra’s doctrine, who according to the old legend, was one of the first prophets, bringing the idea of the monotheism to the earth. The famous triad of Zaratushtra about good thought, good word and good deed continues to be a morality pointer for all contemporary mankind.

  6. The state in the Eurasian doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S N Lebedev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of the state in the Eurasian doctrine, one of the most distinctive and significant movements of the Russian sociological and political-philosophical thought abroad in the 1920-1930’s. The issues addressed by the Eurasians are still relevant under the current epoch of the new Russian statehood construction and to a certain extent are implemented in the contemporary political practice. According to the classical Eurasian doctrine, all nations of “Russia-Eurasia” are united by the “place of development” and constitute a single historical and socio-cultural world, which organically combines elements of the East and the West. The Eurasian doctrine of the state proclaims the idea of strong government and powerful state, which represents the interests of the people and maintains direct connections with its citizens by combining the law and justice principles with the norms of morality, welfare and conscience. The article examines the key Eurasian concept “ideocratic state” and the essential characteristics of the Eurasian concept of the state system, such as ideocracy, autarchy, idea-ruler, and ruling selection. The key state-forming concept is “Pan-Eurasian nationalism” interpreted by the Eurasians as an archetype of ideology, a basis of the national idea. The authors consider basic principles of the socio-economic structure of the Eurasian state, including active participation of the state in the economic life of the country, the coexistence of public and private properties. According to the Eurasian doctrine, the state-planned economy and the state regulation of culture form the foundations of autarchic states that protect the country from economic and humanitarian intervention. The authors come to the conclusion that Eurasian theory of the state can significantly enrich nowadays scientific theory and help to solve the tasks of modernization of the Russian society at the present stage for it takes

  7. The Doctrine of Eternal Recurrence and its significance with respect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the psychological implications of the doctrine – I aim to show that by proposing the Doctrine as the ultimate test for the highest affirmation of life, Nietzsche also provides part of what he takes to be the solution to the threat of both the impending nihilism and the inhibiting current morality of his age as he discusses them in ...

  8. First War Syndrome: Military Culture, Professionalization, and Counterinsurgency Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    doctrine" does not. If everything an organization does or believes is grouped under the rubric of doctrine, then it becomes an almost meaningless catch...civilians. A variant of this is that some political systems give civilians a better ability to intervene than others. Finally, a set of genetic

  9. Unpacking the public trust doctrine: a journey into foreign territory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    familias. Through the concept of "public trusteeship", a stewardship ethic has been ... See also De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd v Ataqua Mining (Pty) Ltd Case ... trust doctrine as a "tool for political losers or for those seeking to avoid the costs of .... public interest – the use of lands subject to the public trust doctrine could be.

  10. Standing the Test of Time: Revising the British Army's Counterinsurgency Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Herlihy, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The recent experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan confirm the fundamental validity of the British Army's counterinsurgency doctrine, but offer lessons which should be incorporated into a doctrinal review...

  11. Russia’s Monroe Doctrine: peacekeeping, peacemaking, or imperial outreach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Rakowska-Harmstone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the important changes in the Russian foreign policy doctrines that occurred in the beginnings of the 1990s, after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The Author argues that the officially claimed devotion to peacemaking and peacekeeping are in fact manifestations of the Russian imperial outreach. The model of international relations promoted by Moscow in fact resembles the American 19th century Monroe Doctrine. Thus, the foreign policy doctrine and the potential national conflicts in the post-Soviet territory may become triggers for Russian actions aiming at restoring the Russian Empire.

  12. The Eisenhower Doctrine and its Implementation in Lebanon - 1958

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, David

    2002-01-01

    In May 1958, President Camille Chamoun of Lebanon sent an urgent cable to U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower requesting military aid under the terms of the Eisenhower Doctrine, to put down civil unrest in Lebanon...

  13. Technology and Military Doctrine. Essays on a Challenging Relationship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holley, I

    2004-01-01

    .... In these essays, Holley primarily addresses the need for the Air Force to adapt its doctrine and the processes of formulating and disseminating that guidance as the technology of air and space warfare improves. Dr...

  14. Russia's nuclear doctrine: The end of the period of transition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokov, N.

    2000-01-01

    The Russian Federation issued a draft Military Doctrine in October 1999, widely circulating it for study and reactions. In January 2000, Russia published its 2000 National Security Concept and on 4 February, the Security Council approved its new military doctrine. Nuclear weapons are seen as the only reliable means to dissuade NATO from using force against Russia. There is a distinct focus in the new doctrine on the immediate military utility of nuclear weapons. Russia, like NATO, is continuing to reduce its nuclear weapons, though at a slower clip than foreseen by the START agreements. The doctrine reasserts the policy of first use of nuclear weapons in response to a conventional attack. Its policy provides for the use of nuclear weapons in response to an attack in which other weapons of mass destruction (chemical or biological) are used. (author)

  15. Nuclear strategy: the doctrine of just war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, Sudha

    2006-01-01

    It is essential that there be growth in a man's moral standing if he has to deal with the great powers given to him-the greatest being the power to destroy. The bequest of history, diplomacy and war is undeniably disconcerting for the evidence it provides on the role of morality, in life. A return to the ancient and forgotten art of moral reasoning, especially while formulating strategic policies, is de rigueur. The discovery of the nuclear weapons has indeed been serendipitous. And the environment in which one fashions the strategic doctrine for use of nuclear weapons is dynamic. The usefulness of these nuclear weapons is narrow and specific in that its sole purpose is to deter a nuclear attack. History has been witness to strategies been woven around this central theme of deterring a rival or enemy nation, in the process forgetting the existence of the moral threshold. Deterrence is a policy that fashions a situation whereby war can be limited if not averted. It rests on the capability of a nation to deter the enemy and ensure that the credibility of the threat is maintained and respected and employed when necessary. Nuclear weapons deter but there is the pursuit of the absolute means to seek foolproof deterrence. Herein lies the dilemma. The stakes involved in a nuclear war and the use of these weapons stimulate varied and worried debates. To justify a war, arguments tend to get grounded on 'justwar'. The doctrine of Just War is concerned not with what men did in war but what they ought to do or refrain from doing; the jus ad bellum or justification of war and the jus in bello or the limitation of war. The U.S. now stands as the sole 'super' power that is willing to use its military and technical might for a 'just cause'. This has only ensured that though the uniquely perilous results of the use of nuclear weapons have been understood, its use remains entrenched in the mind while future policy decisions are being made. And nuclear weapons 'explode the theory of

  16. Swiss Armed Forces Reform: Doctrinal and Organizational Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    conservatism and military innovation since this is where the essence of the Armed Forces resides. Sound doctrine and coherent organizations enables the...established doctrine can become part of the conservatism of the military institution. So the innovative capabilities of the military organization affect...in other fields. They challenged the inherent conservatism of the military institution. The down-sizing of the Armed Forces, the reduction of

  17. Homeland Security: Developing National Doctrine to Guide State Strategy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    James Monroe in 1823 ( Martin , n.d.). There is also political doctrine, such as egalitarianism a “political doctrine that holds that all people...be able to engage a larger stakeholder community and avoid the need for a huge new bureaucracy (Linde, O’Brien, Lindstrom , Spiegeleire, Vayrynen...Presentation, Osan Air Force Base, South Korea. 74 Linde, E., O’Brien, K., Lindstrom , G., Spiegeleire, S., Vayrynen, M., & de Vries, H. (2002

  18. Ukraine's Foreign Policy: from Military Doctrine to Defense Security One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Иванович Кузьмук

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of reforming and developing Ukraine’s Armed Forces on the basis of the analysis of the key provisions of the Strategic defense bulletin adopted in 2012. The author proposes the ways of solving this problem and substantiates the transition in the defense planning from the military doctrine to the doctrine of Ukraine’s security and defense.

  19. Moral autonomy in Australian legislation and military doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Adams

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Australian legislation and military doctrine stipulate that soldiers ‘subjugate their will’ to government, and fight in any war the government declares. Neither legislation nor doctrine enables the conscience of soldiers. Together, provisions of legislation and doctrine seem to take soldiers for granted. And, rather than strengthening the military instrument, the convention of legislation and doctrine seems to weaken the democratic foundations upon which the military may be shaped as a force for justice. Denied liberty of their conscience, soldiers are denied the foundational right of democratic citizenship and construed as utensils of the State. This article critiques the idea of moral agency in Australian legislation and military doctrine and is concerned with the obligation of the State to safeguard the moral integrity of individual soldiers, so soldiers might serve with a fully formed moral assurance to advance justice in the world. Beyond its explicit focus on the convention of Australian thought, this article raises questions of far-reaching relevance. The provisos of Australian legislation and doctrine are an analogue of western thinking. Thus, this discussion challenges many assumptions concerning military duty and effectiveness. Discussion will additionally provoke some reassessment of the expectations democratic societies hold of their soldiers.

  20. Political and Legal Doctrine of Simon Bolivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mixail V. Fedorov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to the legal, political and constitutional ideas of the outstanding leader of war of independence in Latin America Simon Bolivar that was called by his countrymen and contemporaries to be a LIBERATOR. In the present article author discusses complex genesis and evolution of the political and legal doctrine of Simon Bolivar. Review is conducted by author in the context of developing theory and practice of Latin American constitutionalism in the XIX century. Author conceptualized and revealed basic historical patterns of formation and development of Latin American countries during the War of Independence (1810-1826 period. Author conducted comprehensive analysis of the draft constitution which was developed by Simon Bolivar for the newly independent states of Latin America and reveals theoretical and practical problem of choosing Simon Bolivar republican form of government, such as a peculiar institution in the form of principle of the separation of powers, containing the fourth power. Author focuses on the questions of Simon Bolivar’s relationship to the constitutional institute of human rights, idea of relationship between state and church. Article also researches many other political, legal and constitutional ideas of Simon Bolivar, present views of historians, lawyers, political scientists, statesmen and public activists.

  1. Technology, Effects and Doctrines of Nuclear Warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1981-01-01

    The development and the status of the nuclear weapons systems and of the systems for their delivery are explained. All these systems have made tremendous progress since the 1960s. Available destructive power now is literally millions of times larger than at the time of Hiroshima. Moreover, technical progress has had, especially through the MIRV principle and the cruise missile, a destabilizing influence and threatens the equilibrium of terror. New strategic doctrines for winning rather than preventing nuclear war have come to the foreground. Plans for the tactical first-use of nuclear weapons have been accepted. Alternatively, the retaliation capacity of the opponent could be destroyed by surprise attack - The First Strike. In a nuclear conflict, the commanders-in-chief are overburdened by the need for ultra-urgent decisions. This applies especially to a First Strike situation. As a consequence tendencies in the direction of increasing automatization become ever more conspicuous. In the extreme ease, decisions may be left entirely to machines, and men would not any more be included in decision-making. The increasing automatization leads to further escalation of insecurity for the whole world. Solutions for the principal problem of the world, war or peace, cannot be found On the level of technology, but only on that of practical policy of detente, disarmament, collaboration and reconciliation. (author)

  2. USAF Summer Research Program - 1995 High School Apprenticeship Program Final Reports, Volume 14, Rome Laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Gary

    1995-01-01

    The United States Air Force High School Apprenticeship Program's (USAF HSAP) purpose is to place outstanding high school students whose interests are in the areas of mathematics, engineering, and science to work in a laboratory environment...

  3. Assessment of Head-Injured Aircrew: Comparison of FAA and USAF Procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fiedler, Edna

    2001-01-01

    .... The purpose of this paper is to first explain the major differences in missions between the USAF and the FAA, and then outline these procedures and rules, note their similarities and differences...

  4. USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process. Volume 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamson, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    .... It is published as three separate volumes. Volume I, USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process -- Phase II Report, discusses the result and cost/benefit analysis of testing three initiatives...

  5. USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process. Volume 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamson, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    .... It is published as three separate volumes. Volume I, USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process -- Phase II Report, discusses the result and cost/benefit analysis of testing three initiatives...

  6. USAF TPS L-23 Shear Wind Observed Optimized Path Investigation for NASA (SENIOR ShWOOPIN)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordon, Randy; Fails, Robert; Baase, Solomon; Eckberg, Jason; Ryan, Charles; Smith, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The SENIOR ShWOOPIN TMP was conducted at the request of the USAF TPS as part of a NASA investigation into the viability of aircraft endurance enhancement through the extraction of energy from horizontal wind gradients...

  7. Onus of responsibility: the changing responsible corporate officer doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Jennifer; Bentivoglio, John; Collins, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The responsible corporate officer ("RCO") doctrine permits convictions of corporate officers for violations of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act ("FDCA"), even in instances in which the corporate officer was not personally involved and lacked knowledge of the wrongdoing. Prosecutors have seldom prosecuted RCO FDCA cases since the doctrine was first described in 1943, but recent indications point to an imminent revival. Cases and statements from government officials indicate that this second wave of the RCO doctrine may sweep more broadly than did the first. For example, prosecutors appear ready to employ the RCO doctrine in strict liability cases, even though most past RCO FDCA cases involved knowledge on the part of the corporate officer. Moreover, the current environment promises stiffer penalties, less centralized case selection, and fewer jury trials than did the era in which the RCO doctrine was established. This article concludes with a call for the Department of Justice to issue guidelines for RCO prosecutions to ensure that this most unusual form of criminal liability is imposed fairly and consistently.

  8. Nuclear weapons and NATO operations: Doctrine, studies, and exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karber, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    A listing of papers is presented on the doctrine, studies, and exercises dealing with nuclear weapons and NATO operations for the period 1950-1983. The papers deal with studies on massive retaliation, sword and shield, and flexible response. Some of the enduring issues of nuclear weapons in NATO are listed

  9. Novel naval technologies: Sustaining or disrupting naval doctrine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Kulve, Haico; Smit, Willem A.

    2010-01-01

    The defense sector is generally known to be simultaneously conservative and enthusiastic about novel technologies. Uptake of new technologies by the military may differ depending on the perceived impact of new technologies. Introduction of technological changes can sustain or disrupt doctrine and

  10. Kant’s Doctrine of Right. A Commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mertens

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2013v12n2p355 Review of: B. Sharon Byrd and Joachim Hruschka, Kant’s Doctrine of Right. A Commentary (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2010 336 p.

  11. Heterodox Autonomy Doctrine: realism and purposes, and its relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Bernal-Meza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Autonomy Doctrine, elaborated by Juan Carlos Puig, is a realist point of view of International Relations. It is an analysis, from the periphery, about the structure of world power, and a roadmap (from a theoretical point of view for the longing process of autonomization-regarding hegemonic power-for a country whose ruling class would decide to overcome dependency. The elements its author took into account when analyzing its own context are explained in this text and, afterwards, are reflected over its relevance nowadays. For that purpose, it is necessary to answer certain questions, such as which are the concepts and categories that may explain its relevance, its applicability to regional integration and cooperation models and projects, and what would be the analytical method to compare reality versus ideas, among others. The methodological proposal to analyze the relevance of Puig's doctrine is to compare it to different visions of regionalism that are currently in effect in Latin America.

  12. Unpacking the Public Trust Doctrine: A Journey into Foreign Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E van der Schyff

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has borne witness to the transformation of South Africa's natural resources law with the introduction of a new legal concept, that of "public trusteeship", to South African jurisprudence. The concept of "public trusteeship" as it is embodied in South African legislation encapsulates the sovereign's duty to act as guardian of certain interests to the benefit of the nation as a whole. In the quest to demystify the incorporation of the concept of "public trusteeship" in South Africa, this article, as a first tentative step, focuses solely on the public trust doctrine as it functions in American jurisprudence. It is the aim of this article to give a thorough theoretical exposition of the development and application of the public trust doctrine in American jurisprudence in order to provide the South African scholar with a perspective on a legal construct founded on the philosophical notion that governments exercise a "fiduciary trust" on behalf of their people.

  13. An Approach to Operational Analysis: Doctrinal Task Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Once the unit is selected , CATS will output all of the doctrinal collective tasks associated with the unit. Currently, CATS outputs this information...Army unit are controlled data items, but for explanation purposes consider this simple example using a restaurant as the unit of interest. Table 1...shows an example Task Model for a restaurant using language and format similar to what CATS provides. Only 3 levels are shown in the example, but

  14. Improving US Theater Nuclear Doctrine. A Critical Analysis,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    the Armed Forces Staff College. In addition to these monographs, the NDU Press publishes the National Security Essay Series, books , issue pa- pers... secondhand or thirdhand. He then lacks responsiveness to deal with changes there. 11 US Doctrine Has a Defensive Bias. The defensive bias of US nuclear...security. The research results, normally published in monographs, issue papers, or books , are made available to cognizant Government officials and

  15. Proposed Doctrine Based Structure of the Armored Reconnaissance Squadron

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    squadron. A new structure was proposed based on the deduced required capabilities, utilizing organizational theory and current army practices. This...squadron, which now puts greater emphasis on this analysis to link structure to doctrinally based task. Organizational Theory Since earliest...expect to find capability based discourse; there is a lack of proposed structure based on capability, task or equipment . The Armour Bulletin serves

  16. Trump's Doctrine and Climate Change: New Challenges for Global Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Contipelli, Ernani

    2017-01-01

    The present communication aims to discuss the main topics related to Trump’s Doctrine and its effects on the implementation of global governance to fight against Climate Change. To present the argument, first, we will analyze the relation between global governance and climate change, followed by a general view of the climate change by some Republican Party members, and finally, the current policies already put in place by President Trump

  17. The evolution of the doctrine of restraint of trade in Australia: a law reform perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, John Wei-Ting

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the present state of the common law doctrine of restraint of trade from a law reform perspective. The doctrine was developed in England between the 1600s and mid-1800s and its evolution over the centuries has been a slow and ongoing process. The present state of the doctrine and its application in the Australian jurisdiction presents a challenging set of circumstances due to the difficulties faced by contracting parties when they wish to engage in restraint of trade. ...

  18. Meta-Analysis of Data from the Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoover, J

    1998-01-01

    .... The Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program was developed to address submarine-specific issues regarding the use of ventilation systems to control smoke and heat movement, maintain habitability...

  19. Activity know-how and doctrine of QC circle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-09-15

    This books introduces activity know-how of QC circle giving descriptions of basic of QC circle activities, introduction operation and development and mind of QC circle activities, method for beginning of QC circle activity like, way order, motivation of introduction of QC circle activity, propel method of QC circle activities, such as leadership, brain storming, and rule of QC circle activity, management and propel method for improvement, development of QC circle activities. It also deals with doctrine of basic of QC circle, purpose, self improvement and group activity.

  20. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: the regulatory taking doctrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the third of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 3 introduces one of the most controversial legal doctrines of investment law – 'regulatory taking' – and sets out its implications for sustainable development.

  1. Activity know-how and doctrine of QC circle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    This books introduces activity know-how of QC circle giving descriptions of basic of QC circle activities, introduction operation and development and mind of QC circle activities, method for beginning of QC circle activity like, way order, motivation of introduction of QC circle activity, propel method of QC circle activities, such as leadership, brain storming, and rule of QC circle activity, management and propel method for improvement, development of QC circle activities. It also deals with doctrine of basic of QC circle, purpose, self improvement and group activity.

  2. Use of Information Technology Tools in Source Selection Decision Making: A Study on USAF's KC-X Tanker Replacement Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaymaz, Sidar; Diri, Alaattin

    2008-01-01

    ... and subjectivity is usually inevitable in this kind of a decision making process. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate how the USAF's current source selection method (color rating method...

  3. USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process. Volume 3. Future to be Asset Sustainment Process Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamson, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    .... It is published as three separate volumes. Volume I, USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process -- Phase II Report, discusses the result and cost/benefit analysis of testing three initiatives...

  4. Gains Based Remedies: the misguided search for a doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Stafford

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ADVANCE ACCESSIn this article Tom Stafford (Paralegal at Clyde & Co LLP examines the phenomenon of “Gains Based Remedies”. These are awards that, unlike classical damage awards which are calculated by reference to the loss suffered by the claimant, correlate to the gain made by the defendant. A couple of common examples include an account of profits for breach of trust claims, or the “disgorgement” damages that were awarded in AG v Blake. These awards are however available for a spectrum of varied wrongs. Their seeming lack of unity has often baffled commentators who have tried to search for an underpinning doctrine. One particularly renowned commentary is that of Professor Edelman’s, who suggests that these wrongs can be understood by being broken down into one of two categories: awards which seek to deter wrongdoing, and awards which reverse a wrongful transfer of value. The purpose of this article is to discuss the flaws of this view of the law, and to suggest that in fact, any search for a doctrinal underpinning to Gains Based Remedies is misguided. The cases in which these awards are granted have only one feature common to all: the claimant’s loss is, for whatever reason, difficult or impossible to assess. For that reason, the courts use the only other measure of the wrong available: the defendant’s gain.

  5. Separation Of Powers In Ghana: The Evolution Of The Political Question Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtendeweka Owen Mhango

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In some democracies judiciaries have developed the political question doctrine to jurisprudentially resolve political questions and define their relationship with other branches of government. This doctrine is a function of the principle of the separation of powers and provides that there are certain questions of constitutional law that are constitutionally committed to the elected branches of government for resolution. As a result, such questions are non-justiciable and require the judiciary to abstain from deciding them if doing so would intrude upon the functions of the elected branches of government. This article examines the evolution and current status of the political question doctrine in Ghanaian jurisprudence, which developed from American jurisprudence. It begins by briefly discussing the history of the doctrine and its modern application in America. It then discusses how this doctrine was imported into Ghana and applied by the Ghanaian judiciary. The article argues that while there are differences of opinion around the application of the political question doctrine within Ghana's judiciary, the doctrine is firmly part of Ghanaian constitutional law. The article observes that the difference of opinion among judges is over the proper application of the doctrine rather than on whether it forms part of Ghanaian constitutional law. The article also discusses a related issue of the constitutional status of Directive Principles of State Policy in chapter 6 of the Constitution of Ghana.

  6. Insult in Context: Incorporating Speech Act Theory in Doctrinal Legal Analysis of Interpretative Discussions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.T.M. Kloosterhuis (Harm)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, I want to show that some doctrinal problems of legal interpretation and argumentation can be analysed in a more precise way than a standard doctrinal analysis, when we use insights from speech act theory and argumentation theory. Taking a discussion about the accusation

  7. The Doctrine of Quasi-Mutual Assent - Has it become the General ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the aim of the incorporation of the doctrine in our law, coupled with its application in previous court decisions, it is concluded that its application in the case of Pillay v Shaik was wrong and sets a bad precedent. KEYWORDS: formation of contracts; doctrine of quasi-mutual assent; prescribed mode of acceptance; ...

  8. USAF Flight Surgeon Survey: Aircrew Mental Health Referrals and Satisfaction with Local Mental Health Providers Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Autogenic training exercise; A treatment for airsickness in military pilots. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 2005; 15(4): 395-412...flying during training , humanitarian, and operational missions can be extremely taxing. Flight surgeons often observe or hear of changes in the...health care is to ease and resolve the emotional or behavioral difficulties of an aviator while attempting to preserve a highly trained USAF asset

  9. USAF Hearing Conservation Program, DOEHRS-HC Data Repository Annual Report: CY15

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-31

    does not license the holder or any other person or corporation or convey any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention...be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of...purpose of this report is to provide a corporate view of the status of the USAF HCP with data reported from the Defense Occupational and Environmental

  10. Will Empowerment of USAF Program Managers Mitigate the Acquisitions Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    perhaps better referred to as categories of fulfillment and motivation for their work, an employee must experience to feel empowered are; meaning...and continuous learning courses to support DoD career goals and professional development.10 Delegation: Assigning an employee (usually a... employee or team responsibility and authority to take actions and make decisions in pursuit of the organization’s goals.12 Major Defense Acquisition

  11. The corporate opportunity doctrine – An inflexible or flexible rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony O. Nwafor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The corporate opportunity doctrine is often seen as a prophylactic rule of strict ethic which is inflexibly applied in enforcing the fiduciary duties owed by directors to their companies. A close examination of some of the cases in which the rule has been applied, however, reveals that apart from the general restatement of the rule by the courts, the actual application of the rule in those cases are reflections of the peculiarities of the individual cases. The paper argues that a flexible approach is more realistic and enjoins the courts in interpreting and applying the various provisions of the statute that have codified this rule, to lean more on those decisions that reflect sensitivity to the peculiarities of the cases.

  12. Adolescent brain development and the mature minor doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Tomas J

    2011-08-01

    The medical rights of minors have been questioned, especially due to information on adolescent brain development and studies on adolescent decision-making. This chapter briefly introduces the mature minor doctrine (MMD) and its history, justification, and practice and then presents some of the objections to the MMD. The article then highlights new knowledge about adolescent brain development (ABD) and what this may contribute to this debate and describes "hot cognition" and "cold cognition". It concludes by alerting the reader to the danger of making inappropriate use of the discoveries of brain science and proposing a prudent approach to adolescent consent and confidentiality, one that incorporates the new knowledge on ABD without "turning back the clock" on the medical rights of minors.

  13. The Public Trust Doctrine and Liability for Historic Water Pollution in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Feris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The public trust doctrine is now, in the post-constitutional era, part and parcel of South African natural resources law. However, the precise meaning and content remain, to some extent, unclear. This is particularly true in respect of the relationship between the public trust doctrine and the polluter pays principle and the extent to which liability for pollution and degradation of natural resources also lies within the realm of the public trust doctrine. This article sets out to explore the public trust doctrine in South African law and its potential for assigning liability in a natural resources law context. It does so in the context of South Africa’s challenges in dealing with acid mine drainage (AMD, a legacy from defunct mines, but a continuing by-product of existing mining. It revisits the traditional scope of the public trust doctrine and argues for an expansive view in line not only with the constitutional imperatives embodied in South Africa’s environmental right, but also by way of an analogy between the public trust doctrine and the common heritage of mankind principle as it presents itself in international environmental law. In doing so this article also explores the development of the doctrine in US law which in some respects has set the course for its application with respect to natural resources law.

  14. Military Doctrine, and Maxims of Napoleon, A Bibliography of Periodical Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    0041-770X. ....- S. . ..... -79 PART II - DOCTRINE -1. USA ANDERSON, NORMAN J. "A Statement of Doctrine," NCG, 47:10. November 1963. "Army 86...Process," MILRVW, 64:46-57, January 1984. KRAUSE, MICHAEL D..~ - "Arthur L. Wagner : Doctrine and Lessons from the Past," MILRVW, 58:53-9, November...June 1927. b. Democratic Republic of Germany (DDR). BELL, RAYMOND E. "Armor Development in the Weimar Republic," MILRVW, 47:12-7, March 1967. c

  15. Using the Freiburg Acuity and Contrast Test to measure visual performance in USAF personnel after PRK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Richard J; Beer, Jeremy M A; Baldwin, J Bruce; Ivan, Douglas J; Lorusso, Frank J; Thompson, William T

    2004-07-01

    Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) may be an alternative to spectacle and contact lens wear for United States Air Force (USAF) aircrew and may offer some distinct advantages in operational situations. However, any residual corneal haze or scar formation from PRK could exacerbate the disabling effects of a bright glare source on a complex visual task. The USAF recently completed a longitudinal clinical evaluation of the long-term effects of PRK on visual performance, including the experiment described herein. After baseline data were collected, 20 nonflying active duty USAF personnel underwent PRK. Visual performance was then measured at 6, 12, and 24 months after PRK. Visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) data were collected by using the Freiburg Acuity and Contrast Test (FrACT), with the subject viewing half of the runs through a polycarbonate windscreen. Experimental runs were completed under 3 glare conditions: no glare source and with either a broadband or a green laser (532-nm) glare annulus (luminance approximately 6090 cd/m) surrounding the Landolt C stimulus. Systematic effects of PRK on VA relative to baseline were not identified. However, VA was almost 2 full Snellen lines worse with the laser glare source in place versus the broadband glare source. A significant drop-off was observed in CS performance after PRK under conditions of no glare and broadband glare; this was the case both with and without the windscreen. As with VA, laser glare disrupted CS performance significantly and more than broadband glare did. PRK does not appear to have affected VA, but the changes in CS might represent a true decline in visual performance. The greater disruptive effects from laser versus broadband glare may be a result of increased masking from coherent spatial noise (speckle) surrounding the laser stimulus.

  16. Simulation for doctrine development and training: modelling the cognitive domain of the OODA loop

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roodt, JHS

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation and Weapon Assignment (TEWA) at this level contain multiple threats and defensive force elements, taxing the cognitive abilities of the commander. Development of new doctrine and training simulators require systems that adequately reflect...

  17. Assess for Success: The Role of Doctrine in Effective Combat Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    ... and equipment unnecessarily at risk, Operations since then have not fared much better, This paper examines the "BDA problem" in some detail, focusing on the current military doctrine that has evolved in recent...

  18. Enhancing network centric operations doctrine to support civil military cooperation in disaster management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolbers, J.J.; Beeres, R.; Bakx, G.; de Waard, E.; Rietjens, S.

    2016-01-01

    Network Centric Operations is a promising command doctrine in both military operations and during civil disaster management. As both sectors started intensifying their joint operational capacity through civil-military collaboration, it becomes increasingly relevant to address the different command

  19. Four moments from US foreign policy doctrine: Between theory and the practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tovar Ruiz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Doctrines and strategies in international politics represent one of the most interesting elements for the discipline of international relations as a point of connection between theory and practice. An analysis of four of the great doctrines of US foreign policy (two of them realist, i.e those of Truman and Nixon, and two idealist, those of Clinton and Bush Jr and their historical development lead us to the conclusion that these doctrines are capable of changing reality and creating lasting instruments for applying to very different contexts, reaching even the present day (for example, containment, the domino theory and “Vietnamization”. We must bear in mind, however, the need for these doctrines to meet the criteria ofpragmatism and flexibility, prudence and self restriction, and for them to accept the institutional and moral limits of the societies on which they are established.

  20. The Evolution and Demise of U.S. Tank Destroyer Doctrine in the Second World War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denny, Bryan

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the U.S. Army's use of tank destroyers in World War II, particularly the origins and evolution of tank destroyer doctrine, changes in training at the tank destroyer school at Camp Hood, and selection...

  1. Can the UN Stabilize Mali? Towards a UN Stabilization Doctrine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Boutellis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost two years after the deployment of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA in July 2013, the increasing number of asymmetric terrorist attacks targeting UN peacekeepers – in the context of a drawn-out peace process – has raised a number of questions in Mali, the sub-region, and in New York, over the relevance and adequacies of MINUSMA’s mandate and capabilities. It also raises a broader issue, of whether the consent-based UN peacekeeping tool is appropriate and can be effective in carrying out stabilization mandates in such a context and what doctrine such operations should be based on. The UN is indeed under increasing pressure from host countries and some African troop-contributing countries to go on the offensive. Member States have also increasingly recognized terrorism and organized crime as a strategic threat, and while opposed to the UN directly engaging in counterterrorism (CT operations, some may wish to see the UN playing a greater stabilization role following the January 2013 French military intervention in Mali. However, little guidance and means have been given so far to UN missions for dealing with such threats and implementing effective stabilization mandates. The High-Level Panel on Peace Operations, which recently released its report, noted that the usage of the term “stabilization” by the UN requires clarification. This article analyses the complex and evolving nature of threats in northern Mali and implications for MINUSMA and describes the military and political tools – including mediation – so far available within and outside the UN. The article concludes that the UN is bound to move towards stabilization when and if deployed in contexts such as Mali’s if it wants to remain relevant. However, such a move should be based on an overarching UN stabilization doctrine and context-specific UN-wide stabilization strategies which are first and foremost political

  2. The evolution of American nuclear doctrine 1945-1980: from massive retaliation to limited nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richani, N [Public Administration Dpt. American Univ. of Beirut (Lebanon)

    1983-12-31

    This thesis attempts to demonstrate the evolutionary character of American nuclear doctrine from the beginning of the nuclear age in 1945 until 1980. It also aims at disclosing some of the most important factors that contributed to the doctrine`s evolution, namely, technological progress and developments in weaponry and the shifts that were taking place in the correlation of forces between the two superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States. The thesis tries to establish the relation, if any, between these two variables (technology and balance of forces) and the evolution of the doctrine from Massive Retaliation to limited nuclear war. There are certainly many other factors which influenced military doctrine, but this thesis focuses on the above mentioned factors. touching on others when it was thought essential.The thesis concludes by trying to answer the question of whether the purpose of the limited nuclear war doctrine is to keep the initiative in US hands, that is putting itself on the side with the positive purpose, or not. Refs.

  3. Mens Rea and Methamphetamine: High Time for a Modern Doctrine Acknowledging the Neuroscience of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, Meredith

    2017-04-01

    In American criminal law, actus non facit reum, nisi mens sit rea, "an act does not make one guilty, without a guilty mind." Both actus reus and mens rea are required to justify criminal liability. The Model Penal Code's (MPC) section on culpability has been especially influential on mens rea analysis. An issue of increasing importance in this realm arises when an offensive act is committed while the actor is under the influence of drugs. Several legal doctrines address the effect of intoxication on mental state, including the MPC, limiting or eliminating its relevance to the mens rea analysis. Yet these doctrines do not differentiate between intoxication and addiction. Neuroscience research reveals that drug addiction results in catastrophic damage to the brain resulting in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Methamphetamine addiction is of particular interest to criminal law because it causes extensive neural destruction and is associated with impulsive behavior, violent crime, and psychosis. Furthermore, research has revealed important distinctions between the effects of acute intoxication and addiction. These findings have implications for the broader doctrine of mens rea and, specifically, the intoxication doctrines. This Note argues for the adoption of an addiction doctrine that acknowledges the effect of addiction on mens rea that is distinct from doctrines of intoxication.

  4. Lifespan extension and the doctrine of double effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitaine, Laura; Devolder, Katrien; Pennings, Guido

    2013-06-01

    Recent developments in biogerontology--the study of the biology of ageing--suggest that it may eventually be possible to intervene in the human ageing process. This, in turn, offers the prospect of significantly postponing the onset of age-related diseases. The biogerontological project, however, has met with strong resistance, especially by deontologists. They consider the act of intervening in the ageing process impermissible on the grounds that it would (most probably) bring about an extended maximum lifespan--a state of affairs that they deem intrinsically bad. In a bid to convince their deontological opponents of the permissibility of this act, proponents of biogerontology invoke an argument which is grounded in the doctrine of double effect. Surprisingly, their argument, which we refer to as the 'double effect argument', has gone unnoticed. This article exposes and critically evaluates this 'double effect argument'. To this end, we first review a series of excerpts from the ethical debate on biogerontology in order to substantiate the presence of double effect reasoning. Next, we attempt to determine the role that the 'double effect argument' is meant to fulfil within this debate. Finally, we assess whether the act of intervening in ageing actually can be justified using double effect reasoning.

  5. LAW PRINCIPLES AND SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY. DOCTRINE OF THE SOCIAL CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available e, the understanding of the significances of the “principle of law” needs to have an interdisciplinary character, the basis for the approach being the philosophy of the law. In this study we fulfill such an analysis with the purpose to underline the multiple theoretical significances due to this concept, but also the relationship between the juridical principles and norms, respectively the normative value of the principle of the law. Thus are being materialized extensive references to the philosophical and juridical doctrine in the matter. This study is a pleading to refer to the principles, in the work for the law’s creation and application. Starting with the difference between “given” and ‘constructed” we propose the distinction between the “metaphysical principles” outside the law, which by their contents have philosophical significances, and the “constructed principles” elaborated inside the law. We emphasize the obligation of the law maker, but also of the expert to refer to the principles in the work of legislation, interpretation and applying of the law. Arguments are brought for updating, in certain limits, the justice – naturalistic concepts in the law.

  6. Criteria for Copyrightability in Russian Copyright Doctrine and Judicial Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Kashanin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the current state of the debate on the minimum level of creativity needed for works to be copyrightable, including dominant principles in Russian jurisprudence and judicial practice, principal trends and contradictions that arise in the course of the application of various criteria for copyrightability. An analysis of the judicial practice of recent years warrants the conclusion that standards of creativity as a criterion for copyrightability have dropped drastically. Today’s standards are similar to those of the former American ‘sweat of the brow’ doctrine. But, unlike foreign legal systems that set comparatively low standards of protectability, the Russian judiciary has not yet evolved mechanisms of compensation for risks of monopolization of public domain content. First of all, there is no practice of granting exclusive rights to a work that is similar to an earlier work but has been created independently. Secondly, the practice of refusing protection to non-unique, standard, generally known, and generally available content is dying out. Thirdly, there is currently a trend for giving a large scope of protection to works of low authorship. As a result, exclusive rights are granted to standard or generally accessible content – content that must belong to the public domain – which puts unjustified restrictions on the creative activities of other authors. Moreover, it makes their legal status unpredictable as it establishes a basis for unintended copyright violations being penalized. This amounts to a classical case of overprotection.

  7. The evolution of American nuclear doctrine 1945-1980: from massive retaliation to limited nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richani, N.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis attempts to demonstrate the evolutionary character of American nuclear doctrine from the beginning of the nuclear age in 1945 until 1980. It also aims at disclosing some of the most important factors that contributed to the doctrine's evolution, namely, technological progress and developments in weaponry and the shifts that were taking place in the correlation of forces between the two superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States. The thesis tries to establish the relation, if any, between these two variables (technology and balance of forces) and the evolution of the doctrine from Massive Retaliation to limited nuclear war. There are certainly many other factors which influenced military doctrine, but this thesis focuses on the above mentioned factors. touching on others when it was thought essential.The thesis concludes by trying to answer the question of whether the purpose of the limited nuclear war doctrine is to keep the initiative in US hands, that is putting itself on the side with the positive purpose, or not. Refs

  8. Development of a measure of college students' adherence to religious doctrine concerning sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Elizabeth C; Bowman, Hilary; Thompson, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    The authors developed a 14-item measure of adherence to religious doctrine concerning sexual behavior (ARDSB). The ARDSB psychometric properties were investigated to better understand religious motivations associated with changes in sexual behavior that may provide support for sexual health promotion and prevention programs. Four hundred eighty-three undergraduates aged 18 to 26. Data were collected from an online survey during the 2012-2013 academic school year. Principle components factor analysis identified 2 factors: reasons to break religious doctrine and reasons to adhere to religious doctrine concerning sexual behavior. The subscales had good internal consistency. Correlations, t tests, and analyses of variance of the subscales with measures of intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity and self-reported sexual behavior and risk provide support for concurrent validity. The ARDSB could be employed as a measure to better understand sexual behavior; it is inexpensive and relatively easy to employ in both research and campus ministry settings.

  9. Hughlings Jackson and the "doctrine of concomitance": mind-brain theorising between metaphysics and the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirimuuta, M

    2017-09-11

    John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911) is a major figure at the origins of neurology and neuroscience in Britain. Alongside his contributions to clinical medicine, he left a large corpus of writing on localisation of function in the nervous system and other theoretical topics. In this paper I focus on Jackson's "doctrine of concomitance"-his parallelist theory of the mind-brain relationship. I argue that the doctrine can be given both an ontological and a causal interpretation, and that the causal aspect of the doctrine is especially significant for Jackson and his contemporaries. I interpret Jackson's engagement with the metaphysics of mind as an instance of what I call meta-science-the deployment by scientists of metaphysical positions and arguments which help streamline empirical investigations by bracketing off unanswerable questions and focussing attention on matters amenable to the current tools of experimental research.

  10. Water and the public trust doctrine – a South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmarie van der Schyff

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The legal principles concerning rights to water have been changed considerably by the provisions of the National Water Act 36 of 1998. The National Water Act aims to redistribute water rights to previously disadvantaged people and communities by the introduction and application of a public trust doctrine to South African natural resources law. It is proposed that these legislative measures will ensure that water as a natural resource will be used to the benefit of the nation as a whole. However, the practical application of the public trust doctrine needs to be analysed, especially with the view of determining the actual benefits to poor and deprived people.

  11. The “Essential Practice of Religion” Doctrine in India and its application in Pakistan and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rita Scotti

    2016-02-01

    Therefore, the present essay discusses the interpretation of constitutional provisions by the Supreme Court of India in order to introduce the essential elements doctrine as well as its application by the Pakistani and Malaysian Courts with the aim to asses, relying on the theory of cross-fertilization, whether they merely imported the doctrine or adapted it to the national contexts

  12. Fighting Fires with Fire - An Airman's Perspective on the Development of Joint Publication 3-09, Doctrine for Joint Fire Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vittori, Jay

    1999-01-01

    This study is an Air Force doctrinaire's account of the development of Joint Publication 3-09, Doctrine for Joint Fire Support, the most controversial joint military doctrine publication ever produced...

  13. Contemporary Leadership and Doctrine: The Utility of Analyzing the Outcome of Thucydides' The Peloponnesian War Via Clausewitz's Concepts as Articulated in On War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slaughter, Aaron

    2001-01-01

    ... to the study of Thucydides. Additionally, this analysis demonstrates the danger of developing modern doctrine without considering relevant history and demonstrates the importance of leadership in relation to doctrine...

  14. Evaluating the U.S. Military's Development of Strategic and Operational Doctrine for Non-Lethal Weapons in a Complex Security Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ogawa, James S

    2003-01-01

    .... To date, no joint doctrinal guidance on NLWs has been published. As a result of a lack of NLWs doctrine, there is an increased risk that NLWs supporting activities develop inefficiently, haphazardly, and possibly ineffectively...

  15. French nuclear doctrine: in keeping with continuity and orthodoxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitt, Bernard

    2012-09-01

    Debate surrounding French nuclear doctrine was lively last July, and the noted opponents of the French deterrent, such as General Norlain and Paul Quiles, took the opportunity provided by the election of a new French President to speak out in favour of reviving the debate in favour of nuclear disarmament on the grounds that nuclear weapons have become ineffectual since the end of the Cold War, even though this argument was dealt with in detail in the White Paper on Defence publishing during the spring of 1994. Yet the President's choices suggest an unequivocal policy direction: The President boarded SSBN le Terrible on the 4 July, something none of his predecessors has done since Valery Giscard d'Estaing in 1974. As the Elysee Palace underlined, this gesture was meant to 'reaffirm French commitment to its deterrent'. It also follows on from the positions Mr Hollande adopted in December 2011 and March 2012 during the electoral campaign. During a simultaneous visit to the Ile Longue base, the Defence Minister made it clear that the French position revolved around sufficiency, thereby reiterating the previous posture, following President Sarkozy's announcement that the aerial component would be reduced by one third and the overall warheads capped at 300. On the 13 July, at the launch of the commission tasked with drafting a new White Paper on defence and security, the President confirmed from the outset 'the preservation of the nuclear deterrence strategy', thereby defining an unambiguous conceptual framework for this important exercise of strategic reflection. In his speech to open the Conference of the Ambassadors on the 27 August, he did not fail to recall that France is a permanent member of the Security Council Nuclear-Weapon State, following on from the tradition established by his predecessors. The continuation of the French deterrent thus appears fairly certain, even if the White Paper committee will also be tasked with formulating the best course between

  16. The doctrine of piercing the corporate veil: Its legal and judicial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , it is found that Ethiopian company law, though not sufficient, provides some clear grounds of piercing the corporate veil and certain possible grounds which may call for the application of the doctrine. It is also argued that Ethiopian courts ...

  17. The Global-Market Doctrine: A Study in Fundamentalist Theology. The Iconoclast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurty, John

    1997-01-01

    Presents an interesting metaphorical critique of the current enthusiasm for the global market and the free market system. Delineates 10 defining principles of a fundamentalist theological doctrine and then suggests replacing the term "global market" with "Supreme Ruler." Criticizes free market capitalism as being occasionally…

  18. Delictual Negligence of Educators in Schools: The Confusing Influence of the "in loco parentis" Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, Johan

    2004-01-01

    This article points out that the "in loco parentis" maxim is partly to blame for introducing the confusing "reasonable parent" doctrine as the test for delictual negligence of educators in the school context. It is argued that the standard of care exercised by parents over their children is not appropriate to determine the negligence of educators.…

  19. The origin, development and a brief appraisal of the doctrine of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-12

    Mar 12, 2013 ... Faith Tabernacle Church', falls outside the focus of this work. The constitution of the CAC was drafted in 1942 ... Apostolic Church was originally called the Faith Tabernacle.' Again, Alokan's claim (1991:147) that the ..... poison with immunity and the ability to heal the sick. The. CAC Constitution and Doctrine ...

  20. HIGH FOLIAR NITROGEN IN DESERT SHRUBS: AN IMPORTANT ECOSYSTEM TRAIT OR DEFECTIVE DESERT DOCTRINE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen concentrations in green and senesced leaves of perennial desert shrubs were compiled from a worldwide literature search to test the validity of the doctrine that desert shrubs produce foliage and leaf litter much richer in nitrogen than that in the foliage of plants from...

  1. The doctrine of providence in the Institutes of Calvin – still relevant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F.C. Coetzee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the reformed tradition and theology, the doctrine of provi- dence has always been important and relevant, so much so that it forms an integral part of the reformed confessions. At the same time some of the most difficult theological questions are raised regarding this doctrine, questions like the following: Is God in control of everything? What is the relationship between the providence of God and sin, suffering, man’s responsibility, et cetera? In our times the doctrine as such is questioned or even rejected. What makes this topic even more important is the commemoration of the publication of Darwin’s book, “The origin of species”, coupled with the renewed emphasis on Darwinism, evolutionism and atheism.1 From the perspective of the Calvinistic-reformed theology and in the light of the com- memoration of Calvin’s birth 500 years ago, it is important to determine the relevance of Calvin’s thoughts on a number of important issues in the current debate, e.g. the doctrine on God, providence and creation, sin, suffering, et cetera. It is also determined that Calvin’s thoughts are reflected in the reformed confessions, which is still the living faith of reformed churches all over the world.

  2. Resenha de: Sidney Webb and East Africa: Lavour's Experiment with the doctrine of Native Paramountoy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônia Fernanda de Almeida Wright

    1965-03-01

    Full Text Available GREGORY (Robert G.. — Sidney Webb and East Africa. Lavour's' Experiment with the doctrine of Native Paramountoy. University of California Publications in History. Vol. 72, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1962. Publicação simultânea da Cambridge University Press, London, 1962.

  3. Controlled by the Corporate Narrative: Obama's Education Policy, the Shock Doctrine, and Mechanisms of Capitalist Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to illuminate how and why public schools have been sustained and/or strengthened as hierarchical, inequitable, and undemocratic sites that serve the corporate capitalist state. In doing so, the author draws on three theoretical ideas: the "shock doctrine," described vividly by Naomi Klein (2007); "critical…

  4. A Study to Determine Patient Waiting Time at the Outpatient Pharmacy at Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    at Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center significantly reduced the patient wait time at the main outpatient pharmacy. Satellite pharmacies have been ).’l...PRESENTING TO WINDOW 1, 19 MAR 88. 47 C:. A’.’E-:A: -ESCRIRTIONS PER PATIENT ...........48 H. WILFORD HALL MEDICAL CENTER OUTPATIENT QUESTIONNAIRE...that wait times at tne outpatient pharmacy were excessive. It was this concern that motivated the Medical Center Administrator to request that patient

  5. BLM Communications Use Lease to USAF to Conduct Patriot Communications Exercises in Lincoln County, Nevada. Final Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Endangered Species Act of 1973, 1988 Amendments (16 USC § 1531 et seq.) FAA = Federal Aviation Authority FOC = Fiber Optic Cable FONSI...Disturbed Salt Desert Scrub The site was moderately grazed with denser vegetation and basalt rock type soil. Common species include blackbrush...volume, mild eruptions of basalt occurred in the region, resulting in basaltic cinder cones and lava flows (USAF, 1999). No Radar/Communications

  6. Training and Doctrine Command Acquisition Management and Oversight Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    the foundation for all future procurement decisions. Chapter 4 of TR 5-14 requires the RA to gain approval and certification by the designated...CLM013-Work-Breakdown Structure CLM031-Improved Statement of Work ACQ265-Mission Focused Services Acquisition Army eLearning https...will be returned to acceptable levels, and how recurrence of the cause will be prevented in the future . 53 7.3. Performance Requirements Summary

  7. Doctrine of Chinese management: Lessons for contemporary leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Vrcelj, Nikolina; Jurčić, Ana; Bučalin-Matić, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Return to Asian markets would have a beneficial effect on the development of the Serbian economy. An important condition for this is the rediscovery of Asian markets and ways of doing business between business units from different cultural backgrounds. Intercultural management means that companies and individuals have to learn how to cope and manage jobs across national borders and within the framework of foreign cultures. It is a known fact that in practice, business and national culture are...

  8. USAF Flight Test Investigation of Focused Sonic Booms: Project Have Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Micah; Zamot, Noel; Moss, Chris; Morin, Daniel; Wolski, Ed; Chung, Sukhwan; Plotkin, Kenneth; Maglieri, Domenic

    1996-01-01

    Supersonic operations from military aircraft generate sonic booms that can affect people, animals and structures. A substantial experimental data base exists on sonic booms for aircraft in steady flight and confidence in the predictive techniques has been established. All the focus sonic boom data that are in existence today were collected during the 60's and 70's as part of the information base to the US Supersonic Transport program and the French Jericho studies for the Concorde. These experiments formed the data base to develop sonic boom propagation and prediction theories for focusing. There is a renewed interest in high-speed transports for civilian application. Moreover, today's fighter aircraft have better performance capabilities, and supersonic flights ars more common during air combat maneuvers. Most of the existing data on focus booms are related to high-speed civil operations such as transitional linear accelerations and mild turns. However, military aircraft operating in training areas perform more drastic maneuvers such as dives and high-g turns. An update and confirmation of USAF prediction capabilities is required to demonstrate the ability to predict and control sonic boom impacts, especially those produced by air combat maneuvers.

  9. A Doctrine Reader: The Navies of United States, Great Britain France, Italy, and Spain (Newport Paper, Number 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Indeed, professional writings in the United States have noted this parallel between doctrine and religion .29 As in other navies, doctrine was not the...Spanish Navy) , "La clctica," in Espana y el Mar en el siglo de Carlos llI, 1 989, p. 77. 13 . John D. Harnron, Tr.yalgar and the Spanish Navy (Annapolis...organization. Doctrine, therefore, can be either fmnly prescriptive, as in religion or in a political ideology, or basically descriptive. As a complex of

  10. Mortgages, seniors and the common law contractual doctrine of mental incapacity in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    Seniors in Australia are being called upon to mortgage their most precious economic asset, the family home. They may be asked to guarantee the liabilities of other family members by providing a mortgage-based guarantee or they may decide to enter into a reverse mortgage to supplement financially their savings and pensions. As the family home is the single most valuable asset for most older Australians, the creation of any obligations in regard to it ought to be undertaken with care and vigilance. While seniors are free to create mortgage, they may lack the capacity to understand the legal ramifications of these complex transactions or be unable to protect their interests when entering into them. It is not suggested that older Australians necessarily suffer a lack of contractual capacity. Many seniors are more than able to take care of their interests and assets. However, some seniors do suffer cognitive impairment which adversely affects their capacity to act in their best interests and to navigate the complexities of contractual relations. In contract and mortgage law, this raises the issue of mental incapacity. For centuries, the common law has recognized not only that mentally incapacitated people exist, but that they may enter into contracts such as mortgage and may later wish to have the mortgage set aside. The present formulation of the contractual doctrine of mental incapacity is the product of 19th century jurisprudence in which the courts framed the doctrine to accommodate commercial dealing rather than the interests of persons who lacked the necessary mental capacity. Accordingly, the doctrine has been very difficult to rely on successfully when challenging mortgages made by persons lacking capacity. Therefore, Australian litigators and courts alike have sought to deal with mental incapacity issues in the contractual context by using and modifying other doctrines (such as non est factum, undue influence and unconscionable dealing) in which the issue of

  11. The Doctrine of Incommensurability in Paul Feyerabend. An Objection Against a Particular Conception of Scientific Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Gargiulo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Incommensurability has caused many controversies and debates. In these debates seems to be unanimous the interpretation of that doctrine as an objection to objectivity, realism and scientific progress. Now this is a narrow hermeneutical framework for understanding the intention of Paul Feyerabend when formulating his doctrine of incommensurability. Because he was never intended to challenge such notions in themselves but only to show how vain turns out to be the neo-positivism and Popperian rationalism´s attempt to define them. In a positive sense we argue that incommensurability, according to Paul Feyerabend, prevents or impedes when we comes to define those notions return to dialectical of logical positivism or critical rationalism. Our intention in this paper is to present his thesis of incommensurability as a challenge to a particular way of conceiving scientific rationality and its consequent notions of objectivity, progress and scientific realism.

  12. Prosecutions of Extraterritorial Criminal Conduct and the Abuse of Rights Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ireland-Piper

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Under international law, states can in certain circumstances institute domestic prosecutions over conduct occurring extraterritorially. Such exercises of extraterritorial jurisdiction sit at the crossroads of domestic and international law and can be highly controversial. This paper considers whether the abuse of rights doctrine is useful in regulating assertions of extraterritorial criminal jurisdiction. Part I introduces the principles of extraterritorial jurisdiction under international law. Part II provides examples of some of the problems that can arise in domestic prosecutions of extraterritorial criminal conduct, compromising the ability of an individual to enjoy a fair trial. Part III considers the effectiveness of the abuse of rights doctrine in providing a paradigm through which to conceptualise these problems and help protect fair trial rights.

  13. United States v. Levin: entrapment by estoppel doctrine applied in Medicare reimbursement context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, P W; Griffith, R A

    1993-01-01

    The decision in Levin reaffirms that health care providers should be entitled to rely in good faith on official interpretations and representations by authorized government officials as to the propriety of their conduct under the Medicare program. Although the doctrine of entrapment by estoppel was developed as a due process defense to a criminal prosecution, the fundamental notions of fairness underlying the doctrine should be applicable as well as in a civil action. Thus, the defense of entrapment by estoppel should be available, for example, in the context of civil health care reimbursement recoupment audits, where a provider has acted in reliance on the interpretation of a statute or regulation by the appropriate administrative agency charged with its enforcement.

  14. Cognitive phase transitions in the cerebral cortex enhancing the neuron doctrine by modeling neural fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kozma, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This intriguing book was born out of the many discussions the authors had in the past 10 years about the role of scale-free structure and dynamics in producing intelligent behavior in brains. The microscopic dynamics of neural networks is well described by the prevailing paradigm based in a narrow interpretation of the neuron doctrine. This book broadens the doctrine by incorporating the dynamics of neural fields, as first revealed by modeling with differential equations (K-sets).  The book broadens that approach by application of random graph theory (neuropercolation). The book concludes with diverse commentaries that exemplify the wide range of mathematical/conceptual approaches to neural fields. This book is intended for researchers, postdocs, and graduate students, who see the limitations of network theory and seek a beachhead from which to embark on mesoscopic and macroscopic neurodynamics.

  15. Identity Crisis between the Wars: How Doctrine Shaped the Marine Corps after World War I and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-21

    central idea of an army . . . which to be sound must be based on the principles of war, and which to be effective must be elastic enough to admit...existing definitions of effective doctrine, and considers the role doc- trine played in shaping Service culture in the Marine Corps using the landing...its role in national defense, in part, because of a streamlined, centrally directed writing process. While each doctrine was written in response to

  16. COIN Goes GLOCAL: Traditional COIN With a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-17

    COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles? A...TITLE AND SUBTITLE COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global P ti D th C t US St t R fl t COIN 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Perspective: Does...Monograph: COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles

  17. [History of creation of the doctrine, equipment and methods of formation of biological feedback].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokser, O Ia

    1999-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental priorities of Russian scientists A. V. Zaporozhets and M. I. Lisina in creating the doctrine of biological feedback (BFB) in 1955 are justified. The priority of American scientists (N. Miller, 1969) in the discovery of the fact that BFB can form in animals is recognized. USA scientists were also be the first to develop and provide a base for manufacturing commercial devices for shaping BFB that have gained wide practical recognition in medicine, sports, and psychophysiology.

  18. How Should The US Adapt Its Military Doctrine To Be Able TO Fight A Peer Competitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-15

    the American Way of War (New York: Colombia University Press, 2008), 195. 8. Quoted in Colonel Gian Gentile, Wrong Turn: America’s Deadly Embrace of...the American Way of War . New York: Colombia University Press, 2008. Mearsheimer, John J. The Tragedy of Great Power Politics, New York: W. W. Norton...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY HOW SHOULD THE US ADAPT ITS MILITARY DOCTRINE TO BE ABLE TO FIGHT A PEER COMPETITOR? by Paul Kendall

  19. The Recourse to War: An Appraisal of the ’Weinberger Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    desirability) of a recourse to war in certain circumstances, rejecting thereby both the unqualified abstentionism of the pacifist and the unbridled... THE RECOURSE TO WAR:0 N AN APPRAISAL OF THE "WEINBERGER DOCTRINE" Alan Ned Sabrosky Robert L. Sloane DTIC S ELECTE JUN 2 3 1969 JD c Stratogic...ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT𔃽 CATALOG NUMBER ACN 88011 1 4. TITLE (and Subtills) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED The Recourse to War: An Appraisal of

  20. The Evolution of Air and Nuclear Doctrine: The Theories that Shaped SIOP-62

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    STUDIES AIR UNIVERSITY MAXWELL AIR FORCE BASE, ALABAMA JUNE 2016 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited ii...recommendations including, in April 1956, advanced authorization to Air Defense Command to use nuclear-tipped Nike -Hercules surface-to-air missiles to...The Sources of Military Doctrine, 14-15. 58 nuclear strike.101 In response, the Secretary of Defense ordered deployment of Nike -Hercules

  1. Book Review: The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism written by Naomi Klein

    OpenAIRE

    Looney, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Book review by Dr. Robert Looney of the book The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism written by Naomi Klein. By pure chance, two significant books on capitalism were published within weeks of one another in the early fall of 2007. The first (The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World), by the consummate insider, Alan Greenspan, examiines the inner workings of the capitalist system from the perspective of one who was perhaps as responsible as anyone for its spectacular su...

  2. THE ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF LAW - WILL THE ROMANIAN DOCTRINE FINALLY CATCH UP WITH IT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA-FLORENTINA POPA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although a well-established presence on the international legal scene, the economic analysis of law is still an unfamiliar concept to most Romanian scholars. While worldwide, prestigious universities offer special courses on this topic and an impressive body of legal studies continues to add up, only scant traces of this important legal school can be detected in some recent Romanian doctoral thesis and papers. This article explores the main concepts of the economic analysis of law, the recent spin-offs of this theory, especially in the area of comparative law, as well as some of the critiques addressed in the legal doctrine, concerning the consequences on law of overemphasizing “efficiency” to the expense of less quantifiable, moral and social considerations. Some explanations on why the Romanian doctrine is lagging behind with respect to the economic analysis of law will also be attempted, together with a tentative answer to whether this major legal theory will ever make an impact on local doctrinal developments in the near future.

  3. The Secret of Future Defeat: The Evolution of US Joint and Army Doctrine 1993-2006 and the Flawed Conception of Stability Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-24

    The Secret of Future Defeat: the Evolution of US Joint and Army Doctrine 1993-2006 and the Flawed Conception of Stability Operations A...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Secret of Future Defeat: the Evolution of US Joint and 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Army Doctrine 1993-2006 and the Flawed... The Secret of Future Defeat: the Evolution of US Joint and Army Doctrine 1993-2006 and the Flawed Conception of Stability Operations Approved by

  4. Technical comparison of the commercialized Racon model 21000 Portable, Reconfigurable Line Sensor (PRLS) and original Sandia/USAF prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattman, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    The military has been moving from a global strategic response with fixed site asset protection to regional tactical response requirements. This change necessitates high security sensor systems that can be easily relocated and rapidly placed in operation by unskilled operators. The Portable, Reconfigurable Line Sensor (PRLS) was developed by Sandia National Laboratories with United States Air Force funding. Racon, Inc. is now commercializing the PRLS through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRDA) with the United States Air Force. The commercialized design of the new PRLS bi-static radar sensor benefits from the extensive field testing of the original Sandia/USAF-developed engineering prototype systems of the 1980s. Tests conducted in hot, cold, wind, rain, and snow conditions verified exceptional intruder detection capability, resistance to spoofing attempts, and insusceptibility to mutual interference and nuisance alarms caused by birds or small animals. The use of 1990's implementation technology combined with extensive testing information has resulted in significant product performance enhancements as well as cost savings. This paper compares technical features of the original Sandia/USAF prototypes with the new commercialized Racon model 21000 Portable, Reconfigurable Line Sensor. The PRLS advances the art of outdoor security to meet the Relocatable Sensor System (RSS) challenge of the 1990s

  5. Religions and liberal democracy: reflections on doctrinal, institutional and attitudinal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, V.; Mookherjee, M.

    2011-01-01

    I start by distinguishing between principles and rights of tolerance on the one hand, and attitudes, virtues, practices, and regimes of toleration on the other. I claim that the latter are ultimately more important than principles of individual and collective tolerance, which are often in conflict

  6. [The origin, diffusion and development of healing doctrines in medical history--exemplified by homeopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Josef M

    2007-01-01

    As a paradigmatic case study of the origin, spread, and development of medical systems, this paper investigates the 200-years history of homeopathy from different perspectives of medical history. On the basis of new research on Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), first, a concise and critical overview on the principles, explanations, and implications of his doctrine is presented. The historical, conceptual, and social background of the founder of homeopathy is then elaborated in terms of history of medicine, science, philosophy, sociology, culture, and ideas, as well as theory of science, theory of communication, and sociology of science. The process of the world wide spread of homeopathy is examined from different points of view, ranging from history of heroes, institutions, professionalisation, politics, economics, religion, and organisations to history of patients, perception, and semiotics. Finally, a comparative approach to the different development and status of homeopathy in different countries results in the extraction of a set of crucial variables, such as charismatic personage, influential patronage, economic sponsorship, political protection, media support, and patients' demand, which might explane a major part of these differences. Eventually, the notorious splits of homeopathy's doctrine suggest the idea that--in analogy to theory of evolution--a variety of concurrent strains (rather than one monolithic block) of a doctrine may prove to be a kind of advantage for survival. In conclusion, acceptance and relevance of medical systems are determined by many factors. Since external ones are usually outweighing internal ones, medical history may offer a broader and more comprehensive understanding of the dynamics of their spread and development than clinical trials and scientific objection alone.

  7. Public trust doctrine, research and responsible wildlife management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Blackmore

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A significant proportion of South African biodiversity occurs in extensive private wildlife areas. As such, the continuance of these private reserves is paramount to conservation of the country’s biodiversity. The areas are, however, vulnerable to being divided into smaller camps as landowners enter into the new and rapidly growing industry of selective breeding and intensive management of antelope and predators. Concerns are being raised as to the long-term consequences of the products and impacts of this industry on, inter alia, integrity and conservation of the country’s wildlife, and the landscapes these facilities are located in, as well as the country’s reputation as a free ranging and fair chase hunting destination. Using the public trust doctrine as a foundation, this article characterises the relationship between the country’s environmental law and the roles played by government as the regulator, the wildlife industry, research and the public in achieving responsible wildlife management and the long-term conservation of this resource. These relationships are seen to be finely balanced between the provision of robust science, and evidence-based and cautious or risk-averse decision-making. It is concluded that the public trust doctrine is a powerful tool to limit the impacts of unsustainable and parochial use of wildlife on the conservation of biodiversity. It is also concluded that an improved understanding of the doctrine by researchers, public and the wildlife industry would lead to a greater relevance of research, and in turn sound evidence-based decision-making and ultimately sustainable use of wildlife.

  8. The Doctrine of Caudillism in Spain: Political Legitimacy and Charismatic Power during Francoism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Moradiellos García

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyze the sources of doctrinal justification of the charismatic power of General Francisco Franco as Caudillo of Spain for almost forty years. Taking into account the various political cultures of the Spanish Right, it shows the Civil War of 1936-39 as the seminal context for the new supreme and sovereign authority assumed by Franco during the conflict and preserved afterwards as a legacy of his military victory. The consequent personal cult to the Caudillo and the theoretical productions on Caudillaje leadership were adapted to changing international circumstances without any diminution of the permanent and supreme authority of Franco.

  9. Analysis of Indonesia Confucians Understanding Towards Religious Doctrines and Ordinances in Confucianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiato Lim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To a great extent, daily life of Indonesia Chinese community is filled with religious overtones. This paper basically analyzes the understanding of Indonesia Confucians towards their religion. The first part of this paper will be discussing about the general definition of religion and its religious elements. The second part will analyze the understanding of Indonesia Confucians towards their religious doctrines and ordinances respectively. In conclusion, overview regarding Indonesia Confucians and a special historical background of Indonesia Confucianism, which consists of its formation and development as a legal religion in line with Indonesia national conditions, social conditions and characteristic, will be presented.   

  10. Doctrines and Dimensions of Justice: Their Historical Backgrounds and Ideological Underpinnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häyry, Matti

    2018-04-01

    Justice can be approached from many angles in ethical and political debates, including those involving healthcare, biomedical research, and well-being. The main doctrines of justice are liberal egalitarianism, libertarianism, luck egalitarianism, socialism, utilitarianism, capability approach, communitarianism, and care ethics. These can be further elaborated in the light of traditional moral and social theories, values, ideals, and interests, and there are distinct dimensions of justice that are captured better by some tactics than by others. In this article, questions surrounding these matters are approached with the hermeneutic idea of a distinction between "American" and "European" ways of thinking.

  11. The core of Francisco Suárez’s doctrine about resistance and tyrannicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Font Oporto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to resume the exposition of Francisco Suárez about the problem of the resistance to the tyrant and its interpretation in the scientific doctrine. Suárez distinguishes betweentwo kinds of tyrants: the bad ruler and the usurper. The first only can be murdered in self-defense ofproper life or community; the second can be murdered by any person member of the community, on several conditions. Suárez is criticized because the only limits he establishes to political power are resistance and tyrannicide. However, these mean a democratic control really and physically possible inthe sociopolitical reality of his days.

  12. The doctrine of joint criminal action in the ad hoc tribunals and its scope in the Rome Statute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Odriozola-Gurrutxaga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The first judgment of the International Criminal Court has confirmed that article 25 (3 of the Rome Statute adopts the theory of control of the act to distinguish between principals and accessories. On the contrary, since 2003, the ad hoc tribunals’ case law bases the notion of co-perpetration on the Joint Criminal Enterprise doctrine, using a subjective criterion approach. In this article we will first analyze the problems raised by that case law of the ad hoc tribunals, and then, we will study the article of the Rome Statute which apparently most resembles the Joint Criminal Enterprise doctrine: article 25 (3 (d. The article concludes that none of the three categories of that doctrine is included in the said provision.

  13. Construction of the international system of Versailles, according to the doctrine of Woodrow Wilson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Albulena Halili

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mapping of the international system after the First World War took place in the Conference of Versailles, where a peace treaty was negotiated to end this war, and would reshape the world order. The key role in negotiating peace was handed to the United States of America, and its President Woodrow Wilson. This paper aims to elaborate the doctrine of US President Wilson, presented through the Fourteen Points, which were the basis for the international system that was created after First World War. Two of Wilson’s Fourteen Points, which are the object of study in this paper, had the most important impact on international relations, thereby transforming into international law principles, respected to this day: the right of the people for self-determination, which led to the destruction of multi-national empires, and the creation of a association of nations, which resulted in the establishment of the League of Nations, a predecessor of United Nations. The methodological approach used in this paper is analytical-theoretical, and is based on contemporary literature. It aims to identify the strong and weak sides of this doctrine, and its influence in the establishment of the Versailles international system, which only lasted twenty years. Conclusions from this paper are that the Fourteen Points not only served for the mapping of the Versailles international system but also for the establishment of preceding international systems. Many of those principles are the foundation of contemporary international relations

  14. Calvin’s modification of Augustine’s doctrine of original sin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vorster

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Augustine was Calvin’s main source of reference in the “Insti- tutes”. However, his treatment of Augustine’s views was not uncritical. This article discusses the way in which Calvin modi- fied Augustine’s doctrine of original sin. The main differences can be attributed to different theological aims. Augustine deve- loped his doctrine of original sin against the teachings of the Manicheans and Pelagians, whereas Calvin shifted the focus to knowledge of God and the self. Calvin understood original sin noetically as religious and moral blindness – whereas Augus- tine viewed sexual concupiscence as the main principle of original sin. Augustine made a considerable effort to explain that sin does not find its origin in God. God foresaw the fall, but did not compel it. Calvin located sin in God’s eternal decree and permission. Augustine, furthermore, understood the transmis- sion of original sin biologically, whereas Calvin ascribed it to God’s eternal permissive will. These differences culminated in a different understanding of the meaning of Jesus’ virgin birth. The article concludes by discussing the relevance of Calvin’s noetic approach to original sin.

  15. An Internationally Intelligible Principle: Comparing the Nondelegation Doctrine in the United States and European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grodin Edward

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the degree of convergence between the United States and the European Union regarding the structural role of administrative agencies. As will be argued, the United States and European Union have arrived at the same broad conclusion about a “nondelegation doctrine”: delegations to administrative agencies should be permitted so long as some limiting principle governs the exercise of that power and allows for sufficient judicial review. However, the Supreme Court has taken a more permissive approach than the Court of Justice in defining the limiting principle. The United States has loosened the reins for the sake of modern administration while the European Union has maintained a firmer grip to keep better control over the Europeanization project. Stated another way, the nondelegation doctrine is simply a reflection of the systems’ relative levels of integration. Thus, the nondelegation doctrine will be stretched in Europe as functional regulatory demands arise from wider and deeper integration. At the same time, the focus will be redirected from substantive limits to procedural controls; accordingly, this Note advocates for a European Administrative Procedure Act.

  16. Doctrine of Frustration of Contract in English, American and Iranian Law (Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Daraei

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pacta sunt servanda” is one of the most fundamental principles in the common law and Iranian legal systems, which have been exposed to exceptions in the process of time. These exceptions are part of general doctrine of frustration. Iranians exceptions to this rule are named as “Ta`azzor” and “Ta`assor” rules. Doctrine of Frustration in Common law includes three subdivision theories: “impossibility of performance”, “frustration of purpose” and “impracticability” (hardship. All of these theories applied where a supervening event occurs. In English courts, only first two theories are accepted but third one is applicable in American courts. In imamieh Jurisprudence and Iranian law, “Ta`azzor” rule in most aspects is similar to Impossibility and “Ta`assor” rule is somehow like Impracticability. Some Iranian lawyers are said that we have no rule like “Frustration of Purpose” but I believe we can find traces of this theory in Imamieh jurisprudence and according which it is part of “Ta`azzor” rule.

  17. Validity test of purchasing power parity doctrine: An Indonesian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahabudin Sidiq

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to analyze the doctrine purchasing power parity (PPP in Indonesia with the case study of the rupiah exchange rate to U.S. dollar. The autoregressive is used to estimate the relationship between the change of exchange rate and the difference Indonesia–USA inflation rate. The data used in this study are quarterly data obtained from the International Financial Statistics (IFS and Bank Indonesia (BI with the period 1997Q4-2013Q4. The exchange rate that used in this study is using the rate on rupiah to U S dollar. The price data used consumer price index in Indonesia and the United States with a base year of 2000. The results of this study show, that rupiah to the U.S. dollar is undervalued during the free floating exchange rate system and, the PPP doctrine to the case of the rupiah to the U.S. dollar is not valid in the period of this study.

  18. [Universal elixir of Thomas-Nicolas Larcheret (1819) and his elixirian and normal doctrine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    Thomas-Nicolas Larcheret, teacher in singing, declamation, guitar or lyre and violin, author of music and books, but also inventor of the universal elixir by his name, is a good example of quack of the 19th century. His book Larcheregium ou Dictionnaires spéciaux de mon élixir, ainsi que toute ma doctrine et de mes adhérens (Larcheregium or special Dictionaries of my elixir, as well as all my doctrine and my adherents), published in 1819, deserves a deep study to show the most frequently used arguments by the ones who emphasize the value of their secret remedy. The opportunities are there to present themselves as victims of medical authorities, experts and authorities as a whole, that do not recognize the value of their product. The only acceptable judge for them is the experience reported by the patients who are able to demonstrate the efficacy of the product since they do buy it (probably at a very high price). From this viewpoint, the book of Larcheret is a good example of turning the authorities down and of diatribe against physicians and pharmacists. It is also the demonstration that, even with the Empire's new regulations against secret remedies and quacks, they will still persist for a large part of the 19th century in France.

  19. Adiaphora en la Reforma protestante: ¿minimalismo doctrinal y neutralidad moral?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Svensson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El articulo presenta un análisis de la noción de cosas indiferentes (adiaphora en el contexto de la Reforma protestante. La literatura precedente sobre dicha noción en el contexto de la Reforma ha estado concentrada en el papel desempefiado por la misma en relación a la diversidad litdrgica. Aqui se aborda, en cambio, de modo primordial la cuestión de si acaso entre los reformadores hay una extensión de la noción de adiaphora al campo doctrinal y al moral.This article presents an analysis of the notion of indifferent things (adiaphora in the context of the Protestant Reformation. The previous literature on this notion in the context of the Reformation has focused on the role the Reformation has played with regard to liturgical diversity. Here, however, the focus is primarily on the question of whether among reformers there is an extension of the notion of adiaphora to the doctrinal and moral field.

  20. Clinician, Society and Suicide Mountain: Reading Rogerian Doctrine of Unconditional Positive Regard (UPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinedum Amadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Carl Rogers has become a legendary personage in the mental health field. Rogers (1957 “has been cited in the literature over a thousandtimes, in professional writings originating in 36 countries” (Goldfried, 2007, p. 249. Clinicians in the behavioral health field (psychiatry, socialwork, counseling and psychology are exposed to his teachings about human behavior. Of all the ideas propagated by Rogers, the conceptof unconditional positive regard (UPR has been elevated to the level of a doctrine (Schmitt, 1980. What then is unconditional positive regard?How can clinicians be faithful to the demands of unconditional positive regard in the face of other competing realities such as threat of suicideor terrorism? This paper seeks to discuss the impossible nature of Rogers' UPR, highlighting its inherent linguistic contradiction. Sincepsychotherapy is culturally normative, the doctrine of unconditional positive regard negates this fundamental principle. In this article, the authortakes a critical look at the influence of American philosophy of education on Rogers – he was a product of his culture. Furthermore, this paperasserts that clinicians are guided by societal norms or “conditions” which regulate clinical practice, including unconditional positive regard(Gone, 2011.

  1. Application of essential facility doctrine to transmission grid; Sodenmo eno essential facility no hori no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    This paper arranges the essential facility doctrine in America and describes it according to each judgment example how the doctrine is applied on the access of electricity supply companies to transmission grids. By applying the result to the situation of Japan, the point at issue occurring in the range of the Anti-Monopoly Law was arranged and investigated when third parties (power generating manufacturers) access the transmission grids of electricity supply companies in the form of wholesale or self transmission in the electricity supply industry of Japan. In the judgment example of America, a transmission grid can be considered as essential facility. The refusal of essential facility application is judged to be illegal only when it aims at keeping and expanding the leading market share without a fair reason. The application of essential facility can be refused when the transmission line is insufficient in capacity, when no necessary technical conditions are satisfied during use, or when the cost generated during use cannot be collected. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Civil Liability And Indemnity For Moral Damage In Labour Law: Application Of The Doctrine Of Punitive Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Geremias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain and analyze the importance of the civil liability under labour law with particular emphasis on the application of the doctrine of "punitive damages" as a breakthrough for the development of Brazilian law in the field of solutions to real problems to the fundamental rights at work. The problem of the research is to identify the application of the doctrine of "punitive damages", its justification under the system of civil liability and, in particular, its applicability as a defense mechanism for fundamental rights at work. The research is descriptive and explanatory, documentary-bibliographical.

  3. A Historical Analysis of Basic Air Force Doctrine Education within the United States States Air Force Air Command and Staff College, 1947-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    doctrine, especially joint doctrine. Because of this we make mistakes. I believe that the Air Force needs to develop a formal doctrinallo education...jresenteo arguments for all three points of view, but ne was particularly critical of tne educacional system within tae United States military. He said tnat

  4. Heidelberg’s relevance for a postmodern age: The doctrine of Scripture in the Heidelberg Catechism revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlastuin, W.

    2015-01-01

    The debate on the doctrine of Scripture is ongoing. In this article, the use of Scripture is investigated in the Heidelberg Catechism, a catechism in which there is no explicit statement about Scripture, the notion of the Word refers to the preached Word, and the focus is placed on soteriology and

  5. Reason, Grace and Charity: Augustine and the Impact of Church Doctrine on the Construction of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainton, Tim

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how early church doctrine influenced the construction of and response to intellectual disability. Though the main focus of the paper is on intellectual disability, much of the discussion is more broadly relevant to other types of impairments and human differences. The vehicle for this examination is the work of the key figure…

  6. The String of Pearls: Chinese Maritime Presence in the Indian Ocean and Its Effect on Indian Naval Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    182 Ibid.pp 264–67 183 Sikkim joined the Indian Union in 1975. 184 India Foreign Policy The Indira Ghandi Years...the Indira Ghandi Years. India: Radiant Publishers, 1990. 85 Indian Maritime Doctrine. New Delhi: Integrated Headquarters, Ministry of Defence

  7. First sale doctrine on computer programs in the European Union. reiteration of the precedent or jurisprudential change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Raúl Cardoso González

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of rulings C-128/11 (UsedSoft of July 3, 2012 and C-166/15 (Ranks and Vasiļevičs of October 12, 2016 by the Court of Justice of the European Union, concerning first sale doctrine on computer programs. Reiteration of the precedent or jurisprudential change?

  8. The Assumed Space: Pre-reflective Spatiality and Doctrinal Configurations in Juridical Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Meccarelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this contribution is to analyse, by means of the legal-historical perspective, the relationship between the pre-reflections of space and the configurations of legal concepts and categories. Three examples of the interplay between doctrinal configurations and the spatial dimension within the context of three different historical periods will be illustrated: given space in the Middle Ages, possible space in the Modern Age and decided space in the Contemporary Age. From this basis, the essay considers the heuristic importance of such an analytical approach – mindful of the profiles of presupposition, such as the space assumption, underlying the conceptualisation of ideas – for a history attentive to the constraints of the theoretical sustainability of legal concepts.

  9. The codification of directors’ duties: Capturing the essence of the corporate opportunity doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lowry

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested in the paper that section 176 is too compendious in its drafting. A consequence of this is that the declared objectives of the CLR to make the law comprehensible and, therefore, accessible is undermined. It fails to capture the essence of the principles that have emerged from the case law on the no-conflicts rule and the corporate opportunity. Further, the differing approaches towards the determination of liability by the Court of Appeal in Bhullar, on the one hand, and the more open textured approach towards the issue in Pyke, illustrates the dichotomy of the case law surrounding the corporate opportunity doctrine which the language of section 176 fails to resolve.

  10. INTERNAL DYNAMICS WITHIN HADHRAMI ARABS IN INDONESIA: From Social Hierarchy to Islamic Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsul Rijal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the current landscape of Hadhrami Arab Community in Indonesia. It aims to understand the internal fissures that affect the cohesion within the community. Some scholars contended that the conflicts taking place within the Hadhrami community are due to the Yemeni traditional stratification and nationalist orientation during colonial era. However, they do not include in their analysis the contemporary state of Hadhramis in Indonesia. This paper focuses on the contemporary era and argues that doctrinal contest and competition for religious authority have dominated the dynamics of conflict within Indonesian Hadhrami community. The paper will touch on the debates on the notion of Shi’ism among the so-called sayyids and Salafism among the followers of Al-Irsyad Al-Islamiyyah. It suggests that it is through these two currents of thought that the Hadhrami community in Indonesia not only exercise their power and authority, but also shape and transform their very identity.

  11. Normalization of US-Cuban Relations: Obama Doctrine and International Security in the Western Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Łaciński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Strained relations between the US and Cuba after the victory of the Cuban revolution were a permanent element of the destabilization of international security in the Western Hemisphere. During the Cold War, this destabilization was a function of the East-West confrontation. Since the end of Cold War the importance of Cuba as a Western Hemisphere entity hostile to the United States has diminished radically. Definite steps to normalize relations with Cuba have been taken only in 2014. The media named the change of policies of the US towards Cuba (and Iran as the Obama Doctrine. This article will try to prove that the continuation of the confron-tational and hostile US-Cuban relations after the collapse of the Eastern bloc was an exceptional and "unnatural" phenomenon from the perspective of realistic school of international relations, both for Washington and Havana.

  12. Three I know not what:The influence of Greek philosophy on the doctrine of Trinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar S. Santrac

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the origins of the traditional or orthodox Trinitarian formula. The main objective is to clarify to what extent the traditional Christian doctrine of the Trinity (Nicene formula has been influenced by Greek philosophy. Through contemporary theological dialogue on this issue, the research focuses on the comparison between the traditional formulation of the doctrine of Trinity, influenced by Greek philosophy and the biblical revelation of the godhead. The conclusion is that the trinitarian formula might not be a dogmatic teaching, but a mystery (a dehellenisation of the concept of Trinity and that the Church fathers and the post-Nicene church used the Greek philosophical-theological expressions for Trinity, already present in Scriptures in its doxological and liturgical form, primarily for the purpose of contextualisation.Hierdie artikel ondersoek die oorsprong van die tradisionele of ortodokse trinitariese leerstuk. Die hoofdoel is om uit te vind tot watter mate die tradisioneel Christelike leer oor die Drie-eenheid (Niceense formule deur die Griekse filosofie beïnvloed is. Deur die hedendaagse teologiese debat oor hierdie onderwerp na te gaan, fokus die navorsing op ’n vergelyking tussen die tradisionele formulering van die leer van die Drie-eenheid soos beïnvloed deur die ortodokse Griekse filosofie en deur die bybelse openbaring van die godheid. Die slotsom waartoe gekom word, is dat die trinitariese formule moontlik nie ’n dogmatiese leerstuk was nie, maar ’n misterie (’n dehellenisering van die Drie-eenheidsbegrip. Die kerkvaders en die post-Niceense kerk het die Griekse filosofies-teologiese uitdrukkings vir die Drie-eenheid, wat alreeds in die Skrif in sy doksologiese en liturgiese vorm voorgekom het, moontlik slegs vir die doel van kontekstualisering gebruik.

  13. Theory of defamation in the doctrine of honor and dignity protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komissarova E.G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant growth of interest in the issue of protection of honor and dignity as personal intangible benefits is recently caused by two key acts: Federal Law of July 2, 2013 N 142 “On amendments to subsection 3 of section I of the first part of the RF Civil Code” and decision of the RF Constitutional Court of July 9, 2013 N 18 “On the case about verification of the constitutionality of the provisions of paragraphs 1, 5, 6 of Article 152 of the RF Civil Code in connection with the complaint of a citizen E.V. Krylov”. Further humanization of the civil law, its corresponding with human rights, as well as legislator’s wish to eliminate the backlog in regulations of relations on the protection of personal intangible benefits are obvious. The ongoing legislative changes became associated with the theory of defamation. A lot of defamation terms, relating to personal intangible benefits and characterizing the corresponding behavior, tort, doctrine, offence, appeared in the Russian jurisprudence. The phrase “defamation law” is more frequently used, but its logical-semantic boundaries, methodological guidelines and branch are not yet clear. Most of the provisions of the defamation theory are taken for granted, while the theory itself dates back to pre-revolutionary (bourgeois – for the Soviet jurisprudence law and is undergoing a significant transformation currently. The need for theoretical elaboration of the defamation doctrine as applied to the new conditions of its practical application is substantiated. Therefore the necessary methodological guidelines are considered in the article.

  14. Mahatma Gandhi’s Doctrine of Ahimsa: Implication on Noted Filipino Students’ Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Maria Luisa A. Valdez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study generally aimed to analyze Mahatma Gandhi’s doctrine of ahimsa and its implication on noted Filipino students’ values. This paper employed the qualitative philosophical method of research in analyzing the tenets of ahimsa in the representative literary works chosen. This involved the science of textual criticism and hermeneutics supported by the researcher’s analysis and insights with reference to the content of the textsto bring about the philosophical treatment ofthe identified works. The analysis and interpretation revealed that: 1 Ahimsa refers to the principle of nonviolence based on the sacredness of all living creatures and an important tenet of ancient Indian religions specifically Jainism, Buddhism and Hinduism; 2 Gandhi is one of the writer-thinkers who philosophizes that ahimsa is the ontological core of existence; 3 The salient points of the doctrine find their noblest expressions and exemplifications on his life and works; 4 While leading nationwide campaigns to ease the humanitarian issues of poverty, women’s rights, religious and ethnic harmony and injustices of the caste system which are quite evident in his works, Gandhi applied the principles of nonviolent civil disobedience, playing a key role in freeing India from foreign domination, (http://www.youthforhumanrights.org/voices-for-humanrights/champions/mahatma-gandhi.html and 5 Gandhi’s writings can inspire the Filipino students to turn to the transcendental diversion of humanity and to change the way they think and review their values through the tenets of literature supplied by the re-examined nonviolence advocate and his commitment to life here and thereafter.

  15. The Continued Need for USAF Light Attack post OEF/OIF: A Survey of West African Infrastructure to Support Tactical Air Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Mauritania’s two main airfields, at Nouakchott and Atar , have 9,800 foot runways that A-10s could operate from. In addition to those airfields...running road passes through Atar , Zouerat and Bir Moghrein on the way to Algeria. Without the use of the bases at Zouerat and Bir Moghrein the highway...runs almost 400 miles beyond extended duration air support from Atar . With the legacy platforms currently available, the USAF could provide air

  16. An Annotated Bibliography of Hypobaric Decompression Sickness Research Conducted at the Crew Technology Division, USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks AFB, Texas from 1983 to 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF HYPOBARIC DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS RESEARCH CONDUCTED AT THE CREW TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, USAF SCHOOL OF AEROSPACE MEDICINE...190 man-flights to four selected altitudes (30000, 27500, 25000, and 22500 ft pressure equivalent) in a hypobaric chamber. The subjects’ ages ranged...conditions and two of these developed delayed sy~rtcms. Three of these five subjects underwent hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Conclusion. Female subjects

  17. From Theory Use to Theory Building in Learning Analytics: A Commentary on "Learning Analytics to Support Teachers during Synchronous CSCL"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bodong

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary on Van Leeuwen (2015, this issue), I explore the relation between theory and practice in learning analytics. Specifically, I caution against adhering to one specific theoretical doctrine while ignoring others, suggest deeper applications of cognitive load theory to understanding teaching with analytics tools, and comment on…

  18. Twenty-Seven-Year Follow-Up of Vietnam Air War USAF POWs and Matched Controls Not Captured: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledge, William; Rozanova, Julia; Dorset, Julianne

    2018-01-01

    To provide a follow up of a 1976 study of the impact of captivity on U.S. Air Force (USAF) POWs and USAF Controls matched for time in Southeast Asia, military rank and aircraft crew position. Qualitative study of replies to open ended questions of positive and negative changes due to their captivity/combat experiences made by participants (POWs and Controls) who replied in both 1976 and in 2003. Both groups acknowledged positive and negative effects of the experiences in 1976. In 1976 and 2003 the POWs mainly reported negative effects on career and family domains but positive effects of individual development and growth. Controls reported mild negative effects on family in 1976, and benefits to their careers and sense of self in both 1976 and 2003. Captivity during the Vietnam War for USAF included two types of extreme duress which were the incarceration itself; and the repatriation experience which entailed re-assimilation despite loss of occupation and disrupted families. Despite these obstacles, POWs exhibited substantial resilience in achieving self-growth and how they regarded themselves psychologically in comparison to their matched control fellow aviators who while also suffering a lesser separation from family, tended to prosper in their careers and were proud of their accomplishments. Long term separation from work, family and friends and the inability to return to their families and careers with the effectiveness demanded by their ambition were a more devastating ongoing consequence of their captivity than the immediate suffering of their imprisonment.

  19. Aircraft Control Using Engine Thrust: A History of Learning TOC Real-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer H.; Batteas, Frank; Fullerton, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    A history of learning the operation of Throttles Only Control (TOC) to control an aircraft in real time using engine thrust is shown. The topics include: 1) Past TOC Accidents/Incidents; 2) 1972: DC-10 American Airlines; 3) May 1974: USAF B-52H; 4) April 1975: USAF C-5A; 5) April 1975: USAF C-5A; 6) 1981: USAF B-52G; 7) August 1985: JAL 123 B-747; 8) JAL 123 Survivor Story; 9) JAL 123 Investigation Findings; 10) July 1989: UAL 232 DC-10; 11) UAL 232 DC-10; 12) Eastwind 517 B-737; 13) November 2003: DHL A-300; 14) Historically, TOC has saved lives; 15) Automated Throttles-Only Control; 16) PCA Project; 17) Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft; 18) MD-11 PCA System and Flight Test Envelope; 19) MD-11 Simulation, PCA ILS-Soupled Landing Dispersion; 20) Throttles-Only Pitch and Roll Control Power; 21) PCA in Commercial Fleet; 22) Fall 2005: PCAR Project; 23) PCAR Background - TOC; and 24) PCAR Background - TOC.

  20. Beyond Hearts and Minds: How The Operational Commander Must Understand Islamic War-Fighting Doctrine to Secure Victory in the Long War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vartanian, James M

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the need for the operational commander to fully understand the religious, military and political doctrine of Islam's Prophet Muhammad if success is to be realized in the long war...

  1. Modelling joint air defence doctrinal issues with a LinkZA-based integration of two C2 simulators – a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JJ

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the integration between two command and control simulators in order to clarify doctrinal issues surrounding Joint Air Defence using as example the uncertainty of roles and responsibilities between the Air Defence Cell...

  2. Leadership in Force XXI: Is the Army's Current Leadership Model and Leader Development Doctrine Properly Addressing the Challenges Brought About by the Transition to Force XXI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Carl

    1999-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research paper is to answer the question, Is the Army's current leadership model and leader development doctrine properly addressing the challenges brought about by the transition to Force XXI...

  3. The Adolescent Family Life Act and the promotion of religious doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, P

    1984-01-01

    Catholic and Catholic-oriented groups are promoting periodic abstinence, the only birth control method approved by the Catholic Church, using Adolescent Family Life Act (AFLA) funds and are discouraging teenagers from using other methods by distorting information. The serious question arises of whether US tax dollars are being used in violation of the constitutional requirement of separation of church and state and whether it is appropriate to promote only 1 method. The law mandates religious involvement in the development of adolescent sex education programs, but, in effect, distributes grants primarily to Catholic organizations whose beliefs on abortion are consistent with the law's terms. When the AFLA (chastity bill) was 1st enacted in 1981, there was no discussion on the possible infusion of faith and religious doctrine into such programs. This article examines the background of the AFLA and previous bills aimed at curbing teenage pregnancy. In accord with the 1st Amendment to the Constitution guaranteeing separation of church and state, the AFLA funds are not intended to promote religion or teach religious doctrines. Although such religious infiltration is unconstitutional, it is occuring in at least one of the programs funded by AFLA--at St. Margaret's Hospital in Massachusetts where a section of the curriculum is even titled "The Church's Teaching on Abortion." The issue of using federal money to promote natural family planning and discourage all other methods is examined. Examples of agencies who are biased and distort information on side-effects of other birth control methods are given. St. Ann's Infant and Maternity Home in Maryland and the Family of the Americas Foundation (FAF) in Louisiana aim at convincing teenagers that natural family planning is the only acceptable way to avoid pregnancy. By only funding organizations that will promote adoption for pregnant teenagers and teenage parents, the law is essentially judging all teenage mothers to be

  4. The Doctrine of Signatures, Materia Medica of Orchids, and the Contributions of Doctor - Orchidologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2012-12-01

    The heritage of medicine is written in many forms. One repository is to be found in the history of orchids, the world's largest family of flowering plants. Orchids were so named by Theophrastus (c.372-288 BC) who recorded their medicinal use as an aphrodisiac and the promoter of virility, in the context of the Doctrine of Signatures. Such use endured for millennia, and was recorded both by Paracelsus (1493-1551) and Linnaeus (1707-1778). The history of orchidology and medicine are entwined in four domains: (a) orchids and their historical materia medica, within the paradigm of the Doctrine of Signatures; (b) the enduring and extensive contemporary medicinal and culinary use of orchids such as Vanilla and salep extracts of Orchis; (c) the scientific contributions of doctors as orchidologists; and (d) the heritage of more than a hundred doctors' names in the scientific etymology of the Orchidaceae family. Prominent orchidologists have included the Scottish doctor-soldier and botanist, Robert Brown (1773-1858); the Director of the State Herbarium at Leyden and the Rijks Museum, Carl Ludwig Blume (1796-1862); and Dr William Sterling MD (1888-1967). Among the more than 1250 genus names (and 33,000 species) of orchids are the names of more than a hundred doctors, their lives and works perpetuated in the scientific etymology of this family of exotic, beautiful, flamboyant, intriguing and often expensive flowers. Generic names record the lives and works of such as Aristotle (384-322BC) in Aristotelia Loureiro 1790; Cadet de Gassicourt (1769-1821) in Cadetia Gaudichaud 1826; Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) in Sirhookera O. Kuntze 1891; and Dr Theodore Daniel Vrydag Zynen (fl. 1820-1850) in Vrydagzynea Blume 1858. One of the principal horticultural genera of orchids, Brassavola, records the life and work of the Ferrara and Padua physician and botanist, Antonio Musa Brassavola (1500-1555). The first Slipper Orchid bred as a hybrid, Paphiopedilum harrisianum (by John

  5. Very low level radioactive wastes. Must the doctrine evolve? Reflections by the IRSN for a perennial, fair and liable management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    As large programmes of dismantling of nuclear installations are to be elaborated and implemented during the next decades, it appears the Cires (industrial centre for gathering, warehousing and storage), the single solution for very low level radioactive wastes in France, will be saturated on the short term. Therefore, this report aims at reviewing the present policy of waste management in order to make it more perennial, fairer and more liable. First, it identifies strengths and weaknesses of the present doctrine. It examines the kind of governance necessary to decide how this doctrine should evolve, by taking societal stakes, and debate places and modalities into account. While referring to technological options, it examines the possible orientations for an evolution of management modalities: material valorisation, diversification of storage options, and limitation of waste production

  6. Path forward to the revision of the French doctrine of waste management in post-accidental situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichauer, Michael; Mathieu, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Perspectives: One objective : Upgrade operational aspects of post-accident doctrine. Major focus on civil society’s involvement: For priorities, efficiency, For the overarching goal of remediation Including local decision makers → reassurance of the population. Anticipation: Decentralized and associative ways Integration of socio economic factors. But don’t forget technical aspects…: Waste streams → facilities; How to act quickly; Threshold values; Efficiency of remediation programmes

  7. Evolución doctrinal y jurisprudencial de la teoría del dominio del hecho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Hernández Esquivel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sumario: i. introducción. ii. Breve rastreo jurisprudencial y doctrinal sobre el dominio del hecho. iii. algunas consideraciones sobre la autoría mediata por “dominio de la voluntad en virtud de estructuras organizadas de poder” y la jurisprudencia colombiana. iV. Delito de infracción de deber y el denominado interviniente. Tratamiento jurisprudencial

  8. Some Particularities in the Doctrine of the Trinity as Found in the Works of Christian Arabic Authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Davydenkov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This articles examines the Trinitarian theology of Christian Arab-speaking medieval theologians. The author explains that there are differences in the way the doctrine of the Trinity is presented by these theologians and by the way it is handled by their Greek and Latin counterparts. He devotes special attention to the question regarding the influence of Islamic philosophy and theology on the Trinitarian theology of these Arabic speaking Christians

  9. AN APPLICATION OF DOCTRINE OF NECESSITY: PREVIOUS CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY OF NEPAL AND ITS TIME EXTENSION TO AVOID CONSTITUTIONAL UNCERTAINTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Pd. Jayshwal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate issues in relation of constitutional doctrine which had potential debate among the jurists of Nepal for the issues of time extension. The paper will also argue some weaknesses in the constituent assembly and their role expected by the people of Nepal. This paper will discuss about the evolution of constitution in Nepal, its features, the principle of Constitutionalism embodied in Nepalese constitution. This paper will further argue about the legitimacy of Doctrine of Necessity and its application in Nepal. In last, this paper will show the possibility of constitutional uncertainty by newly elected constituent assembly.   Penulisan ini dalam rangka mengkaji doktrin konstitusional yang tengah ramai diperdebatkan oleh para ahli hukum di Nepal, khususnya berkaitan dengan isu mengenai perpanjangan waktu. Melalui tulisan ini, terdapat temuan yang menunjukkan beberapa kelemahan yang ada dalam majelis konstituate Nepal di samping peran-perannya sebagaimana yang diharapkan oleh rakyat Nepal. Tulisan ini membahas pula mengenai evolusi konstitusi Nepal sebagaimana diwujudkan dalam prinsip-prinsip konstitusionalism yang dianut oleh Konstitusi Nepal. Lebih lanjut, berkaitan dengan legitimasi dari Doctrin of Necessity dan penerapannya di Nepal. Pada akhirnya, tulisan ini akan memberikan gambaran mengenai kemungkinan ketidakpastian secara konstitusional berkaitan dengan kondisi majelis konstituante yang baru saja terpilih.

  10. The glia doctrine: addressing the role of glial cells in healthy brain ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhus, Erlend A; Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Bergersen, Linda H; Bjaalie, Jan G; Eriksson, Jens; Gundersen, Vidar; Leergaard, Trygve B; Morth, J Preben; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Torp, Reidun; Walhovd, Kristine B; Tønjum, Tone

    2013-10-01

    Glial cells in their plurality pervade the human brain and impact on brain structure and function. A principal component of the emerging glial doctrine is the hypothesis that astrocytes, the most abundant type of glial cells, trigger major molecular processes leading to brain ageing. Astrocyte biology has been examined using molecular, biochemical and structural methods, as well as 3D brain imaging in live animals and humans. Exosomes are extracelluar membrane vesicles that facilitate communication between glia, and have significant potential for biomarker discovery and drug delivery. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may indirectly influence the structure and function of membrane proteins expressed in glial cells and predispose specific cell subgroups to degeneration. Physical exercise may reduce or retard age-related brain deterioration by a mechanism involving neuro-glial processes. It is most likely that additional information about the distribution, structure and function of glial cells will yield novel insight into human brain ageing. Systematic studies of glia and their functions are expected to eventually lead to earlier detection of ageing-related brain dysfunction and to interventions that could delay, reduce or prevent brain dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. IBN SINA AND THE ROOTS OF THE SEVEN DOCTRINES OF PRESERVATION OF HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Murad Ahmad; Raza, Fauzia; Khan, Iqbal Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    Ibn Sina, the most eminent Muslim physician, illuminative philosopher, great thinker and a versatile genius is regarded as the "Father of Early Modern Medicine" and as the "Father of Clinical Pharmacology". The "Kitab al-Qanun fi-al-Tibb", commonly known as the "Canon Medicinae" is the most important of his medical works and, at the same time, the most carefully preserved treasury both in original Arabic and in the initial Latin version. It is the final codification of all Greco-Arabic medical thoughts up to his time, enriched and modified with his own scientific experimentations and independent observations. It is considered "The First Textbook of Medicine on the Earth". The "Canon" surpassed the books of Hippocrates and Galen and remained supreme for more than six centuries, in the West. Ibn Sina described "Seven Doctrines" for Preservation of Health, based on the Mudawa Salookia, in his magnum opus. The roots of these principles can be traced, to a significant extent, to Egyptian Medicine, Hebrew Medicine, Greek Medicine, Roman Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ancient Persian Medicine, Ayurvedic Medicine (Hindu Medicine) and Islamic Medicine.

  12. Is the price squeeze doctrine still viable in fully-regulated energy markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiwak, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    Simply stated, a price squeeze occurs when a firm with monopoly power on the primary, or wholesale, level engages in a prolonged price increase that drives competitors out of the secondary, or retail level, and thereby extends its monopoly power to the secondary market. A price squeeze will not be found, however, for any short-term exercise in market power. Rather, because anticompetitive effects of a price squeeze are indirect, the price squeeze must last long enough and be severe enough to produce effects on actual or potential competition in the secondary market. In regulated electric industries, a price squeeze claim usually arises from the complex relationship between the supplier, the wholesale customer, the retail customer, and the federal and state regulators. The supplier sells electric power to both wholesale and retail customers. Wholesale transactions are regulated by federal regulators, and retail transactions are regulated at the state level. The wholesale customers in turn sell power to their retail customers. Over the last several years, there have been substantial developments in the application of the price squeeze doctrine to fully-regulated electric utilities. This article will examine the current developments in this area, and attempt to highlight the burdens potential litigants, both plaintiffs and defendants, must overcome to succeed

  13. The Intrinsic Normativity of Law in Light of Kant`s Doctrine of Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ruhi Demiray

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper claims that a particular interpretation of Kant`s legal-political philosophy, as it is presented in his Doctrine of Right, provides us with the much needed resolution to the question of the normativity of law, precisely because it brings in a perspective that avoids both positivism and ethicism. This particular interpretation follows a strategy of argumentation that I call the “argument for the intrinsic normativity of law”, i.e., the argument that law is defined and justified on its own grounds, without any need to refer to ethics, or rational/enlightened self-interest. This argument highlights the concept of legal person with the innate right to freedom as the necessary presupposition of legal practices, and sets forth a fundamental sense of justice inherent to the concept of law that consists in the reciprocal recognition of legal personality. In the end, I come up with a distinctive conception of law that I formulate as a last resort of normativity in the face of a conflict wherein an ethical solution does not appeal to all parties.

  14. Brazil's Rendition of the 'Responsibility to Protect' Doctrine: Promising or Stillborn Diplomatic Proposal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Tuffi Saliba

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has actively participated in the debate around the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ (R2P doctrine. More recently, Brazil has even proposed what it believes to be a new approach—the ‘Responsibility while Protecting’ (RwP corollary to R2P. By launching its own rendition for R2P, Brazil has attempted to reinforce the role of the UN Security Council in two different ways: First, in restricting the use of force on the grounds of ‘Responsibility to Protect,’ which, according to Brazilian diplomatic reasoning, would hinge upon a multilateral assessment of the situation — a condition expected to considerably diminish the arbitrariness in decision making with respect to the use of force.  Second, Brazil aimed to highlight the necessity of reform in the UNSC, since, from a Brazilian viewpoint, the decisions of this organ must be representative in order to discharge new tasks assigned to it. Notwithstanding, Brazil's diplomatic proposal has arguably failed to gain massive support from the countries that compose the UN Security Council political establishment and seems now to be forgotten. This paper aims to provide an account on the Brazilian reaction to “Responsibility to Protect” and its first consequences.

  15. The diagnosis of psychopathy: Why psychiatrists and psychologists need to know ethical doctrines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alečković-Nikolić Mila S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the problem of the nature of the most difficult nosologic psychopathological diagnosis - psychopathy in all its features, the neurological and psychological, the social and the political. The paper also analyzes the analogy: the character of the society vis-à vis the character of the individual. In the second part, this work develops the concept of psychopathy as a general 'picture of the world,' a period of time and the community, with special reference to the harsh financial Darwinism and the Serbian society today (2014. The conclusion of the paper is that it is impossible to diagnose any disease as psychopathy if the psychiatric and psychological analysis does not include an analysis of sociologists, pedagogues, and especially psychologists of morality and ethicists. Finally, the attitude of the author is that every psychiatrist and psychologist who meet with psychopathy and judge it absolutely needs to know the most important ethical doctrine (deontology and utilitarianism, their opposition, as well as their consequences.

  16. The Social Effects of Neoliberalism. The Shock Doctrine in Russia, China and Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIAN-ŞTEFAN DUMITRESCU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Initially, the theoretical foundation of the International Monetary Fund was inspired by the economic vision of John Maynard Keynes, who argued that the state may resuscitate economic life when it undergoes a downturn. If the state proved unable to restart its national economy, the International Monetary Fund would intervene, and it would not only grant loans meant to revive the economy, but also recommend infrastructure investments, the decrease of interest rates in order to resume crediting and the reduction of taxes in order to decrease the pressure on the private sector in a quasi-immovable economy. In the 1980s, Keynesian ideas were withdrawn from the theoretical foundation of the International Monetary Fund and replaced by the neo-liberal vision. According to the new economic philosophy, the International Monetary Fund would grant loans only if the states in need reduced their budget deficits, increased taxes and interest rates. In other words, instead of boosting economic activity the new IMF practices were restricting it even more. In the rest of the work we will present, using the social constructivism paradigm and the strategic identity concept, the social consequences of neo-liberal ideas in Russia, China and Romania. The shock doctrine is the state of social disorder imposed from outside, as a result of the political gap between the states of the world.

  17. The vision of New Athens Charter from 2003 as urban planning doctrine in our regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Nataša Z.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available New Athens Charter represents a document made as a synthesis of what Europe has done so far in the field of urban planning doctrine. It is questionable how utopian this vision is for Europe alone, because, according to Gavrić, as Froyd says: 'I cannot integrate the German culture into the French culture regardless of the fact how familiar I am with the advantages, nor can I integrate the German language into the French language'. (Gavrić, 2003. Analogue to the abovementioned, from urban planning point of view, the integration of former Yugoslavia inhabitants is closer to reality. Actually former Yugoslavia inhabitants have common Slavic origin developed in the Balkan Peninsula, the same root in the legislation, already performed to a smaller or higher degree, acculturation and assimilation, so that the language is not an obstacle we understand each other very well. In that sense this paper should show the attempt of implementation of the New Athens Charter into scientific urban spheres (for the beginning of the republic of Serbia.

  18. Training Maintenance Troops: A Study of Factors Affecting Airman Performance in a Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    DANIEL R. WALKER, Colonel, USAF Work Unit Manager Chief, Warfighter Readiness Research Division... management to put additional resources towards this type of learning. Since the majority of the students are kinesthetic, the leaders should spend more...to the waiter or ask friends to recommend choices. c. Choose from the descriptions in the menu. d. Look at what others are eating or look at pictures

  19. Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Laabidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays learning technologies transformed educational systems with impressive progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Furthermore, when these technologies are available, affordable and accessible, they represent more than a transformation for people with disabilities. They represent real opportunities with access to an inclusive education and help to overcome the obstacles they met in classical educational systems. In this paper, we will cover basic concepts of e-accessibility, universal design and assistive technologies, with a special focus on accessible e-learning systems. Then, we will present recent research works conducted in our research Laboratory LaTICE toward the development of an accessible online learning environment for persons with disabilities from the design and specification step to the implementation. We will present, in particular, the accessible version “MoodleAcc+” of the well known e-learning platform Moodle as well as new elaborated generic models and a range of tools for authoring and evaluating accessible educational content.

  20. Doctrine of "Fair Price” by Thomas Aquinas: background, laws of development and specific interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureev Rustem, M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated premises of origin and patterns of development of the doctrine of “fair price” Aquinas. Showing contradictions exchange of agricultural products to urban goods and services, resulting in a developed feudalism. For agricultural products incoming to the city market, the situation was characterized as the free competition, while medieval guild tried to create a monopoly conditions for the production and sale of its products, which objectively leads to distortion of prices. Under these conditions, the development of the problem of "fair price" becomes extremely important. The paper shows how scholasticism using theological methodology, trying to solve this problem. Greed condemned, was considered evil and sin of avarice considered the source of all evils. This tradition goes back to the interpretation of the Gospel of Matthew John Chrysostom. Alexander Halensis one of the first attempted rehabilitation of commercial activities and even tried to criticize the position of the Pseudo-Chrysostom that the merchant is not pleasing to God. In the "sum of all theology" Alexander Halensis wrote that moral qualities profits depend on the circumstances of 6: 1. From the person selling (which allowed the laity, the monks are not allowed; 2. His intentions (satisfaction or desire for profit; 3. The method of sale (by fair means or fraud; 4. Time of trade (on weekdays or holidays, designed for prayer or service of God; 5. Selling place (in the market or in holy places; 6. Relationship to the buyers (which is expressed in the level - excessive or normal - the selling price. Analyzes the rationale arguments to grounding the doctrine of "fair price", show the evolution of the concept during XII - XIV centuries, as well as its relationship with the teachings of the scholastics on the percentage. The paper deals with various estimates of the concept of "fair value" of Thomas Aquinas, resulting in the history of economic thought. Critically

  1. United States Army physical readiness training: rationale and evaluation of the physical training doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Rieger, William; Palkoska, Frank; Van Camp, Steven; Darakjy, Salima

    2009-07-01

    This paper reviews the rationale and evaluations of Physical Readiness Training (PRT), the new U.S. Army physical training doctrine designed to improve soldiers' physical capability for military operations. The purposes of PRT are to improve physical fitness, prevent injuries, progressively train soldiers, and develop soldiers' self-confidence and discipline. The PRT follows the principles of progressive overload, regularity, specificity, precision, variety, and balance. Specificity was achieved by examining the standard list of military (warrior) tasks and determining 1) the physical requirements, 2) the fitness components involved, and 3) the training activities that most likely could improve the military tasks. Injury-prevention features include reduced running mileage, exercise variety (cross-training), and gradual, progressive training. In 3 military field studies, the overall adjusted risk of injury was 1.5-1.8 times higher in groups of soldiers performing traditional military physical training programs when compared with groups using a PRT program. Scores on the Army Physical Fitness Test were similar or higher in groups using PRT programs. In an 8-week laboratory study comparing PRT with a weightlifting/running program, both programs resulted in major improvements in militarily relevant tasks (e.g., 3.2-km walk/run with 32-kg load, 400-m run with 18-kg load, 5- to 30-second rushes to and from prone position, 80-kg casualty drag, obstacle course). When compared with traditional military physical training programs, PRT consistently resulted in fewer injuries and in equal or greater improvements in fitness and military task performance.

  2. DOCTRINAL AND IDEOLOGICAL PARADIGM OF THE CONSERVATISM IN THE WESTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Gjorshoski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an illustration of certain specifications in the conservative discourse in a certain European western countries. Each one of the countries from the western hemisphere has its particular peculiarities that determine the usage of the political operation by the conservative parties. Certainly, the complexity of the conservative ideology study has been enriching with the perception of the most basic practices in the political activity of the right parties in some western countries. This paper consists of a short definition about the conservatism followed by its primary and secondary principles. Then, continues to an individual cases in a three highly developed European countries where as a sample are taken the most significant parties in the conservative and Christian Democrat ideology. The conservatism as a political ideology has been formed in the middle of the XVII century as a resistance towards the shifts and the challenges that were under influence of the enlightenment, industrialization and the urbanization. If the conservatism as a political theory, ideology and practice originates from the countries with foregoing activities, logically emerges a need to study their characteristics. The author’s intention is to represent the traits creating the content of that ideology and activity, what are the distinction marks that would be the most appealing of the certain country, as well as to prove the link with the parties from the conservative family on a European level. The study of the conservatism as a political ideology in the modern ideological- doctrinal spectrum would be certainly impossible if there is no closer look to those paradigms.

  3. Noncombatant Evacuation Operations: Department of State’s Lessons Learned Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    means for utilizing the lessons learned, in some form of rehearsal or exercise, will 4 make the lessons learned meaningful. A lesson should only...required by DOS policy. The Department agreed with the recommendations to establish certain procedures to address the need to constantly 44 update...doctrine.31 Futch also explained that CALL is constantly seeking to expand training and educational efforts about the lessons learned process and

  4. The Team Of The Family Health Strategy And The Doctrinal Principles Of The Unified Health System: Perceptions And Applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woneska Rodrigues Pinheiro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The SUS, which was guaranteed by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 and regulated by organic laws of health, offers a system governed of doctrinal principles (universality, fairness and completeness concerning the philosophy of the system and extend the concept of health and the right to it. On the promotion of these principles, the municipalization of health is referred to as a policy of decentralization which incorporates basic health attention, permeated by the principles of the SUS, where inserts in this context the basic health units (UBS that are entrance doors of the population to the system. When considering that the proposals brought by the family health strategy (FHS are great potential to restructure the welfare model and the Organization of health services, and these proposals based on the principles governing the SUS, becomes essential, inter alia, that the worker member of this team have involvement and knowledge of the project, as well as on its goals and principles governing it. Objective: Check the knowledge and promotion of doctrinal principles of the SUS by active team of FHS in the town of Juazeiro do Norte in the State of Ceará (CE, Brazil.  Method: This work deals with a transversal nature study exploratory, qualitative approach. The survey was conducted in the family health strategy of the city of Juazeiro do Norte-CE, with top level professionals (physician, nurses and dentists who work on units during the collection period. The collection was performed through a semi structured interview and the data analyzed by means of the collective subject discourse. This study was submitted to the Ethics Committee of the College Lion Sa, having the opinion of approved (nº: 1.067.638.  Results: the results showed that the professionals have demonstrated no knowledge of, nor promote some doctrinal principles of the SUS coherently. The knowledge that they have are fragmented and incipient, and Praxis (theory

  5. Net Neutrality, the Fairness Doctrine, and the NRB: The Tension between United States Religious Expression and Media Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Montalbano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the historical continuity between the opposition of the National Religious Broadcasters (NRB to the Fairness Doctrine (1949 and to the contemporary Federal Communications Commission (FCC Open Internet principle, net neutrality. These debates demonstrate how media policy discourse has shaped democratic ideals, including by designating whose voices are or are not included in broadcast and digital communication spaces. The discourse emerging from both media policy debates reveals that fears concerning cultural hegemony and the diversity of expression in the United States have intertwined with fears concerning the invasion of foreign ideologies. The article then considers the possibility of reconciling religious and secular discourse in the mediated public sphere.

  6. Venezuela: from doctrine to dialogue to participation in the processes of regional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allor, D J

    1984-01-01

    . Neighborhood associations were mentioned in the decree, but their role was not formalized. This series of newly established bodies plays a role in both advisory and administrative processes. The advisory process begins at the lowest level, and local concerns are expressed upward through the hierarchy. The administrative process flows in the opposite direction. Participation remains highly formalized and is restricted to the participation of recognized leaders and organizations. For example, members of the Assembly of Participation include the state governor, representatives of municipal councils, and representatives of various industrial and commercial organizations. Despite the formal nature of the participation, the 1980 Decree clearly exhibited the trend toward decentralization predicted by John Freeman in his analysis of Venezuelan political structure and published in a book entitled "venezuela: From doctrine to Dialogue." Increased pressure will now be exerted for broader community participation in the development process, and eventually development planning will focus on the equitable distribution of development benefits rather than on the maximization of economic growth.

  7. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 17, Number 2, Summer 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Board of Reviewers Prof. Tami Davis Biddle US Army War College Lt Col Price T. Bingham, USAF, Retired Melbourne, Florida Col Matthew Caffrey, USAFR...necessary step in the maturation of American airpower theory, doctrine, and operational effectiveness. To Learn More . . . Biddle , Tami Davis...Russia as a massive country with 11 time zones and dozens of eth­ nic groups,21 argues that intelligence analysts must understand how former

  8. Conveying the Complex: Updating U.S. Joint Systems Analysis Doctrine with Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    and useful to as broad 59See Peter Checkland and John Poulter, Learning for Action: A Short Definitive Account of Soft Systems Methodology and Its...Unstoppable Power of Leaderless Organizations. New York: Penguin Group, 2006. Checkland , Peter and Poulter, John. Learning for Action: A Short Definitive

  9. CONFESIÓN Y SIGILO SACRAMENTAL EN EL CONCILIO LATERANENSE IV: DE LA NORMATIVA A LA REFLEXIÓN DOCTRINAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Tarantino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the standards approved by the Fourth Lateran Council the XXI stands out as the most important in the sacramental discipline. As usual it takes the name from its opening words, Omnis utriusque sexus. Through it, not only did the Church sanction a universal law that established the obligation of the believer to confess all his sins to their priest annually, in order to receive at least at Easter, after the execution of the imposed penance, the sacrament of the Eucharist, but also introduced a broader regulation of the same sacrament which brought up a relevant subject such as the sigillum confessionis and the related penalties which were applicable if violated. For the first time this institution, which has its roots in the divine right, received a general and organic legislative discipline intended to become the subject for reflection on the part of the doctrine, especially in the wake of its reception in the Liber Extra by Gregory IX (X 5. 38. 12. Given a brief excursus on the emergence in the jus vetus of a first regulation in relation to the duty of the Seal of Confession, we will try to understand the impact of l of the Innocentian legislation on doctrinal reflection and the development of the following regulation on the subject between the Middle Ages and the modern age.

  10. USAF Posture Statement 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    request maintains investments in the DCGS, the MQ-1 Predator, the RC-135 Rivet Joint, the RQ-4 Global Hawk Block 40, and U-2 programs, and makes internal... electromagnetic jamming. Our potential adversaries are also making advances by electronically linking their own combat capabilities, creating new military

  11. A Philosophical Analysis of David Orr's Theory of Ecological Literacy: Biophilia, Ecojustice and Moral Education in School Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Debra B.; Mueller, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    In his writings, David Orr claims that the US is in an "ecological crisis" and that this stems from a crisis of education. He outlines a theory of ecological literacy, a mode by which we better learn the ecology of the Earth and live in a sustainable manner. While emphasizing a shock doctrine, the diagnosis of "crisis" may be…

  12. Why Teach Doctrine? A Response to Dan Moulin's "Challenging Christianity: Leo Tolstoy and Religious Education" in "Journal of Beliefs and Values," Vol. 30, No. 2, August 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Penny; Watson, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    In response to the article by Dan Moulin it is argued that the representation of Christianity in British religious education relies on central beliefs and practices that are widely shared. In contrast to Moulin we consider that the teaching of doctrine is important in order to prevent serious misunderstanding of Christianity. Focussing on a…

  13. The disabling of the EC Disability Regulation: Stott c. Thomas Cook Tour operators Ltd. in the light of the exclusivity Doctrine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The (contractual) relationship between passengers and airlines is regulated on an international as well as a European level. However, problems arise in the demarcation between these levels. The cause of these demarcation problems lies, on the one hand, in the strict 'exclusivity doctrine' under

  14. MODERN POETRY THAT COULD/COULDN’T EXHAUST THR CLASSICAL POETICA AND SUFISM DOCTRINE FROM A MYSTIC CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Hasan AKTAS

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The poetry of classical age was pouring from twomain vessels as Divan and Mysticism. The poem of thesetwo channels were standing on two strongepistemic/basic source like Quran and Tradition. Divanand mystic poetry are in a way a secular/visible andmystic/esoteric evolution of these two rooted/epistemicsource. This evolution is being made confirm andclassical by sealing with secrets sometimes. In a way, thiscaused the Divan poetry turning into a hidden treasure.Turkish poetry which suddenly lost it’s treasure withmodernism, got contemporary and positivist with anagression of no borders. This marginality is stopped themodern poetry. This blockage entailed new developmentwhich was through the Divan and mystic poetry. Altoughthis tendency, modern poetry couldn’t exhaust Divan andmystic poetry/sufism doctrine as it produce them.Because, modern poetry hasn’t got enough power toexhaust the wonderful treasure of Divan and mysticpoetry.

  15. Greece and Oman: Successful Anglo/American Counterinsurgencies Viewed from Current American Counterinsurgency Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    would wear a dishdasha off duty, because they learned that in this very hot climate such an outfit is more practical leisure wear than pants because...War II. British troops were deployed to fight insurgencies in the British colonies of Palestine, Malaysia , and Kenya and the United Kingdom’s

  16. Confraternity of Christian Doctrine Observes 100 Years: Ready to Transform Parish Life for Another Second Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Joan (CND); Morse, Teresita (RJM); McKew, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how the Pre-Vatican II CCD concentrated on providing information while the post conciliar Catholic Church calls on Catholics to offer information that leads ultimately to transformation. Discusses how learning about the history of the church and celebrating the past can strengthen the future. (MZ)

  17. Building the foundations for a new central bank doctrine: Redefining central banks’ missions in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pichet

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2007-2008 financial crisis demonstrated both the responsibilities that central bankers, alongside other actors, bear for turbulences of this kind as well as how economics can be used to provide central bankers and governments with the understanding and tools that they need to prevent the international financial system from collapsing. At the same time, central banks’ responses to the crisis have taken monetary policy into unknown territory. The paper’s first section diagnoses good and bad practice in post-crisis central banking; assesses the efficiency of pre-crisis doctrines; and identifies the dangers of actions exceeding certain limits. It specifically focuses on the European Central Bank’s much-debated intervention in certain peripheral bond markets, particularly Greece. The second section is more normative and lays the foundations for a social science perspective of how to manage modern central banks, an approach that draws on a variety of disciplines including economics, governance theory and management. This starts with a definition of the new doctrine and its underlying philosophy, followed by an identification of sound central banking practices (revolving around a few key concepts, notably inflation and financial stability. The missions and objectives of these practices are then defined (along with a choice of indicators, culminating in an exploration of which strategies and tools might be used in both normal and turbulent times. Lastly, a few concrete rules of governance are offered, built on the triptych of central banks’ independence, accountability and composition, with specific focus placed on the process for selecting governors fit to handle the new role that modern central banks are destined to assume in developed countries.

  18. Financial and Economic Support for the Activity and Publication Openness of Workers in the Scientific Sphere: Management Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpinsky Borys A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is both in the system identification of the financial and economic features of supporting the scientific sphere and in the development of a management doctrine to increase the efficiency of activity of scientific workers in the global scientific space by combining publication openness, motivational levers, business and consumer interests based on foreign experience and strategiology of development in the realities of Ukraine. It is determined that the publication openness of a particular scientist depends on the scientific openness of publications in national print media, which are not always transparent for the global scientific space. The advantages and disadvantages of using scientometric databases as to editions that ensure the openness of scientific research results in terms of financial possibilities are considered. There singled out the managerial preference of the Information and analytical system “Bibliometrics of the Ukrainian Science”, which allows creating a bibliometric profile of a particular scientist through the environment of Google Scholar and improve the “visibility” ensuring both the improvement of his/her competitiveness and increase in the financial and economic support. There considered administrative advantages of associative complexes, similar to the Ivy League universities in America, and for the first time from the perspective of the strategiology of development there synthesized an approach regarding the creation of the given organizational structure, where the most famous classical universities would be concentrated, in Ukraine. The advantage and perspectivity of the proposed measures is the system formation of the management doctrine of financial and economic support for the scientific sphere, the optimization of using the scientific potential of the territory and ensuring its correspondence to the needs of consumers and business, the activization of publication openness and efficiency

  19. [The Biology of Learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Cabal, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    The effort to relate mental and biological functioning has fluctuated between two doctrines: 1) an attempt to explain mental functioning as a collective property of the brain and 2) as one relatied to other mental processes associated with specific regions of the brain. The article reviews the main theories developed over the last 200 years: phrenology, the psuedo study of the brain, mass action, cellular connectionism and distributed processing among others. In addition, approaches have emerged in recent years that allows for an understanding of the biological determinants and individual differences in complex mental processes through what is called cognitive neuroscience. Knowing the definition of neuroscience, the learning of memory, the ways in which learning occurs, the principles of the neural basis of memory and learning and its effects on brain function, among other things, allows us the basic understanding of the processes of memory and learning and is an important requirement to address the best manner to commit to the of training future specialists in Psychiatry. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Learning in General Games with Nature’s Moves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick L. Leoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates simultaneous learning about both nature and others’ actions in repeated games and identifies a set of sufficient conditions for which Harsanyi’s doctrine holds. Players have a utility function over infinite histories that are continuous for the sup-norm topology. Nature’s drawing after any history may depend on any past actions. Provided that (1 every player maximizes her expected payoff against her own beliefs, (2 every player updates her beliefs in a Bayesian manner, (3 prior beliefs about both nature and other players’ strategies have a grain of truth, and (4 beliefs about nature are independent of actions chosen during the game, we construct a Nash equilibrium, that is, realization-equivalent to the actual plays, where Harsanyi’s doctrine holds. Those assumptions are shown to be tight.

  1. The Guerrillas in the Boardroom: What COIN Theory Teaches Leaders about Organizational Change, and How Corporate Change Models Could Transform Military Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-25

    there. When I was at CGSC, students studied two models for organizational change. One was authored by John Kotter, a former Harvard business professor...who had spent nearly 40 years studying what worked and did not work for business leaders trying to transform their organizations. Based on that...counterinsurgents meeting only with key leaders, which is what U.S. doctrine prescribes.31 As Sarah Chayes points out in her book , Thieves of State

  2. BINDING EFFECT OF ARBITRATION CLAUSE TO THIRD PARTIES: PRIVITY OF CONTRACT DOCTRINE Vs. PIERCING THE CORPORATE VEIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Sogar Simamora

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The arbitration agreement is the legal basis for the arbitration forum to examine and adjudicate the dispute which arose from a private relationship where the parties agree to settle the dispute in arbitration forum. As an agreement, the arbitration agreement still applies the principles of contract, including the principle of privity of contract. In the doctrine of privity of contract, an agreement is only binding and have legal effect only to the parties, the agreement in principle, cannot provide profit or loss to a third party. In the arbitration agreement, only the parties are bound by the arbitration agreement that can become parties to the case investigation. However, in the development of arbitration practice also shows that a third party, not a signatory to the arbitration agreement can be held accountable through an examination of the arbitration case. Such a situation is possible if the third party is resident as a holding company or shareholder of a limited liability company, in which the limited liability company is bound by an arbitration agreement, and the holding company or shareholder proven to perform actions through a subsidiary or a limited liability resulting harm the other party.

  3. Nato Multinational Brigade Interoperability: Issues, Mitigating Solutions and is it Time for a Nato Multinational Brigade Doctrine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiller Mark

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multinational Brigade Operations involving NATO and its European Partners are the norm in the post-Cold War Era. Commonplace today are Multinational Brigades, composed of staffs and subordinate units representing almost every NATO Country and Partner, participating in training exercises or actual operations in both the European and Southwest Asian Theatres. Leadership challenges are prevalent for the Multinational Brigade Commander and his staff, especially those challenges they face in achieving an effective level of brigade interoperability in order to conduct successful operations in NATO’s present and future operating environments. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to examine the major interoperability obstacles a multinational brigade commander and his staff are likely to encounter during the planning and execution of brigade operations; and, to recommend actions and measures a multinational brigade commander and his staff can implement to facilitate interoperability in a multinational brigade operating environment. Several key interoperability topics considered integral to effective multinational brigade operations will be examined and analysed to include understanding partner unit capabilities and limitations facilitated by an integration plan, appropriate command and support relationships, compatible communications, synchronized intelligence and information collection, establishing effective liaison, and fratricide prevention. The paper conclusion will urge for a NATO land brigade doctrine considering doctrine’s critical importance to effective brigade command and control interoperability and the expected missions a land brigade will encounter in future NATO operating environments as part of the NATO Very High Readiness Joint Task Force (VJTF.

  4. Bush doctrine in the Middle East; The US foreign policy towards the Middle East during the George W. Bush presidency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hoder

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused at the most important elements of the US foreign policy towards the Middle East during the administration of George W. Bush (2001 – 2009. The text has two parts. The first part shows three important influences on creation and formulation of the US foreign policy towards the region. At the first place it was an effort to preserve unipolar character of the international system, hegemonic possition of the USA and its dominance in all regions. The second source was specific decision-making process set up by president Bush and the third source of the Bush strategy was a partial transformation of the US longtime policy towards the Middle East. The second part of the article discuss results of the Bush doctrine in the region. The text is focused at five most important consequences of the US foreign policy, which are the fight against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the pursuit of the democratization throughout the region, the Israel-Palestinian conflict, regional “cold war” between Iran and Saudi Arabia and finally the struggle to stabilize the post-conflict Iraq.

  5. The Methodological Analysis of the Plato’s Doctrine About Space and the Person in Dialogue “Timaeus”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Meshkov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focus is on the main methodological sets of Plato which substantially influenced his philosophic and scientific thinking, expressed in the dialogue ‘Timaeus’, as well as defined the specific of his doctrine in relation to the cosmos and human being: the principle of substantial perfection, deterministic approach, a tendency to analyze the empiric material with the means of mathematical objects. Plato’s understanding of the cosmos and human body as lively, holistic constructions enabled their fruitful systematic studies. Shaping his teaching on the soul and the body of human being, Plato endeavored to solve one of the most complicated tasks: to establish the first theoretical, mathematised system, and under such conditions to fill the pure language of observations with ideal constructs. The author shows that one of the most important scientific achievements of the Athenian philosopher was the use of the thinking constructions of geometrical triangles, which made possible creating of the theoretical models of living organisms, with explaining their nature and functioning that was one among the first in the history of science. Moreover Plato was the first in the history of science who filled with the theoretical contents not the first elements only, but all the examined material objects.

  6. Joint NASA/USAF Airborne Field Mill Program - Operation and safety considerations during flights of a Lear 28 airplane in adverse weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Bruce D.; Phillips, Michael R.; Maier, Launa M.

    1992-01-01

    A NASA Langley Research Center Learjet 28 research airplane was flown in various adverse weather conditions in the vicinity of the NASA Kennedy Space Center from 1990-1992 to measure airborne electric fields during the Joint NASA/USAF Airborne Field Mill Program. The objective of this program was to characterize the electrical activity in various weather phenomena common to the NASA-Kennedy area in order to refine Launch Commit Criteria for natural and triggered lightning. The purpose of the program was to safely relax the existing launch commit criteria, thereby increasing launch availability and reducing the chance for weather holds and delays. This paper discusses the operational conduct of the flight test, including environmental/safety considerations, aircraft instrumentation and modification, test limitations, flight procedures, and the procedures and responsibilities of the personnel in the ground station. Airborne field mill data were collected for all the Launch Commit Criteria during two summer and two winter deployments. These data are now being analyzed.

  7. Freeze-dried plasma at the point of injury: from concept to doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassberg, Elon; Nadler, Roy; Gendler, Sami; Abramovich, Amir; Spinella, Philip C; Gerhardt, Robert T; Holcomb, John B; Kreiss, Yitshak

    2013-12-01

    While early plasma transfusion for the treatment of patients with ongoing major hemorrhage is widely accepted as part of the standard of care in the hospital setting, logistic constraints have limited its use in the out-of-hospital setting. Freeze-dried plasma (FDP), which can be stored at ambient temperatures, enables early treatment in the out-of-hospital setting. Point-of-injury plasma transfusion entails several significant advantages over currently used resuscitation fluids, including the avoidance of dilutional coagulopathy, by minimizing the need for crystalloid infusion, beneficial effects on endothelial function, physiological pH level, and better maintenance of intravascular volume compared with crystalloid-based solutions. The Israel Defense Forces Medical Corps policy is that plasma is the resuscitation fluid of choice for selected, severely wounded patients and has thus included FDP as part of its armamentarium for use at the point of injury by advanced life savers, across the entire military. We describe the clinical rationale behind the use of FDP at the point-of-injury, the drafting of the administration protocol now being used by Israel Defense Forces advanced life support providers, the process of procurement and distribution, and preliminary data describing the first casualties treated with FDP at the point of injury. It is our hope that others will be able to learn from our experience, thus improving trauma casualty care around the world.

  8. The Essence of Hindu Doctrine and its Influence on Christianity in America and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Corneliu Arion

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the topic of the identity of Hindu religion and its impact on Christianity in the West (i.e. in Europe and USA, which is to be seen, especially through Neo-Hindu movements (that occurred mainly during 1950s–1980s. Thus, features and key terms such as: authority of the Veda, Dharma, moksha, samsāra and karma, the paths to liberation, concept of God, Brahman-ātman, avidyā and māyā and AUM are sketchily presented in the first part of the paper. There are obvious differences between both Hindu schools and Christian faith which regards 1. Ultimate concern: For the Hindu, it is escape from the human condition, whereas for the Christian it is freedom from guilt, sin, and the devil; 2. Human nature: For the Christian it is creaturely and sinful; for the Hindu it is divine; 3. Human problem: It is moral sin for the Christian and intellectual ignorance for the Hindu; 4. Resolution: For the Christian it is a divine act at infinite cost to God; for the Hindu it is human effort, sometimes mixed with grace, without cost to the god. In the second part it is presented the debated problem of Gurus and their movements and Neo-Hindu movements sprung at the second half of 20th century, such as Satya Sai Baba, International Society for Krishna Consciousness and meditation for “transcendental consciousness” (TM. In any case, the Indian offspring demonstrate that we have come to an important moment in the history of religions, one in which new religious landscapes continually emerge like the images of a kaleidoscope and where people will have to learn whether it is possible to share the same planet.

  9. Mobile Diabetes Management for USAF Active and Retired Military Spouses: Lessons Learned in the Integration of Mobile Integrated Therapies (MIT) into Electronic Medical Records (EMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    submitted CP to IRB  Documented UAT and EFT results  Completed Clinical Review (CR) and sign off for Patient and Provider Use  Note: The project...management, the “high- attention” call-center based services, are tapping into every avenue available to determine how to raise engagement rates from

  10. The Orthodox Doctrine of Salvation» by Archimandrite Sergius (Stragorodsky and its criticism by Confessor of the Faith Victor (Ostrovidov and Archbishop Seraphim (Sobolev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. KHONDSINSKIY

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available «The Orthodox Doctrine of Salvation», a well-known work by Archimandrite Sergius (Stragorodsky that was defended by him as a master’s thesis at the Moscow Theological Academy in 1895, is still considered an etalon in Orthodox theology. Meanwhile, in the first half of the 20th century, it was heavily criticized by at least two prominent members of the Church hierarchy of that time: Confessor of the Faith Victor (Ostrovidov and Archbishop Seraphim (Sobolev. This article does not only examine their arguments, but also provides the researcher’s personal understanding of the main theses of the work by Archimandrite Sergius. The researcher’s work in this case is complicated by a large number of patristic texts, which are given by Archimandrite Sergius and the abundance of which hampers the identification of his own original ideas. Nevertheless, the carried out analysis reveals that the dissertation doesn’t contain not only patristic, but any kind of a clear doctrine of the Fall, or of man’s state after the Fall, or of redemption, or of man’s assimilation of redemption fruits. Besides, the theses illustrated in the dissertation by the texts of the Holy Fathers belong not so much to them as to the first Slavophiles, Archimandrite Anthony (Khrapovitsky, the teacher and the senior friend of Archimandrite Sergius, and finally to Immanuel Kant. Consequently, in his doctrine of freedom anticipating grace, Archimandrite Sergius comes dangerously close to Pelagianism. These findings recognize the truth of complaints against the work of Archimandrite Sergius by Confessor of the Faith Viktor (Ostrovidov and Archbishop Seraphim (Sobolev.

  11. Theoretical points of view on the notion of cause (consideration) of contracts in the Serbian doctrine of civil law till the adoption of the law on obligations

    OpenAIRE

    Dudaš Atila

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the author analyzes the different points of view on the notion of cause (consideration) in contract in the Serbian doctrine of civil law as until the adoption of the Law on Obligations in 1978. Having in mind that the Law, adhering to the normative solutions of the French Civil Code, explicitly regulates the institution of cause of contract, as one of the conditions of formation and validity of contract, its adoption can certainly be considered as an event of a watershed importa...

  12. DOCTRINE OF A PERSONALITY IN THE THOUGHT OF THE ORTHODOX THEOLOGIANS OF THE 20TH CENTURY AS A METHODOLOGICAL BASIS OF THE ORTHODOX ANTROPOLOGY AND HUMANITARIAN RESEARCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. CHURSANOV

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available n this second part of his issue author approaches the personalistic anthropologicalmodel as a methodological basis for theological analysis of the main antropological problems.These are individualism, the problem of death, the problem of detecting specificity of beinghuman, and the doctrine of love. The way Orthodox personalists treat the root problems offour human sciences, that is the philosophy of religion, the sociology, the philosophy of cul-ture and the ecology is represented in the following part of the article. The author concludesobserving some further researches in the direction considered.

  13. Querying the Call to Introduce Mental Capacity Testing to Mental Health Law: Does the Doctrine of Necessity Provide an Alternative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Gooding

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trends in international human rights law have challenged States globally to rethink involuntary mental health interventions from a non-discrimination perspective. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD in particular prohibits laws that discriminate on the basis of disability. However, a key criterion for compulsory mental health treatment under typical mental health legislation is a psychiatric diagnosis (in conjunction with risk of harm and other criteria. Hence, for people with mental health disabilities, rights to liberty and consent in healthcare are held to a different standard compared to other citizens. A prominent law reform option being explored by some governments and commentators for achieving non-discrimination is to replace the diagnostic criterion for triggering involuntary intervention with an assessment of mental capacity. After all, every citizen is subject to restrictions on autonomy where they are deemed to lack mental capacity, such as where concussion necessitates emergency service. However, the use of mental capacity “testing” is seen by diverse commentators as wanting in key respects. A prominent criticism comes from the United Nations Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which considers mental capacity assessments a form of disability-based discrimination. This article queries the call to replace the diagnostic criterion in mental health law with an assessment of mental capacity in the light of jurisprudence on equality and non-discrimination in international human rights law. Instead, we examine the doctrine of necessity as an area of law, which might help identify specific thresholds for overriding autonomy in emergency circumstances that can be codified in a non-discriminatory way. We also consider the need for deliberative law reform processes to identify such measures, and we suggest interim, short-term measures for creating a “supported decision

  14. St. Maxim the Confessor’s Doctrine of the Image and Likeness to God in Man: Aspect of Synergia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkov Petr

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available St. Maximus the Confessor makes a distinction between “image” and “likeness” to God in man. The “image of God” pertains to human nature in general, whereas the “likeness to God” is a realisation and fulfillment of this “image” in each particular hypostasis. Likeness to God is a result of personal hypostatic effort; at the same time, likeness to God is the act of synergia of God and man, since it is accomplished by divine energies on the one hand and by a free human decision — gnomic will — on the other. Gnomic will is an important means in the achievement of likeness to God, but this hypostatic gnomic will is not innate in a human being. It is directly related to the events of the Fall and as such it should come to an end; in the eschatological future only natural human will is to remain. St. Maximus the Confessor builds his anthropology on the vocation of human beings to Theosis. Drawing a distinction between the image of God and likeness to God, St. Maximus sees the state of Theosis as an opportunity for the fulfi llment of the “image”. Achievement of the likeness to God elevates a Christian to Theosis, though St. Maximus differentiates these two notions. Theosis is entirely a gift of God, which makes it different from likeness to God, as it is not synergia of God and man but entirely the effect of Divine energies in human nature. In the eschatological future, this intrinsic unity of deifying grace with the nature of those deified — Theosis — will result in “de-activation” of energia of human nature, when the holy will freely yield their selfdominion to God, who will be the only one to act in them. However, since the notion of “likeness” is closely connected in St. Maximus’ doctrine with the hypostatic, unique and personal manner of human existence, an assumption can be made that the perfect “likeness” of deified Christians to God in the eschatological future will be the basic prerequisite

  15. Doctrine and Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevelsted, Anders

    The paper argues that in order to understand central aspects of modern welfare, it is important to pay attention to not only to state and secular politics, but also the religious civil society, and not only the Protestant Ethics of the large confessions (Calvinist, Lutheran, Catholic), but also...... to treatment, 3) organizational frameworks, and 4) cultural models for doing social work and for moral self‐ improvement. Turning to the Danish case, the paper further argues that due to Danish Protestantism’s tradition for leaving welfare to the state and concentrating on faith alone, the Danish revivalist...

  16. The Shock Doctrine

    OpenAIRE

    Dionysios K. Solomos; Dimitrios N. Koumparoulis

    2011-01-01

    Naomi Klein attempts to redefine the economic history discovering the historical continuities and to reveal the neoliberal theory which functions via the utilization of specific “tools”. The state of shock is the key for the opponents of Chicago School and Milton Friedman in order for them to establish neoliberal policies and to promote the deregulated capitalism which includes less welfare state, less public sector, less regulation, weakened labor unions, privatizations and laissez-faire. Th...

  17. The doctrine of quasi-mutual assent - has it become the general rule for the formation of contracts? The case of Pillay v Shaik 2009 4 SA 74 (SCA)

    OpenAIRE

    Thejane, P

    2012-01-01

    The doctrine of quasi-mutual assent is undoubtedly part of our South African law and has been affirmed and applied in a number of leading decisions. The purpose of this note is to offer a critical analysis of the application of the doctrine in the case of Pillay v Shaik 2009 4 SA 74 (SCA). It is argued that the primary basis of contractual liability in South Africa has always been and still remains consensus ad idem as determined in terms of the rules relating to offer and acceptance It is al...

  18. Autonomous Navigation of USAF Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    ASSEMBLY 21.LACn. THERM AL RADEARTOR ASEML 21.5 in REFERENC BASE PLATE JELECTRONICS REFERENMODULE ASSEMBLY (4 PLACES) PORRO PRISM & BASE MIRROR -24.25...involved in active satellite-to- satellite cracking for 14 days following one day of ground tracking. Earth geopotential resonance terms are the largest...rotates a prism at 9 rps such that optical signals are injected into each telescope parallel to the reielved starlight. The angle between tne two lines

  19. The USAF Electric Propulsion Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spores, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    ...: Propulsion Directorate and Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR). The Propulsion Directorate conducts electric propulsion efforts in basic research, engineering development, and space experiments...

  20. Job Attitudes of USAF Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    employees --is predicted For the iSSOs. Second, movement toward greater tr-.:hnological Job content has led to greater training and development...air, water, etc., (2) Safety needs, such as freedom from harm, (3) Social needs, such as love, belongingness , (4) Esteem needs, need For mastery and... Employee attitudes and employee performance. Psucholooical Dachler, H. P., & Schneider, E. (1978). Some general con- siderations about Factors

  1. THE DOCTRINE OF QUASI-MUTUAL ASSENT - HAS IT BECOME THE GENERAL RULE FOR THE FORMATION OF CONTRACTS? THE CASE OF PILLAY v SHAIK 2009 4 SA 74 (SCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puseletso Thejane (Rankoane

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The doctrine of quasi-mutual assent is undoubtedly part of our South African law and has been affirmed and applied in a number of leading decisions. The purpose of this note is to offer a critical analysis of the application of the doctrine in the case of Pillay v Shaik 2009 4 SA 74 (SCA. It is argued that the primary basis of contractual liability in South Africa has always been and still remains consensus ad idem as determined in terms of the rules relating to offer and acceptance It is also argued that the doctrine is not an answer to failure by the parties to comply with self-imposed formalities and/or the prescribed manner of acceptance of an offer for the valid formation of contracts. Based on the aim of the incorporation of the doctrine in our law, coupled with its application in previous court decisions, it is concluded that its application in the case of Pillay v Shaik was wrong and sets a bad precedent.

  2. Theoretical points of view on the notion of cause (consideration of contracts in the Serbian doctrine of civil law till the adoption of the law on obligations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudaš Atila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author analyzes the different points of view on the notion of cause (consideration in contract in the Serbian doctrine of civil law as until the adoption of the Law on Obligations in 1978. Having in mind that the Law, adhering to the normative solutions of the French Civil Code, explicitly regulates the institution of cause of contract, as one of the conditions of formation and validity of contract, its adoption can certainly be considered as an event of a watershed importance in respect of the analysis of various theoretical points of view on the notion of cause of contract in the Serbian literature. The fact that the institution of cause of contract had not been explicitly regulated in Serbian positive law as until the adoption of Law on Obligations had its effect on the evolution of doctrine in this period in two ways. On one hand, the range of differing theoretical points of view was very wide, covered as good as all the relevant streams in the doctrine of cause, from the ones accepting this institution (so-called causalistic theories to the ones denying its legal significance in any sense (so-called anticausalistic theories. By the adoption of the Law on Obligations in 1978 the notion of cause of contract became a legal institution in Serbian positive law that had a profound impact on the evolution of doctrine. On one hand, the cause of contract was not a neglectable legal notion any more, therefore it seems entirely logical that there is as good as no authority since then who has not dedicated to the notion of cause of contract an article or two, or at least a separate part in their textbooks. On the other hand, the determination of the legislator to assign the Serbian legal system to the family of legal systems in which the notion of cause of contract is stipulated as one of conditions of formation and validity of contract, led to the shrinkage of the diapason of various, often conflicting, points of view on cause of

  3. Theories of cause (consideration of contract in the Serbian doctrine of civil law after the adoption of the Law on Obligations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudaš Atila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the Law on Obligations in 1978 can certainly be considered as an event of watershed importance in respect to the analysis of various theoretical points of view on the notion of cause (consideration of contract in the Serbian literature. The fact that it had not been explicitly regulated in Serbian positive law until the adoption of Law had a profound impact on the evolution of doctrine in this period. The range of differing theoretical points of view was very wide, covering essentially all the relevant streams in the doctrine of cause, from the ones accepting it (so-called causalistic theories, through the ones explaining it solely by the notion of exchange of assets (so-called economic theories, to the ones denying its legal significance in any sense (so called anticausalistic theories. The most distinguished authorities in Serbian literature of contract law, who studied the notion of cause of contract in the period until the promulgation of the Law, were Dragoljub Aranđelović, Živojin Perić, Lazar Marković, Andrija Gams, Stevan Jakšić, Vladimir Kapor and Mihailo Konstantinović. The Law on Obligations explicitly regulates the notion of cause of contract as one of the preconditions of validity and effect of a contract, which had a substantial impact on the evolution of doctrine. On the one hand, being an institution of positive law, there is hardly an author who had not devoted some attention to the notion of cause of contract. In this paper the author analyzes the points of view of Stojan Cigoj, Ljubiša Milošević, Živomir Đorđević, Boris Vizner, Martin Vedriš, Želimir Šmalcelj, Jakov Radišić, Slobodan Perović, Jožef Salma and Oliver Antić. On the other hand, the scope of various, often conflicting, theories on cause of contract in Serbian literature shrank. One can recognize a tendency of abandonment of points of view disavowing any legal relevance of cause of contract and the majority of contemporary

  4. Has the sanctity of life law 'gone too far'?: analysis of the sanctity of life doctrine and English case law shows that the sanctity of life law has not 'gone too far'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiu, Abdul-Rasheed; Sugand, Kapil

    2014-02-22

    The medical profession consistently strives to uphold patient empowerment, equality and safety. It is ironic that now, at a time where advances in technology and knowledge have given us an increased capacity to preserve and prolong life, we find ourselves increasingly asking questions about the value of the lives we are saving. A recent editorial by Professor Raanan Gillon questions the emphasis that English law places on the sanctity of life doctrine. In what was described by Reverend Nick Donnelly as a "manifesto for killing patients", Professor Gillon argues that the sanctity of life law has gone too far because of its disregard for distributive justice and an incompetent person's previously declared autonomy. This review begins by outlining the stance of the sanctity of life doctrine on decisions about administering, withholding and withdrawing life-prolonging treatment. Using this as a foundation for a rebuttal, a proposal is made that Professor Gillon's assertions do not take the following into account:1) A sanctity of life law does not exist since English Common Law infringes the sanctity doctrine by tolerating quality of life judgements and a doctor's intention to hasten death when withdrawing life-prolonging treatment.2) Even if a true sanctity of life law did exist:a) The sanctity of life doctrine allows for resource considerations in the wider analysis of benefits and burdens.b) The sanctity of life doctrine yields to a competent person's autonomous decision.This review attempts to demonstrate that at present, and with the legal precedent that restricts it, a sanctity of life law cannot go too far.

  5. 越界建築與專利均等論 Building Encroachment and the Doctrine of Equivalents in Patent Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    王敏銓 Min-Chiuan Wang

    2015-12-01

    發表意見,似為有缺憾之處。 This article uses an American property theory—the boundary principle—to discuss the neighboring relations in Taiwan’s property law and the doctrine of equivalents in patent law. The aim is to point out that although these two branches of legal doctrines seemingly head toward the opposite directions concerning the distribution of rights, they both base on a similarly principle: to distribute positive or negative externalities in accordance with equitable considerations; both doctrines are anti-fragmentation principles aiming at recomposing fragmented property rights. The theory of this article is founded on Michael A. Heller’s theory of antifragmentation and Frank I. Michelman’s arguments related to the efficiency of private property. Heller argues that the boundary principle long existing in property law is to prevent waste of resources caused by fragmentation. Michelman’s internalization and nonintervention rules, two composing principles for an efficient private property regime, are the origin of Heller’s anti-fragmentation theory. This article asserts that the rules regarding building encroachment and the doctrine of equivalents in patent law are the examples of Heller’s boundary principle and Michelman’s internalization principle. In the relation of building encroachment, the right to request land purchase by the trespasser is a typical internalization rule. To consolidate rights based on the reason of internalization often realizes in law as the operation of equity, and nonintervention rules appear as the formalistic reasoning of the law. Yet the fact that the law leaves ample possibility of unconsolidated fragments shows the disparity between the economic and the legal rationale. An act of encroachment is one that causes positive or negative externalities on another. The doctrine of equivalents in patent law is a set of rules that distributes the benefits beyond the literal scope of a patent claim

  6. Continuity and Evolution: General Donn A. Starry and Doctrinal Change in the U.S. Army, 1974-1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    input from the Army leaders in the field instead of relying on assessments from the Pentagon. The investigation exposed a relative cognitive dissonance ...failed to learn and adapt effectively from constant interaction with the enemy, leading to a self-imposed cognitive isolation from the battlefield.63...realized that the vast majority of his battalion commanders could not, to his satisfaction , articulate their fighting plans during the terrain walk

  7. An affective computing algorithm based on temperament type in E-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Biyun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper extracts five emotional features according to the emotions that may affect in learning,and introduces psychological theory to generate emotional susceptibility matrix and to draw personalized emotion vector by different learners' temperament type vectors,which all reflect the emotional state of the learners more realistically.This paper also recommends learners of different emotions and emotional intensity to learn the knowledge of different levels of difficulty,making learning more humane.Temperament type is a temperament doctrine evolved based on the Hippocratic humoral theory and can be a good expression of human personality foundation.Temperament type has been introduced into affective computing in the E-Learning in this paper so that computer can be better on the classification of the learner's personality and learning state and realistically be individualized.

  8. Organizational Learning in the Development of Doctrine in the U.S. Army, 1976-1986: A Historically-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Kotler , P. & Armstrong , G. (1991). Principles of Marketing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Kotler , P., Fahey, L. & Jatusripitak, S. (1985). The...total quality management (Garvin, 1991), or the goal of customer orientation (Peters, 1984), or a better marketing focus ( Kotler , 1985), and other...another to produce a product that benefits society. Kotler 117 (1991) defines this a societal marketing. The implication for the military and national

  9. Learning How to Learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.; Lauridsen, Ole

    Ole Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Karen M. Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Learning Styles in Higher Education – Learning How to Learn Applying learning styles (LS) in higher education...... by Constructivist learning theory and current basic knowledge of how the brain learns. The LS concept will thus be placed in a broader learning theoretical context as a strong learning and teaching tool. Participants will be offered the opportunity to have their own LS preferences established before...... teaching leads to positive results and enhanced student learning. However, learning styles should not only be considered a didactic matter for the teacher, but also a tool for the individual students to improve their learning capabilities – not least in contexts where information is not necessarily...

  10. Learning to Learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Helen; Weiss, Martin

    1988-01-01

    The article reviews theories of learning (e.g., stimulus-response, trial and error, operant conditioning, cognitive), considers the role of motivation, and summarizes nine research-supported rules of effective learning. Suggestions are applied to teaching learning strategies to learning-disabled students. (DB)

  11. Are We Too Dumb to Execute Our Own Doctrine : An Analysis of Professional Military Education, Talent Management, and Their Ability to Meet the Intent of The Capstone Concept for Joint Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code ) 04/04/2016 Master’s Thesis Aug 2015 - Apr 2016 Are We Too Dumb to Execute Our Own Doctrine?: An Analysis of...Professional Military Education, Talent Management, and Their Ability to Meet the Intent of The Capstone Concept for Joint Operations. Lieutenant...development programs between PME attendance, and career progression and talent management processes used to identify and select officers for joint

  12. The Influence of Future Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (C4) on Doctrine and the Operational Commander's Decision-Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Michael G.

    1996-01-01

    Future C4 systems will alter the traditional balance between force and information, having a profound influence on doctrine and the operational commander's decision making process. The Joint Staff's future vision of C4 is conceptualized in 'C4I for the Warrior' which envisions a joint C4I architecture providing timely sensor to shoot information direct to the warfighter. C4 system must manage and filter an overwhelming amount of information; deal with interoperability issues; overcome technological limitations; meet emerging security requirements; and protect against 'Information Warfare.' Severe budget constraints necessitate unified control of C4 systems under singular leadership for the common good of all the services. In addition, acquisition policy and procedures must be revamped to allow new technologies to be fielded quickly; and the commercial marketplace will become the preferred starting point for modernization. Flatter command structures are recommended in this environment where information is available instantaneously. New responsibilities for decision making at lower levels are created. Commanders will have to strike a balance between exerting greater control and allowing subordinates enough flexibility to maintain initiative. Clearly, the commander's intent remains the most important tool in striking this balance.

  13. 德行一體說對於品格教育的啟示 The Doctrine of the Unity of the Virtues and its Implications for Character Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳伊琳 Yi-Lin Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 對於以「德行教學」界定品格教育的常見質疑是:品格教育不過是被L.Kohlberg戲稱為「美德袋取徑」的翻版而已。為了消除這項疑慮,必須闡明各德行之間的關係。此論題過去是在具爭議性的「德行一體說」中被探討的。在為一種可信度較高的德行一體說辯護後,筆者歸結出該學說對於當前品格教育的重要啟示,包括:一、既然德行之間的整合是德行教學中必不可少的重要環節,則以分隔化的方式來教導各個德行是有問題的,尚須教導學生處理道德要求多於一種的複雜的道德情境;二、道德氣質的培養以及各德行所需的(評價性)知識的學習,乃是德行涵養的兩個主要任務;最後,「道德人格的多樣化」獲得該學說的支持,亦即,有德的人實際上是各具特色、多樣類型的,「道德品格的個殊化」這項重要議題也因而獲得彰顯。 A doubt often cast on the common practice of defining character education in terms of the inculcation of virtues is that it is simply a duplication of the “bag of virtues” approach, as derogatorily dubbed by L. Kohlberg. To dispel this misgiving, it is imperative to expound the relationship between the virtues, which was addressed in the controversial doctrine of the unity of the virtues in the past. After the author argue for a more plausible interpretation of it, some implications for character education are drawn in this study. Firstly, since the integration of the virtues is integral to the inculcation of virtues, it is problematic to teach the virtues in a compartmentalized way. Instead, it is necessary to learn how to confront a complex moral situation where more than one moral requirement is (are demanded of the moral agent. Secondly, it is made explicit that the cultivation of moral dispositions and the learning of (evaluative knowledge requisite for the various virtues are the two

  14. Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Coll. of Education.

    Information is provided regarding major learning styles and other factors important to student learning. Several typically asked questions are presented regarding different learning styles (visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic, and multisensory learning), associated considerations, determining individuals' learning styles, and appropriate…

  15. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  16. El obispo Lope de Barrientos y la sociedad judeoconversa : su intervención en el debate doctrinal en torno a la "Sentencia-Estatuto" de Pero Sarmiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Cantera Montenegro

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de integración de los judeoconversos en la sociedad hispanocristiana resultó profundamente controvertido, y constituyó una de las cuestiones más relevantes de la Castilla del siglo xv. Los años centrales de la centuria decimoquinta estuvieron marcados por una interesante polémica doctrinal en torno a la llamada «Sentencia-Estatuto» de Pero Sarmiento, que ordenaba la exclusión de los judíos y de los judeoconversos de todos los oficios públicos de la ciudad de Toledo. En este debate intervino el obispo de Cuenca Lope de Barrientos, una de las personalidades más destacadas del panorama político y eclesiástico de la Castilla de mediados del siglo xv. Junto a otras destacadas figuras del momento (Fernán Díaz de Toledo, Alonso de Cartagena, Juan de Torquemada, Barrientos defendió la plena integración de los judeoconversos en la sociedad hispanocristiana, así como la necesidad de tolerancia hacia ios recién convertidos al cristianismo en tanto durase el proceso de adoctrinamiento en su nueva religión. El debate se prolongó durante la segunda mitad del siglo xv, imponiéndose a la larga quienes propugnaban la adopción de medidas restrictivas para con la actuación pública de los cristianos nuevos, que cristalizarían en el apartamiento de los judaizantes y de sus descendientes del ejercicio de oficios públicos y en la aparición de los «estatutos de limpieza de sangre», ya en vísperas de la Modernidad.The integration process of the jewish converts in the christian spanish society was highiy controversial and it suppoused one of the most relevant sub¡ects in the Castile of the XV century. The central years of that century were characterized by an interesting doctrinal debate around the so —called Pero Sarmiento's «Sentencia-Estatuto», that ordered the exclusión of jewish and convert jewish from all civil service jobs of the city of Toledo. The bishop of Cuenca, Lope de Barrientos, one of the most relevant

  17. A Spoonful of (Added) Sugar Helps the Constitution Go Down: Curing the Compelled Speech Commercial Speech Doctrine with FDA’s Added Sugars Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Colleen

    On May 27, 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that it was adopting a new rule that requires food manufacturers to list—on the already mandated Nutrition Facts label—how many grams of sugar have been added to a food product. Many opponents have criticized this “added sugars” rule on First Amendment grounds, arguing that the rule violates the commercial speech rights of food manufacturers. Whether the rule would survive constitutional scrutiny or not is an open question because the compelled commercial speech doctrine is anything but clear. Courts are split over whether Zauderer’s rational basis test, Central Hudson’s intermediate scrutiny, or some combination of the two should apply to a mandated disclosure like FDA’s added sugars rule. This Paper explains that the added sugars rule is unique in the history of mandated nutrition labeling in that the rule is motivated largely by public health concerns and backed by reports that assert that consumers should limit their intake of added sugars. In contrast, correcting and preventing consumer deception has been a major driving force behind the remainder of FDA’s mandated nutrition labeling. Because of this distinct rationale, the added sugars rule does not fit neatly into any currently existing compelled commercial speech test. This Paper uses the added sugars rule to highlight the deficiencies in the existing tests. Finally, this Paper proposes a new compelled commercial speech test that would adequately balance the interest of all of the effected parties: the government, the public, and food manufacturers.

  18. Learning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning Problems KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning Problems What's in ... for how to make it better. What Are Learning Disabilities? Learning disabilities aren't contagious, but they ...

  19. Doctrinal Imbalance: A Study of Swedish Army Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    that the cost of continuing the attack is too high and/or will be unsuccessful. Many countries have maintained their sovereignty without the use of...MBTs travel side by side with an IVF on each flank. This tactic is used in order to achieve frontal fire superiority and at the same time protect...

  20. Learning about Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    The field of children's learning was thriving when the Merrill-Palmer Quarterly was launched; the field later went into eclipse and now is in the midst of a resurgence. This commentary examines reasons for these trends, and describes the emerging field of children's learning. In particular, the new field is seen as differing from the old in its…

  1. Learning to Learn Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Trude Høgvold; Glad, Tone; Filstad, Cathrine

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate whether the formal and informal learning patterns of community health-care nurses changed in the wake of a reform that altered their work by introducing new patient groups, and to explore whether conditions in the new workplaces facilitated or impeded shifts in learning patterns. Design/methodology/approach:…

  2. Strategy: A Philosophy of Doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    Strategy is a complex subject. It has no answers; only- informed opinion and judgment, based on a study of history. In an era of positivism ...materialism, and quantitative analy- sis, such indeterminacy is discomforting. Yet, because of the uncertain environment of strategy, planners and decision...has been applied. One such fault is the ability to "lie" with statistics, which largely defeats the purpose of rigorous quantitative analysis

  3. Network Policy and Economic Doctrines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    For many years, debates over telecommunications network policy were marked by a relative lack of partisan and ideological conflict. In the last decade, this has changed markedly. Today, debates over a whole set of issues, including broadband competition, net neutrality, copyright, privacy, and others, have become more contentious. These…

  4. Greece and the Truman Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    Greek Government, and Papandreou then put them all under the control of British General Scobie . Scobie was charged with leading the Allies back to...communist-led guerrillas. Con- sequently, he ordered General Scobie to use all prudent means to put down the insurrection. Churchill’s instruc- 21 tions...to Scobie stated in part: "Do not however hesitate to act as if you were in a conquered city where a local rebellion is in progress. . . We have to

  5. Distance Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braddock, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    A study reviewing the existing Army Distance Learning Plan (ADLP) and current Distance Learning practices, with a focus on the Army's training and educational challenges and the benefits of applying Distance Learning techniques...

  6. 論資訊科技對著作人格權理論的影響 The Influence of Information Technologies on the Moral Rights Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    張郁齡 Yu-Lin Chang

    2011-06-01

    rights theory faces the challenge of “paradigm shift” resulted from the information technology which separates the personal connection between the author and the work, and encourages “from work to text”. It has bad impact on the authorship idea of the moral rights doctrine.

  7. Blended learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Blended Learning has been implemented, evaluated and researched for the last decades within different educational areas and levels. Blended learning has been coupled with different epistemological understandings and learning theories, but the fundamental character and dimensions of learning...... in blended learning are still insufficient. Moreover, blended learning is a misleading concept described as learning, despite the fact that it fundamentally is an instructional and didactic approach (Oliver & Trigwell, 2005) addressing the learning environment (Inglis, Palipoana, Trenhom & Ward, 2011......) instead of the learning processes behind. Much of the existing research within the field seems to miss this perspective. The consequence is a lack of acknowledgement of the driven forces behind the context and the instructional design limiting the knowledge foundation of learning in blended learning. Thus...

  8. Legal instruments for an optimal utilization of information and technology under the Intellectual Property Regime : A Study on the Implication of the Creator and Inventor Doctrine for the Utilization of Intellectual Products through Technology Transfer for the Greatest Benefit of People in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haq, L.M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating the consequences of the existing creator and inventor doctrine on access to information and technology (IT), this dissertation investigates the ways to find, particularly in Indonesia, the most adequate legal protection that may bridge public interest and private interest in this respect.

  9. Job Attitudes of USAF Administrative Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    34opportunities for training, giving supervisory feedback, and -developing future leaders. Their findings were bas-ed on researrch Sdate similar to those upon...chance to move in and out of this rewarding functional area, could have a significant effect on the outcome of future attitudinal surveys of the admin...admin personnal to mission accomplishment at newcomer orientetions , commander’s calls, and similar gatherings, especially when families are present. (c

  10. Forecasting USAF JP-8 Fuel Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    1924 “Keeping America competitive requires affordable energy. And here we have a serious problem: America is addicted to oil, which is often...imported from unstable parts of world. The best way to break this addiction is through technology.” President George W. Bush, State of the Union Address...10 illuminant. Hence, its use spread in Western Pennsylvania and New York City”, while whale oil was preferred by the wealthy people and caused over

  11. Outsourcing and Privatization: An Essential USAF Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newbold, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    ...." The reason outsourcing and privatization is so important---moneyZ A conscientious decision to fund operations and maintenance accounts to maintain readiness in light of a very high operations tempo...

  12. Combat Airmen: Examining USAF Expeditionary Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Andrew M. Rose, Paul H. Radtke , Harris H. Shettel, and Joseph D. Hagman, User’s Manual for Predicting Military Task Retention: Volume I, American...2015). Rose, Andrew M., Paul H. Radtke , Harris H. Shettel, and Joseph D. Hagman. "User’s Manual for Predicting Military Task Retention: Volume I

  13. Continuity and Contingency in USAF Posture Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    2007, and Daniel Gardner, Future Babble: Why Pundits Are Hedgehogs and Foxes Know Best, New York: Plume, 2012. 32 or demands considered most...New York: Harper Collins, 1997; and Gabriel Kolko, Anatomy of a War: Vietnam, the United States and the Modern Historical Experience, New York: The...Getler, “ Anatomy of a Failed Mission,” Washington Post, April 27, 1980. 202 Bacevich, 2005, p. 105. 203 Bacevich, 2005, pp. 106–17. Reagan also used

  14. Estimating USAF Aircraft Recoverable Spares Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    ITEMS Multiple Regression Equation RCCAVI - 178.44118(AC)’ 39843(AVFAC) ൰ 62 2 e 27003 (IB ) + 2.4257(1R e 1.0 9 99 (IF/A) + 1.1 8 11 (1C) + 1.100...79- I M In *~Nt M h IOOO N1 0 , C 0 0 30~ It- N t- INN0010 - t 10 N M mt00 01 0,󈧈 01c 0 0 0000’ ast-00 10%I I t~-.. ~ ISO ~ tO It- . lO tfls4 I1 MD...0K 0 4 #40 D Jr *0 2z < I 0 -I - . - - I 0 I IN , 0 H0 PA C, :,C n BCY -4 0 -a C I z nL Z4 w11 00 WI Z4 4 ) L. zWI W -98- w Iq IN N05 IsO I 5I 00 0 1

  15. Global UAS Proliferation Challenges USAF Air Superiority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-18

    wingspan or rotor -blade diameter less than six feet, can be concealed within the confines of a vehicle, suitcase or backpack, costs less than $25K... helicopters at designated locations governed by the rules and requirements of the local club’s airfield. With the arrival of electric, quiet, easy to...the strength and reliability of plastics and composites as a weight saver has allowed for tremendous capability in endless applications. A leader in

  16. Job Attitudes of USAF Aircraft Maintenance Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION lb. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS UNCLASSIFIED 7. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3. OISTRIBUTION/ AVAILABILIT " OF REPORT 1...dealt with in this paper would be rather like trying to take a drink of water out of a fire hydrant when the pressure is fully or--a task beyond the

  17. EL PRINCIPIO DE CAPACIDAD ECONÓMICA COMO PRINCIPIO JURÍDICO MATERIAL DE LA TRIBUTACIÓN: SU ELABORACIÓN DOCTRINAL Y JURISPRUDENCIAL EN ESPAÑA The Principle of Ability to Pay as Juridical Tax Principle: Doctrinal and Jurisprudential Construction in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Masbernat Muñoz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo comunica acerca de la configuración normativa y la elaboración doctrinaria y jurisprudencial del principio de capacidad económica en España. El autor persigue dar a conocer en Chile una institución jurídica que es reconocida en los ordenamientos europeos y que constituye la base esencial sobre la cual se construyen sus sistemas tributarios, a objeto de que sea incorporada en Chile a través de una elaboración eórica propia a partir de los materiales normativos nacionales. Por lo anterior, el autor entrega fundamentos para justificar dicha incorporación y suministra elementos para adaptar este principio en el ordenamiento jurídico chileno. Las cuestiones contenidas en esta comunicación son amplias y complejas, propiamente se insertan en la teoría de los principios materiales de la tributación, y es la razón por la cual el autor construye su discurso a través de varios pasos independientes en una serie de artículos.The present paper communicates about the normative configuration and the doctrinal and jurisprudential elaboration of the principle of capacity to pay in Spain. The author seeks to make known in Chile a legal institution that is recognized in the European legal systems and which constitutes the essential basis of their tax systems, in order to be incorporated in Chile through an own theoretical elaboration on the basis of the national normative materials. By the previous thing, the author gives reasons to justify this incorporation and provides elements to adapt this principle in the Chilean legal order. The issues contained in this communication are vast and complex, they are inserted in the theory of the principles of tax justice, and is the reason for which the author builds his speech through several independent steps in a series of papers.

  18. A comparative study of Christian doctrine in the interpretation of AL-Minar and AL-Mizan regarding the Atonement teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Sadat Razi Bahabadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atonement teaching is one of the most important and fundamental doctrines of the Christians which has a vital connection with the "original sin" (Romans 5, 12-20 and has been admitted by the main three sects of Christianity. This teaching expresses how to save mankind from the original sin, and is of such importance that without belief in the teaching, other Christianity teachings lose their importance. There are several interpretations of this teaching among which the Anselm's theory is the most famous one. According to this theory, all humans became sinful due to the Adam's sin. From the one hand, God's justice demands the punishment of man for the sin, and on the other hand His absolute mercy requires Him to save man with salvation. Hence, Jesus Christ as a man of God, in order to atone for Adam's sin and salvation, came onto the earth and was crucified. Sacrificing basic components are as follows: 1. The original sin of Adam (AS 2-belief in Adam's original sin. 3. Man's original sin 4. The outcome of any sin: eternal death 5. Conflict between God’s mercy and justice outcome of any sin 6. Being human and God at the same (incarnation 7. Sociability of anthropomorphic God with men 8. crucified and accursed God 8. 9-Jesus as an atonement to sins of believers even the whole world. This theory has been met with criticism Muslim and Christian scholars. Rashid Reza and Allameh Tabatabai review on the components of this theory. AL-Mizan draws all components of atonement in to criticism, but the most criticism of AL-menar is about the conflict of mercy and justice of God. This survey has examined the contiguity of AL-Menar and AL-Mizan about atonement theory. Based on the findings of this article, Rashid Reza has confined to rational criticism; while Allameh on the base of verse by verse interpretation of the Quran, with a rational approach, has been challenged “atonement”. Clarifying of AL-Manar and AL-Mizan from atonement

  19. Learn, how to learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2002-12-01

    Ernest L. Boyer, in his 1990 book, "Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate" cites some ground breaking studies and offers a new paradigm that identifies the need to recognize the growing conversation about teaching, scholarship and research in the Universities. The use of `ACORN' model suggested by Hawkins and Winter to conquer and mastering change, may offer some helpful hints for the novice professor, whose primary objective might be to teach students to `learn how to learn'. Action : It is possible to effectively change things only when a teaching professor actually tries out a new idea. Communication : Changes are successful only when the new ideas effectively communicated and implemented. Ownership : Support for change is extremely important and is critical. Only strong commitment for accepting changes demonstrates genuine leadership. Reflection : Feedback helps towards thoughtful evaluation of the changes implemented. Only reflection can provide a tool for continuous improvement. Nurture : Implemented changes deliver results only when nurtured and promoted with necessary support systems, documentation and infrastructures. Inspired by the ACORN model, the author experimented on implementing certain principles of `Total Quality Management' in the classroom. The author believes that observing the following twenty principles would indeed help the student learners how to learn, on their own towards achieving the goal of `Lifelong Learning'. The author uses an acronym : QUOTES : Quality Underscored On Teaching Excellence Strategy, to describe his methods for improving classroom teacher-learner participation. 1. Break down all barriers. 2. Create consistency of purpose with a plan. 3. Adopt the new philosophy of quality. 4. Establish high Standards. 5. Establish Targets / Goals. 6. Reduce dependence on Lectures. 7. Employ Modern Methods. 8. Control the Process. 9. Organize to reach goals. 10. Prevention vs. Correction. 11. Periodic Improvements. 12

  20. Intentional Learning Vs Incidental Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbaz Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    This study is conducted to demonstrate the knowledge of intentional learning and incidental learning. Hypothesis of this experiment is intentional learning is better than incidental learning, participants were demonstrated and were asked to learn the 10 non sense syllables in a specific sequence from the colored cards in the end they were asked to recall the background color of each card instead of non-sense syllables. Independent variables of the experiment are the colored cards containing n...

  1. Posthuman learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    This book shall explore the concept of learning from the new perspective of the posthuman. The vast majority of cognitive, behavioral and part of the constructionist learning theories operate with an autonomous individual who learn in a world of separate objects. Technology is (if mentioned at all......) understood as separate from the individual learner and perceived as tools. Learning theory has in general not been acknowledging materiality in their theorizing about what learning is. A new posthuman learning theory is needed to keep up with the transformations of human learning resulting from new...... technological experiences. One definition of learning is that it is a relatively permanent change in behavior as the result of experience. During the first half of the twentieth century, two theoretical approaches dominated the domain of learning theory: the schools of thought commonly known as behaviorism...

  2. Learning e-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ZAMFIR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available What You Understand Is What Your Cognitive Integrates. Scientific research develops, as a native environment, knowledge. This environment consists of two interdependent divisions: theory and technology. First division occurs as a recursive research, while the second one becomes an application of the research activity. Over time, theories integrate methodologies and technology extends as infrastructure. The engine of this environment is learning, as the human activity of knowledge work. The threshold term of this model is the concepts map; it is based on Bloom’ taxonomy for the cognitive domain and highlights the notion of software scaffolding which is grounded in Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory with its major theme, Zone of Proximal Development. This article is designed as a conceptual paper, which analyzes specific structures of this type of educational research: the model reflects a foundation for a theory and finally, the theory evolves as groundwork for a system. The outcomes of this kind of approach are the examples, which are, theoretically, learning outcomes, and practically exist as educational objects, so-called e-learning.

  3. Blended Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Baaren, John

    2009-01-01

    Van der Baaren, J. (2009). Blended Learning. Presentation given at the Mini symposium 'Blended Learning the way to go?'. November, 5, 2009, The Hague, The Netherlands: Netherlands Defence Academy (NDLA).

  4. Interface learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Sally

    2014-01-01

    "Interface learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school collaboration" investigates and analyzes the learning that takes place when museums and upper secondary schools in Denmark work together in local partnerships to develop and carry out school-related, museum-based coursework...... for students. The research focuses on the learning that the students experience in the interface of the two learning environments: The formal learning environment of the upper secondary school and the informal learning environment of the museum. Focus is also on the learning that the teachers and museum...... professionals experience as a result of their collaboration. The dissertation demonstrates how a given partnership’s collaboration affects the students’ learning experiences when they are doing the coursework. The dissertation presents findings that museum-school partnerships can use in order to develop...

  5. Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... books. While his friends were meeting for pickup soccer games after school, he was back home in ... sometimes thought to contribute to learning disabilities. Poor nutrition early in life also may lead to learning ...

  6. Workplace learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    2005-01-01

    In November 2004 the Research Consortium on workplace learning under Learning Lab Denmark arranged the international conference “Workplace Learning – from the learner’s perspective”. The conference’s aim was to bring together researchers from different countries and institutions to explore...... and discuss recent developments in our understanding of workplace and work-related learning. The conference had nearly 100 participants with 59 papers presented, and among these five have been selected for presentation is this Special Issue....

  7. Children's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    A new field of children's learning is emerging. This new field differs from the old in recognizing that children's learning includes active as well as passive mechanisms and qualitative as well as quantitative changes. Children's learning involves substantial variability of representations and strategies within individual children as well as…

  8. Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbriale, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Teachers always have been and always will be the essential element in the classroom. They can create magic inside four walls, but they have never been able to create learning environments outside the classroom like they can today, thanks to blended learning. Blended learning allows students and teachers to break free of the isolation of the…

  9. Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Victor C. X.; Cranton, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The theory of transformative learning has been explored by different theorists and scholars. However, few scholars have made an attempt to make a comparison between transformative learning and Confucianism or between transformative learning and andragogy. The authors of this article address these comparisons to develop new and different insights…

  10. Blended Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bauerová, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is focused on a new approach of education called blended learning. The history and developement of Blended Learning is described in the first part. Then the methods and tools of Blended Learning are evaluated and compared to the traditional methods of education. At the final part an efficient developement of the educational programs is emphasized.

  11. Just Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2017-01-01

    In this "First Person Singular" essay, the author describes her education, teaching experience, and interest in understanding the learning of language. Anyone reading this essay will not be surprised to learn that the author's questions about language learning and optimal teaching methods were only met with further questions, and no…

  12. 我國專利法上均等論適用之實證研究:是變奏還是變調? Empirical Study on the Doctrine of Equivalents in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    張添榜 Tien-Pang Chang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 均等論(Doctrine of Equivalents)是決定專利侵權重要步驟之一,甚至被認為專利法中最重要的原則。實際上,由於其與專利公示作用的衝突,充滿不確定性,甚至被認為是專利法原則中,最困難且最不可預測的。當被控侵權技術超出申請專利範圍文義之外時,專利權人可依據均等論,對與專利均等之技術主張專利侵權。而判斷被控技術與專利均等的比對方式,目前我國司法實務,主要採取智慧財產局編訂之「專利侵害鑑定要點」,其中規範:若被控對象之構件,與對應申請專利範圍之要件,「係以實質相同的技術手段(Way),達成實質相同的功能(Function),而產生實質相同的結果(Result)時,則屬於該申請專利範圍要件之均等,兩者無實質差異。而所謂的實質相同,係指兩者之差異為該發明所屬技術領域中具有通常知識者所能輕易完成者。若比對之技術手段、功能、結果其中之一有實質不同,則不適用『均等論』。而此一比對手段、功能與結果的方式,一般稱為三步測試法」。然而,「專利侵害鑑定要點」對於如何適用三步測試法,並未有夠具體的說明。本文以智慧財產法院歷來判決作實證分析,並比對美國法,探討我國司法實務上對於三步測試法進一步的適用程序與規範,檢視其中的妥適性,並提出作者之觀察與建議。 The doctrine of equivalents is one of the most difficult and unpredictable doctrines in patent law to apply. By allowing patentees to gain exclusive right beyond the literal claims in their patents, this doctrine creates tension between the adequate protection of patent right and the public notice function in the patent system. Based on the Guideline for Patent Infringement Analysis proposed by Taiwan Intellectual Property Office, to determined patent infringement under

  13. Learning Networks for Lifelong Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Presentation in a seminar organized by Christopher Hoadley at Penn State University, October 2004.Contains general introduction into the Learning Network Programme and a demonstration of the Netlogo Simulation of a Learning Network.

  14. Learning organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jelenc Krašovec

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A vast array of economical, social, political, cultural and other factors influences the transformed role of learning and education in the society, as well as the functioning of local community and its social and communication patterns. The influences which are manifested as global problems can only be successfully solved on the level of local community. Analogously with the society in general, there is a great need of transforming a local community into a learning, flexible and interconnected environment which takes into account different interests, wishes and needs regarding learning and being active. The fundamental answer to changes is the strategy of lifelong learning and education which requires reorganisation of all walks of life (work, free time, family, mass media, culture, sport, education and transforming of organisations into learning organisations. With learning society based on networks of knowledge individuals are turning into learning individuals, and organisations into learning organisations; people who learn take the responsibility of their progress, learning denotes partnership among learning people, teachers, parents, employers and local community, so that they work together to achieve better results.

  15. Learning Opportunities for Group Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Alfonso J.; Mataveli, Mara

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyse the impact of organizational learning culture and learning facilitators in group learning. Design/methodology/approach: This study was conducted using a survey method applied to a statistically representative sample of employees from Rioja wine companies in Spain. A model was tested using a structural equation…

  16. Mimetic Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wulf

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Mimetic learning, learning by imitation, constitutes one of the most important forms of learning. Mimetic learning does not, however, just denote mere imitation or copying: Rather, it is a process by which the act of relating to other persons and worlds in a mimetic way leads to an en-hancement of one’s own world view, action, and behaviour. Mimetic learning is productive; it is related to the body, and it establishes a connection between the individual and the world as well as other persons; it creates practical knowledge, which is what makes it constitutive of social, artistic, and practical action. Mimetic learning is cultural learning, and as such it is crucial to teaching and education (Wulf, 2004; 2005.

  17. Deep learning

    CERN Document Server

    Goodfellow, Ian; Courville, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language proces...

  18. Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of illnesses and disabilities Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities affect how you ... ADHD. Learning disabilities Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Learning disabilities top Having a learning disability does not ...

  19. Informal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callanan, Maureen; Cervantes, Christi; Loomis, Molly

    2011-11-01

    We consider research and theory relevant to the notion of informal learning. Beginning with historical and definitional issues, we argue that learning happens not just in schools or in school-aged children. Many theorists have contrasted informal learning with formal learning. Moving beyond this dichotomy, and away from a focus on where learning occurs, we discuss five dimensions of informal learning that are drawn from the literature: (1) non-didactive, (2) highly socially collaborative, (3) embedded in meaningful activity, (4) initiated by learner's interest or choice, and (5) removed from external assessment. We consider these dimensions in the context of four sample domains: learning a first language, learning about the mind and emotions within families and communities, learning about science in family conversations and museum settings, and workplace learning. Finally, we conclude by considering convergences and divergences across the different literatures and suggesting areas for future research. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 646-655 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.143 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Machine Learning

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning, which builds on ideas in computer science, statistics, and optimization, focuses on developing algorithms to identify patterns and regularities in data, and using these learned patterns to make predictions on new observations. Boosted by its industrial and commercial applications, the field of machine learning is quickly evolving and expanding. Recent advances have seen great success in the realms of computer vision, natural language processing, and broadly in data science. Many of these techniques have already been applied in particle physics, for instance for particle identification, detector monitoring, and the optimization of computer resources. Modern machine learning approaches, such as deep learning, are only just beginning to be applied to the analysis of High Energy Physics data to approach more and more complex problems. These classes will review the framework behind machine learning and discuss recent developments in the field.

  1. Doing learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang; Koch, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how learning occurs in a systems development project, using a company developing wind turbine control systems in collaboration with customers as case. Design/methodology/approach: Dewey’s approach to learning is used, emphasising reciprocity between the individual...... learning processes and that the interchanges between materiality and systems developers block the learning processes due to a customer with imprecise demands and unclear system specifications. In the four cases discussed, learning does occur however. Research limitations/implications: A qualitative study...... focusing on individual systems developers gives limited insight into whether the learning processes found would occur in other systems development processes. Practical implications: Managers should ensure that constitutive means, such as specifications, are available, and that they are sufficiently...

  2. Metric learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bellet, Aurelien; Sebban, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Similarity between objects plays an important role in both human cognitive processes and artificial systems for recognition and categorization. How to appropriately measure such similarities for a given task is crucial to the performance of many machine learning, pattern recognition and data mining methods. This book is devoted to metric learning, a set of techniques to automatically learn similarity and distance functions from data that has attracted a lot of interest in machine learning and related fields in the past ten years. In this book, we provide a thorough review of the metric learnin

  3. Learning to learn in MOOCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Sandra; Ringtved, Ulla Lunde

    This paper outlines one way of understanding what it is about learning in MOOCs that is so distinctive, and explores the implications for the design of MOOCs. It draws on an ongoing research study into the nature of learning in MOOCs at the University of Melbourne.......This paper outlines one way of understanding what it is about learning in MOOCs that is so distinctive, and explores the implications for the design of MOOCs. It draws on an ongoing research study into the nature of learning in MOOCs at the University of Melbourne....

  4. Learning Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    1998-01-01

    the article present different concepts and modelsof learning. It discuss some strutural tendenciesof developing environmental management systemsand point out alternatives to increasing formalization of rules.......the article present different concepts and modelsof learning. It discuss some strutural tendenciesof developing environmental management systemsand point out alternatives to increasing formalization of rules....

  5. Blended learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Forsøg på at indkredse begrebet blended learning i forbindelse med forberedelsen af projekt FlexVid.......Forsøg på at indkredse begrebet blended learning i forbindelse med forberedelsen af projekt FlexVid....

  6. Reflective Learning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    The main intent of this study was to identify the impact of using learning log as a learning strategy on the academic performance of university students. Second year psychology students were included as subjects of this study. In the beginning of the study, the students were divided into two: experimental group (N = 60) and ...

  7. Perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Aaron R

    2017-07-10

    Perceptual learning refers to how experience can change the way we perceive sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and touch. Examples abound: music training improves our ability to discern tones; experience with food and wines can refine our pallet (and unfortunately more quickly empty our wallet), and with years of training radiologists learn to save lives by discerning subtle details of images that escape the notice of untrained viewers. We often take perceptual learning for granted, but it has a profound impact on how we perceive the world. In this Primer, I will explain how perceptual learning is transformative in guiding our perceptual processes, how research into perceptual learning provides insight into fundamental mechanisms of learning and brain processes, and how knowledge of perceptual learning can be used to develop more effective training approaches for those requiring expert perceptual skills or those in need of perceptual rehabilitation (such as individuals with poor vision). I will make a case that perceptual learning is ubiquitous, scientifically interesting, and has substantial practical utility to us all. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Pervasive Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2009-01-01

    , it is not a specific place where you can access scarce information. Pervasive or ubiquitous communication opens up for taking the organizing and design of learning landscapes a step further. Furthermore it calls for theoretical developments, which can open up for a deeper understanding of the relationship between...... emerging contexts, design of contexts and learning....

  9. Flipped Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Peter; Hachmann, Roland

    I FLIPPED LEARNING – FLIP MED VIDEO kan du læse om, hvordan du som underviser kommer godt i gang med at implementere video i undervisning, der har afsæt i tankerne omkring flipped learning. Bogen indeholder fire dele: I Del 1 fokuserer vi på det metarefleksive i at tænke video ind i undervisningen...

  10. Flipped Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachmann, Roland; Holmboe, Peter

    arbejde med faglige problemstillinger gennem problembaserede og undersøgende didaktiske designs. Flipped Learning er dermed andet og mere end at distribuere digitale materialer til eleverne forud for undervisning. Flipped Learning er i lige så høj grad et syn på, hvordan undervisning med digitale medier...

  11. Situating learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo; Georg, Susse; Finchman, Rob

    2004-01-01

    This paper looks at learning experiences in South Africa and Thailand by highlighting the role of context and culture in the learning process. The authors are based at Danish and South African higher education institutions and have contributed to DUCED's TFS programme in the positions of overall...

  12. Embodied Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that psychological discourse fails miserably to provide an account of learning that can explain how humans come to understand, particularly understanding that has been grasped meaningfully. Part of the problem with psychological approaches to learning is that they are disconnected from the integral role embodiment plays in how…

  13. Distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Pucelj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available I would like to underline the role and importance of knowledge, which is acquired by individuals as a result of a learning process and experience. I have established that a form of learning, such as distance learning definitely contributes to a higher learning quality and leads to innovative, dynamic and knowledgebased society. Knowledge and skills enable individuals to cope with and manage changes, solve problems and also create new knowledge. Traditional learning practices face new circumstances, new and modern technologies appear, which enable quick and quality-oriented knowledge implementation. The centre of learning process at distance learning is to increase the quality of life of citizens, their competitiveness on the workforce market and ensure higher economic growth. Intellectual capital is the one, which represents the biggest capital of each society and knowledge is the key factor for succes of everybody, who are fully aware of this. Flexibility, openness and willingness of people to follow new IT solutions form suitable environment for developing and deciding to take up distance learning.

  14. Legitimate Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, John

    1997-01-01

    What is considered legitimate learning is culturally and contextually specific, depending on what values are involved. Different values are engaged depending on whether legitimate learning is considered transformation of the individual in relation to self, in relation to society, or in relation to the workplace. (SK)

  15. Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Diane E.

    1990-01-01

    As scientists seek to develop machines that can "learn," that is, solve problems by imitating the human brain, a gold mine of information on the processes of human learning is being discovered, expert systems are being improved, and human-machine interactions are being enhanced. (SK)

  16. Blended Learning as Transformational Institutional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerLinden, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews institutional approaches to blended learning and the ways in which institutions support faculty in the intentional redesign of courses to produce optimal learning. The chapter positions blended learning as a strategic opportunity to engage in organizational learning.

  17. 3,700 USAF Junior Acquisition Officers! Rebalance USAF Manning Priorities Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    the benefits of the AD LAF acquisition officer direct accessions is not worth the initial resource costs and return on investment relative to higher...government funding spurred significant technology development; today, that trend has shifted: commercial investment now propels the preponderance of ground...many companies on selling to the commercial market .”45 DoD Directive (DoDD) 5105.85, signed by former Secretary of Defense Ash Carter on 5 July

  18. "Learned Helplessness" or "Learned Incompetence"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergent, Justine; Lambert, Wallace E.

    Studies in the past have shown that reinforcements independent of the subjects actions may induce a feeling of helplessness. Most experiments on learned helplessness have led researchers to believe that uncontrollability (non-contingency of feedback upon response) was the determining feature of learned helplessness, although in most studies…

  19. Teacher learning as workplace learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imants, J.; Van Veen, K.

    2010-01-01

    Against the background of increasing attention in teacher professional development programs for situating teacher learning in the workplace, an overview is given of what is known in general and in educational workplace learning literature on the characteristics and conditions of the workplace.

  20. Learning, Learning Organisations and the Global Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikutty, Sankaran

    2009-01-01

    The steadily increasing degree of globalisation of enterprises implies development of many skills, among which the skills to learn are among the most important. Learning takes place at the individual level, but collective learning and organisational learning are also important. Learning styles of individuals are different and learning styles are…

  1. Can machine learning explain human learning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vahdat, M.; Oneto, L.; Anguita, D.; Funk, M.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    Learning Analytics (LA) has a major interest in exploring and understanding the learning process of humans and, for this purpose, benefits from both Cognitive Science, which studies how humans learn, and Machine Learning, which studies how algorithms learn from data. Usually, Machine Learning is

  2. Evaluation of learning materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Hansen, Thomas Illum

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a holistic framework for evaluating learning materials and designs for learning. A holistic evaluation comprises investigations of the potential learning potential, the actualized learning potential, and the actual learning. Each aspect is explained and exemplified through...

  3. Learning Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Falmagne, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Learning spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for practical systems of educational technology. Learning spaces generalize partially ordered sets and are special cases of knowledge spaces. The various structures are investigated from the standpoints of combinatorial properties and stochastic processes. Leaning spaces have become the essential structures to be used in assessing students' competence of various topics. A practical example is offered by ALEKS, a Web-based, artificially intelligent assessment and learning system in mathematics and other scholarly fields. At the heart of A

  4. Supportive Learning: Linear Learning and Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bih Ni; Abdullah, Sopiah; Kiu, Su Na

    2016-01-01

    This is a conceptual paper which is trying to look at the educational technology is not limited to high technology. However, electronic educational technology, also known as e-learning, has become an important part of today's society, which consists of a wide variety of approaches to digitization, components and methods of delivery. In the…

  5. Learning to learn: self-managed learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Miranda Izquierdo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Thi is article analyzes the potentialities and weaknesses that non directive Pedagogy presents, an example of the so called self managed pedagogy, whose postulates are good to analyze for the contributions that this position can make to the search of new ways of learning.

  6. Unified Treatise of Phenomena of Seismic Fusion-Fission Under Seismonomy in the Light of Monistic Weltanschauung: the Doctrine of Dynamics Monism With Implication to the Earthquake Source Physics}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaurov, D.

    2006-12-01

    Established profoundly new conceptual framework by the five postulates of seismonomy, enables unified treatise of processes such as dynamic structural devastation, seismic blowing up of mount ridges, collision physics, meteorite impact cratering, and seismic global faulting with insight into the earthquake source physics. Hence, by establishing the parametric method of identification of natural modes and then Parametric Scan- Window Observation of Dynamic Responses (PSW-method), it becomes possible to obtain crucial field data. Thus, earth-dam dynamics data revealed an essential non-stationarity of dam's dynamic characteristics throughout earthquakes, the effect of stochastic alternation of the locally-stationary modal states with the discrete characteristics of their spectral distribution. At this point, in the course of other, separate line of far beyond lasting quest concerning metaphysical constituents of matter, and then constitutive relation between excited modal oscillation of structures and causal pattern of their fracture, the results of such analysis, resuming obscurity of the well known jaggedness of observing earthquake spectra, were illuminated and perceived. It was succeeded, on the one hand, to establish unitary conceptualized framework of seismic records analysis consisting both the PSW- and spectral- analysis, which reformulated to be a statistical representation complementary to PSW-method, and, on the other hand, to realize genesis of the doctrine of dynamics monism consisting concepts of both: fission-fusion dynamics and dynamics coherentism as an inspiration of the paradigm of seismic fusion-fission phenomena. Global faulting originating straight plane faults, which often stretch through large scale substantially inhomogeneous volumes, are, uncontestably, the result of dynamics fission, the first step of dynamics binary division of an emerged geoseismoid onto two secondary seismoids with a potential, occasionally stretched rupture plane. That

  7. Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chatterjee, Samrat; Thomas, Dennis G.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Muller, George

    2017-04-21

    The absence of a robust and unified theory of cyber dynamics presents challenges and opportunities for using machine learning based data-driven approaches to further the understanding of the behavior of such complex systems. Analysts can also use machine learning approaches to gain operational insights. In order to be operationally beneficial, cybersecurity machine learning based models need to have the ability to: (1) represent a real-world system, (2) infer system properties, and (3) learn and adapt based on expert knowledge and observations. Probabilistic models and Probabilistic graphical models provide these necessary properties and are further explored in this chapter. Bayesian Networks and Hidden Markov Models are introduced as an example of a widely used data driven classification/modeling strategy.

  8. Learning Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik; Fast, Alf Michael

    2018-01-01

    Is leadership a result of inheritance or is it something one learns during formal learning in e.g. business schools? This is the essential question addressed in this article. The article is based on a case study involving a new leader in charge of a group of profession practitioners. The leader...... promotes his leadership as a profession comparable to the professions of practitioners. This promotion implies that leadership is something one can and probably must learn during formal learning. The practitioners on the other hand reject this comprehension of leadership and long for a fellow practitioner...... to lead the organization. While asked they are unable to describe how, where and when they think a practitioner develops leadership skills necessary for leading fellows. In the following we will start analysing the case in order to comprehend and discuss both the professional leaders and the practitioners...

  9. Group learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel, Ricardo; Noguira, Eloy Eros da Silva; Elkjær, Bente

    The article presents a study that aims at the apprehension of the group learning in a top management team composed by teachers in a Brazilian Waldorf school whose management is collective. After deciding to extend the school, they had problems recruiting teachers who were already trained based...... on the Steiner´s ideas, which created practical problems for conducting management activities. The research seeks to understand how that group of teachers collectively manage the school, facing the lack of resources, a significant heterogeneity in the relationships, and the conflicts and contradictions......, and they are interrelated to the group learning as the construction, maintenance and reconstruction of the intelligibility of practices. From this perspective, it can be said that learning is a practice and not an exceptional phenomenon. Building, maintaining and rebuilding the intelligibility is the group learning...

  10. Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD) See all related organizations Publications Problemas de aprendizaje Order NINDS Publications Patient Organizations CHADD - Children and ... NICHD) See all related organizations Publications Problemas de aprendizaje Order NINDS Publications Definition Learning disabilities are disorders ...

  11. Reflective Learning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    The experimental group students used learning log on a weekly basis while the control group did not. ... The term “memory” in psychology usually denotes an interest in the retention ... activities that contribute to information being remembered.

  12. Andragogy and medical education: are medical students internally motivated to learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, Donald A

    2002-01-01

    Andragogy - the study of adult education - has been endorsed by many medical educators throughout North America. There remains, however, considerable controversy as to the validity and utility of adult education principles as espoused by the field's founder, Malcolm Knowles. Whatever the utility of andragogic doctrine in general education settings, there is reason to doubt its wholesale applicability to the training of medical professionals. Malcolm Knowles' last tenet of andragogy holds that adult learners are more motivated by internal than by external factors. The validity of this hypothesis in medical education is examined, and it is demonstrated that medical students' internal and external motivation are context-dependent, not easily distinguishable, and interrelate with one another in complex ways. Furthermore, the psychological motivation for medical student learning is determined by a variety of factors that range from internal to external, unconscious to conscious, and individual to societal. The andragogic hypothesis of increased internal motivation to learn on the part of adults in general, and medical trainees in particular, is rejected as simplistic, misleading, and counterproductive to developing a greater understanding of the forces that drive medical students to learn.

  13. Joint Force Quarterly. Number 25, Summer 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    and Staff College Brig Gen Richard B. Bundy, USAF ■ The Joint Staff VADM Arthur K. Cebrowski, USN ■ Naval War College MG Reginal G. Clemmons , USA...1930s, General Maurice Gamelin, established the high command as the sole arbiter of doctrine early in his tenure. From that point, all articles, books

  14. Interorganizational learning systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    1999-01-01

    The occurrence of organizational and interorganizational learning processes is not only the result of management endeavors. Industry structures and market related issues have substantial spill-over effects. The article reviews literature, and it establishes a learning model in which elements from...... organizational environments are included into a systematic conceptual framework. The model allows four types of learning to be identified: P-learning (professional/craft systems learning), T-learning (technology embedded learning), D-learning (dualistic learning systems, where part of the labor force is exclude...... from learning), and S-learning (learning in social networks or clans). The situation related to service industries illustrates the typology....

  15. Lifelong Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Lone; Jensen, Annie Aarup

    2010-01-01

    Master education for adults has become a strategy for Lifelong Learning among many well-educated people in Denmark. This type of master education is part of the ‘parallel education system' in Denmark. As one of the first Danish universities who offered this type of Master education, Aalborg...... the intended as well as the unintended effects (personal and professional) of the master education. The data have been gathered among graduates from a specific master education, Master in Learning Processes, and the paper will draw on results from a quantitative survey based on a questionnaire answered by 120...

  16. Learning SPARQL

    CERN Document Server

    DuCharme, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Get hands-on experience with SPARQL, the RDF query language that's become a key component of the semantic web. With this concise book, you will learn how to use the latest version of this W3C standard to retrieve and manipulate the increasing amount of public and private data available via SPARQL endpoints. Several open source and commercial tools already support SPARQL, and this introduction gets you started right away. Begin with how to write and run simple SPARQL 1.1 queries, then dive into the language's powerful features and capabilities for manipulating the data you retrieve. Learn wha

  17. Deep Learning in Open Source Learning Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents research on deep learning in a digital learning environment and raises the question if digital instructional designs can catalyze deeper learning than traditional classroom teaching. As a theoretical point of departure the notion of ‘situated learning’ is utilized...... and contrasted to the notion of functionalistic learning in a digital context. The mechanism that enables deep learning in this context is ‘The Open Source Learning Stream’. ‘The Open Source Learning Stream’ is the notion of sharing ‘learning instances’ in a digital space (discussion board, Facebook group......, unistructural, multistructural or relational learning. The research concludes that ‘The Open Source Learning Stream’ can catalyze deep learning and that there are four types of ‘Open Source Learning streams’; individual/ asynchronous, individual/synchronous, shared/asynchronous and shared...

  18. Mastering machine learning with scikit-learn

    CERN Document Server

    Hackeling, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    If you are a software developer who wants to learn how machine learning models work and how to apply them effectively, this book is for you. Familiarity with machine learning fundamentals and Python will be helpful, but is not essential.

  19. Transforming learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    A new Learning and Skills Council for post-16 learning is the latest proposal from the UK Government in its attempt to ensure a highly skilled workforce for the next century. Other aims will be to reduce the variability in standards of the existing post-16 system, coordination and coherence between further education and training, and a reduction in the duplication and layers in contracting and funding. The proposals include: a national Learning and Skills Council, with 40-50 local Learning and Skills Councils to develop local plans; a strengthened strategic role for business in education and training, influencing a budget of #5bn a radical new youth programme entitled `Connexions', with dedicated personal advisors for young people; greater cooperation between sixth forms and colleges; and the establishment of an independent inspectorate covering all work-related learning and training, to include a new role for Ofsted in inspecting the provision for 16-19 year-olds in schools and colleges. It is hoped that this programme will build on the successes of the previous systems and that savings of at least #50m can be achieved through streamlining and the reduction in bureaucracy. The intentions are set out in a White Paper, Learning to Succeed, which is available from the Stationery Office and bookshops, as well as on the website www.dfee.gov.uk/post16. Published in addition to the White Paper was `School Sixth form funding: a consultation paper' (available from DfEE publications, Prolog, PO Box 5050, Sherwood Park, Annesley, Nottingham NG15 0DJ) and `Transition plan for the post-16 education and training and for local delivery of support for small firms' (available from Trevor Tucknutt, TECSOP Division, Level 3, Department for Education and Employment, Moorfoot, Sheffield S1 4PQ). The deadline for comments on both the sixth form consultation document and the White Paper is 15 October 1999. Almost simultaneously with the announcement of the above proposals came the

  20. Deepening Learning through Learning-by-Inventing

    OpenAIRE

    Apiola, Mikko; Tedre, Matti

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that deep approaches to learning, intrinsic motivation, and self-regulated learning have strong positive effects on learning. How those pedagogical theories can be integrated in computing curricula is, however, still lacking empirically grounded analyses. This study integrated, in a robotics-based programming class, a method of learning-by-inventing, and studied its qualitative effects on students’ learning through 144 interviews. Five findings were related with learning the...

  1. Learning and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... List About PPMD Events News Login By Area Learning & Behavior Attention, Listening & Learning Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) ... Care Guidelines ❯ By Area ❯ Learning & Behavior Share Print Learning & Behavior Facts to Remember People with Duchenne may ...

  2. Learning via Query Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Active learning is a subfield of machine learning that has been successfully used in many applications. One of the main branches of active learning is query synthe- sis, where the learning agent constructs artificial queries from scratch in order

  3. Managing Learning for Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, K. Peter

    1995-01-01

    Presents findings of organizational learning literature that could substantiate claims of learning organization proponents. Examines four learning processes and their contribution to performance-based learning management: knowledge acquisition, information distribution, information interpretation, and organizational memory. (SK)

  4. Learning Object Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  5. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  6. Learned Helplessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Carol E.

    1976-01-01

    Learned helplessness--the belief that a person's actions have no influence on the outcome of an event--is similar in many respects to the crisis state and depression. The author shows how this impaired social and psychological functioning occurs and identifies techniques that the social worker can use to prevent it. (Author)

  7. Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirth, Sharyn

    This booklet uses hypothetical case examples to illustrate the definition, causal theories, and specific types of learning disabilities (LD). The cognitive and language performance of students with LD is compared to standard developmental milestones, and common approaches to the identification and education of children with LD are outlined.…

  8. Learning Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    In spring 2012, Sherry Kaufman, a consultant at Francis W. Parker School in Chicago, was asked to support kindergarten teachers in deepening their practice of constructivism and exploring the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education. Central to such an approach is the belief that all learning is socially constructed through interaction…

  9. Learning Mongoid

    CERN Document Server

    Rege, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial with focused examples that will help you build scalable, high performance Rails web applications with Mongoid.If you are an application developer who wants to learn how to use Mongoid in a Rails application, this book will be great for you. You are expected to be familiar with MongoDB and Ruby.

  10. Learning Lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The lichen is an ideal subject for student study because it is omnipresent in school yards, easily collected and observed year-round, a pioneer of evolution on land, and a bioindicator of air pollution. After doing fieldwork on this unusual composite organism as an apprentice with a team of lichenologists, Sarah Thorne developed Learning Lichens.…

  11. Learning Ionic

    CERN Document Server

    Ravulavaru, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn how to build hybrid mobile applications using Ionic. It is also ideal for people who want to explore theming for Ionic apps. Prior knowledge of AngularJS is essential to complete this book successfully.

  12. Supervised Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokach, Lior; Maimon, Oded

    This chapter summarizes the fundamental aspects of supervised methods. The chapter provides an overview of concepts from various interrelated fields used in subsequent chapters. It presents basic definitions and arguments from the supervised machine learning literature and considers various issues, such as performance evaluation techniques and challenges for data mining tasks.

  13. Learning Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Duval

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief introduction to the domain of ‘learning analytics’. We first explain the background and idea behind the concept. Then we give a brief overview of current research issues. We briefly list some more controversial issues before concluding.

  14. Learning Ansible

    CERN Document Server

    Mohaan, Madhurranjan

    2014-01-01

    If you want to learn how to use Ansible to automate an infrastructure, either from scratch or to augment your current tooling with Ansible, then this is the book for you. It has plenty of practical examples to help you get to grips with Ansible.

  15. Learning Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:The issue of Teaching physics vs Learning physics in our institutions of higher learning will be discussed. Physics is taught mainly by frontal lectures an old (and proven) method. The great advancements of the Information Age are introduced by exposing the students to vast amounts of computerized information and directing them to numerical problem solving by interacting with the computer. These modern methods have several drawbacks: 1. Students get the impression of easy material acquisition while in fact it becomes superficial. 2. There is little integration of topics that are taught in different courses. 3. Insufficient interest is built among undergraduate students to pursue studies that involve deeper thinking and independent research (namely, studies towards a doctoral degree). Learning physics is a formative process in the education of physicists, natural scientists and engineers. It must be based on discussions and exchange of ideas among the students, since understanding the studied material means being able to explain it to a colleague. Some universities in the US initiated programs of learning physics by creating an environment in which small groups of students are engaged in discussing material, jointly solving problems and jointly conducting simulated experiments. This is done under the supervision of a mentor. Suggestions for implementing this method in Israel will be discussed

  16. Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Learning Orientation, and Supportive Learning Environment on Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woojae; Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    While workplace learning includes formal and informal learning, the relationship between the two has been overlooked, because they have been viewed as separate entities. This study investigated the effects of formal learning, personal learning orientation, and supportive learning environment on informal learning among 203 middle managers in Korean…

  17. From learning objects to learning activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses and questions the current metadata standards for learning objects from a pedagogical point of view. From a social constructivist approach, the paper discusses how learning objects can support problem based, self-governed learning activities. In order to support this approach......, it is argued that it is necessary to focus on learning activities rather than on learning objects. Further, it is argued that descriptions of learning objectives and learning activities should be separated from learning objects. The paper presents a new conception of learning objects which supports problem...... based, self-governed activities. Further, a new way of thinking pedagogy into learning objects is introduced. It is argued that a lack of pedagogical thinking in learning objects is not solved through pedagogical metadata. Instead, the paper suggests the concept of references as an alternative...

  18. How we learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Knud

    How We Learn, deals with the fundamental issues of the processes of learning, critically assessing different types of learning and obstacles to learning. It also considers a broad range of other important questions in relation to learning such as: modern research into learning and brain functions......, self-perception, motivation and competence development, teaching, intelligence and learning style, learning in relation to gender and life age. The book provides a comprehensive introduction to both traditional learning theory and the newest international research into learning processes, while...... at the same time being an innovative contribution to a new and more holistic understanding of learning including discussion on school-based learning, net-based learning, workplace learning and educational politics. How We Learn examines all the key factors that help to create a holistic understanding of what...

  19. Instrumentation and control doctrine for VVER upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernette, R.; Cucciniello, J.; Trebot, R.

    1997-01-01

    The main results are reported of analyses carried out on the WWER-400 and WWER-1000 series, and the reasons are summed up underlying the decision to establish a policy of WWER instrumentation and control upgrading. It is shown that such a policy forms a key stage in any upgrading project and contributes to the improvement of reactor safety at several levels: it helps to optimize the integration of safety requirements; it makes it easier to achieve a high level of automation and a better man-machine interaction; it should raise the culture of reactor safety. Four annexes demonstrate the factual fundamentals and structure of such a policy. (A.K.)

  20. Integrated Cyber Defenses: Towards Cyber Defense Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    and spam filters, mail relays, antivirus /antimalware software , router Access Control Lists (ACLs), cryptography and encryption, user access... Cisco ), network protocols (like TCP/IP [Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol]), programs, programming languages (like C++, Java, ActiveX...rules were built into them. Since these are human-made rules, they can be changed by replacing or updating hardware and/or software . Unlike the

  1. State Level Intelligence Doctrine: Bridging the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Reporting (UCR) data and field groups to reduce gun violence and other similar case studies on UCR data and response to that information to shift police...examples like the Massachusetts state police using Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) data and field groups to reduce gun violence and other similar case...implementation. Using additional genres and fields of study in academia to conduct comparative analysis would also give practitioners as well as

  2. Prevention, Preemption, and the Bush Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    Just War theorist, Immanuel Kant , addressed directly the issues of preemption and preventive war. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), while clearly within...51-303, it is not copyrighted, but is the property of the United States government. Biography Chaplain, Lieutenant Colonel Timothy A...understand Kant as being descriptive rather than permissive. This is because he believed that international relations were not exercised in a simple “state

  3. The Doctrinal Basis for Medical Stability Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    lead actor, preferably a HN agency, but sometimes the military must take the lead in medical stability operations when overwhelming violence prevents...34 Assessment Tasks Administration of hospital Communications Obstetrics , Pediatrics, Emergency room. Operating room Nursing procedures Medical supply

  4. Towards a Flexible Theater Air Warfare Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gunzinger, Mark A

    1996-01-01

    "Billy Mitchell was right." These words hung in the foyer of the Air Force Air Command and Staff College during Desert Storm, reflecting the belief that air power had finally come of age in the skies over Iraq...

  5. Open Source Intelligence - Doctrine's Neglected Child

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pham, Tuan

    2003-01-01

    .... The causes of this neglect are many, ranging from previously mentioned predisposition toward classified intelligence sources to the technical challenge of information excess that overloads the users...

  6. Quantum theory and Aquinas's doctrine on matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Stanley F.

    The Aristotelian conception of the material principle, deepened by Aquinas, is today widely misunderstood and largely alien to modern mathematical physics, despite the latter's preoccupation with matter and the spatiotemporal. The present dissertation seeks to develop a coherent understanding of matter in the Aristotelian-Thomistic sense, and to apply it to some key interpretive issues in quantum physics. I begin with a brief historical analysis of the Aristotelian, Newtonian ("classical"), and modern (quantum) approaches to physics, in order to highlight their commonality as well as their differences. Next, matter---especially prime matter---is investigated, in an Aristotelian-Thomistic perspective, under several rationes: as principle of individuation, as principle of extension or spatiality, as principle of corruptibility, as related to essence and existence, and as ground of intelligibility. An attempt is made to order these different rationes according to primordiality. A number of topics concerning the formal structure of hylomorphic being are then addressed: elementarity, virtual presence, the "dispositions of matter," entia vialia, natural minima, atomism, the nature of local motion, the plenum and instantaneous action at a distance---all with a view to their incorporation in a unified account of formed matter at or near the elementary level. Finally I take up several interpretive problems in quantum physics which were introduced early in the dissertation, and show how the material and formal principles expounded in the central chapters can render these problems intelligible. Thus I propose that wave and particle aspects in the quantum realm are related substantially rather than accidentally, and that characteristics of substantial (prime) matter and substantial form are therefore being evidenced directly at this level---in the reversibility of the wave-particle transition, in the spatial and temporal instantaneity of quantum events, and in the probabilism encountered in such phenomena. I offer related hypotheses for Heisenberg uncertainty and for quantum nonlocality. In closing, I address some strengths and weaknesses in others' work on quantum interpretation in the light of Aristotelian principles. Three Appendices explore further aspects of matter as a cosmic principle.

  7. Stability Operations: Policy and Doctrine Awaiting Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    periods move through offense and defense (or reverse ) sequentially while stability is presented throughout the rotation. This causes stability to...The author’s personal experience in Afghanistan and having studied the complex nature of stability operations suggests the reverse is true. June...climate change, Euro/EU collapse, a democratic or collapsed China, a reformed Iran, nuclear war or WMD/cyber-attack, solar geomagnetic storms, U.S

  8. Stabilization and Reconstruction Operations Doctrine and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    truly judicial in terms of the local and cultural context. For instance, some countries have adopted a no fault divorce law which is handled completely... poverty and that an institution’s ability to protect those rights or mediate disputes involving them is a determinate of its legitimacy. How then can we...threatening. Local customs will also generally be less in line with international norms than would the GIROA. It is likely that women and persons of a

  9. Examining U.S. Irregular Warfare Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kimbrough, IV, James M

    2008-01-01

    ... of insurgency and terrorism. In response to the associated strategic challenges, a growing debate occurred among military historians, strategists, and leaders about the proper principles necessary for contemporary irregular...

  10. Identity Conflicts: A Doctrinal Change Needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    northeast section of Bosnia, covering places such as Tuzla, Brcko, Zupanja, and the infamous town place 36 Srebrenica. Operationally, the initial U.S...Raphael. 2010. “A Tale of Two Manuals.” Prism 2, no. 1: 87-100. Collier, Paul, and Anke Hoeffler. 1998. “On Economic Causes of Civil War.” Oxford

  11. Open Source Intelligence - Doctrine's Neglected Child

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pham, Tuan

    2003-01-01

    Of the seven intelligence disciplines, OSINT is least appreciated, understood, or employed by staffs and organizations supporting the operational commander despite past successes at the strategic and tactical levels...

  12. THE EVOLUTION OF THE POLITICAL QUESTION DOCTRINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wits-user

    1995-02-22

    Feb 22, 1995 ... implies in my view asking its gates and its walls to be painted with mud; and .... in the failure by some jurists to distinguish between "… questions ... judiciary while retaining power to render final decisions on the meaning of the.

  13. Examining U.S. Irregular Warfare Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Muslim leaders, this manual also provides inspiration to the Al-Qaeda undercover member. These are especially useful in convincing the young...A “Air Power: An Enduring Illusion,” The Economist (24 August 2006). Accessed via: http://www.economist.com/world/displaystory.cfm?story_id...USA AFIT/ILM/ENS/08-04 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson

  14. On Space Warfare: A Space Power Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lupton, David

    1998-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, the speech was promptly dubbed "Star Wars" because the space environment seems to be the most likely place to deploy a ballistic missile defense system, and several administration...

  15. From Theory to Practice: The Powell Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    along a common theme. In 1990 Reagan’s Secretary of Defense, Caspar Weinberger, wrote that the “ myths ” about Reagan’s disengagement and lack of...position or congratulated me on getting it.”193 “ Scary ” was Powell’s more frank description of Reagan’s lack of guidance and decision.194 In

  16. Soviet Tactical Doctrine for Urban Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    Soviet Area Specialist. Valuable assistance was provided by Mr. Gerald Sullivan and LTC Ray N. Franklin, USMC, of the Advanced Research Projects... Oldenburg 120.8 133.3 12.5 10 Osnabruck 133.6 164.0 30.4 23 Regensburg 123.0 133.5 10.5 9 Remacheid 123.0 135.5 12.5 10 Salzgitter 105.9 117.6 11.7

  17. Doctrinal Lessons from Non-State Actors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forte, Robert

    2001-01-01

    .... A phenomenon known as Gray Area War is on the rise. Gray Area War is defined as a conflict where at least one of the antagonists is a non-state entity and the method is combining elements of traditional war fighting with organized crime...

  18. [Euthanasia and the doctrine of double effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Direct active euthanasia is prohibited in most countries while passive and indirect is not. However, many arguments against the legalization of voluntary active euthanasia are flawed. Ethical differences between active and passive or indirect euthanasia are difficult to maintain especially when the passivity of the actor causes death. The crucial point is not activity or passivity but respect for the autonomy of individual human beings. In particular there appears to be little ethical difference between active and indirect euthanasia. Indirect euthanasia has often been justified by the principle of double effect, which traces back to Thomas Aquinas. But resorting to this rule contains a logical fallacy. The principle of double effect does not allow foreseen and unwanted adverse effects of an action to occur when they are avoidable. In terminal sedation, an example for indirect euthanasia, hypoxemia and dehydration can easily be prevented by respirator therapy and fluid administration. Therefore the rule of double effect is not applicable. Indirect and direct active euthanasia cannot be ethically distinguished by resorting to the principle of double effect.

  19. Democratising Political Powers through Locke's Doctrine of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essay contends that whenever there is high-handedness of leaders in a democratic nation, such a state is either a 'despotic family monarchy' which has been disguised as a 'democracy'; or under normal circumstances, there is an abusive use of most, if not all of the primitive (untamed) elements of political power.

  20. the doctrine of piercing the corporate veil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    below (as stated in Stephen Griffin, Company law: fundamental principles).4 ..... opportunities, the nation's economic and financial growth, stability and ..... shareholders, common officers, centralized accounting, payment of wages by one.

  1. In Search of Command and Staff Doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    concepts. This will provide a framework for a systematic analysis of current issues, as well as of issues that, to paraphrase Shakespeare , have not yet been...General has ordered that U. S. v. Miner and its companion cases be sent to the United States Court of Military Appeals for review at that level. 2 3 7 B...men ride on a horse, one must ride behind." W. Shakespeare , Much Ado About Nothing, act. 3, sc. 5, lines 40-41. 100. This has been done in AFR 35-54

  2. 論美國數位千禧年著作權法中反規避濫用原則之發展 The Development of Misuse Doctrine under DMCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    蔡岳勳 Dennis Yueh-Hsun Tsai

    2007-06-01

    the anti-circumvention provisions, this legal protection of technological measures as such permits proprietary control over any kind of information, protected or not under copyright, which granting the content provider what might arguably be considered as a “Paracopyright” without the built-in limitations and restrictions of traditional copyright law, such as the fair-use doctrine. As a result, the public are concerning about the in coming World of Pay-Per-Use, and the traditional limitations on copyright, such as the fair use may be unavoidable evaporated under such new legislation. Moreover,some recent litigation may have showed that anti-circumvention provisions have been suspiciously utilized by some copyright owners as a means to restrain trade and competition. In light of this situation, scholars in the U.S. began to discuss and advocate the “Anti-circumvention Misuse Doctrine,” hoping this affirmative defense, which evolved form the patent law, can mitigate the impact caused by anticircumvention provisions to the copyright related markets.

  3. A UTÓPICA APLICAÇÃO DA TEORIA DA PERDA DE UMA CHANCE NO ÂMBITO DO DIREITO MÉDICO:UMA ANÁLISE DA JURISPRUDÊNCIA DO TJRS, TJPR E TJPE/THE UTOPIAN APPLICATION OF THE LOSS OF CHANCE DOCTRINE IN MEDICAL LAW:AN ANALISYS OF THE CASES JUDGED BY TJRS TJPR AND TJPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor de Lucena Mascarenhas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the application of the Loss of Chance Doctrine in cases of medical civil liability. The growth of lawsuits due to medical malpractice allowed the application of multiple theories to solve the civil liability of the physician. Through a bibliographical analysis, it was observed that the Loss of Chance Doctrine cannot be applied in the medical law, because it uses data observed in studies that may not be the same of the real case. Thus, the objectification of the human body, a subjective element, demonstrates that the nuclear element of the theory is incompatible with the medical law. It was observed that 80% of judicial decisions of TJPR, TJRS and TJPE between 01.01.2014 and 09.22.2015, did not include the percentage of the chance, a violation to the contradictory and full defense. Finally, it is proposed that the percentage of recovering and healing can be used to establish the indemnity, but cannot be the only element of the judicial consideration.

  4. Using Learning Games to Meet Learning Objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question on how learning games can be used to meet with the different levels in Bloom’s and the SOLO taxonomy, which are commonly used for evaluating the learning outcome of educational activities. The paper discusses the quality of game-based learning outcomes based on a...... on a case study of the learning game 6Styles....

  5. Still to Learn from Vicarious Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, J. T.

    2015-01-01

    The term "vicarious learning" was introduced in the 1960s by Bandura, who demonstrated how learning can occur through observing the behaviour of others. Such social learning is effective without the need for the observer to experience feedback directly. More than twenty years later a series of studies on vicarious learning was undertaken…

  6. Learning Effectiveness of a Strategic Learning Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Melinda S.; Swerdzewski, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of a postsecondary strategic learning course for improving metacognitive awareness and regulation was evaluated through systematic program assessment. The course emphasized students' awareness of personal learning through the study of learning theory and through practical application of specific learning strategies. Students…

  7. Social Media and Seamless Learning: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panke, Stefanie; Kohls, Christian; Gaiser, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses best practice approaches and metrics for evaluation that support seamless learning with social media. We draw upon the theoretical frameworks of social learning theory, transfer learning (bricolage), and educational design patterns to elaborate upon different ideas for ways in which social media can support seamless learning.…

  8. Deep Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bornø; Bahnsen, Chris Holmberg; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2018-01-01

    I løbet af de sidste 10 år er kunstige neurale netværk gået fra at være en støvet, udstødt tekno-logi til at spille en hovedrolle i udviklingen af kunstig intelligens. Dette fænomen kaldes deep learning og er inspireret af hjernens opbygning.......I løbet af de sidste 10 år er kunstige neurale netværk gået fra at være en støvet, udstødt tekno-logi til at spille en hovedrolle i udviklingen af kunstig intelligens. Dette fænomen kaldes deep learning og er inspireret af hjernens opbygning....

  9. Learning Java

    CERN Document Server

    Niemeyer, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Version 5.0 of the Java 2 Standard Edition SDK is the most important upgrade since Java first appeared a decade ago. With Java 5.0, you'll not only find substantial changes in the platform, but to the language itself-something that developers of Java took five years to complete. The main goal of Java 5.0 is to make it easier for you to develop safe, powerful code, but none of these improvements makes Java any easier to learn, even if you've programmed with Java for years. And that means our bestselling hands-on tutorial takes on even greater significance. Learning Java is the most widely sou

  10. Learning Raspbian

    CERN Document Server

    Harrington, William

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who have worked with the Raspberry Pi and who want to learn how to make the most of the Raspbian operating system and their Raspberry Pi. Whether you are a beginner to the Raspberry Pi or a seasoned expert, this book will make you familiar with the Raspbian operating system and teach you how to get your Raspberry Pi up and running.

  11. Guided discovery learning in geometry learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanah, V. N.; Usodo, B.; Subanti, S.

    2018-03-01

    Geometry is a part of the mathematics that must be learned in school. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of Guided Discovery Learning (GDL) toward geometry learning achievement. This research had conducted at junior high school in Sukoharjo on academic years 2016/2017. Data collection was done based on student’s work test and documentation. Hypothesis testing used two ways analysis of variance (ANOVA) with unequal cells. The results of this research that GDL gave positive effect towards mathematics learning achievement. GDL gave better mathematics learning achievement than direct learning. There was no difference of mathematics learning achievement between male and female. There was no an interaction between sex differences and learning models toward student’s mathematics learning achievement. GDL can be used to improve students’ mathematics learning achievement in geometry.

  12. Learning to Learn Together with CSCL Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Baruch B.; de Groot, Reuma; Mavrikis, Manolis; Dragon, Toby

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we identify "Learning to Learn Together" (L2L2) as a new and important educational goal. Our view of L2L2 is a substantial extension of "Learning to Learn" (L2L): L2L2 consists of learning to collaborate to successfully face L2L challenges. It is inseparable from L2L, as it emerges when individuals face problems…

  13. Technology, Learning, and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Anne A. Ghost

    2012-01-01

    The learning needs for adults that result from the constant increase in technology are rooted in the adult learning concepts of (a) andragogy, (b) self-directed learning, (c) learning-how-to-learn, (d) real-life learning, and (e) learning strategies. This study described the learning strategies that adults use in learning to engage in an online…

  14. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  15. Machine-Learning Research

    OpenAIRE

    Dietterich, Thomas G.

    1997-01-01

    Machine-learning research has been making great progress in many directions. This article summarizes four of these directions and discusses some current open problems. The four directions are (1) the improvement of classification accuracy by learning ensembles of classifiers, (2) methods for scaling up supervised learning algorithms, (3) reinforcement learning, and (4) the learning of complex stochastic models.

  16. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  17. Learning Vaadin

    CERN Document Server

    Frankel, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    This book begins with a tutorial on Vaadin 7, followed by a process of planning, analyzing, building, and deploying a fully functional RIA while covering troubleshooting details along the way, making it an invaluable resource for answers to all your Vaadin questions. If you are a Java developer with some experience in Java web development and want to enter the world of Rich Internet Applications this technology and book are ideal for you. Learning Vaadin will be perfect as your next step towards building eye-candy dynamic web applications on a Java-based platform.

  18. Learning Cypher

    CERN Document Server

    Panzarino, Onofrio

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide full of tips and examples of real-world applications. In each chapter, a thorough example will show you the concepts in action, followed by a detailed explanation.This book is intended for those who want to learn how to create, query, and maintain a graph database, or who want to migrate to a graph database from SQL. It would be helpful to have some familiarity with Java and/or SQL, but no prior experience is required.

  19. Learning Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Randal; Phoenix, Tom

    2011-01-01

    If you're just getting started with Perl, this is the book you want-whether you're a programmer, system administrator, or web hacker. Nicknamed "the Llama" by two generations of users, this bestseller closely follows the popular introductory Perl course taught by the authors since 1991. This 6th edition covers recent changes to the language up to version 5.14. Perl is suitable for almost any task on almost any platform, from short fixes to complete web applications. Learning Perl teaches you the basics and shows you how to write programs up to 128 lines long-roughly the size of 90% of the Pe

  20. Learning scikit-learn machine learning in Python

    CERN Document Server

    Garreta, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    The book adopts a tutorial-based approach to introduce the user to Scikit-learn.If you are a programmer who wants to explore machine learning and data-based methods to build intelligent applications and enhance your programming skills, this the book for you. No previous experience with machine-learning algorithms is required.

  1. Technology Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Klemke, R., & Specht, M. (2013, 26-27 September). Technology Enhanced Learning. Presentation at the fourth international conference on eLearning (eLearning 2013), Belgrade, Serbia. http://econference.metropolitan.ac.rs/

  2. Mobile Inquiry Based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Specht, M. (2012, 8 November). Mobile Inquiry Based Learning. Presentation given at the Workshop "Mobile inquiry-based learning" at the Mobile Learning Day 2012 at the Fernuniversität Hagen, Hagen, Germany.

  3. Learning and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Under various circumstances and in different species the outward expression of learning varies considerably, and this has led to the classification of different categories of learning. Just as there is no generally agreed on definition of learning, there is no one system of classification. Types of learning commonly recognized are: Habituation, sensitization, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, trial and error, taste aversion, latent learning, cultural learning, imprinting, insight ...

  4. Toward Learning Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoda, Rashina; Babb, Jeff; Nørbjerg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    to sacrifice learning-focused practices. Effective learning under pressure involves conscious efforts to implement original agile practices such as retrospectives and adapted strategies such as learning spikes. Teams, their management, and customers must all recognize the importance of creating learning teams......Today's software development challenges require learning teams that can continuously apply new engineering and management practices, new and complex technical skills, cross-functional skills, and experiential lessons learned. The pressure of delivering working software often forces software teams...

  5. Greedy Deep Dictionary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tariyal, Snigdha; Majumdar, Angshul; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new deep learning tool called deep dictionary learning. Multi-level dictionaries are learnt in a greedy fashion, one layer at a time. This requires solving a simple (shallow) dictionary learning problem, the solution to this is well known. We apply the proposed technique on some benchmark deep learning datasets. We compare our results with other deep learning tools like stacked autoencoder and deep belief network; and state of the art supervised dictionary learning t...

  6. Learning Networks for Professional Development & Lifelong Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Sloep, P. B. (2009). Learning Networks for Professional Development & Lifelong Learning. Presentation at a NeLLL seminar with Etienne Wenger held at the Open Universiteit Nederland. September, 10, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  7. Use of blended learning in workplace learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgsen, Marianne; Løvstad, Charlotte Vange

    2014-01-01

    -based teaching materials. This paper presents the experiences of this particular project, and goes on to discuss the following points: • The blended learning design – use of IT for teaching, learning and communication • Digital learning materials – principals of design and use • Work place learning and learning......In 2014, a new system has been put in place for the inspection and approval of social welfare institutions in Denmark. In as little as 10 weeks, 330 new employees in five regional centres participated in an introductory course, designed as work place learning with extensive use of e-learning and IT...... from work – the interplay between experiences of the learner and the curriculum of the program •The approach taken to customising the e-learning design to the needs and demands of a particular case....

  8. Learning Design Development for Blended Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janne Saltoft

    Learning design development for blended learning We started implementing Blackboard at Aarhus University in 2013. At the Health Faculty Blackboard replaced AULA which was a LMS with functionality for file distribution and only a vague focus on learning tools. Most teachers therefore had...... no experiences with blended leaning and technology supported out-of-class activities. At the pedagogical unit at the Health faculty we wanted to follow the Blackboard implementation with pedagogical tools for learning design to evolve the pedagogical use of the system. We needed to make development of blended...... learning courses easier for the teachers and also ensure quality in the courses. This poster describes the process from development of the learning design to implementation of the learning design at the faculty: 1. How to place demands on a learning design-model and how to develop and use such a model. 2...

  9. Judgments of Learning in Collaborative Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsdingen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Helsdingen, A. S. (2010, March). Judgments of Learning in Collaborative Learning Environments. Poster presented at the 1st International Air Transport and Operations Symposium (ATOS 2010), Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology.

  10. Learning design guided learning analytics in MOOCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, Francis; Firssova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Poster presentation for our paper Brouns, F., & Firssova, O. (2016, October).The role of learning design and learning analytics in MOOCs. Paper presented at 9th EDEN Research Workshop, Oldenburg, Germany.

  11. Networked professional learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sloep, P. B. (2013). Networked professional learning. In A. Littlejohn, & A. Margaryan (Eds.), Technology-enhanced Professional Learning: Processes, Practices and Tools (pp. 97–108). London: Routledge.

  12. Resonant learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvang, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    -experience and personal therapy in training, first and foremost from the students’ perspective. The author focuses on presenting the qualitative part of her research which namely addresses the students’ experiences. Semi-structured qualitative interviews and qualitative music analyses were conducted, using a hermeneutic...... approach. The informants were nine music therapy students from Aalborg University, enrolled in the fifth year of their Master’s degree training programme. They were asked to bring a recording of an improvisation of their own choice to the interview. The qualitative data collection of text and music......The article presents a part of the authors PhD-study in music therapy about self-experiential training and the development of music therapeutic competencies. One of the purposes of the study was to explore and generate understanding and insight into the phenomena of learning through self...

  13. Blended Learning: An Innovative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalima; Dangwal, Kiran Lata

    2017-01-01

    Blended learning is an innovative concept that embraces the advantages of both traditional teaching in the classroom and ICT supported learning including both offline learning and online learning. It has scope for collaborative learning; constructive learning and computer assisted learning (CAI). Blended learning needs rigorous efforts, right…

  14. Brain Research: Implications for Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Louise M.; Soares, Anthony T.

    Brain research has illuminated several areas of the learning process: (1) learning as association; (2) learning as reinforcement; (3) learning as perception; (4) learning as imitation; (5) learning as organization; (6) learning as individual style; and (7) learning as brain activity. The classic conditioning model developed by Pavlov advanced…

  15. Blended Learning in Personalized Assistive Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinagi, Catherine; Skourlas, Christos

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the special needs/requirements of disabled students and cost-benefits for applying blended learning in Personalized Educational Learning Environments (PELE) in Higher Education are studied. The authors describe how blended learning can form an attractive and helpful framework for assisting Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing (D-HH) students to…

  16. LEARNING ABOUT LEARNING, A CONFERENCE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRUNER, JEROME

    TO EXPLORE THE NATURE OF THE LEARNING PROCESS, THREE IMPORTANT PROBLEM AREAS WERE STUDIED. STUDIES IN THE FIRST AREA, ATTITUDINAL AND AFFECTIVE SKILLS, ARE CONCERNED WITH INDUCING A CHILD TO LEARN AND SUSTAINING HIS ATTENTION. STUDIES IN THE SECOND AREA, COGNITIVE SKILLS, SOUGHT TO DISCOVER WHETHER GENERAL IDEAS AND SKILLS CAN BE LEARNED IN SUCH A…

  17. When Learning Analytics Meets E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerkawski, Betul C.

    2015-01-01

    While student data systems are nothing new and most educators have been dealing with student data for many years, learning analytics has emerged as a new concept to capture educational big data. Learning analytics is about better understanding of the learning and teaching process and interpreting student data to improve their success and learning…

  18. Learning Networks for Professional Development & Lifelong Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, Francis; Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Brouns, F., & Sloep, P. B. (2009). Learning Networks for Professional Development & Lifelong Learning. Presentation of the Learning Network Programme for a Korean delegation of Chonnam National University and Dankook University (researchers dr. Jeeheon Ryu and dr. Minjeong Kim and a Group of PhD and

  19. Stimulating Deep Learning Using Active Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Tee Meng; Dawood, Fauziah K. P.; a/p S. Narayansany, Kannaki; a/p Palaniappa Manickam, M. Kamala; Jen, Leong Siok; Hoay, Kuan Chin

    2016-01-01

    When students and teachers behave in ways that reinforce learning as a spectator sport, the result can often be a classroom and overall learning environment that is mostly limited to transmission of information and rote learning rather than deep approaches towards meaningful construction and application of knowledge. A group of college instructors…

  20. Learning Analytics for Networked Learning Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joksimovic, Srecko; Hatala, Marek; Gaševic, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Teaching and learning in networked settings has attracted significant attention recently. The central topic of networked learning research is human-human and human-information interactions occurring within a networked learning environment. The nature of these interactions is highly complex and usually requires a multi-dimensional approach to…

  1. Facilitating Learning Organizations. Making Learning Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsick, Victoria J.; Watkins, Karen E.

    This book offers advice to facilitators and change agents who wish to build systems-level learning to create knowledge that can be used to gain a competitive advantage. Chapter 1 describes forces driving companies to build, sustain, and effectively use systems-level learning and presents and links a working definition of the learning organization…

  2. Online transfer learning with extreme learning machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haibo; Yang, Yun-an

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new transfer learning algorithm for online training. The proposed algorithm, which is called Online Transfer Extreme Learning Machine (OTELM), is based on Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine (OSELM) while it introduces Semi-Supervised Extreme Learning Machine (SSELM) to transfer knowledge from the source to the target domain. With the manifold regularization, SSELM picks out instances from the source domain that are less relevant to those in the target domain to initialize the online training, so as to improve the classification performance. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed OTELM can effectively use instances in the source domain to enhance the learning performance.

  3. Professional learning versus interprofessional learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Cathrine Sand

    2014-01-01

    to improve quality in the Danish healthcare system (1). Cooperation between patients and professionals is challenged when patients are transferred between department, hospitals or sectors (2). Sharing and developing knowledge inter-professionally and in particular across sectors is inadequate (3......, which is necessary for development of the future undergraduate health professional education programmes. The PhD project intends to generate knowledge of: - the contributions of InterTværs to the quality of future health professional education programmes and to the future healthcare system....... The transition challenges in the healthcare system do not seem to only affect patients and knowledge, but also the students and learning. References: (1) Institute for Quality and Accreditation in Healthcare. 2012. The Danish Healthcare Quality Programme. Accreditation Standards for Hospitals (2) Siemsen IMD...

  4. When does social learning become cultural learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2017-03-01

    Developmental research on selective social learning, or 'social learning strategies', is currently a rich source of information about when children copy behaviour, and who they prefer to copy. It also has the potential to tell us when and how human social learning becomes cultural learning; i.e. mediated by psychological mechanisms that are specialized, genetically or culturally, to promote cultural inheritance. However, this review article argues that, to realize its potential, research on the development of selective social learning needs more clearly to distinguish functional from mechanistic explanation; to achieve integration with research on attention and learning in adult humans and 'dumb' animals; and to recognize that psychological mechanisms can be specialized, not only by genetic evolution, but also by associative learning and cultural evolution. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Records for learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The article present and discuss findings from a participatory development of new learning practices among intensive care nurses, with an emphasize on the role of place making in informal learning activities.......The article present and discuss findings from a participatory development of new learning practices among intensive care nurses, with an emphasize on the role of place making in informal learning activities....

  6. Mobile Learning Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annan, Nana Kofi; Ofori-Dwumfou, George; Falch, Morten

    2012-01-01

    on the first experiences gained by both teachers and students by asking the following questions: What are the perceptions of teachers on m-learning? What are the effects of m-learning on students? What does m-learning contribute to face-to-face teaching and learning? Questionnaires were administered...

  7. Students Engaged in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Emad A.; Groccia, James E.

    2018-01-01

    Engaging students in learning is a basic principle of effective undergraduate education. Outcomes of engaging students include meaningful learning experiences and enhanced skills in all learning domains. This chapter reviews the influence of engaging students in different forms of active learning on cognitive, psychomotor, and affective skill…

  8. Cultural Learning Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael

    2016-01-01

    M. Tomasello, A. Kruger, and H. Ratner (1993) proposed a theory of cultural learning comprising imitative learning, instructed learning, and collaborative learning. Empirical and theoretical advances in the past 20 years suggest modifications to the theory; for example, children do not just imitate but overimitate in order to identify and…

  9. Teaching for Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracy Wilson; Colby, Susan A.

    2007-01-01

    The authors have been engaged in research focused on students' depth of learning as well as teachers' efforts to foster deep learning. Findings from a study examining the teaching practices and student learning outcomes of sixty-four teachers in seventeen different states (Smith et al. 2005) indicated that most of the learning in these classrooms…

  10. Culture and Organizational Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, N.; Yanow, D.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, theories of organizational learning have taken one of two approaches that share a common characterization of learning but differ in focus. One approach focuses on learning by individuals in organizational contexts; the other, on individual learning as a model for organizational

  11. Active Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    Present generation students are primarily active learners with varied learning experiences and lecture courses may not suit all their learning needs. Effective learning involves providing students with a sense of progress and control over their own learning. This requires creating a situation where learners have a chance to try out or test their…

  12. Algorithms for Reinforcement Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Szepesvari, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    Reinforcement learning is a learning paradigm concerned with learning to control a system so as to maximize a numerical performance measure that expresses a long-term objective. What distinguishes reinforcement learning from supervised learning is that only partial feedback is given to the learner about the learner's predictions. Further, the predictions may have long term effects through influencing the future state of the controlled system. Thus, time plays a special role. The goal in reinforcement learning is to develop efficient learning algorithms, as well as to understand the algorithms'

  13. Rethinking e-learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Christian

    2006-01-01

    “Technology alone does not deliver educational success. It only becomes valuable in education if learners and teachers can do something useful with it” (E-Learning: The Partnership Challenge, 2001, p. 24). This quotation could be used as a bon mot for this chapter. Our main goal is to rethink e-learning...... by shifting the focus of attention from learning resources (learning objects) to learning activities, which also implies a refocusing of the pedagogical discussion of the learning process.Firstly, we try to identify why e-learning has not been able to deliver the educational results as expected five years ago...

  14. Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Phelan BNS, MSc, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The public health nurses’ scope of practice explicitly includes child protection within their role, which places them in a prime position to identify child protection concerns. This role compliments that of other professions and voluntary agenices who work with children. Public health nurses are in a privileged position as they form a relationship with the child’s parent(s/guardian(s and are able to see the child in its own environment, which many professionals cannot. Child protection in Ireland, while influenced by other countries, has progressed through a distinct pathway that streamlined protocols and procedures. However, despite the above serious failures have occurred in the Irish system, and inquiries over the past 20 years persistently present similar contributing factors, namely, the lack of standardized and comprehensive service responses. Moreover, poor practice is compounded by the lack of recognition of the various interactional processes taking place within and between the different agencies of child protection, leading to psychological barriers in communication. This article will explore the lessons learned for public health nurses practice in safeguarding children in the Republic of Ireland.

  15. Learning tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    Tinnitus, implying the perception of sound without the presence of any acoustical stimulus, is a chronic and serious problem for about 2% of the human population. In many cases, tinnitus is a pitch-like sensation associated with a hearing loss that confines the tinnitus frequency to an interval of the tonotopic axis. Even in patients with a normal audiogram the presence of tinnitus may be associated with damage of hair-cell function in this interval. It has been suggested that homeostatic regulation and, hence, increase of activity leads to the emergence of tinnitus. For patients with hearing loss, we present spike-timing-dependent Hebbian plasticity (STDP) in conjunction with homeostasis as a mechanism for ``learning'' tinnitus in a realistic neuronal network with tonotopically arranged synaptic excitation and inhibition. In so doing we use both dynamical scaling of the synaptic strengths and altering the resting potential of the cells. The corresponding simulations are robust to parameter changes. Understanding the mechanisms of tinnitus induction, such as here, may help improving therapy. Work done in collaboration with Julie Goulet and Michael Schneider. JLvH has been supported partially by BCCN - Munich.

  16. Learning after acquired brain injury. Learning the hard way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boosman, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: When the brain has suffered damage, the learning process can be considerably disturbed. Brain damage can influence what is learned, but also how learning takes place. What patients can learn can be viewed in terms of ‘learning ability’ and how patients learn in terms of ‘learning style’.

  17. Interpretable Active Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Richard L.; Chang, Kyu Hyun; Friedler, Sorelle A.

    2017-01-01

    Active learning has long been a topic of study in machine learning. However, as increasingly complex and opaque models have become standard practice, the process of active learning, too, has become more opaque. There has been little investigation into interpreting what specific trends and patterns an active learning strategy may be exploring. This work expands on the Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations framework (LIME) to provide explanations for active learning recommendations. W...

  18. e-Learning Mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Almanasreh, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    This study concerns the use of e-learning in the educational system shedding the light on its advantages and disadvantages, and analyzing its applicability either partially or totally. From mathematical perspectives, theories are developed to test the courses tendency to online transformation. This leads to a new trend of learning, the offline-online-offline learning (fnf-learning), it merges e-learning mode with the traditional orientation of education. The derivation of the new trend is bas...

  19. Learning Theories In Instructional Multimedia For English Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Farani, Rizki

    2016-01-01

    Learning theory is the concept of human learning. This concept is one of the important components in instructional for learning, especially English learning. English subject becomes one of important subjects for students but learning English needs specific strategy since it is not our vernacular. Considering human learning process in English learning is expected to increase students' motivation to understand English better. Nowadays, the application of learning theories in English learning ha...

  20. Studies in spatial learning. I. Orientation and the short-cut. 1946.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, E C; Ritchie, B F; Kalish, D

    1992-12-01

    1. The original rough formulation of the expectancy theory is difficult to distinguish from the alternative stimulus-response doctrines. Part of this difficulty results from the fact that implicit in this rough formulation, is a definition of the matrix "x expects a goal at location L," which makes it equivalent to the matrix "x runs down the practiced path," when certain conditions are fulfilled. Because of this difficulty, we have rejected this definition. 2. We have suggested instead a definition of the matrix "x expects a goal at location L" which makes it equivalent to the matrix "x runs down the path which points directly to the location L," when certain conditions are fulfilled. 3. To determine whether rats will run down such a path, whenever the original path is blocked, we have run 56 female rats in a situation which conformed to these conditions. 4. Thirty-six percent of the rats chose the path which pointed directly towards the location of the goal. The remaining rats were distributed over the other paths in a chance fashion. 5. We have concluded (1) that rats do learn to expect goals in specific locations, (2) that there are important similarities between this behavior and human symbolic behavior, and (3) that these similarities justify our using the word 'expectation' as a name for the disposition to short-cut when the original patch is blocked.

  1. Designing Learning Resources in Synchronous Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rene B

    2015-01-01

    Computer-mediated Communication (CMC) and synchronous learning environments offer new solutions for teachers and students that transcend the singular one-way transmission of content knowledge from teacher to student. CMC makes it possible not only to teach computer mediated but also to design...... and create new learning resources targeted to a specific group of learners. This paper addresses the possibilities of designing learning resources within synchronous learning environments. The empirical basis is a cross-country study involving students and teachers in primary schools in three Nordic...... Countries (Denmark, Sweden and Norway). On the basis of these empirical studies a set of design examples is drawn with the purpose of showing how the design fulfills the dual purpose of functioning as a remote, synchronous learning environment and - using the learning materials used and recordings...

  2. Multimodal sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemény, Ferenc; Meier, Beat

    2016-02-01

    While sequence learning research models complex phenomena, previous studies have mostly focused on unimodal sequences. The goal of the current experiment is to put implicit sequence learning into a multimodal context: to test whether it can operate across different modalities. We used the Task Sequence Learning paradigm to test whether sequence learning varies across modalities, and whether participants are able to learn multimodal sequences. Our results show that implicit sequence learning is very similar regardless of the source modality. However, the presence of correlated task and response sequences was required for learning to take place. The experiment provides new evidence for implicit sequence learning of abstract conceptual representations. In general, the results suggest that correlated sequences are necessary for implicit sequence learning to occur. Moreover, they show that elements from different modalities can be automatically integrated into one unitary multimodal sequence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Transformative learning spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslo, Elina

    Despite rapid development of learning theory in general and language learning theory in particular in the last years, we still cannot provide an unequivocal answer on the question “why do individuals who presumably possess similar cognitive capacities for second language learning achieve such var......, Leo (2010). The ecology of language learning: Practice to theory, theory to practice. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences. Elsevier......., social, personal, cultural, and historical world they live in (van Lier, 2000). People can learn when they discover possibilities for learning, which appear in this complex world – so called affordances (Gibson, 1979). This happens in the interaction between people and their environment on the basis...... to the different ways of interaction of cognitive, affective and social factors by different individuals. Learning stories, where multilingual individuals are telling about their subjective experiences in language learning in particular and learning in general, are constructed by using a special developed...

  4. Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python

    OpenAIRE

    Pedregosa, Fabian; Varoquaux, Gaël; Gramfort, Alexandre; Michel, Vincent; Thirion, Bertrand; Grisel, Olivier; Blondel, Mathieu; Prettenhofer, Peter; Weiss, Ron; Dubourg, Vincent; Vanderplas, Jake; Passos, Alexandre; Cournapeau, David; Brucher, Matthieu; Perrot, Matthieu

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Scikit-learn is a Python module integrating a wide range of state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms for medium-scale supervised and unsupervised problems. This package focuses on bringing machine learning to non-specialists using a general-purpose high-level language. Emphasis is put on ease of use, performance, documentation, and API consistency. It has minimal dependencies and is distributed under the simplified BSD license, encouraging its use in both academic ...

  5. Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python

    OpenAIRE

    Pedregosa, Fabian; Varoquaux, Gaël; Gramfort, Alexandre; Michel, Vincent; Thirion, Bertrand; Grisel, Olivier; Blondel, Mathieu; Louppe, Gilles; Prettenhofer, Peter; Weiss, Ron; Dubourg, Vincent; Vanderplas, Jake; Passos, Alexandre; Cournapeau, David; Brucher, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    Scikit-learn is a Python module integrating a wide range of state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms for medium-scale supervised and unsupervised problems. This package focuses on bringing machine learning to non-specialists using a general-purpose high-level language. Emphasis is put on ease of use, performance, documentation, and API consistency. It has minimal dependencies and is distributed under the simplified BSD license, encouraging its use in both academic and commercial settings....

  6. Assessing learning at the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Arnoud

    2018-01-01

    • Defining learning at the workplace • Assessing learning at the workplace • Facilitating learning at the workplace: - Structure - Culture - Leadership - Personal factors • Conclusions • Discussion

  7. Mobile learning in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkan Güllüoüǧlu, Sabri

    2013-03-01

    This paper outlines the main infrastructure for implicating mobile learning in medicine and present a sample mobile learning application for medical learning within the framework of mobile learning systems. Mobile technology is developing nowadays. In this case it will be useful to develop different learning environments using these innovations in internet based distance education. M-learning makes the most of being on location, providing immediate access, being connected, and acknowledges learning that occurs beyond formal learning settings, in places such as the workplace, home, and outdoors. Central to m-learning is the principle that it is the learner who is mobile rather than the device used to deliver m learning. The integration of mobile technologies into training has made learning more accessible and portable. Mobile technologies make it possible for a learner to have access to a computer and subsequently learning material and activities; at any time and in any place. Mobile devices can include: mobile phone, personal digital assistants (PDAs), personal digital media players (eg iPods, MP3 players), portable digital media players, portable digital multimedia players. Mobile learning (m-learning) is particularly important in medical education, and the major users of mobile devices are in the field of medicine. The contexts and environment in which learning occurs necessitates m-learning. Medical students are placed in hospital/clinical settings very early in training and require access to course information and to record and reflect on their experiences while on the move. As a result of this paper, this paper strives to compare and contrast mobile learning with normal learning in medicine from various perspectives and give insights and advises into the essential characteristics of both for sustaining medical education.

  8. Pervasive Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper; Helms, Niels Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The potentials of pervasive communication in learning within industry and education are right now being explored through different R&D projects. This paper outlines the background for and the possible learning potentials in what we describe as pervasive learning environments (PLE). PLE?s differ...... from virtual learning environments (VLE) primarily because in PLE?s the learning content is very much related to the actual context in which the learner finds himself. Two local (Denmark) cases illustrate various aspects of pervasive learning. One is the eBag, a pervasive digital portfolio used...

  9. Transnational Learning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    This paper analyses and compares the transnational learning processes in the employment field in the European Union and among the Nordic countries. Based theoretically on a social constructivist model of learning and methodologically on a questionnaire distributed to the relevant participants......, a number of hypotheses concerning transnational learning processes are tested. The paper closes with a number of suggestions regarding an optimal institutional setting for facilitating transnational learning processes.Key words: Transnational learning, Open Method of Coordination, Learning, Employment......, European Employment Strategy, European Union, Nordic countries....

  10. Learning to Innovate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mei, Maggie

    the relationship between organizational learning and innovation creation in an organizational context. Taking a nuanced view of organizational learning, the dissertation investigates how three different organizational learning processes could affect innovation creation at the firm level and project level...... to the understanding of managing organizational learning for innovation creation at firms. The three studies in this dissertation show how three prominent organizational learning processes impact on firms’ innovation performance. Furthermore, the studies in this dissertation emphasize that there are limitation...... and boundary conditions for different organizational learning processes....

  11. Visitor Evaluation: An Exploratory Study for the USAF Museum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wosilius, William

    1997-01-01

    .... Constructs in the questionnaire included: motivation for visiting, evaluation of the museum experience, transportation issues, general awareness of museum services, and demographic information...

  12. USAF Corrosion Prevention and Control Enterprise - Sustainability Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    projects and $84M  Example of potential synergy: From FY05-14, the DoD Corrosion Program funded 21 projects on hexavalent chromium reduction  OSD...coatings, effects on structural integrity, environmental effects, etc  Some topics of interest  Inhibitor mechanisms for mg-rich primer (non- chrome ...approach  Financial and engineering resources are limited  Potential costs of corrosion are significant  Supporting replacements for hexavalent

  13. Nitrous Oxide-Oxygen Sedation: USAF Dental Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    the patient with a history of a seizure disorder that is controlled by anticonvulsives . The patient probably at the highest risk of developing...Refusal by patient (be sure to get parent’s pert;,ission for all pediatric patients). 2. Nasal obstruction. 3. O.per respiratory tract infection. 4

  14. European Fiber Optics. USAF Laboratory Experts’ Visit,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    emitting at 480 ma. AE-Telefunken Telecomunications and Cable Systems Division Postfach 1120 7150 Backnang, Germany Principal Contact: Dr. K. D. 4chenkel...alignment purposes. Standard Telecomunication Laboratories, Inc. (STL) London Road Harlow, Essex 017 9NA, England Principal Contact: Dr. M. Chown - Manager

  15. USAF Summer Faculty Research Program. 1981 Research Reports. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Spec ialty : IIS F ,re ign Policy ; American Indiana State University Nat ioinal Security Policy Dept. of Political Science A. si ,niled: A! Terre Haute...0 C-4 44 C E) I IC C z)~ w z . 0 cnCd d CCC C’) 0-4-9- ..- E-4 (-4 7-A.A).)).) (QUADI) was constructed in the same manner as for the plate bending...IV modifications in accordance with current policy . They are to expedite safety modifications that could ground airborne systems or inactivate ground

  16. Assuring the USAF Core Missions in the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    telecommunications net- works , computer systems, and embedded processors and controllers.”1 This defini- tion clarifies that cyberspace is much more than just...traditional computer net- works . While the Internet is part of cyberspace, it is not all of cyberspace. Any computer system capable of communicating with...people do, and conflict in the cyberspace domain is fought by a melding of inflexible silicon and flexible people 6 | Air & Space Power Journal

  17. Silver Wings, Golden Valor: The USAF Remembers Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hallion, Richard P; Nighthorse Campbell, Ben; Ryan, Michael E; Peters, F. W; Shaud, John A; Thompson, Wayne W

    2006-01-01

    To some people, the Korean War was just a "police action," preferring that euphemism to what it really was -- a brutal and bloody war involving hundreds of thousands of air, ground, and naval forces from many nations...

  18. That Others May Live: USAF Air Rescue in Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marion, Forrest L

    2004-01-01

    When the Korean War began in June 1950, the United States Air Force's Air Rescue Service was a fledgling organization possessing a variety of aircraft types, most having seen service during World War II...

  19. USAF/SCEEE Summer Faculty Research Program (1982). Management Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Biomechanics , Penn State University Work Physiology Industrial & Mgmt. Systems Eng. Dept. Assigned: AMRL University Park, PA 16802 (814) 863-2361 Dr. Mark A...initiate a rudder- pedal adjust- ment will be related to fractional increase in displacements simulating 90-deg crosawinds. -124- THE ROBUSTNESS OF

  20. THE USAF CHAPLAIN CORPS 2016 A ROADMAP TO THE FUTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    numerical efficiency and quantifiable results. 11 The military is no stranger to poor leadership. In a recent study surveying Army War College students...the Wing Chaplain Course (WCC). In the 10-day WCC, students are immersed in cutting edge leadership and team building concepts. Course instructors...However, the continuing issue with leadership failures validates the fact that cutting edge training and education alone does not have the capability

  1. USAF Test Pilot School. Performance Phase Textbook. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    60" is twice as hot as 30* even though 60’ $ 30’ = 2. The reason is that our zero point is arbitrary. Zero degrees Farenheit does not mean the...by absolute mvaitude, ignoring t0* zero differ- Sence gives: Rank 2.5 2.5 2.5 2,5 6 6 6 8.5 8,5 Difference -1 1 1 -1 2 2 2 3 3 • ,•eAXe now .W+ 2.5...uti•n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.24 3.11 goe Lift• • ..... • • 3.29 4-! Table of Contents (continued) Chapter Page 3.12 Zero Lift Line

  2. Arming USAF Senior Leaders With Words To Win

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    the US government has focused its energy and defensive capabilities on countering the spread of Islamic radical extremists and their brand of terrorism...the US government has focused its energy and defensive capabilities on countering the spread of Islamic radical extremists and their brand of...particular course discusses vocabulary in the block designated for medical officers, specifically when dealing with medical terms or with very emotional

  3. Concepts of Operations and USAF Planning for Southwest Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    Dubai1 Iran 6 Rapid Diasharge. Thiee facilities, mighit be unavailbl because of enemy action or for politica reasons and also might not be in usefu...and provides better quality air.4’ Using a molecular sieve to concentrate oxygen and remove nitrogen from ambient air, the OBOG unit fits into the same

  4. Precipice of Parity: Future of the USAF Fighter Force Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    M. “Mike” Loh, gained initial support from the work of Maj Gen Arthur C. Agan’s study promoting a force comprised of maneuverable, agile-fighters...is to attack cities. —Sun Tzu You really have to have to launch out of Andersen someday and go, “Okay, where am I going next?” And nine hours...scale to the vastness of the Western Pacific, consider that the distance from Andersen AFB, Guam to the Taiwan Straits is analogous to the distance

  5. Dynamic Response of Vertebral Elements Related to USAF Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-01

    eventual loss of mucopolysaccharide matrix from both the hyaline cartilage end plates and fibro- cartilage annulUS« resulting in increased cell...In other studies conducted during this contract period, seven adult Rhesus monkeys have been subjected to implantations of calibrated stress...fibroblasts; 2. Loss of cells from and compression of the circular regions lying between the cartilage end plates and nucleus; 3. Altered staining and

  6. USAF/SCEEE Summer Faculty Research Program (1979). Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    consider the profit per week goal, G1, represented by equation (4). The question that can arise is what value of b1 should be placed on the right-hand...who is a philatelist and one who plays scrum-half for a rugby team in his/her free time? Interview subjects from a recent data gathering foray to

  7. USAF Summer Faculty Research Program. 1981 Research Reports. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Nikuradse, J., "Laws for Flows in Rough Pipes," VDI -Forchungsheft 361, Series B, Vol. 4, 1933; NACA TM 1292, 1950. 9. Schlichting, H., "Experimental... 2048 binary words per sample from a given TV frame. The location of the sample from the frame is operator controlled by input parameters at the computer...this unit is 2048 or 0.83 per cent of the data available in one frame. It takes the PDP8/I approximately five minutes to print out the sample data for

  8. Reshaping USAF Culture and Strategy: Lasting Themes and Emerging Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    operations are well-rooted in the air and space experience, near space concepts have struggled to develop the organizational 22 momentum ...space). Nevertheless, by July 2005, the near space concept had achieved sufficient momentum for General Lance Lord (then Commander of Air Force... Bernoulli ) the vertical dimension. Although operating at the upper reaches of the atmosphere, near space flight is bound by Bernoulian principles. The

  9. USAF/SCEEE Summer Faculty Research Program (1979). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    K2 percent of wage and salary income. (25) Solve for WMT where: WMT = RL* ALMT *WWMT where: WMT = Total personal income of military trainees affected by...the action RL f Total size of the realignment Io ALMT = Fraction of positions terminated or relocated held by military trainees who transfer 19-21 II...total number of military per- manent parties that will transfer with the realignment. (34) Solve for EMT where: EMT - ALMT *RL where: EMT = Number of

  10. Learning on the Move, OSS Detachment 101 Special Operations in Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    actions would serve as shaping effects for larger conventional operations. Modern US Army Special Operations doctrine further supports this...their irregular brand of warfare as the decisive operation for a campaign where conventional forces were not suitable, prepared, or politically...Operations doctrine, America’s early SOF did not have the luxury of implementing schoolhouse solution sets and designed each solution as a campaign unfolded

  11. e-Learning for Lifelong Learning in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2010-01-01

    The chapter on 'e-Learning for Lifelong Learning in Denmark' is part of an international White Paper, focusing on educational systems, describing status and characteristics and highlighting specific cases of e-learning and of lifelong learning....

  12. Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougan, A.D.; Blair, S.

    2006-01-01

    LLNL turned in 5 Declaration Line Items (DLI's) in 2006. Of these, one was declared completed. We made some changes to streamline our process from 2005, used less money, time and fewer team members. This report is a description of what changes we made in 2006 and what we learned. Many of our core review team had changed from last year, including our Laboratory Director, the Facility safety and security representatives, our Division Leader, and the OPSEC Committee Chair. We were able to hand out an AP Manual to some of them, and briefed all newcomers to the AP process. We first went to the OPSEC Committee and explained what the Additional Protocol process would be for 2006 and solicited their help in locating declarable projects. We utilized the 'three questions' from the AP meeting last year. LLNL has no single place to locate all projects at the laboratory. We talked to Resource Managers and key Managers in the Energy and Environment Directorate and in the Nonproliferation Homeland and International Security Directorate to find applicable projects. We also talked to the Principal Investigators who had projects last year. We reviewed a list of CRADA's and LDRD projects given to us by the Laboratory Site Office. Talking to the PI's proved difficult because of vacation or travel schedules. We were never able to locate one PI in town. Fortunately, collateral information allowed us to screen out his project. We had no problems in downloading new versions of the DWA and DDA. It was helpful for both Steve Blair and Arden Dougan to have write privileges. During the time we were working on the project, we had to tag-team the work to allow for travel and vacation schedules. We had some difficulty locating an 'activities block' in the software. This was mentioned as something we needed to fix from our 2005 declaration. Evidently the Activities Block has been removed from the current version of the software. We also had trouble finding the DLI Detail Report, which we included

  13. Stealth Learning: Unexpected Learning Opportunities through Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Educators across the country struggle to create engaging, motivating learning environments for their Net Gen students. These learners expect instant gratification that traditional lectures do not provide. This leaves educators searching for innovative ways to engage students in order to encourage learning. One solution is for educators to use…

  14. From E-learning to Blended Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Skov; Hansen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    . The project uses a ?capacity building strategy where new practice and skills are built through pedagogical interventions mostly designed as courses based on blended learning with a dialogue oriented and practice related team-work as an important part. Through this work the team learns how to use a specific...

  15. Generative Learning: Adults Learning within Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaides, Aliki

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which ambiguity can serve as a catalyst for adult learning. The purpose of this study is to understand learning that is generated when encountering ambiguity agitated by the complexity of liquid modernity. "Ambiguity," in this study, describes an encounter with an appearance of reality that is at first…

  16. LEARNING HOW TO LEARN A LANGUAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    Language Training; Tel. 73127; Andrée Fontbonne; Tel. 72844

    2001-01-01

    This bilingual seminar is for anyone who would like to develop learning strategies and skills for learning a foreign language. Languages: French and English. Length: 3 days, 7 hours per day. Dates: 4, 5, 6 March 2002. Price: 460 CHF per person (for a group of 8 people). If you are interested, please enrol through our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training

  17. LEARNING HOW TO LEARN A LANGUAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    Language Training; Tel. 73127; Andrée Fontbonne; Tel. 72844

    2001-01-01

    This bilingual seminar is for anyone who would like to develop learning strategies and skills for learning a foreign language. Languages: French and English. Length: 3 days, 7 hours per day. Dates: 5, 6, 7 November 2001. Price: 460 CHF per person (for a group of 8 people). If you are interested, please enrol through our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training

  18. Constructivist learning theories and complex learning environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R-J. Simons; Dr. S. Bolhuis

    2004-01-01

    Learning theories broadly characterised as constructivist, agree on the importance to learning of the environment, but differ on what exactly it is that constitutes this importance. Accordingly, they also differ on the educational consequences to be drawn from the theoretical perspective. Cognitive

  19. Transformative Learning: Personal Empowerment in Learning Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassi, Marja-Liisa; Laursen, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of personal empowerment as a form of transformative learning. It focuses on commonly ignored but enhancing elements of mathematics learning and argues that crucial personal resources can be essentially promoted by high engagement in mathematical problem solving, inquiry, and collaboration. This personal…

  20. Facilitating "Organisational Learning" in a "Learning Institution"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Alan; Sillitoe, James

    2013-01-01

    The term "organisational learning" was popularised by Peter Senge in "The Fifth Discipline", his seminal book from 1990. Since then, the term has become widely accepted among those interested in organisational learning and change management. However, partly due to the somewhat ambiguous situation which arises in a university…

  1. Cooperative Learning as a Democratic Learning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbil, Deniz Gökçe; Kocabas, Ayfer

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the effects of applying the cooperative learning method on the students' attitude toward democracy in an elementary 3rd-grade life studies course was examined. Over the course of 8 weeks, the cooperative learning method was applied with an experimental group, and traditional methods of teaching life studies in 2009, which was still…

  2. Learning about Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning About Allergies KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning About Allergies What's in ... in the spring. Why Do Some Kids Get Allergies? People may be born with a genetic (say: ...

  3. Pervasive Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper; Helms, Niels Henrik

    in schools. The other is moreover related to work based learning in that it foresees a community of practitioners accessing, sharing and adding to knowledge and learning objects held within a pervasive business intelligence system. Limitations and needed developments of these and other systems are discussed......Abstract: The potentials of pervasive communication in learning within industry and education are right know being explored through different R&D projects. This paper outlines the background for and the possible learning potentials in what we describe as pervasive learning environments (PLE). PLE......'s differ from virtual learning environments (VLE) primarily because in PLE's the learning content is very much related to the actual context in which the learner finds himself. Two local (Denmark) cases illustrate various aspects of pervasive learning. One is the eBag, a pervasive digital portfolio used...

  4. Learning by Doing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettler, Joel

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that, as people become the key differentiation of competitive advantage, companies are turning to experiential learning programs to foster work force collaboration and cooperation. Discusses the history of experiential learning and its application in the workplace. (JOW)

  5. Learning Networks Distributed Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Harrie; Vogten, Hubert; Koper, Rob; Tattersall, Colin; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Sloep, Peter; Van Bruggen, Jan; Spoelstra, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Learning Networks Distributed Environment is a prototype of an architecture that allows the sharing and modification of learning materials through a number of transport protocols. The prototype implements a p2p protcol using JXTA.

  6. Learning about Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning About Proteins KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning About Proteins What's in ...

  7. Learning in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helth, Poula

    on theories of aesthetic performance and transformative learning, and on empirical studies through interventive methods within action research and ethnography. Transformative learning in my study has been developed based on aesthetic performance addressing leaders’ learning in practice. This kind of learning......The thesis presents the essence of my study of how leaders transform their practice through aesthetic performance. The background of the study is leaders' need for learning in and through practice, as an alternative to learning in classrooms and to leadership education programs. The study is based...... happens when leaders become aware of the potential for transformation of their leadership practice when they experiment with aesthetic performance integrated in a learning process. The greatest impact in relation to organisational transformation is, when leaders base their learning on a collective...

  8. MOOC Blended learning ontwikkelen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verjans, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Presentatie over het ontwerpen van leeractiviteiten (learning design) tijdens de zesde live sessie van de MOOC Blended learning ontwikkelen. Met gebruikmaking van presentatiematerialen van Diana Laurillard, Grainne Conole, Helen Beetham, Jos Fransen, Pieter Swager, Helen Keegan, Corinne Weisgerber.

  9. Social Structures for Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Bogenrieder (Irma); B. Nooteboom (Bart)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis article investigates what learning groups there are in organizations, other than the familiar 'communities of practice'. It first develops an interdisciplinary theoretical framework for identifying, categorizing and understanding learning groups. For this, it employs a

  10. Learning about Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning About Carbohydrates KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning About Carbohydrates Print en ... source of energy for the body. What Are Carbohydrates? There are two major types of carbohydrates (or ...

  11. Preventing Learned Helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Cheri

    1986-01-01

    To prevent learned helplessness in learning disabled students, teachers can share responsibilities with the students, train students to reinforce themselves for effort and self control, and introduce opportunities for changing counterproductive attitudes. (CL)

  12. Teaming up for learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Fransen, J. (2012). Teaming up for learning: Team effectiveness in collaborative learning in higher education (Doctoral dissertation). November, 16, 2012, Open University in the Netherlands (CELSTEC), Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  13. Teachability in Computational Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Shinohara, Ayumi; Miyano, Satoru

    1990-01-01

    This paper considers computationai learning from the viewpoint of teaching. We introduce a notion of teachability with which we establish a relationship between the learnability and teachability. We also discuss the complexity issues of a teacher in relation to learning.

  14. The sign learning theory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KING OF DAWN

    The sign learning theory also holds secrets that could be exploited in accomplishing motor tasks. ... Introduction ... In his classic work: Cognitive Map in Rats and Men (1948),Tolman talked about five groups of experiments viz: latent learning ...

  15. Efficient Learning Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    This paper presents the current approach to implementing educational technology with learning design at the Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, by introducing the concept of ‘efficient learning design’. The underlying hypothesis is that implementing learning design is more than...... engaging educators in the design process and developing teaching and learning, it is a shift in educational practice that potentially requires a stakeholder analysis and ultimately a business model for the deployment. What is most important is to balance the institutional, educator, and student...... perspectives and to consider all these in conjunction in order to obtain a sustainable, efficient learning design. The approach to deploying learning design in terms of the concept of efficient learning design, the catalyst for educational development, i.e. the learning design model and how it is being used...

  16. Pervasive Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Hundebøl, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    The potentials of pervasive communication in learning within industry and education are right know being explored through different R&D projects. This paper outlines the background for and the possible learning potentials in what we describe as pervasive learning environments (PLE). PLE's differ...... from virtual learning environments (VLE) primarily because in PLE's the learning content is very much related to the actual context in which the learner finds himself. Two local (Denmark) cases illustrate various aspects of pervasive learning. One is the eBag, a pervasive digital portfolio used...... in schools. The other is moreover related to work based learning in that it foresees a community of practitioners accessing, sharing and adding to knowledge and learning objects held within a pervasive business intelligence system. Limitations and needed developments of these and other systems are discussed...

  17. Learning Design Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, David; Blat, Josep; Garcia, Rocío; Vogten, Hubert; Kwong, KL

    2005-01-01

    Griffiths, D., Blat, J., Garcia, R., Vogten, H. & Kwong, KL. (2005). Learning Design Tools. In: Koper, R. & Tattersall, C., Learning Design: A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education and Training (pp. 109-136). Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.

  18. Genetic Science Learning Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic Science Learning Center Making science and health easy for everyone to understand Home News Our Team What We Do ... Collaboration Conferences Current Projects Publications Contact The Genetic Science Learning Center at The University of Utah is a ...

  19. Mobile Informal Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Börner, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Glahn, C., & Börner, D. (2009). Mobile Informal Learning. Presented at Mobile Learning in Context Symposium at the Open University of the Netherlands. September, 11, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  20. Making Learning Meaningful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, A. Louis; Kelly, Paul V.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses two theories of cognitive development, Ausubel's theory of verbal learning and Piaget's development theory. Illustrates that both concept mapping and the learning cycle are rooted in these two theories. (DDR)