WorldWideScience

Sample records for learning translation templates

  1. A light meson translatable template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allgower, C.E.; Peaslee, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    Recently surveyed (mass)2 values for I = 0, JPC = 2++ light mesons can be assembled into repeating patterns of 4 states, dubbed 'templates'. Within error, both internal and external template spacings approximate simple multiples of Δm2 ≅ 0.35 GeV2. Hopefully, this feature will be useful in predicting the positions of higher isoscalar 2++ states

  2. Learning templates for artistic portrait lighting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowu; Jin, Xin; Wu, Hongyu; Zhao, Qinping

    2015-02-01

    Lighting is a key factor in creating impressive artistic portraits. In this paper, we propose to analyze portrait lighting by learning templates of lighting styles. Inspired by the experience of artists, we first define several novel features that describe the local contrasts in various face regions. The most informative features are then selected with a stepwise feature pursuit algorithm to derive the templates of various lighting styles. After that, the matching scores that measure the similarity between a testing portrait and those templates are calculated for lighting style classification. Furthermore, we train a regression model by the subjective scores and the feature responses of a template to predict the score of a portrait lighting quality. Based on the templates, a novel face illumination descriptor is defined to measure the difference between two portrait lightings. Experimental results show that the learned templates can well describe the lighting styles, whereas the proposed approach can assess the lighting quality of artistic portraits as human being does.

  3. Template matching via densities on the roto-translation group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, E.; Loog, M.; Romeny, B. ter Haar; Duits, R.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a template matching method for the detection of 2D image objects that are characterized by orientation patterns. Our method is based on data representations via orientation scores, which are functions on the space of positions and orientations, and which are obtained via a wavelet-type

  4. Learning by Translating: A Contrastive Methodology for ESP Learning and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Laviosa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years applied linguists have explored the possibility of integrating the insights of second language acquisition theories, contrastive analysis, foreign language teaching methodologies, and translation studies with a view to enhancing current communicative models and techniques for L2 teaching and translator training (see for example Sewell and Higgins 1996; Laviosa-Braithwaite 1997; Campbell 1998; Malmkjær 1998; Laviosa 2000; Colina 2002. We intend to make a contribution to this interdisciplinary orientation by putting forward a translation-based methodology for learning ESP vocabulary and grammar through real life mediating communicative activities. With particular reference to the translation task itself, we endeavour to provide teachers of English for special purposes and translator trainers with a methodology for guiding their students in producing, to the best of their abilities, a target text which meets the quality criteria of terminological accuracy and stylistic fluency, and is also effective in terms of the communicative situation it is intended for. After outlining the rationale and main theoretical approaches underpinning our work, we will illustrate our methodology for learning ESP vocabulary and translation skills from a contrastive perspective, as in our book Learning by Translating (Laviosa and Cleverton 2003.

  5. Tensorial dynamic time warping with articulation index representation for efficient audio-template learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Long N; Jones, Douglas L

    2018-03-01

    Audio classification techniques often depend on the availability of a large labeled training dataset for successful performance. However, in many application domains of audio classification (e.g., wildlife monitoring), obtaining labeled data is still a costly and laborious process. Motivated by this observation, a technique is proposed to efficiently learn a clean template from a few labeled, but likely corrupted (by noise and interferences), data samples. This learning can be done efficiently via tensorial dynamic time warping on the articulation index-based time-frequency representations of audio data. The learned template can then be used in audio classification following the standard template-based approach. Experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms both (1) the recurrent neural network approach and (2) the state-of-the-art in the template-based approach on a wildlife detection application with few training samples.

  6. Translation in language learning: a ‘what for’ approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo E. Balboni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature about translation in language learning and teaching shows the prominence of the ‘for and against’ approach, while a ‘what for’ approach would be more profitable. In order to prevent the latter approach from becoming a random list of the potential benefits of the use of translation in language teaching, this essay suggests the use of a formal model of communicative competence, to see which of its components can profit of translation activities. The result is a map of the effects of translation in the wide range of competences and abilities which constitute language learning.

  7. Dialogic learning and interactive groups: an IMS LD template integrated in runtime systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Pérez-Sanagustín

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Dialogic learning and interactive groups have proved to be a useful educational methodological approach in lifelong learning with adults. The principles of this approach stress the importance of dialogue and equal participation in every stage of the learning process – including the design of the training activities. This paper adopts these principles as the basis for a configurable template that can be integrated in runtime systems. The template is formulated as a meta-UoL which can be interpreted by IMS Learning Design players. This template serves as a guide to flexibly select and edit the activities at runtime (on the fly. The meta-UoL has been used successfully by two significant practitioners so as to create a real-life example, with positive and encouraging results.

  8. Remedial training for the radiology resident: a template for optimization of the learning plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Colin; Chang, Silvia; Forster, Bruce

    2015-02-01

    All radiology residency programs should strive for the early identification of individuals in need of remedial training and have an approach ready to address this situation. This article provides a template for a step-by-step approach which is team based. It includes definition of the learning or performance issues, creation of suitable learning objectives and learning plan, facilitation of feedback and assessment, and definition of outcomes. Using such a template will assist the resident in returning to the path toward a safe and competent radiologist. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Management Coaching with Performance Templates to Stimulate Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Paul; Bandura, Randall P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Much has been written about self-regulated learning (SRL) (including mind-sets) in psychology and education, but little research is found in the HRD or training literature regarding the stimulation of this learning. This paper aims to present a practical training tool, performance templates (P-T), to demonstrate how a line manager may…

  10. Translating and transforming (a) CALL for leadership for learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinreich, Elvi; Bjerg, Helle

    2015-01-01

    "The paper pursues the argument that the process of translation is not solely a linguistic exercise. It also implies methodological and conceptual questions related to the translation and as such transformation of general and theoretical research based models of leadership for learning...

  11. Translating Institutional Templates: A Historical Account of the Consequences of Importing Policing Models into Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Dewey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the translation of the French and English law enforcement models into Argentina and analyzes its consequences in terms of social order. Whereas in the former two models the judiciary and police institutions originated in large-scale processes of historical consolidation, in the latter these institutions were implanted without the antecedents present in their countries of origin. The empirical references are Argentine police institutions, particularly the police of the Buenos Aires Province, observed at two moments in which the institutional import was particularly intense: towards the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries, and at the end of the twentieth century. By way of tracing these processes of police constitution and reform, we show how new models of law enforcement and policing interacted with indigenous political structures and cultural frames, as well as how this constellation produced a social order in which legality and illegality are closely interwoven. The article is an attempt to go beyond the common observations regarding how an imported model failed; instead, it dissects the effects the translation actually produced and how the translated models transform into resources that reshape the new social order. A crucial element, the article shows, is that these resources can be instrumentalized according to »idiosyncrasies«, interests, and quotas of power.

  12. Rapid motor learning in the translational vestibulo-ocular reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wu; Weldon, Patrick; Tang, Bingfeng; King, W. M.; Shelhamer, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Motor learning was induced in the translational vestibulo-ocular reflex (TVOR) when monkeys were repeatedly subjected to a brief (0.5 sec) head translation while they tried to maintain binocular fixation on a visual target for juice rewards. If the target was world-fixed, the initial eye speed of the TVOR gradually increased; if the target was head-fixed, the initial eye speed of the TVOR gradually decreased. The rate of learning acquisition was very rapid, with a time constant of approximately 100 trials, which was equivalent to or=1 d without any reinforcement, indicating induction of long-term synaptic plasticity. Although the learning generalized to targets with different viewing distances and to head translations with different accelerations, it was highly specific for the particular combination of head motion and evoked eye movement associated with the training. For example, it was specific to the modality of the stimulus (translation vs rotation) and the direction of the evoked eye movement in the training. Furthermore, when one eye was aligned with the heading direction so that it remained motionless during training, learning was not expressed in this eye, but only in the other nonaligned eye. These specificities show that the learning sites are neither in the sensory nor the motor limb of the reflex but in the sensory-motor transformation stage of the reflex. The dependence of the learning on both head motion and evoked eye movement suggests that Hebbian learning may be one of the underlying cellular mechanisms.

  13. The Usefulness of Translation in Foreign Language Learning: Students’ Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Fernández-Guerra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Several scholars have argued that translation is not a useful tool when acquiring a second or foreign language; since it provides a simplistic one-to-one relationship between the native and the foreign language, it can cause interference between them, and it is an artificial exercise that has nothing to do in a communicative approach to language teaching. Recent studies, however, show that, far from being useless, translation can be a great aid to foreign language learning. The aim of the present paper is twofold: (1 to summarize and assess the arguments that encourage the use of translation in the foreign language classroom, supporting the integration of several forms of translating; and (2 to present the results of a survey that focused on students’ perceptions and responses towards translation tasks and their effectiveness in foreign language acquisition. Results show that students’ attitudes were surprisingly positive for several reasons: translation is one of their preferred language learning tasks, it is motivating, it facilitates a deeper understanding of the form and content of the source language text, it increases learners’ awareness of the differences between both linguistic systems, it allows them to re-express their thoughts faster and easier, and it helps them acquire linguistic and cultural knowledge.

  14. Use of a structured template to facilitate practice-based learning and improvement projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Elizabeth K; Babbott, Stewart F; Tsue, Terance T; Girod, Douglas A; Clements, Debora; Gilmer, Lisa; Persons, Diane; Unruh, Greg

    2012-06-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires residency programs to meet and demonstrate outcomes across 6 competencies. Measuring residents' competency in practice-based learning and improvement (PBLI) is particularly challenging. We developed an educational tool to meet ACGME requirements for PBLI. The PBLI template helped programs document quality improvement (QI) projects and supported increased scholarly activity surrounding PBLI learning. We reviewed program requirements for 43 residency and fellowship programs and identified specific PBLI requirements for QI activities. We also examined ACGME Program Information Form responses on PBLI core competency questions surrounding QI projects for program sites visited in 2008-2009. Data were integrated by a multidisciplinary committee to develop a peer-protected PBLI template guiding programs through process, documentation, and evaluation of QI projects. All steps were reviewed and approved through our GME Committee structure. An electronic template, companion checklist, and evaluation form were developed using identified project characteristics to guide programs through the PBLI process and facilitate documentation and evaluation of the process. During a 24 month period, 27 programs have completed PBLI projects, and 15 have reviewed the template with their education committees, but have not initiated projects using the template. The development of the tool generated program leaders' support because the tool enhanced the ability to meet program-specific objectives. The peer-protected status of this document for confidentiality and from discovery has been beneficial for program usage. The document aggregates data on PBLI and QI initiatives, offers opportunities to increase scholarship in QI, and meets the ACGME goal of linking measures to outcomes important to meeting accreditation requirements at the program and institutional level.

  15. Translating Learning into Numbers: A Generic Framework for Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greller, Wolfgang; Drachsler, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    With the increase in available educational data, it is expected that Learning Analytics will become a powerful means to inform and support learners, teachers and their institutions in better understanding and predicting personal learning needs and performance. However, the processes and requirements behind the beneficial application of Learning…

  16. The Literal Translation Hypothesis in ESP Teaching/Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Fuertes-Olivera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on the characteristics of specialized vocabulary usually replicates studies that deal with general words, e.g. they typically describe frequent terms and focus on their linguistic characteristics to aid in the learning and acquisition of the terms. We dispute this practise, as we believe that the basic characteristic of terms is that they are coined to restrict meaning, i.e. to be as precise and as specific as possible in a particular context. For instance, around 70% of English and Spanish accounting terms are multi-word terms, most of which contain more than three orthographic words that syntactically behave in a way that is very different from the syntactic behaviour of the node on which they are formed (Fuertes-Olivera and Tarp, forthcoming. This has prompted us to propose a research framework that investigates whether or not the literal translation hypothesis, which has been addressed in several areas of translation studies, can also be applied in ESP teaching/learning environments. If plausible, the assumptions on which this hypothesis is based can shed light on how learners disambiguate terms they encounter. Within this framework, this paper presents evidence that the literal translation hypothesis is possible in ESP; it offers the results of a pilot study that sheds light on how this hypothesis may work, and also discusses its usability in the context of ESP learning. In particular, this paper presents strategies for teaching multi-word terms that are different from those currently based on corpus data. We believe that exercises such as “cloze”, “fill in” and similar “guessing” exercises must be abandoned in ESP teaching/learning environments. Instead, we propose exercises that reproduce L1 teaching and learning activities, i.e., exercises that are typically used when acquiring specialised knowledge and skills in any domain, e.g. taking part in meetings and giving presentations in a business context.

  17. Adaptive template generation for amyloid PET using a deep learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung Kwan; Seo, Seongho; Shin, Seong A; Byun, Min Soo; Lee, Dong Young; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Jae Sung

    2018-05-11

    Accurate spatial normalization (SN) of amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) images for Alzheimer's disease assessment without coregistered anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the same individual is technically challenging. In this study, we applied deep neural networks to generate individually adaptive PET templates for robust and accurate SN of amyloid PET without using matched 3D MR images. Using 681 pairs of simultaneously acquired 11 C-PIB PET and T1-weighted 3D MRI scans of AD, MCI, and cognitively normal subjects, we trained and tested two deep neural networks [convolutional auto-encoder (CAE) and generative adversarial network (GAN)] that produce adaptive best PET templates. More specifically, the networks were trained using 685,100 pieces of augmented data generated by rotating 527 randomly selected datasets and validated using 154 datasets. The input to the supervised neural networks was the 3D PET volume in native space and the label was the spatially normalized 3D PET image using the transformation parameters obtained from MRI-based SN. The proposed deep learning approach significantly enhanced the quantitative accuracy of MRI-less amyloid PET assessment by reducing the SN error observed when an average amyloid PET template is used. Given an input image, the trained deep neural networks rapidly provide individually adaptive 3D PET templates without any discontinuity between the slices (in 0.02 s). As the proposed method does not require 3D MRI for the SN of PET images, it has great potential for use in routine analysis of amyloid PET images in clinical practice and research. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Discovery learning in the language-for-translation classroom: corpora as learning aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bernardini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reviews the idea of discovery learning with corpora, proposed in the 1990s, evaluating its potential and its implications with reference to the education of translators today. The rationale behind this approach to data-driven learning, combining project-based and form-focused instruction within a socio-constructivistically inspired environment, is discussed. Examples are also provided of authentic, open-ended learning experiences, thanks to which students of translation share responsibility over the development of corpora and their consultation, and teachers can abandon the challenging role of omniscient knowledge providers and wear the more honest hat of "learning experts". Adding to the more straightforward uses of corpora in courses that aim to develop thematic, technological and information mining competences – i.e., in which training is offered in the use of corpora as professional aids –, attention is focused on foreign language teaching for translators and on corpora as learning aids, highlighting their potential for the development of the three other European Master's in Translation (EMT competences (translation service provision, language and intercultural ones.

  19. Discovery learning in the language-for-translation classroom: corpora as learning aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bernardini

    2016-04-01

    This contribution reviews the idea of discovery learning with corpora, proposed in the 1990s, evaluating its potential and its implications with reference to the education of translators today. The rationale behind this approach to data-driven learning, combining project-based and form-focused instruction within a socio-constructivistically inspired environment, is discussed. Examples are also provided of authentic, open-ended learning experiences, thanks to which students of translation share responsibility over the development of corpora and their consultation, and teachers can abandon the challenging role of omniscient knowledge providers and wear the more honest hat of "learning experts". Adding to the more straightforward uses of corpora in courses that aim to develop thematic, technological and information mining competences – i.e., in which training is offered in the use of corpora as professional aids –, attention is focused on foreign language teaching for translators and on corpora as learning aids, highlighting their potential for the development of the three other European Master's in Translation (EMT competences (translation service provision, language and intercultural ones.

  20. Initiatives and evaluation of teaching-learning process in translation training

    OpenAIRE

    Olvera Lobo, Mar??a Dolores; Guti??rrez-Artacho, Juncal

    2010-01-01

    The ability to manage information and communication technologies (ICT) is a professional prerequisite for translators. The translation discipline is aware of this trend because ICTs have changed and developed the translation profession. Translation training is more than just learning a proficient command of languages, and translators must also develop other important skills ??? such as accessing and managing information resources. A group of teachers from various departments of the Univers...

  1. Developing Bi-Lingual Skills for Translation through an Online Multimedia-Supported Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eser, Oktay; Saltan, Fatih; Ersanli, Ceylan Yangin; Erdem, Gamze

    2016-01-01

    Recent research shows that bi-lingual competence is one of the necessary skills that a translator needs in order to translate (PACTE, 2003). Apart from the mother tongue, a translator must have a command of other working languages. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the online multimedia-supported learning environment concerning…

  2. Nothing left to learn: translation and the Groundhog Day of bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    Izak, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Beyond the existing theorizing of translation as a creative disruption in both occupational and semantic terms, the current study explores it critically in the experiential framework of professional translators and as a meaning-making process. Acknowledging the role of translation in creating dialogic and radical climates for learning, the article proposes to explore the other side of this relationship by studying how the limiting of space for translation delimits the possibilities for meanin...

  3. The Problem with Templates: Learning from Organic Gang-Related Violence Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Rodgers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers what demobilisation, disarmament, and reintegration (DDR programmes might learn from research on gangs and the problems associated with government-instituted ‘wars on gangs’ putatively aimed at reducing or fighting gang-related violence. It begins by considering interventions associated with the global war on gangs, and compares their underlying premises and practices with those of DDR programmes while highlighting how both are plagued with problems associated with drawing on de-contextualized templates. Drawing on long-term ethnographic research carried out in Nicaragua and South Africa, the article then goes on to explore why individuals leave gangs, focusing in particular on the more organic processes that deplete gangs of their members, as well as the consequences that the different possible occupational trajectories of ex-gang members can have for patterns of violence. These offer a number of potential lessons for DDR programmes, particularly with regard to reducing violence in a realistic and sustainable manner.

  4. Cancer cell detection and classification using transformation invariant template learning methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talware, Rajendra; Abhyankar, Aditya

    2011-01-01

    In traditional cancer cell detection, pathologists examine biopsies to make diagnostic assessments, largely based on cell morphology and tissue distribution. The process of image acquisition is very much subjective and the pattern undergoes unknown or random transformations during data acquisition (e.g. variation in illumination, orientation, translation and perspective) results in high degree of variability. Transformed Component Analysis (TCA) incorporates a discrete, hidden variable that accounts for transformations and uses the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm to jointly extract components and normalize for transformations. Further the TEMPLAR framework developed takes advantage of hierarchical pattern models and adds probabilistic modeling for local transformations. Pattern classification is based on Expectation Maximization algorithm and General Likelihood Ratio Tests (GLRT). Performance of TEMPLAR is certainly improved by defining area of interest on slide a priori. Performance can be further enhanced by making the kernel function adaptive during learning. (author)

  5. Google Translate as a Supplementary Tool for Learning Malay: A Case Study at Universiti Sains Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Bahri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the use of Google Translate as a supplementary tool for helping international students at Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM to learn and develop their knowledge and skills in learning Bahasa Malaysia (Malay Language. The participants of the study were 16 international students at the School of Languages, Literacies, and Translation, USM who had registered for the LKM 100 Bahasa Malaysia (I course. Based on the literature review, analysis of the collected data, and an assessment of the course content and activities inside and outside the language classroom, the findings suggest that most international students at USM recognize Google Translate as an effective supplementary tool for learning vocabulary, writing, and reading in Bahasa Malaysia. In fact, some students reported that they could optimally benefit from their self-learning if they were assisted to use Google Translate effectively. Moreover, using Google Translate for doing classroom tasks and activities can encourage students to study independently, and to shape their own strategies for solving language learning problems. Keywords: Google Translate, supplementary tool, translation, language learning, Bahasa Malaysia

  6. Harry Potter in Translation: Making Language Learning Magical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2012-01-01

    This guidebook for teachers documents the "Harry Potter in Translation" project undertaken at the Language Research Centre at the University of Calgary. The guide also offers 5 sample lesson plans for teachers of grades three to twelve for teaching world languages using the Harry Potter books in translation to engage students. (Contains…

  7. A Chinese translation of IMS Learning Design Best Practice and Implementation Guide (draft)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Yufeng

    2006-01-01

    Many Chinese researchers, system developers and e-learning practitioners have difficulties to understand IMS LD correctly because of language barriers. The main aim of this translation is to help chinese people to overcome the difficulties. It is also expected that this translation can launch into a

  8. How Do Clinicians Learn About Knowledge Translation? An Investigation of Current Web-Based Learning Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damarell, Raechel A; Tieman, Jennifer J

    2017-07-13

    Clinicians are important stakeholders in the translation of well-designed research evidence into clinical practice for optimal patient care. However, the application of knowledge translation (KT) theories and processes may present conceptual and practical challenges for clinicians. Online learning platforms are an effective means of delivering KT education, providing an interactive, time-efficient, and affordable alternative to face-to-face education programs. This study investigates the availability and accessibility of online KT learning opportunities for health professionals. It also provides an analysis of the types of resources and associated disciplines retrieved by a range of KT synonyms. We searched a range of bibliographic databases and the Internet (Google advanced option) using 9 KT terms to identify online KT learning resources. To be eligible, resources had to be free, aimed at clinicians, educational in intent, and interactive in design. Each term was searched using two different search engines. The details of the first 100 websites captured per browser (ie, n=200 results per term) were entered into EndNote. Each site was subsequently visited to determine its status as a learning resource. Eligible websites were appraised for quality using the AACODS (Authority, Accuracy, Coverage, Objectivity, Date, Significance) tool. We identified 971 unique websites via our multiple search strategies. Of these, 43 were health-related and educational in intent. Once these sites were evaluated for interactivity, a single website matched our inclusion criteria (Dementia Knowledge Translation Learning Centre). KT is an important but complex system of processes. These processes overlap with knowledge, practice, and improvement processes that go by a range of different names. For clinicians to be informed and competent in KT, they require better access to free learning opportunities. These resources should be designed from the viewpoint of the clinician, presenting KT

  9. From what we know to what we do: lessons learned from the translational CLAHRC initiative in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Graeme; Lockett, Andy; El Enany, Nellie

    2013-10-01

    There exists a translation gap between academic research and clinical practice in health care systems. One policy-driven initiative to address the translation gap in England are the Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs), funded by the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR). These aim to bring together NHS organizations and universities to accelerate the translation of evidence-based innovation into clinical practice. Our aim was to draw out lessons for policy-makers regarding the mobilization of such initiatives. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 174 participants across nine CLAHRCs plus in-depth case studies across four CLAHRCs. Those interviewed were staff who were central to the CLAHRCs including senior managers and directors, junior and senior academics, and health care practitioners. Social positions of the CLAHRC leaders, conceived as institutional entrepreneurs, together with the antecedent conditions for CLAHRC bids, had an impact on the vision for a CLAHRC. The process of envisioning encompassed diagnostic and prognostic framing. Within the envisioning process, the utilization of existing activities and established relationships in the CLAHRC bid influenced early mobilization. However, in some cases, it led to a translational 'lock in' towards established models regarding applied research. The CLAHRC experiment in England holds important lessons for policy-makers regarding how to address the translation gap. First, policy makers need to consider whether they set out a defined template for translational initiatives or whether variation is encouraged. We might expect a degree of learning from pilot activities within a CLAHRC that allows for greater clarity in the design of subsequent translational initiatives. Second, policy makers and practitioners need to understand the importance of both antecedent conditions and the social position of senior members of a CLAHRC (institutional entrepreneurs) leading

  10. Templates, Numbers & Watercolors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemesha, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how a second-grade class used large templates to draw and paint five-digit numbers. The lesson integrated artistic knowledge and vocabulary with their mathematics lesson in place value. Students learned how draftspeople use templates, and they studied number paintings by Charles Demuth and Jasper Johns. (KM)

  11. Integrating Online and Active Learning in a Computer-Assisted Translation Workbench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alabau, Vicent; González-Rubio, Jésus; Ortíz-Martínez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot study with a computed-assisted translation workbench aiming at testing the integration of online and active learning features. We investigate the effect of these features on translation productivity, using interactive translation prediction (ITP) as a baseline. User...... activity data were collected from five beta testers using key-logging and eye-tracking. User feedback was also collected at the end of the experiments in the form of retrospective think-aloud protocols. We found that OL performs better than ITP, especially in terms of translation speed. In addition, AL...

  12. Google Translate as a Supplementary Tool for Learning Malay: A Case Study at Universiti Sains Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Hossein; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku

    2016-01-01

    The present paper examines the use of Google Translate as a supplementary tool for helping international students at Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) to learn and develop their knowledge and skills in learning Bahasa Malaysia (Malay Language). The participants of the study were 16 international students at the School of Languages, Literacies, and…

  13. Uptake of critical knowledge in nursing practice: lessons learned from a knowledge translation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joan M; Browne, Annette J; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Lynam, M Judith; Rodney, Paddy; Varcoe, Colleen; Wong, Sabrina; Tan, Elsie; Smye, Victoria; McDonald, Heather; Baumbusch, Jennifer; Khan, Koushambhi Basu; Reimer, Joanne; Peltonen, Adrienne; Brar, Anureet

    2010-09-01

    This article is based on a knowledge translation (KT) study of the transition of patients from hospital to home. It focuses on the lessons learned about the challenges of translating research-derived critical knowledge in practice settings. The authors situate the article in current discourses about KT; discuss their understanding of the nature of critical knowledge; and present themes from their body of research, which comprises the knowledge that was translated. The findings have the potential to guide future KT research that focuses on the uptake of critical knowledge in nursing practice.

  14. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  15. Instituting Learning-By-Doing Practices in Training Programs for Technical Writers, Usability Testers, and Translators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Isohella, Suvi; Mara, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract - This workshop focuses on how to implement and grow highly successful and realistic learning-by-doing approaches to teaching and training professional communicators by connecting students from across the globe and across academic language programs. Workshop participants learn the method...... that instructors from the Trans-Atlantic & Pacific Project use when they form students enrolled in technical writing, usability testing, and translation courses into multilingual cross-cultural virtual teams....

  16. Machine Translation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Mt System Example: The 'Janus' Translating Phone Project. The Janus ... based on laptops, and simultaneous translation of two speakers in a dialogue. For more ..... The current focus in MT research is on using machine learning.

  17. “We Learn by Doing”: Teaching and Learning Knowledge Translation Skills at the Graduate Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea V. Breen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge Translation (KT is increasingly a requirement for scholars and non-academics working in applied settings. However, few programs provide explicit training in KT. In this article we systematically explore our experiences as a multi-disciplinary group of course facilitators and students in a newly redeveloped graduate course in Evidence Based Practice and Knowledge Translation. The course was designed to emphasize handson learning, collaboration and community engagement. We reflect on the challenges we faced and the skills, knowledge and opportunities that students gained as they developed and implemented community-based KT strategies relating to refugee resettlement, young carers, and consumer attitudes, behaviour and values around food purchasing decisions. We conclude by providing recommendations for instructors and institutions for implementing learning experiences in KT that are designed for real-world impact. L’application des connaissances (AC est devenue une exigence de plus en plus fréquente pour les chercheurs et les personnes qui travaillent dans les milieux non universitaires. Toutefois, peu de programmes offrent une formation explicite en AC. Dans cet article, nous explorons systématiquement nos expériences en tant que groupe pluridisciplinaire formé de responsables de cours et d’étudiants dans un cours de cycle supérieur nouvellement remanié portant sur la pratique fondée sur les données probantes et l’application des connaissances. Le cours a été conçu pour mettre en valeur l’apprentissage pratique, la collaboration et l’engagement communautaire. Nous réfléchissons aux défis auxquels nous avons été confrontés ainsi qu’aux compétences, aux connaissances et aux opportunités que les étudiants ont acquis en développant et mettant en pratique des stratégies d’AC en milieu communautaire sur les thèmes de la réinstallation des réfugiés, des jeunes aidants et des attitudes, comportements et

  18. Facilitating 3D Virtual World Learning Environments Creation by Non-Technical End Users through Template-Based Virtual World Instantiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Zhong, Ying; Ozercan, Sertac; Zhu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a template-based solution to overcome technical barriers non-technical computer end users face when developing functional learning environments in three-dimensional virtual worlds (3DVW). "iVirtualWorld," a prototype of a platform-independent 3DVW creation tool that implements the proposed solution, facilitates 3DVW…

  19. THE ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ TEAM ACHIEVEMENT DIVISIONS (STAD USED IN LEARNING PRACTICE OF TRANSLATING AND INTERPRETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Rakhman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with The Analysis of Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD used in Learning Practice of Translating and Interpreting. This research explores the implementation of STAD and find out the advantages and disadvantages of STAD used in learning Practice of Translating and Interpreting. The objective of the research was to motivate students and encourage them to be active in learning, to accelerate student achievement, to improve behavior in learning, and to find out the students’ ability with STAD method. Data collection technique focused on participant observation, interviews, and documentation. STAD is one type of cooperative learning model using small groups with a number of members of each group of 4-5 students in heterogenic way. It begins by delivering the objectives of learning, delivering of material, group activities, quizzes and group rewards. STAD method also is an effective method of cooperative learning. As with other learning methods, STAD method also has advantages and disadvantages. In the learning process there are good interactions among students, good attitude, increased interpersonal skills. It’s effective in increasing student participation and can train students to be more focus, more concentrate in answering questions from the teacher. It can make students eager to learn. But if the chief of the group can not resolve conflicts that arise constructively, it will be less effective in a group work. And if the number of groups is not considered, that is less than four, it would tend to withdraw and less active during the discussion. And if the number of groups of more than five, then chances for them to be passive in task completion   Keywords: Student Team Achievement Division (STAD, Cooperative Learning.

  20. The Use of the Persian Translation of the Learning Transfer System Inventory in the Context of Agricultural Sustainability Learning in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Naser; Ataei, Pouria; Bates, Reid

    2016-01-01

    The Learning Transfer System Inventory considers 16 factors likely to influence the transfer of training to the workplace. This study uses the Persian translation of the inventory and applies it to agricultural sustainability learning in Iran. The aim is to examine the internal structure and predictive ability of the inventory as translated into…

  1. Report Template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikołaj

    2018-01-01

    To ensure consistent reporting of life cycle assessment (LCA), we provide a report template. The report includes elements of an LCA study as recommended but the ILCD Handbook. Illustrative case study reported according to this template is presented in Chap. 39 ....

  2. Knowledge translation in healthcare: Incorporating theories of learning and knowledge from the management literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Racko, Girts

    2013-01-01

    The authors draw selectively on theories of learning and knowledge, which currently have received little attention from knowledge translation (KT) researchers, and suggest how they might usefully inform future development of the KT literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide conceptual tools and strategies for the growing number of managers, clinicians and decision makers navigating this arena The authors conducted a narrative review to synthesise two streams of literature and examine evolving conceptual landscape concerning knowledge translation over the previous three decades. Conceptual mapping was used iteratively to develop and synthesise the literature. Iterative feedback from relevant research and practice stakeholder groups was used to focus and strengthen the review. KT has been conceptualised along three competing frames; one focusing on linear (largely unidirectional) transfer of knowledge; one focusing on KT as a social process; and another that seeks to more fully incorporate contextual issues in understanding research implementation. Three overlapping themes are found in the management literature that inform these debates in the health literature, namely knowledge boundaries, organisational learning and absorptive capacity. Literature on knowledge boundaries problematizes the nature of boundaries and the stickiness of knowledge. Organisational learning conceptualises the need for organisational wide systems to facilitate learning processes; it also draws on a more expansive view of knowledge. Absorptive capacity focuses at the firm level on the role of developing organisational capabilities that enable the identification, assimilation and use of new knowledge to enable innovation. The paper highlights the need to consider KT processes at multiple levels, including individual, organisational and strategic levels. These are important not only for research but also have practical implications for individuals and organisations involved in KT

  3. Lost in Translation: Adapting a Face-to-Face Course Into an Online Learning Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzig, Melissa J

    2015-09-01

    Online education has grown dramatically over the past decade. Instructors who teach face-to-face courses are being called on to adapt their courses to the online environment. Many instructors do not have sufficient training to be able to effectively move courses to an online format. This commentary discusses the growth of online learning, common challenges faced by instructors adapting courses from face-to-face to online, and best practices for translating face-to-face courses into online learning opportunities. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  4. Welding template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Venue, R.J. of.

    1976-01-01

    A welding template is described which is used to weld strip material into a cellular grid structure for the accommodation of fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. On a base plate the template carries a multitude of cylindrical pins whose upper half is narrower than the bottom half and only one of which is attached to the base plate. The others are arrested in a hexagonal array by oblong webs clamped together by chuck jaws which can be secured by means of screws. The parts are ground very accurately. The template according to the invention is very easy to make. (UWI) [de

  5. A critical review of simulation-based mastery learning with translational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C; Issenberg, Saul B; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Wayne, Diane B

    2014-04-01

    This article has two objectives. Firstly, we critically review simulation-based mastery learning (SBML) research in medical education, evaluate its implementation and immediate results, and document measured downstream translational outcomes in terms of improved patient care practices, better patient outcomes and collateral effects. Secondly, we briefly address implementation science and its importance in the dissemination of innovations in medical education and health care. This is a qualitative synthesis of SBML with translational (T) science research reports spanning a period of 7 years (2006-2013). We use the 'critical review' approach proposed by Norman and Eva to synthesise findings from 23 medical education studies that employ the mastery learning model and measure downstream translational outcomes. Research in SBML in medical education has addressed a range of interpersonal and technical skills. Measured outcomes have been achieved in educational laboratories (T1), and as improved patient care practices (T2), patient outcomes (T3) and collateral effects (T4). Simulation-based mastery learning in medical education can produce downstream results. Such results derive from integrated education and health services research programmes that are thematic, sustained and cumulative. The new discipline of implementation science holds promise to explain why medical education innovations are adopted slowly and how to accelerate innovation dissemination. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Setting Learning Objectives in Translation at the Department of Foreign Language Teaching through the Concept of Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eser, Oktay

    2014-01-01

    At the department of foreign language teaching, a variety of courses are offered in order for students to acquire translation competence. The courses are often carried out by translating a text from one language into the other. Learning by experience is an effective approach. However, it is inevitable that there are some aspects that we need to…

  7. Letting Go of Control to the Learners: The Role of the Internet in Promoting a More Autonomous View of Learning in an Academic Translation Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumuk, Ayse

    2002-01-01

    English-speaking Turkish translation students (n=90) were taught to apply Internet searches to translation tasks. Pre/post program data indicate that student learned to reflect critically on their learning and to shift from teacher-dependent to autonomous approaches. They recognized that translation required more personal responsibility from the…

  8. Axiomatic Ontology Learning Approaches for English Translation of the Meaning of Quranic Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Saidah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ontology learning (OL is the computational task of generating a knowledge base in the form of an ontology, given an unstructured corpus in natural language (NL. While most works in the field of ontology learning have been primarily based on a statistical approach to extract lightweight OL, very few attempts have been made to extract axiomatic OL (called heavyweight OL from NL text documents. Axiomatic OL supports more precise formal logic-based reasoning when compared to lightweight OL. Lexico-syntactic pattern matching and statisticsal one cannot lead to very accurate learning, mostly because of several linguistic nuances in the NL. Axiomatic OL is an alternative methodology that has not been explored much, where a deep linguistics analysis in computational linguistics is used to generate formal axioms and definitions instead of simply inducing a taxonomy. The ontology that is created not only stores the information about the application domain in explicit knowledge, but also can deduce the implicit knowledge from this ontology. This research will explore the English translation of the meaning of Quranic texts.

  9. Chiron: translating nanopore raw signal directly into nucleotide sequence using deep learning

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Haotian; Cao, Minh Duc; Hall, Michael B; Duarte, Tania; Wang, Sheng; Coin, Lachlan J M

    2018-01-01

    Sequencing by translocating DNA fragments through an array of nanopores is a rapidly maturing technology that offers faster and cheaper sequencing than other approaches. However, accurately deciphering the DNA sequence from the noisy and complex electrical signal is challenging. Here, we report Chiron, the first deep learning model to achieve end-to-end basecalling and directly translate the raw signal to DNA sequence without the error-prone segmentation step. Trained with only a small set of 4,000 reads, we show that our model provides state-of-the-art basecalling accuracy, even on previously unseen species. Chiron achieves basecalling speeds of more than 2,000 bases per second using desktop computer graphics processing units.

  10. Chiron: translating nanopore raw signal directly into nucleotide sequence using deep learning

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Haotian

    2018-04-10

    Sequencing by translocating DNA fragments through an array of nanopores is a rapidly maturing technology that offers faster and cheaper sequencing than other approaches. However, accurately deciphering the DNA sequence from the noisy and complex electrical signal is challenging. Here, we report Chiron, the first deep learning model to achieve end-to-end basecalling and directly translate the raw signal to DNA sequence without the error-prone segmentation step. Trained with only a small set of 4,000 reads, we show that our model provides state-of-the-art basecalling accuracy, even on previously unseen species. Chiron achieves basecalling speeds of more than 2,000 bases per second using desktop computer graphics processing units.

  11. Translating Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallov, Mia Arp; Birk, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how practices of translation shape particular paths of inclusion for people living in marginalized residential areas in Denmark. Inclusion, we argue, is not an end-state, but rather something which must be constantly performed. Active citizenship, today......, is not merely a question of participation, but of learning to become active in all spheres of life. The paper draws on empirical examples from a multi-sited field work in 6 different sites of local community work in Denmark, to demonstrate how different dimensions of translation are involved in shaping active...... citizenship. We propose the following different dimensions of translation: translating authority, translating language, translating social problems. The paper takes its theoretical point of departure from assemblage urbanism, arguing that cities are heterogeneous assemblages of socio-material interactions...

  12. Template based rodent brain extraction and atlas mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimin Huang; Jiaqi Zhang; Zhiping Lin; Su Huang; Yuping Duan; Zhongkang Lu

    2016-08-01

    Accurate rodent brain extraction is the basic step for many translational studies using MR imaging. This paper presents a template based approach with multi-expert refinement to automatic rodent brain extraction. We first build the brain appearance model based on the learning exemplars. Together with the template matching, we encode the rodent brain position into the search space to reliably locate the rodent brain and estimate the rough segmentation. With the initial mask, a level-set segmentation and a mask-based template learning are implemented further to the brain region. The multi-expert fusion is used to generate a new mask. We finally combine the region growing based on the histogram distribution learning to delineate the final brain mask. A high-resolution rodent atlas is used to illustrate that the segmented low resolution anatomic image can be well mapped to the atlas. Tested on a public data set, all brains are located reliably and we achieve the mean Jaccard similarity score at 94.99% for brain segmentation, which is a statistically significant improvement compared to two other rodent brain extraction methods.

  13. Crisis checklists for in-hospital emergencies: expert consensus, simulation testing and recommendations for a template determined by a multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary learning collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbe, Christian P; Kellett, John; Barach, Paul; Chaloner, Catriona; Cleaver, Hayley; Cooksley, Tim; Korsten, Erik; Croke, Eilish; Davis, Elinor; De Bie, Ashley Jr; Durham, Lesley; Hancock, Chris; Hartin, Jilian; Savijn, Tracy; Welch, John

    2017-05-08

    'Failure to rescue' of hospitalized patients with deteriorating physiology on general wards is caused by a complex array of organisational, technical and cultural failures including a lack of standardized team and individual expected responses and actions. The aim of this study using a learning collaborative method was to develop consensus recomendations on the utility and effectiveness of checklists as training and operational tools to assist in improving the skills of general ward staff on the effective rescue of patients with abnormal physiology. A scoping study of the literature was followed by a multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary international learning collaborative. We sought to achieve a consensus on procedures and clinical simulation technology to determine the requirements, develop and test a safe using a checklist template that is rapidly accessible to assist in emergency management of common events for general ward use. Safety considerations about deteriorating patients were agreed upon and summarized. A consensus was achieved among an international group of experts on currently available checklist formats performing poorly in simulation testing as first responders in general ward clinical crises. The Crisis Checklist Collaborative ratified a consensus template for a general ward checklist that provides a list of issues for first responders to address (i.e. 'Check In'), a list of prompts regarding common omissions (i.e. 'Stop & Think'), and, a list of items required for the safe "handover" of patients that remain on the general ward (i.e. 'Check Out'). Simulation usability assessment of the template demonstrated feasibility for clinical management of deteriorating patients. Emergency checklists custom-designed for general ward patients have the potential to guide the treatment speed and reliability of responses for emergency management of patients with abnormal physiology while minimizing the risk of adverse events. Interventional trials are

  14. Translation Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Mousten, Birthe; Maylath, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    After Kiraly (2000) introduced the collaborative form of translation in classrooms, Pavlovic (2007), Kenny (2008), and Huertas Barros (2011) provided empirical evidence that testifies to the impact of collaborative learning. This chapter sets out to describe the collaborative forms of learning at...

  15. Using Magnets and Classroom Flipping to Promote Student Engagement and Learning about Protein Translation in a Large Microbiology Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lynn McLean

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted within the education community that active learning is superior to traditional lecturing alone. Many science educators, however, are reluctant to give up classroom time for activities because they fear that they will not have time to cover as much content. Classroom flipping has been gaining momentum in higher education as one way to engage students in the classroom while still exposing students to the same volume of course content. The activity presented here demonstrates how flipping one lecture period can be used in conjunction with an engaging in-class activity to teach a concept that is often difficult for students to learn through lecture alone. Specifically, we asked students to view a lecture video on bacterial protein translation before coming to class. We then used the classroom period to conduct a hands-on activity that allowed students to interact with magnetic pieces representing the components of protein translation to generate a protein from a given piece of DNA. Survey data showed that students liked the flipped classroom format associated with this activity, but they would not want every class flipped, and they perceived that the hands-on protein translation activity helped them to learn the material. Preliminary summative assessment data showed that this activity may have been useful in helping students to achieve the fundamental learning outcome that students will be able to translate a protein from a given piece of bacterial DNA.

  16. Community translation of the Math Interactive Learning Experience Program for children with FASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Julie A; Taddeo, Elles; Strickland, Dorothy; Coles, Claire D

    2015-04-01

    The Math Interactive Learning Experience (MILE), a program designed to address academic and behavioral problems found in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), was found to be effective in a randomized clinical trials with results that persisted at a 6-month follow-up. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a community translation, in partnership with several community sites in the metropolitan Atlanta area. A total of 60 participants were randomly assigned to one of the three treatment groups: the MILE program administered at a specialty care center (Center MILE) or in the community (Community MILE), or to parent math instruction only (Parent Instruction). This study evaluated instructor satisfaction with the training program, knowledge related to FASD and the MILE program, adherence to the MILE teaching methodology, participant math outcomes, and parents' satisfaction with their treatment experience. Instructors reported a high degree of satisfaction with the overall training and mean site fidelity ratings were positively correlated with change in math performance. Those in the MILE intervention groups demonstrated more positive gains in math skills than those in the Parent Instruction group but did not differ from each other. Parents in the Parent Instruction group reported less satisfaction with their intervention than those assigned to the Center MILE group but satisfaction ratings did not differ between those in the MILE intervention groups. These results indicate that the community translation and the MILE instructor training program developed as part of this process were well-received and effective in producing positive treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Research translation to inform national health policies: learning from multiple perspectives in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass Nancy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research and evidence can have an impact on policy and practice, resulting in positive outcomes. However, research translation is a complex, dynamic and non-linear process. Although universities in Africa play a major role in generating research evidence, their strategic approaches to influence health policies and decision making are weak. This study was conducted with the aim of understanding the process of translating research into policy in order to guide the strategic direction of Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS and similar institutions in their quest to influence health outcomes nationally and globally. Methods A case study approach using 30 in-depth interviews with stakeholders involved in two HIV prevention research project was purposively selected. The study sought to analyze the research-to-policy discourses for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT and safe male circumcision (SMC. The analysis sought to identify entry points, strengths and challenges for research-to-policy processes by interviewing three major groups of stakeholders in Uganda – researchers (8, policy makers (12 and media practitioners (12. Results Among the factors that facilitated PMTCT policy uptake and continued implementation were: shared platforms for learning and decision making among stakeholders, implementation pilots to assess feasibility of intervention, the emerging of agencies to undertake operations research and the high visibility of policy benefits to child survival. In contrast, SMC policy processes were stalled for over two years after the findings of the Uganda study was made public. Among other factors, policy makers demanded additional research to assess implementation feasibility of SMC within ordinary health system context. High level leaders also publicly contested the SMC evidence and the underlying values and messages – a situation that reduced the coalition of policy champions

  18. Interaction between mode of learning and subjective experience: translation effects in long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackie, James M; Brandt, Karen R; Eysenck, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that writing auditorily presented words at encoding involves distinctive translation processes between visual and auditory domains, leading to the formation of distinctive memory traces at retrieval. This translation effect leads to higher levels of recognition than the writing of visually presented words, a non-translation effect. The present research investigated whether writing and the other translation effect of vocalisation (vocalising visually presented words) would be present in tests of recall, recognition memory and whether these effects are based on the subjective experience of remembering or knowing. Experiment 1 found a translation effect in the auditory domain in recall, as the translation effect of writing yielded higher recall than both non-translation effects of vocalisation and silently hearing. Experiment 2 found a translation effect in the visual domain in recognition, as the translation effect of vocalisation yielded higher recognition than both non-translation effects of writing and silently reading. This translation effect was attributable to the subjective experience of remembering rather than knowing. The present research therefore demonstrates the beneficial effect of translation in both recall and recognition, with the effect of vocalisation in recognition being based on rich episodic remembering.

  19. Perl Template Toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Chamberlain, Darren; Cross, David; Torkington, Nathan; Diaz, tatiana Apandi

    2004-01-01

    Among the many different approaches to "templating" with Perl--such as Embperl, Mason, HTML::Template, and hundreds of other lesser known systems--the Template Toolkit is widely recognized as one of the most versatile. Like other templating systems, the Template Toolkit allows programmers to embed Perl code and custom macros into HTML documents in order to create customized documents on the fly. But unlike the others, the Template Toolkit is as facile at producing HTML as it is at producing XML, PDF, or any other output format. And because it has its own simple templating language, templates

  20. Interactive Web-Based Learning: Translating Health Policy Into Improved Diabetes Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Briana B; Lier, Silje C; Johnson, Tisha K; Hu, Dale J

    2016-01-01

    In August 2014, the U.S. DHHS's Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion released the National Action Plan for Adverse Drug Event Prevention, highlighting prevention of diabetes agent-related hypoglycemia as a key area for improvement. In support of the Action Plan, the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion then developed a web-based interactive module, or eLearning lesson, based on formative research and stakeholder feedback to educate healthcare professionals on strategies to prevent adverse drug events from diabetes agents. The training incorporates health literacy principles by demonstrating, through video scenarios, how to apply shared decision making when setting individualized glycemic targets, and how to use the teach-back method to confirm patients' understanding. Prior to release in September 2014, the training went through intensive usability testing and was pilot tested using a 36-item evaluation. Six months after its release (September 2014 to March 2015), the training landing page on health.gov had 24,334 unique page views. More than 90% of the 234 participants who earned continuing education credit agreed that they will be able to apply the knowledge gained from the lesson to their practice. Online trainings that model key prevention strategies are well received by health professional users and may play an important role in translating policy into improved outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Translating Knowledge: The role of Shared Learning in Bridging the Science-Application Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moench, M.

    2014-12-01

    As the organizers of this session state: "Understanding and managing our future relation with the Earth requires research and knowledge spanning diverse fields, and integrated, societally-relevant science that is geared toward solutions." In most cases, however, integration is weak and scientific outputs do not match decision maker requirements. As a result, while scientific results may be highly relevant to society that relevance is operationally far from clear. This paper explores the use of shared learning processes to bridge the gap between the evolving body of scientific information on climate change and its relevance for resilience planning in cities across Asia. Examples related to understanding uncertainty, the evolution of scientific knowledge from different sources, and data extraction and presentation are given using experiences generated over five years of work as part of the Rockefeller Foundation supported Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network and other programs. Results suggest that processes supporting effective translation of knowledge between different sources and different applications are essential for the identification of solutions that respond to the dynamics and uncertainties inherent in global change processes.

  2. French translation and validation of the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) in a Canadian undergraduate healthcare student context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Jacinthe; Lafrance, Josée; Michallet, Bernard; Marcoux, Lyson; Cloutier, France

    2015-03-01

    The Canadian Interprofessional Health Collaborative recommends that future professionals be prepared for collaborative practice. To do so, it is necessary for them to learn about the principles of interprofessional collaboration. Therefore, to ascertain if students are predisposed, their attitude toward interprofessional learning must be assessed. In the French Canadian context such a measuring tool has not been published yet. The purpose of this study is to translate in French an adapted version of the RIPLS questionnaire and to validate it for use with undergraduate students from seven various health and social care programmes in a Canadian university. According to Vallerand's methodology, a method for translating measuring instruments: (i) the forward-backward translation indicated that six items of the experimental French version of the RIPLS needed to be more specific; (ii) the experimental French version of the RIPLS seemed clear according to the pre-test assessing items clarity; (iii) evaluation of the content validity indicated that the experimental French version of the RIPLS presents good content validity and (iv) a very good internal consistency was obtained (α = 0.90; n = 141). Results indicate that the psychometric properties of the RIPLS in French are comparable to the English version, although a different factorial structure was found. The relevance of three of the 19 items on the RIPLS scale is questionable, resulting in a revised 16-item scale. Future research aimed at validating the translated French version of the RIPLS could also be conducted in another francophone cultural context.

  3. Code Generation with Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Arnoldus, Jeroen; Serebrenik, A

    2012-01-01

    Templates are used to generate all kinds of text, including computer code. The last decade, the use of templates gained a lot of popularity due to the increase of dynamic web applications. Templates are a tool for programmers, and implementations of template engines are most times based on practical experience rather than based on a theoretical background. This book reveals the mathematical background of templates and shows interesting findings for improving the practical use of templates. First, a framework to determine the necessary computational power for the template metalanguage is presen

  4. Translating Face-to-Face Experiential Learning to Video for a Web-Based Communication Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila R. Lax

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultural, legal and ethical aspects of medical practice in Canada can be problematic for International Medical Graduates (IMGs to access and learn. The professional behaviours that depend on effective communication often challenge IMGs as they attempt to enter the Canadian medical system. The Communication and Cultural Competence Program provides a complex interactive web-based environment in which IMGs can learn and practice skills required to navigate these specific elements of medical practice. The educational design of this web site is based on the theory of knowledge building (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 2003. This paper examines how video simulation is used on the web site to support this design. Experiential simulation pedagogy, typically used in high-fidelity face-to-face encounters, is analyzed. Strategies to translate this pedagogy to an e-learning format to operationalize authentic knowledge building are described. Commentaries replace live facilitation and a communication tool, the Observation Guide, allows learners to participate in the simulation. This examination provides insight into the complexity involved in creating on-line resources that extend beyond clinical content repositories, illustrating the potential for web-based programs to provide reflective and recursive learning. A wide skill set with a broad base of support was necessary to create a virtual environment with depth and authenticity. Translating the process from live simulation to a mid-fidelity digital video format allowed for deeper understanding of how the unique skills of experienced simulators impact the educational process. This multi-dimensional e-learning platform has potential for teaching complex skills in medical programs.Les médecins diplômés à l’étranger (MDE peuvent avoir des difficultés à accéder aux aspects culturels, légaux et éthiques de la pratique médicale au Canada et à les apprendre. Les comportements professionnels qui d

  5. Translating Partnerships: How Faculty-Student Collaboration in Explorations of Teaching and Learning Can Transform Perceptions, Terms, and Selves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Cook-Sather

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic, literary, and feminist studies define translation as a process of rendering a new version of an original with attention to context, power, and purpose. Processes of translation in the context of student-faculty co-inquiry in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning offer examples of how this re-rendering can play out in the realm of academic development. In this article, translation serves as a conceptual framework that allows us to bring a fresh interpretation to the collaborative work of participants in a student-faculty pedagogical partnership program based at two colleges in the mid-Atlantic United States. We argue that faculty members and student consultants who participate in this program engage in processes of translation that lead to transformed perceptions of classroom engagement, transformed terms for naming pedagogical practices, and, more metaphorically, transformed selves. Drawing on data from an ongoing action research study of this program and on articles and essays we and other participants in the program have published, we use a form of narrative analysis as it intersects with the conceptual framework offered by translation to illustrate how, through their collaboration, faculty and students engage in never-finished processes of change that enable mental perceptions, linguistic terms, and human selves to be newly comprehended, communicated, and expressed. We touch upon what is lost in translation as well and the necessity of ongoing efforts to make meaning through collaborative explorations, analyses, and re-renderings. Finally, we provide examples of how the changes participants experience and effect endure beyond the time of partnership and in other realms of their lives.

  6. Applications of social constructivist learning theories in knowledge translation for healthcare professionals: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Aliki; Menon, Anita; Boruff, Jill; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Ahmed, Sara

    2014-05-06

    Use of theory is essential for advancing the science of knowledge translation (KT) and for increasing the likelihood that KT interventions will be successful in reducing existing research-practice gaps in health care. As a sociological theory of knowledge, social constructivist theory may be useful for informing the design and evaluation of KT interventions. As such, this scoping review explored the extent to which social constructivist theory has been applied in the KT literature for healthcare professionals. Searches were conducted in six databases: Ovid MEDLINE (1948 - May 16, 2011), Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycInfo, and AMED. Inclusion criteria were: publications from all health professions, research methodologies, as well as conceptual and theoretical papers related to KT. To be included in the review, key words such as constructivism, social constructivism, or social constructivist theories had to be included within the title or abstract. Papers that discussed the use of social constructivist theories in the context of undergraduate learning in academic settings were excluded from the review. An analytical framework of quantitative (numerical) and thematic analysis was used to examine and combine study findings. Of the 514 articles screened, 35 papers published between 1992 and 2011 were deemed eligible and included in the review. This review indicated that use of social constructivist theory in the KT literature was limited and haphazard. The lack of justification for the use of theory continues to represent a shortcoming of the papers reviewed. Potential applications and relevance of social constructivist theory in KT in general and in the specific studies were not made explicit in most papers. For the acquisition, expression and application of knowledge in practice, there was emphasis on how the social constructivist theory supports clinicians in expressing this knowledge in their professional interactions. This scoping review was the first to examine

  7. Applications of social constructivist learning theories in knowledge translation for healthcare professionals: a scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of theory is essential for advancing the science of knowledge translation (KT) and for increasing the likelihood that KT interventions will be successful in reducing existing research-practice gaps in health care. As a sociological theory of knowledge, social constructivist theory may be useful for informing the design and evaluation of KT interventions. As such, this scoping review explored the extent to which social constructivist theory has been applied in the KT literature for healthcare professionals. Methods Searches were conducted in six databases: Ovid MEDLINE (1948 – May 16, 2011), Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycInfo, and AMED. Inclusion criteria were: publications from all health professions, research methodologies, as well as conceptual and theoretical papers related to KT. To be included in the review, key words such as constructivism, social constructivism, or social constructivist theories had to be included within the title or abstract. Papers that discussed the use of social constructivist theories in the context of undergraduate learning in academic settings were excluded from the review. An analytical framework of quantitative (numerical) and thematic analysis was used to examine and combine study findings. Results Of the 514 articles screened, 35 papers published between 1992 and 2011 were deemed eligible and included in the review. This review indicated that use of social constructivist theory in the KT literature was limited and haphazard. The lack of justification for the use of theory continues to represent a shortcoming of the papers reviewed. Potential applications and relevance of social constructivist theory in KT in general and in the specific studies were not made explicit in most papers. For the acquisition, expression and application of knowledge in practice, there was emphasis on how the social constructivist theory supports clinicians in expressing this knowledge in their professional interactions. Conclusions This

  8. Quality indicators for learner-centered postgraduate medical e-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Robert A; Westerman, Michiel; Scheele, Fedde

    2017-04-27

    The objectives of this study were to identify the needs and expectations of learners and educational experts in postgraduate medical e-learning, and to contribute to the current literature. We performed four focus-group discussions with e-learning end-users (learners) and didactic experts. The participants were postgraduate learners with varying levels of experience, educational experts from a Dutch e-learning task group, and commercial experts from a Dutch e-learning company. Verbatim transcribed interview recordings were analyzed using King's template analysis. The initial template was created with reference to recent literature on postgraduate medical e-learning quality indicators. The transcripts were coded, after which the emerging differences in template interpretation were discussed until a consensus was reached within the team. The final template consisted of three domains of positive e-learning influencers (motivators, learning enhancers, and real-world translation) and three domains of negatively influential parameters (barriers, learning discouragers, and poor preparation). The interpretation of the final template showed three subjects which form the basis of e-learning, namely, Motivate, Learn and Apply. This study forms a basis for learning in general and could be applied to many educational instruments. Individual characteristics should be adapted to the target audience. Three subjects form the basis of, and six themes cover all items needed for, good (enough) postgraduate e-learning. Further research should be carried out with learners and real-world e-learning to validate this template.

  9. In Translation: School Leaders Learning in and from Leadership Practice While Confronting Pressing Policy Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor; Maslin-Ostrowski, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Worldwide, principals face enormous challenges while translating policies and mandates for which they are accountable into their mission and practice. While some of these school-level challenges are technical, many are adaptive (Heifetz), requiring leaders and those in their care to grow their cognitive and affective…

  10. Interdisciplinary knowledge translation: lessons learned from a mental health: fire service collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joanna L; Mackay, Sherri; Peterson-Badali, Michele

    2010-12-01

    Collaborative approaches are being increasingly advocated for addressing a variety of health, mental health and social needs for children, youth and families. Factors important for effective knowledge translation of collaborative approaches of service delivery across disciplines, however, have not been rigorously examined. TAPP-C: The Arson Prevention Program for Children is an intervention program for child and adolescent firesetters provided collaboratively by fire service and mental health professionals. The present study examined the adopter, innovation, and dissemination characteristics associated with TAPP-C implementation, protocol adherence and extent of collaboration by 241 community-based fire service professionals from communities across Ontario. Results revealed that dissemination factors are particularly important for understanding program implementation, adherence and cross-discipline collaboration. Moreover, the findings of this study show significant benefits to both within discipline (intra-disciplinary) and across discipline (interdisciplinary) knowledge translation strategies.

  11. Algorithmic analysis of relational learning processes in instructional technology: Some implications for basic, translational, and applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvane, William J; Kledaras, Joanne B; Gerard, Christophe J; Wilde, Lorin; Smelson, David

    2018-07-01

    A few noteworthy exceptions notwithstanding, quantitative analyses of relational learning are most often simple descriptive measures of study outcomes. For example, studies of stimulus equivalence have made much progress using measures such as percentage consistent with equivalence relations, discrimination ratio, and response latency. Although procedures may have ad hoc variations, they remain fairly similar across studies. Comparison studies of training variables that lead to different outcomes are few. Yet to be developed are tools designed specifically for dynamic and/or parametric analyses of relational learning processes. This paper will focus on recent studies to develop (1) quality computer-based programmed instruction for supporting relational learning in children with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disabilities and (2) formal algorithms that permit ongoing, dynamic assessment of learner performance and procedure changes to optimize instructional efficacy and efficiency. Because these algorithms have a strong basis in evidence and in theories of stimulus control, they may have utility also for basic and translational research. We present an overview of the research program, details of algorithm features, and summary results that illustrate their possible benefits. It also presents arguments that such algorithm development may encourage parametric research, help in integrating new research findings, and support in-depth quantitative analyses of stimulus control processes in relational learning. Such algorithms may also serve to model control of basic behavioral processes that is important to the design of effective programmed instruction for human learners with and without functional disabilities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Translating visual information into action predictions: Statistical learning in action and nonaction contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, Claire D; Gerson, Sarah A; Hunnius, Sabine

    2018-05-01

    Humans are sensitive to the statistical regularities in action sequences carried out by others. In the present eyetracking study, we investigated whether this sensitivity can support the prediction of upcoming actions when observing unfamiliar action sequences. In two between-subjects conditions, we examined whether observers would be more sensitive to statistical regularities in sequences performed by a human agent versus self-propelled 'ghost' events. Secondly, we investigated whether regularities are learned better when they are associated with contingent effects. Both implicit and explicit measures of learning were compared between agent and ghost conditions. Implicit learning was measured via predictive eye movements to upcoming actions or events, and explicit learning was measured via both uninstructed reproduction of the action sequences and verbal reports of the regularities. The findings revealed that participants, regardless of condition, readily learned the regularities and made correct predictive eye movements to upcoming events during online observation. However, different patterns of explicit-learning outcomes emerged following observation: Participants were most likely to re-create the sequence regularities and to verbally report them when they had observed an actor create a contingent effect. These results suggest that the shift from implicit predictions to explicit knowledge of what has been learned is facilitated when observers perceive another agent's actions and when these actions cause effects. These findings are discussed with respect to the potential role of the motor system in modulating how statistical regularities are learned and used to modify behavior.

  13. Programmable imprint lithography template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Gregory F [Oakland, CA; Talin, Albert A [Livermore, CA

    2006-10-31

    A template for imprint lithography (IL) that reduces significantly template production costs by allowing the same template to be re-used for several technology generations. The template is composed of an array of spaced-apart moveable and individually addressable rods or plungers. Thus, the template can be configured to provide a desired pattern by programming the array of plungers such that certain of the plungers are in an "up" or actuated configuration. This arrangement of "up" and "down" plungers forms a pattern composed of protruding and recessed features which can then be impressed onto a polymer film coated substrate by applying a pressure to the template impressing the programmed configuration into the polymer film. The pattern impressed into the polymer film will be reproduced on the substrate by subsequent processing.

  14. Translation Theory 'Translated'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....

  15. Design reflowable digital book template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, Didik Dwi; Widiyaningtyas, Triyanna; Arifin, M. Zainal; Wahyu Sakti G., I.

    2017-09-01

    Electronic books (e-books or digital books) increasingly in demand and continue to grow in the form of future books. One of the standard format electronic books that potential is EPUB (electronic publication) published by the International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF). This digital book has major advantages are able to provide interactive and reflowable content, which are not found in another book format, such as PDF. Reflowable content allows the book can be accessed through a variety of reader device, like desktop and mobile with a fit and comfort view. However, because the generating process of an EPUB digital book is not as easy a PDF, so this format is less popular. Therefore, in order to help overcome the existing problems, this paper develops digital reflowable text book templates to support electronic learning, especially in Indonesia. This template can be used by anyone to produce a standard digital book quickly and easily without requiring additional specialized knowledge.

  16. Predicting Post-Translational Modifications from Local Sequence Fragments Using Machine Learning Algorithms: Overview and Best Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatjewski, Marcin; Kierczak, Marcin; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Here, we present two perspectives on the task of predicting post translational modifications (PTMs) from local sequence fragments using machine learning algorithms. The first is the description of the fundamental steps required to construct a PTM predictor from the very beginning. These steps include data gathering, feature extraction, or machine-learning classifier selection. The second part of our work contains the detailed discussion of more advanced problems which are encountered in PTM prediction task. Probably the most challenging issues which we have covered here are: (1) how to address the training data class imbalance problem (we also present statistics describing the problem); (2) how to properly set up cross-validation folds with an approach which takes into account the homology of protein data records, to address this problem we present our folds-over-clusters algorithm; and (3) how to efficiently reach for new sources of learning features. Presented techniques and notes resulted from intense studies in the field, performed by our and other groups, and can be useful both for researchers beginning in the field of PTM prediction and for those who want to extend the repertoire of their research techniques.

  17. Translational Medicine and Patient Safety in Europe: TRANSFoRm—Architecture for the Learning Health System in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan C. Delaney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Learning Health System (LHS describes linking routine healthcare systems directly with both research translation and knowledge translation as an extension of the evidence-based medicine paradigm, taking advantage of the ubiquitous use of electronic health record (EHR systems. TRANSFoRm is an EU FP7 project that seeks to develop an infrastructure for the LHS in European primary care. Methods. The project is based on three clinical use cases, a genotype-phenotype study in diabetes, a randomised controlled trial with gastroesophageal reflux disease, and a diagnostic decision support system for chest pain, abdominal pain, and shortness of breath. Results. Four models were developed (clinical research, clinical data, provenance, and diagnosis that form the basis of the projects approach to interoperability. These models are maintained as ontologies with binding of terms to define precise data elements. CDISC ODM and SDM standards are extended using an archetype approach to enable a two-level model of individual data elements, representing both research content and clinical content. Separate configurations of the TRANSFoRm tools serve each use case. Conclusions. The project has been successful in using ontologies and archetypes to develop a highly flexible solution to the problem of heterogeneity of data sources presented by the LHS.

  18. The Effect of Using Translation on Learning Grammatical Structures: A Case Study of Iranian Junior High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ghaiyoomian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of L1 in second/foreign language learning has been the subject of much debate and controversy. This article reports on a piece of research carried out in a junior high school in Isfahan, Iran. This study was conducted to examine the effect of using translation from L1 to L2 on the improvement of EFL learners' language accuracy. To fulfill the purpose of the study, 62 students in grade three of junior high school were chosen by means of administering an experimental made pre-test. The participants were divided into a control group and an experimental group. The experimental group received grammar exercises in translating some phrases and sentences from Persian into English related to the intended grammatical structures during the study period while the control group just did their textbook exercises. At the end, a post-test was given to the students and the mean scores of the two groups were identified. T-test revealed that the treatment had a considerable effect on students' language accuracy.

  19. Determinants of translation ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Tamar; Prior, Anat; Eddington, Chelsea M.; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity in translation is highly prevalent, and has consequences for second-language learning and for bilingual lexical processing. To better understand this phenomenon, the current study compared the determinants of translation ambiguity across four sets of translation norms from English to Spanish, Dutch, German and Hebrew. The number of translations an English word received was correlated across these different languages, and was also correlated with the number of senses the word has in English, demonstrating that translation ambiguity is partially determined by within-language semantic ambiguity. For semantically-ambiguous English words, the probability of the different translations in Spanish and Hebrew was predicted by the meaning-dominance structure in English, beyond the influence of other lexical and semantic factors, for bilinguals translating from their L1, and translating from their L2. These findings are consistent with models postulating direct access to meaning from L2 words for moderately-proficient bilinguals. PMID:27882188

  20. An Evaluation of Online Machine Translation of Arabic into English News Headlines: Implications on Students' Learning Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhim, Kais A.; Habeeb, Luwaytha S.; Sapar, Ahmad Arifin; Hussin, Zaharah; Abdullah, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, online Machine Translation (MT) is used widely with translation software, such as Google and Babylon, being easily available and downloadable. This study aims to test the translation quality of these two machine systems in translating Arabic news headlines into English. 40 Arabic news headlines were selected from three online sources,…

  1. Culture, Leadership, and Activism: Translating Fink's Taxonomy of Significant Learning into Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Toby S.

    2016-01-01

    Through the article, I share the theoretical foundations, structure, knowledge acquisition, and outcomes of a cultural leadership course. The process for course development integrates several theories and research methods into practice: L. Dee Fink's Taxonomy of Significant Learning, Feminist Theory, Critical Race Theory, and…

  2. Translating Neuroscience, Psychology and Education: An Abstracted Conceptual Framework for the Learning Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Gregory M.; Horvath, Jared C.

    2016-01-01

    Educators strive to understand and apply knowledge gained through scientific endeavours. Yet, within the various sciences of learning, particularly within educational neuroscience, there have been instances of seemingly contradictory or incompatible research findings and theories. We argue that this situation arises through confusion between…

  3. Translating Face-to-Face Experiential Learning to Video for a Web-Based Communication Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelles, Laura Jayne; Smith, Cathy M.; Lax, Leila R.; Russell, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The cultural, legal and ethical aspects of medical practice in Canada can be problematic for International Medical Graduates (IMGs) to access and learn. The professional behaviours that depend on effective communication often challenge IMGs as they attempt to enter the Canadian medical system. The Communication and Cultural Competence Program…

  4. Templating mesoporous zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Kresten; Christensen, Christina Hviid; Kustova, Marina

    2008-01-01

    The application of templating methods to produce zeolite materials with hierarchical bi- or trimodal pore size distributions is reviewed with emphasis on mesoporous materials. Hierarchical zeolite materials are categorized into three distinctly different types of materials: hierarchical zeolite...... crystals, nanosized zeolite crystals, and supported zeolite crystals. For the pure zeolite materials in the first two categories, the additional meso- or macroporosity can be classified as being either intracrystalline or intercrystalline, whereas for supported zeolite materials, the additional porosity...... originates almost exclusively from the support material. The methods for introducing mesopores into zeolite materials are discussed and categorized. In general, mesopores can be templated in zeolite materials by use of solid templating, supramolecular templating, or indirect templating...

  5. V2S: Voice to Sign Language Translation System for Malaysian Deaf People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mean Foong, Oi; Low, Tang Jung; La, Wai Wan

    The process of learning and understand the sign language may be cumbersome to some, and therefore, this paper proposes a solution to this problem by providing a voice (English Language) to sign language translation system using Speech and Image processing technique. Speech processing which includes Speech Recognition is the study of recognizing the words being spoken, regardless of whom the speaker is. This project uses template-based recognition as the main approach in which the V2S system first needs to be trained with speech pattern based on some generic spectral parameter set. These spectral parameter set will then be stored as template in a database. The system will perform the recognition process through matching the parameter set of the input speech with the stored templates to finally display the sign language in video format. Empirical results show that the system has 80.3% recognition rate.

  6. Learned helplessness: unique features and translational value of a cognitive depression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmayr, Barbara; Gass, Peter

    2013-10-01

    The concept of learned helplessness defines an escape or avoidance deficit after uncontrollable stress and is regarded as a depression-like coping deficit in aversive but avoidable situations. Based on a psychological construct, it ideally complements other stress-induced or genetic animal models for major depression. Because of excellent face, construct, and predictive validity, it has contributed to the elaboration of several pathophysiological concepts and has brought forward new treatment targets. Whereas learned helplessness can be modeled not only in a broad variety of mammals, but also in fish and Drosophila, we will focus here on the use of this model in rats and mice, which are today the most common species for preclinical in vivo research in psychiatry.

  7. Vocabulary Learning as the Predictor of Third-Grader EFL Learners’ Achievement: A Case for Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jahangard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to formulate a model to predict the performance of Iranian high school third-graders on the End of the Course Achievement (ECA tests through their performance on the vocabulary tests, which were administered throughout the course. To meet this end, thirty two learners – aging seventeen to nineteen, all male – participated in the study which took nine months to complete. Their linguistic abilities were approximately at Intermediate-Mid level according to the ACTFL proficiency guidelines (1998. The sampling procedure was the intact group method. 333 lexical items were taught to the learners in the decontextualized paired-associate
    translation method. The classes were held two hours a week in a nine-month course of time. Six sets of vocabulary tests were administered and every learner’s average was calculated. The learners’ scores on the ECA tests and their average scores on the vocabulary tests were analyzed through the regression analysis procedure to derive a model that could reliably predict the learners’ ECA scores through their average performance on the vocabulary scores. The analysis yielded the following
    formula: (AVERAGE VOCABULARY × 0.713 + 2.871± [3.1].

  8. Translating the Science of Measuring Ecosystems at a National Scale: NEON's Online Learning Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    "Big Data" are becoming increasingly common in many fields. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect data over the 30 years, using consistent, standardized methods across the United States. These freely available new data provide an opportunity for increased understanding of continental- and global scale processes such as changes in vegetation structure and condition, biodiversity and landuse. However, while "big data" are becoming more accessible and available, working with big data is challenging. New and potentially unfamiliar data types and associated processing methods, required to work with a growing diversity of available data take time and resources to learn. Analysis of these big datasets may further present a challenge given large file sizes, and uncertainty regarding best methods to properly statistically summarize and analyze results. Finally, resources that support learning these concepts and approaches, are distributed widely across multiple online spaces and may take time to find. This presentation will overview the development of NEON's collaborative University-focused online education portal. It will also cover content testing, community feedback and results from workshops using online content. Portal content is hosted in github to facilitate community input, accessibility version control. Content includes 1) videos and supporting graphics that explain key concepts related to NEON and related big spatio-temporal and 2) data tutorials that include subsets of spatio-temporal data that can be used to learn key big data skills in a self-paced approach, or that can be used as a teaching tool in the classroom or in a workshop. All resources utilize free and open data processing, visualization and analysis tools, techniques and scripts. All NEON materials are being developed in collaboration with the scientific community and are being tested via in-person workshops. Visit the portal online: www.neondataskills.org.

  9. Translation and Adaptation of Tests: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for Countries Participating in timss, pisa and other International Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Solano-Flores

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a conceptual model and methodology for the review of translated tests in the context of such international comparisons as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA. We also present the results of an investigation into the quality of the Mexican translation of the TIMSS-1995 into the Spanish language. We identified translation errors in a significant percentage of the items, as well as relatively high correlations between the severity of translation errors and the items’ p-values. These findings indicate that our error-coding system is highly sensitive to test-translation error. The results underscore the need for improved translation and translation-review procedures in international comparisons. In our opinion, to implement the guidelines properly for test translation in international comparisons, each participating country needs to have internal procedures that would ensure a rigorous review of its own translations. The article concludes with four recommendations for countries participating in international comparisons. These recommendations relate to: (a the characteristics of the individuals in charge of translating instruments; (b the use of review, not simply at the end of the process, but during the process of test translation; (c the minimum time needed for various translation review iterations to take place; and (d the need for proper documentation of the entire process of test translation.

  10. Machine Learning Technologies Translates Vigilant Surveillance Satellite Big Data into Predictive Alerts for Environmental Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. P.; Rohrer, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    The application of scientific research pertaining to satellite imaging and data processing has facilitated the development of dynamic methodologies and tools that utilize nanosatellites and analytical platforms to address the increasing scope, scale, and intensity of emerging environmental threats to national security. While the use of remotely sensed data to monitor the environment at local and global scales is not a novel proposition, the application of advances in nanosatellites and analytical platforms are capable of overcoming the data availability and accessibility barriers that have historically impeded the timely detection, identification, and monitoring of these stressors. Commercial and university-based applications of these technologies were used to identify and evaluate their capacity as security-motivated environmental monitoring tools. Presently, nanosatellites can provide consumers with 1-meter resolution imaging, frequent revisits, and customizable tasking, allowing users to define an appropriate temporal scale for high resolution data collection that meets their operational needs. Analytical platforms are capable of ingesting increasingly large and diverse volumes of data, delivering complex analyses in the form of interpretation-ready data products and solutions. The synchronous advancement of these technologies creates the capability of analytical platforms to deliver interpretable products from persistently collected high-resolution data that meet varying temporal and geographic scale requirements. In terms of emerging environmental threats, these advances translate into customizable and flexible tools that can respond to and accommodate the evolving nature of environmental stressors. This presentation will demonstrate the capability of nanosatellites and analytical platforms to provide timely, relevant, and actionable information that enables environmental analysts and stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding the prevention

  11. images_template

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Images for the website template go here. It will not change their names or locations, but will hopefully help to organize them. Oh, but for a directory structure...

  12. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  13. Translation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because a...

  14. Economics of forest and forest carbon projects. Translating lessons learned into national REDD+ implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaballa Romero, M.; Traerup, S.; Wieben, E.; Ravnkilde Moeller, L.; Koch, A.

    2013-01-15

    The financial implications of implementing a new forest management paradigm have not been well understood and have often been underestimated. Resource needs for e.g., stakeholder consultation, capacity building and addressing the political economy are seldom fully accounted for in the resource needs estimates put forward in connection to REDD+. This report investigates the economics of implementing forest and REDD+ projects through eight case studies from Africa, Latin America and Asia, analyzing real forest and REDD+ investments. The report is part of efforts to share financial experiences and lessons learned with policymakers, project developers and stakeholders, with the objective to inform forest project and strategy development. It presents experiences and advice on the risks, costs and revenues of forest projects, thereby informing not only the development of future REDD+ initiatives but also the testing of advanced market commitments as a finance option for sustainable forest management. The findings in the report underline the fact that only through sound and transparent financial information will forest projects and national forest initiatives become interesting for private financial institutions and comparable with other investment opportunities. It is therefore important to include robust analysis of the operations business case and its financial attractiveness to commercial investors, early in the design process. As for the economics of forest and forest carbon projects, it appears that REDD+ payments alone, especially at current prices, will not deliver the revenues that cover all expenses of transparent and long-term mitigation of forest carbon emissions. Instead the findings underline the importance of building up forest operations which effectively manages risk and delivers several revenue streams. These findings are aligned with the advocacy efforts of UNEP and the UN-REDD Programme on multiple benefits and the combination of various funding and

  15. Biometric Template Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Nagar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometric recognition offers a reliable solution to the problem of user authentication in identity management systems. With the widespread deployment of biometric systems in various applications, there are increasing concerns about the security and privacy of biometric technology. Public acceptance of biometrics technology will depend on the ability of system designers to demonstrate that these systems are robust, have low error rates, and are tamper proof. We present a high-level categorization of the various vulnerabilities of a biometric system and discuss countermeasures that have been proposed to address these vulnerabilities. In particular, we focus on biometric template security which is an important issue because, unlike passwords and tokens, compromised biometric templates cannot be revoked and reissued. Protecting the template is a challenging task due to intrauser variability in the acquired biometric traits. We present an overview of various biometric template protection schemes and discuss their advantages and limitations in terms of security, revocability, and impact on matching accuracy. A template protection scheme with provable security and acceptable recognition performance has thus far remained elusive. Development of such a scheme is crucial as biometric systems are beginning to proliferate into the core physical and information infrastructure of our society.

  16. Machine Translation for Academic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui-chin; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh

    2009-01-01

    Due to the globalization trend and knowledge boost in the second millennium, multi-lingual translation has become a noteworthy issue. For the purposes of learning knowledge in academic fields, Machine Translation (MT) should be noticed not only academically but also practically. MT should be informed to the translating learners because it is a…

  17. Joomla! 3 template essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Frankowski, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Using this hands-on, step-by step tutorial filled with practical examples, the readers will be able to create beautiful templates and themes for your websites that will make them stand out from others.This book is written for all of you who wish to create your own unique templates for Joomla! 3.x. This book can be used by Joomla! administrators or visual designers (with no programming experience) or those of you who are used to working with common web developer tools like HTML/CSS editors for coding purposes. You would need basic knowledge of Joomla! and some knowledge of CSS and HTML.

  18. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han

    2014-07-22

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  19. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han; Yang, Yongliang; Wonka, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  20. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...... is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  1. gel template method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TiO2 nanotubes have been synthesized by sol–gel template method using alumina membrane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, UV absorption spectrum and X-ray diffraction techniques have been used to investigate the structure, morphology and optical ...

  2. Biometric template revocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Craig M.

    2004-08-01

    Biometric are a powerful technology for identifying humans both locally and at a distance. In order to perform identification or verification biometric systems capture an image of some biometric of a user or subject. The image is then converted mathematical to representation of the person call a template. Since we know that every human in the world is different each human will have different biometric images (different fingerprints, or faces, etc.). This is what makes biometrics useful for identification. However unlike a credit card number or a password to can be given to a person and later revoked if it is compromised and biometric is with the person for life. The problem then is to develop biometric templates witch can be easily revoked and reissued which are also unique to the user and can be easily used for identification and verification. In this paper we develop and present a method to generate a set of templates which are fully unique to the individual and also revocable. By using bases set compression algorithms in an n-dimensional orthogonal space we can represent a give biometric image in an infinite number of equally valued and unique ways. The verification and biometric matching system would be presented with a given template and revocation code. The code will then representing where in the sequence of n-dimensional vectors to start the recognition.

  3. Template Composite Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drach, Vincent; Hietanen, Ari; Pica, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We present a non perturbative study of SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental Dirac flavours. We discuss how the model can be used as a template for composite Dark Matter (DM). We estimate one particular interaction of the DM candidate with the Standard Model : the interaction through photon...

  4. German translation of the Alberta context tool and two measures of research use: methods, challenges and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the relationship between organizational context and research utilization is key to reducing the research-practice gap in health care. This is particularly true in the residential long term care (LTC) setting where relatively little work has examined the influence of context on research implementation. Reliable, valid measures and tools are a prerequisite for studying organizational context and research utilization. Few such tools exist in German. We thus translated three such tools (the Alberta Context Tool and two measures of research use) into German for use in German residential LTC. We point out challenges and strategies for their solution unique to German residential LTC, and demonstrate how resolving specific challenges in the translation of the health care aide instrument version streamlined the translation process of versions for registered nurses, allied health providers, practice specialists, and managers. Methods Our translation methods were based on best practices and included two independent forward translations, reconciliation of the forward translations, expert panel discussions, two independent back translations, reconciliation of the back translations, back translation review, and cognitive debriefing. Results We categorized the challenges in this translation process into seven categories: (1) differing professional education of Canadian and German care providers, (2) risk that German translations would become grammatically complex, (3) wordings at risk of being misunderstood, (4) phrases/idioms non-existent in German, (5) lack of corresponding German words, (6) limited comprehensibility of corresponding German words, and (7) target persons’ unfamiliarity with activities detailed in survey items. Examples of each challenge are described with strategies that we used to manage the challenge. Conclusion Translating an existing instrument is complex and time-consuming, but a rigorous approach is necessary to obtain instrument

  5. Animated pose templates for modeling and detecting human actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Benjamin Z; Nie, Bruce X; Liu, Zicheng; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents animated pose templates (APTs) for detecting short-term, long-term, and contextual actions from cluttered scenes in videos. Each pose template consists of two components: 1) a shape template with deformable parts represented in an And-node whose appearances are represented by the Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) features, and 2) a motion template specifying the motion of the parts by the Histogram of Optical-Flows (HOF) features. A shape template may have more than one motion template represented by an Or-node. Therefore, each action is defined as a mixture (Or-node) of pose templates in an And-Or tree structure. While this pose template is suitable for detecting short-term action snippets in two to five frames, we extend it in two ways: 1) For long-term actions, we animate the pose templates by adding temporal constraints in a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and 2) for contextual actions, we treat contextual objects as additional parts of the pose templates and add constraints that encode spatial correlations between parts. To train the model, we manually annotate part locations on several keyframes of each video and cluster them into pose templates using EM. This leaves the unknown parameters for our learning algorithm in two groups: 1) latent variables for the unannotated frames including pose-IDs and part locations, 2) model parameters shared by all training samples such as weights for HOG and HOF features, canonical part locations of each pose, coefficients penalizing pose-transition and part-deformation. To learn these parameters, we introduce a semi-supervised structural SVM algorithm that iterates between two steps: 1) learning (updating) model parameters using labeled data by solving a structural SVM optimization, and 2) imputing missing variables (i.e., detecting actions on unlabeled frames) with parameters learned from the previous step and progressively accepting high-score frames as newly labeled examples. This algorithm belongs to a

  6. Parents' Translations of Child Gesture Facilitate Word Learning in Children with Autism, Down Syndrome and Typical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Nevena; Özçalışkan, Şeyda; Adamson, Lauren B

    2016-01-01

    Typically-developing (TD) children frequently refer to objects uniquely in gesture. Parents translate these gestures into words, facilitating children's acquisition of these words (Goldin-Meadow et al. in Dev Sci 10(6):778-785, 2007). We ask whether this pattern holds for children with autism (AU) and with Down syndrome (DS) who show delayed vocabulary development. We observed 23 children with AU, 23 with DS, and 23 TD children with their parents over a year. Children used gestures to indicate objects before labeling them and parents translated their gestures into words. Importantly, children benefited from this input, acquiring more words for the translated gestures than the not translated ones. Results highlight the role contingent parental input to child gesture plays in language development of children with developmental disorders.

  7. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein and Dendritic Local Translation of the Alpha Subunit of the Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase II Messenger RNA Are Required for the Structural Plasticity Underlying Olfactory Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroles, Laura; Gribaudo, Simona; Doulazmi, Mohamed; Scotto-Lomassese, Sophie; Dubacq, Caroline; Mandairon, Nathalie; Greer, Charles August; Didier, Anne; Trembleau, Alain; Caillé, Isabelle

    2016-07-15

    In the adult brain, structural plasticity allowing gain or loss of synapses remodels circuits to support learning. In fragile X syndrome, the absence of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) leads to defects in plasticity and learning deficits. FMRP is a master regulator of local translation but its implication in learning-induced structural plasticity is unknown. Using an olfactory learning task requiring adult-born olfactory bulb neurons and cell-specific ablation of FMRP, we investigated whether learning shapes adult-born neuron morphology during their synaptic integration and its dependence on FMRP. We used alpha subunit of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (αCaMKII) mutant mice with altered dendritic localization of αCaMKII messenger RNA, as well as a reporter of αCaMKII local translation to investigate the role of this FMRP messenger RNA target in learning-dependent structural plasticity. Learning induces profound changes in dendritic architecture and spine morphology of adult-born neurons that are prevented by ablation of FMRP in adult-born neurons and rescued by an metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist. Moreover, dendritically translated αCaMKII is necessary for learning and associated structural modifications and learning triggers an FMRP-dependent increase of αCaMKII dendritic translation in adult-born neurons. Our results strongly suggest that FMRP mediates structural plasticity of olfactory bulb adult-born neurons to support olfactory learning through αCaMKII local translation. This reveals a new role for FMRP-regulated dendritic local translation in learning-induced structural plasticity. This might be of clinical relevance for the understanding of critical periods disruption in autism spectrum disorder patients, among which fragile X syndrome is the primary monogenic cause. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Machine translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, M

    1982-04-01

    Each language has its own structure. In translating one language into another one, language attributes and grammatical interpretation must be defined in an unambiguous form. In order to parse a sentence, it is necessary to recognize its structure. A so-called context-free grammar can help in this respect for machine translation and machine-aided translation. Problems to be solved in studying machine translation are taken up in the paper, which discusses subjects for semantics and for syntactic analysis and translation software. 14 references.

  9. Manufacturing ontology through templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diciuc Vlad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing industry contains a high volume of knowhow and of high value, much of it being held by key persons in the company. The passing of this know-how is the basis of manufacturing ontology. Among other methods like advanced filtering and algorithm based decision making, one way of handling the manufacturing ontology is via templates. The current paper tackles this approach and highlights the advantages concluding with some recommendations.

  10. Convergence and translation: attitudes to inter-professional learning and teaching of creative problem-solving among medical and engineering students and staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare worldwide needs translation of basic ideas from engineering into the clinic. Consequently, there is increasing demand for graduates equipped with the knowledge and skills to apply interdisciplinary medicine/engineering approaches to the development of novel solutions for healthcare. The literature provides little guidance regarding barriers to, and facilitators of, effective interdisciplinary learning for engineering and medical students in a team-based project context. Methods A quantitative survey was distributed to engineering and medical students and staff in two universities, one in Ireland and one in Belgium, to chart knowledge and practice in interdisciplinary learning and teaching, and of the teaching of innovation. Results We report important differences for staff and students between the disciplines regarding attitudes towards, and perceptions of, the relevance of interdisciplinary learning opportunities, and the role of creativity and innovation. There was agreement across groups concerning preferred learning, instructional styles, and module content. Medical students showed greater resistance to the use of structured creativity tools and interdisciplinary teams. Conclusions The results of this international survey will help to define the optimal learning conditions under which undergraduate engineering and medicine students can learn to consider the diverse factors which determine the success or failure of a healthcare engineering solution. PMID:24450310

  11. Convergence and translation: attitudes to inter-professional learning and teaching of creative problem-solving among medical and engineering students and staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelstra, Howard; Stoyanov, Slavi; Burgoyne, Louise; Bennett, Deirdre; Sweeney, Catherine; Drachsler, Hendrik; Vanderperren, Katrien; Van Huffel, Sabine; McSweeney, John; Shorten, George; O'Flynn, Siun; Cantillon-Murphy, Padraig; O'Tuathaigh, Colm

    2014-01-22

    Healthcare worldwide needs translation of basic ideas from engineering into the clinic. Consequently, there is increasing demand for graduates equipped with the knowledge and skills to apply interdisciplinary medicine/engineering approaches to the development of novel solutions for healthcare. The literature provides little guidance regarding barriers to, and facilitators of, effective interdisciplinary learning for engineering and medical students in a team-based project context. A quantitative survey was distributed to engineering and medical students and staff in two universities, one in Ireland and one in Belgium, to chart knowledge and practice in interdisciplinary learning and teaching, and of the teaching of innovation. We report important differences for staff and students between the disciplines regarding attitudes towards, and perceptions of, the relevance of interdisciplinary learning opportunities, and the role of creativity and innovation. There was agreement across groups concerning preferred learning, instructional styles, and module content. Medical students showed greater resistance to the use of structured creativity tools and interdisciplinary teams. The results of this international survey will help to define the optimal learning conditions under which undergraduate engineering and medicine students can learn to consider the diverse factors which determine the success or failure of a healthcare engineering solution.

  12. The Impact of Machine Translation and Computer-aided Translation on Translators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao

    2018-03-01

    Under the context of globalization, communications between countries and cultures are becoming increasingly frequent, which make it imperative to use some techniques to help translate. This paper is to explore the influence of computer-aided translation on translators, which is derived from the field of the computer-aided translation (CAT) and machine translation (MT). Followed by an introduction to the development of machine and computer-aided translation, it then depicts the technologies practicable to translators, which are trying to analyze the demand of designing the computer-aided translation so far in translation practice, and optimize the designation of computer-aided translation techniques, and analyze its operability in translation. The findings underline the advantages and disadvantages of MT and CAT tools, and the serviceability and future development of MT and CAT technologies. Finally, this thesis probes into the impact of these new technologies on translators in hope that more translators and translation researchers can learn to use such tools to improve their productivity.

  13. Understanding the limits of animal models as predictors of human biology: lessons learned from the sbv IMPROVER Species Translation Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Bilal, Erhan; Norel, Raquel; Poussin, Carine; Mathis, Carole; Dulize, Rémi H J; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Alexopoulos, Leonidas; Rice, J Jeremy; Peitsch, Manuel C; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Meyer, Pablo; Hoeng, Julia

    2015-02-15

    Inferring how humans respond to external cues such as drugs, chemicals, viruses or hormones is an essential question in biomedicine. Very often, however, this question cannot be addressed because it is not possible to perform experiments in humans. A reasonable alternative consists of generating responses in animal models and 'translating' those results to humans. The limitations of such translation, however, are far from clear, and systematic assessments of its actual potential are urgently needed. sbv IMPROVER (systems biology verification for Industrial Methodology for PROcess VErification in Research) was designed as a series of challenges to address translatability between humans and rodents. This collaborative crowd-sourcing initiative invited scientists from around the world to apply their own computational methodologies on a multilayer systems biology dataset composed of phosphoproteomics, transcriptomics and cytokine data derived from normal human and rat bronchial epithelial cells exposed in parallel to 52 different stimuli under identical conditions. Our aim was to understand the limits of species-to-species translatability at different levels of biological organization: signaling, transcriptional and release of secreted factors (such as cytokines). Participating teams submitted 49 different solutions across the sub-challenges, two-thirds of which were statistically significantly better than random. Additionally, similar computational methods were found to range widely in their performance within the same challenge, and no single method emerged as a clear winner across all sub-challenges. Finally, computational methods were able to effectively translate some specific stimuli and biological processes in the lung epithelial system, such as DNA synthesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, translation, immune/inflammation and growth factor/proliferation pathways, better than the expected response similarity between species. pmeyerr@us.ibm.com or Julia

  14. Translating India

    CERN Document Server

    Kothari, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The cultural universe of urban, English-speaking middle class in India shows signs of growing inclusiveness as far as English is concerned. This phenomenon manifests itself in increasing forms of bilingualism (combination of English and one Indian language) in everyday forms of speech - advertisement jingles, bilingual movies, signboards, and of course conversations. It is also evident in the startling prominence of Indian Writing in English and somewhat less visibly, but steadily rising, activity of English translation from Indian languages. Since the eighties this has led to a frenetic activity around English translation in India's academic and literary circles. Kothari makes this very current phenomenon her chief concern in Translating India.   The study covers aspects such as the production, reception and marketability of English translation. Through an unusually multi-disciplinary approach, this study situates English translation in India amidst local and global debates on translation, representation an...

  15. Parents' Translations of Child Gesture Facilitate Word Learning in Children with Autism, Down Syndrome and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Nevena; Özçaliskan, Seyda; Adamson, Lauren B.

    2016-01-01

    Typically-developing (TD) children frequently refer to objects uniquely in gesture. Parents translate these gestures into words, facilitating children's acquisition of these words (Goldin-Meadow et al. in "Dev Sci" 10(6):778-785, 2007). We ask whether this pattern holds for children with autism (AU) and with Down syndrome (DS) who show…

  16. LEARNING LANGUAGES? WHY BOTHER, WHEN THERE’S GOOGLE TRANSLATE? REFLECTIONS ON THE FUTURE FROM THE INSPECTOR’S POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Nieves Lorenzo Galés

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign language learning in academic environments is now tied to methodological approaches that are  interdisciplinary (CLIL, PBL, integrated (ILT-Integrated Learning Technologies, connectivist (ICT and CLT and pre-profesionalized (Blended, Apprenticeship, in an attempt to contextualize  language teaching and to facilitate the development of linguistic and communicative skills, beyond the world of Google Translate. New methodological tools are emerging in the classroom: Flipped Classrooms, Inquisitive Minds, Design Thinking, Problem Solving... What does the inspectorate of education need to know to ensure quality intervention in the classroom, the school and the territory? This communication reflects on context, and we propose specific lines of action  to enhance the role of the Inspectorate in this area.

  17. Revising and editing for translators

    CERN Document Server

    Mossop, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Revising and Editing for Translators provides guidance and learning materials for translation students learning to edit texts written by others, and professional translators wishing to improve their self-revision ability or learning to revise the work of others. Editing is understood as making corrections and improvements to texts, with particular attention to tailoring them to the given readership. Revising is this same task applied to draft translations. The linguistic work of editors and revisers is related to the professional situations in which they work. Mossop offers in-depth coverage of a wide range of topics, including copyediting, style editing, structural editing, checking for consistency, revising procedures and principles, and translation quality assessment. This third edition provides extended coverage of computer aids for revisers, and of the different degrees of revision suited to different texts. The inclusion of suggested activities and exercises, numerous real-world examples, a proposed gra...

  18. Compositional translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelo, Lisette; Janssen, Theo; Jong, de F.M.G.; Landsbergen, S.P.J.

    1994-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth review of machine translation by discussing in detail a particular method, called compositional translation, and a particular system, Rosetta, which is based on this method. The Rosetta project is a unique combination of fundamental research and large-scale

  19. A Deformable Template Model, with Special Reference to Elliptical Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger; Pedersen, Jan; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2002-01-01

    This paper suggests a high-level continuous image model for planar star-shaped objects. Under this model, a planar object is a stochastic deformation of a star-shaped template. The residual process, describing the difference between the radius-vector function of the template and the object...

  20. How Do English Translation Majors Use Translation Strategies? A Survey of the Iranian EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgarian, Amir; Vefali, Gülsen Musayeva

    2015-01-01

    Translation language learning strategies, especially in relation to translation students, have not received adequate attention in the research to date. Therefore, the present study attempted to explore Iranian translation students' use of translation strategies, related beliefs, and academic achievement. It was a survey study involving…

  1. Template Generation and Selection Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Y.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Broersma, Haitze J.; Heysters, P.M.; Badaway, W.; Ismail, Y.

    The availability of high-level design entry tooling is crucial for the viability of any reconfigurable SoC architecture. This paper presents a template generation method to extract functional equivalent structures, i.e. templates, from a control data flow graph. By inspecting the graph the algorithm

  2. Tradução & aprendizado de língua estrangeira: o ponto de vista do aluno Translation & foreign language learning: the learner's point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Terra

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Examinamos os modos como o aluno faz uma tomada reflexiva da sua experiência com a tradução no seu aprendizado da língua estrangeira: concepções de tradução, como se dá o processo tradutório, em que situações de aprendizagem a tradução é utilizada, com que objetivo, quais as implicações desses usos na aprendizagem da língua-alvo, como se estabelecem as relações língua estrangeira/língua materna nesse processo, entre outros. Para alcançar o objetivo proposto, analisamos as respostas de 47 estudantes, do Ensino Fundamental e Médio, de duas escolas da rede particular de ensino, a um questionário especialmente elaborado para os fins deste estudo. A opção pelas referidas escolas prende-se ao fato de ser a tradução praticada, regularmente, com tais alunos, como uma atividade pedagógica, no ensino-aprendizagem de língua estrangeira, no caso, o Inglês. Segundo os registros analisados, o aluno percebe a tradução como uma atividade benéfica ao seu aprendizado da língua-alvo e a ela recorre como uma estratégia de compreensão e apreensão dessa língua.This paper reports some exemplary data related to a research project on the role of translation in foreign language teaching-learning. The data were collected through a questionnaire administered to 47 Brazilian ESL learners. Specifically, the points of the analysis are: how the translation process is conceived by the students; why and when the translation is used by the learners in classroom situations; mother tongue/foreign language relationships in this specific context, among other aspects. The findings reveal that translation, when used a mediating resource for foreign language teaching-learning, can promote target language management.

  3. The moderating role of team resources in translating nursing teams' accountability into learning and performance: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashkovits, Sarit; Drach-Zahavy, Anat

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to test the moderated-mediation model suggesting that nursing teams' accountability affects team effectiveness by enhancing team learning when relevant resources are available to the team. Disappointing evidence regarding improvement in nurses' safe and quality care elevate the need in broadening our knowledge regarding the factors that enhance constant learning in nursing teams. Accountability is considered as crucial for team learning and quality of care but empirical findings have shown mixed evidence. A cross-sectional design. Forty-four nursing teams participated in the study. Data were collected in 2013-2014: Head nurses completed validated questionnaires, regarding team resources for learning (time availability, team autonomy and team performance feedback), and nursing teams' effectiveness; and nurses answered questionnaires regarding teams' accountability and learning (answers were aggregated to the team level). The model was tested using a moderated-mediation analysis with resources as moderating variables, and team learning as the mediator in the team accountability-team effectiveness link. The results of a mixed linear regression show that, as expected, nursing teams' accountability was positively linked to nursing teams' learning, when time availability, and team autonomy were high rather than low, and team performance feedback was low rather than high. Nurturing team accountability is not enough for achieving team learning and subsequent team effectiveness. Rather there is a need to provide nursing teams with adequate time, autonomy, and be cautious with performance feedback, as the latter may motivate nurses to repeat routine work strategies rather than explore improved ones. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Precision translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.

    1984-01-01

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  5. Translating Measures of Biological Aging to Test Effectiveness of Geroprotective Interventions: What Can We Learn from Research on Telomeres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waylon J. Hastings

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intervention studies in animals suggest molecular changes underlying age-related disease and disability can be slowed or reversed. To speed translation of these so-called “geroprotective” therapies to prevent age-related disease and disability in humans, biomarkers are needed that can track changes in the rate of human aging over the course of intervention trials. Algorithm methods that measure biological processes of aging from combinations of DNA methylation marks or clinical biomarkers show promise. To identify next steps for establishing utility of these algorithm-based measures of biological aging for geroprotector trials, we considered the history a candidate biomarker of aging that has received substantial research attention, telomere length. Although telomere length possesses compelling biology to recommend it as a biomarker of aging, mixed research findings have impeded clinical and epidemiologic translation. Strengths of telomeres that should be established for algorithm biomarkers of aging are correlation with chronological age across the lifespan, prediction of disease, disability, and early death, and responsiveness to risk and protective exposures. Key challenges in telomere research that algorithm biomarkers of aging must address are measurement precision and reliability, establishing links between longitudinal rates of change across repeated measurements and aging outcomes, and clarity over whether the biomarker is a causal mechanism of aging. These strengths and challenges suggest a research agenda to advance translation of algorithm-based aging biomarkers: establish validity in young-adult and midlife individuals; test responsiveness to exposures that shorten or extend healthy lifespan; and conduct repeated-measures longitudinal studies to test differential rates of change.

  6. Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matinhure Sheillah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs. We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case; and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case. Methods We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Findings Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO4 and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO4 than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO4, and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three

  7. Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelk, Godfrey; Daniels, Karen; Cliff, Julie; Lewin, Simon; Sevene, Esperança; Fernandes, Benedita; Mariano, Alda; Matinhure, Sheillah; Oxman, Andrew D; Lavis, John N; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2009-12-30

    Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs). We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO(4)) in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case); and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case). We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO(4 )and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO(4 )than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO(4), and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three countries. Translating research knowledge into

  8. A new template matching method based on contour information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huiying; Zhu, Feng; Wu, Qingxiao; Li, Sicong

    2014-11-01

    Template matching is a significant approach in machine vision due to its effectiveness and robustness. However, most of the template matching methods are so time consuming that they can't be used to many real time applications. The closed contour matching method is a popular kind of template matching methods. This paper presents a new closed contour template matching method which is suitable for two dimensional objects. Coarse-to-fine searching strategy is used to improve the matching efficiency and a partial computation elimination scheme is proposed to further speed up the searching process. The method consists of offline model construction and online matching. In the process of model construction, triples and distance image are obtained from the template image. A certain number of triples which are composed by three points are created from the contour information that is extracted from the template image. The rule to select the three points is that the template contour is divided equally into three parts by these points. The distance image is obtained here by distance transform. Each point on the distance image represents the nearest distance between current point and the points on the template contour. During the process of matching, triples of the searching image are created with the same rule as the triples of the model. Through the similarity that is invariant to rotation, translation and scaling between triangles, the triples corresponding to the triples of the model are found. Then we can obtain the initial RST (rotation, translation and scaling) parameters mapping the searching contour to the template contour. In order to speed up the searching process, the points on the searching contour are sampled to reduce the number of the triples. To verify the RST parameters, the searching contour is projected into the distance image, and the mean distance can be computed rapidly by simple operations of addition and multiplication. In the fine searching process

  9. Exploring factors related to the translation of collaborative research learning experiences into clinical practice: Opportunities and tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Simon; Whiting, Cheryl; Boaz, Annette; Reeves, Scott

    2017-07-01

    Providing training opportunities to develop research skills for clinical staff has been prioritised in response to the need for improving the evidence base underpinning the delivery of care. By exploring the experiences of a number of former participants of a multidisciplinary postgraduate research course, this article explores the factors that have enabled and impeded staff to translate their learnt research skills into clinical practice. Adopting an exploratory case study approach, 16 interviews with 5 cohorts of Masters by Research in Clinical Practice (MResCP) graduates were undertaken. The interviews explored graduates' course experiences and their subsequent attempts to undertake clinical research. Analysis of the data indicated that although participants valued their interactions with colleagues from different professions and felt they gained useful research skills/knowledge, upon returning to clinical practice, they encountered a number of barriers which restricted their ability to apply their research expertise. Professional isolation, issues of hierarchy, and a lack of organisational support were key to limiting their ability to undertake clinical research. Further work is needed to explore in more depth how (i) these barriers can be overcome and (ii) how taught collaborative research skills can be more effectively translated into practice.

  10. ‘I can’t really think in English’: Translation as literacy mediation in multilingual/multicultural learning contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banda, Felix

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores some aspects of a study which investigates translation as academic literacy mediation in South Africa’s multilingual/multicultural contexts. The focus is on learners’ translations of academic texts between the L2 and L1, and vice-versa, as a strategy to cope with ESL academic tasks. Using reflection discourse from one-on-one and focus group interviews as well as study group discussion texts, the study uses the New Literacy Studies model of literacy as social practice and aspects of critical discourse analysis to identify some pedagogical implications. One of the conclusions is that although learners are able to ‘translate’ in the sense of swapping labels between the L2 and L1 for the same concept, they are unable to successfully ‘translate’ in the sense of transfer of knowledge/cognitive skills between the L2 and L1, and the reverse. The need for functional use of the L1 and L2, critical cross-cultural awareness and language socialisation, as well as for trained bilingual teachers and literacy mediators, is explored as a way to promote positive difference, and help learners develop strategies to achieve transform/recontextualise knowledge/cognitive skills between the L2 and L1, and vice-versa, in multilingual/multicul-tural contexts.

  11. Translation of associative learning models into extinction reminders delivered via mobile phones during cue exposure interventions for substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M Zachary; Kutlu, Munir G

    2014-09-01

    Despite experimental findings and some treatment research supporting the use of cues as a means to induce and extinguish cravings, interventions using cue exposure have not been well integrated into contemporary substance abuse treatments. A primary problem with exposure-based interventions for addiction is that after learning not to use substances in the presence of addiction cues inside the clinic (i.e., extinction), stimuli in the naturalistic setting outside the clinic may continue to elicit craving, drug use, or other maladaptive conditioned responses. For exposure-based substance use interventions to be efficacious, new approaches are needed that can prevent relapse by directly generalizing learning from the therapeutic setting into naturalistic settings associated with a high risk for relapse. Basic research suggests that extinction reminders (ERs) can be paired with the context of learning new and more adaptive conditioned responses to substance abuse cues in exposure therapies for addiction. Using mobile phones and automated dialing and data collection software, ERs can be delivered in everyday high-risk settings to inhibit conditioned responses to substance-use-related stimuli. In this review, we describe how associative learning mechanisms (e.g., conditioned inhibition) can inform how ERs are conceptualized, learned, and implemented to prevent substance use when delivered via mobile phones. This approach, exposure with portable reminders of extinction, is introduced as an adjunctive intervention that uses brief automated ERs between clinic visits when individuals are in high-risk settings for drug use.

  12. Cloning nanocrystal morphology with soft templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Dev Kumar; Pandey, Anshu

    2016-08-01

    In most template directed preparative methods, while the template decides the nanostructure morphology, the structure of the template itself is a non-general outcome of its peculiar chemistry. Here we demonstrate a template mediated synthesis that overcomes this deficiency. This synthesis involves overgrowth of silica template onto a sacrificial nanocrystal. Such templates are used to copy the morphologies of gold nanorods. After template overgrowth, gold is removed and silver is regrown in the template cavity to produce a single crystal silver nanorod. This technique allows for duplicating existing nanocrystals, while also providing a quantifiable breakdown of the structure - shape interdependence.

  13. Translational Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issenberg, S. Barry; Cohen, Elaine R.; Barsuk, Jeffrey H.; Wayne, Diane B.

    2012-01-01

    Medical education research contributes to translational science (TS) when its outcomes not only impact educational settings, but also downstream results, including better patient-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has demonstrated its role in achieving such distal results. Effective TS also encompasses implementation science, the science of health-care delivery. Educational, clinical, quality, and safety goals can only be achieved by thematic, sustained, and cumulative research programs, not isolated studies. Components of an SBME TS research program include motivated learners, curriculum grounded in evidence-based learning theory, educational resources, evaluation of downstream results, a productive research team, rigorous research methods, research resources, and health-care system acceptance and implementation. National research priorities are served from translational educational research. National funding priorities should endorse the contribution and value of translational education research. PMID:23138127

  14. Gene- and cell-based bio-artificial pacemaker: what basic and translational lessons have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R A

    2012-06-01

    Normal rhythms originate in the sino-atrial node, a specialized cardiac tissue consisting of only a few thousands of nodal pacemaker cells. Malfunction of pacemaker cells due to diseases or aging leads to rhythm generation disorders (for example, bradycardias and sick-sinus syndrome (SSS)), which often necessitate the implantation of electronic pacemakers. Although effective, electronic devices are associated with such shortcomings as limited battery life, permanent implantation of leads, lead dislodging, the lack of autonomic responses and so on. Here, various gene- and cell-based approaches, with a particular emphasis placed on the use of pluripotent stem cells and the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated-encoded pacemaker gene family, that have been pursued in the past decade to reconstruct bio-artificial pacemakers as alternatives will be discussed in relation to the basic biological insights and translational regenerative potential.

  15. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  16. CONSORT to community: translation of an RCT to a large-scale community intervention and learnings from evaluation of the upscaled program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, Carly Jane; Miller, Jacqueline; Perry, Rebecca Anne; Chan, Lily Lai Hang; Daniels, Lynne Allison; Vidgen, Helen Anna; Magarey, Anthea Margaret

    2017-11-29

    Translation encompasses the continuum from clinical efficacy to widespread adoption within the healthcare service and ultimately routine clinical practice. The Parenting, Eating and Activity for Child Health (PEACH™) program has previously demonstrated clinical effectiveness in the management of child obesity, and has been recently implemented as a large-scale community intervention in Queensland, Australia. This paper aims to describe the translation of the evaluation framework from a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to large-scale community intervention (PEACH™ QLD). Tensions between RCT paradigm and implementation research will be discussed along with lived evaluation challenges, responses to overcome these, and key learnings for future evaluation conducted at scale. The translation of evaluation from PEACH™ RCT to the large-scale community intervention PEACH™ QLD is described. While the CONSORT Statement was used to report findings from two previous RCTs, the REAIM framework was more suitable for the evaluation of upscaled delivery of the PEACH™ program. Evaluation of PEACH™ QLD was undertaken during the project delivery period from 2013 to 2016. Experiential learnings from conducting the evaluation of PEACH™ QLD to the described evaluation framework are presented for the purposes of informing the future evaluation of upscaled programs. Evaluation changes in response to real-time changes in the delivery of the PEACH™ QLD Project were necessary at stages during the project term. Key evaluation challenges encountered included the collection of complete evaluation data from a diverse and geographically dispersed workforce and the systematic collection of process evaluation data in real time to support program changes during the project. Evaluation of large-scale community interventions in the real world is challenging and divergent from RCTs which are rigourously evaluated within a more tightly-controlled clinical research setting. Constructs

  17. Classroom Interactions in a Cooperative Translation Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui chuan Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available For the past decade, translation learning has become one of the main foci for university language students in Taiwan. However, many studies have shown that translation teachers tend to adopt traditional teaching methods without considering class dynamics and student interactions. This paper therefore looks into the interactions in the researcher’s designed cooperative translation task, the Cooperative Translation Task, to see how these interactions helped or hindered students’ translation learning. A small class of 25 translation students and two translation teachers were participants. Videotaping and interviews were conducted in order to investigate the interaction modes and student participants’ perspectives toward each interaction mode. Six interaction modes were found in this task: within group, between group, translator group and comment-giver group, instructor and students, guest teacher and students, and instructor and guest teacher. Based on the results and participants’ responses, suggested teaching guidelines are provided.

  18. Translating Harbourscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diedrich, Lisa Babette

    -specific design are proposed for all actors involved in harbour transformation. The study ends with an invitation to further investigate translation as a powerful metaphor for the way existing qualities of a site can be transformed, rather than erased or rewritten, and to explore how this metaphor can foster new...

  19. ENRM Working Paper Template

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    evidence based policy making. Canada's ... not subject to peer review, nor reviewed or edited for style and content. The views ... This paper develops a simple model to disentangle the effect of education on incomes by .... with prior belief, returns to education were low in agriculture, and resulted from lacking learning ...

  20. Action-Oriented Study Circles Facilitate Efforts in Nursing Homes to “Go from Feeding to Serving”: Conceptual Perspectives on Knowledge Translation and Workplace Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Westergren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Action-oriented study circles (AOSC have been found to improve nutrition in 24 nursing homes in Sweden. Little, however, is known about the conceptual use of knowledge (changes in staffs’ knowledge and behaviours. Methods. Qualitative and quantitative methods, structured questionnaires for evaluating participants’ (working in nursing homes experiences from study circles (n=592, 71 AOSC and for comparisons between AOSC participants (n=74 and nonparticipants (n=115. Finally, a focus group interview was conducted with AOSC participants (in total n=12. Statistical, conventional, and directed content analyses were used. Results. Participants experienced a statistically significant increase in their knowledge about eating and nutrition, when retrospectively comparing before participating and after, as well as in comparison to non-participants, and they felt that the management was engaged in and took care of ideas regarding food and mealtimes to a significantly greater extent than non-participants. The use of AOSC was successful judging from how staff members had changed their attitudes and behaviours toward feeding residents. Conclusions. AOSC facilitates professional development, better system performance, and, as shown in previous studies, better patient outcome. Based on a collaborative learning perspective, AOSC manages to integrate evidence, context, and facilitation in the efforts to achieve knowledge translation in a learning organisation. This study has implications also for other care settings implementing AOSC.

  1. Word translation entropy in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied....... In particular, the current study investigates the effect of these variables on early and late eye movement measures. Early eye movement measures are indicative of processes that are more automatic while late measures are more indicative of conscious processing. Most studies that found evidence of target...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...

  2. New Trends outside the Translation Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Martínez Martínez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the study of different elements at the University of Granada’s Faculty of Translation and Interpreting and seeks to elaborate a prototype for a multilingual and accessible audio guide (audio description, SDHH and Spanish sign language interpretation. We defend a new methodology, one that focuses on teaching the translation process from previous museum-based learning experiences in the translation classroom using QR codes. Our main goal is to innovate translation-related teaching based on the new approaches acquired through learning workshop perspectives. In this sense, we will offer an ideal framework in developing the new concept of translation learning. This concept involves systemising a new means of learning and organising the realities of translation itself, encompassing objectives, competences, methodology and evaluation.

  3. Assessment of learning and study strategies of university students in Qatar using an Arabic translation of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Nasser, Ramzi

    2014-06-01

    413 (119 men, 294 women) undergraduate university students in Qatar completed an Arabic version of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) measuring Anxiety, Attitude, Concentration, Information Processing, Motivation, Self-testing, Selecting Main Ideas, Study Aids, Time Management, and Test Strategies. The students' learning and study strategies scores were similar to those reported in the literature. Factor analysis indicated the same general factors as in the original study. Internal consistency estimates ranged from .62 to .88. Nine of the 10 scales (i.e., all with the exception of the Study Aids) significantly correlated with students' GPAs. Scores obtained from these scales provide valid assessments of Qatar University students' use of learning and study strategies related to skill, will, and self-regulation components of strategic learning and also academic achievement. There also were statistically significant differences between higher and lower achieving students in their learning and study strategies. This study also explored the use of the LASSI as a predictive measure of academic achievement. Anxiety and test strategies were significant predictors of academic achievement as measured by students' GPA.

  4. Translational genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kussmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  5. Beyond Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation...... and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate’ between different...... rationalities. This is shown to have important implications for theory, research and practice concerning disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in which such translation is often expected....

  6. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The paper explains the theoretical background and findings of an empirical study of revision policies, using Denmark as a case in point. After an overview of important definitions, types and parameters, the paper explains the methods and data gathered from a questionnaire survey and an interview...... survey. Results clearly show that most translation companies regard both unilingual and comparative revisions as essential components of professional quality assurance. Data indicate that revision is rarely fully comparative, as the preferred procedure seems to be a unilingual revision followed by a more...... or less comparative rereading. Though questionnaire data seem to indicate that translation companies use linguistic correctness and presentation as the only revision parameters, interview data reveal that textual and communicative aspects are also considered. Generally speaking, revision is not carried...

  7. Applications of Speech-to-Text Recognition and Computer-Aided Translation for Facilitating Cross-Cultural Learning through a Learning Activity: Issues and Their Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadiev, Rustam; Wu, Ting-Ting; Sun, Ai; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2018-01-01

    In this study, 21 university students, who represented thirteen nationalities, participated in an online cross-cultural learning activity. The participants were engaged in interactions and exchanges carried out on Facebook® and Skype® platforms, and their multilingual communications were supported by speech-to-text recognition (STR) and…

  8. Making Deformable Template Models Operational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Rune

    2000-01-01

    for estimation of the model parameters, which applies a combination of a maximum likelihood and minimum distance criterion. Another contribution is a very fast search based initialization algorithm using a filter interpretation of the likelihood model. These two methods can be applied to most deformable template......Deformable template models are a very popular and powerful tool within the field of image processing and computer vision. This thesis treats this type of models extensively with special focus on handling their common difficulties, i.e. model parameter selection, initialization and optimization....... A proper handling of the common difficulties is essential for making the models operational by a non-expert user, which is a requirement for intensifying and commercializing the use of deformable template models. The thesis is organized as a collection of the most important articles, which has been...

  9. Translation of an Action Learning Collaborative Model Into a Community-Based Intervention to Promote Physical Activity and Healthy Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifferdecker, Karen E; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Butcher, Rebecca L; O'Connor, Sharon; Li, Zhigang; Bazos, Dorothy A

    2016-01-01

    Action Learning Collaboratives (ALCs), whereby teams apply quality improvement (QI) tools and methods, have successfully improved patient care delivery and outcomes. We adapted and tested the ALC model as a community-based obesity prevention intervention focused on physical activity and healthy eating. The intervention used QI tools (e.g., progress monitoring) and team-based activities and was implemented in three communities through nine monthly meetings. To assess process and outcomes, we used a longitudinal repeated-measures and mixed-methods triangulation approach with a quasi-experimental design including objective measures at three time points. Most of the 97 participants were female (85.4%), White (93.8%), and non-Hispanic/Latino (95.9%). Average age was 52 years; 28.0% had annual household income of $20,000 or less; and mean body mass index was 35. Through mixed-effects models, we found some physical activity outcomes improved. Other outcomes did not significantly change. Although participants favorably viewed the QI tools, components of the QI process such as sharing goals and data on progress in teams and during meetings were limited. Participants' requests for more education or activities around physical activity and healthy eating, rather than progress monitoring and data sharing required for QI activities, challenged ALC model implementation. An ALC model for community-based obesity prevention may be more effective when applied to preexisting teams in community-based organizations. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  10. A GRAMMATICAL ADJUSTMENT ANALYSIS OF STATISTICAL MACHINE TRANSLATION METHOD USED BY GOOGLE TRANSLATE COMPARED TO HUMAN TRANSLATION IN TRANSLATING ENGLISH TEXT TO INDONESIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Pujianto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Google translate is a program which provides fast, free and effortless translating service. This service uses a unique method to translate. The system is called ―Statistical Machine Translation‖, the newest method in automatic translation. Machine translation (MT is an area of many kinds of different subjects of study and technique from linguistics, computers science, artificial intelligent (AI, translation theory, and statistics. SMT works by using statistical methods and mathematics to process the training data. The training data is corpus-based. It is a compilation of sentences and words of the languages (SL and TL from translation done by human. By using this method, Google let their machine discovers the rules for themselves. They do this by analyzing millions of documents that have already been translated by human translators and then generate the result based on the corpus/training data. However, questions arise when the results of the automatic translation prove to be unreliable in some extent. This paper questions the dependability of Google translate in comparison with grammatical adjustment that naturally characterizes human translators' specific advantage. The attempt is manifested through the analysis of the TL of some texts translated by the SMT. It is expected that by using the sample of TL produced by SMT we can learn the potential flaws of the translation. If such exists, the partial of more substantial undependability of SMT may open more windows to the debates of whether this service may suffice the users‘ need.

  11. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  12. DNA template dependent accuracy variation of nucleotide selection in transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Mellenius

    Full Text Available It has been commonly assumed that the effect of erroneous transcription of DNA genes into messenger RNAs on peptide sequence errors are masked by much more frequent errors of mRNA translation to protein. We present a theoretical model of transcriptional accuracy. It uses experimentally estimated standard free energies of double-stranded DNA and RNA/DNA hybrids and predicts a DNA template dependent transcriptional accuracy variation spanning several orders of magnitude. The model also identifies high-error as well a high-accuracy transcription motifs. The source of the large accuracy span is the context dependent variation of the stacking free energy of pairs of correct and incorrect base pairs in the ever moving transcription bubble. Our model predictions have direct experimental support from recent single molecule based identifications of transcriptional errors in the C. elegans transcriptome. Our conclusions challenge the general view that amino acid substitution errors in proteins are mainly caused by translational errors. It suggests instead that transcriptional error hotspots are the dominating source of peptide sequence errors in some DNA template contexts, while mRNA translation is the major cause of protein errors in other contexts.

  13. Time Series Analysis Using Geometric Template Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jordan; Mannor, Shie; Pineau, Joelle; Precup, Doina

    2013-03-01

    We present a novel framework for analyzing univariate time series data. At the heart of the approach is a versatile algorithm for measuring the similarity of two segments of time series called geometric template matching (GeTeM). First, we use GeTeM to compute a similarity measure for clustering and nearest-neighbor classification. Next, we present a semi-supervised learning algorithm that uses the similarity measure with hierarchical clustering in order to improve classification performance when unlabeled training data are available. Finally, we present a boosting framework called TDEBOOST, which uses an ensemble of GeTeM classifiers. TDEBOOST augments the traditional boosting approach with an additional step in which the features used as inputs to the classifier are adapted at each step to improve the training error. We empirically evaluate the proposed approaches on several datasets, such as accelerometer data collected from wearable sensors and ECG data.

  14. Translating democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Linguistic barriers may pose problems for politicians trying to communicate delicate decisions to a European-wide public, as well as for citizens wishing to protest at the European level. In this article I present a counter-intuitive position on the language question, one that explores how...... Forum (ESF). I compare deliberative practices in the multilingual ESF preparatory meetings with those in monolingual national Social Forum meetings in three Western European countries. My comparison shows that multilingualism does not reduce the inclusivity of democratic deliberation as compared...... in institutionalized habits and norms of deliberation. Addressing democratic theorists, my findings suggest that translation could be a way to think about difference not as a hindrance but as a resource for democracy in linguistically heterogeneous societies and public spaces, without presupposing a shared language...

  15. Translator's preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiell, James T

    2013-08-01

    Presents a preface from James T. Lamiell, who translates Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's Struggle for Existence (Die Psychologie im Kampf ums Dasein), in which Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy, into English. Lamiell comments that more than a decade into the 21st century, it appears that very few psychologists have any interest at all in work at the interface of psychology and philosophy. He notes that one clear indication of this is that the Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, which is Division 24 of the American Psychological Association (APA), remains one of the smallest of the APA's nearly 60 divisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Site-specifically modified oligodeoxyribonucleotides as templates for Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D.; Stoehrer, G.

    1985-01-01

    Oligodeoxyribonucleotides with site-specific modifications have been used as substrates for Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I holoenzyme and Klenow fragment. Modifications included the bulky guanine-8-aminofluorene adduct and a guanine oxidation product resembling the product of photosensitized DNA oxidation. By a combination of primers and nick-mers, conditions of single-strand-directed DNA synthesis and nick-translation could be created. The results show that the polymerase can bypass both types of lesions. Bypass occurs on a single-stranded template but is facilitated on a nicked, double-stranded template. Only purines, with guanine more favored than adenine, are incorporated across both lesions. The results indicate that site-specifically modified oligonucleotides can be sensitive probes for the action of polymerases on damaged templates. They also suggest a function for polymerase I, in its nick-translation capacity, during DNA repair and mutagenesis

  17. Less is more : unparser-completeness of metalanguages for template engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnoldus, B.J.; Brand, van den M.G.J.; Serebrenik, A.

    2011-01-01

    A code generator is a program translating an input model into code. In this paper we focus on template-based code generators in the context of the model view controller architecture (MVC). The language in which the code generator is written is known as a metalanguage in the code generation parlance.

  18. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation......Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...

  19. Nurturing and Testing Translation Competence for Text-Translating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubakirova, Karlygash Adilkhanovna

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the problems of contemporary professional education. As its instance, we examine the developmental scheme for training professional translators. Optimal ways of organizing the learning process are suggested from the point of view of the competence approach, which is widely recognized for training a modern specialist. The…

  20. A model for incorporating patient and stakeholder voices in a learning health care network: Washington State's Comparative Effectiveness Research Translation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Emily Beth; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Devlin, Allison; Edwards, Todd C; Farrokhi, Ellen T; Kessler, Larry; Lavallee, Danielle C; Patrick, Donald L; Sullivan, Sean D; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Yanez, N David; Flum, David R

    2013-08-01

    To describe the inaugural comparative effectiveness research (CER) cohort study of Washington State's Comparative Effectiveness Research Translation Network (CERTAIN), which compares invasive with noninvasive treatments for peripheral artery disease, and to focus on the patient centeredness of this cohort study by describing it within the context of a newly published conceptual framework for patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR). The peripheral artery disease study was selected because of clinician-identified uncertainty in treatment selection and differences in desired outcomes between patients and clinicians. Patient centeredness is achieved through the "Patient Voices Project," a CERTAIN initiative through which patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are administered for research and clinical purposes, and a study-specific patient advisory group where patients are meaningfully engaged throughout the life cycle of the study. A clinician-led research advisory panel follows in parallel. Primary outcomes are PRO instruments that measure function, health-related quality of life, and symptoms, the latter developed with input from the patients. Input from the patient advisory group led to revised retention procedures, which now focus on short-term (3-6 months) follow-up. The research advisory panel is piloting a point-of-care, patient assessment checklist, thereby returning study results to practice. The cohort study is aligned with the tenets of one of the new conceptual frameworks for conducting PCOR. The CERTAIN's inaugural cohort study may serve as a useful model for conducting PCOR and creating a learning health care network. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. PROPUESTA DIDÁCTICA PARA ABORDAR LA TRADUCCIÓN TÉCNICA: TRABAJO COLABORATIVO Y APRENDIZAJE BASADO EN PROYECTOS / DIDACTIC APPROACH TO TECHNICAL TRANSLATION: COLLABORATIVE WORK AND PROJECT BASED LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Valeria Carabajal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Dentro del ámbito de la didáctica de la traducción la implementación de metodologías que integren teoría y práctica es un gran desafío. La necesidad de modificar la enseñanza de la traducción especializada no es ajena a nuestra práctica docente en la materia Traducción Técnica del Traductorado Público en idioma inglés, Facultad de Lenguas, Universidad Nacional del Comahue (Argentina, donde la propuesta metodológica que se presenta en la traducción de textos técnicos integra diferentes propuestas didácticas para modificar la metodología de enseñanza de la traducción especializada. El objetivo del presente trabajo es describir las actividades en el marco del trabajo colaborativo, basado en proyectos que realizan los estudiantes de Traducción Técnica, para construir su propio aprendizaje de manera autónoma, y el rol docente como guía del proceso. Al implementar esta nueva metodología se espera que los futuros traductores adquieran las herramientas necesarias para desarrollarse de manera eficiente en el mercado laboral. ABSTRACT: The design of new methodological perspectives that combine different translation theories with the practice of translation is a difficult task in the area of translation didactics. The need to include changes in the teaching of specialized translation represents a challenge for teachers of Technical Translation of the English Public Translation graduate program at the School of Languages of Universidad Nacional del Comahue (Argentina. The methodological perspective applied to the translation of technical texts brings together different didactic strategies so as to modify the traditional methodology. This work aims at describing activities, focused on collaborative work and project-based learning, that students of Technical Translation carry out in order to foster autonomy in their own learning process with the teacher´s role as a facilitator of the process. It is believed that the

  2. Grammatical Templates: Improving Text Difficulty Evaluation for Language Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shuhan; Andersen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Language students are most engaged while reading texts at an appropriate difficulty level. However, existing methods of evaluating text difficulty focus mainly on vocabulary and do not prioritize grammatical features, hence they do not work well for language learners with limited knowledge of grammar. In this paper, we introduce grammatical templates, the expert-identified units of grammar that students learn from class, as an important feature of text difficulty evaluation. Experimental clas...

  3. A Visual Detection Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Bettina L.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Trejo, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Our learning model has memory templates representing the target-plus-noise and noise-alone stimulus sets. The best correlating template determines the response. The correlations and the feedback participate in the additive template updating rule. The model can predict the relative thresholds for detection in random, fixed and twin noise.

  4. Titanium template for scaphoid reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefeli, M; Schaefer, D J; Schumacher, R; Müller-Gerbl, M; Honigmann, P

    2015-06-01

    Reconstruction of a non-united scaphoid with a humpback deformity involves resection of the non-union followed by bone grafting and fixation of the fragments. Intraoperative control of the reconstruction is difficult owing to the complex three-dimensional shape of the scaphoid and the other carpal bones overlying the scaphoid on lateral radiographs. We developed a titanium template that fits exactly to the surfaces of the proximal and distal scaphoid poles to define their position relative to each other after resection of the non-union. The templates were designed on three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions and manufactured using selective laser melting technology. Ten conserved human wrists were used to simulate the reconstruction. The achieved precision measured as the deviation of the surface of the reconstructed scaphoid from its virtual counterpart was good in five cases (maximal difference 1.5 mm), moderate in one case (maximal difference 3 mm) and inadequate in four cases (difference more than 3 mm). The main problems were attributed to the template design and can be avoided by improved pre-operative planning, as shown in a clinical case. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Pengenalan Angka Pada Sistem Operasi Android Dengan Menggunakan Metode Template Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Pandu Kusuma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakUsia dini merupakan usia yang efektif untuk mengembangkan berbagai potensi yang dimiliki oleh anak. Upaya pengembangan potensi dapat dilakukan melalui berbagai cara termasuk dengan cara bermain. Bermain bagi anak merupakan cara yang tepat untuk belajar. Berdasarkan fenomena tersebut, maka perlu dibuat sebuah aplikasi pengenalan angka yang interaktif dengan unsur edukasi. Aplikasi tersebut diharapkan dapat mengambil keputusan secara otomatis apa yang ditulis anak itu bernilai benar atau salah dan juga dapat membangkitkan semangat belajar anak dalam mengenal pola angka. Solusi yang sesuai agar aplikasi tersebut dapat memberikan jawaban salah atau benar digunakan satu metode yaitu template matching. Pengenalan angka dengan menggunakan metode template matching dilakukan dengan cara membandingkan citra masukan dengan citra template. Hasil template matching dihitung dari banyaknya titik pada citra masukan yang sesuai dengan citra template. Template disediakan pada database untuk memberikan contoh cara penulisan pola angka. Uji coba dilakukan pada aplikasi sebanyak 40 kali dengan pola yang berbeda. Dari hasil uji coba didapat prosentase keberhasilan aplikasi ini mencapai 75,75%.Kata kunci: Belajar, bermain, Template Matching, dan pola. AbstractEarly childhood is an effective age to develop the potential of the child. Potential development efforts can be done through various ways, including by playing. Playing for children is a great way to learn. Based on this phenomenon, it should be made an introduction to the numbers interactive application with elements of education. The application is expected to take decisions automatically what the child is written is true or false, and also can encourage a child's learning in recognizing number patterns. Appropriate solutions so that the app can give an answer right or wrong to use the methods that template matching. The introduction of the numbers by using template matching is done by comparing the

  6. Functional Programming with C++ Template Metaprograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porkoláb, Zoltán

    Template metaprogramming is an emerging new direction of generative programming. With the clever definitions of templates we can force the C++ compiler to execute algorithms at compilation time. Among the application areas of template metaprograms are the expression templates, static interface checking, code optimization with adaption, language embedding and active libraries. However, as template metaprogramming was not an original design goal, the C++ language is not capable of elegant expression of metaprograms. The complicated syntax leads to the creation of code that is hard to write, understand and maintain. Although template metaprogramming has a strong relationship with functional programming, this is not reflected in the language syntax and existing libraries. In this paper we give a short and incomplete introduction to C++ templates and the basics of template metaprogramming. We will enlight the role of template metaprograms, and some important and widely used idioms. We give an overview of the possible application areas as well as debugging and profiling techniques. We suggest a pure functional style programming interface for C++ template metaprograms in the form of embedded Haskell code which is transformed to standard compliant C++ source.

  7. I - Template Metaprogramming for Massively Parallel Scientific Computing - Expression Templates

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Large scale scientific computing raises questions on different levels ranging from the fomulation of the problems to the choice of the best algorithms and their implementation for a specific platform. There are similarities in these different topics that can be exploited by modern-style C++ template metaprogramming techniques to produce readable, maintainable and generic code. Traditional low-level code tend to be fast but platform-dependent, and it obfuscates the meaning of the algorithm. On the other hand, object-oriented approach is nice to read, but may come with an inherent performance penalty. These lectures aim to present he basics of the Expression Template (ET) idiom which allows us to keep the object-oriented approach without sacrificing performance. We will in particular show to to enhance ET to include SIMD vectorization. We will then introduce techniques for abstracting iteration, and introduce thread-level parallelism for use in heavy data-centric loads. We will show to to apply these methods i...

  8. Translation in cell-free systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagus, R.

    1987-01-01

    The simplest, unambiguous identification of a particular mRNA is the identification of its protein product. This can be established by translation of the mRNA of interest in a cell-free protein-synthesizing system. Messenger RNA protein product identification is important in the isolation of a particular mRNA species for cDNA cloning and in the identification of positive cDNA clones. The two high-activity translation systems in common use are those prepared from rabbit reticulocytes and from wheat germ. Both systems are easy to prepare, and both are available commercially. Each has advantages and disadvantages over the other and a choice between the two will depend on the type of mRNAs to be translated, the prejudices of experience, and availability. The main disadvantage of the reticulocyte system is that it requires removal of endogenous mRNA. However, this is a relatively simple procedure. The wheat germ system does not require removal of endogenous mRNA and may translate weakly initiating mRNAs more efficiently. However, ionic optima for translation in the wheat germ system are more sensitive to the nature and concentration of mRNA and may need to be determined for each template. The biggest problem with the use of the wheat germ system is its tendency to produce incomplete translation products due to premature termination

  9. Action video game play facilitates the development of better perceptual templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejjanki, Vikranth R.; Zhang, Ruyuan; Li, Renjie; Pouget, Alexandre; Green, C. Shawn; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Bavelier, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    The field of perceptual learning has identified changes in perceptual templates as a powerful mechanism mediating the learning of statistical regularities in our environment. By measuring threshold-vs.-contrast curves using an orientation identification task under varying levels of external noise, the perceptual template model (PTM) allows one to disentangle various sources of signal-to-noise changes that can alter performance. We use the PTM approach to elucidate the mechanism that underlies the wide range of improvements noted after action video game play. We show that action video game players make use of improved perceptual templates compared with nonvideo game players, and we confirm a causal role for action video game play in inducing such improvements through a 50-h training study. Then, by adapting a recent neural model to this task, we demonstrate how such improved perceptual templates can arise from reweighting the connectivity between visual areas. Finally, we establish that action gamers do not enter the perceptual task with improved perceptual templates. Instead, although performance in action gamers is initially indistinguishable from that of nongamers, action gamers more rapidly learn the proper template as they experience the task. Taken together, our results establish for the first time to our knowledge the development of enhanced perceptual templates following action game play. Because such an improvement can facilitate the inference of the proper generative model for the task at hand, unlike perceptual learning that is quite specific, it thus elucidates a general learning mechanism that can account for the various behavioral benefits noted after action game play. PMID:25385590

  10. Action video game play facilitates the development of better perceptual templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejjanki, Vikranth R; Zhang, Ruyuan; Li, Renjie; Pouget, Alexandre; Green, C Shawn; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Bavelier, Daphne

    2014-11-25

    The field of perceptual learning has identified changes in perceptual templates as a powerful mechanism mediating the learning of statistical regularities in our environment. By measuring threshold-vs.-contrast curves using an orientation identification task under varying levels of external noise, the perceptual template model (PTM) allows one to disentangle various sources of signal-to-noise changes that can alter performance. We use the PTM approach to elucidate the mechanism that underlies the wide range of improvements noted after action video game play. We show that action video game players make use of improved perceptual templates compared with nonvideo game players, and we confirm a causal role for action video game play in inducing such improvements through a 50-h training study. Then, by adapting a recent neural model to this task, we demonstrate how such improved perceptual templates can arise from reweighting the connectivity between visual areas. Finally, we establish that action gamers do not enter the perceptual task with improved perceptual templates. Instead, although performance in action gamers is initially indistinguishable from that of nongamers, action gamers more rapidly learn the proper template as they experience the task. Taken together, our results establish for the first time to our knowledge the development of enhanced perceptual templates following action game play. Because such an improvement can facilitate the inference of the proper generative model for the task at hand, unlike perceptual learning that is quite specific, it thus elucidates a general learning mechanism that can account for the various behavioral benefits noted after action game play.

  11. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    /Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...... section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation...... technology research as a subdiscipline of TS, and we define and discuss some basic concepts and models of the field that we use in the rest of the paper. Based on a small-scale study of papers published in TS journals between 2006 and 2016, Section 3 attempts to map relevant developments of translation...

  12. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go eKawamura

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal nanowires (NWs have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production of composite devices. The resulting NWs are immobilized and spatially arranged, as dictated by the ordered porous structure of the template. This avoids the NWs from aggregating, which is common for NWs prepared with soft templates in solution. Herein, the hard template synthesis of metal NWs is reviewed, and the resulting structures, properties and potential applications are discussed.

  13. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2014-11-01

    Metal nanowires (NWs) have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production of composite devices. The resulting NWs are immobilized and spatially arranged, as dictated by the ordered porous structure of the template. This avoids the NWs from aggregating, which is common for NWs prepared with soft templates in solution. Herein, the hard template synthesis of metal NWs is reviewed, and the resulting structures, properties and potential applications are discussed.

  14. Using Blackboard Wiki Pages as a Shared Space for Simulating the Professional Translation Work Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, Juliet

    2015-01-01

    The Work-Integrated Simulation for Translators module is part of a three year undergraduate degree in translation. The semester long module aims to simulate several aspects of the translation process using the Blackboard virtual learning environment's Wikis as the interface for completing translation tasks. For each translation task, one of the…

  15. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanowires (NWs) have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance, and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production o...

  16. Templated Dry Printing of Conductive Metal Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, David Alexander

    Printed electronics can lower the cost and increase the ubiquity of electrical components such as batteries, sensors, and telemetry systems. Unfortunately, the advance of printed electronics has been held back by the limited minimum resolution, aspect ratio, and feature fidelity of present printing techniques such as gravure, screen printing and inkjet printing. Templated dry printing offers a solution to these problems by patterning nanoparticle inks into templates before drying. This dissertation shows advancements in two varieties of templated dry nanoprinting. The first, advective micromolding in vapor-permeable templates (AMPT) is a microfluidic approach that uses evaporation-driven mold filling to create submicron features with a 1:1 aspect ratio. We will discuss submicron surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators made through this process, and the refinement process in the template manufacturing process necessary to make these devices. We also present modeling techniques that can be applied to future AMPT templates. We conclude with a modified templated dry printing that improves throughput and isolated feature patterning by transferring dry-templated features with laser ablation. This method utilizes surface energy-defined templates to pattern features via doctor blade coating. Patterned and dried features can be transferred to a polymer substrate with an Nd:YAG MOPA fiber laser, and printed features can be smaller than the laser beam width.

  17. A SCHEME FOR TEMPLATE SECURITY AT FEATURE FUSION LEVEL IN MULTIMODAL BIOMETRIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Selwal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric is the science of human recognition based upon using their biological, chemical or behavioural traits. These systems are used in many real life applications simply from biometric based attendance system to providing security at very sophisticated level. A biometric system deals with raw data captured using a sensor and feature template extracted from raw image. One of the challenges being faced by designers of these systems is to secure template data extracted from the biometric modalities of the user and protect the raw images. To minimize spoof attacks on biometric systems by unauthorised users one of the solutions is to use multi-biometric systems. Multi-modal biometric system works by using fusion technique to merge feature templates generated from different modalities of the human. In this work a new scheme is proposed to secure template during feature fusion level. Scheme is based on union operation of fuzzy relations of templates of modalities during fusion process of multimodal biometric systems. This approach serves dual purpose of feature fusion as well as transformation of templates into a single secured non invertible template. The proposed technique is cancelable and experimentally tested on a bimodal biometric system comprising of fingerprint and hand geometry. Developed scheme removes the problem of an attacker learning the original minutia position in fingerprint and various measurements of hand geometry. Given scheme provides improved performance of the system with reduction in false accept rate and improvement in genuine accept rate.

  18. On Various Negative Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proof translations of classical mathematics into intuitionistic mathematics have been proposed in the literature over the past century. These are normally referred to as negative translations or double-negation translations. Among those, the most commonly cited are translations due to Kolmogorov, Godel, Gentzen, Kuroda and Krivine (in chronological order. In this paper we propose a framework for explaining how these different translations are related to each other. More precisely, we define a notion of a (modular simplification starting from Kolmogorov translation, which leads to a partial order between different negative translations. In this derived ordering, Kuroda and Krivine are minimal elements. Two new minimal translations are introduced, with Godel and Gentzen translations sitting in between Kolmogorov and one of these new translations.

  19. Gender issues in translation

    OpenAIRE

    ERGASHEVA G.I.

    2015-01-01

    The following research is done regarding gender in translation dealing specifically with the issue of the translators’ gender identity and its effect on their translations, as well as on how gender itself is translated and produced. We will try to clarify what gender is, how gender manifests itself in the system of language, and what problems translators encounter when translating or producing gender-related materials

  20. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  1. Translation-coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  2. Statistical inference for template aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckers, Michael E.

    2006-04-01

    A change in classification error rates for a biometric device is often referred to as template aging. Here we offer two methods for determining whether the effect of time is statistically significant. The first of these is the use of a generalized linear model to determine if these error rates change linearly over time. This approach generalizes previous work assessing the impact of covariates using generalized linear models. The second approach uses of likelihood ratio tests methodology. The focus here is on statistical methods for estimation not the underlying cause of the change in error rates over time. These methodologies are applied to data from the National Institutes of Standards and Technology Biometric Score Set Release 1. The results of these applications are discussed.

  3. A Template for Design Personas:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Hansen, Kira Storgaard; Stage, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The persona method is gaining widespread use and support. Many researchers have reported from single cases and from novel domains on how they have used the method. However, the way companies and design groups describe personas has not been the focus of attention. This paper analyses 47 descriptions...... from 13 companies and compares these to an analysis of recommendations from 11 templates from literature. Furthermore, 28 interviews with Danish practitioners with experience in using personas are analyzed for content on persona descriptions. The study finds that a Danish persona style has developed...... that is different from the recommendations in the lack of marketing and business related information and the absence of goals as differentiator for personas. Furthermore, the inspiration and knowledge on personas originates from co-workers and seminars and not much from literature. This indicates that the community...

  4. The collaborative dictionary as a tool in the learning process of translation students: an experience of knowledge sharing within the field of economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise; Duvå, Grete

    2002-01-01

    achieved during a semester of the French and Spanish translation studies at the Aarhus School of Business. The project is carried out at two different levels, i.e. an inferior level (bachelor level) and a superior level (master level). The subject domain of the project is economics....

  5. Screening for templates that promote crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, J.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Horst, J.H. ter; Verdoes, D.; Jansens, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    In Situ Product Recovery (ISPR) applied in fermentation processes leads to improved yield and productivity of these processes. In principle, ISPR can be achieved using Template Induced Crystallization (TIC), which is one possible ISPR technique. With TIC, templates are added to the solution as a

  6. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  7. Linguistic Levels of Translation: A Generic Exploration of Translation Difficulties in Literary Textual Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Madkour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study research was based on a generic exploration of the translation problems that graduate students face in literary translation. Literary translation is fundamental to translation programs at higher education due to the upsurge that has occurred in publishing classical and modern literary works from various cultures. However, literary texts have special characteristics that make the process of transferring them from one language into another a daunting task. Translating literary texts is difficult even for professional translators because misinterpreting the messages of the source texts can lead to distorting the aesthetic aspects of the literary work. Students need to learn various linguistic levels of literary translation as well as strategies and methods of translation. Learning the linguistics levels of translation necessitates providing adequate training that is based on enhancing students’ cognitive abilities. Cognitive-based translation training helps students learn the procedures of solving the problems of translating sound and literary devices. Cognitive approaches are relevant to the translation process since cognition implies mental activities that students can use to understand and synthesize the literary text, and reconstruct it creatively. Therefore, the current study aimed at examining the relationship between cognitive teaching methodologies and students’ performance in literary translation. To examine this relationship, qualitative and quantitative data was collected from graduate students at the College of Languages and Translation at Imam Mohammed bin Saud Islamic University (IMAMU University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In addition, corpus data was gathered from authentic literary texts including, novels, short stories, and poetry, to investigate the effect of linguistic analysis and cognitive strategies on the quality of literary translation. Quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the

  8. 2D vector-cyclic deformable templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette; Conradsen, Knut

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the theory of deformable templates is a vector cycle in 2D is described. The deformable template model originated in (Grenander, 1983) and was further investigated in (Grenander et al., 1991). A template vector distribution is induced by parameter distribution from transformation...... matrices applied to the vector cycle. An approximation in the parameter distribution is introduced. The main advantage by using the deformable template model is the ability to simulate a wide range of objects trained by e.g. their biological variations, and thereby improve restoration, segmentation...... and probabillity measurement. The case study concerns estimation of meat percent in pork carcasses. Given two cross-sectional images - one at the front and one near the ham of the carcass - the areas of lean and fat and a muscle in the lean area are measured automatically by the deformable templates....

  9. [The template principle: paradigm of modern genetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge-Vechtomov, S G

    2013-01-01

    The idea of continuity in living systems, which was initially developed in mid-19th century, reached its peak in 1928 thanks to N.K. Koltsov, who proposed the template principle in chromosome reproduction. The determination of genetic functions of nucleic acids and the advent of molecular genetics led to F. Crick's statement of the central dogma of molecular biology in 1958. This dogma became a contemporary version of the template principle (templates of the first order). The discovery of "protein inheritance" underlay the notion of steric or conformational templates (second order) for reproducing conformation in a number of proteins. The template principle supplemented by this notion claims to be the main paradigm of modern genetics.

  10. Template Assembly for Detailed Urban Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Nan, Liangliang

    2015-05-04

    We propose a new framework to reconstruct building details by automatically assembling 3D templates on coarse textured building models. In a preprocessing step, we generate an initial coarse model to approximate a point cloud computed using Structure from Motion and Multi View Stereo, and we model a set of 3D templates of facade details. Next, we optimize the initial coarse model to enforce consistency between geometry and appearance (texture images). Then, building details are reconstructed by assembling templates on the textured faces of the coarse model. The 3D templates are automatically chosen and located by our optimization-based template assembly algorithm that balances image matching and structural regularity. In the results, we demonstrate how our framework can enrich the details of coarse models using various data sets.

  11. Optimizing preventive maintenance with maintenance templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozier, I.J.

    1996-01-01

    Rising operating costs has caused maintenance professionals to rethink their strategy for preventive maintenance (PM) programs. Maintenance Templates are pre-engineered PM task recommendations for a component type based on application of the component. Development of the maintenance template considers the dominant failure cause of the component and the type of preventive maintenance that can predict or prevent the failure from occurring. Maintenance template development also attempts to replace fixed frequency tasks with condition monitoring tasks such as vibration analysis or thermography. For those components that have fixed frequency PM intervals, consideration is given to the maintenance drivers such as criticality, environment and usage. This helps to maximize the PM frequency intervals and maximize the component availability. Maintenance Templates have been used at PECO Energy's Limerick Generating Station during the Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) Process to optimize their PM program. This paper describes the development and uses of the maintenance templates

  12. On Interactive Teaching Model of Translation Course Based on Wechat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wang

    2017-01-01

    Constructivism is a theory related to knowledge and learning, focusing on learners' subjective initiative, based on which the interactive approach has been proved to play a crucial role in language learning. Accordingly, the interactive approach can also be applied to translation teaching since translation itself is a bilingual transformational…

  13. Why Translation Is Difficult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz Jonas

    2017-01-01

    The paper develops a definition of translation literality that is based on the syntactic and semantic similarity of the source and the target texts. We provide theoretical and empirical evidence that absolute literal translations are easy to produce. Based on a multilingual corpus of alternative...... translations we investigate the effects of cross-lingual syntactic and semantic distance on translation production times and find that non-literality makes from-scratch translation and post-editing difficult. We show that statistical machine translation systems encounter even more difficulties with non-literality....

  14. Template-based education toolkit for mobile platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golagani, Santosh Chandana; Esfahanian, Moosa; Akopian, David

    2012-02-01

    Nowadays mobile phones are the most widely used portable devices which evolve very fast adding new features and improving user experiences. The latest generation of hand-held devices called smartphones is equipped with superior memory, cameras and rich multimedia features, empowering people to use their mobile phones not only as a communication tool but also for entertainment purposes. With many young students showing interest in learning mobile application development one should introduce novel learning methods which may adapt to fast technology changes and introduce students to application development. Mobile phones become a common device, and engineering community incorporates phones in various solutions. Overcoming the limitations of conventional undergraduate electrical engineering (EE) education this paper explores the concept of template-based based education in mobile phone programming. The concept is based on developing small exercise templates which students can manipulate and revise for quick hands-on introduction to the application development and integration. Android platform is used as a popular open source environment for application development. The exercises relate to image processing topics typically studied by many students. The goal is to enable conventional course enhancements by incorporating in them short hands-on learning modules.

  15. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  16. Translation and Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    1996-01-01

    theory which would seem likely to be of interest in this connection and section 2. gives a linguist's introduction to the part of the area of quality management which I consider relevant for present purposes. Section 3. is devoted to the case study of a small translation firm which has been certified......The aim of this article is to consider the issue of quality in translation. Specifically, the question under consideration is whether quality assurance in relation to translation is feasible and, if so, what some of the implications for translation theory, translation practice and the teaching...... of translation would be. To provide a backdrop against which the issue may be discussed, I present an overview of the two areas which seem most likely to hold potential answers, viz., that of translation theory and that of quality management. Section 1. gives a brief outline of some contributions to translation...

  17. Rate in template-directed polymer synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takuya

    2014-06-01

    We discuss the temporal efficiency of template-directed polymer synthesis, such as DNA replication and transcription, under a given template string. To weigh the synthesis speed and accuracy on the same scale, we propose a template-directed synthesis (TDS) rate, which contains an expression analogous to that for the Shannon entropy. Increasing the synthesis speed accelerates the TDS rate, but the TDS rate is lowered if the produced sequences are diversified. We apply the TDS rate to some production system models and investigate how the balance between the speed and the accuracy is affected by changes in the system conditions.

  18. Nanowires and nanostructures fabrication using template methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Vlad, A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the great challenges of today is to find reliable techniques for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization are the most promising due to their easiness and low cost. This paper focuses on the electrochemical synthesis ...... of nanowires and nanostructures using nanoporous host materials such as supported anodic aluminum considering it as a key template for nanowires based devices. New ways are opened for applications by combining such template synthesis methods with nanolithographic techniques....

  19. Memetics and Translation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew, Chesterman

    2000-01-01

    Translation Studies is a branch of memetics. This is a claim, a hypothesis. More specifically, it is an interpretive hypothesis: I claim that Translation Studies can be thus interpreted, and that this is a useful thing to do because it offers a new and beneficial way of understanding translation.

  20. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    ), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  1. The Temple Translator's Workstation Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vanni, Michelle; Zajac, Remi

    1996-01-01

    .... The Temple Translator's Workstation is incorporated into a Tipster document management architecture and it allows both translator/analysts and monolingual analysts to use the machine- translation...

  2. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have......), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  3. Lost in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Steffen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    of translated texts. Our results suggest (i) that frame-based classifiers are usable for author attribution of both translated and untranslated texts; (ii) that framebased classifiers generally perform worse than the baseline classifiers for untranslated texts, but (iii) perform as well as, or superior...... to the baseline classifiers on translated texts; (iv) that—contrary to current belief—naïve classifiers based on lexical markers may perform tolerably on translated texts if the combination of author and translator is present in the training set of a classifier....

  4. Speaking your Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio......, since students were dictating in their L2, we looked into the number and types of error that occurred when using the SR software. Items that were misrecognised by the program could be divided into three categories: homophones, hesitations, and incorrectly pronounced words. Well over fifty per cent...

  5. Template for safety reports with descriptive example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This report provides a template for future safety reports on long-term safety in support of important decisions and permit applications in connection with the construction of a deep repository system. The template aims at providing a uniform structure for describing long-term safety, after the repository has been closed and sealed. The availability of such a structure will simplify both preparation and review of the safety reports, and make it possible to follow how safety assessments are influenced by the progressively more detailed body of data that emerges. A separate section containing 'descriptive examples' has been appended to the template. This section illustrates what the different chapters of the template should contain. 279 refs

  6. Template Assembly for Detailed Urban Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Nan, Liangliang; Wonka, Peter; Ghanem, Bernard; Jiang, Caigui

    2015-01-01

    Structure from Motion and Multi View Stereo, and we model a set of 3D templates of facade details. Next, we optimize the initial coarse model to enforce consistency between geometry and appearance (texture images). Then, building details are reconstructed

  7. Nucleic Acid Templated Reactions for Chemical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pisa, Margherita; Seitz, Oliver

    2017-06-21

    Nucleic acid directed bioorthogonal reactions offer the fascinating opportunity to unveil and redirect a plethora of intracellular mechanisms. Nano- to picomolar amounts of specific RNA molecules serve as templates and catalyze the selective formation of molecules that 1) exert biological effects, or 2) provide measurable signals for RNA detection. Turnover of reactants on the template is a valuable asset when concentrations of RNA templates are low. The idea is to use RNA-templated reactions to fully control the biodistribution of drugs and to push the detection limits of DNA or RNA analytes to extraordinary sensitivities. Herein we review recent and instructive examples of conditional synthesis or release of compounds for in cellulo protein interference and intracellular nucleic acid imaging. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  8. Template for safety reports with descriptive example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report provides a template for future safety reports on long-term safety in support of important decisions and permit applications in connection with the construction of a deep repository system. The template aims at providing a uniform structure for describing long-term safety, after the repository has been closed and sealed. The availability of such a structure will simplify both preparation and review of the safety reports, and make it possible to follow how safety assessments are influenced by the progressively more detailed body of data that emerges. A separate section containing `descriptive examples` has been appended to the template. This section illustrates what the different chapters of the template should contain. 279 refs.

  9. Social engineering attack examples, templates and scenarios

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, Francois

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available that are representative of real-world examples, whilst still being general enough to encompass several different real-world examples. The proposed social engineering attack templates cover all three types of communication, namely bidirectional communication...

  10. Template analysis for the MAGIC telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Uta [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: MAGIC-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The MAGIC telescopes are two 17-m-diameter Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes located on the Canary island of La Palma. They record the Cherenkov light from air showers induced by very high energy photons. The current data analysis uses a parametrization of the two shower images (including Hillas parameters) to determine the characteristics of the primary particle. I am implementing an advanced analysis method that compares shower images on a pixel basis with template images based on Monte Carlo simulations. To reduce the simulation effort the templates contain only pure shower images that are convolved with the telescope response later in the analysis. The primary particle parameters are reconstructed by maximizing the likelihood of the template. By using all the information available in the shower images, the performance of MAGIC is expected to improve. In this presentation I will explain the general idea of a template-based analysis and show the first results of the implementation.

  11. Surgical Templates for Dental Implant Positioning; Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prosthodontics; however, designing an implant‑supported prosthesis with function .... template where a provisional fixed restoration bridges the implant site. Pesun and ... in single implant therapy or short‑span implant‑supported prostheses.

  12. Self-Determination Theory and Web-Enhanced Course Template Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Christine M.; Stewart, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical approach to the design and implementation of a web-enhanced course template for Introduction to Psychology is reviewed. Links between psychological constructs and pedagogical principles of learning that are pertinent to a web-based course and the self-determination theory literature are discussed in relation to the design and…

  13. From Surfing to Diving: A Beginner's Guide to Enhancing the Foreign Language Classroom through Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    Provides a background to the development of the Internet; discusses Web sites as foreign-language-learning tools; and describes the Nicenet Internet Classroom Assistant that can be used as a software template for teachers to create their own Internet pages for foreign-language instruction. (Author/LRW)

  14. Lost in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The "Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire" (BMQ) assess balance of necessity and concern of medicines. The BMQ has been translated from English to many languages. However, the original meaning of statements, such as "My medicine is a mystery to me", may be lost in translation. The aim...... of this study is to compare three Scandinavian translations of the BMQ. (1) How reliable are the translations? (2) Are they still valid after translation? METHODS: Translated Norwegian, Swedish and Danish versions of the BMQ were scrutinized by three native Scandinavian researchers. Linguistic differences...... and ambiguities in the 5-point Likert scale and the BMQ statements were compared. RESULTS: In the Scandinavian translations, the Likert scale expanded beyond the original version at one endpoint (Swedish) or both endpoints (Danish). In the BMQ statements, discrepancies ranged from smaller inaccuracies toward...

  15. What is a translator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Pulido

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available I copied the title from Foucault’s text, "Qu'est-ce qu'un auteur" in Dits et écrits [1969], Paris, Gallimard, 1994, that I read in French, then in English in Donald F. Bouchard’s and Sherry Simon’s translation, and finally in Spanish in Yturbe Corina’s translation, and applied for the translator some of the analysis that Foucault presents to define the author. Foucault suggests that if we cannot define an author, at least we can see where their function is reflected. My purpose in this paper is to present those surfaces where the function of the translator is reflected or where it can be revealed, and to analyse the categories that could lead us to the elaboration of a suitable definition of a Translator. I dare already give a compound noun for the translator: Translator-Function.

  16. What is a translator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Martha Pulido

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available I copied the title from Foucault’s text, "Qu'est-ce qu'un auteur" in Dits et écrits [1969], Paris, Gallimard, 1994, that I read in French, then in English in Donald F. Bouchard’s and Sherry Simon’s translation, and finally in Spanish in Yturbe Corina’s translation, and applied for the translator some of the analysis that Foucault presents to define the author. Foucault suggests that if we cannot define an author, at least we can see where their function is reflected. My purpose in this paper is to present those surfaces where the function of the translator is reflected or where it can be revealed, and to analyse the categories that could lead us to the elaboration of a suitable definition of a Translator. I dare already give a compound noun for the translator: Translator-Function.

  17. Translating research into practice: evaluation of an e-learning resource for health care professionals to provide nutrition advice and support for cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jane; Worswick, Louise; Pulman, Andy; Ford, Grainne; Jeffery, Jaana

    2015-01-01

    Nurses and other allied health professionals are in a key position to provide appropriate and consistent advice on nutritional issues to support cancer survivors. However gaps in their nutrition knowledge and education warrant the need for enhanced learning as part of their Continued Professional Development (CPD). In the UK there are currently no formally recognised nutrition education programmes. Therefore e-learning offers a solution to provide flexible learning to target this need. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the efficacy of a freely available, internet-based learning resource, for nurses and allied health professionals who provide nutrition, diet and lifestyle advice for cancer survivors. It sought to explore the attitudes and conceptions of the resource and current knowledge base of those involved in the care pathway for cancer survivors. The design and development of the e-learning resource were informed by the best available research and policy evidence and in a format to facilitate on-line learning. A robust evaluation strategy incorporated focus groups and telephone interviews to gain in depth insights into the experiences of using the resource. Themes included 'Plugging a Gap' which shows an improved knowledge base for nutrition. Information was 'All in One Place' showing that the resource was valued as being within a 'trusted' organisation. 'Everyone Benefits' illustrates how learners felt that the resource provided them with an evidence base, whilst the 'Current and Live' theme captured how professionals felt about the information being up-to-date. The project has shown the benefits of interprofessional working to develop an e-learning resource for Health Care Professionals to support cancer survivors in following healthier lifestyles. Positive attitudes and potential improvements in the knowledge base and changes for professional practice were demonstrated. Further research is required to gauge sustained impact in the work environment by

  18. Multi-template polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Elena; Kubista, Mikael; Rensing, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    PCR is a formidable and potent technology that serves as an indispensable tool in a wide range of biological disciplines. However, due to the ease of use and often lack of rigorous standards many PCR applications can lead to highly variable, inaccurate, and ultimately meaningless results. Thus, rigorous method validation must precede its broad adoption to any new application. Multi-template samples possess particular features, which make their PCR analysis prone to artifacts and biases: multiple homologous templates present in copy numbers that vary within several orders of magnitude. Such conditions are a breeding ground for chimeras and heteroduplexes. Differences in template amplification efficiencies and template competition for reaction compounds undermine correct preservation of the original template ratio. In addition, the presence of inhibitors aggravates all of the above-mentioned problems. Inhibitors might also have ambivalent effects on the different templates within the same sample. Yet, no standard approaches exist for monitoring inhibitory effects in multitemplate PCR, which is crucial for establishing compatibility between samples.

  19. Multi-template polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kalle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PCR is a formidable and potent technology that serves as an indispensable tool in a wide range of biological disciplines. However, due to the ease of use and often lack of rigorous standards many PCR applications can lead to highly variable, inaccurate, and ultimately meaningless results. Thus, rigorous method validation must precede its broad adoption to any new application. Multi-template samples possess particular features, which make their PCR analysis prone to artifacts and biases: multiple homologous templates present in copy numbers that vary within several orders of magnitude. Such conditions are a breeding ground for chimeras and heteroduplexes. Differences in template amplification efficiencies and template competition for reaction compounds undermine correct preservation of the original template ratio. In addition, the presence of inhibitors aggravates all of the above-mentioned problems. Inhibitors might also have ambivalent effects on the different templates within the same sample. Yet, no standard approaches exist for monitoring inhibitory effects in multitemplate PCR, which is crucial for establishing compatibility between samples.

  20. Epilepsy as a Network Disorder (2): What can we learn from other network disorders such as dementia and schizophrenia, and what are the implications for translational research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfman, Helen E; Kanner, Andres M; Friedman, Alon; Blümcke, Ingmar; Crocker, Candice E; Cendes, Fernando; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Förstl, Hans; Fenton, André A; Grace, Anthony A; Palop, Jorge; Morrison, Jason; Nehlig, Astrid; Prasad, Asuri; Wilcox, Karen S; Jette, Nathalie; Pohlmann-Eden, Bernd

    2018-01-01

    There is common agreement that many disorders of the central nervous system are 'complex', that is, there are many potential factors that influence the development of the disease, underlying mechanisms, and successful treatment. Most of these disorders, unfortunately, have no cure at the present time, and therapeutic strategies often have debilitating side effects. Interestingly, some of the 'complexities' of one disorder are found in another, and the similarities are often network defects. It seems likely that more discussions of these commonalities could advance our understanding and, therefore, have clinical implications or translational impact. With this in mind, the Fourth International Halifax Epilepsy Conference and Retreat was held as described in the prior paper, and this companion paper focuses on the second half of the meeting. Leaders in various subspecialties of epilepsy research were asked to address aging and dementia or psychosis in people with epilepsy (PWE). Commonalities between autism, depression, aging and dementia, psychosis, and epilepsy were the focus of the presentations and discussion. In the last session, additional experts commented on new conceptualization of translational epilepsy research efforts. Here, the presentations are reviewed, and salient points are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantum neural network based machine translator for Hindi to English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Ravi; Singh, V P; Chakraverty, S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the machine learning based machine translation system for Hindi to English, which learns the semantically correct corpus. The quantum neural based pattern recognizer is used to recognize and learn the pattern of corpus, using the information of part of speech of individual word in the corpus, like a human. The system performs the machine translation using its knowledge gained during the learning by inputting the pair of sentences of Devnagri-Hindi and English. To analyze the effectiveness of the proposed approach, 2600 sentences have been evaluated during simulation and evaluation. The accuracy achieved on BLEU score is 0.7502, on NIST score is 6.5773, on ROUGE-L score is 0.9233, and on METEOR score is 0.5456, which is significantly higher in comparison with Google Translation and Bing Translation for Hindi to English Machine Translation.

  2. Discourse Analysis in Translator Training

    OpenAIRE

    Gülfidan Ayvaz

    2015-01-01

    Translator training enables students to gain experience in both linguistic parameters and translation practice. Discourse Analysis is one of the strategies that lead to a better translation process and quality in translation. In that regard, this study aims to present DA as a translation strategy for translation practice and a useful tool for translator training. The relationship between DA and Translator Training is not widely studied. Therefore this study aims to define DA and how it can be...

  3. Crowdsourced Translation for Rapid Internationalization in Cyberspace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Yen; Yonatany, Moshe; Mahnke, Volker

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how Facebook effectively used crowdsourced translation to accelerate its rapid internationalization. We apply the learning perspective of internationalization theory to unpack what the firm learned in order to mobilize crowd-based knowledge to facilitate internationalization...... and codified knowledge, rather than the experiential knowledge traditionally suggested in the literature on the process of internationalization, and (2) the firm's success rested on its ability to use virtual learning tools and incentive systems to acquire, articulate and integrate knowledge from communities...... of internationally dispersed users – the “crowd” – to accelerate its internationalization in cyberspace. This empirical study extends internationalization theory regarding knowledge and organizational learning....

  4. Rescue of Learning and Memory Deficits in the Human Nonsyndromic Intellectual Disability Cereblon Knock-Out Mouse Model by Targeting the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase-mTORC1 Translational Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavley, Charlotte C; Rice, Richard C; Fischer, Delaney K; Fakira, Amanda K; Byrne, Maureen; Kosovsky, Maria; Rizzo, Bryant K; Del Prete, Dolores; Alaedini, Armin; Morón, Jose A; Higgins, Joseph J; D'Adamio, Luciano; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M

    2018-03-14

    A homozygous nonsense mutation in the cereblon ( CRBN ) gene results in autosomal recessive, nonsyndromic intellectual disability that is devoid of other phenotypic features, suggesting a critical role of CRBN in mediating learning and memory. In this study, we demonstrate that adult male Crbn knock-out ( Crbn KO ) mice exhibit deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks that are recapitulated by focal knock-out of Crbn in the adult dorsal hippocampus, with no changes in social or repetitive behavior. Cellular studies identify deficits in long-term potentiation at Schaffer collateral CA1 synapses. We further show that Crbn is robustly expressed in the mouse hippocampus and Crbn KO mice exhibit hyperphosphorylated levels of AMPKα (Thr172). Examination of processes downstream of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) finds that Crbn KO mice have a selective impairment in mediators of the mTORC1 translation initiation pathway in parallel with lower protein levels of postsynaptic density glutamatergic proteins and higher levels of excitatory presynaptic markers in the hippocampus with no change in markers of the unfolded protein response or autophagy pathways. Acute pharmacological inhibition of AMPK activity in adult Crbn KO mice rescues learning and memory deficits and normalizes hippocampal mTORC1 activity and postsynaptic glutamatergic proteins without altering excitatory presynaptic markers. Thus, this study identifies that loss of Crbn results in learning, memory, and synaptic defects as a consequence of exaggerated AMPK activity, inhibition of mTORC1 signaling, and decreased glutamatergic synaptic proteins. Thus, Crbn KO mice serve as an ideal model of intellectual disability to further explore molecular mechanisms of learning and memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Intellectual disability (ID) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. The cereblon ( CRBN ) gene has been linked to autosomal recessive, nonsyndromic ID, characterized by an

  5. Struggling with Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    This paper shows empirical how actors have difficulties with translating strategy texts. The paper uses four cases as different examples of what happens, and what might be difficult, when actors translate organizational texts. In order to explore this, it draws on a translation training method from...... translation theory. The study shows that for those who have produced the text, it is difficult to translate a strategy where they have to change the words so others who don’t understand the language in the text can understand it. It also shows that for those who haven’t been a part of the production, it very...... challenge the notion that actors understand all texts and that managers per se can translate a text....

  6. Translational ecology for hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, William H

    2013-01-01

    Translational ecology--a special discipline aimed to improve the accessibility of science to policy makers--will help hydrogeologists contribute to the solution of pressing environmental problems. Patterned after translational medicine, translational ecology is a partnership to ensure that the right science gets done in a timely fashion, so that it can be communicated to those who need it. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  7. Translation and Intertextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rahimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is intends to describe and Presents a new theory of translation based on the "Intertextuality" unlike the Translation theories that presented to date, what all are based on the principle of "Equivalence". Our theory is based on the examples of Arabic poetry translated into Persian poetry. The major findings of this study show that the Intertextuality can serve as a link between the original text and the target. it can also interact with other texts is the translation result in the target language, Whtich is the book of poetic eloquence is addressed and was mentioned Literary robbery.

  8. Factored Translation with Unsupervised Word Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Christian; Søgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Unsupervised word clustering algorithms — which form word clusters based on a measure of distributional similarity — have proven to be useful in providing beneficial features for various natural language processing tasks involving supervised learning. This work explores the utility of such word...... clusters as factors in statistical machine translation. Although some of the language pairs in this work clearly benefit from the factor augmentation, there is no consistent improvement in translation accuracy across the board. For all language pairs, the word clusters clearly improve translation for some...... proportion of the sentences in the test set, but has a weak or even detrimental effect on the rest. It is shown that if one could determine whether or not to use a factor when translating a given sentence, rather substantial improvements in precision could be achieved for all of the language pairs evaluated...

  9. Chapter 16: text mining for translational bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2013-04-01

    Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research-translating basic science results into new interventions-and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. Potential use cases include better phenotyping of research subjects, and pharmacogenomic research. A variety of methods for evaluating text mining applications exist, including corpora, structured test suites, and post hoc judging. Two basic principles of linguistic structure are relevant for building text mining applications. One is that linguistic structure consists of multiple levels. The other is that every level of linguistic structure is characterized by ambiguity. There are two basic approaches to text mining: rule-based, also known as knowledge-based; and machine-learning-based, also known as statistical. Many systems are hybrids of the two approaches. Shared tasks have had a strong effect on the direction of the field. Like all translational bioinformatics software, text mining software for translational bioinformatics can be considered health-critical and should be subject to the strictest standards of quality assurance and software testing.

  10. A Graduate Professional Program in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, Renee

    1987-01-01

    The City University of New York Graduate School's professional program in translation combines high-level, specialized language learning in French, German, and Spanish with related graduate work in such disciplines as international affairs, finance, banking, jurisprudence, literature, and computer science. (CB)

  11. A MOOC on Approaches to Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-jussà, Mart R.; Formiga, Lluís; Torrillas, Oriol; Petit, Jordi; Fonollosa, José A. R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design, development, and analysis of a MOOC entitled "Approaches to Machine Translation: Rule-based, statistical and hybrid", and provides lessons learned and conclusions to be taken into account in the future. The course was developed within the Canvas platform, used by recognized European universities. It…

  12. Rule-based machine translation for Aymara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coler, Matthew; Homola, Petr; Jones, Mari

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the ongoing result of an approach developed by the collaboration of a computational linguist with a field linguist that addresses one of the oft-overlooked keys to language maintenance: the development of modern language-learning tools. Although machine translation isn’t commonly

  13. A Hybrid Approach to Protect Palmprint Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric template protection is indispensable to protect personal privacy in large-scale deployment of biometric systems. Accuracy, changeability, and security are three critical requirements for template protection algorithms. However, existing template protection algorithms cannot satisfy all these requirements well. In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach that combines random projection and fuzzy vault to improve the performances at these three points. Heterogeneous space is designed for combining random projection and fuzzy vault properly in the hybrid scheme. New chaff point generation method is also proposed to enhance the security of the heterogeneous vault. Theoretical analyses of proposed hybrid approach in terms of accuracy, changeability, and security are given in this paper. Palmprint database based experimental results well support the theoretical analyses and demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed hybrid approach.

  14. Lost in Translation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Translating sacred scriptures is not only a praxis that is crucial for the fruitful, i.e. non-distorted and unbiased dialogue between different religious traditions, but also raises some fundamental theoretical questions when it comes to translating the sacred texts of the religious other or

  15. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  16. Students' Differentiated Translation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how students translate between mathematical representations is of both practical and theoretical importance. This study examined students' processes in their generation of symbolic and graphic representations of given polynomial functions. The purpose was to investigate how students perform these translations. The result of the study…

  17. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…

  18. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  19. Measuring Translation Literality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    Tirkkonen-Condit (2005: 407–408) argues that “It looks as if literal translation is [the result of] a default rendering procedure”. As a corollary, more literal translations should be easier to process, and less literal ones should be associated with more cognitive effort. In order to assess this...

  20. Text Coherence in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanping

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  1. TRANSLATING SERVICE TECHNICAL PROSE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    language. The Application of Technical Service. Prose. To form a good idea of the appl ication .... cost lives. In this particular domain, translators must have a sound technical ... These semantic ... another language and often, in doing so, changing its meaning. The words ..... He will hand out tasks to each translator and after.

  2. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom....

  3. Translation, Quality and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    The paper investigates the feasibility and some of the possible consequences of applying quality management to translation. It first gives an introduction to two different schools of translation and to (total) quality management. It then examines whether quality management may, in theory...

  4. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning; Tarp, Sven

    2018-01-01

    in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...

  5. Translation between cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Oliveira Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article will question the pertinence of understanding interculturality in terms of translation between cultures. I shall study this hypothesis in two ways : 1 / the cosmopolitan horizon, which the idea of translation may implicate ; 2 / the critique of the premises of unique origin and homogeneity of cultures which this hypothesis makes possible.

  6. Idioms and Back Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of intercultural communication are an integral part of many undergraduate business communication courses. Marketing gaffes clearly illustrate the pitfalls of translation and underscore the importance of a knowledge of the culture with which one is attempting to communicate. A good way to approach the topic of translation pitfalls in…

  7. Fabricating hydroxyapatite nanorods using a biomacromolecule template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Aiping; Lu Yan; Si Yunfeng; Dai Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Rod-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles with various aspect ratios are synthesized by means of low-temperature hydrothermal method in the presence of a N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) propyl]chitosan chloride (HTCC) template. The synthesized HAps were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The results reveal that HAps are rod-like monocrystals, where the size and morphology can be tailored by varying synthesis conditions, such as pH, hydrothermal synthesis temperature and the ratio of PO 4 3- to the quaternary ammonium in HTCC. The mechanism of HTCC template on HAp nanorod preparation is analyzed.

  8. Frabicating hydroxyapatite nanorods using a biomacromolecule template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Aiping; Lu, Yan; Si, Yunfeng; Dai, Sheng

    2011-02-01

    Rod-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles with various aspect ratios are synthesized by means of low-temperature hydrothermal method in the presence of a N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) propyl]chitosan chloride (HTCC) template. The synthesized HAps were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The results reveal that HAps are rod-like monocrystals, where the size and morphology can be tailored by varying synthesis conditions, such as pH, hydrothermal synthesis temperature and the ratio of PO43- to the quaternary ammonium in HTCC. The mechanism of HTCC template on HAp nanorod preparation is analyzed.

  9. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  10. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  11. Grammar-translation and CLT in L2 Grammar Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪杉莎

    2013-01-01

    This paper puts forward to compare teaching method between grammar-translation and CLT in grammar teaching. Gram⁃mar leaning is a basic concept in English learning as grammar is an important element in a communicative approach to language. This paper discussed CLT method can help and encourage student to study, however, grammar-translation method is able to under⁃stand.

  12. Theory of Test Translation Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  13. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  14. Translation, Cultural Translation and the Hegemonic English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Horak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This brief chapter problematizes the hegemonic position of the English language in Cultural Studies, which, in the author's view, can be understood as a moment that stands against a true internationalisation of the project. Following an argu-ment referring to the necessary 'translation' process (here seen as 're-articulation', 'transcoding' or 'transculturation' Stuart Hall has put forward almost two decades ago, the essay, firstly, turns to the notion of 'linguistic translations', and deals, secondly, with what has been coined 'cultural translation'. Discussing approaches developed by Walter Benjamin, Umberto Eco and Homi Bhabha, the complex relationship between the two terms is being investigated. Finally, in a modest attempt to throw some light on this hegemonic structure, central aspects of the output of three important journals (European Journal of Cultural Studies, International Journal of Cultural Studies, Cultural Studies, i. e. an analysis of the linguistic and institutional backgrounds of the authors of the ten most-read and most-cited essays, are presented. Based on these findings I argue that it is not simply the addition of the discursive field (language to the academic space (institution that defines the mecha-nism of exclusion and inclusion. Rather, it is the articulation of both moments, i.e. that of language and that of the institution, which - in various contexts (but in their own very definite ways - can help to develop that structure which at present is still hindering a further, more profound internationalisation of the project that is Cultural Studies.

  15. Photon signature analysis using template matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.A., E-mail: d.a.bradley@surrey.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Hashim, S., E-mail: suhairul@utm.my [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Saripan, M.I. [Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Wells, K. [Centre for Vision, Speech and Signal Processing, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Dunn, W.L. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, 3002 Rathbone Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    We describe an approach to detect improvised explosive devices (IEDs) by using a template matching procedure. This approach relies on the signature due to backstreaming {gamma} photons from various targets. In this work we have simulated cylindrical targets of aluminum, iron, copper, water and ammonium nitrate (nitrogen-rich fertilizer). We simulate 3.5 MeV source photons distributed on a plane inside a shielded area using Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP{sup TM}) code version 5 (V5). The 3.5 MeV source gamma rays yield 511 keV peaks due to pair production and scattered gamma rays. In this work, we simulate capture of those photons that backstream, after impinging on the target element, toward a NaI detector. The captured backstreamed photons are expected to produce a unique spectrum that will become part of a simple signal processing recognition system based on the template matching method. Different elements were simulated using different sets of random numbers in the Monte Carlo simulation. To date, the sum of absolute differences (SAD) method has been used to match the template. In the examples investigated, template matching was found to detect all elements correctly.

  16. Organic or organometallic template mediated clay synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregar, Kathleen C.; Winans, Randall E.; Botto, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method for incorporating diverse Varieties of intercalants or templates directly during hydrothermal synthesis of clays such as hectorite or montmorillonite-type layer-silicate clays. For a hectorite layer-silicate clay, refluxing a gel of silica sol, magnesium hydroxide sol and lithium fluoride for two days in the presence of an organic or organometallic intercalant or template results in crystalline products containing either (a) organic dye molecules such as ethyl violet and methyl green, (b) dye molecules such as alcian blue that are based on a Cu(II)-phthalocyannine complex, or (c) transition metal complexes such as Ru(II)phenanthroline and Co(III)sepulchrate or (d) water-soluble porphyrins and metalloporphyrins. Montmorillonite-type clays are made by the method taught by U.S. Pat. No. 3,887,454 issued to Hickson, Jun. 13, 1975; however, a variety of intercalants or templates may be introduced. The intercalants or templates should have (i) water-solubility, (ii) positive charge, and (iii) thermal stability under moderately basic (pH 9-10) aqueous reflux conditions or hydrothermal pressurized conditions for the montmorillonite-type clays.

  17. Binary palmprint representation for feature template protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, Meiru; Ruan, Qiuqi; Shao, X.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2012-01-01

    The major challenge of biometric template protection comes from the intraclass variations of biometric data. The helper data scheme aims to solve this problem by employing the Error Correction Codes (ECC). However, many reported biometric binary features from the same user reach bit error rate (BER)

  18. A lightweight approach for biometric template protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Assam, Hisham; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah

    2009-05-01

    Privacy and security are vital concerns for practical biometric systems. The concept of cancelable or revocable biometrics has been proposed as a solution for biometric template security. Revocable biometric means that biometric templates are no longer fixed over time and could be revoked in the same way as lost or stolen credit cards are. In this paper, we describe a novel and an efficient approach to biometric template protection that meets the revocability property. This scheme can be incorporated into any biometric verification scheme while maintaining, if not improving, the accuracy of the original biometric system. However, we shall demonstrate the result of applying such transforms on face biometric templates and compare the efficiency of our approach with that of the well-known random projection techniques. We shall also present the results of experimental work on recognition accuracy before and after applying the proposed transform on feature vectors that are generated by wavelet transforms. These results are based on experiments conducted on a number of well-known face image databases, e.g. Yale and ORL databases.

  19. Iris Template Protection Based on Local Ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics have been widely studied in recent years, and they are increasingly employed in real-world applications. Meanwhile, a number of potential threats to the privacy of biometric data arise. Iris template protection demands that the privacy of iris data should be protected when performing iris recognition. According to the international standard ISO/IEC 24745, iris template protection should satisfy the irreversibility, revocability, and unlinkability. However, existing works about iris template protection demonstrate that it is difficult to satisfy the three privacy requirements simultaneously while supporting effective iris recognition. In this paper, we propose an iris template protection method based on local ranking. Specifically, the iris data are first XORed (Exclusive OR operation with an application-specific string; next, we divide the results into blocks and then partition the blocks into groups. The blocks in each group are ranked according to their decimal values, and original blocks are transformed to their rank values for storage. We also extend the basic method to support the shifting strategy and masking strategy, which are two important strategies for iris recognition. We demonstrate that the proposed method satisfies the irreversibility, revocability, and unlinkability. Experimental results on typical iris datasets (i.e., CASIA-IrisV3-Interval, CASIA-IrisV4-Lamp, UBIRIS-V1-S1, and MMU-V1 show that the proposed method could maintain the recognition performance while protecting the privacy of iris data.

  20. MODEL OF TEACHING PROFESSION SPECIFIC BILATERAL TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Fabrychna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the author’s interpretation of the process of teaching profession specific bilateral translation to student teacher of English in the Master’s program. The goal of the model of teaching profession specific bilateral translation development is to determine the logical sequence of educational activities of the teacher as the organizer of the educational process and students as its members. English and Ukrainian texts on methods of foreign languages and cultures teaching are defined as the object of study. Learning activities aimed at the development of student teachers of English profession specific competence in bilateral translation and Translation Proficiency Language Portfolio for Student Teachers of English are suggested as teaching tools. The realization of the model of teaching profession specific bilateral translation to student teachers of English in the Master’s program is suggested within the module topics of the academic discipline «Practice of English as the first foreign language»: Globalization; Localization; Education; Work; The role of new communication technologies in personal and professional development. We believe that the amount of time needed for efficient functioning of the model is 48 academic hours, which was determined by calculating the total number of academic hours allotted for the academic discipline «Practice of English as the first foreign language» in Ukrainian universities. Peculiarities of the model realization as well as learning goals and content of class activities and home self-study work of students are outlined.

  1. Translation of feminine: Szymborska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Donata Guerizoli Kempinska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2014v1n33p35 The paper discusses the problems present in the process of the translation of the feminine, related to the discursive articulations of the gender and to the socio-historical conditions of its construction. The differences between languages make this articulation hard to transpose and such is the case in some of Wisława Szymborska’s poems. An attentive reading of her work and of its translations in different languages reveals that the transposition of its specifically feminine humor is also a challenge for the translator

  2. Emergence of a code in the polymerization of amino acids along RNA templates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Lehmann

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the genetic code in the context of an RNA world is a major problem in the field of biophysical chemistry. In this paper, we describe how the polymerization of amino acids along RNA templates can be affected by the properties of both molecules. Considering a system without enzymes, in which the tRNAs (the translation adaptors are not loaded selectively with amino acids, we show that an elementary translation governed by a Michaelis-Menten type of kinetics can follow different polymerization regimes: random polymerization, homopolymerization and coded polymerization. The regime under which the system is running is set by the relative concentrations of the amino acids and the kinetic constants involved. We point out that the coding regime can naturally occur under prebiotic conditions. It generates partially coded proteins through a mechanism which is remarkably robust against non-specific interactions (mismatches between the adaptors and the RNA template. Features of the genetic code support the existence of this early translation system.

  3. Review of Research on Template Methods in Preparation of Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadian Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanomaterials have been widely used in various fields, such as photonics, catalysis, and adsorption, because of their unique physical and chemical properties. Therefore, their production methods are of utmost importance. Compared with traditional synthetic methods, the template method can effectively control the morphology, particle size, and structure during the preparation of nanomaterials, which is an effective method for their synthesis. The key for the template method is to choose different templates, which are divided into hard template and soft template according to their different structures. In this paper, the effects of different types of templates on the morphology of nanomaterials during their preparation are investigated from two aspects: hard template and soft template, combined with the mechanism of action.

  4. Perceived radial translation during centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Correia Grácio, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. OBJECTIVE: To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation

  5. Emergency department documentation templates: variability in template selection and association with physical examination and test ordering in dizziness presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurer William J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical documentation systems, such as templates, have been associated with process utilization. The T-System emergency department (ED templates are widely used but lacking are analyses of the templates association with processes. This system is also unique because of the many different template options available, and thus the selection of the template may also be important. We aimed to describe the selection of templates in ED dizziness presentations and to investigate the association between items on templates and process utilization. Methods Dizziness visits were captured from a population-based study of EDs that use documentation templates. Two relevant process outcomes were assessed: head computerized tomography (CT scan and nystagmus examination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the probability of each outcome for patients who did or did not receive a relevant-item template. Propensity scores were also used to adjust for selection effects. Results The final cohort was 1,485 visits. Thirty-one different templates were used. Use of a template with a head CT item was associated with an increase in the adjusted probability of head CT utilization from 12.2% (95% CI, 8.9%-16.6% to 29.3% (95% CI, 26.0%-32.9%. The adjusted probability of documentation of a nystagmus assessment increased from 12.0% (95%CI, 8.8%-16.2% when a nystagmus-item template was not used to 95.0% (95% CI, 92.8%-96.6% when a nystagmus-item template was used. The associations remained significant after propensity score adjustments. Conclusions Providers use many different templates in dizziness presentations. Important differences exist in the various templates and the template that is used likely impacts process utilization, even though selection may be arbitrary. The optimal design and selection of templates may offer a feasible and effective opportunity to improve care delivery.

  6. Russian translations for Cochrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudina, E V; Ziganshina, L E

    2015-01-01

    Cochrane collaboration has made a huge contribution to the development of evidence-based medicine; Cochrane work is the international gold standard of independent, credible and reliable high-quality information in medicine. Over the past 20 years the Cochrane Collaboration helped transforming decision-making in health and reforming it significantly, saving lives and contributing to longevity [1]. Until recently, Cochrane evidence were available only in English, which represents a significant barrier to their wider use in non-English speaking countries. To provide access to evidence, obtained from Cochrane Reviews, for health professionals and general public (from non-English-speaking countries), bypassing language barriers, Cochrane collaboration in 2014 initiated an international project of translating Plain language summaries of Cochrane Reviews into other languages [2, 3]. Russian translations of Plain language summaries were started in May 2014 by the team from Kazan Federal University (Department of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology; 2014-2015 as an Affiliated Centre in Tatarstan of the Nordic Cochrane Centre, since August 2015 as Cochrane Russia, a Russian branch of Cochrane Nordic, Head - Liliya Eugenevna Ziganshina) on a voluntary basis. To assess the quality of Russian translations of Cochrane Plain Language Summaries (PLS) and their potential impact on the Russian speaking community through user feedback with the overarching aim of furthering the translations project. We conducted the continuous online survey via Google Docs. We invited respondents through the electronic Russian language discussion forum on Essential Medicines (E-lek), links to survey on the Russian Cochrane.org website, invitations to Cochrane contributors registered in Archie from potential Russian-speaking countries. We set up the survey in Russian and English. The respondents were asked to respond to the questionnaire regarding the relevance and potential impact of the Cochrane Russian

  7. A phased translation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, R.J.; Schierbeek, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A phased translation function, which takes advantage of prior phase information to determine the position of an oriented mulecular replacement model, is examined. The function is the coefficient of correlation between the electron density computed with the prior phases and the electron density of the translated model, evaluated in reciprocal space as a Fourier transform. The correlation coefficient used in this work is closely related to an overlap function devised by Colman, Fehlhammer and Bartels. Tests with two protein structures, one of which was solved with the help of the phased translation function, show that little phase information is required to resolve the translation problem, and that the function is relatively insensitive to misorientation of the model. (orig.)

  8. Translation and Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the differences betweenscientific and fictional translations, and focus on the second.The fictional translation works with meanings, opens itselfto the plurissignification in the purpose to create a similarity of the dissimilarity; in this process, the translator does nottranslate a language, but what a creative individuality makeswith a language. At last there is an approach to the knowledgeand skills necessaries to a translator of literature: theknowledge of the theories of the literature and of thetranslation, the capacity to preserve the national color ofthe original text and at the same time to respect the arrivallanguage, and the sensibility to his national languagevariations present in the daily and in the literary spheres.

  9. Translation of research outcome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    2017-01-03

    Jan 3, 2017 ... we must act”1 - Translation of research outcome for health policy, strategy and ... others iron-out existing gaps on Health Policy .... within the broader framework of global call and ... research: defining the terrain; identifying.

  10. Staging Ethnographic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))...

  11. Translation for language purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English)....

  12. Template-based procedures for neural network interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J A.; Mozer, M C.

    1999-04-01

    Although neural networks often achieve impressive learning and generalization performance, their internal workings are typically all but impossible to decipher. This characteristic of the networks, their opacity, is one of the disadvantages of connectionism compared to more traditional, rule-oriented approaches to artificial intelligence. Without a thorough understanding of the network behavior, confidence in a system's results is lowered, and the transfer of learned knowledge to other processing systems - including humans - is precluded. Methods that address the opacity problem by casting network weights in symbolic terms are commonly referred to as rule extraction techniques. This work describes a principled approach to symbolic rule extraction from standard multilayer feedforward networks based on the notion of weight templates, parameterized regions of weight space corresponding to specific symbolic expressions. With an appropriate choice of representation, we show how template parameters may be efficiently identified and instantiated to yield the optimal match to the actual weights of a unit. Depending on the requirements of the application domain, the approach can accommodate n-ary disjunctions and conjunctions with O(k) complexity, simple n-of-m expressions with O(k(2)) complexity, or more general classes of recursive n-of-m expressions with O(k(L+2)) complexity, where k is the number of inputs to an unit and L the recursion level of the expression class. Compared to other approaches in the literature, our method of rule extraction offers benefits in simplicity, computational performance, and overall flexibility. Simulation results on a variety of problems demonstrate the application of our procedures as well as the strengths and the weaknesses of our general approach.

  13. Lost in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  14. Automatic Generation of English-Japanese Translation Pattern Utilizing Genetic Programming Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Koki; Tamekuni, Yuji; Kimura, Shuhei

    There are a lot of constructional differences in an English-Japanese phrase template, and that often makes the act of translation difficult. Moreover, there exist various and tremendous phrase templates and sentence to be refered to. It is not easy to prepare the corpus that covers the all. Therefore, it is very significant to generate the translation pattern of the sentence pattern automatically from a viewpoint of the translation success rate and the capacity of the pattern dictionary. Then, for the purpose of realizing the automatic generation of the translation pattern, this paper proposed the new method for the generation of the translation pattern by using the genetic programming technique (GP). The technique tries to generate the translation pattern of various sentences which are not registered in the phrase template dictionary automatically by giving the genetic operation to the parsing tree of a basic pattern. The tree consists of the pair of the English-Japanese sentence generated as the first stage population. The analysis tree data base with 50,100,150,200 pairs was prepared as the first stage population. And this system was applied and executed for an English input of 1,555 sentences. As a result, the analysis tree increases from 200 to 517, and the accuracy rate of the translation pattern has improved from 42.57% to 70.10%. And, 86.71% of the generated translations was successfully done, whose meanings are enough acceptable and understandable. It seemed that this proposal technique became a clue to raise the translation success rate, and to find the possibility of the reduction of the analysis tree data base.

  15. Multilateral collaboration between technical communicators and translators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a multilateral international project (Thompson and Carter 1973, Moreno-Lopez 2004) in technical communication and translator training programmes and discusses its use of technologies in what is seen as the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing collaboration...... to date. The project is a student collaboration involving two sets of cross-cultural virtual teams who either translate from Danish and Dutch into English and review (or edit) into American English or who are involved in international collaborative writing by Spaniards and Americans, usability testing...

  16. A case study of translating ACGME practice-based learning and improvement requirements into reality: systems quality improvement projects as the key component to a comprehensive curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomolo, A M; Lawrence, R H; Aron, D C

    2009-10-01

    In 2002, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) introduced a new requirement: residents must demonstrate competency in Practice-Based Learning and Improvement (PBLI). Training in this domain is still not consistently integrated into programmes, with few, if any, adequately going beyond knowledge of basic content and addressing all components of the requirement. To summarise the implementation of a PBLI curriculum designed to address all components of the requirement and to evaluate the impact on the practice system. A case-study approach was used for identifying and evaluating the steps for delivering the curriculum, along with the Model for Improvement's successive Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles (July 2004-May 2006). Notes from curriculum development meetings, notes and presentation slides made by teams about their projects, resident curriculum exit evaluations curriculum and interviews. Residents reported high levels of comfort by applying PBLI-related knowledge and skills and that the curriculum improved their ability to do various PBLI tasks. The involvement of multiple stakeholders increased. Twelve of the 15 teams' suggestions with practical systems-relevant outcomes were implemented and sustained beyond residents' project periods. While using the traditional PDSA cycles was helpful, there were limitations. A PBLI curriculum that is centred around practice-based quality improvement projects can fulfil the objectives of this ACGME competency while accomplishing sustained outcomes in quality improvement. A comprehensive curriculum is an investment but offers organisational rewards. We propose a more realistic and informative representation of rapid PDSA cycle changes.

  17. Lost in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zethsen, Karen Korning; Askehave, Inger

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with an aspect of patient information that differs somewhat from the traditional scope of this journal; namely the linguistic and translational aspects of Patient Information Leaflets (PILs). During the past decade much work has been dedicated to making the English PILs...... as informative and lay-friendly as possible. However, much of the good work is ruined when the PIL is translated. Why is this so and what can be done about it?...

  18. Machine Translation from Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

    Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

  19. Jungmann's translation of Paradise Lost

    OpenAIRE

    Janů, Karel

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines Josef Jungmann's translation of John Milton's Paradise Lost. Josef Jungmann was one of the leading figures of the Czech National Revival and translated Milton 's poem between the years 1800 and 1804. The thesis covers Jungmann's theoretical model of translation and presents Jungmann's motives for translation of Milton's epic poem. The paper also describes the aims Jungmann had with his translation and whether he has achieved them. The reception Jungmann's translation rece...

  20. Translating Alcohol Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  1. Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maijenburg, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is entitled “Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes”. Templated electrodeposition is the synthesis technique that was used throughout this thesis, and it comprises the use of a template with specific shape and dimensions for the

  2. Business Process Variability : A Tool for Declarative Template Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulanov, P.; Groefsema, H.; Aiello, M.

    2012-01-01

    To lower both implementation time and cost, many Business Process Management tools use process templates to implement highly recurring processes. However, in order for such templates to be used, a process has to adhere substantially to the template. Therefore, current practice for processes which

  3. Synthesis of Hybrid Conducting Nanowire Using AAO Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-28

    oxide and alujminum oxide in anodized aluminum oxide ( AAO ) template with various aspect ratio and...than 3 nm. 2. Experimentals Anodized aluminum oxide ( AAO ) template was prepared from 99.999% purity aluminum foil by performing the following...to prepare uniform dimension of nanomaterials is to use anodized alumina membrane as template. The work emphasized self-organized arrangement of

  4. The Effect of Translators' Emotional Intelligence on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge, professional and psychological conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' Emotional Intelligence on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study," a sample of…

  5. The Impact of Translators' Academic Experience on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge and professional conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' academic experience on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study", a sample of 100 male and…

  6. Translating Signs, Producing Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Neilson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and

  7. Fabricating hydroxyapatite nanorods using a biomacromolecule template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Aiping, E-mail: apzhu@yzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Lu Yan; Si Yunfeng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Dai Sheng [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2011-02-01

    Rod-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles with various aspect ratios are synthesized by means of low-temperature hydrothermal method in the presence of a N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) propyl]chitosan chloride (HTCC) template. The synthesized HAps were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The results reveal that HAps are rod-like monocrystals, where the size and morphology can be tailored by varying synthesis conditions, such as pH, hydrothermal synthesis temperature and the ratio of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} to the quaternary ammonium in HTCC. The mechanism of HTCC template on HAp nanorod preparation is analyzed.

  8. A template for integrated community sustainability planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Christopher; Hanna, Kevin; Dale, Ann

    2009-08-01

    This article describes a template for implementing an integrated community sustainability plan. The template emphasizes community engagement and outlines the components of a basic framework for integrating ecological, social and economic dynamics into a community plan. The framework is a series of steps that support a sustainable community development process. While it reflects the Canadian experience, the tools and techniques have applied value for a range of environmental planning contexts around the world. The research is case study based and draws from a diverse range of communities representing many types of infrastructure, demographics and ecological and geographical contexts. A critical path for moving local governments to sustainable community development is the creation and implementation of integrated planning approaches. To be effective and to be implemented, a requisite shift to sustainability requires active community engagement processes, political will, and a commitment to political and administrative accountability, and measurement.

  9. Multilateral collaboration between technical communicators and translators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a multilateral international project (Thompson and Carter 1973, Moreno-Lopez 2004) in technical communication and translator training programmes and discusses its use of technologies in what is seen as the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing collaboration...... to date. The project is a student collaboration involving two sets of cross-cultural virtual teams who either translate from Danish and Dutch into English and review (or edit) into American English or who are involved in international collaborative writing by Spaniards and Americans, usability testing...... by Finnish students, and translation from English into Dutch, French and Italian (Humbley et al. 2005; Maylath et al. 2008; Mousten et al. 2008; Mousten; Vandepitte et al. 2010; Mousten et al. 2010, Mousten et al. 2012, Maylath et al. 2013, Maylath et al. 2013b). While students use email, iChat and Skype...

  10. Face detection and facial feature localization using notch based templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qayyum, U.

    2007-01-01

    We present a real time detection off aces from the video with facial feature localization as well as the algorithm capable of differentiating between the face/non-face patterns. The need of face detection and facial feature localization arises in various application of computer vision, so a lot of research is dedicated to come up with a real time solution. The algorithm should remain simple to perform real time whereas it should not compromise on the challenges encountered during the detection and localization phase, keeping simplicity and all challenges i.e. algorithm invariant to scale, translation, and (+-45) rotation transformations. The proposed system contains two parts. Visual guidance and face/non-face classification. The visual guidance phase uses the fusion of motion and color cues to classify skin color. Morphological operation with union-structure component labeling algorithm extracts contiguous regions. Scale normalization is applied by nearest neighbor interpolation method to avoid the effect of different scales. Using the aspect ratio of width and height size. Region of Interest (ROI) is obtained and then passed to face/non-face classifier. Notch (Gaussian) based templates/ filters are used to find circular darker regions in ROI. The classified face region is handed over to facial feature localization phase, which uses YCbCr eyes/lips mask for face feature localization. The empirical results show an accuracy of 90% for five different videos with 1000 face/non-face patterns and processing rate of proposed algorithm is 15 frames/sec. (author)

  11. Using templates and linguistic patterns to define process performance indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    del-Río-Ortega, Adela; Resinas, Manuel; Durán, Amador; Ruiz-Cortés, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Process performance management (PPM) aims at measuring, monitoring and analysing the performance of business processes (BPs), in order to check the achievement of strategic and operational goals and to support decision-making for their optimisation. PPM is based on process performance indicators (PPIs), so having an appropriate definition of them is crucial. One of the main problems of PPIs definition is to express them in an unambiguous, complete, understandable, traceable and verifiable manner. In practice, PPIs are defined informally - usually in ad hoc, natural language, with its well-known problems - or they are defined from an implementation perspective, hardly understandable to non-technical people. In order to solve this problem, in this article we propose a novel approach to improve the definition of PPIs using templates and linguistic patterns. This approach promotes reuse, reduces both ambiguities and missing information, is understandable to all stakeholders and maintains traceability with the process model. Furthermore, it enables the automated processing of PPI definitions by its straightforward translation into the PPINOT metamodel, allowing the gathering of the required information for their computation as well as the analysis of the relationships between them and with BP elements.

  12. CPU and GPU (Cuda Template Matching Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldas Borcovas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Image processing, computer vision or other complicated opticalinformation processing algorithms require large resources. It isoften desired to execute algorithms in real time. It is hard tofulfill such requirements with single CPU processor. NVidiaproposed CUDA technology enables programmer to use theGPU resources in the computer. Current research was madewith Intel Pentium Dual-Core T4500 2.3 GHz processor with4 GB RAM DDR3 (CPU I, NVidia GeForce GT320M CUDAcompliable graphics card (GPU I and Intel Core I5-2500K3.3 GHz processor with 4 GB RAM DDR3 (CPU II, NVidiaGeForce GTX 560 CUDA compatible graphic card (GPU II.Additional libraries as OpenCV 2.1 and OpenCV 2.4.0 CUDAcompliable were used for the testing. Main test were made withstandard function MatchTemplate from the OpenCV libraries.The algorithm uses a main image and a template. An influenceof these factors was tested. Main image and template have beenresized and the algorithm computing time and performancein Gtpix/s have been measured. According to the informationobtained from the research GPU computing using the hardwarementioned earlier is till 24 times faster when it is processing abig amount of information. When the images are small the performanceof CPU and GPU are not significantly different. Thechoice of the template size makes influence on calculating withCPU. Difference in the computing time between the GPUs canbe explained by the number of cores which they have.

  13. Cap-independent translation of plant viral RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Elizabeth L Pettit; Rakotondrafara, Aurélie M; Miller, W Allen

    2006-07-01

    The RNAs of many plant viruses lack a 5' cap and must be translated by a cap-independent mechanism. Here, we discuss the remarkably diverse cap-independent translation elements that have been identified in members of the Potyviridae, Luteoviridae, and Tombusviridae families, and genus Tobamovirus. Many other plant viruses have uncapped RNAs but their translation control elements are uncharacterized. Cap-independent translation elements of plant viruses differ strikingly from those of animal viruses: they are smaller (translation factors, and speculate on their mechanism of action and their roles in the virus replication cycle. Much remains to be learned about how these elements enable plant viruses to usurp the host translational machinery.

  14. Finite translation surfaces with maximal number of translations

    OpenAIRE

    Schlage-Puchta, Jan-Christoph; Weitze-Schmithuesen, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The natural automorphism group of a translation surface is its group of translations. For finite translation surfaces of genus g > 1 the order of this group is naturally bounded in terms of g due to a Riemann-Hurwitz formula argument. In analogy with classical Hurwitz surfaces, we call surfaces which achieve the maximal bound Hurwitz translation surfaces. We study for which g there exist Hurwitz translation surfaces of genus g.

  15. A flexible, bolaamphiphilic template for mesoporous silicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Alexander K L; Heinroth, Falk; Ward, Antony J; Masters, Anthony F; Maschmeyer, Thomas

    2013-08-28

    A novel symmetrical bolaamphiphile, containing two N-methylimidazolium head-groups bridged by a 32-methylene linker, was synthesized and characterized. A variety of mesoporous silicas was prepared using the bolaamphiphile as a "soft template". The effects of absolute surfactant concentration and synthesis conditions upon the morphologies of these silicas were investigated. For a given surfactant concentration, particle morphology; pore size; and pore ordering were modified through control of the template to silica-precursor ratio and synthesis conditions. Observed morphologies included: lenticular core-shell nanoparticles and decorticated globules, truncated hexagonal plates, and sheets. In all cases the mesopores are aligned along the shortest axis of the nanomaterial. Decorticated materials displayed surface areas of up to 1200 m(2) g(-1) and pore diameters (D(BJH)) of 24-28 Å. Small-angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed that the majority of the materials has elliptical pores arranged in rectangular lattices (c2mm). Adoption of this symmetry group is a result of the template aggregate deformation from a regular hexagonal phase of cylindrical rods to a ribbon phase under the synthetic conditions.

  16. New organically templated photoluminescence iodocuprates(I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Qin; Zhao Jinjing; Zhao Tianqi; Jin Juan; Yu Jiehui; Xu Jiqing

    2011-01-01

    Two types of organic cyclic aliphatic diamine molecules piperazine (pip) and 1,3-bis(4-piperidyl)propane (bpp) were used, respectively, to react with an inorganic mixture of CuI and KI in the acidic CH 3 OH solutions under the solvothermal conditions, generating finally three new organically templated iodocuprates as 2-D layered [(Hpip)Cu 3 I 4 ] 1, 1-D chained [tmpip][Cu 2 I 4 ] 2 (tmpip=N,N,N',N'-tetramethylpiperazinium) and dinuclear [H 2 bpp] 2 [Cu 2 I 5 ] I.2H 2 O 3. Note that the templating agent tmpip 2+ in compound 2 originated from the in situ N-alkylation reaction between the pip molecule and the methanol solvent. The photoluminescence analysis indicates that the title compounds emit the different lights: yellow for 1, blue for 2 and yellow-green for 3, respectively. - Graphical abstract: The solvothermal self-assemblies of CuI, KI and pip/bpp in acidic CH 3 OH solutions created three iodocuprates 2-D layered [(Hpip)Cu 3 I 4 ] 1, 1-D chained [tmpip][Cu 2 I 4 ] 2 and dinuclear [H 2 bpp] 2 [Cu 2 I 5 ] I.2H 2 O 3. Highlights: → A new layered iodocuprate(I) with 20-membered rings was hydrothermally prepared. → A simple approach to prepare the new organic templating agent was reported. → Photoluminescence analysis indicates the emission for iodocuprate(I) is associated with the Cu...Cu interactions.

  17. Sacrificial template method of fabricating a nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong [Berkeley, CA; He, Rongrui [Berkeley, CA; Goldberger, Joshua [Berkeley, CA; Fan, Rong [El Cerrito, CA; Wu, Yi-Ying [Albany, CA; Li, Deyu [Albany, CA; Majumdar, Arun [Orinda, CA

    2007-05-01

    Methods of fabricating uniform nanotubes are described in which nanotubes were synthesized as sheaths over nanowire templates, such as using a chemical vapor deposition process. For example, single-crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires are utilized as templates over which gallium nitride (GaN) is epitaxially grown. The ZnO templates are then removed, such as by thermal reduction and evaporation. The completed single-crystalline GaN nanotubes preferably have inner diameters ranging from 30 nm to 200 nm, and wall thicknesses between 5 and 50 nm. Transmission electron microscopy studies show that the resultant nanotubes are single-crystalline with a wurtzite structure, and are oriented along the direction. The present invention exemplifies single-crystalline nanotubes of materials with a non-layered crystal structure. Similar "epitaxial-casting" approaches could be used to produce arrays and single-crystalline nanotubes of other solid materials and semiconductors. Furthermore, the fabrication of multi-sheath nanotubes are described as well as nanotubes having multiple longitudinal segments.

  18. Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Mercedes Garcia; Koglin, Arlene; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    The availability of systems capable of producing fairly accurate translations has increased the popularity of machine translation (MT). The translation industry is steadily incorporating MT in their workflows engaging the human translator to post-edit the raw MT output in order to comply with a s...

  19. Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严妙

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience.Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.

  20. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  1. Translational research in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Translational medicine is a medical practice based on interventional epidemiology. It is regarded by its proponents as a natural progression from Evidence-Based Medicine. It integrates research from the basic sciences, social sciences and political sciences with the aim of optimizing patient care and preventive measures which may extend beyond healthcare services. In short, it is the process of turning appropriate biological discoveries into drugs and medical devices that can be used in the treatment of patients.[1]Scientific research and the development of modern powerful techniques are crucial for improving patient care in a society that is increasingly demanding the highest quality health services.[2] Indeed, effective patient care requires the continuous improvement of knowledge on the pathophysiology of the diseases, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic tools available. To this end, development of both clinical and basic research in health sciences is required. However, what is most effective in improving medical knowledge, and hence patient care, is the cross-fertilization between basic and clinical science. This has been specifically highlighted in recent years with the coining of the term “translational research”.[3] Translational research is of great importance in all medical specialties.Translational Research is the basis for Translational Medicine. It is the process which leads from evidence based medicine to sustainable solutions for public health problems.[4] It aims to improve the health and longevity of the world’s populations and depends on developing broad-based teams of scientists and scholars who are able to focus their efforts to link basic scientific discoveries with the arena of clinical investigation, and translating the results of clinical trials into changes in clinical practice, informed by evidence from the social and political sciences. Clinical science and ecological support from effective policies can

  2. Engineering in translational medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.

  3. Using the TED Talks to Evaluate Spoken Post-editing of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi; Popescu-Belis, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to evaluate spoken post-editing of imperfect machine translation output by a human translator. We compare two approaches to the combination of machine translation (MT) and automatic speech recognition (ASR): a heuristic algorithm and a machine learning method...

  4. Development of Total Knee Replacement Digital Templating Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Siti Fairuz; Sulaiman, Riza; Thian Seng, Lee; Mohd. Kassim, Abdul Yazid; Abdullah, Suhail; Yusof, Shahril; Omar, Masbah; Abdul Hamid, Hamzaini

    In this study, by taking full advantage of digital X-ray and computer technology, we have developed a semi-automated procedure to template knee implants, by making use of digital templating method. Using this approach, a software system called OrthoKneeTMhas been designed and developed. The system is to be utilities as a study in the Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatology in medical faculty, UKM (FPUKM). OrthoKneeTMtemplating process employs uses a technique similar to those used by many surgeons, using acetate templates over X-ray films. Using template technique makes it easy to template various implant from every Implant manufacturers who have with a comprehensive database of templates. The templating functionality includes, template (knee) and manufactures templates (Smith & Nephew; and Zimmer). From an image of patient x-ray OrthoKneeTMtemplates help in quickly and easily reads to the approximate template size needed. The visual templating features then allow us quickly review multiple template sizes against the X-ray and thus obtain the nearly precise view of the implant size required. The system can assist by templating on one patient image and will generate reports that can accompany patient notes. The software system was implemented in Visual basic 6.0 Pro using the object-oriented techniques to manage the graphics and objects. The approaches for image scaling will be discussed. Several of measurement in orthopedic diagnosis process have been studied and added in this software as measurement tools features using mathematic theorem and equations. The study compared the results of the semi-automated (using digital templating) method to the conventional method to demonstrate the accuracy of the system.

  5. Data format translation routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris, R.D.

    1981-02-01

    To enable the effective connection of several dissimilar computers into a network, modification of the data being passed from one computer to another may become necessary. This document describes a package of routines which permit the translation of data in PDP-8 formats to PDP-11 or DECsystem-10 formats or from PDP-11 format to DECsystem-10 format. Additional routines are described which permit the effective use of the translation routines in the environment of the Fusion Energy Division (FED) network and the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) data base

  6. Translating BPEL to FLOWer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    FLOWer is a case handling tool made by Pallas-Athena for process management in the service industry. BPEL on the other hand is a language for web service orchestration, and has become a de facto standard, because of its popularity, for specifying workflow processes even though that was not its...... original purpose. This paper describe an approach translating BPLE to FLOWer, or more precisely form BPEL to CHIP. where CHIP is the interchange language that FLOWer import from and export to. The aim of the translation scheme that I give is to derive a CHIP specification that is behaviorally equivalent...

  7. An Electronic Dictionary and Translation System for Murrinh-Patha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiss, Melanie; Nordlinger, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an electronic dictionary and translation system for the Australian language Murrinh-Patha. Its complex verbal structure makes learning Murrinh-Patha very difficult. Design learning materials or a dictionary which is easy to understand and to use also presents a challenge. This paper discusses some of the difficulties posed by…

  8. Hybrid chromophore/template nanostructures: a customizable platform material for solar energy storage and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpak, Alexie M; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2013-01-21

    Challenges with cost, cyclability, and/or low energy density have largely prevented the development of solar thermal fuels, a potentially attractive alternative energy technology based on molecules that can capture and store solar energy as latent heat in a closed cycle. In this paper, we present a set of novel hybrid photoisomer/template solar thermal fuels that can potentially circumvent these challenges. Using first-principles computations, we demonstrate that these fuels, composed of organic photoisomers bound to inexpensive carbon-based templates, can reversibly store solar energy at densities comparable to Li-ion batteries. Furthermore, we show that variation of the template material in combination with the photoisomer can be used to optimize many of the key performance metrics of the fuel-i.e., the energy density, the storage lifetime, the temperature of the output heat, and the efficiency of the solar-to-heat conversion. Our work suggests that the solar thermal fuels concept can be translated into a practical and highly customizable energy storage and conversion technology.

  9. A general scheme for training and optimization of the Grenander deformable template model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Rune; Schultz, Nette; Duta, N.

    2000-01-01

    parameters, a very fast general initialization algorithm and an adaptive likelihood model based on local means. The model parameters are trained by a combination of a 2D shape learning algorithm and a maximum likelihood based criteria. The fast initialization algorithm is based on a search approach using...... for applying the general deformable template model proposed by (Grenander et al., 1991) to a new problem with minimal manual interaction, beside supplying a training set, which can be done by a non-expert user. The main contributions compared to previous work are a supervised learning scheme for the model...

  10. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied. In p...

  11. George Sigerson: Charcot's translator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, J B

    1997-04-01

    Senator George Sigerson (1836-1925), Dublin's first neurologist, was also a significant contributor to Anglo-Irish literature. His medical career and literary accomplishments are outlined, the focus of the article being Sigerson's friendly relationship with Charcot (with whom he corresponded), and whose Leçons sur les maladies du système nerveux he translated.

  12. Intermediation, Brokerage and Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hönke, Jana; Müller, Markus-Michael; Risse, Thomas; Draude, Anke; Börzel, Tanja

    2018-01-01

    Brokerage, a term prominent in the 1960s and 1970s, has returned. A huge literature analyses how brokers and intermediators— such as government officials, heads of non-governmental organization (NGOs), translators, neo-traditional authorities— strategically negotiate flows of resources and political

  13. Made in translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, John C.

    2018-03-01

    Evolution of highly functionalized DNA could enable the discovery of artificial nucleic acid sequences with different properties to natural DNA. Now, an artificial translation system has been designed that can support the evolution of non-natural sequence-defined nucleic acid polymers carrying eight different functional groups on 32 codons.

  14. A Nearest Neighbor Classifier Employing Critical Boundary Vectors for Efficient On-Chip Template Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenjun; Mita, Yoshio; Shibata, Tadashi

    2016-05-01

    Aiming at efficient data condensation and improving accuracy, this paper presents a hardware-friendly template reduction (TR) method for the nearest neighbor (NN) classifiers by introducing the concept of critical boundary vectors. A hardware system is also implemented to demonstrate the feasibility of using an field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to accelerate the proposed method. Initially, k -means centers are used as substitutes for the entire template set. Then, to enhance the classification performance, critical boundary vectors are selected by a novel learning algorithm, which is completed within a single iteration. Moreover, to remove noisy boundary vectors that can mislead the classification in a generalized manner, a global categorization scheme has been explored and applied to the algorithm. The global characterization automatically categorizes each classification problem and rapidly selects the boundary vectors according to the nature of the problem. Finally, only critical boundary vectors and k -means centers are used as the new template set for classification. Experimental results for 24 data sets show that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the number of template vectors for classification with a high learning speed. At the same time, it improves the accuracy by an average of 2.17% compared with the traditional NN classifiers and also shows greater accuracy than seven other TR methods. We have shown the feasibility of using a proof-of-concept FPGA system of 256 64-D vectors to accelerate the proposed method on hardware. At a 50-MHz clock frequency, the proposed system achieves a 3.86 times higher learning speed than on a 3.4-GHz PC, while consuming only 1% of the power of that used by the PC.

  15. Programming peptidomimetic syntheses by translating genetic codes designed de novo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Anthony C; Tan, Zhongping; Nalam, Madhavi N L; Lin, Hening; Qu, Hui; Cornish, Virginia W; Blacklow, Stephen C

    2003-05-27

    Although the universal genetic code exhibits only minor variations in nature, Francis Crick proposed in 1955 that "the adaptor hypothesis allows one to construct, in theory, codes of bewildering variety." The existing code has been expanded to enable incorporation of a variety of unnatural amino acids at one or two nonadjacent sites within a protein by using nonsense or frameshift suppressor aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) as adaptors. However, the suppressor strategy is inherently limited by compatibility with only a small subset of codons, by the ways such codons can be combined, and by variation in the efficiency of incorporation. Here, by preventing competing reactions with aa-tRNA synthetases, aa-tRNAs, and release factors during translation and by using nonsuppressor aa-tRNA substrates, we realize a potentially generalizable approach for template-encoded polymer synthesis that unmasks the substantially broader versatility of the core translation apparatus as a catalyst. We show that several adjacent, arbitrarily chosen sense codons can be completely reassigned to various unnatural amino acids according to de novo genetic codes by translating mRNAs into specific peptide analog polymers (peptidomimetics). Unnatural aa-tRNA substrates do not uniformly function as well as natural substrates, revealing important recognition elements for the translation apparatus. Genetic programming of peptidomimetic synthesis should facilitate mechanistic studies of translation and may ultimately enable the directed evolution of small molecules with desirable catalytic or pharmacological properties.

  16. Biometric templates selection and update using quality measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Ali J.; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2012-06-01

    To deal with severe variation in recording conditions, most biometric systems acquire multiple biometric samples, at the enrolment stage, for the same person and then extract their individual biometric feature vectors and store them in the gallery in the form of biometric template(s), labelled with the person's identity. The number of samples/templates and the choice of the most appropriate templates influence the performance of the system. The desired biometric template(s) selection technique must aim to control the run time and storage requirements while improving the recognition accuracy of the biometric system. This paper is devoted to elaborating on and discussing a new two stages approach for biometric templates selection and update. This approach uses a quality-based clustering, followed by a special criterion for the selection of an ultimate set of biometric templates from the various clusters. This approach is developed to select adaptively a specific number of templates for each individual. The number of biometric templates depends mainly on the performance of each individual (i.e. gallery size should be optimised to meet the needs of each target individual). These experiments have been conducted on two face image databases and their results will demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed quality-guided approach.

  17. DISSEMINATING MULTICULTURALISM THROUGH THE TEACHING OF TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arido Laksono

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 ABSTRACT Students are expected to change the world. Their perspectives represent the way they view the world and its phenomena. The broader knowledge they possess, the more tolerance they have in interpreting life. In the global era, students should understand the importance of having good knowledge in multiculturalism. They will involve in an inter-cultural encounter since sources of information are widely offered. The willingness to have such an open mind is required in order to develop a better place to live and work. One way to disseminate multiculturalism values is using text containing information about culture and social values. The text written in English or Bahasa Indonesia for the class designed in disseminating multiculturalism is Translation. Here, students are taught to interpret the messages conveyed and translate the information from the source language to the target language correctly. Teacher must have good and creative technique in delivering the material so that students really enjoy the class and deeply understand the topic. The teaching and learning process in Translation class, therefore, is an effective medium to achieve the expected purpose as stated above. Theory of translation will not be the one and only theory to do the translation job, but it also needs comprehensive knowledge on other social sciences. Hence, translation class will not only discuss lines of words in a paragraph, but also reciprocal discussion among the members of the class. At the end, students will have the ability to translate such information in a text correctly and to establish civic society with more open comprehension over society and its culture. Keywords: theory of translation, multiculturalism, teaching-learning process, globalization. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0

  18. Translation and Short-Term L2 Vocabulary Retention: Hindrance or Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the role that active translation may have in second language (L2) vocabulary learning. Some research suggests that translation might be an effective cognitive strategy for L2 vocabulary learning. Participants were 191 native French-speaking students enrolled in a TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) program.The study…

  19. Fluctuations in protein synthesis from a single RNA template: stochastic kinetics of ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Ashok; Chowdhury, Debashish; Ramakrishnan, T V

    2009-01-01

    Proteins are polymerized by cyclic machines called ribosomes, which use their messenger RNA (mRNA) track also as the corresponding template, and the process is called translation. We explore, in depth and detail, the stochastic nature of the translation. We compute various distributions associated with the translation process; one of them--namely, the dwell time distribution--has been measured in recent single-ribosome experiments. The form of the distribution, which fits best with our simulation data, is consistent with that extracted from the experimental data. For our computations, we use a model that captures both the mechanochemistry of each individual ribosome and their steric interactions. We also demonstrate the effects of the sequence inhomogeneities of real genes on the fluctuations and noise in translation. Finally, inspired by recent advances in the experimental techniques of manipulating single ribosomes, we make theoretical predictions on the force-velocity relation for individual ribosomes. In principle, all our predictions can be tested by carrying out in vitro experiments.

  20. The Contextualization of Archetypes: Clinical Template Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Rune; Ulriksen, Gro-Hilde; Ellingsen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a status report from a large-scale openEHR-based EPR project from the North Norway Regional Health Authority. It concerns the standardization of a regional ICT portfolio and the ongoing development of a new process oriented EPR systems encouraged by the unfolding of a national repository for openEHR archetypes. Subject of interest; the contextualization of clinical templates is governed over multiple national boundaries which is complex due to the dependency of clinical resources. From the outset of this, we are interested in how local, regional, and national organizers maneuver to standardize while applying OpenEHR technology.

  1. Automatic target detection using binary template matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Dong-San; Sun, Sun-Gu; Park, HyunWook

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents a new automatic target detection (ATD) algorithm to detect targets such as battle tanks and armored personal carriers in ground-to-ground scenarios. Whereas most ATD algorithms were developed for forward-looking infrared (FLIR) images, we have developed an ATD algorithm for charge-coupled device (CCD) images, which have superior quality to FLIR images in daylight. The proposed algorithm uses fast binary template matching with an adaptive binarization, which is robust to various light conditions in CCD images and saves computation time. Experimental results show that the proposed method has good detection performance.

  2. On Deletion of Sutra Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shu-juan

    2017-01-01

    Dao An's the metaphor of translation "wine diluted with water' ' expressed a view about translation that had been abridged.Later Kumarajiva provided metaphor "rice chewed—tasteless and downright disgusting".Both of them felt regretted at the weakening of taste,sometimes even the complete loss of flavor caused by deletion in translation of Buddhist sutras.In early sutra translation,deletion is unavoidable which made many sutra translators felt confused and drove them to study it further and some even managed to give their understanding to this issue.This thesis will discuss the definition,and what causes deletion and the measures adopted by the sutra translators.

  3. A template-based procedure for determining white matter integrity in the internal capsule early after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Petoe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrity of descending white matter pathways, measured by fractional anisotropy from DW-MRI, is a key prognostic indicator of motor recovery after stroke. Barriers to translation of fractional anisotropy measures into routine clinical practice include the time required for manually delineating volumes of interest (VOIs, and inter-examiner variability in this process. This study investigated whether registering and then editing template volumes of interest ‘as required’ would improve inter-examiner reliability compared with manual delineation, without compromising validity. MRI was performed with 30 sub-acute stroke patients with motor deficits (mean NIHSS = 11, range 0–17. Four independent examiners manually delineated VOIs for the posterior limbs of the internal capsules on T1 images, or edited template VOIs that had been registered to the T1 images if they encroached on ventricles or basal ganglia. Fractional anisotropy within each VOI and interhemispheric asymmetry were then calculated. We found that 13/30 registered template VOIs required editing. Edited template VOIs were more spatially similar between examiners than the manually delineated VOIs (p = 0.005. Both methods produced similar asymmetry values that correlated with clinical scores with near perfect levels of agreement between examiners. Contralesional fractional anisotropy correlated with age when edited template VOIs were used but not when VOIs were manually delineated. Editing template VOIs as required is reliable, increases the validity of fractional anisotropy measurements in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, and is less time-consuming compared to manual delineation. This approach could support the use of FA asymmetry measures in routine clinical practice.

  4. MANAGING THE TRANSLATION OF ECONOMIC TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Anamaria Mirabela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, translation may pass as science; practically, it seems closer to art. Translation is a challenging activity requiring a set of abilities and posing few difficulties that appear during the translation process. This paper investigates the extent to which sub-technical vocabulary can constitute a problem to Romanian students of economics reading in English, by looking at the translations produced as independent or pair work during English classes and analyzing the various errors which may appeared. The exigencies required by the efficient business communication have increased in the past few decades because of rising international trade, increased migration, globalization, the recognition of linguistic minorities, and the expansion of the mass media and technology. All these led us to approach the topic of translation which is actually a job that requires skills, stages of research necessary for disclosure of transfer characteristic into the target language, training, experience and a good sense of languages. The paper defines the theoretical issues and terminology: translation, types of translation, economic texts and then focuses on the presentation of the practical work carried out throughout the academic year of second year students. Considering that only 28% of the entire European population can read English, and even less people in South America and Asia can, it is obvious that an effective communication of business matters relies on an accurate understanding of terminology. Economics is a field of knowledge in accelerated scientific and technological development. As there is a permanent and ever increasing need to quickly update their knowledge, economists read and learn directly in the original language of the publication and stick to it in daily usage, including conferences, scientific events and articles written in Romanian. Besides researching properly the markets, finding distribution channels, and dealing with legal

  5. iTemplate: A template-based eye movement data analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Naiqi G; Lee, Kang

    2018-02-08

    Current eye movement data analysis methods rely on defining areas of interest (AOIs). Due to the fact that AOIs are created and modified manually, variances in their size, shape, and location are unavoidable. These variances affect not only the consistency of the AOI definitions, but also the validity of the eye movement analyses based on the AOIs. To reduce the variances in AOI creation and modification and achieve a procedure to process eye movement data with high precision and efficiency, we propose a template-based eye movement data analysis method. Using a linear transformation algorithm, this method registers the eye movement data from each individual stimulus to a template. Thus, users only need to create one set of AOIs for the template in order to analyze eye movement data, rather than creating a unique set of AOIs for all individual stimuli. This change greatly reduces the error caused by the variance from manually created AOIs and boosts the efficiency of the data analysis. Furthermore, this method can help researchers prepare eye movement data for some advanced analysis approaches, such as iMap. We have developed software (iTemplate) with a graphic user interface to make this analysis method available to researchers.

  6. Translation teaching in Macao’s polytechnic education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lurdes Nogueira Escaleira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article "Translation teaching in Higher Education in Macau at the Polytechnic" aims to discuss the issues around teaching and learning of Chinese / Portuguese Translation in Macau, and the role played by the Macau Polytechnic Institute in translators training. For more than four centuries, Macau has been a place of intercultural contact where the Portuguese and the Chinese, now the current official languages, have coexisted and implied constant translation efforts; today, Macau is seen as an important platform between the People's Republic of China and Portuguese Speaking Countries, which has stressed the importance of translation professionals. Despite several attempts, Macau’s public higher education was only established in 1991, as well as a translation degree program; until then, and for more than a century, the translators training was held by a government department. We will discuss several curricular structures implemented over the years in the Macao Polytechnic Institute for training translators who can intermediate between Chinese and Portuguese languages and cultures growingly expanding in Macau, given the significant increase in the demand for properly trained translators/interpreters

  7. Factoring Adult Learners’ Generational Mix in Translator Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakwe George Mbotake

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the incidence of androgogical principles and practices in the postgraduate Translator Training programme of the Advanced School of Translators and Interpreters (ASTI in Cameroon.  It posits that teaching that engages androgogical principles and practices are more germane to professional postgraduate Translator Training programmes that educate and service adult students.  As a relatively uncharted area in Translation Studies, the paper seeks to assess students and faculty’s attitudes towards the principles and practices of adult education and the difficulties encountered in their effective implementation. The aim of the study is to recommend androgogically-oriented translation teaching methods as a more effective alternative to effete pedagogical approaches.   The subjects for this study comprised a convenience sample of 41 trainee translators and 08 translator trainers of ASTI. Three data collection methods were used: an affective survey questionnaire, classroom observation, and a literature review component, which provided empirical data on the principles and practices of andragogy and pedagogy. The study demonstrates that knowledge of adult learners goes beyond the most commonly studied demographic variables of age and gender, and uncovers new variables that influence learning and student satisfaction in Translator Training. Keywords: Higher Education, Translator Training, Adult Education, Androgogy, Generational Mix

  8. Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Dowie, Jack

    Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research Objective: To introduce, in the multi-disciplinary contexts of clinical decision making and policy formation, a theory-based decision-analytic framework for the transparent forward translation of research......-calculation with evidence-based ratings for option performance on those criteria to produce a preference-sensitive assessment or opinion. Results: The first example shows the framework connecting nursing informatics and nursing ethics in the clinical context of a nurse’s decision to disclose or not disclose information......, satisfaction, Quality of Life), organization-related (staff and work environment, internal and external communication and relationships) and economics-related (start-up costs, financial implications and externalities)). Conclusion: Web-based decision support can provide nursing with a template, technique...

  9. (Con)figuring gender in Bible translation: Cultural, translational and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gendered intersection of cultural studies and Bible translation is under acknowledged. Accounting for gender criticism in translation work requires, besides responsible theory and practice of translation, also attention to interwoven gender critical aspects. After a brief investigation of the intersections between biblical, ...

  10. Translation in Language Teaching: Insights from Professional Translator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreres, Angeles; Noriega-Sanchez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The past three decades have seen vast changes in attitudes towards translation, both as an academic discipline and as a profession. The insights we have gained in recent years, in particular in the area of professional translator training, call for a reassessment of the role of translation in language teaching. Drawing on research and practices in…

  11. Translation and identity: Translation of the Freedom Charter into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of the Afrikaans translations reveals how the respective translators struggled sporadically through certain ideological constraints in order to provide a satisfactory narrative. Their inability to internalise the principles contained in the Freedom Charter resulted in them presenting a 'framed' translation ...

  12. A Writer's Thoughts on Translation and Always Living in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosin, Marjorie; Jones, Robin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how it feels to be a poet who writes in Spanish and has her work translated, examining the author's immigration experiences and noting the translator's contributions in making her work accessible across languages, borders, and cultures. Explains that writing in Spanish is a gesture of survival, and translation allows her memories to…

  13. 'Inhabiting' the Translator's Habitus – Antjie Krog as Translator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing on the Bourdieusian concept of habitus and its applicability in the field of translation, this article discusses Antjie Krog's profile in the practice of translation in. South Africa. Bourdieu's conceptualisation of the relationship between the initiating activities of translators and the structures which constrain and enable ...

  14. Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes

    OpenAIRE

    Maijenburg, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is entitled “Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes”. Templated electrodeposition is the synthesis technique that was used throughout this thesis, and it comprises the use of a template with specific shape and dimensions for the formation of different types of nanostructures. Throughout this thesis, three different nanostructures were made: nanowires (Chapters 2 to 6), nanotubes (Chapters 2 and 5) and nanocubes (Chapters 7 and ...

  15. Improving your target-template alignment with MODalign

    OpenAIRE

    Barbato, Alessandro; Benkert, Pascal; Schwede, Torsten; Tramontano, Anna; Kosinski, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Summary: MODalign is an interactive web-based tool aimed at helping protein structure modelers to inspect and manually modify the alignment between the sequences of a target protein and of its template(s). It interactively computes, displays and, upon modification of the target-template alignment, updates the multiple sequence alignments of the two protein families, their conservation score, secondary structure and solvent accessibility values, and local quality scores of the implied three-di...

  16. Template synthesis of indium nanowires using anodic aluminum oxide membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Kitai, Adrian H

    2008-09-01

    Indium nanowires with diameters approximately 300 nm have been synthesized by a hydraulic pressure technique using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The indium melt is injected into the AAO template and solidified to form nanostructures. The nanowires are dense, continuous and uniformly run through the entire approximately 60 microm thickness of the AAO template. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals that the nanowires are polycrystalline with a preferred orientation. SEM is performed to characterize the morphology of the nanowires.

  17. Fast Template-based Shape Analysis using Diffeomorphic Iterative Centroid

    OpenAIRE

    Cury , Claire; Glaunès , Joan Alexis; Chupin , Marie; Colliot , Olivier

    2014-01-01

    International audience; A common approach for the analysis of anatomical variability relies on the estimation of a representative template of the population, followed by the study of this population based on the parameters of the deformations going from the template to the population. The Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping framework is widely used for shape analysis of anatomical structures, but computing a template with such framework is computationally expensive. In this paper w...

  18. Translating a wicked problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietjen, Anne; Jørgensen, Gertrud

    2016-01-01

    , place-based and project-oriented process directed at concrete physical outcomes. We frame strategic planning as a translation process where the interaction between human and non-human actors translates a unique, complex and contested situation into an innovated situation. We find that local physical...... on the case of a Danish planning process which was carried out in collaboration with a charitable trust, this paper discusses an emerging strategic planning approach at the municipal level. We use the concept of wicked problems, strategic planning theory and Actor-Network-Theory to study a collaborative...... projects played a major role in this process. First, they acted as a vehicle that assembled planners, politicians and stakeholders to work towards strategic visions across multiple scales. Second and consequently, they stimulated considerable second and third order effects in the form of shared problem...

  19. Structural Coupling and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    formations. After presenting the two theories the article put forward Twitter as an example making it possible to compare the two theories. Hereby the article also provides two analysis of how Twitter changes the communication milieu of modern society. In systems theory media can be seen as the mechanisms...... and translations the social medium of Twitter opens for. The second, but most prioritized, aim of the paper is to present, compare and discuss the two theories: How do they understand what becomes visible in their different optics, which observations become possible in the one or the other – and is it possible...... creating networks consisting in both humans and non-humans. Then the two appearing frameworks are used to observe Twitter and discuss which structural couplings and translations are made possible by this medium. In the end of the paper the two theories are discussed and compared....

  20. Translation of Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Dalthan Simas; Otavio De Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    This paper has the purpose of surveying and critically analyzing the effects of accounting procedures which are closely related to groups of companies operating multinationally. These are the methods for translation of financial statements, e.g. the Temporal and the Closing- rate Methods, as far as those methods are embodied in accounting standards which have been either recommended or adopted by countries such as the UK and US. We conclude that with regard to changing prices, General Price L...

  1. CADAT network translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    Program converts cell-net data into logic-gate models for use in test and simulation programs. Input consists of either Place, Route, and Fold (PRF) or Place-and-Route-in-Two-Dimensions (PR2D) layout data deck. Output consists of either Test Pattern Generator (TPG) or Logic-Simulation (LOGSIM) logic circuitry data deck. Designer needs to build only logic-gate-model circuit description since program acts as translator. Language is FORTRAN IV.

  2. Gamma Radiation-Induced Template Polymerization Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siyam, T.

    2005-01-01

    Gamma radiation induced copolymerization of acrylamide sodiumacrylate (AM-AANa) in the presence and absence of the polymer additive was studied at low monomer concentration(1.4M/l). The results showed that the exponents of the dose rate for the polymerization rate was found to be 1.3 and 1.4 in the absence and in the presence of the polymer additive respectively. The molecular weight of the formed polymer increased by addition of the polymer to the system. In the presence of the polymer the comonomers polymerize on the added polymer. In the absence of the added polymer the comonomers polymerize according to the copolymerization process at the initial stage of the copolymerization. While at high conversion the residual comonomers polymerize on the formed macromolecular chains of the produced polymer. These studies showed that the copolymerization in the presence of added polymer is completely template copolymerization while in the absence of the polymer the copolymerization process is only template process with a high conversion

  3. Random template placement and prior information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roever, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In signal detection problems, one is usually faced with the task of searching a parameter space for peaks in the likelihood function which indicate the presence of a signal. Random searches have proven to be very efficient as well as easy to implement, compared e.g. to searches along regular grids in parameter space. Knowledge of the parameterised shape of the signal searched for adds structure to the parameter space, i.e., there are usually regions requiring to be densely searched while in other regions a coarser search is sufficient. On the other hand, prior information identifies the regions in which a search will actually be promising or may likely be in vain. Defining specific figures of merit allows one to combine both template metric and prior distribution and devise optimal sampling schemes over the parameter space. We show an example related to the gravitational wave signal from a binary inspiral event. Here the template metric and prior information are particularly contradictory, since signals from low-mass systems tolerate the least mismatch in parameter space while high-mass systems are far more likely, as they imply a greater signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and hence are detectable to greater distances. The derived sampling strategy is implemented in a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm where it improves convergence.

  4. Fluid discrimination based on rock physics templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qian; Yin, Xingyao; Li, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Reservoir fluid discrimination is an indispensable part of seismic exploration. Reliable fluid discrimination helps to decrease the risk of exploration and to increase the success ratio of drilling. There are many kinds of fluid indicators that are used in fluid discriminations, most of which are single indicators. But single indicators do not always work well under complicated reservoir conditions. Therefore, combined fluid indicators are needed to increase accuracies of discriminations. In this paper, we have proposed an alternative strategy for the combination of fluid indicators. An alternative fluid indicator, the rock physics template-based indicator (RPTI) has been derived to combine the advantages of two single indicators. The RPTI is more sensitive to the contents of fluid than traditional indicators. The combination is implemented based on the characteristic of the fluid trend in the rock physics template, which means few subjective factors are involved. We also propose an inversion method to assure the accuracy of the RPTI input data. The RPTI profile is an intuitionistic interpretation of fluid content. Real data tests demonstrate the applicability and validity. (paper)

  5. Sonographic templates of newborn perforator stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, Lyanne; Lequin, Maarten; Govaert, Paul

    2006-07-01

    Many paediatric strokes occur in the perinatal period. Improvement in neuroimaging has increased detection in newborns with neurological symptoms. To define sonographic templates of neonatal stroke in the territory of perforators of the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) and the anterior (ACA), middle (MCA) and posterior (PCA) cerebral arteries. In 24 neonates with perforator stroke, we retrospectively studied antenatal and perinatal events. Brain sonography was performed with an 8.5-MHz probe. Only hyperechoic lesions in the thalamus and/or striatum and/or centrum semiovale were included. MRI was obtained using a 1.5-T machine. We detected 28 perforator strokes in 24 infants (6 preterm): 5 MCA medial striate, 8 MCA lateral striate, 3 MCA centrum semiovale, 4 ACA Heubner's, 5 PCA thalamic arteries, 1 AChA, and 2 hypothalamic perforators. We attributed clinical seizures to stroke in two infants only. Catheter-related embolism (certain in three, possible in six others) and birth trauma (two) were probable causes. Specific conditions were found in six others. Only one infant (in nine evaluated) had an increased prothrombotic risk (fII mutation). In describing the lesions, we focused on the templates of infarction as seen in a parasagittal US sweep. Infarcts were confirmed by MRI in 21 patients. Our study showed that infarct topography can be evaluated reliably with brain sonography. This is important given the asymptomatic character of most lesions.

  6. Biocompatibility of Soft-Templated Mesoporous Carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gencoglu, Maria F. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Spurri, Amanda [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Franko, Mitchell [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chen, Jihua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Hensley, Dale K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Heldt, Caryn L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Saha, Dipendu [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2014-08-21

    We report that soft-templated mesoporous carbon is morphologically a non-nano type of carbon. It is a relatively newer variety of biomaterial, which has already demonstrated its successful role in drug delivery applications. To investigate the toxicity and biocompatibility, we introduced three types of mesoporous carbons with varying synthesis conditions and pore textural properties. We compared the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and pore width and performed cytotoxicity experiments with HeLa cells, cell viability studies with fibroblast cells and hemocomapatibility studies. Cytotoxicity tests reveal that two of the carbons are not cytotoxic, with cell survival over 90%. The mesoporous carbon with the highest surface area showed slight toxicity (~70% cell survival) at the highest carbon concentration of 500 μg/mL. Fibroblast cell viability assays suggested high and constant viability of over 98% after 3 days with no apparent relation with materials property and good visible cell-carbon compatibility. No hemolysis (<1%) was confirmed for all the carbon materials. Protein adsorption experiments with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen revealed a lower protein binding capacity of 0.2–0.6 mg/m2 and 2–4 mg/m2 for BSA and fibrinogen, respectively, with lower binding associated with an increase in surface area. The results of this study confirm the biocompatibility of soft-templated mesoporous carbons.

  7. Microporous silica prepared by organic templating: relationship between the molecular template and pore structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Cao, Guozhong; Kale, Rahul P.; Lopez, Gabriel P.; Lu, Yunfeng; Prabakar, S.

    1999-01-01

    Microporous silica materials with a controlled pore size and a narrow pore size distribution have been prepared by sol-gel processing using an organic-templating approach. Microporous networks were formed by pyrolytic removal of organic ligands (methacryloxypropyl groups) from organic/inorganic hybrid materials synthesized by copolymerization of 3-methacryloxypropylsilane (MPS) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). Molecular simulations and experimental measurements were conducted to examine the relationship between the microstructural characteristics of the porous silica (e.g., pore size, total pore volume, and pore connectivity) and the size and amount of organic template ligands added. Adsorption measurements suggest that the final porosity of the microporous silica is due to both primary pores (those present in the hybrid materials prior to pyrolysis) and secondary pores (those created by pyrolytic removal of organic templates). Primary pores were inaccessible to N(sub 2) at 77 K but accessible to CO(sub 2) at 195 K; secondary pores were accessible to both N(sub 2) (at 77 K) and CO(sub 2) (at 195 K) in adsorption measurements. Primary porosity decreases with the amount of organic ligands added because of the enhanced densification of MPS/TEOS hybrid materials as the mole fraction of trifunctional MPS moieties increases. pore volumes measured by nitrogen adsorption experiments at 77 K suggest that the secondary (template-derived) porosity exhibits a percolation behavior as the template concentration is increased. Gas permeation experiments indicate that the secondary pores are approximately 5(angstrom) in diameter, consistent with predictions based on molecular simulations

  8. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  9. Fabrication of high quality ordered porous anodic aluminum oxide templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kai; Du Kai; Chen Jing; Zhou Lan; Zhang Lin; Fang Yu

    2010-01-01

    The preparation of porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates has been studied with oxalic acid as electrolyte. The morphology of the as-prepared templates has been characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The pores distributed orderly and uniformly with the diameter ranging from 40 nm to 70 nm. The experimental results indicate that electrolyte concentration, oxidation voltage, oxidation temperature and oxidation time affect the structure of AAO templates. Ordered porous AAO templates can be derived without annealing and finishing. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that the aluminum oxide film is mainly composed of amorphous Al 2 O 3 . (authors)

  10. Template for Conceptual Model Construction: Model Review and Corps Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Jim E; O'Neil, L. J

    2007-01-01

    .... The template will expedite conceptual model construction by providing users with model parameters and potential model components, building on a study team's knowledge and experience, and promoting...

  11. Light Weight Biomorphous Cellular Ceramics from Cellulose Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Yee, Bo-Moon; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Bimorphous ceramics are a new class of materials that can be fabricated from the cellulose templates derived from natural biopolymers. These biopolymers are abundantly available in nature and are produced by the photosynthesis process. The wood cellulose derived carbon templates have three- dimensional interconnectivity. A wide variety of non-oxide and oxide based ceramics have been fabricated by template conversion using infiltration and reaction-based processes. The cellular anatomy of the cellulose templates plays a key role in determining the processing parameters (pyrolysis, infiltration conditions, etc.) and resulting ceramic materials. The processing approach, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the biomorphous cellular ceramics (silicon carbide and oxide based) have been discussed.

  12. Translation-Memory (TM) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2010-01-01

    to be representative of the research field as a whole. Our analysis suggests that, while considerable knowledge is available about the technical side of TMs, more research is needed to understand how translators interact with TM technology and how TMs influence translators' cognitive translation processes.......  It is no exaggeration to say that the advent of translation-memory (TM) systems in the translation profession has led to drastic changes in translators' processes and workflow, and yet, though many professional translators nowadays depend on some form of TM system, this has not been the object...... of much research. Our paper attempts to find out what we know about the nature, applications and influences of TM technology, including translators' interaction with TMs, and also how we know it. An essential part of the analysis is based on a selection of empirical TM studies, which we assume...

  13. ¿CÓMO DESARROLLAR LA AUTOEFICACIA DEL ESTUDIANTADO? PRESENTACIÓN Y EVALUACIÓN DE UNA EXPERIENCIA FORMATIVA EN EL AULA DE TRADUCCIÓN / HOW TO DEVELOP STUDENTS’ SELF-EFFICACY? DESCRIPTION AND EVALUATION OF A LEARNING EXPERIENCE IN THE TRANSLATION CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Haro Soler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Ante el vacío existente en la formación de traductores en torno al desarrollo estructurado de la autoeficacia del estudiantado (Atkinson & Crezee, 2014, se presenta en este artículo una experiencia formativa implementada en el aula universitaria de traducción con el objetivo de facilitarr la confianza que el estudiantado posee en sus capacidades para traducir, o autoeficacia para traducir (Bandura, 1987, 1997; Haro-Soler, 2017a, 2017b. Dicha experiencia incluyó prácticas tan variadas como el pensamiento autorreferente, la persuasión verbal, el aprendizaje vicario o el establecimiento de objetivos que funcionan como incentivos motivacionales. Se presentarán, además, los resultados del estudio empírico-descriptivo desarrollado con el objetivo general de evaluar esta experiencia formativa desde la perspectiva de los 15 estudiantes que participaron en ella. Para ello, se recurrió a la técnica de la encuesta, que se materializó en un cuestionario en línea que arrojó datos tanto de corte cuantitativo como cualitativo. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, los participantes consideran que la experiencia implementada resulta de utilidad para su formación como traductores y sugieren que este tipo de experiencias formativas, destinadas a favorecer su autoeficacia, deberían incorporarse a la formación de traductores en particular y a la Educación Superior en general. ABSTRACT: This paper aims at filling the gap regarding the need to incorporate self-efficacy in translator training programmes in a structured way (Atkinson & Crezee, 2014. It describes a learning experience implemented in the translation classroom aimed at developing students’ translation self-efficacy, i.e., their confidence in their abilities to translate (Bandura 1987, 1997; Haro-Soler, 2017a, 2017b. This experience included practices such as goal-setting as a motivational incentive, verbal persuasion, vicarious learning, and activities to promote students

  14. Machine Translation Effect on Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Bjørn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... on communication in which multilingual communication system is applied, we identify four communication types and its’ influences on stakeholders’ communication process, especially focusing on establishment and maintenance of common ground. Different from our expectation that quality of machine translation results...

  15. TEACHING TRANSLATION: OBJECTIVES AND METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    Kobyakova, Iryna; Shvachko, Svitlana

    2016-01-01

    The article is focused on the set of items: teaching translation, objectives, exercises and assignments (both word-centered and text-centered translation), translation analysis. The choice of the items is motivated by the dominant functions of transatology (nominative and communicative). The latter succeed in identification of adequate, congruent, equivalent translation. The article discusses the problems of professional validity, theoretical insertions, textocentric analysis. Gains, achievem...

  16. Neonatal Informatics: Transforming Neonatal Care Through Translational Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Jonathan P.; Benitz, William E.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Butte, Atul J.; Longhurst, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The future of neonatal informatics will be driven by the availability of increasingly vast amounts of clinical and genetic data. The field of translational bioinformatics is concerned with linking and learning from these data and applying new findings to clinical care to transform the data into proactive, predictive, preventive, and participatory health. As a result of advances in translational informatics, the care of neonates will become more data driven, evidence based, and personalized. PMID:22924023

  17. International Meeting on Languages, Applied Linguistics and Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Luis

    2012-01-01

    This meeting aims at providing an overview of the current theory and practice, exploring new directions and emerging trends, sharing good practice, and exchanging information regarding foreign languages, applied linguistics and translation. The meeting is an excellent opportunity for the presentation of current or previous language learning and translation projects funded by the European Commission or by other sources. Proposals are invited for one or more of the following topics, in any of t...

  18. THE USE OF THE GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction Among the plethora of foreign language teaching methods and approaches there are the grammar-translation method, the direct method, the audiolingual method and the communicative approach to name but a few. Of the major methods, grammar-translation gets the most criticism and is thought to be obsolete. However, in my view it is suitable for China given the country’s present language learning situation, and, in practice, is not at all ineffectual.

  19. On Literal Translation of English Idioms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linli

    2009-01-01

    There are six translation tactics in translating English idioms into Chinese: literal translation, compensatory translation, free translation, explanational translation, borrowing, integrated approach. Each tactic should be reasonably employed in the process of translating, so as to keep the flavor of the original English idioms as well as to…

  20. Translational Implications of Tamil "Hamlets."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakaraj, S.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of translation when teaching English as a Second Language in a Tamil context. Singles out the fencing episode in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" to illustrate the difficulties of translating cultural aspects. Concludes that successful translations of Shakespeare into Indian languages should involve collaboration between…

  1. MULTIFUNCTION OF INTERNET IN TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Budiharjo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Technology affects almost all areas, including translation. Many products of technology have made translational works easier, one of which is internet. Despite the wide use of internet, the potentials it has are sometimes unnoticed. While web-based dictionaries or thesaurus often serve as translators’ assistants and online Machine Translation issues become topics of many researches, other uses of internet related to translation may not be known by many. Internet can help disseminate newborn ideas, theories and findings worldwide to enhance translation theories. Besides, the contact between internet and translation generates new areas to examine. Internet also provides helping hand in the area of translation research. Researcher or anyone conducting research in the field of translation can find a range of research gaps as well as reference. Those who need group discussions to collect required data from informants, or researchers of the same interest coming from all over the world can meet and conduct Focus Group Discussion (FGD on virtual world. Furthermore, internet offers various forms of assistance for translation practitioners. The commonly used internet assistance consists of dictionaries, thesaurus and Machine Translations available on the internet. Other forms of aid provided by internet take form of parallel texts, images, and videos, which can be very helpful. Internet provides many things which can be utilized for the purpose of translation. Internet keeps on providing more as it develops from time to time in line with the development of technology. Internet awaits utilization of theorists, researchers, practitioners and those having concern on translation.

  2. Translational plant proteomics: A perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, G.K.; Pedreschi, R.; Barkla, B.J.; Bindschedler, L.V.; Cramer, R.; Sarkar, A.; Renaut, J.; Job, D.; Rakwal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Translational proteomics is an emerging sub-discipline of the proteomics field in the biological sciences. Translational plant proteomics aims to integrate knowledge from basic sciences to translate it into field applications to solve issues related but not limited to the recreational and economic

  3. Lexical Discourse Analysis in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…

  4. Machine Translation Tools - Tools of The Translator's Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human...... Translation (or MAHT). The strengths and weaknesses of the different types of tools are discussed and evaluated by means of a number of examples. The article aims at two things: at presenting a sort of state of the art of what is commonly referred to as “machine translation” as well as at providing the reader...... with a sound basis for considering what translation tool (if any) is the most appropriate in order to meet his or her specific translation needs....

  5. Improving the redistribution of the security lessons in healthcare: An evaluation of the Generic Security Template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Johnson, Chris

    2015-11-01

    The recurrence of past security breaches in healthcare showed that lessons had not been effectively learned across different healthcare organisations. Recent studies have identified the need to improve learning from incidents and to share security knowledge to prevent future attacks. Generic Security Templates (GSTs) have been proposed to facilitate this knowledge transfer. The objective of this paper is to evaluate whether potential users in healthcare organisations can exploit the GST technique to share lessons learned from security incidents. We conducted a series of case studies to evaluate GSTs. In particular, we used a GST for a security incident in the US Veterans' Affairs Administration to explore whether security lessons could be applied in a very different Chinese healthcare organisation. The results showed that Chinese security professional accepted the use of GSTs and that cyber security lessons could be transferred to a Chinese healthcare organisation using this approach. The users also identified the weaknesses and strengths of GSTs, providing suggestions for future improvements. Generic Security Templates can be used to redistribute lessons learned from security incidents. Sharing cyber security lessons helps organisations consider their own practices and assess whether applicable security standards address concerns raised in previous breaches in other countries. The experience gained from this study provides the basis for future work in conducting similar studies in other healthcare organisations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mamma Mia, A Singable Translation!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Stopar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses and analyzes approaches to translating singable texts. It presents a linguistic (prosodic, lexical and structural analysis of the Slovenian translation of the musical Mamma Mia! The aim of the qualitative and quantitative study is to investigate the translation strategies used to produce a singable target text. The results of the analysis suggest that producing a prosodic match is a basic requirement, whereas the lexical, structural and/or poetic characteristics of the source text are subject to changes. Overall, the findings show that the function and the purpose of the translation play a crucial role in the prioritization of translation strategies.

  7. The Complexity of Indirect Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenjie, L. I.

    2017-01-01

    its complex nature, and thus determined that many facets of ITr remain to be studied. The present article will try to encompass the complexity of ITr by looking into the reasons for translating indirectly, the challenge of finding out mediating texts (MTs), indirectness in both translation...... of which have been translated and interpreted indirectly through major languages like English, will be employed as examples. Hopefully, this study will offer more insights into the nature of translation as a social activity and raise further interests in studying translation as a complex phenomenon....

  8. Computer-aided translation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark is rather high in general, but limited in the case of machine translation (MT) tools: While most TSPs use translation-memory (TM) software, often in combination with a terminology management system (TMS), only very few have implemented MT, which is criticised for its low quality output, especially......The paper reports on a questionnaire survey from 2013 of the uptake and use of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools by Danish translation service providers (TSPs) and discusses how these tools appear to have impacted on the Danish translation industry. According to our results, the uptake...

  9. Ebola: translational science considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Bakhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Manfrini, Ercolano; Piva, Francesco; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; Maida, Carl A

    2015-01-16

    We are currently in the midst of the most aggressive and fulminating outbreak of Ebola-related disease, commonly referred to as "Ebola", ever recorded. In less than a year, the Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire ebolavirus species) has infected over 10,000 people, indiscriminately of gender or age, with a fatality rate of about 50%. Whereas at its onset this Ebola outbreak was limited to three countries in West Africa (Guinea, where it was first reported in late March 2014, Liberia, where it has been most rampant in its capital city, Monrovia and other metropolitan cities, and Sierra Leone), cases were later reported in Nigeria, Mali and Senegal, as well as in Western Europe (i.e., Madrid, Spain) and the US (i.e., Dallas, Texas; New York City) by late October 2014. World and US health agencies declared that the current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has a strong likelihood of growing exponentially across the world before an effective vaccine, treatment or cure can be developed, tested, validated and distributed widely. In the meantime, the spread of the disease may rapidly evolve from an epidemics to a full-blown pandemic. The scientific and healthcare communities actively research and define an emerging kaleidoscope of knowledge about critical translational research parameters, including the virology of EBOV, the molecular biomarkers of the pathological manifestations of EVD, putative central nervous system involvement in EVD, and the cellular immune surveillance to EBOV, patient-centered anthropological and societal parameters of EVD, as well as translational effectiveness about novel putative patient-targeted vaccine and pharmaceutical interventions, which hold strong promise, if not hope, to curb this and future Ebola outbreaks. This work reviews and discusses the principal known facts about EBOV and EVD, and certain among the most interesting ongoing or future avenues of research in the field, including vaccination programs for the wild animal vectors of the virus

  10. Nanoporous alumina as templates for multifunctional applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, C. T.; Leitao, D. C.; Proenca, M. P.; Ventura, J.; Pereira, A. M.; Araujo, J. P.

    2014-09-01

    Due to its manufacturing and size tailoring ease, porous anodic alumina (PAA) templates are an elegant physical-chemical nanopatterning approach and an emergent alternative to more sophisticated and expensive methods currently used in nanofabrication. In this review, we will describe the ground work on the fabrication methods of PAA membranes and PAA-based nanostructures. We will present the specificities of the electrochemical growth processes of multifunctional nanomaterials with diversified shapes (e.g., nanowires and nanotubes), and the fabrication techniques used to grow ordered nanohole arrays. We will then focus on the fabrication, properties and applications of magnetic nanostructures grown on PAA and illustrate their dependence on internal (diameter, interpore distance, length, composition) and external (temperature and applied magnetic field intensity and direction) parameters. Finally, the most outstanding experimental findings on PAA-grown nanostructures and their trends for technological applications (sensors, energy harvesting, metamaterials, and biotechnology) will be addressed.

  11. Business planning: a template for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Judy

    2002-01-01

    Because managing a laboratory, or any health-care entity, is as much a business as a service, it is important for you to have a good grasp on how you can take opportunities from idea conception to implementation to assessment/revision. Regardless of the size of your proposed project, you need to consider a number of factors, among them: your history and what opportunities you can seize from your strengths and weaknesses; the overall business climate; anticipated costs; staff involvement; how you will market your project; and what measures to use to determine your success. Above all else, you need to set goals, both ultimate and intermediate, to instill focus, incentive, and a sense of achievement. The next time someone on your staff says, "Why don't we try that?," refer to this Template Topic. It can serve as a tool to help you determine whether you should try "that" and be the compass that helps guide your efforts.

  12. Radiation Templates of Spent Fuel in Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanier, Peter

    2018-05-07

    BNL and INL propose to perform a scoping study, using heavily collimated gamma and fast neutron detectors, to obtain passive radiation templates of dry storage casks containing spent fuel. The goal is to demonstrate sufficient spatial resolution and sensitivity to detect a missing fuel assembly. Such measurements, combined with detailed modeling and decay corrections should provide confidence that the cask contents have not been altered, despite loss of continuity of knowledge (CoK). The concept relies on the leakage of high energy gammas and neutrons through the shielding of the casks. Tests will emphasize organic scintillators with pulse shape discrimination, but baseline comparisons will be made to high purity germanium (HPGe) and collimated moderated 3He detectors deployed in the same locations. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) detectors and data acquisition electronics will be used with custom-built collimators and shielding.

  13. Using archetypes for defining CDA templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moner, David; Moreno, Alberto; Maldonado, José A; Robles, Montserrat; Parra, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    While HL7 CDA is a widely adopted standard for the documentation of clinical information, the archetype approach proposed by CEN/ISO 13606 and openEHR is gaining recognition as a means of describing domain models and medical knowledge. This paper describes our efforts in combining both standards. Using archetypes as an alternative for defining CDA templates permit new possibilities all based on the formal nature of archetypes and their ability to merge into the same artifact medical knowledge and technical requirements for semantic interoperability of electronic health records. We describe the process followed for the normalization of existing legacy data in a hospital environment, from the importation of the HL7 CDA model into an archetype editor, the definition of CDA archetypes and the application of those archetypes to obtain normalized CDA data instances.

  14. Colloid-templated multisectional porous polymeric fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jung Hun; Kretzschmar, Ilona

    2008-10-07

    A fabrication method for porous polymeric fibers (PPFs) is reported. We show that a multisectional colloidal crystal can be assembled within a microcapillary by alternating dipping into colloidal solutions of varying size. Subsequent infiltration with curable polymer and washing with suitable solvents results in porous fibers with a cylindrical cross section. Along the length of the fiber, alternating sections of controlled length, pore size, and pore size distribution exist. These fibers present interesting materials for neural scaffolding, catalysis, and possibly photonics if produced with a high degree of crystallinity. The surface pores and bulk porosity of the fibers are characterized by variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (vp-SEM). Careful analysis shows that the surface pores vary with the colloidal template diameter and polymer infiltration time.

  15. Substitution reactions of carbon nanotube template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi Pui; Chen, Ying; Gerald, John Fitz

    2006-05-01

    Substitution reactions between carbon nanotube (CNT) template and SiO with the formation of carbon rich silicon oxide nanowires (SiO-C-NWs) have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The reaction was carried out by thermal annealing at 1200°C for 1h of a mixture of silicon monoxide (SiO) and iron (II) phthalocyanine, FeC32N8H16 (FePc) powders. Multiwalled CNTs were produced first via pyrolysis of FePc at a lower temperature (1000°C ). SiO vapors reacted with the CNTs at higher temperatures to produce amorphous SiO-C-NWs with a uniform diameter and a length in tens of micrometers. The special bamboolike structure of the CNTs allows the reaction to start from the external surface of the tubes and transform each CNT into a solid nanowire section by section.

  16. Consensus on Exercise Reporting Template (CERT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slade, Susan C; Dionne, Clermont E; Underwood, Martin

    2016-01-01

    the reporting of exercise programs in all evaluative study designs and contains 7 categories: materials, provider, delivery, location, dosage, tailoring, and compliance. The CERT will encourage transparency, improve trial interpretation and replication, and facilitate implementation of effective exercise......BACKGROUND: Exercise interventions are often incompletely described in reports of clinical trials, hampering evaluation of results and replication and implementation into practice. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a standardized method for reporting exercise programs in clinical...... trials: the Consensus on Exercise Reporting Template (CERT). DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the EQUATOR Network's methodological framework, 137 exercise experts were invited to participate in a Delphi consensus study. A list of 41 items was identified from a meta-epidemiologic study of 73 systematic reviews...

  17. Translators: Travellers, Not Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Rot Gabrovec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores various representations of culture(s found in contemporary English children’s literature and discusses how they were rendered into Slovene. In the first part, some introductory definitions of culture and approaches to the translation of children’s literature are presented. In the second part, excerpts from selected literary works (for instance, Mary Poppins, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, Matilda, The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time are examined, both from the source and the target texts, with more attention paid to the cultural contexts, and the social changes that possibly influenced the translator’s decisions.

  18. A Template for an Intensive Ecohydrology Field Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, R. E.; McGlynn, B. L.; Riveros-Iregui, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Many of the greatest challenges in the earth and environmental sciences are complex and interdisciplinary in nature. Ecohydrology exemplifies the type of holistic inquiry needed to address these challenges because it spans and integrates earth science, biological science and, often, social science. Ecohydrology courses can prepare the next generation of scientists, decision-makers and informed citizens to understand and address these challenges, and field courses in particular can play an important role in this preparation. Ecohydrology field course instructors have unique opportunities to convey interwoven theoretical and applied principles through a variety of modes that include lecture, discussion, immersion, and hands-on activity. In this presentation, we report on our experience co-teaching the Mountain Ecohydrology Field Course, a full-credit course taught 3 times in the past 5 years to more than 30 students representing 6 universities. The course, which has ranged from 1-2 weeks in length, has given students in-depth exposure to intensively instrumented ecohydrological field sites in the southern Appalachian and northern Rocky Mountains. Students learn fundamental principles in ecohydrology and related fields of watershed hydrology, soil biogeochemistry, micrometeorology and plant ecophysiology. They gain hands-on experience in a variety of cutting edge field techniques, tools and analyses while practicing presentation and communication of science. Students and instructors deal with real-world challenges of conducting fieldwork in remote settings. We offer our experience as one potential template for others interested in developing or refining ecohydrology field courses elsewhere.

  19. Exploring theoretical functions of corpus data in teaching translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Poirier

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36nesp1p177 As language referential data banks, corpora are instrumental in the exploration of translation solutions in bilingual parallel texts or conventional usages of source or target language in monolingual general or specialized texts. These roles are firmly rooted in translation processes, from analysis and interpretation of source text to searching for an acceptable equivalent and integrating it into the production of the target text. Provided the creative and not the conservative way be taken, validation or adaptation of target text in accordance with conventional usages in the target language also benefits from corpora. Translation teaching is not exploiting this way of translating that is common practice in the professional translation markets around the world. Instead of showing what corpus tools can do to translation teaching, we start our analysis with a common issue within translation teaching and show how corpus data can help to resolve it in learning activities in translation courses. We suggest a corpus-driven model for the interpretation of ‘business’ as a term and as an item in complex terms based on source text pattern analysis. This methodology will make it possible for teachers to explain and justify interpretation rules that have been defined theoretically from corpus data. It will also help teachers to conceive and non-subjectively assess practical activities designed for learners of translation. Corpus data selected for the examples of rule-based interpretations provided in this paper have been compiled in a corpus-driven study (Poirier, 2015 on the translation of the noun ‘business’ in the field of specialized translation in business, economics, and finance from English to French. The corpus methodology and rule-based interpretation of senses can be generalized and applied in the definition of interpretation rules for other language pairs and other specialized simple and

  20. Exploring theoretical functions of corpus data in teaching translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Poirier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As language referential data banks, corpora are instrumental in the exploration of translation solutions in bilingual parallel texts or conventional usages of source or target language in monolingual general or specialized texts. These roles are firmly rooted in translation processes, from analysis and interpretation of source text to searching for an acceptable equivalent and integrating it into the production of the target text. Provided the creative and not the conservative way be taken, validation or adaptation of target text in accordance with conventional usages in the target language also benefits from corpora. Translation teaching is not exploiting this way of translating that is common practice in the professional translation markets around the world. Instead of showing what corpus tools can do to translation teaching, we start our analysis with a common issue within translation teaching and show how corpus data can help to resolve it in learning activities in translation courses. We suggest a corpus-driven model for the interpretation of ‘business’ as a term and as an item in complex terms based on source text pattern analysis. This methodology will make it possible for teachers to explain and justify interpretation rules that have been defined theoretically from corpus data. It will also help teachers to conceive and non-subjectively assess practical activities designed for learners of translation. Corpus data selected for the examples of rule-based interpretations provided in this paper have been compiled in a corpus-driven study (Poirier, 2015 on the translation of the noun ‘business’ in the field of specialized translation in business, economics, and finance from English to French. The corpus methodology and rule-based interpretation of senses can be generalized and applied in the definition of interpretation rules for other language pairs and other specialized simple and complex terms. These works will encourage the

  1. Tailoring the porosity of hierarchical zeolites by carbon-templating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kake; Egeblad, Kresten; Christensen, Claus H.

    2008-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of hierarchical porous zeolite single crystal materials with a range of porosities made available by carbon-templating using differently-sized carbon particles as templates for the additional non-micropore porosity. The materials were...

  2. Proline-catalysed asymmetric ketol cyclizations: The template ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. A modified template mechanism based on modelling studies of energy minimised complexes is presented for the asymmetric proline-catalysed cyclization of triketones 1, 2 and 3 to the 2S,3S-ketols. 1a, 2a and 3a respectively. The template model involves a three-point contact as favoured in enzyme– substrate ...

  3. A non-parametric 2D deformable template classifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut

    2005-01-01

    feature space the ship-master will be able to interactively define a segmentation map, which is refined and optimized by the deformable template algorithms. The deformable templates are defined as two-dimensional vector-cycles. Local random transformations are applied to the vector-cycles, and stochastic...

  4. Graphene Emerges as a Versatile Template for Materials Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengjie; Wu, Sida; Lv, Wei; Shao, Jiao-Jing; Kang, Feiyu; Yang, Quan-Hong

    2016-05-01

    Graphene and its derivatives are emerging as a class of novel but versatile templates for the controlled preparation and functionalization of materials. In this paper a conceptual review on graphene-based templates is given, highlighting their versatile roles in materials preparation. Graphene is capable of acting as a low-dimensional hard template, where its two-dimensional morphology directs the formation of novel nanostructures. Graphene oxide and other functionalized graphenes are amphiphilic and may be seen as soft templates for formatting the growth or inducing the controlled assembly of nanostructures. In addition, nanospaces in restacked graphene can be used for confining the growth of sheet-like nanostructures, and assemblies of interlinked graphenes can behave either as skeletons for the formation of composite materials or as sacrificial templates for novel materials with a controlled network structure. In summary, flexible graphene and its derivatives together with an increasing number of assembled structures show great potentials as templates for materials production. Many challenges remain, for example precise structural control of such novel templates and the removal of the non-functional remaining templates. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Computer-Aided Template for Model Reuse, Development and Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2014-01-01

    A template-based approach for model development is presented in this work. Based on a model decomposition technique, the computer-aided template concept has been developed. This concept is implemented as a software tool , which provides a user-friendly interface for following the workflow steps...

  6. Translation Analysis on Civil Engineering Text Produced by Machine Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutopo Anam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation is extremely needed in communication since people have serious problem in the language used. Translation activity is done by the person in charge for translating the material. Translation activity is also able to be done by machine. It is called machine translation, reflected in the programs developed by programmer. One of them is Transtool. Many people used Transtool for helping them in solving the problem related with translation activities. This paper wants to deliver how important is the Transtool program, how effective is Transtool program and how is the function of Transtool for human business. This study applies qualitative research. The sources of data were document and informant. This study used documentation and in dept-interviewing as the techniques for collecting data. The collected data were analyzed by using interactive analysis. The results of the study show that, first; Transtool program is helpful for people in translating the civil engineering text and it functions as the aid or helper, second; the working of Transtool software program is effective enough and third; the result of translation produced by Transtool is good for short and simple sentences and not readable, not understandable and not accurate for long sentences (compound, complex and compound complex thought the result is informative. The translated material must be edited by the professional translator.

  7. PERSONALITY TYPE AND TRANSLATION PERFORMANCE OF PERSIAN TRANSLATOR TRAINEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between the personality typology of a sample of Iranian translation students and their translation quality in terms of expressive, appellative, and informative text types. The study also attempted to identify the personality types that can perform better in English to Persian translation of the three text types. For that purpose, the personality type and the translation quality of the participants was assessed using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI personality test and translation quality assessment (TQA, respectively. The analysis of the data revealed that the personality type of the participants seemed relevant to the translation quality of all the text types. The translation quality of the participants with intuitive and thinking types was significantly better than the sensing type counterparts in translating expressive texts. The participants with intuitive and feeling types also performed better than their counterparts with sensing type in translation of the informative text. Moreover, the participants with intuitive, feeling, and thinking personality types performed more successfully than the participants with sensing type in translation of the appellative text. The findings of the study are discussed in light of the existing research literature.

  8. Translation Analysis on Civil Engineering Text Produced by Machine Translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutopo, Anam

    2018-02-01

    Translation is extremely needed in communication since people have serious problem in the language used. Translation activity is done by the person in charge for translating the material. Translation activity is also able to be done by machine. It is called machine translation, reflected in the programs developed by programmer. One of them is Transtool. Many people used Transtool for helping them in solving the problem related with translation activities. This paper wants to deliver how important is the Transtool program, how effective is Transtool program and how is the function of Transtool for human business. This study applies qualitative research. The sources of data were document and informant. This study used documentation and in dept-interviewing as the techniques for collecting data. The collected data were analyzed by using interactive analysis. The results of the study show that, first; Transtool program is helpful for people in translating the civil engineering text and it functions as the aid or helper, second; the working of Transtool software program is effective enough and third; the result of translation produced by Transtool is good for short and simple sentences and not readable, not understandable and not accurate for long sentences (compound, complex and compound complex) thought the result is informative. The translated material must be edited by the professional translator.

  9. BPFlexTemplate: A Business Process template generation tool based on similarity and flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa Ilahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In large organizations with multiple organizational units, process variants emerge due to many aspects, including local management policies, resources or socio-technical limitations. Organizations then struggle to improve a business process which has no longer a single process model to redesign, implement and adjust. In this paper, we propose an approach to tackle these two challenges: decrease the proliferation of process variants in these organizations, and foresee, at the same time, the need of having flexible business processes that allow for a certain degree of adjustment. To validate our approach, we first conducted case studies where we collected six real-world business process variants from two organizational units of the same healthcare organization. We then proposed an algorithm to derive a template process model from all the variants, which includes common and flexible process elements. We implemented our approach in a software tool called BPFlexTemplate, and tested it with the elicited variants.

  10. Interoperability format translation and transformation between IFC architectural design file and simulation file formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tian-Jy; Kim, Younghun

    2015-01-06

    Automatically translating a building architecture file format (Industry Foundation Class) to a simulation file, in one aspect, may extract data and metadata used by a target simulation tool from a building architecture file. Interoperability data objects may be created and the extracted data is stored in the interoperability data objects. A model translation procedure may be prepared to identify a mapping from a Model View Definition to a translation and transformation function. The extracted data may be transformed using the data stored in the interoperability data objects, an input Model View Definition template, and the translation and transformation function to convert the extracted data to correct geometric values needed for a target simulation file format used by the target simulation tool. The simulation file in the target simulation file format may be generated.

  11. Magnetic translator bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, Richard L. (Inventor); Downer, James R. (Inventor); Eisenhaure, David B. (Inventor); Hawkey, Timothy J. (Inventor); Johnson, Bruce G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system for enabling translational motion includes a carriage and a shaft for movably supporting the carriage; a first magnetic bearing fixed to one of the carriage and shaft and slidably received in a first channel of the other of the carriage and shaft. The first channel is generally U shaped with two side walls and a back wall. The magnetic bearing includes a pair of spaced magnetic pole pieces, each pole piece having a pair of electromagnetic coils mounted on poles on opposite ends of the pole piece proximate the side walls, and a third electromagnetic coil mounted on a pole of the pole piece proximate the backwall; a motion sensor for sensing translational motion along two axes and rotationally about three axes of the carriage and shaft relative to each other; and a correction circuit responsive to the sensor for generating a correction signal to drive the coils to compensate for any misalignment sensed between the carriage and the shaft.

  12. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Models Core Technologies Clinical Innovation Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network Patient ... to our monthly e-newsletter. About Translation Translational Science Spectrum Explore the full spectrum of translational science, ...

  13. Accuracy of templating the acetabular cup size in Total Hip Replacement using conventional acetate templates on digital radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Vignesh P; Perumal, Rajamani; Daniel, Alfred J; Poonnoose, Pradeep M

    2015-12-01

    Templating of the acetabular cup size in Total Hip Replacement (THR) is normally done using conventional radiographs. As these are being replaced by digital radiographs, it has become essential to create a technique of templating using digital films. We describe a technique that involves templating the digital films using the universally available acetate templates for THR without the use of special software. Preoperative digital radiographs of the pelvis were taken with a 30 mm diameter spherical metal ball strapped over the greater trochanter. Using standard acetate templates provided by the implant company on magnified digital radiographs, the size of the metal ball (X mm) and acetabular cup (Y mm) were determined. The size of the acetabular cup to be implanted was estimated using the formula 30*Y/X. The estimated size was compared with the actual size of the cup used at surgery. Using this technique, it was possible to accurately predict the acetabular cup size in 28/40 (70%) of the hips. When the accuracy to within one size was considered, templating was correct in 90% (36/40). When assessed by two independent observers, there was good intra-observer and inter-observer reliability with intra-class correlation coefficient values greater than 0.8. It was possible to accurately and reliably predict the size of the acetabular cup, using acetate templates on digital films, without any digital templates.

  14. Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Laabidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays learning technologies transformed educational systems with impressive progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Furthermore, when these technologies are available, affordable and accessible, they represent more than a transformation for people with disabilities. They represent real opportunities with access to an inclusive education and help to overcome the obstacles they met in classical educational systems. In this paper, we will cover basic concepts of e-accessibility, universal design and assistive technologies, with a special focus on accessible e-learning systems. Then, we will present recent research works conducted in our research Laboratory LaTICE toward the development of an accessible online learning environment for persons with disabilities from the design and specification step to the implementation. We will present, in particular, the accessible version “MoodleAcc+” of the well known e-learning platform Moodle as well as new elaborated generic models and a range of tools for authoring and evaluating accessible educational content.

  15. Translation goes to the movies

    CERN Document Server

    Cronin, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This highly accessible introduction to translation theory, written by a leading author in the field, uses the genre of film to bring the main themes in translation to life. Through analyzing films as diverse as the Marx Brothers' A Night at the Opera, The Star Wars Trilogies and Lost in Translation, the reader is encouraged to think about both issues and problems of translation as they are played out on the screen and issues of filmic representation through examining the translation dimension of specific films. In highlighting how translation has featured in both mainstream commercial and arthouse films over the years, Cronin shows how translation has been a concern of filmmakers dealing with questions of culture, identity, conflict and representation. This book is a lively and accessible text for translation theory courses and offers a new and largely unexplored approach to topics of identity and representation on screen. Translation Goes to the Movies will be of interest to those on translation studies...

  16. Pauses by Student and Professional Translators in Translation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdi Noor Rosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation as a process of meaning making activity requires a cognitive process one of which is realized in a pause, a temporary stop or a break indicating doing other than typing activities in a certain period of translation process. Scholars agree that pauses are an indicator of cognitive process without which there will never be any translation practices. Despite such agreement, pauses are debatable as well, either in terms of their length or in terms of the activities managed by a translator while taking pauses. This study, in particular, aims at finding out how student translators and professional translators managed the pauses in a translation process. This was a descriptive research taking two student translators and two professional translators as the participants who were asked to translate a text from English into bahasa Indonesia. The source text (ST was a historical recount text entitled ‘Early History of Yellowstone National Park’ downloaded from http://www.nezperce.com/yelpark9.html composed of 230-word long from English into bahasa Indonesia. The data were collected using Translog protocols, think aloud protocols (TAPs and screen recording. Based on the data analysis, it was found that student translators took the longest pauses in the drafting phase spent to solve the problems related to finding out the right equivalent for the ST words or terms and to solve the difficulties encountered in encoding their ST understanding in the TL; meanwhile, professional translators took the longest pauses in the pos-drafting phase spent to ensure whether their TT had been natural and whether their TT had corresponded to the prevailing grammatical rules of the TL.

  17. Template polymerization of N-vinylimidazole along poly(methacrylic acid) in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grampel, Hendrik Theodorus van de

    1990-01-01

    Template polymerisaties zijn polymerisaties waarbij radicalen gedurende het grootste gedeelte van hun bestaan langs het template polymeer groeien. In het algemeen kan de template invloed hebben op de polymerisatiesnelheid, als ook op het molecuulgewicht en de tacticiteit van het bijgevormde

  18. Topical Review: Translating Translational Research in Behavioral Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, Kevin A; Modi, Avani C; Piazza-Waggoner, Carrie; Myers, James D

    2015-01-01

    To present a model of translational research for behavioral science that communicates the role of behavioral research at each phase of translation. A task force identified gaps in knowledge regarding behavioral translational research processes and made recommendations regarding advancement of knowledge. A comprehensive model of translational behavioral research was developed. This model represents T1, T2, and T3 research activities, as well as Phase 1, 2, 3, and 4 clinical trials. Clinical illustrations of translational processes are also offered as support for the model. Behavioral science has struggled with defining a translational research model that effectively articulates each stage of translation and complements biomedical research. Our model defines key activities at each phase of translation from basic discovery to dissemination/implementation. This should be a starting point for communicating the role of behavioral science in translational research and a catalyst for better integration of biomedical and behavioral research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. An Evergreen Challenge for Translators – The Translation of Idioms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács Gabriella

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Translating idioms has always been a challenging decision-making process for translators mainly because not all idioms have direct equivalents in the target language. Translators usually and ideally have a solid knowledge of the target language and its cultural aspects, but even so they cannot match the ability of a native speaker in deciding when – i.e. in what context and text type – an idiom would or would not be appropriate. This study aims to explore the main characteristics of idioms and the difficulties which might occur when translating them. A needs analysis will also be presented, where the various solutions which a group of translator trainees chose while translating certain idioms from the novel “A Game of Thrones” by George R. R. Martin into Hungarian are examined. Their strategies and the appropriateness of their choices are analysed and compared with the options of the experienced literary translator (Tamás Pétersz. We consider this an important endeavour because, based on our experience, we believe that the topic of the translation of idioms should be included into the curriculum and appropriate materials and tasks should be designed to develop the translator trainees’ knowledge and skills in this domain. Therefore, the aim of this analysis is to obtain a clearer view of the difficulties they are dealing with and bear them in mind when designing teaching materials for them.

  20. Translating Fashion into Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riegels Melchior, Marie; Skov, Lise; Csaba, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    emanate from Denmark and secure growth, jobs and exports even outside the fashion business has taken hold among policymakers, and compelled the government to embrace fashion as a national project. In investigating the emergence and rising stature of Danish fashion, particular at home, we first establish...... a theoretical frame for understanding the cultural economic policy and the motives, principles and strategies behind it. Then – drawing inspiration from Michel Callon’s “sociology of translation” with its moments of translation: problematization, interessement, enrolment and mobilization – we identify...... the actors and analyze their strategic roles and interrelationship through various phases of the development of Danish fashion. Callon’s actor network theory (ANT) is based on the principle of “generalized symmetry” – originally using a single repertoire to analyze both society and nature. We adapt...

  1. Found in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietjen, Anne

    2018-01-01

    activities and uses, and people’s ideas and desires for future development can be a pertinent starting point. Furthermore, a clearly defined programming phase where design problems are formulated by different representational media and collectively assessed by students and teachers proved helpful...... analysis. Second, it presents the applied educational procedure, with a focus on the decisive step from inventory to intervention which is the formulation of a design problem. The teaching experiment shows that onsite studies of spatial controversies in the form of recent physical changes, emerging new...... for the students. Overall, the produced design work and the student evaluations show that translation offers an operational framework for teaching a creative approach to site analysis....

  2. Holography without translational symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Vegh, David

    2013-01-01

    We propose massive gravity as a holographic framework for describing a class of strongly interacting quantum field theories with broken translational symmetry. Bulk gravitons are assumed to have a Lorentz-breaking mass term as a substitute for spatial inhomogeneities. This breaks momentum-conservation in the boundary field theory. At finite chemical potential, the gravity duals are charged black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime. The conductivity in these systems generally exhibits a Drude peak that approaches a delta function in the massless gravity limit. Furthermore, the optical conductivity shows an emergent scaling law: $|\\sigma(\\omega)| \\approx {A \\over \\omega^{\\alpha}} + B$. This result is consistent with that found earlier by Horowitz, Santos, and Tong who introduced an explicit inhomogeneous lattice into the system.

  3. Semiconductor nanowires and templates for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Xiang

    2009-07-15

    This thesis starts by developing a platform for the organized growth of nanowires directly on a planar substrate. For this, a method to fabricate horizontal porous alumina membranes is studied. The second part of the thesis focuses on the study of nanowires. It starts by the understanding of the growth mechanisms of germanium nanowires and follows by the structural and electrical properties at the single nanowire level. Horizontally aligned porous anodic alumina (PAA) was used as a template for the nanowire synthesis. Three PAA arrangements were studied: - high density membranes - micron-sized fingers - multi-contacts Membranes formed by a high density of nanopores were obtained by anodizing aluminum thin films. Metallic and semiconducting nanowires were synthesized into the PAA structures via DC deposition, pulsed electro-depostion and CVD growth. The presence of gold, copper, indium, nickel, tellurium, and silicon nanowires inside PAA templates was verified by SEM and EDX analysis. Further, room-temperature transport measurements showed that the pores are completely filled till the bottom of the pores. In this dissertation, single crystalline and core-shell germanium nanowires are synthesized using indium and bismuth as catalyst in a chemical vapor deposition procedure with germane (GeH{sub 4}) as growth precursor. A systematic growth study has been performed to obtain high aspect-ratio germanium nanowires. The influence of the growth conditions on the final morphology and the crystalline structure has been determined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). In the case of indium catalyzed germanium nanowires, two different structures were identified: single crystalline and crystalline core-amorphous shell. The preferential growth axis of both kinds of nanowires is along the [110] direction. The occurrence of the two morphologies was found to only depend on the nanowire dimension. In the case of bismuth

  4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCREEN TRANSLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sang Ayu Isnu Maharani

    2014-01-01

    Screen translations involve oral translation known as dubbing and revoicing. Re-voicing consists of lip-sync dubbing, free commentary, narration and voice over. The written version is called subtitle. Dubbing and subtitling are two preferred mode used in the screen translation even though various numbers of current options are available nowadays. Dubbing commenced to be used in larger countries in Europe meanwhile smaller countries apply subtitling because it is more...

  5. Transferring communicative clues in translation

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Errasti, María Pilar

    2001-01-01

    In this essay I make use of the category communicative clue, as defined by Gutt (1991/2000), to explain certain differences between an original work and its various translations. Communicative clues are very useful analytical devices that show nuances of meaning and style. In the source texts, they sometimes go unnoticed. But when a translation is done the translator may come across these features and must desirably transfer them. Very frequently, however, they are ignored. Here a particular ...

  6. MOCVD epitaxy of InAlN on different templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun Lijun; Wei Tongbo; Yan Jianchang; Liu Zhe; Wang Junxi; Li Jinmin

    2011-01-01

    InAlN epilayers were grown on high quality GaN and AlN templates with the same growth parameters. Measurement results showed that two samples had the same In content of ∼ 16%, while the crystal quality and surface topography of the InAlN epilayer grown on the AlN template, with 282.3 (002) full width at half maximum (FWHM) of rocking curve, 313.5 (102) FWHM, surface roughness of 0.39 nm and V-pit density of 2.8 x 10 8 cm -2 , were better than that of the InAlN epilayer grown on the GaN template, 309.3, 339.1, 0.593 nm and 4.2 x 10 8 cm -2 . A primary conclusion was proposed that both the crystal quality and the surface topography of the InAlN epilayer grown on the AlN template were better than that of the InAlN epilayer grown on the GaN template. Therefore, the AlN template was a better choice than the GaN template for getting high quality InAlN epilayers. (semiconductor materials)

  7. Multimodal biometric approach for cancelable face template generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Padma Polash; Gavrilova, Marina

    2012-06-01

    Due to the rapid growth of biometric technology, template protection becomes crucial to secure integrity of the biometric security system and prevent unauthorized access. Cancelable biometrics is emerging as one of the best solutions to secure the biometric identification and verification system. We present a novel technique for robust cancelable template generation algorithm that takes advantage of the multimodal biometric using feature level fusion. Feature level fusion of different facial features is applied to generate the cancelable template. A proposed algorithm based on the multi-fold random projection and fuzzy communication scheme is used for this purpose. In cancelable template generation, one of the main difficulties is keeping interclass variance of the feature. We have found that interclass variations of the features that are lost during multi fold random projection can be recovered using fusion of different feature subsets and projecting in a new feature domain. Applying the multimodal technique in feature level, we enhance the interclass variability hence improving the performance of the system. We have tested the system for classifier fusion for different feature subset and different cancelable template fusion. Experiments have shown that cancelable template improves the performance of the biometric system compared with the original template.

  8. Strategy Of Translating Gadget Brochure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deny Kusuma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The title of this writing is strategy of translating gadget brochure. There were two problems discussed in this thesis, namely (1 terms found in the gadget manual book and its equivalence in Indonesia, (2 strategies applied in translating gadget brochure. Based on the analysis result, it was found that the terms and its equivalent words found in the gadget brochure were classified based on: 1 simple words or compound words and terminology forming phrase. 2 words category found are: noun and verb. The recommended pattern to determine the equivalent word was pure borrowing strategy, not adaptation borrowing strategy. The adaptation borrowing in this context was related to the spellings, the pronunciation or sound adaptation in the TL rather than adaptation for the cultural substitutes that conceptually mismatches with the standardized terminology in the SL. In addition, the result of the analysis that there were seven strategies found in gadget brochure, they were translation by more general word (Superordinate, translation by a more neutral/expressive word, translation by cultural substitution, translation by using loan word or loan word plus explanation, translation by paraphrase using related word, translation by omission and translation by illustration.

  9. Specialised Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Specialised translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain discourse in a foreign language in connection with translation. The most common type is the business dictionary covering several more or less related subject fields. However, business dictionaries...... the needs of learners, it is proposed that specialised translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. It is argued that electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative documents...

  10. Durable diamond-like carbon templates for UV nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, L; Ramachandran, S; Nelson, C T; Overzet, L J; Goeckner, M; Lee, G; Hu, W; Lin, M; Willson, C G; Wu, W

    2008-01-01

    The interaction between resist and template during the separation process after nanoimprint lithography (NIL) can cause the formation of defects and damage to the templates and resist patterns. To alleviate these problems, fluorinated self-assembled monolayers (F-SAMs, i.e. tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2,tetrahydrooctyl trichlorosilane or FDTS) have been employed as template release coatings. However, we find that the FDTS coating undergoes irreversible degradation after only 10 cycles of UV nanoimprint processes with SU-8 resist. The degradation includes a 28% reduction in surface F atoms and significant increases in the surface roughness. In this paper, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were investigated as an alternative material not only for coating but also for direct fabrication of nanoimprint templates. DLC films deposited on quartz templates in a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system are shown to have better chemical and physical stability than FDTS. After the same 10 cycles of UV nanoimprints, the surface composition as well as the roughness of DLC films were found to be unchanged. The adhesion energy between the DLC surface and SU-8 is found to be smaller than that of FDTS despite the slightly higher total surface energy of DLC. DLC templates with 40 nm features were fabricated using e-beam lithography followed by Cr lift-off and reactive ion etching. UV nanoimprinting using the directly patterned DLC templates in SU-8 resist demonstrates good pattern transfer fidelity and easy template-resist separation. These results indicate that DLC is a promising material for fabricating durable templates for UV nanoimprint lithography

  11. Engineering Plasmonic Nanocrystal Coupling through Template-Assisted Self-Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greybush, Nicholas J.

    The construction of materials from nanocrystal building blocks represents a powerful new paradigm for materials design. Just as nature's materials orchestrate intricate combinations of atoms from the library of the periodic table, nanocrystal "metamaterials" integrate individual nanocrystals into larger architectures with emergent collective properties. The individual nanocrystal "meta-atoms" that make up these materials are themselves each a nanoscale atomic system with tailorable size, shape, and elemental composition, enabling the creation of hierarchical materials with predesigned structure at multiple length scales. However, an improved fundamental understanding of the interactions among individual nanocrystals is needed in order to translate this structural control into enhanced functionality. The ability to form precise arrangements of nanocrystals and measure their collective properties is therefore essential for the continued development of nanocrystal metamaterials. In this dissertation, we utilize template-assisted self-assembly and spatially-resolved spectroscopy to form and characterize individual nanocrystal oligomers. At the intersection of "top-down" and "bottom-up" nanoscale patterning schemes, template-assisted self-assembly combines the design freedom of lithography with the chemical control of colloidal synthesis to achieve unique nanocrystal configurations. Here, we employ shape-selective templates to assemble new plasmonic structures, including heterodimers of Au nanorods and upconversion phosphors, a series of hexagonally-packed Au nanocrystal oligomers, and triangular formations of Au nanorods. Through experimental analysis and numerical simulation, we elucidate the means through which inter-nanocrystal coupling imparts collective optical properties to the plasmonic assemblies. Our self-assembly and measurement strategy offers a versatile platform for exploring optical interactions in a wide range of material systems and application areas.

  12. Onomastics and Translation: The Case of Igbo→English Translation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The qualitative research method will be used to translate, analyze and explain the data from the anthroponomical, semiotic and linguistic perspectives to show that contrary to the view held in some Western circles that names are obscure and may consist of words that can hardly be interpreted or translated, they, as symbols ...

  13. The Translation and the Translator of the Peshitta of Hosea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive examination of the Syriac Peshitta of Hosea (P-Hosea) is the first study of the Peshitta conducted via insights and methods from the discipline of Translation Studies. It uses in particular Andrew Chesterman's Causal Model and Gideon Toury's descriptive approach. Every translator leaves residue of his or her…

  14. The wise translator: reflecting on judgement in translator education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question of how one goes about teaching students to be translators is a central area of concern for translation teachers. As a reflective practitioner, I have a hunch about how to solve my problem. This paper is therefore in itself part of a reflective practicum, part of my reflection-in-action. I am in the process of restructuring ...

  15. Templates for Cross-Cultural and Culturally Specific Usability Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    The cultural diversity of users of technology challenges our methods for usability testing. This article suggests templates for cross-culturally and culturally specific usability testing, based on studies of usability testing in companies in Mumbai, Beijing, and Copenhagen. Study 1 was a cross...... tests. The result was the construction of templates for usability testing. The culturally specific templates were in Mumbai “user-centered evaluation,” Copenhagen “client-centered evaluation,” and Beijing “evaluator-centered evaluation.” The findings are compared with related research...

  16. Improved dielectric functions in metallic films obtained via template stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyuk Park, Jong; Nagpal, Prashant; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Norris, David J.

    2012-02-01

    We compare the dielectric functions of silver interfaces obtained via thermal evaporation with those obtained with template stripping. Ellipsometry measurements show that the smoother template-stripped surfaces exhibit effective dielectric functions with a more negative real component and a smaller imaginary component, implying higher conductivity and less energy loss, respectively. These results agree with the relation between dielectric function and surface roughness derived from combining the effective-medium model and the Drude-Lorentz model. The improvement in the effective dielectric properties shows that metallic films prepared via template stripping can be favorable for applications in electronics, nanophotonics, and plasmonics.

  17. POROUS MEMBRANE TEMPLATED SYNTHESIS OF POLYMER PILLARED LAYER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-wei Niu; Dan Li; Zhen-zhong Yang

    2003-01-01

    The anodic porous alumina membranes with a definite pore diameter and aspect ratio were used as templates to synthesize polymer pillared layer structures. The pillared polymer was produced in the template membrane pores, and the layer on the template surfaces. Rigid cured epoxy resin, polystyrene and soft hydrogel were chosen to confirm the methodology. The pillars were in the form of either tubes or fibers, which were controlled by the alumina membrane pore surface wettability. The structural features were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy results.

  18. Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates for Nano wires Array Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Kok, K.Y.; Ng, I.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the process developed to fabricate anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) templates suitable for the fabrication of nano wire arrays. Anodization process has been used to fabricate the AAO templates with pore diameters ranging from 15 nm to 30 nm. Electrodeposition of parallel arrays of high aspect ratio nickel nano wires were demonstrated using these fabricated AAO templates. The nano wires produced were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the orientations of the electrodeposited nickel nano wires were governed by the deposition current and electrolyte conditions. (author)

  19. Tailoring silver nanoparticle construction using dendrimer templated silica networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaojun; Kakkar, Ashok

    2008-01-01

    We have examined the role of the internal environment of dendrimer templated silica networks in tailoring the construction of silver nanoparticle assemblies. Silica networks from which 3,5-dihydroxybenzyl alcohol based dendrimer templates have been completely removed, slowly wet with an aqueous solution of silver acetate. The latter then reacts with internal silica silanol groups, leading to chemisorption of silver ions, followed by the growth of silver oxide nanoparticles. Silica network constructed using generation 4 dendrimer contains residual dendrimer template, and mixes with aqueous silver acetate solution easily. Upon chemisorption, silver ions get photolytically reduced to silver metal under a stabilizing dendrimer environment, leading to the formation of silver metal nanoparticles

  20. Synthetic opal as a template for nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul A.; Heales, Lindsey; Barber, Richard L.; Turney, Terence W.

    2001-04-01

    Synthetic opal has been used as a template for making 3D inverse opals of silica, titania and silicone rubber. The materials are mesoporous with connected pores and channels and have better opalescence than the opal templates they replace. Thin films of synthetic opal have been grown onto glass substrates by spin coating and these have also been used as templates for making thin films of inverse opal and as masks for depositing metal nanodots. This method produced hexagonally patterned 50 nm gold dots on a flat graphite substrate.

  1. Functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes as template for water storage device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Sanjib; Taraphder, Srabani, E-mail: srabani@chem.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2016-11-10

    Single walled carbon nanotubes, endohedrally functionalized with a protonated/unprotonated carboxylic acid group, are examined as potential templates for water storage using classical molecular dynamics simulation studies. Following a spontaneous entry of water molecules into the core of model functionalized carbon nanotubes (FCNTs), a large fraction of water molecules are found to be trapped inside FCNTs of lengths 50 and 100 Å. Only water molecules near the two open ends of the nanotube are exchanged with the bulk solvent. The residence times of water molecules inside FCNTs are investigated by varying the length of the tube, the length of suspended functional group and the protonation state of the carboxylic acid group. Favorable energetic interactions between the functional group and water, assisted by a substantial gain in rotational entropy, are found to compensate for the entropy loss resulting from restricted translational diffusion of trapped water molecules.

  2. Conformal Symmetry as a Template for QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S

    2004-08-04

    Conformal symmetry is broken in physical QCD; nevertheless, one can use conformal symmetry as a template, systematically correcting for its nonzero {beta} function as well as higher-twist effects. For example, commensurate scale relations which relate QCD observables to each other, such as the generalized Crewther relation, have no renormalization scale or scheme ambiguity and retain a convergent perturbative structure which reflects the underlying conformal symmetry of the classical theory. The ''conformal correspondence principle'' also dictates the form of the expansion basis for hadronic distribution amplitudes. The AdS/CFT correspondence connecting superstring theory to superconformal gauge theory has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for hard exclusive processes as well as determining essential aspects of hadronic light-front wavefunctions. Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that QCD couplings based on physical observables such as {tau} decay become constant at small virtuality; i.e., effective charges develop an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings also suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer. The importance of using an analytic effective charge such as the pinch scheme for unifying the electroweak and strong couplings and forces is also emphasized.

  3. Template-assisted fabrication of protein nanocapsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, Shelley A.; Liang Jianyu; Kowalik, Timothy F.

    2009-01-01

    Bionanomaterials have recently begun to spark a great amount of interest and could potentially revolutionize biomedical research. Nanoparticles, nanocapsules, and nanotubular structures are becoming attractive options in drug and gene delivery. The size of the delivery vehicles greatly impacts cellular uptake and makes it highly desirable to precisely control the diameter and length of nanocarriers to make uniform nanoparticles at low cost. Carbon nanotubes have shown great potential within the field of drug and gene delivery. However, their insolubility and cytotoxicity could severely delay FDA approval. A desirable alternative would be to fabricate nanostructures from biomaterials such as proteins, peptides, or liposomes, which are already FDA approved. In this article we demonstrate the preparation of protein nanocapsules with both ends sealed using a template-assisted alternate immersion method combined with controlled cleaving. Glucose oxidase nanocapsules with controllable diameter, wall thickness, and length were fabricated and characterized with SEM and TEM. The biochemical activity of glucose oxidase in the form of nanocapsules after processing was confirmed using UV spectrometry. Our future work will explore proteins suitable for drug encapsulation and cellular uptake and will focus on optimizing the cleaving process to gain precise control over the length of the nanocapsules.

  4. Template-assisted fabrication of protein nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Shelley A.; Liang, Jianyu; Kowalik, Timothy F.

    2009-02-01

    Bionanomaterials have recently begun to spark a great amount of interest and could potentially revolutionize biomedical research. Nanoparticles, nanocapsules, and nanotubular structures are becoming attractive options in drug and gene delivery. The size of the delivery vehicles greatly impacts cellular uptake and makes it highly desirable to precisely control the diameter and length of nanocarriers to make uniform nanoparticles at low cost. Carbon nanotubes have shown great potential within the field of drug and gene delivery. However, their insolubility and cytotoxicity could severely delay FDA approval. A desirable alternative would be to fabricate nanostructures from biomaterials such as proteins, peptides, or liposomes, which are already FDA approved. In this article we demonstrate the preparation of protein nanocapsules with both ends sealed using a template-assisted alternate immersion method combined with controlled cleaving. Glucose oxidase nanocapsules with controllable diameter, wall thickness, and length were fabricated and characterized with SEM and TEM. The biochemical activity of glucose oxidase in the form of nanocapsules after processing was confirmed using UV spectrometry. Our future work will explore proteins suitable for drug encapsulation and cellular uptake and will focus on optimizing the cleaving process to gain precise control over the length of the nanocapsules.

  5. Cancelable remote quantum fingerprint templates protection scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Qin; Guo Ying; Huang Duan

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of fingerprint identification technology, its security and privacy have been paid much attention. Only the security and privacy of biological information are insured, the biological technology can be better accepted and used by the public. In this paper, we propose a novel quantum bit (qbit)-based scheme to solve the security and privacy problem existing in the traditional fingerprint identification system. By exploiting the properties of quantm mechanics, our proposed scheme, cancelable remote quantum fingerprint templates protection scheme, can achieve the unconditional security guaranteed in an information-theoretical sense. Moreover, this novel quantum scheme can invalidate most of the attacks aimed at the fingerprint identification system. In addition, the proposed scheme is applicable to the requirement of remote communication with no need to worry about its security and privacy during the transmission. This is an absolute advantage when comparing with other traditional methods. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme can effectively ensure the communication security and the privacy of users’ information for the fingerprint identification. (paper)

  6. Conformal Symmetry as a Template for QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S

    2004-01-01

    Conformal symmetry is broken in physical QCD; nevertheless, one can use conformal symmetry as a template, systematically correcting for its nonzero β function as well as higher-twist effects. For example, commensurate scale relations which relate QCD observables to each other, such as the generalized Crewther relation, have no renormalization scale or scheme ambiguity and retain a convergent perturbative structure which reflects the underlying conformal symmetry of the classical theory. The ''conformal correspondence principle'' also dictates the form of the expansion basis for hadronic distribution amplitudes. The AdS/CFT correspondence connecting superstring theory to superconformal gauge theory has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for hard exclusive processes as well as determining essential aspects of hadronic light-front wavefunctions. Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that QCD couplings based on physical observables such as τ decay become constant at small virtuality; i.e., effective charges develop an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings also suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer. The importance of using an analytic effective charge such as the pinch scheme for unifying the electroweak and strong couplings and forces is also emphasized

  7. The Unifying Moral Dyad: Liberals and Conservatives Share the Same Harm-Based Moral Template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Chelsea; Gray, Kurt

    2015-08-01

    Do moral disagreements regarding specific issues (e.g., patriotism, chastity) reflect deep cognitive differences (i.e., distinct cognitive mechanisms) between liberals and conservatives? Dyadic morality suggests that the answer is "no." Despite moral diversity, we reveal that moral cognition--in both liberals and conservatives--is rooted in a harm-based template. A dyadic template suggests that harm should be central within moral cognition, an idea tested--and confirmed--through six specific hypotheses. Studies suggest that moral judgment occurs via dyadic comparison, in which counter-normative acts are compared with a prototype of harm. Dyadic comparison explains why harm is the most accessible and important of moral content, why harm organizes--and overlaps with--diverse moral content, and why harm best translates across moral content. Dyadic morality suggests that various moral content (e.g., loyalty, purity) are varieties of perceived harm and that past research has substantially exaggerated moral differences between liberals and conservatives. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  8. A Study of Translation Institutional Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoXianfeng; ZhouJin

    2017-01-01

    Traditional translation ethics characterized by translators' ethics cannot provide a strong moral support to the translation practice,or guarantee the moral requirement towards translation activities in the social transformation caused by the market economy,because it does not have the power of punishment.Translation institutional ethics,however,a new form of translation ethics,integrates the translation ethic norm,translation regulations and relative laws together.As an inevitable outcome in the new era,it can escort the orderly and healthy translation activities.Its purpose is to strengthen the translators' moral consciousness,to sublimate their moral notions and to transfer from heteronomy to autonomy.

  9. Translation Memory and Computer Assisted Translation Tool for Medieval Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Törcsvári Attila

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation memories (TMs, as part of Computer Assisted Translation (CAT tools, support translators reusing portions of formerly translated text. Fencing books are good candidates for using TMs due to the high number of repeated terms. Medieval texts suffer a number of drawbacks that make hard even “simple” rewording to the modern version of the same language. The analyzed difficulties are: lack of systematic spelling, unusual word orders and typos in the original. A hypothesis is made and verified that even simple modernization increases legibility and it is feasible, also it is worthwhile to apply translation memories due to the numerous and even extremely long repeated terms. Therefore, methods and algorithms are presented 1. for automated transcription of medieval texts (when a limited training set is available, and 2. collection of repeated patterns. The efficiency of the algorithms is analyzed for recall and precision.

  10. The Simpsons: Translation and language teaching in an EFL class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Pavan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available My point of departure for this paper is that translation, so long neglected in foreign language teaching, can not only improve students’ linguistic competences in both a foreign language and their mother tongue, but also their awareness of cultural and intercultural elements. It is a widespread popular assumption, among those not involved in language teaching, that linguistic competences are the key to learning a language and to communicating in a foreign language; consequently, they assume that translation ought to play a major role in the study of a foreign language. Indeed, late 20th century theories of language teaching, apart from the grammar-translation method, have largely ignored or criticized the role of translation. I will focus on a translation course I taught to a class of a year three Italian undergraduate students studying foreign languages, and discuss the advantages of using translation to improve students’ linguistic competences, in their mother tongue and in the foreign language, and to develop their intercultural communicative competences and their cultural (Bassnett, 2002, 2007 and intercultural awareness (Kramsch, 1993, 1998. The translated text was taken from The Simpsons, season 21, episode 16.

  11. Translation and adaptation of functional auditory performance indicators (FAPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ferreira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Work with deaf children has gained new attention since the expectation and goal of therapy has expanded to language development and subsequent language learning. Many clinical tests were developed for evaluation of speech sound perception in young children in response to the need for accurate assessment of hearing skills that developed from the use of individual hearing aids or cochlear implants. These tests also allow the evaluation of the rehabilitation program. However, few of these tests are available in Portuguese. Evaluation with the Functional Auditory Performance Indicators (FAPI generates a child's functional auditory skills profile, which lists auditory skills in an integrated and hierarchical order. It has seven hierarchical categories, including sound awareness, meaningful sound, auditory feedback, sound source localizing, auditory discrimination, short-term auditory memory, and linguistic auditory processing. FAPI evaluation allows the therapist to map the child's hearing profile performance, determine the target for increasing the hearing abilities, and develop an effective therapeutic plan. Objective: Since the FAPI is an American test, the inventory was adapted for application in the Brazilian population. Material and Methods: The translation was done following the steps of translation and back translation, and reproducibility was evaluated. Four translated versions (two originals and two back-translated were compared, and revisions were done to ensure language adaptation and grammatical and idiomatic equivalence. Results: The inventory was duly translated and adapted. Conclusion: Further studies about the application of the translated FAPI are necessary to make the test practicable in Brazilian clinical use.

  12. Preparation of micro/nanostructure TiO2 spheres by controlling pollen as hard template and soft template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohui; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Xuehong; Song, Xiuqin; Chen, Rufen

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, micro/nanostructure TiO2 spheres were synthesized by a sunflower pollen induced and self-assembly mineralization process, in which a titania precursor and pollen reacted in one-pot at normal pressure. In this paper, the bio-template advantage, as hard and soft template is fully demonstrated. The superiority of our synthesis is that we not only can control pollen as hard template, but also can control it as soft template only by changing reactions temperature. Under 80 degrees C of water bath, TiO2 microspheres which replicated the morphology of pollen were prepared by controlling pollen as hard template. Under 100 degrees C, hierarchical TiO2 spheres with complicated morphology, different from pollen template, were synthesized by using pollen as soft template. At the same time, judicious choice of the amount of pollen affords the synthesis of hierarchical structures spheres with adjustable morphology and crystal structure. The morphology can be tuned from microspheres constructed from TiO2 nanorods to nanospheres constructed from TiO2 nanoparticles, and the crystal structure can be tuned from rutile to anatase. More over this anatase phase can be keep better even at high temperature of 1000 degrees C. The as-prepared micro/nano structure photocatalysts not only have high photocatalytic activities, but also have good separability and reuse performance.

  13. The 5'-poly(A leader of poxvirus mRNA confers a translational advantage that can be achieved in cells with impaired cap-dependent translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragyesh Dhungel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The poly(A leader at the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR is an unusually striking feature of all poxvirus mRNAs transcribed after viral DNA replication (post-replicative mRNAs. These poly(A leaders are non-templated and of heterogeneous lengths; and their function during poxvirus infection remains a long-standing question. Here, we discovered that a 5'-poly(A leader conferred a selective translational advantage to mRNA in poxvirus-infected cells. A constitutive and uninterrupted 5'-poly(A leader with 12 residues was optimal. Because the most frequent lengths of the 5'-poly(A leaders are 8-12 residues, the result suggests that the poly(A leader has been evolutionarily optimized to boost poxvirus protein production. A 5'-poly(A leader also could increase protein production in the bacteriophage T7 promoter-based expression system of vaccinia virus, the prototypic member of poxviruses. Interestingly, although vaccinia virus post-replicative mRNAs do have 5'- methylated guanosine caps and can use cap-dependent translation, in vaccinia virus-infected cells, mRNA with a 5'-poly(A leader could also be efficiently translated in cells with impaired cap-dependent translation. However, the translation was not mediated through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES. These results point to a fundamental mechanism poxvirus uses to efficiently translate its post-replicative mRNAs.

  14. Challenge Based Innovation: Translating Fundamental Research into Societal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurikka, Joona; Utriainen, Tuuli; Repokari, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on work done at IdeaSquare, a new innovation experiment at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The paper explores the translation of fundamental research into societal applications with the help of multidisciplinary student teams, project- and problem-based learning and design thinking methods. The theme is…

  15. Analysis of Mongolian Students' Common Translation Errors and Its Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changhua

    2013-01-01

    In Inner Mongolia, those Mongolian students face lots of difficulties in learning English. Especially the English translation ability of Mongolian students is a weak point. It is worth to think a problem that how to let our students use the English freely on a certain foundation. This article investigates the problems of Mongolian English learners…

  16. Reconceptualising translation in agricultural innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, Julie; Dwyer, Janet; Gaskell, Peter; Mills, Jane; Wolf, de Pieter

    2018-01-01

    Scientific research continues to play a significant role in meeting the multiple innovation challenges in agriculture. If this role is to be fulfilled, provision needs to be made for effective translation of research outputs, where translation is understood to be the process whereby science becomes

  17. PATRAN-STAGS translator (PATSTAGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Neil

    1990-01-01

    A a computer program used to translate PATRAN finite element model data into Structural Analysis of General Shells (STAGS) input data is presented. The program supports translation of nodal, nodal constraints, element, force, and pressure data. The subroutine UPRESS required for the readings of live pressure data into STAGS is also presented.

  18. Interdisciplinarity in translation teaching: competence-based education, translation task-based approach, context-based text typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelweiss Vitol Gysel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of competence-based teaching, this paper draws upon the model of Translation Competence (TC put forward by the PACTE group (2003 to establish a dialogue between cognitive-constructivist paradigms for translation teaching and the model of the Context-based Text Typology (MATTHIESSEN et al., 2007. In this theoretical environment, it proposes a model for the design of a Teaching Unit (TU for the development of the bilingual competence in would-be-translators.To this end, it explores translation as a cognitive, communicative and textual activity (HURTADO ALBIR, 2011 and considers its teaching from the translation task-based approach (HURTADO ALBIR, 1999. This approach is illustrated through the practical example of the design of a TU elaborated for the subject ‘Introduction to Specialized Translation’,part of the curricular grid of the program ‘Secretariado Executivo’ at Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Aspects such as the establishment of learning objectives and their alignment with the translation tasks composing the TU are addressed for this specific pedagogical situation. We argue for the development of textual competences by means of the acquisition of strategies derived from the Context-based Text Typology to solve problems arising from the translation of different text types and contextual configurations.

  19. Knowledge Translation in Audiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anita; Bagatto, Marlene P.; Seewald, Richard; Miller, Linda T.; Scollie, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    The impetus for evidence-based practice (EBP) has grown out of widespread concern with the quality, effectiveness (including cost-effectiveness), and efficiency of medical care received by the public. Although initially focused on medicine, EBP principles have been adopted by many of the health care professions and are often represented in practice through the development and use of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Audiology has been working on incorporating EBP principles into its mandate for professional practice since the mid-1990s. Despite widespread efforts to implement EBP and guidelines into audiology practice, gaps still exist between the best evidence based on research and what is being done in clinical practice. A collaborative dynamic and iterative integrated knowledge translation (KT) framework rather than a researcher-driven hierarchical approach to EBP and the development of CPGs has been shown to reduce the knowledge-to-clinical action gaps. This article provides a brief overview of EBP and CPGs, including a discussion of the barriers to implementing CPGs into clinical practice. It then offers a discussion of how an integrated KT process combined with a community of practice (CoP) might facilitate the development and dissemination of evidence for clinical audiology practice. Finally, a project that uses the knowledge-to-action (KTA) framework for the development of outcome measures in pediatric audiology is introduced. PMID:22194314

  20. Finger multibiometric cryptosystems: fusion strategy and template security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jialiang; Li, Qiong; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.; Niu, Xiamu

    2014-03-01

    We address two critical issues in the design of a finger multibiometric system, i.e., fusion strategy and template security. First, three fusion strategies (feature-level, score-level, and decision-level fusions) with the corresponding template protection technique are proposed as the finger multibiometric cryptosystems to protect multiple finger biometric templates of fingerprint, finger vein, finger knuckle print, and finger shape modalities. Second, we theoretically analyze different fusion strategies for finger multibiometric cryptosystems with respect to their impact on security and recognition accuracy. Finally, the performance of finger multibiometric cryptosystems at different fusion levels is investigated on a merged finger multimodal biometric database. The comparative results suggest that the proposed finger multibiometric cryptosystem at feature-level fusion outperforms other approaches in terms of verification performance and template security.

  1. View-Invariant Gait Recognition Through Genetic Template Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Ebenezer R. H. P.; Elias, Susan; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Easwarakumar, K. S.

    2017-08-01

    Template-based model-free approach provides by far the most successful solution to the gait recognition problem in literature. Recent work discusses how isolating the head and leg portion of the template increase the performance of a gait recognition system making it robust against covariates like clothing and carrying conditions. However, most involve a manual definition of the boundaries. The method we propose, the genetic template segmentation (GTS), employs the genetic algorithm to automate the boundary selection process. This method was tested on the GEI, GEnI and AEI templates. GEI seems to exhibit the best result when segmented with our approach. Experimental results depict that our approach significantly outperforms the existing implementations of view-invariant gait recognition.

  2. Creation of structured documentation templates using Natural Language Processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Vipul; Turchin, Alexander; Morin, Laura; Chang, Frank; Li, Qi; Hongsermeier, Tonya

    2006-01-01

    Structured Clinical Documentation is a fundamental component of the healthcare enterprise, linking both clinical (e.g., electronic health record, clinical decision support) and administrative functions (e.g., evaluation and management coding, billing). One of the challenges in creating good quality documentation templates has been the inability to address specialized clinical disciplines and adapt to local clinical practices. A one-size-fits-all approach leads to poor adoption and inefficiencies in the documentation process. On the other hand, the cost associated with manual generation of documentation templates is significant. Consequently there is a need for at least partial automation of the template generation process. We propose an approach and methodology for the creation of structured documentation templates for diabetes using Natural Language Processing (NLP).

  3. Generating XML schemas for DICOM structured reporting templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luyin; Lee, Kwok Pun; Hu, Jingkun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a methodology to transform programmatically structured reporting (SR) templates defined by the Digital Imaging and Communications for Medicine (DICOM) standard into an XML schema representation. Such schemas can be used in the creation and validation of XML-encoded SR documents that use templates. Templates are a means to put additional constraints on an SR document to promote common formats for specific reporting applications or domains. As the use of templates becomes more widespread in the production of SR documents, it is important to ensure validity of such documents. The work described in this paper is an extension of the authors' previous work on XML schema representation for DICOM SR. Therefore, this paper inherits and partially modifies the structure defined in the earlier work.

  4. Template matching techniques in computer vision theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Brunelli, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The detection and recognition of objects in images is a key research topic in the computer vision community.  Within this area, face recognition and interpretation has attracted increasing attention owing to the possibility of unveiling human perception mechanisms, and for the development of practical biometric systems. This book and the accompanying website, focus on template matching, a subset of object recognition techniques of wide applicability, which has proved to be particularly effective for face recognition applications. Using examples from face processing tasks throughout the book to illustrate more general object recognition approaches, Roberto Brunelli: examines the basics of digital image formation, highlighting points critical to the task of template matching;presents basic and  advanced template matching techniques, targeting grey-level images, shapes and point sets;discusses recent pattern classification paradigms from a template matching perspective;illustrates the development of a real fac...

  5. Three-dimensional metallic opals fabricated by double templating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Qingfeng; Nukala, Pavan; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Wong, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We report a simple and cost-effective double templating method for fabricating large-area three-dimensional metallic photonic crystals of controlled thickness. A self-assembled polystyrene opal was used as the first template to fabricate a silica inverse opal on a gold-coated glass substrate via sol-gel processing. Gold was subsequently infiltrated to the pores of the silica inverse opal using electrochemical deposition. A high-quality three-dimensional gold photonic crystal was obtained after removal of the secondary template (silica inverse opal). The effects of template sphere size and deposition current density on the gold growth rate, and the resulting morphology and growth mechanism of the gold opal, were investigated.

  6. GPP Webinar: Solar Procurement Templates and Tools for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar on solar procurement for Higher Education which features various tools and templates that schools can use to shape and manage the solar procurement process to a successful outcome.

  7. Surfactant-assisted sacrificial template-mediated synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopyand photoluminescence studies. Influence of surfactant and solvents on morphology and luminescence of the final product in sacrificial template-assisted method has been investigated in detail.

  8. Excel Template For Processing Examination Results For Higher

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria. ... examination result processing template for all the Postgraduate ... Though the last two parameters of the IF function are optional,.

  9. Fumigant Management Plan Templates - Phase 2 Files Listed by Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    FMP templates are in PDF and Word formats for each type of soil fumigant pesticide, with samples of filled out plans. Types are by active ingredient chemical: Chloropicrin, dazomet, dimethyl disulfide, metam sodium/potassium, and methyl bromide.

  10. A Survey On Various Web Template Detection And Extraction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu Mary Varghese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In todays digital world reliance on the World Wide Web as a source of information is extensive. Users increasingly rely on web based search engines to provide accurate search results on a wide range of topics that interest them. The search engines in turn parse the vast repository of web pages searching for relevant information. However majority of web portals are designed using web templates which are designed to provide consistent look and feel to end users. The presence of these templates however can influence search results leading to inaccurate results being delivered to the users. Therefore to improve the accuracy and reliability of search results identification and removal of web templates from the actual content is essential. A wide range of approaches are commonly employed to achieve this and this paper focuses on the study of the various approaches of template detection and extraction that can be applied across homogenous as well as heterogeneous web pages.

  11. Laparotomy operative note template constructed through a modified Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lolonya; Churley-Strom, Ruth; Singal, Bonita; O'Leary, Sharon

    2009-05-01

    An operative note is indispensable to physician documentation and decision-making; however, there are no accepted standards for operative note content. Our aim was to use a modified Delphi consensus-building method to construct a uniform operative note template for laparotomy. Using Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations requirements, literature review, and feedback from 15 medical malpractice defense attorneys, we compiled a draft operative note template of 31 elements. We surveyed 37 Association of Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics/Solvay scholars asking for their input on inclusion of each item as essential content of the operative note. Two iterations of the survey were required to reach a predetermined 75% level of consensus. Nine elements were eliminated from the template: 6 original and 3 expert-suggested elements. We provide an operative note template that was compiled through a Delphi process.

  12. Synthesis of Porous Carbon Monoliths Using Hard Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepel, Olaf; Danneberg, Nina; Dräger, Matti; Erlitz, Marcel; Taubert, Michael

    2016-03-21

    The preparation of porous carbon monoliths with a defined shape via template-assisted routes is reported. Monoliths made from porous concrete and zeolite were each used as the template. The porous concrete-derived carbon monoliths exhibited high gravimetric specific surface areas up to 2000 m²·g -1 . The pore system comprised macro-, meso-, and micropores. These pores were hierarchically arranged. The pore system was created by the complex interplay of the actions of both the template and the activating agent as well. On the other hand, zeolite-made template shapes allowed for the preparation of microporous carbon monoliths with a high volumetric specific surface area. This feature could be beneficial if carbon monoliths must be integrated into technical systems under space-limited conditions.

  13. Classical and Nonclassical Estrogen Receptor Action on Chromatin Templates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nordeen, Steven

    2000-01-01

    .... Using newly-developed approaches, I investigated mechanisms of estrogen/estrogen receptor action on chromatin templates in vitro in order to better understand the role of chromatin in steroid-regulated gene expression...

  14. Improving your target-template alignment with MODalign.

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Alessandro

    2012-02-04

    SUMMARY: MODalign is an interactive web-based tool aimed at helping protein structure modelers to inspect and manually modify the alignment between the sequences of a target protein and of its template(s). It interactively computes, displays and, upon modification of the target-template alignment, updates the multiple sequence alignments of the two protein families, their conservation score, secondary structure and solvent accessibility values, and local quality scores of the implied three-dimensional model(s). Although it has been designed to simplify the target-template alignment step in modeling, it is suitable for all cases where a sequence alignment needs to be inspected in the context of other biological information. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: Freely available on the web at http://modorama.biocomputing.it/modalign. Website implemented in HTML and JavaScript with all major browsers supported. CONTACT: jan.kosinski@uniroma1.it.

  15. Improving your target-template alignment with MODalign.

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Alessandro; Benkert, Pascal; Schwede, Torsten; Tramontano, Anna; Kosinski, Jan

    2012-01-01

    , upon modification of the target-template alignment, updates the multiple sequence alignments of the two protein families, their conservation score, secondary structure and solvent accessibility values, and local quality scores of the implied three

  16. Ordered Nanomaterials Thin Films via Supported Anodized Alumina Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed eES-SOUNI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Supported anodized alumina template films with highly ordered porosity are best suited for fabricating large area ordered nanostructures with tunable dimensions and aspect ratios. In this paper we first discuss important issues for the generation of such templates, including required properties of the Al/Ti/Au/Ti thin film heterostructure on a substrate for high quality templates. We then show examples of anisotropic nanostructure films consisting of noble metals using these templates, discuss briefly their optical properties and their applications to molecular detection using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Finally we briefly address the possibility to make nanocomposite films, exemplary shown on a plasmonic-thermochromic nanocomposite of VO2-capped Au-nanorods.

  17. Involute Spur Gear Template Development by Parametric Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    cylindrical coordinate systems to create the involute curve profile. Since spur gear ... Template gear development using parametric method means that the dimensions control the ... and rapid prototyping of interlocking gears. Excel is a common ...

  18. A concatenated coding scheme for biometric template protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, X.; Xu, H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2012-01-01

    Cryptography may mitigate the privacy problem in biometric recognition systems. However, cryptography technologies lack error-tolerance and biometric samples cannot be reproduced exactly, rising the robustness problem. The biometric template protection system needs a good feature extraction

  19. Facile template-free hydrothermal synthesis and microstrain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    2009), solar cells (Yuan et al 2011), transparent elec- trodes (Kim et al ... increasing the peak width, intensity and shifting the 2θ peak position. ... Facile template-free hydrothermal synthesis and microstrain measurement of ZnO nanorods. 399.

  20. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Indra

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians" can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  1. Translational plant proteomics: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Pedreschi, Romina; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Bindschedler, Laurence Veronique; Cramer, Rainer; Sarkar, Abhijit; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Rakwal, Randeep

    2012-08-03

    Translational proteomics is an emerging sub-discipline of the proteomics field in the biological sciences. Translational plant proteomics aims to integrate knowledge from basic sciences to translate it into field applications to solve issues related but not limited to the recreational and economic values of plants, food security and safety, and energy sustainability. In this review, we highlight the substantial progress reached in plant proteomics during the past decade which has paved the way for translational plant proteomics. Increasing proteomics knowledge in plants is not limited to model and non-model plants, proteogenomics, crop improvement, and food analysis, safety, and nutrition but to many more potential applications. Given the wealth of information generated and to some extent applied, there is the need for more efficient and broader channels to freely disseminate the information to the scientific community. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Proteomics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The need of appropriate brain SPECT templates for SPM comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morbelli, S.; Altrinetti, V.; Piccardo, A.; Rodriguez, G.; Brugnolo, A.; Nobili, F.; Mignone, A.; Pupi, A.; Koulibaly, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is used worldwide to compare brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. The default template within the SPM package used for SPECT image normalization includes images of a group of healthy subjects studied with 99m TcHMPAO. Since [ 99m Tc] HMPAO and [ 99m Tc] ECD have shown to distribute differently in SPECT studies, we formulated the hypothesis that comparing set of [ 99m Tc]ECD data normalized by means of a [ 99m Tc]HMPAO template may lead to incorrect results. A customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template was built with SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of 22 neurologically healthy women. Then, two sets of subjects, i.e. a group of patients with very early Alzheimer's disease (eAD) and a matched control group, studied by means of [ 99m Tc]ECD SPECT, were chosen for comparisons. The same statistical approach (t-test between eAD patients and controls and correlation analysis between brain SPECT and a cognitive score) was applied twice, i.e. after normalization with either the default [ 99m Tc]HMPAO template or the customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template. In the comparison between eAD and controls, a cluster of difference in the posterior-cingulate gyrus of both hemispheres was only highlighted when using the customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template, but was missed when using the default [ 99m Tc]HMPAO template. In the correlation between brain perfusion and a cognitive score, the significant cluster was more significant and far more extended, also including the right superior temporal gyrus, using the customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template than using the default [ 99m Tc]HMPAO template. These data suggest the need of customized, radiopharmaceutical-matched SPECT templates to be used within the SPM package. The present customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template is now freely available on the web. (authors)

  3. Efficiency of template banks for binary black-hole detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cokelaer, Thomas; Babak, Stas; Sathyaprakash, B S

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of matched filtering theory, which is the most promising method for the detection of gravitational waves emitted by coalescing binaries, we report on the ability of a template bank to catch a simulated binary black-hole gravitational wave signal. If we suppose that the incoming signal waveform is known a priori, then both the (simulated) signal and the templates can be based on the same physical model and therefore the template bank can be optimal in the sense of Wiener filtering. This turns out to be true for the case of neutron star binaries but not necessarily for the black-hole case. When the templates and the signal are based on different physical models the detection bank may still remain efficient. Nonetheless, it might be a judicious choice to use a phenomenological template family such as the so-called BCV templates to catch all the different physical models. In the first part of that report, we illustrate in a non-exhaustive study, by using Monte Carlo simulations, the efficiency of a template bank based on the stationary phase approximation and show how it catches simulated signals based on the same physical model but fails to catch signals built using other models (Pade, EOB, ...) especially in the case of high mass binaries. In the second part, we construct a BCV-template bank and test its validity by injecting simulated signals based on different physical models such as the PN-approximants, Pade-approximant and the effective one-body method. We show that it is suitable for a search pipeline since it gives a match higher than 95% for all the different physical models. The range of individual mass which has been used is [3-20]M o-dot

  4. The Utility of Template Analysis in Qualitative Psychology Research

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Joanna; McCluskey, Serena; Turley, Emma L.; King, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Thematic analysis is widely used in qualitative psychology research, and in this article, we present a particular style of thematic analysis known as Template Analysis. We outline the technique and consider its epistemological position, then describe three case studies of research projects which employed Template Analysis to illustrate the diverse ways it can be used. Our first case study illustrates how the technique was employed in data analysis undertaken by a team of researchers in a larg...

  5. Review of Research on Template Methods in Preparation of Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Yadian Xie; Duygu Kocaefe; Chunying Chen; Yasar Kocaefe

    2016-01-01

    The nanomaterials have been widely used in various fields, such as photonics, catalysis, and adsorption, because of their unique physical and chemical properties. Therefore, their production methods are of utmost importance. Compared with traditional synthetic methods, the template method can effectively control the morphology, particle size, and structure during the preparation of nanomaterials, which is an effective method for their synthesis. The key for the template method is to choose di...

  6. Computer-aided modeling framework – a generic modeling template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    and test models systematically, efficiently and reliably. In this way, development of products and processes can be made faster, cheaper and more efficient. In this contribution, as part of the framework, a generic modeling template for the systematic derivation of problem specific models is presented....... The application of the modeling template is highlighted with a case study related to the modeling of a catalytic membrane reactor coupling dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with hydrogenation of nitrobenzene...

  7. Fabrication of porous zirconia using filter paper template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yuhua; Wei Pan

    2005-01-01

    In this work, porous zirconia ceramic was synthesized using filter papers as a template. Special attention is paid to whether the structural of the filter paper can be transferred to the zirconia structure. Microstructure of so synthesized porous zirconia was observed with SEM and the phase was determined by XRD. The surface area and the pore were investigated with an automatic volumetric sorption analyzer. It has been found that the morphology of the template transmit to the porous zirconia quite well. (orig.)

  8. A TEMPLATE FOR ONLINE HOMEWORK: FRANKENSTEIN'S MONSTER OR ROBO TA?

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlgran, Roger A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the programming procedures required to implement online homework and evaluates the application of these procedures based on use in the author's course. The description of the procedures utilizes a template showing two representative applications from the author's introductory econometrics course. In one, the students are to collect and record data and in the other, students are to perform econometric analysis on the data. The web address for the template is arec.arizona.e...

  9. Diffeomorphic Iterative Centroid Methods for Template Estimation on Large Datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Cury , Claire; Glaunès , Joan Alexis; Colliot , Olivier

    2014-01-01

    International audience; A common approach for analysis of anatomical variability relies on the stimation of a template representative of the population. The Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping is an attractive framework for that purpose. However, template estimation using LDDMM is computationally expensive, which is a limitation for the study of large datasets. This paper presents an iterative method which quickly provides a centroid of the population in the shape space. This centr...

  10. II - Template Metaprogramming for Massively Parallel Scientific Computing - Vectorization with Expression Templates

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Large scale scientific computing raises questions on different levels ranging from the fomulation of the problems to the choice of the best algorithms and their implementation for a specific platform. There are similarities in these different topics that can be exploited by modern-style C++ template metaprogramming techniques to produce readable, maintainable and generic code. Traditional low-level code tend to be fast but platform-dependent, and it obfuscates the meaning of the algorithm. On the other hand, object-oriented approach is nice to read, but may come with an inherent performance penalty. These lectures aim to present he basics of the Expression Template (ET) idiom which allows us to keep the object-oriented approach without sacrificing performance. We will in particular show to to enhance ET to include SIMD vectorization. We will then introduce techniques for abstracting iteration, and introduce thread-level parallelism for use in heavy data-centric loads. We will show to to apply these methods i...

  11. III - Template Metaprogramming for massively parallel scientific computing - Templates for Iteration; Thread-level Parallelism

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Large scale scientific computing raises questions on different levels ranging from the fomulation of the problems to the choice of the best algorithms and their implementation for a specific platform. There are similarities in these different topics that can be exploited by modern-style C++ template metaprogramming techniques to produce readable, maintainable and generic code. Traditional low-level code tend to be fast but platform-dependent, and it obfuscates the meaning of the algorithm. On the other hand, object-oriented approach is nice to read, but may come with an inherent performance penalty. These lectures aim to present he basics of the Expression Template (ET) idiom which allows us to keep the object-oriented approach without sacrificing performance. We will in particular show to to enhance ET to include SIMD vectorization. We will then introduce techniques for abstracting iteration, and introduce thread-level parallelism for use in heavy data-centric loads. We will show to to apply these methods i...

  12. The Affordance Template ROS Package for Robot Task Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template ROS package for quickly programming, adjusting, and executing robot applications in the ROS RViz environment. This package extends the capabilities of RViz interactive markers by allowing an operator to specify multiple end-effector waypoint locations and grasp poses in object-centric coordinate frames and to adjust these waypoints in order to meet the run-time demands of the task (specifically, object scale and location). The Affordance Template package stores task specifications in a robot-agnostic XML description format such that it is trivial to apply a template to a new robot. As such, the Affordance Template package provides a robot-generic ROS tool appropriate for building semi-autonomous, manipulation-based applications. Affordance Templates were developed by the NASA-JSC DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) team and have since successfully been deployed on multiple platforms including the NASA Valkyrie and Robonaut 2 humanoids, the University of Texas Dreamer robot and the Willow Garage PR2. In this paper, the specification and implementation of the affordance template package is introduced and demonstrated through examples for wheel (valve) turning, pick-and-place, and drill grasping, evincing its utility and flexibility for a wide variety of robot applications.

  13. Formation of novel morphologies of aragonite induced by inorganic template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Nan, Zhaodong

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Glass-slices were used as a template to induce formation and assembly of aragonite. Different morphologies, such as hemisphere, twinborn hemisphere and flower-shaped particles, were produced by direction of the glass-slices. Highlights: → Glass-slices were used as a template to induce formation and assembly of aragonite. → Hemisphere, twinborn hemisphere and flower-shaped particles were produced by direction of the glass-slices. → Planes were always appeared in these as-synthesized samples. → Thermodynamic theory was applied to explain the production of the aragonite. -- Abstract: A glass-slice was used as a template to induce formation and assembly of aragonite. Thermodynamic theory was applied to explain the production of the aragonite. Transformation of three-dimensional nucleation to template-based two-dimensional surface nucleation caused the production of aragonite. Hemisphere, twinborn hemisphere and flower-shaped particles were produced by direction of the glass-slices. Planes were always appeared in these as-synthesized samples because the nucleation and the growth of these samples were adsorbed at the surfaces of the glass-slices. The formation mechanism of the as-formed sample was proposed. Compared with organic template, the present study provides a facile method to apply inorganic template to prepare functional materials.

  14. Silver nanowires-templated metal oxide for broadband Schottky photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kim, Hong-Sik; Kim, Joondong, E-mail: joonkim@inu.ac.kr [Photoelectric and Energy Device Application Lab (PEDAL) and Department of Electrical Engineering, Incheon National University, 119 Academy Rd. Yeonsu, Incheon 406772 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyeong-Ho [Applied Device and Material Lab., Device Technology Division, Korea Advanced Nano Fab Center (KANC), Suwon 443270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-04

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs)-templated transparent metal oxide layer was applied for Si Schottky junction device, which remarked the record fastest photoresponse of 3.4 μs. Self-operating AgNWs-templated Schottky photodetector showed broad wavelength photodetection with high responsivity (42.4 A W{sup −1}) and detectivity (2.75 × 10{sup 15} Jones). AgNWs-templated indium-tin-oxide (ITO) showed band-to-band excitation due to the internal photoemission, resulting in significant carrier collection performances. Functional metal oxide layer was formed by AgNWs-templated from ITO structure. The grown ITO above AgNWs has a cylindrical shape and acts as a thermal protector of AgNWs for high temperature environment without any deformation. We developed thermal stable AgNWs-templated transparent oxide devices and demonstrated the working mechanism of AgNWs-templated Schottky devices. We may propose the high potential of hybrid transparent layer design for various photoelectric applications, including solar cells.

  15. A Novel Surgical Template Design in Staged Dental Implant Rehabilitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Patras

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The philosophy of a gradual transition to an implant retained prosthesis in cases of full-mouth or extensive rehabilitation usually involves a staged treatment concept. In this therapeutic approach, the placement of implants may sometimes be divided into phases. During a subsequent surgical phase of treatment, the pre-existing implants can serve as anchors for the surgical template. Those modified surgical templates help in the precise transferring of restorative information into the surgical field and guide the optimal three-dimensional implant positioning. Methods: This article highlights the rationale of implant-retained surgical templates and illustrates them through the presentation of two clinical cases. The templates are duplicates of the provisional restorations and are secured to the existing implants through the utilization of implant mounts. Results: This template design in such staged procedures provided stability in the surgical field and enhanced the accuracy in implant positioning based upon the planned restoration, thus ensuring predictable treatment outcomes.Conclusions: Successful rehabilitation lies in the correct sequence of surgical and prosthetic procedures. Whenever a staged approach of implant placement is planned, the clinician can effectively use the initially placed implants as anchors for the surgical template during the second phase of implant surgery.

  16. Chesterman’s Syntactic Strategies in Translating English Passive Voice Construction into Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabab Ahmad Mizher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contrastive analysis studies occupy a vital role in the course of translation studies. Similarities and differences between systems of languages facilitate the process of learning a foreign/second language along with translating from one language into another. Thus, this study seeks to shed light on strategies employed by EFL learners in translating English passive voice construction into Arabic. More specifically, it investigated these strategies against the syntactic strategies that are proposed by Andrew Chesterman in his book Memes of Translation. Participants from six Jordanian universities (Public and Private who were studying general translation courses were administered to a translation test of five English sentences that contain both agentive and agentless passive constructions in which participants were asked to translate them into Arabic. The results reveal that participants use the following strategies when translating agentive passive sentences: maintaining passive, topicalization, periphrastic structure and activization. However, when translating agentless passive sentences, participants use the following strategies: maintaining passive, periphrastic structure, lexicalization and activization. These strategies correspond to Chesterman’s syntactic strategies: literal translation strategy, transposition, clause structure change and sentence structure change.  Keywords: Chesterman, Memes of Translation, English-Arabic Translation Strategies, Syntactic Strategies, Passive Voice, Contrastive Analysis (CA

  17. TRANSLATING BLACKNESS: A CHALLENGE TO TRANSLATION STUDIES IN CONTEMPORANEITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Andrade Salgueiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents aspects of a work in progress about both African-American and Afro-Brazilian Literatures as well as Translation Studies. As it makes observations about how blackness has been translated in different contexts and geographical spaces, it calls the reader’s attention to power relations, processes of colonial and post-colonial identity construction, the rising of literary canons, cultural hegemony and globalization, demystifying spaces and showing translation as an activity that does not take place in a neutral space, but, for sure, inside social and political concrete situations.

  18. National Identity, International Visitors: Narration and Translation of the Taipei 228 Memorial Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Li Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although many museums nowadays provide multilingual services, translations in museums have not received enough attention from researchers. The issue of how ideology is embedded in museum texts is translated is particularly underresearched. Since museums are often important sites for tourists to learn about a nation, translation plays a pivotal role in mediating how international visitors construct the host nation’s identity. The translation of national identity is even more important when sensitive topics are dealt with, such as exhibitions of the past in memorial museums. This paper takes the Taipei 228 Memorial Museum as a case study to examine how Taiwanese identity is formatted in the Chinese text and reframed in the English translation. The current study found inconsistent historical perspectives embedded in both texts, particularly in the English translation. We argue that, without awareness of ideological assumptions embedded in translations, museums run the risk of sending unintended messages to international visitors.

  19. Knowledge translation of research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimshaw Jeremy M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health. We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting, and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge

  20. Knowledge translation of research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Eccles, Martin P; Lavis, John N; Hill, Sophie J; Squires, Janet E

    2012-05-31

    One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the

  1. Translation Practices as an Effective Teaching Instrument for IELTS & DALF Students in India: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    The article outlines the results of using translation as a tool to help students learn English and French in the multicultural environment of Chandigarh, India. An anonymous group of eight students was observed from 2013 until 2015 to reveal the main concepts of the use of translation in helping Indian students to strengthen their language…

  2. Open set recognition of aircraft in aerial imagery using synthetic template models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapst, Aleksander B.; Tran, Jonathan; Koch, Mark W.; Moya, Mary M.; Swahn, Robert

    2017-05-01

    Fast, accurate and robust automatic target recognition (ATR) in optical aerial imagery can provide game-changing advantages to military commanders and personnel. ATR algorithms must reject non-targets with a high degree of confidence in a world with an infinite number of possible input images. Furthermore, they must learn to recognize new targets without requiring massive data collections. Whereas most machine learning algorithms classify data in a closed set manner by mapping inputs to a fixed set of training classes, open set recognizers incorporate constraints that allow for inputs to be labelled as unknown. We have adapted two template-based open set recognizers to use computer generated synthetic images of military aircraft as training data, to provide a baseline for military-grade ATR: (1) a frequentist approach based on probabilistic fusion of extracted image features, and (2) an open set extension to the one-class support vector machine (SVM). These algorithms both use histograms of oriented gradients (HOG) as features as well as artificial augmentation of both real and synthetic image chips to take advantage of minimal training data. Our results show that open set recognizers trained with synthetic data and tested with real data can successfully discriminate real target inputs from non-targets. However, there is still a requirement for some knowledge of the real target in order to calibrate the relationship between synthetic template and target score distributions. We conclude by proposing algorithm modifications that may improve the ability of synthetic data to represent real data.

  3. Speed-up Template Matching through Integral Image based Weak Classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, t.; Toet, A.

    2014-01-01

    Template matching is a widely used pattern recognition method, especially in industrial inspection. However, the computational costs of traditional template matching increase dramatically with both template-and scene imagesize. This makes traditional template matching less useful for many (e.g.

  4. The "Pedagogue as Translator" in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Translation theory has faced criticism from professional translators for adopting an ivory tower stance to the "real world" challenges of translation. This article argues that a case can be made for considering the challenges of translation as it takes place in the school classroom. In support of such an argument the pedagogue as translator is…

  5. A Protocol of Japanese-English Translation

    OpenAIRE

    三浦, 勲夫; MIURA, Isao

    1999-01-01

    Every year I translate Japanes enewspaper articles into English and publish them in book form containing 12 or more translations. In translating there are regular procedures I go through:1)initial translation done by me and 2) corrected translation done through discussion between a native English speaker and me.

  6. Translating Romans: some persistent headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. du Toit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Translating Romans: some persistent headaches Gone are the days when it was axiomatic that expertise in biblical languages automatically qualified one as a Bible translator. In 1949, Ronald Knox, who for nine years conscientiously struggled with translating the Bible for his generation, published a booklet under the title The trials of a translator. At that stage Bible translation as the subject of scientific study was still in its infancy. Since then, research into the intricacies of communicating the biblical message in an authentic but understandable manner, has made significant progress (cf. Roberts, 2009. However, the frustrations of Bible translators, first of all to really understand what the biblical authors wanted to convey to their original addressees, and then to commu-nicate that message to their own targeted readers in a meaningful way, have not disappeared. In fact, the challenge to meet the vary-ing requirements of the multiple kinds of translation that are present-ly in vogue, has only increased.

  7. Harold Pinter in Slovene Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Hribar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the translation of Harold Pinter’s most notable stylistic peculiarities into Slovene, illustrating its main points with examples taken from his play The Homecoming. The findings demonstrate above all a marked degree of non-observance of the special verbal pattern (special cohesion of the originals, a failure to convey Pinter’s special configuration of meaning (special coherence, and a disregard for internal unifying coincidences. It argues that the Slovene translations of Pinter rely mostly on traditional theories of meaning and of language norms, thus preventing the reproduction of those emotional and psychological actions of Pinter’s characters which are usually not expressed by means of the rhetorical, informative elements of his dialogue, but by its form and sonority, i. e. the length, strength, and level of articulation of verbal expression. This blurs Pinter’s famous logic of emotion, narrows the proverbial openness and conceptual uncertainty of his plays, and limits their potential vitality in translation. Taking into account current drama and theatre translation practices in Slovenia, i.e. the rarity of published drama translation and the dependence on a translated performance text for subsequent theatrical productions, the article argues that in such cases the drama translation should be retrospective, i.e. aiming at a maximum reconstruction of all relevant linguistic, stylistic, and textual properties of the original, leaving expressly subjective interventions in the text to the theatre practitioners.

  8. Strategies for Translating Vocative Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga COJOCARU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the linguistic and cultural elements of vocative texts and the techniques used in translating them by giving some examples of texts that are typically vocative (i.e. advertisements and instructions for use. Semantic and communicative strategies are popular in translation studies and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages in translating vocative texts. The advantage of semantic translation is that it takes more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, while communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original text in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. Focus is laid on the strategies used in translating vocative texts, strategies that highlight and introduce a cultural context to the target audience, in order to achieve their overall purpose, that is to sell or persuade the reader to behave in a certain way. Thus, in order to do that, a number of advertisements from the field of cosmetics industry and electronic gadgets were selected for analysis. The aim is to gather insights into vocative text translation and to create new perspectives on this field of research, now considered a process of innovation and diversion, especially in areas as important as economy and marketing.

  9. Translating the covenant: The behavior analyst as ambassador and translator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx, R M

    1996-01-01

    Behavior analysts should be sensitive to how others react to and interpret our language because it is inextricably related to our image. Our use of conceptual revision, with such terms as punishment, has created communicative confusion and hostility on the part of general and professional audiences we have attempted to influence. We must, therefore, adopt the role of ambassador and translator in the nonbehavioral world. A number of recommendations are offered for promoting, translating, and disseminating behavior analysis.

  10. Dirty pretty language: translation and the borders of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida Payson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the politics of English, and translation into Englishness, in the film Dirty Pretty Things (Frears. With a celebrated multilingual cast, some of whom did not speak much English, the film nevertheless unfolds in English as it follows migrant characters living illegally and on the margins in London. We take up the filmic representation of migrants in the “compromised, impure and internally divided” border spaces of Britain (Gibson 694 as one of translation into the imagined nation (Anderson. Dirty Pretty Things might seem in its style to be a kind of multicultural “foreignized translation” which reflects a heteropoetics of difference (Venuti; instead, we argue that Dirty Pretty Things, through its performance of the labour of learning and speaking English, strong accents, and cultural allusions, is a kind of domesticated translation (Venuti that homogenises cultural difference into a literary, mythological English and Englishness. Prompted by new moral panics over immigration and recent UK policies that heap further requirements on migrants to speak English in order to belong to “One Nation Britain” (Cameron, we argue that the film offers insights into how the politics of British national belonging continue to be defined by conformity to a type of deserving subject, one who labours to learn English and to translate herself into narrow, recognizably English cultural forms. By attending to the subtleties of language in the film, we trace the pressure on migrants to translate themselves into the linguistic and mythological moulds of their new host society.

  11. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCREEN TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ayu Isnu Maharani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Screen translations involve oral translation known as dubbing and revoicing. Re-voicing consists of lip-sync dubbing, free commentary, narration and voice over. The written version is called subtitle. Dubbing and subtitling are two preferred mode used in the screen translation even though various numbers of current options are available nowadays. Dubbing commenced to be used in larger countries in Europe meanwhile smaller countries apply subtitling because it is more economical than dubbing. In Indonesia, the use of dubbing as well as subtitle are found.

  12. Translation and spaces of reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Scott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses relations between the original and translation in terms of imaginary spaces. Target text is understood here as one of the possible images of the source text, from the perspective which could not be accessible to the original. In accordance with the concept presented here, artistic translation can be not so much reconstructed, as conceptually constructed, in the manner of a cubist object. Acts of creative reading are commented on by the author with examples of his own experimental translations from contemporary French poetry.

  13. Eye-movements During Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    texts as well as both eye-tracking and keylogging data. Based on this database, I present a large-scale analysis of gaze on the source text based on 91 translators' translations of six different texts from English into four different target languages. I use mixed-effects modelling to compare from......, and variables indexing the alignment between the source and target texts. The results are related to current models of translation processes and reading and compared to a parallel analysis of production time....

  14. Design Application Translates 2-D Graphics to 3-D Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Fabric Images Inc., specializing in the printing and manufacturing of fabric tension architecture for the retail, museum, and exhibit/tradeshow communities, designed software to translate 2-D graphics for 3-D surfaces prior to print production. Fabric Images' fabric-flattening design process models a 3-D surface based on computer-aided design (CAD) specifications. The surface geometry of the model is used to form a 2-D template, similar to a flattening process developed by NASA's Glenn Research Center. This template or pattern is then applied in the development of a 2-D graphic layout. Benefits of this process include 11.5 percent time savings per project, less material wasted, and the ability to improve upon graphic techniques and offer new design services. Partners include Exhibitgroup/Giltspur (end-user client: TAC Air, a division of Truman Arnold Companies Inc.), Jack Morton Worldwide (end-user client: Nickelodeon), as well as 3D Exhibits Inc., and MG Design Associates Corp.

  15. The Translator's Turn: in the Cultural Turn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玮玮

    2003-01-01

    @@ Introduction: Douglas Robinson rose to the defense of the " atheoretical" American literary translator in The Translator's Turn (1991). Here, I borrowed the title from him, but I will write my paper in the thought of the translator's role in translating. In his book, Robinson argued that the literary translator embodies an integration of feeling and thought, of intuition and systematization. In analyzing the " turn" that the translator take from the source text to the target text, Robinson offered a " dialogical" model, that is the translator's dialogical engagement with the source language and with the ethic of the target language. Robinson allows for the translator to intervene, subvert, divert, even entertain, emphasizing the creative aspect of literary translation. The translation linguists, scientists, and philosophers have had their chance at translation theory; now it is time, he argued, for the literary translators to have their " turn".

  16. Approaches to translational plant science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Christensen, Brian; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    is lessened. In our opinion, implementation of translational plant science is a necessity in order to solve the agricultural challenges of producing food and materials in the future. We suggest an approach to translational plant science forcing scientists to think beyond their own area and to consider higher......Translational science deals with the dilemma between basic research and the practical application of scientific results. In translational plant science, focus is on the relationship between agricultural crop production and basic science in various research fields, but primarily in the basic plant...... science. Scientific and technological developments have allowed great progress in our understanding of plant genetics and molecular physiology, with potentials for improving agricultural production. However, this development has led to a separation of the laboratory-based research from the crop production...

  17. Translating English Idioms and Collocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochayah Machali

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Learners of English should be made aware of the nature, types, and use of English idioms. This paper disensses the nature of idioms and collocations and translation issues related to them

  18. Coordinator, Translation Services | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Coordinator, Translation Services coordinates the overall operations of the ... services in IDRC by acting as the main resource person for internal clients ... all operational issues in order to ensure good quality products delivered on time.

  19. Predicting Post-Editor Profiles from the Translation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Karan; Orrego-Carmona, David; Gonzales, Ashleigh Rhea

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation is to predict post-editor profiles based on user behaviour and demographics using machine learning techniques to gain a better understanding of post-editor styles. Our study extracts process unit features from the CasMaCat LS14 database from the CRITT...... of translation process features. The classification and clustering of participants resulting from our study suggest this type of exploration could be used as a tool to develop new translation tool features or customization possibilities....

  20. Controlling macro- and mesostructures with hierarchical porosity through combined hard and soft templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovich, Nicholas D; Stein, Andreas

    2013-05-07

    Rigid, porous objects and surfactants serve as powerful templates for the formation of mesoporous and macroporous materials. When both types of template are combined in a single synthesis, materials with intricate architectures and hierarchical porosity can be obtained. In this tutorial review, we explain how to conduct syntheses with both soft and hard templates; moreover, we describe methods to control the final structure present in the templated material. Much of the foundation for multiple templating lies in the study of materials made with only one type of template. To establish a foundation in this area, a description of hard and soft templating is given, delving into the templates available and the steps required for effective templating. This leads into an extended discussion about materials templated with both hard and soft templates. Through the use of recent examples in the literature, we aim to show the diversity of structures possible through multiple templating and the advantages these structures can provide for a wide range of applications. An emphasis is placed on how various factors-such as the type of template, type of precursor, heat-treatment temperature, confinement within a small space, and template-template interactions-impact morphology.