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Sample records for learning theory suggests

  1. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  2. Didactic Experiments Suggest Enhanced Learning Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    and presenting material in the language studied, just as they were encouraged to systematically use evaluation processes to enhance learning outcomes. Eventually, increased grade point averages suggested that the experiment was successful. The article also mentions subsequent revisions to the original format...

  3. The sign learning theory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KING OF DAWN

    The sign learning theory also holds secrets that could be exploited in accomplishing motor tasks. ... Introduction ... In his classic work: Cognitive Map in Rats and Men (1948),Tolman talked about five groups of experiments viz: latent learning ...

  4. Theory-of-Mind Development Influences Suggestibility and Source Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher; Wright, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    According to the mental-state reasoning model of suggestibility, 2 components of theory of mind mediate reductions in suggestibility across the preschool years. The authors examined whether theory-of-mind performance may be legitimately separated into 2 components and explored the memory processes underlying the associations between theory of mind…

  5. Suggestibility under Pressure: Theory of Mind, Executive Function, and Suggestibility in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Aryn C.; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2009-01-01

    Eighty preschoolers, ages 3 to 5 years old, completed a 4-phase study in which they experienced a live event and received a pressured, suggestive interview about the event a week later. Children were also administered batteries of theory of mind and executive function tasks, as well as the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which…

  6. The Scientific Status of Learning Styles Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Daniel T.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Dobolyi, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Theories of learning styles suggest that individuals think and learn best in different ways. These are not differences of ability but rather preferences for processing certain types of information or for processing information in certain types of way. If accurate, learning styles theories could have important implications for instruction because…

  7. Lifelong learning in aviation and medicine; Comments and suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, Els

    2011-01-01

    Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2010, 25-27 August). Lifelong learning in aviation and medicine; Comments and suggestions. Discussion at the 5th EARLI-SIG14 Learning and Professional Development, Munich, Germany.

  8. Genetic theory – a suggested cupping therapy mechanism of action

    OpenAIRE

    Shaban , Tamer; Ravalia , Munir

    2017-01-01

    The Cupping Therapy mechanism of action is not clear. Cupping may increase local blood circulation, and may have an immunomodulation effect. Local and systemic effects of Cupping Therapy were reported. Genetic expression is a physiological process that regulates body functions. Genetic modulation is a reported acupuncture effect. In this article, the authors suggest genetic modulation theory as one of the possible mechanisms of action of cupping therapy.

  9. Learning Theory Applied to the Biology Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Joseph D.

    1980-01-01

    The material presented in this article is intended to help students learn how to learn. The seven key concepts of David Ausubel's assimilation theory for cognitive learning are discussed with reference to the classroom. Concept mapping is suggested as a tool for demonstrating how the seven key concepts function. (SA)

  10. Learning theory and gestalt therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, R; Bauer, R; Kannarkat, J

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses the theory and operations of Gestalt Therapy from the viewpoint of learning theory. General comparative issues are elaborated as well as the concepts of introjection, retroflextion, confluence, and projection. Principles and techniques of Gestalt Therapy are discussed in terms of learning theory paradigm. Practical implications of the various Gestalt techniques are presented.

  11. Dynasting Theory: Lessons in learning grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnben Teik-Cheok Loy, MBA, MTS, Ph.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article captures the key learning lessons gleaned from the author’s experience learning and developing a grounded theory for his doctoral dissertation using the classic methodology as conceived by Barney Glaser. The theory was developed through data gathered on founders and successors of Malaysian Chinese family-own businesses. The main concern for Malaysian Chinese family businesses emerged as dynasting . the building, maintaining, and growing the power and resources of the business within the family lineage. The core category emerged as dynasting across cultures, where founders and successors struggle to transition from traditional Chinese to hybrid cultural and modernized forms of family business from one generation to the next. The key learning lessons were categorized under five headings: (a sorting through different versions of grounded theory, (b educating and managing research stakeholders, (c embracing experiential learning, (d discovering the core category: grounded intuition, and (e recognizing limitations and possibilities.Keywords: grounded theory, learning, dynasting, family business, Chinese

  12. Geometrical methods in learning theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdet, G.; Combe, Ph.; Nencka, H.

    2001-01-01

    The methods of information theory provide natural approaches to learning algorithms in the case of stochastic formal neural networks. Most of the classical techniques are based on some extremization principle. A geometrical interpretation of the associated algorithms provides a powerful tool for understanding the learning process and its stability and offers a framework for discussing possible new learning rules. An illustration is given using sequential and parallel learning in the Boltzmann machine

  13. Constructivist learning theories and complex learning environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R-J. Simons; Dr. S. Bolhuis

    2004-01-01

    Learning theories broadly characterised as constructivist, agree on the importance to learning of the environment, but differ on what exactly it is that constitutes this importance. Accordingly, they also differ on the educational consequences to be drawn from the theoretical perspective. Cognitive

  14. Studies and Suggestions on English Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao

    2012-01-01

    To improve vocabulary learning and teaching in ELT settings, two questionnaires are designed and directed to more than 100 students and teachers in one of China's key universities. The findings suggest that an enhanced awareness of cultural difference, metaphorical competence, and learners' autonomy in vocabulary acquisition will effectively…

  15. Learning Theory and Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhan, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Although theories of learning which stress the role of reinforcement can help us understand altruistic behaviors, it seems clear that a more complete comprehension calls for an expansion of our notions of learning, such that they incorporate affect and cognition. (Author/JM)

  16. Effects of information type on children's interrogative suggestibility: is Theory-of-Mind involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünefeldt, Thomas; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Furia, Augusta

    2009-08-01

    This research was aimed at learning more about the different psychological mechanisms underlying children's suggestibility to leading questions, on the one hand, and children's suggestibility to negative feedback, on the other, by distinguishing between interview questions concerning different types of information. Results showed that, unlike the developmental pattern of children's suggestibility to leading questions, the developmental pattern of children's suggestibility to negative feedback differed depending on whether the interview questions concerned external facts (physical states and events) or internal facts (mental states and events). This difference was not manifested in response to questions concerning central versus peripheral facts. Results are interpreted in terms of the hypothesis that children's suggestibility to negative feedback is differently affected by "Theory-of-Mind" abilities than children's suggestibility to leading questions. Further research is needed in order to test this hypothesis.

  17. Precise synaptic efficacy alignment suggests potentiation dominated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eHartmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that parallel synapses from the same axonal branch onto the same dendritic branch have almost identical strength. It has been proposed that this alignment is only possible through learning rules that integrate activity over long time spans. However, learning mechanisms such as spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP are commonly assumed to be temporally local. Here, we propose that the combination of temporally local STDP and a multiplicative synaptic normalization mechanism is sufficient to explain the alignment of parallel synapses.To address this issue, we introduce three increasingly complex models: First, we model the idealized interaction of STDP and synaptic normalization in a single neuron as a simple stochastic process and derive analytically that the alignment effect can be described by a so-called Kesten process. From this we can derive that synaptic efficacy alignment requires potentiation-dominated learning regimes. We verify these conditions in a single-neuron model with independent spiking activities but more realistic synapses. As expected, we only observe synaptic efficacy alignment for long-term potentiation-biased STDP. Finally, we explore how well the findings transfer to recurrent neural networks where the learning mechanisms interact with the correlated activity of the network. We find that due to the self-reinforcing correlations in recurrent circuits under STDP, alignment occurs for both long-term potentiation- and depression-biased STDP, because the learning will be potentiation dominated in both cases due to the potentiating events induced by correlated activity. This is in line with recent results demonstrating a dominance of potentiation over depression during waking and normalization during sleep. This leads us to predict that individual spine pairs will be more similar in the morning than they are after sleep depriviation.In conclusion, we show that synaptic normalization in conjunction with

  18. Theory in learning technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Czerniewicz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue is being published at a significant point in time in relation tosimultaneous changes in higher education, in technology and in the field of learningtechnology itself. As the 2011 ALT C conference themes clearly state, learningtechnology needs to learn to thrive in a colder and more challenging climate. In thisdifficult political and economic environment technological trends continue todevelop in terms of mobility, cloud computing, ubiquity and the emergence of whathas been called big data. E-learning has become mainstream and the field of learningtechnology itself is beginning to stabilise as a profession. Profession here isunderstood as a knowledge-based occupation and a form of cultural work where thetasks addressed are human problems amenable to expert advice and distinguishablefrom other kinds of work by the fact that it is underpinned by abstract knowledge(Macdonald, 1995.

  19. [Linking learning theory with practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávalos-Carranza, María Teresa; Amador-Olvera, Eric; Zerón-Gutiérrez, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    It is often said that it is easier to learn what is observed and practiced on a daily basis; to the need to effectively link theory with practice considered in the process of teaching and learning, many strategies have been developed to allow this process to be carried out in a more efficiently maner. It is, therefore, very important to recognize that an appropriate teacher/student relationship is essential for students to acquire the skills and abilities required.

  20. Learning Theories In Instructional Multimedia For English Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Farani, Rizki

    2016-01-01

    Learning theory is the concept of human learning. This concept is one of the important components in instructional for learning, especially English learning. English subject becomes one of important subjects for students but learning English needs specific strategy since it is not our vernacular. Considering human learning process in English learning is expected to increase students' motivation to understand English better. Nowadays, the application of learning theories in English learning ha...

  1. Early Learning Theories Made Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  2. Affordances of Augmented Reality in Science Learning: Suggestions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-08-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is currently considered as having potential for pedagogical applications. However, in science education, research regarding AR-aided learning is in its infancy. To understand how AR could help science learning, this review paper firstly has identified two major approaches of utilizing AR technology in science education, which are named as image- based AR and location- based AR. These approaches may result in different affordances for science learning. It is then found that students' spatial ability, practical skills, and conceptual understanding are often afforded by image-based AR and location-based AR usually supports inquiry-based scientific activities. After examining what has been done in science learning with AR supports, several suggestions for future research are proposed. For example, more research is required to explore learning experience (e.g., motivation or cognitive load) and learner characteristics (e.g., spatial ability or perceived presence) involved in AR. Mixed methods of investigating learning process (e.g., a content analysis and a sequential analysis) and in-depth examination of user experience beyond usability (e.g., affective variables of esthetic pleasure or emotional fulfillment) should be considered. Combining image-based and location-based AR technology may bring new possibility for supporting science learning. Theories including mental models, spatial cognition, situated cognition, and social constructivist learning are suggested for the profitable uses of future AR research in science education.

  3. Chinese Learning Through Internet Inspired by Contructivist Learning Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Huang

    2011-01-01

    With the changing concept of education, there is growing emphasis on “student-centered”principle. This is one of the characteristics of Constructivist learning theory. On network teachingChinese, Constructivist learning theory is indispensable. This article is the design of online Chineseteaching which is basic on the Constructivist learning theory.

  4. Enhancing Possible Sentence through Cooperative Learning (Open to Suggestion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sharon J.; Duffelmeyer, Frederick A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes using Think-Pair-Share (a three-step cooperative learning activity) to complement the sentence-generation phase of the Possible Sentences Activity, a highly recommended prereading vocabulary strategy. (SR)

  5. Learned-Helplessness Theory: Implications for Research in Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canino, Frank J.

    1981-01-01

    The application of learned helplessness theory to achievement is discussed within the context of implications for research in learning disabilities. Finally, the similarities between helpless children and learning disabled students in terms of problems solving and attention are discussed. (Author)

  6. A Survey of Quantum Learning Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Arunachalam, Srinivasan; de Wolf, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    This paper surveys quantum learning theory: the theoretical aspects of machine learning using quantum computers. We describe the main results known for three models of learning: exact learning from membership queries, and Probably Approximately Correct (PAC) and agnostic learning from classical or quantum examples.

  7. Penetrating learning barriers and the art of suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Dhority

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A crucial factor preventing students from tapping their full learning potential is their mind set, consisting of subconscious conditioned beliefs, attitudes and self-images. Teachers can learn to work consciously and purposefully to evoke positive responses at the subconscious level in their students, thereby allowing fuller learning potential to unfold. Several specific examples and strategies are discussed. 'n Beslissende faktor wat verhoed dat studente hulle volle leerpotensiaal benut, is gelee in 'n geestesgesteldheid wat bestaan uit gekondisioneerde gelowe, houdings en selfbeelde in die onderbewuste. Dosente kan leer om bewustelik en doelgerig positiewe reaksies in die onderbewuste van hulle studente op te roep om sodoende 'n groter leerpotensiaal te laat ontvou. Verskeie voorbeelde en strategiee word bespreek.

  8. Learning a commonsense moral theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman-Weiner, Max; Saxe, Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2017-10-01

    We introduce a computational framework for understanding the structure and dynamics of moral learning, with a focus on how people learn to trade off the interests and welfare of different individuals in their social groups and the larger society. We posit a minimal set of cognitive capacities that together can solve this learning problem: (1) an abstract and recursive utility calculus to quantitatively represent welfare trade-offs; (2) hierarchical Bayesian inference to understand the actions and judgments of others; and (3) meta-values for learning by value alignment both externally to the values of others and internally to make moral theories consistent with one's own attachments and feelings. Our model explains how children can build from sparse noisy observations of how a small set of individuals make moral decisions to a broad moral competence, able to support an infinite range of judgments and decisions that generalizes even to people they have never met and situations they have not been in or observed. It also provides insight into the causes and dynamics of moral change across time, including cases when moral change can be rapidly progressive, changing values significantly in just a few generations, and cases when it is likely to move more slowly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An Elementary Introduction to Statistical Learning Theory

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    Kulkarni, Sanjeev

    2011-01-01

    A thought-provoking look at statistical learning theory and its role in understanding human learning and inductive reasoning A joint endeavor from leading researchers in the fields of philosophy and electrical engineering, An Elementary Introduction to Statistical Learning Theory is a comprehensive and accessible primer on the rapidly evolving fields of statistical pattern recognition and statistical learning theory. Explaining these areas at a level and in a way that is not often found in other books on the topic, the authors present the basic theory behind contemporary machine learning and

  10. Juvenile Delinquent Girls Reflect Learning in Schools and Offer Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Dixie; Stremlau, Aliza; Ritzman, Mitzi; Snow, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative methods were used to conduct interviews of 41 female juvenile delinquents residing in a correctional facility to understand how participants would have improved learning in their former school if they had been the teachers. A total of 27 of 41 participants provided 70 comments that resulted in 93 meaning units/codes that emerged into 4…

  11. Theory of Mind, Inhibitory Control, and Preschool-Age Children's Suggestibility in Different Interviewing Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullin, Matthew H.; Bonner, Karri

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined the relations among 3- to 5-year-olds' theory of mind, inhibitory control, and three measures of suggestibility: yielding to suggestive questions (yield), shifting answers in response to negative feedback (shift), and accuracy in response to misleading questions during a pressured interview about a live event. Theory of…

  12. Learning Theory Foundations of Simulation-Based Mastery Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C; Harris, Ilene B

    2018-06-01

    Simulation-based mastery learning (SBML), like all education interventions, has learning theory foundations. Recognition and comprehension of SBML learning theory foundations are essential for thoughtful education program development, research, and scholarship. We begin with a description of SBML followed by a section on the importance of learning theory foundations to shape and direct SBML education and research. We then discuss three principal learning theory conceptual frameworks that are associated with SBML-behavioral, constructivist, social cognitive-and their contributions to SBML thought and practice. We then discuss how the three learning theory frameworks converge in the course of planning, conducting, and evaluating SBML education programs in the health professions. Convergence of these learning theory frameworks is illustrated by a description of an SBML education and research program in advanced cardiac life support. We conclude with a brief coda.

  13. Learning from biomedical linked data to suggest valid pharmacogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalleau, Kevin; Marzougui, Yassine; Da Silva, Sébastien; Ringot, Patrice; Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba; Coulet, Adrien

    2017-04-20

    A standard task in pharmacogenomics research is identifying genes that may be involved in drug response variability, i.e., pharmacogenes. Because genomic experiments tended to generate many false positives, computational approaches based on the use of background knowledge have been proposed. Until now, only molecular networks or the biomedical literature were used, whereas many other resources are available. We propose here to consume a diverse and larger set of resources using linked data related either to genes, drugs or diseases. One of the advantages of linked data is that they are built on a standard framework that facilitates the joint use of various sources, and thus facilitates considering features of various origins. We propose a selection and linkage of data sources relevant to pharmacogenomics, including for example DisGeNET and Clinvar. We use machine learning to identify and prioritize pharmacogenes that are the most probably valid, considering the selected linked data. This identification relies on the classification of gene-drug pairs as either pharmacogenomically associated or not and was experimented with two machine learning methods -random forest and graph kernel-, which results are compared in this article. We assembled a set of linked data relative to pharmacogenomics, of 2,610,793 triples, coming from six distinct resources. Learning from these data, random forest enables identifying valid pharmacogenes with a F-measure of 0.73, on a 10 folds cross-validation, whereas graph kernel achieves a F-measure of 0.81. A list of top candidates proposed by both approaches is provided and their obtention is discussed.

  14. Advanced Learning Theories Applied to Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Center for Army Leadership Technical Report 2006-2 Advanced Learning Theories Applied to Leadership Development Christina Curnow...2006 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W91QF4-05-F-0026 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Learning Theories Applied to Leadership Development 5c...ABSTRACT This report describes the development and implementation of an application of advanced learning theories to leadership development. A

  15. Some ideas for learning CP-theories

    OpenAIRE

    Fierens, Daan

    2008-01-01

    Causal Probabilistic logic (CP-logic) is a language for describing complex probabilistic processes. In this talk we consider the problem of learning CP-theories from data. We briefly discuss three possible approaches. First, we review the existing algorithm by Meert et al. Second, we show how simple CP-theories can be learned by using the learning algorithm for Logical Bayesian Networks and converting the result into a CP-theory. Third, we argue that for learning more complex CP-theories, an ...

  16. A Dynamic Logic for Learning Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltag, Alexandru; Gierasimczuk, Nina; Özgün, Aybüke

    2017-01-01

    Building on previous work that bridged Formal Learning Theory and Dynamic Epistemic Logic in a topological setting, we introduce a Dynamic Logic for Learning Theory (DLLT), extending Subset Space Logics with dynamic observation modalities, as well as with a learning operator, which encodes the le...... the learner’s conjecture after observing a finite sequence of data. We completely axiomatise DLLT, study its expressivity and use it to characterise various notions of knowledge, belief, and learning. ...

  17. Statistical Learning Theory: Models, Concepts, and Results

    OpenAIRE

    von Luxburg, Ulrike; Schoelkopf, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    Statistical learning theory provides the theoretical basis for many of today's machine learning algorithms. In this article we attempt to give a gentle, non-technical overview over the key ideas and insights of statistical learning theory. We target at a broad audience, not necessarily machine learning researchers. This paper can serve as a starting point for people who want to get an overview on the field before diving into technical details.

  18. Consideration on Singularities in Learning Theory and the Learning Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Aoyagi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the learning coefficients in learning theory and give two new methods for obtaining these coefficients in a homogeneous case: a method for finding a deepest singular point and a method to add variables. In application to Vandermonde matrix-type singularities, we show that these methods are effective. The learning coefficient of the generalization error in Bayesian estimation serves to measure the learning efficiency in singular learning models. Mathematically, the learning coefficient corresponds to a real log canonical threshold of singularities for the Kullback functions (relative entropy in learning theory.

  19. Communicating uncertainty: lessons learned and suggestions for climate change assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patt, A.; Dessai, S.

    2005-01-01

    Assessments of climate change face the task of making information about uncertainty accessible and useful to decision-makers. The literature in behavior economics provides many examples of how people make decisions under conditions of uncertainty relying on inappropriate heuristics, leading to inconsistent and counterproductive choices. Modern risk communication practices recommend a number of methods to overcome these hurdles, which have been recommended for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment reports. This paper evaluates the success of the most recent IPCC approach to uncertainty communication, based on a controlled survey of climate change experts. Evaluating the results from the survey, and from a similar survey recently conducted among university students, the paper suggests that the most recent IPCC approach leaves open the possibility for biased and inconsistent responses to the information. The paper concludes by suggesting ways to improve the approach for future IPCC assessment reports. (authors)

  20. Effective Learning Environments in Relation to Different Learning Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Guney, Ali; Al, Selda

    2012-01-01

    There are diverse learning theories which explain learning processes which are discussed within this paper, through cognitive structure of learning process. Learning environments are usually described in terms of pedagogical philosophy, curriculum design and social climate. There have been only just a few studies about how physical environment is related to learning process. Many researchers generally consider teaching and learning issues as if independent from physical environment, whereas p...

  1. Mobile Affordances and Learning Theories in Supporting and Enhancing Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, Kathryn; Day, Stephanie; Skelton, David; Verhaart, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Mobile technology promises to enhance and better support students' learning. The exploration and adoption of appropriate pedagogies that enhance learning is crucial for the wider adoption of mobile learning. An increasing number of studies have started to address how existing learning theory can be used to underpin and better frame mobile learning…

  2. Effective Learning Environments in Relation to Different Learning Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guney, A.; Al, S.

    2012-01-01

    There are diverse learning theories which explain learning processes which are discussed within this paper, through cognitive structure of learning process. Learning environments are usually described in terms of pedagogical philosophy, curriculum design and social climate. There have been only just

  3. Game Engagement Theory and Adult Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    One of the benefits of computer game-based learning is the ability of certain types of game to engage and motivate learners. However, theories of learning and engagement, particularly in the sphere of higher education, typically fail to consider gaming engagement theory. In this article, the author examines the principles of engagement from games…

  4. Learning theories 101: application to everyday teaching and scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Denise; Kibble, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Shifts in educational research, in how scholarship in higher education is defined, and in how funding is appropriated suggest that educators within basic science fields can benefit from increased understanding of learning theory and how it applies to classroom practice. This article uses a mock curriculum design scenario as a framework for the introduction of five major learning theories. Foundational constructs and principles from each theory and how they apply to the proposed curriculum designs are described. A summative table that includes basic principles, constructs, and classroom applications as well as the role of the teacher and learner is also provided for each theory. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  5. From Theory Use to Theory Building in Learning Analytics: A Commentary on "Learning Analytics to Support Teachers during Synchronous CSCL"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bodong

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary on Van Leeuwen (2015, this issue), I explore the relation between theory and practice in learning analytics. Specifically, I caution against adhering to one specific theoretical doctrine while ignoring others, suggest deeper applications of cognitive load theory to understanding teaching with analytics tools, and comment on…

  6. Does the social capital in networks of “fish and fire” scientists and managers suggest learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Paige Fischer; Ken Vance-Borland; Kelly M. Burnett; Susan Hummel; Janean H. Creighton; Sherri L. Johnson; Lorien Jasny

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of social interaction influence how knowledge is generated, communicated, and applied. Theories of social capital and organizational learning suggest that interactions within disciplinary or functional groups foster communication of knowledge, whereas interactions across groups foster generation of new knowledge. We used social network analysis to examine...

  7. Experiential learning: transforming theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Sarah; Teunissen, Pim W; Dornan, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Whilst much is debated about the importance of experiential learning in curriculum development, the concept only becomes effective if it is applied in an appropriate way. We believe that this effectiveness is directly related to a sound understanding of the theory, supporting the learning. The purpose of this article is to introduce readers to the theories underpinning experiential learning, which are then expanded further in an AMEE Guide, which considers the theoretical basis of experiential learning from a social learning, constructionist perspective and applies it to three stages of medical education: early workplace experience, clerkships and residency. This article argues for the importance and relevance of experiential learning and addresses questions that are commonly asked about it. First, we answer the questions 'what is experiential learning?' and 'how does it relate to social learning theory?' to orientate readers to the principles on which our arguments are based. Then, we consider why those ideas (theories) are relevant to educators--ranging from those with responsibilities for curriculum design to 'hands-on' teachers and workplace supervisors. The remainder of this article discusses how experiential learning theories and a socio-cultural perspective can be applied in practice. We hope that this will give readers a taste for our more detailed AMEE Guide and the further reading recommended at the end of it.

  8. Constructivism, the so-called semantic learning theories, and situated cognition versus the psychological learning theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Juan José; Rodríguez Moneo, María

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, the perspective of situated cognition, which gave rise both to the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning and has probably become the most representative standpoint of constructivism, is examined. We consider the claim of situated cognition to provide alternative explanations of the learning phenomenon to those of psychology and, especially, to those of the symbolic perspective, currently predominant in cognitive psychology. The level of analysis of situated cognition (i.e., global interactive systems) is considered an inappropriate approach to the problem of learning. From our analysis, it is concluded that the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning which originated in situated cognition can hardly be considered alternatives to the psychological learning theories, and they are unlikely to add anything of interest to the learning theory or to contribute to the improvement of our knowledge about the learning phenomenon.

  9. Moral learning as intuitive theory revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Wellman, Henry

    2017-10-01

    We argue that moral learning, like much of conceptual development more generally, involves development and change in children's intuitive theories of the world. Children's intuitive theories involve coherent and abstract representations of the world, which point to domain-specific, unobservable causal-explanatory entities. From this perspective, children rely on intuitive sociological theories (in particular, an abstract expectation that group memberships constrain people's obligations), and their intuitive psychological theories (including expectations that mental states motivate individual behavior) to predict, explain, and evaluate morally-relevant action. Thus, moral learning involves development and change in each of these theories of the world across childhood, as well as developmental change in how children integrate information from these two intuitive theories. This perspective is supported by a series of research studies on young children's moral reasoning and learning, and compared to other developmental approaches, including more traditional forms of constructivism and more recent nativist perspectives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Activity Theory Approach to Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva Engeström

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author offers a practical view of the theory-grounded research on education action. She draws on studies carried out at the Center for Research on Activity, Development and Learning (CRADLE at the University of Helsinki in Finland. In its work, the Center draws on cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT and is well-known for the theory of Expansive Learning and its more practical application called Developmental Work Research (DWR. These approaches are widely used to understand professional learning and have served as a theoreticaland methodological foundation for studies examining change and professional development in various human activities.

  11. Learned Helplessness: Theory and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Steven F.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    1976-01-01

    Authors believes that three phenomena are all instances of "learned helplessness," instances in which an organism has learned that outcomes are uncontrollable by his responses and is seriously debilitated by this knowledge. This article explores the evidence for the phenomena of learned helplessness, and discussed a variety of theoretical…

  12. Development and application of social learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, V; Archbold, J

    This article traces the development of social learning theory over the last 30 years, relating the developments to clinical nursing practice. Particular attention is focused on the contribution of Albert Bandura, the American psychologist, and his work on modelling.

  13. Learning theories application in nursing education

    OpenAIRE

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Parvin, Neda; Heidari, Mohammad; Haghani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Learning theories are the main guide for educational systems planning in the classroom and clinical training included in nursing. The teachers by knowing the general principles of these theories can use their knowledge more effectively according to various learning situations. In this study, Eric, Medline, and Cochrane databases were used for articles in English and for the Persian literature, Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex, and Sid databases were used with the help of keywords including socia...

  14. An Interpretation of Dewey's Experiential Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T. Grady

    "Experience and Education" (John Dewey, 1938) serves as a foundation piece of literature when discussing experiential learning. To facilitate a better understanding, a conceptual model was developed. In John Dewey's experiential learning theory, everything occurs within a social environment. Knowledge is socially constructed and based on…

  15. Jigsaw Cooperative Learning: Acid-Base Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarhan, Leman; Sesen, Burcin Acar

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating the effectiveness of jigsaw cooperative learning instruction on first-year undergraduates' understanding of acid-base theories. Undergraduates' opinions about jigsaw cooperative learning instruction were also investigated. The participants of this study were 38 first-year undergraduates in chemistry education…

  16. Learning automata theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Najim, K

    1994-01-01

    Learning systems have made a significant impact on all areas of engineering problems. They are attractive methods for solving many problems which are too complex, highly non-linear, uncertain, incomplete or non-stationary, and have subtle and interactive exchanges with the environment where they operate. The main aim of the book is to give a systematic treatment of learning automata and to produce a guide to a wide variety of ideas and methods that can be used in learning systems, including enough theoretical material to enable the user of the relevant techniques and concepts to understand why

  17. Learning theories application in nursing education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Parvin, Neda; Heidari, Mohammad; Haghani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Learning theories are the main guide for educational systems planning in the classroom and clinical training included in nursing. The teachers by knowing the general principles of these theories can use their knowledge more effectively according to various learning situations. In this study, Eric, Medline, and Cochrane databases were used for articles in English and for the Persian literature, Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex, and Sid databases were used with the help of keywords including social cognitive learning, learning theory, behavioral theory, cognitive theory, constructive theory, and nursing education. The search period was considered from 1990 to 2012. Some related books were also studied about each method, its original vision, the founders, practical application of the training theory, especially training of nursing and its strengths and weaknesses. Behaviorists believe that learning is a change in an observable behavior and it happens when the communication occurs between the two events, a stimulus and a response. Among the applications of this approach is the influence on the learner's emotional reactions. Among the theories of this approach, Thorndike and Skinner works are subject to review and critique. Cognitive psychologists unlike the behaviorists believe that learning is an internal process objective and they focus on thinking, understanding, organizing, and consciousness. Fundamentalists believe that learners should be equipped with the skills of inquiry and problem solving in order to learn by the discovery and process of information. Among this group, we will pay attention to analyze Wertheimer, Brunner, Ausubel theories, Ganyeh information processing model, in addition to its applications in nursing education. Humanists in learning pay attention to the feelings and experiences. Carl Rogers support the retention of learning-centered approach and he is believed to a semantic continuum. At the other end of the continuum, experiential learning is

  18. Learning theories application in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Parvin, Neda; Heidari, Mohammad; Haghani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Learning theories are the main guide for educational systems planning in the classroom and clinical training included in nursing. The teachers by knowing the general principles of these theories can use their knowledge more effectively according to various learning situations. In this study, Eric, Medline, and Cochrane databases were used for articles in English and for the Persian literature, Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex, and Sid databases were used with the help of keywords including social cognitive learning, learning theory, behavioral theory, cognitive theory, constructive theory, and nursing education. The search period was considered from 1990 to 2012. Some related books were also studied about each method, its original vision, the founders, practical application of the training theory, especially training of nursing and its strengths and weaknesses. Behaviorists believe that learning is a change in an observable behavior and it happens when the communication occurs between the two events, a stimulus and a response. Among the applications of this approach is the influence on the learner's emotional reactions. Among the theories of this approach, Thorndike and Skinner works are subject to review and critique. Cognitive psychologists unlike the behaviorists believe that learning is an internal process objective and they focus on thinking, understanding, organizing, and consciousness. Fundamentalists believe that learners should be equipped with the skills of inquiry and problem solving in order to learn by the discovery and process of information. Among this group, we will pay attention to analyze Wertheimer, Brunner, Ausubel theories, Ganyeh information processing model, in addition to its applications in nursing education. Humanists in learning pay attention to the feelings and experiences. Carl Rogers support the retention of learning-centered approach and he is believed to a semantic continuum. At the other end of the continuum, experiential learning is

  19. Models and theories of prescribing decisions: A review and suggested a new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Mohsen Ali; Mohaidin, Zurina

    2017-01-01

    To date, research on the prescribing decisions of physician lacks sound theoretical foundations. In fact, drug prescribing by doctors is a complex phenomenon influenced by various factors. Most of the existing studies in the area of drug prescription explain the process of decision-making by physicians via the exploratory approach rather than theoretical. Therefore, this review is an attempt to suggest a value conceptual model that explains the theoretical linkages existing between marketing efforts, patient and pharmacist and physician decision to prescribe the drugs. The paper follows an inclusive review approach and applies the previous theoretical models of prescribing behaviour to identify the relational factors. More specifically, the report identifies and uses several valuable perspectives such as the 'persuasion theory - elaboration likelihood model', the stimuli-response marketing model', the 'agency theory', the theory of planned behaviour,' and 'social power theory,' in developing an innovative conceptual paradigm. Based on the combination of existing methods and previous models, this paper suggests a new conceptual model of the physician decision-making process. This unique model has the potential for use in further research.

  20. A learning theory account of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnerö, Jonas; Folke, Fredrik; Kanter, Jonathan W

    2015-06-11

    Learning theory provides a foundation for understanding and deriving treatment principles for impacting a spectrum of functional processes relevant to the construct of depression. While behavioral interventions have been commonplace in the cognitive behavioral tradition, most often conceptualized within a cognitive theoretical framework, recent years have seen renewed interest in more purely behavioral models. These modern learning theory accounts of depression focus on the interchange between behavior and the environment, mainly in terms of lack of reinforcement, extinction of instrumental behavior, and excesses of aversive control, and include a conceptualization of relevant cognitive and emotional variables. These positions, drawn from extensive basic and applied research, cohere with biological theories on reduced reward learning and reward responsiveness and views of depression as a heterogeneous, complex set of disorders. Treatment techniques based on learning theory, often labeled Behavioral Activation (BA) focus on activating the individual in directions that increase contact with potential reinforcers, as defined ideographically with the client. BA is considered an empirically well-established treatment that generalizes well across diverse contexts and populations. The learning theory account is discussed in terms of being a parsimonious model and ground for treatments highly suitable for large scale dissemination. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Motivation to learn: an overview of contemporary theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Artino, Anthony R

    2016-10-01

    To succinctly summarise five contemporary theories about motivation to learn, articulate key intersections and distinctions among these theories, and identify important considerations for future research. Motivation has been defined as the process whereby goal-directed activities are initiated and sustained. In expectancy-value theory, motivation is a function of the expectation of success and perceived value. Attribution theory focuses on the causal attributions learners create to explain the results of an activity, and classifies these in terms of their locus, stability and controllability. Social- cognitive theory emphasises self-efficacy as the primary driver of motivated action, and also identifies cues that influence future self-efficacy and support self-regulated learning. Goal orientation theory suggests that learners tend to engage in tasks with concerns about mastering the content (mastery goal, arising from a 'growth' mindset regarding intelligence and learning) or about doing better than others or avoiding failure (performance goals, arising from a 'fixed' mindset). Finally, self-determination theory proposes that optimal performance results from actions motivated by intrinsic interests or by extrinsic values that have become integrated and internalised. Satisfying basic psychosocial needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness promotes such motivation. Looking across all five theories, we note recurrent themes of competence, value, attributions, and interactions between individuals and the learning context. To avoid conceptual confusion, and perhaps more importantly to maximise the theory-building potential of their work, researchers must be careful (and precise) in how they define, operationalise and measure different motivational constructs. We suggest that motivation research continue to build theory and extend it to health professions domains, identify key outcomes and outcome measures, and test practical educational applications of the principles

  2. Relations between episodic memory, suggestibility, theory of mind, and cognitive inhibition in the preschool child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinder, Annika; Endestad, Tor; Magnussen, Svein

    2006-12-01

    The development of episodic memory, its relation to theory of mind (ToM), executive functions (e.g., cognitive inhibition), and to suggestibility was studied. Children (n= 115) between 3 and 6 years of age saw two versions of a video film and were tested for their memory of critical elements of the videos. Results indicated similar developmental trends for all memory measures, ToM, and inhibition, but ToM and inhibition were not associated with any memory measures. Correlations involving source memory was found in relation to specific questions, whereas inhibition and ToM were significantly correlated to resistance to suggestions. A regression analysis showed that age was the main contributor to resistance to suggestions, to correct source monitoring, and to correct responses to specific questions. Inhibition was also a significant main predictor of resistance to suggestive questions, whereas the relative contribution of ToM was wiped out when an extended model was tested.

  3. An instance theory of associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Randall K; Crump, Matthew J C; Hannah, Samuel D

    2012-03-01

    We present and test an instance model of associative learning. The model, Minerva-AL, treats associative learning as cued recall. Memory preserves the events of individual trials in separate traces. A probe presented to memory contacts all traces in parallel and retrieves a weighted sum of the traces, a structure called the echo. Learning of a cue-outcome relationship is measured by the cue's ability to retrieve a target outcome. The theory predicts a number of associative learning phenomena, including acquisition, extinction, reacquisition, conditioned inhibition, external inhibition, latent inhibition, discrimination, generalization, blocking, overshadowing, overexpectation, superconditioning, recovery from blocking, recovery from overshadowing, recovery from overexpectation, backward blocking, backward conditioned inhibition, and second-order retrospective revaluation. We argue that associative learning is consistent with an instance-based approach to learning and memory.

  4. Social Learning Theory: A Vanishing or Expanding Presence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews history and current status of social learning theory (SLT) including present conflict between "cognitive behaviorists" within the movement. Makes suggestions on how to resolve conflict in a way that will further secure the future role of SLT. Offers prescription for adoption of a multifaceted "indirect" approach to…

  5. Learning theory of distributed spectral algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zheng-Chu; Lin, Shao-Bo; Zhou, Ding-Xuan

    2017-01-01

    Spectral algorithms have been widely used and studied in learning theory and inverse problems. This paper is concerned with distributed spectral algorithms, for handling big data, based on a divide-and-conquer approach. We present a learning theory for these distributed kernel-based learning algorithms in a regression framework including nice error bounds and optimal minimax learning rates achieved by means of a novel integral operator approach and a second order decomposition of inverse operators. Our quantitative estimates are given in terms of regularity of the regression function, effective dimension of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space, and qualification of the filter function of the spectral algorithm. They do not need any eigenfunction or noise conditions and are better than the existing results even for the classical family of spectral algorithms. (paper)

  6. Models and theories of prescribing decisions: A review and suggested a new model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaidin, Zurina

    2017-01-01

    To date, research on the prescribing decisions of physician lacks sound theoretical foundations. In fact, drug prescribing by doctors is a complex phenomenon influenced by various factors. Most of the existing studies in the area of drug prescription explain the process of decision-making by physicians via the exploratory approach rather than theoretical. Therefore, this review is an attempt to suggest a value conceptual model that explains the theoretical linkages existing between marketing efforts, patient and pharmacist and physician decision to prescribe the drugs. The paper follows an inclusive review approach and applies the previous theoretical models of prescribing behaviour to identify the relational factors. More specifically, the report identifies and uses several valuable perspectives such as the ‘persuasion theory - elaboration likelihood model’, the stimuli–response marketing model’, the ‘agency theory’, the theory of planned behaviour,’ and ‘social power theory,’ in developing an innovative conceptual paradigm. Based on the combination of existing methods and previous models, this paper suggests a new conceptual model of the physician decision-making process. This unique model has the potential for use in further research. PMID:28690701

  7. Models and theories of prescribing decisions: A review and suggested a new model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murshid M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To date, research on the prescribing decisions of physician lacks sound theoretical foundations. In fact, drug prescribing by doctors is a complex phenomenon influenced by various factors. Most of the existing studies in the area of drug prescription explain the process of decision-making by physicians via the exploratory approach rather than theoretical. Therefore, this review is an attempt to suggest a value conceptual model that explains the theoretical linkages existing between marketing efforts, patient and pharmacist and physician decision to prescribe the drugs. The paper follows an inclusive review approach and applies the previous theoretical models of prescribing behaviour to identify the relational factors. More specifically, the report identifies and uses several valuable perspectives such as the ‘persuasion theory - elaboration likelihood model’, the stimuli–response marketing model’, the ‘agency theory’, the theory of planned behaviour,’ and ‘social power theory,’ in developing an innovative conceptual paradigm. Based on the combination of existing methods and previous models, this paper suggests a new conceptual model of the physician decision-making process. This unique model has the potential for use in further research.

  8. Investigating the Learning-Theory Foundations of Game-Based Learning: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W-H.; Hsiao, H-C.; Wu, P-L.; Lin, C-H.; Huang, S-H.

    2012-01-01

    Past studies on the issue of learning-theory foundations in game-based learning stressed the importance of establishing learning-theory foundation and provided an exploratory examination of established learning theories. However, we found research seldom addressed the development of the use or failure to use learning-theory foundations and…

  9. Implications of learning theory for developing programs to decrease overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Bouton, Mark E

    2015-10-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with medical and psychological comorbidities, and interventions targeting overeating could be pragmatic and have a significant impact on weight. Calorically dense foods are easily available, variable, and tasty which allows for effective opportunities to learn to associate behaviors and cues in the environment with food through fundamental conditioning processes, resulting in measurable psychological and physiological food cue reactivity in vulnerable children. Basic research suggests that initial learning is difficult to erase, and that it is vulnerable to a number of phenomena that will allow the original learning to re-emerge after it is suppressed or replaced. These processes may help explain why it may be difficult to change food cue reactivity and overeating over the long term. Extinction theory may be used to develop effective cue-exposure treatments to decrease food cue reactivity through inhibitory learning, although these processes are complex and require an integral understanding of the theory and individual differences. Additionally, learning theory can be used to develop other interventions that may prove to be useful. Through an integration of learning theory, basic and translational research, it may be possible to develop interventions that can decrease the urges to overeat, and improve the weight status of children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Game-Based Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Persistent Immersive Synthetic Environments (PISE) are not just connection points, they are meeting places. They are the new public squares, village centers, malt shops, malls and pubs all rolled into one. They come with a sense of 'thereness" that engages the mind like a real place does. Learning starts as a real code. The code defines "objects." The objects exist in computer space, known as the "grid." The objects and space combine to create a "place." A "world" is created, Before long, the grid and code becomes obscure, and the "world maintains focus.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Three Unique Theories of Organizational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Carol C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present three classical theories on organizational learning and conduct a comparative analysis that highlights their strengths, similarities, and differences. Two of the theories -- experiential learning theory and adaptive -- generative learning theory -- represent the thinking of the cognitive perspective, while…

  12. A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan L

    2016-03-01

    Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about abstract causal constraints? Recent empirical studies have revealed that experience with one set of causal cues can dramatically alter subsequent learning and performance with entirely different cues, suggesting that learning involves abstract transfer, and such transfer effects involve sequential presentation of distinct sets of causal cues. It has been demonstrated that pre-training (or even post-training) can modulate classic causal learning phenomena such as forward and backward blocking. To account for these effects, we propose a Bayesian theory of sequential causal learning. The theory assumes that humans are able to consider and use several alternative causal generative models, each instantiating a different causal integration rule. Model selection is used to decide which integration rule to use in a given learning environment in order to infer causal knowledge from sequential data. Detailed computer simulations demonstrate that humans rely on the abstract characteristics of outcome variables (e.g., binary vs. continuous) to select a causal integration rule, which in turn alters causal learning in a variety of blocking and overshadowing paradigms. When the nature of the outcome variable is ambiguous, humans select the model that yields the best fit with the recent environment, and then apply it to subsequent learning tasks. Based on sequential patterns of cue-outcome co-occurrence, the theory can account for a range of phenomena in sequential causal learning, including various blocking effects, primacy effects in some experimental conditions, and apparently abstract transfer of causal knowledge. Copyright © 2015

  13. Self Modeling: Expanding the Theories of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowrick, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Self modeling (SM) offers a unique expansion of learning theory. For several decades, a steady trickle of empirical studies has reported consistent evidence for the efficacy of SM as a procedure for positive behavior change across physical, social, educational, and diagnostic variations. SM became accepted as an extreme case of model similarity;…

  14. Networks and learning in game theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, W.

    2008-01-01

    This work concentrates on two topics, networks and game theory, and learning in games. The first part of this thesis looks at network games and the role of incomplete information in such games. It is assumed that players are located on a network and interact with their neighbors in the network.

  15. Understanding feedback: A learning theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to review literature on feedback to teachers. Because research has hardly focused on feedback among teachers, the review’s scope also includes feedback in class- rooms. The review proposes that the effectiveness of feedback and feedback processes depend on the learning theory

  16. Employee Learning Theories and Their Organizational Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdussalaam Iyanda Ismail

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence identifies that organizational success hinges on employees with the required knowledge, skills, and abilities and that employees’ effectiveness at learning new skills and knowledge is connected with the kind of learning technique the organization adopts. Given this, this work explored employee learning theories and their organizational applications. Using far reaching literature survey and extensive theoretical and logical argument and exposition. This paper revealed that cognitive-based approaches, non-cognitive approach and need-based approaches play vital roles in shrinking the occurrence of unwanted behaviors and upturning the occurrence of desired behaviors in the organization. Proper application of the theories can induce positive employee behaviors such as task performance and organizational citizenship behavior and consequently enhance both individual and organizational performance. This work has hopefully contributed to the enrichment of the existing relevant literature and served as a useful guide for stakeholders on how they can stimulate positive employee behaviors and the consequent enhanced organizational performance.

  17. Reconstructing constructivism: causal models, Bayesian learning mechanisms, and the theory theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopnik, Alison; Wellman, Henry M

    2012-11-01

    We propose a new version of the "theory theory" grounded in the computational framework of probabilistic causal models and Bayesian learning. Probabilistic models allow a constructivist but rigorous and detailed approach to cognitive development. They also explain the learning of both more specific causal hypotheses and more abstract framework theories. We outline the new theoretical ideas, explain the computational framework in an intuitive and nontechnical way, and review an extensive but relatively recent body of empirical results that supports these ideas. These include new studies of the mechanisms of learning. Children infer causal structure from statistical information, through their own actions on the world and through observations of the actions of others. Studies demonstrate these learning mechanisms in children from 16 months to 4 years old and include research on causal statistical learning, informal experimentation through play, and imitation and informal pedagogy. They also include studies of the variability and progressive character of intuitive theory change, particularly theory of mind. These studies investigate both the physical and the psychological and social domains. We conclude with suggestions for further collaborative projects between developmental and computational cognitive scientists.

  18. Deep Learning in Intermediate Microeconomics: Using Scaffolding Assignments to Teach Theory and Promote Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gareth P.; Bean, John C.; Peterson, Dean J.

    2013-01-01

    Intermediate microeconomics is typically viewed as a theory and tools course that relies on algorithmic problems to help students learn and apply economic theory. However, the authors' assessment research suggests that algorithmic problems by themselves do not encourage students to think about where the theory comes from, why the theory is…

  19. Social Learning Theory of Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that violent activities occur not because of reduced self-control, but because cognitive skills and self-control are used through moral justifications and self-exonerative devices in the service of destructive causes. Threats to human welfare are generally brought about by deliberate acts of principle rather than by unrestrained acts of…

  20. Developing the master learner: applying learning theory to the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Daniel J; Englander, Robert; Carraccio, Carol

    2013-11-01

    As a result of the paradigm shift to a competency-based framework, both self-directed lifelong learning and learner-centeredness have become essential tenets of medical education. In the competency-based framework, learners drive their own educational process, and both learners and teachers share the responsibility for the path and content of learning. This learner-centered emphasis requires each physician to develop and maintain lifelong learning skills, which the authors propose culminate in becoming a "master leaner." To better understand the development of these skills and the attainment of that goal, the authors explore how learning theories inform the development of master learners and how to translate these theories into practical strategies for the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment so as to optimize this development.The authors begin by exploring self-determination theory, which lays the groundwork for understanding the motivation to learn. They next consider the theories of cognitive load and situated cognition, which inform the optimal context and environment for learning. Building from this foundation, the authors consider key educational theories that affect learners' abilities to serve as primary drivers of their learning, including self-directed learning (SDL); the self-assessment skills necessary for SDL; factors affecting self-assessment (self-concept, self-efficacy, illusory superiority, gap filling); and ways to mitigate the inaccuracies of self-assessment (reflection, self-monitoring, external information seeking, and self-directed assessment seeking).For each theory, they suggest practical action steps for the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment in an effort to provide a road map for developing master learners.

  1. Evidence for preserved novel word learning in Down syndrome suggests multiple routes to vocabulary acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, Emma K; Jarrold, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    Three studies investigated novel word learning, some requiring phonological production, each involving between 11 and 17 individuals with Down syndrome, and between 15 and 24 typically developing individuals matched for receptive vocabulary. The effect of stimuli wordlikeness and incidental procedure-based memory demands were examined to see whether these may account for an apparent impairment in word learning in Down syndrome demonstrated in earlier research. Paired associate word and nonword learning tasks were presented, requiring participants to learn the names of novel characters. The nonword stimuli varied in the degree of wordlikeness in 2 studies. A third study investigated extraneous task demand. Across 3 studies, there was no suggestion of a word learning deficit associated with Down syndrome (η(2)(p) for the main effect of group of .03, .11, and .03, respectively), despite the level of phonological representation required. There was evidence that novel word learning by participants with Down syndrome exceeded that which their verbal short-term memory capacity would predict. Vocabulary acquisition in Down syndrome may not rely on verbal short-term memory to the same extent as in typically developing children, lending support to the suggestion that new word learning may be underpinned by an additional memory process.

  2. The Development of a Comprehensive and Coherent Theory of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeris, Knud

    2015-01-01

    This article is an account of how the author developed a comprehensive understanding of human learning over a period of almost 50 years. The learning theory includes the structure of learning, different types of learning, barriers of learning as well as how individual dispositions, age, the learning environment and general social and societal…

  3. A Suggestion for Restoring Public Support for Public Schools: Learn to Invite Patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck, Flora N.; Russell, Gene; Wedel, Mack

    1998-01-01

    Proposes that the increasing disavowal of public schools results from experience with day-by-day disinviting behaviors. The suggested remedy is for educators to evaluate their on-the-job responses to their patrons. Wherever subminimal interpersonal conditions are identified, participants should learn to invite people to education. Presents a case…

  4. Gaming mindsets: implicit theories in serious game learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Hao; Heeter, Carrie; Magerko, Brian; Medler, Ben

    2012-04-01

    Individuals' beliefs about the malleability of their abilities may predict their response and outcome in learning from serious games. Individuals with growth mindsets believe their abilities can develop with practice and effort, whereas individuals with fixed mindsets believe their abilities are static and cannot improve. This study uses survey and gameplay server data to examine the implicit theory of intelligence in the context of serious game learning. The findings show that growth mindset players performed better than fixed mindset players, their mistakes did not affect their attention to the game, and they read more learning feedback than fixed mindset players. In addition, growth mindset players were more likely to actively seek difficult challenges, which is often essential to self-directed learning. General mindset measurements and domain-specific measurements were also compared. These findings suggest that players' psychological attributes should be considered when designing and applying serious games.

  5. Eco-compensation in China: Theory, practices and suggestions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wenxiu; Gong, Yicheng; Wang, Zhongjing; Stewardson, Michael J

    2018-03-15

    Eco-compensation is the most important form of compensatory conservation in China. However, this compensatory mechanism is criticized for vague definition and massive government participation. For better understanding of eco-compensation in China, this paper compares theories and practices of compensatory mechanisms in China and abroad. The analysis of theoretical backgrounds shows that eco-compensation in China is a combination of 'ecological compensation' and 'payments for ecosystem services'. Ten compensatory projects in China and abroad are assessed to reveal characteristics and problems of eco-compensation in China. The results show that compensatory projects in China lagged behind mature foreign compensatory projects in clarity of property rights, responsibility fulfillment, executive efficiency, effectiveness, sustainability and equality. The massive participation of the government is the major reason for the poor performance of compensatory projects in China. However, government participation is necessary at the present stage in China for the income gap and beneficiaries' low willingness to pay. For the improvement of eco-compensation in China, suggestions are given on the choice of non-market valuation methods, the creation of property rights and the establishment of market mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Meta-Analysis Suggests Different Neural Correlates for Implicit and Explicit Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loonis, Roman F; Brincat, Scott L; Antzoulatos, Evan G; Miller, Earl K

    2017-10-11

    A meta-analysis of non-human primates performing three different tasks (Object-Match, Category-Match, and Category-Saccade associations) revealed signatures of explicit and implicit learning. Performance improved equally following correct and error trials in the Match (explicit) tasks, but it improved more after correct trials in the Saccade (implicit) task, a signature of explicit versus implicit learning. Likewise, error-related negativity, a marker for error processing, was greater in the Match (explicit) tasks. All tasks showed an increase in alpha/beta (10-30 Hz) synchrony after correct choices. However, only the implicit task showed an increase in theta (3-7 Hz) synchrony after correct choices that decreased with learning. In contrast, in the explicit tasks, alpha/beta synchrony increased with learning and decreased thereafter. Our results suggest that explicit versus implicit learning engages different neural mechanisms that rely on different patterns of oscillatory synchrony. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Learning relationships from theory to design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J.H. Fowler

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last five years we have seen a very significant increase in the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT in schools, colleges and university. For example in 1998, there were over 195 accredited US universities offering a thousand or more distance learning courses (Philips and Yager, 1998. By no means were all of these new courses associated with educational innovation. The speed and ease of implementation of Webbased approaches, in particular, is resulting in design by imitation of current courses and methods, with a real lack of innovation or utilization of the power inherent in technologybased learning. Although matters are improving (see for example Brown, 1999, part of the reason for this failure to innovate is, we argue, because of the large gap between theory and practice.

  8. Repositioning Ideology Critique in a Critical Theory of Adult Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reexamines critical theory as a response to Marxism and repositions ideology critique as a crucial adult learning process. Argues that a critical theory of adult learning should focus on how adults learn to recognize and challenge ideological domination and manipulation. (Contains 31 references.) (SK)

  9. Optimizing Computer Assisted Instruction By Applying Principles of Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas O.

    The development of learning theory and its application to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) are described. Among the early theoretical constructs thought to be important are E. L. Thorndike's concept of learning connectisms, Neal Miller's theory of motivation, and B. F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. Early devices incorporating those…

  10. Simulation Methodology in Nursing Education and Adult Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford-Hemming, Tonya

    2012-01-01

    Simulation is often used in nursing education as a teaching methodology. Simulation is rooted in adult learning theory. Three learning theories, cognitive, social, and constructivist, explain how learners gain knowledge with simulation experiences. This article takes an in-depth look at each of these three theories as each relates to simulation.…

  11. Developing a Model of Theory-to-Practice-to-Theory in Student Affairs: An Extended Case Analysis of Theories of Student Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Ezekiel W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent literature suggests a problematic connection between theory and practice in higher education scholarship generally and the study of student learning and development specifically (e.g. Bensimon, 2007; Kezar, 2000; Love, 2012). Much of this disconnect stems from a lack of differentiation between various types of theory used in student affairs…

  12. Developing a Domain Theory Defining and Exemplifying a Learning Theory of Progressive Attainments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, C. Victor

    2011-01-01

    This article defines the concept of Domain Theory, or, when educational measurement is the goal, one might call it a "Learning Theory of Progressive Attainments in X Domain". The concept of Domain Theory is first shown to be rooted in validity theory, then the concept of domain theory is expanded to amplify its necessary but long neglected…

  13. Theory-Generating Practice: Proposing a principle for learning design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Buhl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution proposes a principle for learning design: Theory-Generating Practice (TGP as an alternative to the way university courses often are taught and structured with a series of theoretical lectures separate from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project. The aim is to contribute to a development of theoretical frameworks for learning designs by suggesting TGP which may lead to new practices and turn the traditional dramaturgy for teaching upside down. TGP focuses on embodied experience prior to text reading and lectures to enhance theoretical knowledge building and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP and contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics as well as discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP, and is discussed through three empirical examples from bachelor and master programs involving technology, and showing three ways of practicing it.

  14. Theory-Generating Practice: Proposing a principle for learning design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Buhl

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution proposes a principle for learning design: Theory-Generating Practice (TGP as an alternative to the way university courses often are taught and structured with a series of theoretical lectures separate from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project. The aim is to contribute to a development of theoretical frameworks for learning designs by suggesting TGP which may lead to new practices and turn the traditional dramaturgy for teaching upside down. TGP focuses on embodied experience prior to text reading and lectures to enhance theoretical knowledge building and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP and contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics as well as discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP, and is discussed through three empirical examples from bachelor and master programs involving technology, and showing three ways of practicing it.

  15. Trust and Society: Suggestions for Further Development of Niklas Luhmann's Theory of Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgner, Christian

    2018-05-01

    This paper addresses an apparent gap in the work of Niklas Luhmann. While the issue of trust continues to receive widespread attention in the social sciences, Luhmann's interest in this topic declined following the development of his systems theory. It is argued that this decline does not reflect any diminished relevance of trust for systems theory, but rather that the architectural remodeling of theory cannot easily be applied to the issue of trust. Here, the issue of trust is reconceptualized as a connection medium. This entails a reconstruction of Luhmann's early theory of trust, especially with regard to function and social positioning. In this context, trust can in turn be linked to the concept of medium in Luhmann's late work. As a connection medium, trust mediates between the different levels of sociality-interaction, organization, and society. These theoretical considerations are employed to develop a more applied framework for empirical research, with a brief case study from southern Italy. From this perspective, the idea of trust as society's glue is seen to be overly simplistic. The common ethical understanding that more trust leads to a better society is also questioned on the grounds that social cooperation can also lead to social sclerosis. Finally, risk and trust are shown to accommodate the formation of different cultures of trust. The paper shows how Luhmann's updated version of trust can inspire current research and enhance our understanding of how trust operates in contemporary society. © 2018 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  16. Learning "in" or "with" Games? Quality Criteria for Digital Learning Games from the Perspectives of Learning, Emotion, and Motivation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hense, Jan; Mandl, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    This conceptual paper aims to clarify the theoretical underpinnings of game based learning (GBL) and learning with digital learning games (DLGs). To do so, it analyses learning of game related skills and contents, which occurs constantly during playing conventional entertainment games, from three perspectives: learning theory, emotion theory, and…

  17. Why (we think) facilitation works: insights from organizational learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Whitney; Cranley, Lisa; Dearing, James W; Dogherty, Elizabeth J; Squires, Janet E; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2015-10-06

    Facilitation is a guided interactional process that has been popularized in health care. Its popularity arises from its potential to support uptake and application of scientific knowledge that stands to improve clinical and managerial decision-making, practice, and ultimately patient outcomes and organizational performance. While this popular concept has garnered attention in health services research, we know that both the content of facilitation and its impact on knowledge implementation vary. The basis of this variation is poorly understood, and understanding is hampered by a lack of conceptual clarity. In this paper, we argue that our understanding of facilitation and its effects is limited in part by a lack of clear theoretical grounding. We propose a theoretical home for facilitation in organizational learning theory. Referring to extant literature on facilitation and drawing on theoretical literature, we discuss the features of facilitation that suggest its role in contributing to learning capacity. We describe how facilitation may contribute to generating knowledge about the application of new scientific knowledge in health-care organizations. Facilitation's promise, we suggest, lies in its potential to stimulate higher-order learning in organizations through experimenting with, generating learning about, and sustaining small-scale adaptations to organizational processes and work routines. The varied effectiveness of facilitation observed in the literature is associated with the presence or absence of factors known to influence organizational learning, since facilitation itself appears to act as a learning mechanism. We offer propositions regarding the relationships between facilitation processes and key organizational learning concepts that have the potential to guide future work to further our understanding of the role that facilitation plays in learning and knowledge generation.

  18. Rhetorical ways of thinking Vygotskian theory and mathematical learning

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Lillie R; Macadino, Vittoria

    2012-01-01

    Combining Vygotskian theory with current teaching and learning practices, this volume focuses on how the co-construction of learning models the interpretation of a mathematical situation, providing educationalists with a valuable practical methodology.

  19. Using David Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory in Portfolio Development Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Michael; Menson, Betty

    1982-01-01

    As personal portfolio assessment matures, practitioners continue to look for techniques that enhance both personal development and the process of seeking academic credit through assessment. Kolb's experiential learning theory and learning style inventory may have applications in this search. (Author)

  20. Presentation-Practice-Production and Task-Based Learning in the Light of Second Language Learning Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Graeme

    2003-01-01

    Features of presentation-practice-production (PPP) and task-based learning (TBL) models for language teaching are discussed with reference to language learning theories. Pre-selection of target structures, use of controlled repetition, and explicit grammar instruction in a PPP lesson are given. Suggests TBL approaches afford greater learning…

  1. Toward an Instructionally Oriented Theory of Example-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Learning from examples is a very effective means of initial cognitive skill acquisition. There is an enormous body of research on the specifics of this learning method. This article presents an instructionally oriented theory of example-based learning that integrates theoretical assumptions and findings from three research areas: learning from…

  2. What recent research on diagrams suggests about learning with rather than learning from visual representations in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Christine D.

    2016-03-01

    The move from learning science from representations to learning science with representations has many potential and undocumented complexities. This thematic analysis partially explores the trends of representational uses in science instruction, examining 80 research studies on diagram use in science. These studies, published during 2000-2014, were located through searches of journal databases and books. Open coding of the studies identified 13 themes, 6 of which were identified in at least 10% of the studies: eliciting mental models, classroom-based research, multimedia principles, teaching and learning strategies, representational competence, and student agency. A shift in emphasis on learning with rather than learning from representations was evident across the three 5-year intervals considered, mirroring a pedagogical shift from science instruction as transmission of information to constructivist approaches in which learners actively negotiate understanding and construct knowledge. The themes and topics in recent research highlight areas of active interest and reveal gaps that may prove fruitful for further research, including classroom-based studies, the role of prior knowledge, and the use of eye-tracking. The results of the research included in this thematic review of the 2000-2014 literature suggest that both interpreting and constructing representations can lead to better understanding of science concepts.

  3. Difficulties of learning probability concepts, the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned and suggestions for solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Sezgin MEMNUN

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Probability holds the first place among the subjects that both teachers and students have difficulty in handling. Although probability has an important role in many professions and a great many decisions we make for our daily lives, the understanding of the probability concepts is not an easy ability to gain for many students. Most of the students develop perception about lots of probability concepts and they have difficulty finding a reason for probability events. Thus, in the present study, the difficulties faced while learning probability concepts and the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned well are investigated, these reasons are tried to be put forward, and some suggestions for solutions regarding these concepts are presented. In this study, cross-hatching model was used. National and international studies on the subject of probability are investigated, the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned were categorized in the light of findings obtained, and the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned and taught are tried to be discovered. The categorization was displayed with Ishikawa diagram. In the diagram, the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned were noted as six categories. These categories were age, the insufficiency of advanced information, the deficiency of argumentation ability, teacher, error in concept, and students’ negative attitudes.

  4. Putative Androgen Exposure and Sexual Orientation: Cross-Cultural Evidence Suggesting a Modified Neurohormonal Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lee; Lykins, Amy; Hoskin, Anthony; Ratnasingam, Malini

    2015-12-01

    According to neurohormonal theory, prenatal androgens are key determinants of sexual orientation. As a reputed marker for prenatal androgens, the 2D:4D finger length ratio has been used in more than a dozen studies to test the hypothesis that prenatal androgens influence sexual orientation. Findings have been very inconsistent. The present study sought to retest the hypothesis that 2D:4D and sexual orientation are related is a manner consistent with neurohormonal theory. A 2D:4D measure (of the right hand) along with four additional somatic markers of androgen exposure (height, physical strength, muscularity, and athletic ability) with samples of college students in Malaysia (N = 2,058) and the United States (N = 2,511). The five androgen measures were factor analyzed, resulting in a two-factor solution: Factor 1 consisted of strength, muscularity, and athletic ability (the muscular coordination factor), and Factor 2 was comprised of the r2D:4D and adult height (the bone growth factor). Sexual orientation was measured by asking each respondent the extent to which they were sexually attracted to males and the extent to which they were sexually attracted to females, both on 11-point scales. When the countries and sexes were analyzed separately, neither the r2D:4D measure nor Factor 2 correlated with sexual orientation to significant degrees. Instead, it was the muscular coordination factor that correlated the best. Support was found for the hypothesis that prenatal androgens influence sexual orientation, but the nature of these influences was more complex than neurohormonal theory predicted. A modified theory is needed and presented to accommodate the results from this study. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Critical evidence for the prediction error theory in associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Kanta; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Mizunami, Makoto

    2015-03-10

    In associative learning in mammals, it is widely accepted that the discrepancy, or error, between actual and predicted reward determines whether learning occurs. Complete evidence for the prediction error theory, however, has not been obtained in any learning systems: Prediction error theory stems from the finding of a blocking phenomenon, but blocking can also be accounted for by other theories, such as the attentional theory. We demonstrated blocking in classical conditioning in crickets and obtained evidence to reject the attentional theory. To obtain further evidence supporting the prediction error theory and rejecting alternative theories, we constructed a neural model to match the prediction error theory, by modifying our previous model of learning in crickets, and we tested a prediction from the model: the model predicts that pharmacological intervention of octopaminergic transmission during appetitive conditioning impairs learning but not formation of reward prediction itself, and it thus predicts no learning in subsequent training. We observed such an "auto-blocking", which could be accounted for by the prediction error theory but not by other competitive theories to account for blocking. This study unambiguously demonstrates validity of the prediction error theory in associative learning.

  6. Learning network theory : its contribution to our understanding of work-based learning projects and learning climate

    OpenAIRE

    Poell, R.F.; Moorsel, M.A.A.H. van

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of Van der Krogt's learning network theory (1995) for our understanding of the concepts of work-related learning projects and learning climate in organisations. The main assumptions of the learning network theory are presented and transferred to the level of learning groups in organisations. Four theoretical types of learning projects are distinguished. Four different approaches to the learning climate of work groups are compared to the approach offered by t...

  7. A Learning-Style Theory for Understanding Autistic Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ning; Lipkin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding autism's ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup table (LUT) learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT) learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities) from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low- and high-dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name–number association in a phonebook). However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response). The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm), restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity), impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn regularities

  8. A learning-style theory for understanding autistic behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eQian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding autism’s ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically-developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup-table (LUT learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low and high dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name-number association in a phonebook. However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response. The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm, restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity, impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn

  9. Reflection of Learning Theories in Iranian ELT Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghad, Hossein Hashem

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate Iranian ELT English textbooks (Senior High school and Pre-University) in the light of three learning theories i.e., behaviourism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Each of these learning theories embedding an array of instructional strategies and techniques acted as evaluation checklist. That is, Iranian ELT…

  10. Task-Based Language Teaching and Expansive Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) has become increasingly recognized as an effective pedagogy, but its location in generalized sociocultural theories of learning has led to misunderstandings and criticism. The purpose of this article is to explain the congruence between TBLT and Expansive Learning Theory and the benefits of doing so. The merit…

  11. Strategies for application of learning theories in art studio practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study highlights the link between learning theories and art studio practices. The paper is of the opinion that if these theories are critically understood and applied to the practical aspect of fine and applied arts then learning will be more functional. Nigerian Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria Vol. 8(1) 2003: ...

  12. Three Theories of Learning and Their Implications for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Aura I.

    Currently, three theories of learning dominate classroom practice. First, B.F. Skinner's Theory of Operant Conditioning states that if behavior, including learning behavior, is reinforced, the probability of its being repeated increases strongly. Different types and schedules of reinforcement have been studied, by Skinner and others, and the…

  13. Linking Theory to Practice in Learning Technology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Cathy; Steel, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only…

  14. Constructing a Grounded Theory of E-Learning Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Díaz, Laura; Yuste-Tosina, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    This study traces the development of a grounded theory of assessment in e-learning environments, a field in need of research to establish the parameters of an assessment that is both reliable and worthy of higher learning accreditation. Using grounded theory as a research method, we studied an e-assessment model that does not require physical…

  15. Applying Distributed Learning Theory in Online Business Communication Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kristin

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the critical use of technology in online formats that entail relatively new teaching media. Argues that distributed learning theory is valuable for teachers of online business communication courses for several reasons. Discusses the application of distributed learning theory to the teaching of business communication online. (SG)

  16. Learning network theory : its contribution to our understanding of work-based learning projects and learning climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, R.F.; Moorsel, M.A.A.H. van

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of Van der Krogt's learning network theory (1995) for our understanding of the concepts of work-related learning projects and learning climate in organisations. The main assumptions of the learning network theory are presented and transferred to the level of

  17. Linking theory to practice in learning technology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Gunn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only incidentally or not at all in many cases. We propose theory development as a unifying theme for learning technology research study design and reporting. The use of learning design as a strategy to develop and test theories in practice is integral to our argument. We conclude by supporting other researchers who recommend educational design research as a theory focused methodology to move the field forward in productive and consistent ways. The challenge of changing common practice will be involved. However, the potential to raise the profile of learning technology research and improve educational outcomes justifies the effort required.

  18. Investigating Learner Attitudes toward E-Books as Learning Tools: Based on the Activity Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of e-books as learning tools in terms of learner satisfaction, usefulness, behavioral intention, and learning effectiveness. Based on the activity theory approach, this research develops a research model to understand learner attitudes toward e-books in two physical sizes: 10? and 7?. Results suggest that screen…

  19. Learning Theory and the Typewriter Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakin, B. Bertha

    1974-01-01

    Eight basic principles of learning are described and discussed in terms of practical learning strategies for typewriting. Described are goal setting, preassessment, active participation, individual differences, reinforcement, practice, transfer of learning, and evaluation. (SC)

  20. From "Organisms" to "Boundaries": The Uneven Development of Theory Narratives in Education, Learning and Work Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Murray

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses the metaphor of a "theory narrative" to discuss the way in which the connections between education, learning and work have been understood. It identifies six theory narratives, and analyses each in turn, leading to an overview that suggests the way in which these explanatory frameworks might evolve in the future. The six narratives…

  1. An Overview of the History of Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeris, Knud

    2018-01-01

    This article is an account of the history of learning theory as the author has come to know and interpret it by dealing with this subject for almost half a century during which he has also himself gradually developed the broad understanding of human learning which is presented in his well known books on "How We Learn" and a lot of other…

  2. Motivational Classroom Climate for Learning Mathematics: A Reversal Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a case is made that affect is central in determining students' experience of learning or not learning mathematics. I show how reversal theory (Apter, 2001), and particularly its taxonomy of motivations and emotions, provides a basis for a thick description of students' experiences of learning in a mathematics classroom. Using data…

  3. Constructivist Learning Theory and Climate Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Communicating climate science is a form of education. A scientist giving a television interview or testifying before Congress is engaged in an educational activity, though one not identical to teaching graduate students. Knowledge, including knowledge about climate science, should never be communicated as a mere catalogue of facts. Science is a process, a way of regarding the natural world, and a fascinating human activity. A great deal is already known about how to do a better job of science communication, but implementing change is not easy. I am confident that improving climate science communication will involve the paradigm of constructivist learning theory, which traces its roots to the 20th-century Swiss epistemologist Jean Piaget, among others. This theory emphasizes the role of the teacher as supportive facilitator rather than didactic lecturer, "a guide on the side, not a sage on the stage." It also stresses the importance of the teacher making a serious effort to understand and appreciate the prior knowledge and viewpoint of the student, recognizing that students' minds are not empty vessels to be filled or blank slates to be written on. Instead, students come to class with a background of life experiences and a body of existing knowledge, of varying degrees of correctness or accuracy, about almost any topic. Effective communication is also usually a conversation rather than a monologue. We know too that for many audiences, the most trusted messengers are those who share the worldview and cultural values of those with whom they are communicating. Constructivist teaching methods stress making use of the parallels between learning and scientific research, such as the analogies between assessing prior knowledge of the audience and surveying scientific literature for a research project. Meanwhile, a well-funded and effective professional disinformation campaign has been successful in sowing confusion, and as a result, many people mistakenly think climate

  4. Learning Theories Applied to Teaching Technology: Constructivism versus Behavioral Theory for Instructing Multimedia Software Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Cajah S.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to find evidence for a beneficial learning theory to teach computer software programs. Additionally, software was analyzed for each learning theory's applicability to resolve whether certain software requires a specific method of education. The results are meant to give educators more effective teaching tools, so students…

  5. Reconstructing Constructivism: Causal Models, Bayesian Learning Mechanisms, and the Theory Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopnik, Alison; Wellman, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new version of the "theory theory" grounded in the computational framework of probabilistic causal models and Bayesian learning. Probabilistic models allow a constructivist but rigorous and detailed approach to cognitive development. They also explain the learning of both more specific causal hypotheses and more abstract framework…

  6. Adaptive vs. eductive learning : Theory and evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, T.; Duffy, J.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive learning and eductive learning are two widely used ways of modeling learning behavior in macroeconomics. Both approaches yield restrictions on model parameters under which agents are able to learn a rational expectation equilibrium (REE) but these restrictions do not always overlap with one

  7. Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the ‘artificial grammar-learning’ paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective. PMID:22688631

  8. Linking theory to practice in learning technology research

    OpenAIRE

    Cathy Gunn; Caroline Steel

    2012-01-01

    We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only incidentally or not at all in many cases. We propose theory development as a unifying theme for learning technology research study design and repor...

  9. Social Learning, Social Control, and Strain Theories: A Formalization of Micro-level Criminological Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Proctor, Kristopher Ryan

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation proposes theoretical formalization as a way of enhancing theory development within criminology. Differential association, social learning, social control, and general strain theories are formalized in order to identify assumptions of human nature, key theoretical concepts, theoretical knowledge claims, and scope conditions. The resulting formalization allows greater comparability between theories in terms of explanatory power, and additionally provides insights into integrat...

  10. Hypnosis, suggestions, and altered states of consciousness: experimental evaluation of the new cognitive-behavioral theory and the traditional trance-state theory of "hypnosis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T X; Wilson, S C

    1977-10-07

    Sixty-six subjects were tested on a new scale for evaluating "hypnotic-like" experiences (The Creative Imagination Scale), which includes ten standardized test-suggestions (e.g. suggestions for arm heaviness, finger anesthesia, time distortion, and age regression). The subjects were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (Think-With Instructions, trance induction, and Control), with 22 subjects to each group. The new Cognitive-Behavioral Theory predicted that subjects exposed to preliminary instructions designed to demonstrate how to think and imagine along with the suggested themes (Think-With Instructions) would be more responsive to test-suggestions for anesthesia, time distortion, age regression, and so on, than subjects exposed to a trance-induction procedure. On the other hand, the traditional Trance State Theory predicted that a trance induction would be more effective than Think-With Instructions in enhancing responses to such suggestions. Subjects exposed to the Think-With Instructions obtained significantly higher scores on the test-suggestions than those exposed either to the traditional trance-induction procedure or to the control treatment. Scores of subjects who received the trance-induction procedure were not significantly different from those of the subjects who received the control treatment. The results thus supported the new Cognitive-Behavioral Theory and contradicted the traditional Trance State Theory of hypnosis. Two recent experiments, by De Stefano and by Katz, confirmed the above experimental results and offered further support for the Cognitive-Behavioral Theory. In both recent experiments, subjects randomly assigned to a "Think-With Instructions" treatment were more responsive to test-suggestions than those randomly assigned to a traditional trance-induction treatment.

  11. [Role of the implicit theories of intelligence in learning situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, D; Cury, F; Bailly, D; Rufo, M

    2004-01-01

    Most studies have tried to explain the school difficulties by analysing the intellectual factors that lead to school failure. However in addition to the instrumental capacities, authors also recognize the role played by other factors such as motivation. More specifically, the theory of achievement motivation aims to determine motivational factors involved in achievement situations when the students have to demonstrate their competencies. This paradigm attributes a central place to beliefs in order to explain children's behavior in academic situations. According to Dweck, it seems that beliefs about the nature of intelligence have a very powerful impact on behavior. These implicit theories of intelligence create a meaning system or conceptual framework that influences the individual interpretation of school situations. Thus, an entity theory of intelligence is the belief that intelligence is a fixed trait, a personal quality that cannot be changed. Students who subscribe to this theory believe that although people can learn new things, their underlying intelligence remains the same. In contrast, an incremental theory of intelligence is the belief that intelligence is a malleable quality that can increase through efforts. The identification of these two theories allows us to understand the cognition and behavior of individuals in achievement situations. Many studies carried out in the academic area show that students who hold an entity theory of intelligence (ie they consider intelligence like a stable quality) have a strong tendency to attribute their failures to a fixed trait. They are more likely to blame their intelligence for ne-gative outcomes and to attribute failures to their bad intellectual ability. In contrast, students who hold an incremental theory of intelligence (ie they consider intelligence as a malleable quality) are more likely to understand the same ne-gative outcomes in terms of specific factors: they attribute them to a lack of effort. This

  12. A Critical Theory Perspective on Accelerated Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen D.

    2003-01-01

    Critically analyzes accelerated learning using concepts from Herbert Marcuse (rebellious subjectivity) and Erich Fromm (automaton conformity). Concludes that, by providing distance and separation, accelerated learning has more potential to stimulate critical autonomous thought. (SK)

  13. From Continuous Improvement to Organisational Learning: Developmental Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Peter; Chapman, Ross

    2003-01-01

    Explores continuous improvement methods, which underlie total quality management, finding barriers to implementation in practice that are related to a one-dimensional approach. Suggests a multiple, unbounded learning cycle, a holistic approach that includes adaptive learning, learning styles, generative learning, and capability development.…

  14. Optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning: The OPTIMAL theory of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Gabriele; Lewthwaite, Rebecca

    2016-10-01

    Effective motor performance is important for surviving and thriving, and skilled movement is critical in many activities. Much theorizing over the past few decades has focused on how certain practice conditions affect the processing of task-related information to affect learning. Yet, existing theoretical perspectives do not accommodate significant recent lines of evidence demonstrating motivational and attentional effects on performance and learning. These include research on (a) conditions that enhance expectancies for future performance, (b) variables that influence learners' autonomy, and (c) an external focus of attention on the intended movement effect. We propose the OPTIMAL (Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning) theory of motor learning. We suggest that motivational and attentional factors contribute to performance and learning by strengthening the coupling of goals to actions. We provide explanations for the performance and learning advantages of these variables on psychological and neuroscientific grounds. We describe a plausible mechanism for expectancy effects rooted in responses of dopamine to the anticipation of positive experience and temporally associated with skill practice. Learner autonomy acts perhaps largely through an enhanced expectancy pathway. Furthermore, we consider the influence of an external focus for the establishment of efficient functional connections across brain networks that subserve skilled movement. We speculate that enhanced expectancies and an external focus propel performers' cognitive and motor systems in productive "forward" directions and prevent "backsliding" into self- and non-task focused states. Expected success presumably breeds further success and helps consolidate memories. We discuss practical implications and future research directions.

  15. Why formal learning theory matters for cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulop, Sean; Chater, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews a number of different areas in the foundations of formal learning theory. After outlining the general framework for formal models of learning, the Bayesian approach to learning is summarized. This leads to a discussion of Solomonoff's Universal Prior Distribution for Bayesian learning. Gold's model of identification in the limit is also outlined. We next discuss a number of aspects of learning theory raised in contributed papers, related to both computational and representational complexity. The article concludes with a description of how semi-supervised learning can be applied to the study of cognitive learning models. Throughout this overview, the specific points raised by our contributing authors are connected to the models and methods under review. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Affordances of Augmented Reality in Science Learning: Suggestions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is currently considered as having potential for pedagogical applications. However, in science education, research regarding AR-aided learning is in its infancy. To understand how AR could help science learning, this review paper firstly has identified two major approaches of utilizing AR technology in science education,…

  17. Research Suggestions in the Design of a Global Graduate Business Program Delivered by Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puderbaugh, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the unique areas of concern when establishing an eLearning program in the field of global business. A survey of eLearning and a global management subject matter appears. This paper identifies potential challenges in program design and raises practical concerns for future research. [For the full proceedings,…

  18. An Opportunity to Learn US History: What NAEP Data Suggest Regarding the Opportunity Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heafner, Tina L.; Fitchett, Paul G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the degree to which Opportunity to Learn (OTL), is associated with students' achievement in US History. Opportunity to Learn stems from the basic premise that there is an important relationship between the quality and frequency of classroom instruction and students' levels of academic success. The authors…

  19. Learning Theories Applied to the Teaching of Business Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Maxine Barton

    1980-01-01

    Reviews major learning theories that can be followed by business communication instructors, including those by David Ausubel, Albert Bandura, Kurt Lewin, Edward Thorndike, B.F. Skinner, and Robert Gagne. (LRA)

  20. Instructional Suggestions Supporting Science Learning in Digital Environments Based on a Review of Eye-Tracking Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Chiou, Guo-Li; Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Li-Ling

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to provide instructional suggestions for supporting science learning in digital environments based on a review of eye tracking studies in e-learning related areas. Thirty-three eye-tracking studies from 2005 to 2014 were selected from the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) database for review. Through a…

  1. Theories of willpower affect sustained learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Miller

    Full Text Available Building cognitive abilities often requires sustained engagement with effortful tasks. We demonstrate that beliefs about willpower-whether willpower is viewed as a limited or non-limited resource-impact sustained learning on a strenuous mental task. As predicted, beliefs about willpower did not affect accuracy or improvement during the initial phases of learning; however, participants who were led to view willpower as non-limited showed greater sustained learning over the full duration of the task. These findings highlight the interactive nature of motivational and cognitive processes: motivational factors can substantially affect people's ability to recruit their cognitive resources to sustain learning over time.

  2. Theories of willpower affect sustained learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric M; Walton, Gregory M; Dweck, Carol S; Job, Veronika; Trzesniewski, Kali H; McClure, Samuel M

    2012-01-01

    Building cognitive abilities often requires sustained engagement with effortful tasks. We demonstrate that beliefs about willpower-whether willpower is viewed as a limited or non-limited resource-impact sustained learning on a strenuous mental task. As predicted, beliefs about willpower did not affect accuracy or improvement during the initial phases of learning; however, participants who were led to view willpower as non-limited showed greater sustained learning over the full duration of the task. These findings highlight the interactive nature of motivational and cognitive processes: motivational factors can substantially affect people's ability to recruit their cognitive resources to sustain learning over time.

  3. Introduction to Views of Connectivism Theory of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sa’adi Sa’adi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ‘Traditional’ theories of learning as pratical dimensions of psychology majorly tend to focus their interest on humans’ inner factors that influence the process of learning such as intelligences, motivation, interest, attitude, concentration and aptitude. They never connect it with instruments and technological inventions such as multimedia, cyber celluler, internet, even social organization, cultural values, traditions etc., while these are very influential nowdays towards the progress and behaviors of human life. As such the application of connectivism theory of learning which connect those dimensions of life with learning activities, is now and then insparable from any effort to promote the quality of humans’ learning itself, including in teaching and learning languages.

  4. Auto-Suggest Capability via Machine Learning in SMART NAS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We build machine learning capabilities that enables the Shadow Mode Assessment using Realistic Technologies for the NAS (SMART NAS) system to synthesize, optimize,...

  5. Experiential Learning Theory as a Guide for Effective Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Patricia H.; Claxton, Charles S.

    1987-01-01

    David Kolb's experiential learning theory involves a framework useful in designing courses that meet needs of diverse learners. Course designs providing systematic activities in concrete experience, reflective observations, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation will be sensitive to students' learning styles while challenging…

  6. Supporting Alternative Strategies for Learning Chemical Applications of Group Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam, Daniel C.; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    A group theory course for chemists was taught entirely with process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) to facilitate alternative strategies for learning. Students completed a test of one aspect of visuospatial aptitude to determine their individual approaches to solving spatial tasks, and were sorted into groups for analysis on the basis of…

  7. Assessing Student Learning in Academic Advising Using Social Cognitive Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether the social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning apply to academic advising for measuring student learning outcomes. Community college students (N = 120) participated in an individual academic-advising session. We assessed students' post-intervention self-efficacy in academic planning and…

  8. Structural Learning Theory: Current Status and New Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandura, Joseph M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents the current status and new perspectives on the Structured Learning Theory (SLT), with special consideration given to how SLT has been influenced by recent research in software engineering. Topics include theoretical constructs; content domains; structural analysis; cognition; assessing behavior potential; and teaching and learning issues,…

  9. An Analysis of Stochastic Game Theory for Multiagent Reinforcement Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowling, Michael

    2000-01-01

    .... In this paper we contribute a comprehensive presentation of the relevant techniques for solving stochastic games from both the game theory community and reinforcement learning communities. We examine the assumptions and limitations of these algorithms, and identify similarities between these algorithms, single agent reinforcement learners, and basic game theory techniques.

  10. Social Capital Theory: Implications for Women's Networking and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter describes social capital theory as a framework for exploring women's networking and social capital resources. It presents the foundational assumptions of the theory, the benefits and risks of social capital engagement, a feminist critique of social capital, and the role of social capital in adult learning.

  11. Children Balance Theories and Evidence in Exploration, Explanation, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonawitz, Elizabeth Baraff; van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Friel, Daniel; Schulz, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We look at the effect of evidence and prior beliefs on exploration, explanation and learning. In Experiment 1, we tested children both with and without differential prior beliefs about balance relationships (Center Theorists, mean: 82 months; Mass Theorists, mean: 89 months; No Theory children, mean: 62 months). Center and Mass Theory children who…

  12. High School Students' Implicit Theories of What Facilitates Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Eileen Carlton; Miles, Rhea; Petersen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research has primarily concentrated on adults' implicit theories about high quality science education for all students. Little work has considered the students' perspective. This study investigated high school students' implicit theories about what helped them learn science. Purpose: This study addressed (1) What characterizes high…

  13. Some Consequences of Learning Theory Applied to Division of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, James K.

    1971-01-01

    Reviews the learning theories of Robert Gagne and David Ausubel, and applies these theories to the three most common approaches to teaching division of fractions: common denominator, complex fraction, and inverse operation methods. Such analysis indicates the inverse approach should be most effective for meaningful teaching, as is verified by…

  14. Understanding Self-Controlled Motor Learning Protocols through the Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanli, Elizabeth A; Patterson, Jae T; Bray, Steven R; Lee, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT). Three micro-theories within the macro-theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory, and Organismic Integration Theory) are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable, but also can help to better understand and measure the changes occurring between the practice environment and the observed behavioral outcomes.

  15. Understanding self-controlled motor learning protocols through the self determination theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Sanli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT. Three micro theories within the macro theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory & Organismic Integration Theory are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable, but also can help to better understand and measure the changes occurring between the practice environment and the observed behavioral outcomes.

  16. Learning theories in computer-assisted foreign language acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Baeva, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the learning theories, focusing to the strong interest in technology use for language learning. It is important to look at how technology has been used in the field thus far. The goals of this review are to understand how computers have been used in the past years to support foreign language learning, and to explore any research evidence with regards to how computer technology can enhance language skills acquisition

  17. Juggling with Language Learning Theories. [Videotape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Learning to juggle has become popular among corporate training programs because it shows participants how to appreciate mistakes and use "Intelligent Fast Failure" (learning quickly by daring to make a lot of simple mistakes at the beginning of a process). Big business also likes the way juggling can get executives "out of the…

  18. Playing styles based on experiential learning theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontchev, Boyan; Vassileva, Dessislava; Aleksieva-Petrova, Adelina; Petrov, Milen

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have reported positive outcomes and effects from applying computer games to the educational process. The main preconditions for an effective game-based learning process include the presence of high learning interest and the desire to study hard. Therefore,

  19. The Self-Perception Theory vs. a Dynamic Learning Model

    OpenAIRE

    Swank, Otto H.

    2006-01-01

    Several economists have directed our attention to a finding in the social psychological literature that extrinsic motivation may undermine intrinsic motivation. The self-perception (SP) theory developed by Bem (1972) explains this finding. The crux of this theory is that people remember their past decisions and the extrinsic rewards they received, but they do not recall their intrinsic motives. In this paper I show that the SP theory can be modeled as a variant of a conventional dynamic learn...

  20. Conformal prediction for reliable machine learning theory, adaptations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, Vineeth; Vovk, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The conformal predictions framework is a recent development in machine learning that can associate a reliable measure of confidence with a prediction in any real-world pattern recognition application, including risk-sensitive applications such as medical diagnosis, face recognition, and financial risk prediction. Conformal Predictions for Reliable Machine Learning: Theory, Adaptations and Applications captures the basic theory of the framework, demonstrates how to apply it to real-world problems, and presents several adaptations, including active learning, change detection, and anomaly detecti

  1. The application of learning theory in horse training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLean, Andrew N.; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2017-01-01

    The millennia-old practices of horse training markedly predate and thus were isolated from the mid-twentieth century revelation of animal learning processes. From this standpoint, the progress made in the application and understanding of learning theory in horse training is reviewed including...... on the correct application of learning theory, and safety and welfare benefits for people and horses would follow. Finally it is also proposed that the term ‘conflict theory’ be taken up in equitation science to facilitate diagnosis of training-related behaviour disorders and thus enable the emergence...

  2. Theory-based Bayesian models of inductive learning and reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Griffiths, Thomas L; Kemp, Charles

    2006-07-01

    Inductive inference allows humans to make powerful generalizations from sparse data when learning about word meanings, unobserved properties, causal relationships, and many other aspects of the world. Traditional accounts of induction emphasize either the power of statistical learning, or the importance of strong constraints from structured domain knowledge, intuitive theories or schemas. We argue that both components are necessary to explain the nature, use and acquisition of human knowledge, and we introduce a theory-based Bayesian framework for modeling inductive learning and reasoning as statistical inferences over structured knowledge representations.

  3. Reconstructing constructivism: Causal models, Bayesian learning mechanisms and the theory theory

    OpenAIRE

    Gopnik, Alison; Wellman, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new version of the “theory theory” grounded in the computational framework of probabilistic causal models and Bayesian learning. Probabilistic models allow a constructivist but rigorous and detailed approach to cognitive development. They also explain the learning of both more specific causal hypotheses and more abstract framework theories. We outline the new theoretical ideas, explain the computational framework in an intuitive and non-technical way, and review an extensive but ...

  4. The Attribution Theory of Learning and Advising Students on Academic Probation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriou, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Academic advisors need to be knowledgeable of the ways students learn. To aid advisors in their exploration of learning theories, I provide an overview of the attribution theory of learning, including recent applications of the theory to research in college student learning. An understanding of this theory may help advisors understand student…

  5. Developing Scale for Assimilate the Integration between Learning Theories and E-learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Maher Iskander

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As e-learning tend to get more and more significant for all kind of universities, researchers and consultants are becoming aware of the fact that a high technology approach and Blackboard do not guarantee successful teaching and learning. Thus, a move to pedagogy-based theories can be observed within the field of e-learning. This study describes the procedure of the development of an empirically-based psychometrically-sound instrument to measure instructional model for e-learning system at Middle East universities. In order to accelerate the acceptance of e-learning and implementation of institution-wide adoption of e-learning, it is important to understand students' perceptions with instructional model for e- learning. The 19-item scale developed shows a high probability of differentiating between positive and negative perceptions and the methods which can be used for embedding the traditional learning theories into e-learning.

  6. An e-Learning Collaborative Filtering Approach to Suggest Problems to Solve in Programming Online Judges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Raciel Yera; Mota, Yailé Caballero

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposes a recommender system approach to cover online judge's domains. Online judges are e-learning tools that support the automatic evaluation of programming tasks done by individual users, and for this reason they are usually used for training students in programming contest and for supporting basic programming teachings. The…

  7. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: Integrating Social Learning Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youse, Keith Edward

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…

  8. Adventure Learning: Theory and Implementation of Hybrid Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, A.

    2008-12-01

    Adventure Learning (AL), a hybrid distance education approach, provides students and teachers with the opportunity to learn about authentic curricular content areas while interacting with adventurers, students, and content experts at various locations throughout the world within an online learning environment (Doering, 2006). An AL curriculum and online environment provides collaborative community spaces where traditional hierarchical classroom roles are blurred and learning is transformed. AL has most recently become popular in K-12 classrooms nationally and internationally with millions of students participating online. However, in the literature, the term "adventure learning" many times gets confused with phrases such as "virtual fieldtrip" and activities where someone "exploring" is posting photos and text. This type of "adventure learning" is not "Adventure Learning" (AL), but merely a slideshow of their activities. The learning environment may not have any curricular and/or social goals, and if it does, the environment design many times does not support these objectives. AL, on the other hand, is designed so that both teachers and students understand that their online and curriculum activities are in synch and supportive of the curricular goals. In AL environments, there are no disparate activities as the design considers the educational, social, and technological affordances (Kirschner, Strijbos, Kreijns, & Beers, 2004); in other words, the artifacts of the learning environment encourage and support the instructional goals, social interactions, collaborative efforts, and ultimately learning. AL is grounded in two major theoretical approaches to learning - experiential and inquiry-based learning. As Kolb (1984) noted, in experiential learning, a learner creates meaning from direct experiences and reflections. Such is the goal of AL within the classroom. Additionally, AL affords learners a real-time authentic online learning experience concurrently as they

  9. Practice of Connectivism As Learning Theory: Enhancing Learning Process Through Social Networking Site (Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahriye Altınay Aksal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the digital age within learning and social interaction has been growing rapidly. The realm of digital age and computer mediated communication requires reconsidering instruction based on collaborative interactive learning process and socio-contextual experience for learning. Social networking sites such as facebook can help create group space for digital dialogue to inform, question and challenge within a frame of connectivism as learning theory within the digital age. The aim of this study is to elaborate the practice of connectivism as learning theory in terms of internship course. Facebook group space provided social learning platform for dialogue and negotiation beside the classroom learning and teaching process in this study. The 35 internship students provided self-reports within a frame of this qualitative research. This showed how principles of theory practiced and how this theory and facebook group space contribute learning, selfleadership, decision making and reflection skills. As the research reflects a practice of new theory based on action research, learning is not individualistic attempt in the digital age as regards the debate on learning in digital age within a frame of connectivism

  10. Machine learning in radiation oncology theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    El Naqa, Issam; Murphy, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    ​This book provides a complete overview of the role of machine learning in radiation oncology and medical physics, covering basic theory, methods, and a variety of applications in medical physics and radiotherapy. An introductory section explains machine learning, reviews supervised and unsupervised learning methods, discusses performance evaluation, and summarizes potential applications in radiation oncology. Detailed individual sections are then devoted to the use of machine learning in quality assurance; computer-aided detection, including treatment planning and contouring; image-guided rad

  11. Prior Knowledge and the Learning of Science. A Review of Ausubel's Theory of This Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, L. H. T.; Fensham, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Examines Ausubel's theory of learning as a model of the role concerning the influence of prior knowledge on how learning occurs. Research evidence for Ausubel's theory is presented and discussed. Implications of Ausubel's theory for teaching are summarized. (PEB)

  12. Theory of mind selectively predicts preschoolers’ knowledge-based selective word learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau-Liard, Patricia; Penney, Danielle; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Children can selectively attend to various attributes of a model, such as past accuracy or physical strength, to guide their social learning. There is a debate regarding whether a relation exists between theory-of-mind skills and selective learning. We hypothesized that high performance on theory-of-mind tasks would predict preference for learning new words from accurate informants (an epistemic attribute), but not from physically strong informants (a non-epistemic attribute). Three- and 4-year-olds (N = 65) completed two selective learning tasks, and their theory of mind abilities were assessed. As expected, performance on a theory-of-mind battery predicted children’s preference to learn from more accurate informants but not from physically stronger informants. Results thus suggest that preschoolers with more advanced theory of mind have a better understanding of knowledge and apply that understanding to guide their selection of informants. This work has important implications for research on children’s developing social cognition and early learning. PMID:26211504

  13. Theory of mind selectively predicts preschoolers' knowledge-based selective word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau-Liard, Patricia; Penney, Danielle; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2015-11-01

    Children can selectively attend to various attributes of a model, such as past accuracy or physical strength, to guide their social learning. There is a debate regarding whether a relation exists between theory-of-mind skills and selective learning. We hypothesized that high performance on theory-of-mind tasks would predict preference for learning new words from accurate informants (an epistemic attribute), but not from physically strong informants (a non-epistemic attribute). Three- and 4-year-olds (N = 65) completed two selective learning tasks, and their theory-of-mind abilities were assessed. As expected, performance on a theory-of-mind battery predicted children's preference to learn from more accurate informants but not from physically stronger informants. Results thus suggest that preschoolers with more advanced theory of mind have a better understanding of knowledge and apply that understanding to guide their selection of informants. This work has important implications for research on children's developing social cognition and early learning. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  14. High school students' implicit theories of what facilitates science learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton Parsons, Eileen; Miles, Rhea; Petersen, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Background: Research has primarily concentrated on adults' implicit theories about high quality science education for all students. Little work has considered the students' perspective. This study investigated high school students' implicit theories about what helped them learn science. Purpose: This study addressed (1) What characterizes high school students' implicit theories of what facilitates their learning of science?; (2) With respect to students' self-classifications as African American or European American and female or male, do differences exist in the students' implicit theories? Sample, design and methods: Students in an urban high school located in south-eastern United States were surveyed in 2006 about their thoughts on what helps them learn science. To confirm or disconfirm any differences, data from two different samples were analyzed. Responses of 112 African American and 118 European American students and responses from 297 European American students comprised the data for sample one and two, respectively. Results: Seven categories emerged from the deductive and inductive analyses of data: personal responsibility, learning arrangements, interest and knowledge, communication, student mastery, environmental responsiveness, and instructional strategies. Instructional strategies captured 82% and 80% of the data from sample one and two, respectively; consequently, this category was further subjected to Mann-Whitney statistical analysis at p ethnic differences. Significant differences did not exist for ethnicity but differences between females and males in sample one and sample two emerged. Conclusions: African American and European American students' implicit theories about instructional strategies that facilitated their science learning did not significantly differ but female and male students' implicit theories about instructional strategies that helped them learn science significantly differed. Because students attend and respond to what they think

  15. Evaluating theories of bird song learning: implications for future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margoliash, D

    2002-12-01

    Studies of birdsong learning have stimulated extensive hypotheses at all levels of behavioral and physiological organization. This hypothesis building is valuable for the field and is consistent with the remarkable range of issues that can be rigorously addressed in this system. The traditional instructional (template) theory of song learning has been challenged on multiple fronts, especially at a behavioral level by evidence consistent with selectional hypotheses. In this review I highlight the caveats associated with these theories to better define the limits of our knowledge and identify important experiments for the future. The sites and representational forms of the various conceptual entities posited by the template theory are unknown. The distinction between instruction and selection in vocal learning is not well established at a mechanistic level. There is as yet insufficient neurophysiological data to choose between competing mechanisms of error-driven learning and reinforcement learning. Both may obtain for vocal learning. The possible role of sleep in acoustic or procedural memory consolidation, while supported by some physiological observations, does not yet have support in the behavioral literature. The remarkable expansion of knowledge in the past 20 years and the recent development of new technologies for physiological and behavioral experiments should permit direct tests of these theories in the coming decade.

  16. Learning theory and its application to the use of social media in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Leslie; Jalali, Alireza; Moreau, Katherine A

    2015-10-01

    There is rapidly increasing pressure to employ social media in medical education, but a review of the literature demonstrates that its value and role are uncertain. To determine if medical educators have a conceptual framework that informs their use of social media and whether this framework can be mapped to learning theory. Thirty-six participants engaged in an iterative, consensus building process that identified their conceptual framework and determined if it aligned with one or more learning theories. The results show that the use of social media by the participants could be traced to two dominant theories-Connectivism and Constructivism. They also suggest that many medical educators may not be fully informed of these theories. Medical educators' use of social media can be traced to learning theories, but these theories may not be explicitly utilised in instructional design. It is recommended that formal education (faculty development) around learning theory would further enhance the use of social media in medical education. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Teaching Density Functional Theory Through Experiential Learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, Shobhana

    2015-01-01

    Today, quantum mechanical density functional theory is often the method of choice for performing accurate calculations on atomic, molecular and condensed matter systems. Here, I share some of my experiences in teaching the necessary basics of solid state physics, as well as the theory and practice of density functional theory, in a number of workshops held in developing countries over the past two decades. I discuss the advantages of supplementing the usual mathematically formal teaching methods, characteristic of graduate courses, with the use of visual imagery and analogies. I also describe a successful experiment we carried out, which resulted in a joint publication co-authored by 67 lecturers and students participating in a summer school. (paper)

  18. The Social Life of Learning Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing understanding that public institutions need to be proactive in not only developing their welfare services but doing so continually through various concepts of learning. This article presents an ethnographic study of a public school that aims at working strategically...... with organizational learning through Donald Schön's concept of “the reflective practitioner.” Schön's concepts provide the school manager with a vocabulary to criticize the destructive effects of New Public Management's linear steering technologies. The study also illustrates that expectations of reflective...

  19. What Learning Systems do Intelligent Agents Need? Complementary Learning Systems Theory Updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Hassabis, Demis; McClelland, James L

    2016-07-01

    We update complementary learning systems (CLS) theory, which holds that intelligent agents must possess two learning systems, instantiated in mammalians in neocortex and hippocampus. The first gradually acquires structured knowledge representations while the second quickly learns the specifics of individual experiences. We broaden the role of replay of hippocampal memories in the theory, noting that replay allows goal-dependent weighting of experience statistics. We also address recent challenges to the theory and extend it by showing that recurrent activation of hippocampal traces can support some forms of generalization and that neocortical learning can be rapid for information that is consistent with known structure. Finally, we note the relevance of the theory to the design of artificial intelligent agents, highlighting connections between neuroscience and machine learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Social cognitive theory, metacognition, and simulation learning in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Helen; Mancuso, Lorraine

    2012-10-01

    Simulation learning encompasses simple, introductory scenarios requiring response to patients' needs during basic hygienic care and during situations demanding complex decision making. Simulation integrates principles of social cognitive theory (SCT) into an interactive approach to learning that encompasses the core principles of intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness, and self-reflectiveness. Effective simulation requires an environment conducive to learning and introduces activities that foster symbolic coding operations and mastery of new skills; debriefing builds self-efficacy and supports self-regulation of behavior. Tailoring the level of difficulty to students' mastery level supports successful outcomes and motivation to set higher standards. Mindful selection of simulation complexity and structure matches course learning objectives and supports progressive development of metacognition. Theory-based facilitation of simulated learning optimizes efficacy of this learning method to foster maturation of cognitive processes of SCT, metacognition, and self-directedness. Examples of metacognition that are supported through mindful, theory-based implementation of simulation learning are provided. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Transformative Learning Theory in Gerontology: Nontraditional Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Pamela Pitman; Brown, Candace S.

    2015-01-01

    Mezirow (1978) applied and used Transformative Learning Theoretical (TLT) processes while studying women who reentered academics during the 1970s. Similar to Mezirow's original 1975 work, we identify "factors that impeded or facilitated" participants' progress to obtain their undergraduate degree during the traditional student…

  2. The Social Life of Learning Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2013-01-01

    with organizational learning through Donald Schön's concept of “the reflective practitioner.” Schön's concepts provide the school manager with a vocabulary to criticize the destructive effects of New Public Management's linear steering technologies. The study also illustrates that expectations of reflective...

  3. Contemporary Privacy Theory Contributions to Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    With the continued adoption of learning analytics in higher education institutions, vast volumes of data are generated and "big data" related issues, including privacy, emerge. Privacy is an ill-defined concept and subject to various interpretations and perspectives, including those of philosophers, lawyers, and information systems…

  4. Mean-field theory of meta-learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2009-01-01

    We discuss here the mean-field theory for a cellular automata model of meta-learning. Meta-learning is the process of combining outcomes of individual learning procedures in order to determine the final decision with higher accuracy than any single learning method. Our method is constructed from an ensemble of interacting, learning agents that acquire and process incoming information using various types, or different versions, of machine learning algorithms. The abstract learning space, where all agents are located, is constructed here using a fully connected model that couples all agents with random strength values. The cellular automata network simulates the higher level integration of information acquired from the independent learning trials. The final classification of incoming input data is therefore defined as the stationary state of the meta-learning system using simple majority rule, yet the minority clusters that share the opposite classification outcome can be observed in the system. Therefore, the probability of selecting a proper class for a given input data, can be estimated even without the prior knowledge of its affiliation. The fuzzy logic can be easily introduced into the system, even if learning agents are built from simple binary classification machine learning algorithms by calculating the percentage of agreeing agents

  5. Complexity Theory and CALL Curriculum in Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Complexity theory literally indicates the complexity of a system, behavior, or a process. Its connotative meaning, while, implies dynamism, openness, sensitivity to initial conditions and feedback, and adaptation properties of a system. Regarding English as a Foreign/ Second Language (EFL/ESL this theory emphasizes on the complexity of the process of teaching and learning, including all the properties of a complex system. The purpose of the current study is to discuss the role of CALL as a modern technology in simplifying the process of teaching and learning a new language while integrating into the complexity theory. Nonetheless, the findings obtained from reviewing previously conducted studies in this field confirmed the usefulness of CALL curriculum in EFL/ESL contexts. These findings can also provide pedagogical implications for employing computer as an effective teaching and learning tool.

  6. Social Learning Theory: A Multicultural Study of Influences on Ethical Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Richard C.; Crittenden, Victoria L.; Crittenden, William F.

    2013-01-01

    We propose Social Learning Theory as a theoretical foundation for understanding the ethical standards of future business leaders. Using data drawn from students from 115 four-year undergraduate institutions in 36 different countries, the relationships among role models, capitalism, and laws were examined. The data suggest that future business…

  7. The Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Search Engines as a Learning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Search engines have been developed for helping learners to seek online information. Based on theory of planned behaviour approach, this research intends to investigate the behaviour of using search engines as a learning tool. After factor analysis, the results suggest that perceived satisfaction of search engine, search engines as an information…

  8. Vaccination learning experiences of nursing students: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ildarabadi, Eshagh; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Heydari, Abbas; Taghipour, Ali; Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the experiences of nursing students being trained to perform vaccinations. The grounded theory method was applied to gather information through semi-structured interviews. The participants included 14 undergraduate nursing students in their fifth and eighth semesters of study in a nursing school in Iran. The information was analyzed according to Strauss and Corbin's method of grounded theory. A core category of experiential learning was identified, and the following eight subcategories were extracted: students' enthusiasm, vaccination sensitivity, stress, proper educational environment, absence of prerequisites, students' responsibility for learning, providing services, and learning outcomes. The vaccination training of nursing students was found to be in an acceptable state. However, some barriers to effective learning were identified. As such, the results of this study may provide empirical support for attempts to reform vaccination education by removing these barriers.

  9. The consistency and complementarity between critical meaningful learning theory and the epistemology of Paul Feyerabend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Damasio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers in science teaching have advocated concomitant education about and of science. To approach the nature and history of science in basic education is necessary to have an epistemological approach that can go between of rationalism of Bunge and relativism of Feyerabend. In this paper, it is argued that Feyerabend's epistemological stance is that more can help promote meaningful learning critical, so as to form inquiring, flexible, creative, innovative, tolerant and liberal people. In addition, the suggestions Feyerabend's epistemology also complement the Theory of Meaningful Learning Critical to propose a curriculum and a context for the principles of the theory are in science classrooms.

  10. Contextual learning theory: Concrete form and a software prototype to improve early education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2016-01-01

    In 'contextual learning theory' three types of contextual conditions (differentiation of learning procedures and materials, integrated ICT support, and improvement of development and learning progress) are related to four aspects of the learning process (diagnostic, instructional, managerial, and

  11. Evaluation of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (FIQL) using item response theory reveals limitations and suggests revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Alexander C; Sutherland, Jason M; Liu, Guiping; Crump, R Trafford; Karimuddin, Ahmer A

    2018-06-01

    The Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (FIQL) is a commonly used patient-reported outcome measure for fecal incontinence, often used in clinical trials, yet has not been validated in English since its initial development. This study uses modern methods to thoroughly evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the FIQL and its potential for differential functioning by gender. This study analyzed prospectively collected patient-reported outcome data from a sample of patients prior to colorectal surgery. Patients were recruited from 14 general and colorectal surgeons in Vancouver Coastal Health hospitals in Vancouver, Canada. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess construct validity. Item response theory was used to evaluate test reliability, describe item-level characteristics, identify local item dependence, and test for differential functioning by gender. 236 patients were included for analysis, with mean age 58 and approximately half female. Factor analysis failed to identify the lifestyle, coping, depression, and embarrassment domains, suggesting lack of construct validity. Items demonstrated low difficulty, indicating that the test has the highest reliability among individuals who have low quality of life. Five items are suggested for removal or replacement. Differential test functioning was minimal. This study has identified specific improvements that can be made to each domain of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale and to the instrument overall. Formatting, scoring, and instructions may be simplified, and items with higher difficulty developed. The lifestyle domain can be used as is. The embarrassment domain should be significantly revised before use.

  12. Chaordic systems thinking for learning organizations : reflections and some suggestions for use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putnik, G.D.; Eijnatten, van F.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this concluding paper the guest editors reflect on the contents of this special issue, and give some suggestions for future use of the CST framework. An interesting disclosure is that in chaos-and-complexity research the unit of measurement is not the individual human being, but the collective

  13. Teaching and Learning of Knot Theory in School Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Kawauchi, Akio

    2012-01-01

    This book is the result of a joint venture between Professor Akio Kawauchi, Osaka City University, well-known for his research in knot theory, and the Osaka study group of mathematics education, founded by Professor Hirokazu Okamori and now chaired by his successor Professor Tomoko Yanagimoto, Osaka Kyoiku University. The seven chapters address the teaching and learning of knot theory from several perspectives. Readers will find an extremely clear and concise introduction to the fundamentals of knot theory, an overview of curricular developments in Japan, and in particular a series of teaching

  14. Competences, Learning Theories and MOOCs: Recent Developments in Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Our societies have come to be known as knowledge societies in which lifelong learning is becoming increasingly important. In this context, competences have become a much discussed topic. Many documents were published by international organisations (UNESCO, World Bank, European Commission) which enumerated 21st century key competences. The field of…

  15. Perceptual learning: toward a comprehensive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2015-01-03

    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is long-term performance increase resulting from visual perceptual experience. Task-relevant VPL of a feature results from training of a task on the feature relevant to the task. Task-irrelevant VPL arises as a result of exposure to the feature irrelevant to the trained task. At least two serious problems exist. First, there is the controversy over which stage of information processing is changed in association with task-relevant VPL. Second, no model has ever explained both task-relevant and task-irrelevant VPL. Here we propose a dual plasticity model in which feature-based plasticity is a change in a representation of the learned feature, and task-based plasticity is a change in processing of the trained task. Although the two types of plasticity underlie task-relevant VPL, only feature-based plasticity underlies task-irrelevant VPL. This model provides a new comprehensive framework in which apparently contradictory results could be explained.

  16. Differential theory of learning for efficient neural network pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, John B., II; Vijaya Kumar, Bhagavatula

    1993-09-01

    We describe a new theory of differential learning by which a broad family of pattern classifiers (including many well-known neural network paradigms) can learn stochastic concepts efficiently. We describe the relationship between a classifier's ability to generate well to unseen test examples and the efficiency of the strategy by which it learns. We list a series of proofs that differential learning is efficient in its information and computational resource requirements, whereas traditional probabilistic learning strategies are not. The proofs are illustrated by a simple example that lends itself to closed-form analysis. We conclude with an optical character recognition task for which three different types of differentially generated classifiers generalize significantly better than their probabilistically generated counterparts.

  17. Treatment of avoidance behavior as an adjunct to exposure therapy: Insights from modern learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treanor, Michael; Barry, Tom J

    2017-09-01

    Pathological avoidance of benign stimuli is a hallmark of anxiety and related disorders, and exposure-based treatments have often encouraged the removal of avoidance, or safety behaviors, due to their negative effects on extinction learning. Unfortunately, empirical evidence suggests that avoidance behaviors can persist following treatment, and the mere availability of avoidance behavior can be sufficient to renew fear following successful extinction learning. The present paper critically examines the function of avoidance behavior through the lens of modern learning theory, and speculates on novel behavioral and pharmacological strategies for targeting avoidance as an adjunct to current evidence-based treatments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Constructivist Teaching/Learning Theory and Participatory Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Sithara Y. J. N.; Marikar, Faiz M. M. T.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for the teaching involves transmission of knowledge, superiority of guided transmission is explained in the context of our knowledge, but it is also much more that. In this study we have examined General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University's cadet and civilian students' response to constructivist learning theory and participatory…

  19. Learning Organisation Review--A "Good" Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa, Mijalce

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to perform integrative literature review of the learning organisation (LO) concept, on the basis of the results of the literature review to assess the concept on the principles of "good" theory, and provide future avenues for LO concept clarification and development. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  20. Writing for publication: faculty development initiative using social learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Bonnie K; Carter, Matt; Schuessler, Jenny B

    2012-01-01

    Demonstrating scholarly competency is an expectation for nurse faculty. However, there is hesitancy among some faculty to fully engage in scholarly activities. To strengthen a school of nursing's culture of scholarship, a faculty development writing initiative based on Social Learning Theory was implemented. The authors discuss this initiative to facilitate writing for publication productivity among faculty and the successful outcomes.

  1. Adult Basic Skills Instructor Training and Experiential Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Competency-based training workshops based on Kolb's experiential learning theory were held for North Carolina adult basic education teachers; 251 attended 1-day sessions and 91 a week-long summer institute. Topics included interpersonal communication, reading, numeracy, language arts, math, assessment, and program evaluation. (SK)

  2. Gestalt-A Learning Theory for Graphic Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ian

    2008-01-01

    This article will begin by seeking to define the notion of learning "by, through" and "from" experience. A linkage will then be established between these notions of experiences and gestalt theory. This will be explored within a subject specific context of graphic design. Links will be highlighted between the inherent nature of graphic design and…

  3. The Interdependence of Pedagogy, Learning Theory, Morality and Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunden, Ralph

    1997-01-01

    Explores the incompatibility between constructivist theories of learning and realist metaphysics (belief that knowledge and skills exist in mind-independent workplace practices). Shows how this results in conflict between constructivist teaching approaches and the transmission or banking mode favored by realist metaphysics. (SK)

  4. A Lifespan Perspective on Cooperative Education Learning: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study sits at the intersection of two trends in vocational education. The first trend is a narrative approach to understanding cooperative education learning; the second is a movement away from career development theories toward the view that individuals use work experiences to help construct their lives. Both trends view learning…

  5. Children balance theories and evidence in exploration, explanation, and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonawitz, E.B.; van Schijndel, T.J.P.; Friel, D.; Schulz, L.

    2012-01-01

    We look at the effect of evidence and prior beliefs on exploration, explanation and learning. In Experiment 1, we tested children both with and without differential prior beliefs about balance relationships (Center Theorists, mean: 82 months; Mass Theorists, mean: 89 months; No Theory children,

  6. Designing Opportunities to Learn Mathematics Theory-Building Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Hyman

    2017-01-01

    Mathematicians commonly distinguish two modes of work in the discipline: "Problem solving," and "theory building." Mathematics education offers many opportunities to learn problem solving. This paper explores the possibility, and value, of designing instructional activities that provide supported opportunities for students to…

  7. Cultural Historical Activity Theory, Expansive Learning and Agency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper focuses on how contradictions were used as sources of learning and development leading to 'real life expansions'. This demonstrates and reflects on the value of an interventionist research theory and methodology employed in the study to enhance participants' agency in sustainable agriculture workplaces.

  8. Amidst Multiple Theories of Learning in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there are more theories of learning in use in mathematics education research than ever before (Lerman & Tsatsaroni, 2004). Although this is a positive sign for the field, it also has brought with it a set of challenges. In this article, I identify some of these challenges and consider how mathematics education researchers might think…

  9. Conversations, Individuals and Knowables: Toward a Theory of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, John S.

    1975-01-01

    Presents a learning theory in the language of cybernetics based on the tenet that the minimal experimental situation for making psychological observations is a conversation. The account is directed at generating interest in the original work by G. Pask, et al. (GS)

  10. Learning and Emotion: Perspectives for Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hascher, Tina

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest in and knowledge about the interplay of learning and emotion. However, the different approaches and empirical studies correspond to each other only to a low extent. To prevent this research field from increasing fragmentation, a shared basis of theory and research is needed. The presentation aims at giving an overview of…

  11. The Impact of Cognitive Load Theory on Learning Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Every student is different, which is the challenge of astronomy education research (AER) and teaching astronomy. This difference also provides the greatest goal for education researchers - our GUT - we need to be able to quantify these differences and provide explanatory and predictive theories to curriculum developers and teachers. One educational theory that holds promise is Cognitive Load Theory. Cognitive Load Theory begins with the well-established fact that everyone's working memory can hold 7 ± 2 unique items. This quirk of the human brain is why phone numbers are 7 digits long. This quirk is also why we forget peoples’ names after just meeting them, leave the iron on when we leave the house, and become overwhelmed as students of new material. Once the intricacies of Cognitive Load are understood, it becomes possible to design learning environments to marshal the resources students have and guide them to success. Lessons learned from Cognitive Load Theory can and should be applied to learning astronomy. Classroom-ready ideas will be presented.

  12. Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory in Athletic Training Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhase, Kristen C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory offers insight into the development of learning styles, classification of learning styles, and how students learn through experience. Discussion is presented on the value of Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory for Athletic Training Education. Data Sources: This article reviews research related to…

  13. Learning Theory Expertise in the Design of Learning Spaces: Who Needs a Seat at the Table?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Michael M.; Choi, Koun; McDonald, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    This study highlights the impact of including stakeholders with expertise in learning theory in a learning space design process. We present the decision-making process during the design of the Krause Innovation Studio on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University to draw a distinction between the architect and faculty member's decision-making…

  14. Application of Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning to Curriculum, Teaching and Learning of Deaf Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biser, Eileen

    Implications of D. Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning and its derivative, the Advance Organizer Model of Teaching, for deaf students are examined. Ausubel believes that complex intellectual processes (thinking, language, problem-solving, concept formation) are the major aspects of learning, and that primary emphasis should be placed on…

  15. Sociocultural Theory Applied to Second Language Learning: Collaborative Learning with Reference to the Chinese Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongyu, Zhang; Fanyu, B.; Wanyi, Du

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the sociocultural theory (SCT). In particular, three significant concepts of Vyogtsky's theory: self-regulation, the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), and scaffolding all of which have been discussed in numerous second language acquisition (SLA) and second language learning (SLL) research papers. These concepts lay the…

  16. The effectiveness of separating theory and practicum as a conduit to learning physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuijers, Johannes A; McDonald, Stuart J; Julien, Brianna L; Lexis, Louise A; Thomas, Colleen J; Chan, Siew; Samiric, T

    2013-06-01

    Many conventional science courses contain subjects embedded with laboratory-based activities. However, research on the benefits of positioning the practicals within the theory subject or developing them distinctly from the theory is largely absent. This report compared results in a physiology theory subject among three different cohorts of students: those taking the theory subject alone, those taking it concurrent with a physiology practicum subject, and those who previously took the subject when it had practicums embedded within the one subject. The path model shows that students taking both physiology theory and physiology practicum attained a significantly higher result in online tests compared with those who took the theory subject alone (P physiology theory and the physiology practicum attained a significantly higher end-examination result compared with those who took the physiology subject in previous years when the practicums were embedded within the theory subject (P physiology theory and the physiology practicum likely performed better in the theory subject due to better problem-solving skills and a more developed understanding of theoretical content. We suggest that consideration be given in all science curricula to the separation of theory and practicum by developing two subjects with clearly defined different learning outcomes.

  17. Group processes in medical education: learning from social identity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, Bryan

    2012-02-01

    The clinical workplace in which doctors learn involves many social groups, including representatives of different professions, clinical specialties and workplace teams. This paper suggests that medical education research does not currently take full account of the effects of group membership, and describes a theoretical approach from social psychology, the social identity approach, which allows those effects to be explored. The social identity approach has a long history in social psychology and provides an integrated account of group processes, from the adoption of group identity through a process of self-categorisation, to the biases and conflicts between groups. This paper outlines key elements of this theoretical approach and illustrates their relevance to medical education. The relevance of the social identity approach is illustrated with reference to a number of areas of medical education. The paper shows how research questions in medical education may be usefully reframed in terms of social identity in ways that allow a deeper exploration of the psychological processes involved. Professional identity and professionalism may be viewed in terms of self-categorisation rather than simply attainment; the salience of different identities may be considered as influences on teamwork and interprofessional learning, and issues in communication and assessment may be considered in terms of intergroup biases. Social identity theory provides a powerful framework with which to consider many areas of medical education. It allows disparate influences on, and consequences of, group membership to be considered as part of an integrated system, and allows assumptions, such as about the nature of professional identity and interprofessional tensions, to be made explicit in the design of research studies. This power to question assumptions and develop deeper and more meaningful research questions may be increasingly relevant as the nature and role of the medical profession change

  18. Developing a new experimental system for an undergraduate laboratory exercise to teach theories of visuomotor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Shoko; Ushiba, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a flexible motor ability to adapt their movements to changes in the internal/external environment. For example, using arm-reaching tasks, a number of studies experimentally showed that participants adapt to a novel visuomotor environment. These results helped develop computational models of motor learning implemented in the central nervous system. Despite the importance of such experimental paradigms for exploring the mechanisms of motor learning, because of the cost and preparation time, most students are unable to participate in such experiments. Therefore, in the current study, to help students better understand motor learning theories, we developed a simple finger-reaching experimental system using commonly used laptop PC components with an open-source programming language (Processing Motor Learning Toolkit: PMLT). We found that compared to a commercially available robotic arm-reaching device, our PMLT accomplished similar learning goals (difference in the error reduction between the devices, P = 0.10). In addition, consistent with previous reports from visuomotor learning studies, the participants showed after-effects indicating an adaptation of the motor learning system. The results suggest that PMLT can serve as a new experimental system for an undergraduate laboratory exercise of motor learning theories with minimal time and cost for instructors.

  19. On separating customer and supply side harmonic contributions at the pcc based on new notions suggested to power theory development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisa, A.A.A.E

    2008-01-01

    Excessive use of nonlinear loads connected to electric power systems distorts the AC power current, and consequently the AC voltage drop. Thereby resulting in the flow of harmonic currents in the system. This can introduce many problems through out the system. If such problems are unavoidable, then remedy or mitigation and cost of such action should be properly accounted for as fairly as possible. Due to this reason, it is important to determine precisely the quantity and direction of energy and power for each harmonic order. This will be very useful while constructing energy billing and rate structure.This thesis concerns with this matter, which is called reverse harmonic study. It introduces a new method to determine the attributes for each harmonic order at the point of common coupling (PCC) between the supplier and the consumer.Depending on the premise that harmonics cause power flow in power systems, just as fundamental frequency does, the thesis analytically introduces a new approach to develop the power theory. The purpose of this approach is to determine an accurate, fair, practical method for measuring the harmonic power components and energy transfer.There is consensus that the present definitions used to evaluate the flow of energy and power in electric networks are not adequate for conducting studies when non-sinusoidal voltage or current are present. For that reason the thesis suggests a new notion in power theory for periodic current and voltage waveforms. The idea of this notion has been inspired from the concept of instantaneous power. This term has been defined for convenience in representing the energy content of a system, since it satisfies the law of c onservation of energy . By this new approach we have analytically introduced definitions and formulas that determine precisely proper instantaneous power components in ac power systems under sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal conditions. The rapid progression of digital sampling technology in power

  20. What propels sexual murderers: a proposed integrated theory of social learning and routine activities theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Heide, Kathleen M; Beauregard, Eric

    2011-04-01

    Despite the great interest in the study of sexual homicide, little is known about the processes involved in an individual's becoming motivated to sexually kill, deciding to sexually kill, and acting on that desire, intention, and opportunity. To date, no comprehensive model of sexual murdering from the offending perspective has been proposed in the criminological literature. This article incorporates the works of Akers and Cohen and Felson regarding their social learning theory and routine activities theory, respectively, to construct an integrated conceptual offending framework in sexual homicide. This integrated model produces a stronger and more comprehensive explanation of sexual murder than any single theory currently available.

  1. Aligning Coordination Class Theory with a New Context: Applying a Theory of Individual Learning to Group Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth-Cohen, Lauren A.; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an empirical analysis of conceptual difficulties encountered and ways students made progress in learning at both individual and group levels in a classroom environment in which the students used an embodied modeling activity to make sense of a specific scientific scenario. The theoretical framework, coordination class theory,…

  2. Aligning Theory and Design: The Development of an Online Learning Intervention to Teach Evidence-based Practice for Maximal Reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delagran, Louise; Vihstadt, Corrie; Evans, Roni

    2015-09-01

    Online educational interventions to teach evidence-based practice (EBP) are a promising mechanism for overcoming some of the barriers to incorporating research into practice. However, attention must be paid to aligning strategies with adult learning theories to achieve optimal outcomes. We describe the development of a series of short self-study modules, each covering a small set of learning objectives. Our approach, informed by design-based research (DBR), involved 6 phases: analysis, design, design evaluation, redesign, development/implementation, and evaluation. Participants were faculty and students in 3 health programs at a complementary and integrative educational institution. We chose a reusable learning object approach that allowed us to apply 4 main learning theories: events of instruction, cognitive load, dual processing, and ARCS (attention, relevance, confidence, satisfaction). A formative design evaluation suggested that the identified theories and instructional approaches were likely to facilitate learning and motivation. Summative evaluation was based on a student survey (N=116) that addressed how these theories supported learning. Results suggest that, overall, the selected theories helped students learn. The DBR approach allowed us to evaluate the specific intervention and theories for general applicability. This process also helped us define and document the intervention at a level of detail that covers almost all the proposed Guideline for Reporting Evidence-based practice Educational intervention and Teaching (GREET) items. This thorough description will facilitate the interpretation of future research and implementation of the intervention. Our approach can also serve as a model for others considering online EBP intervention development.

  3. Developing a knowledge based generic theory of e-learning – and some implications for the design of e-learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik

    2014-01-01

    This brief paper offers a broad comprehensive definition: E-learning is the adaptation, sharing and development of knowledge which is mediated or partly mediated through digital media. In this definition both the organized formal and the informal e-learning is addressed. The definition...... is a starting point in a process of developing a reflexive theory of e-learing. In accordance with this the paper suggesting a design structure for e-learning with focus on different domains of knowledge....

  4. DIALOGIC LEARNING AND ITS CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Prieto

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the contributions of the dialogic learning approach toeducational theory, with the aim of providing some orientations in order to promoteegalitarian and scientific educational practice. The seven principles of dialogic learningare discussed, along with other reproductionist theories and practices from the educationalfield, demonstrating how the former both surpass the latter. The article also reflectsopen dialogue with the critical theories of education which the dialogic learningtheory is based on. These basic theories are, on the one hand, by authors who are distantin time but very close in their educational approach, such as Ferrer i Guàrdia, Vygotsky,or Paulo Freire, and, on the other hand, by other contemporary authors in critical pedagogy.Each of the seven principles presented are provided along with a critical examinationof a specific educational practice. The consequences of the implementation of dialogiclearning are underlined here through an analysis of innovative and critical educationalprojects which are academically successful.

  5. Midwifery students learning experiences in labor wards: a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstad, Anne; Hjälmhult, Esther

    2014-12-01

    The labor ward is an important and challenging learning area for midwifery students. It is there the students learn in authentic complex situations, in intimate situations, with potential risk for the life and health of mothers and their babies. The aim of this study was to explore the main concern expressed by midwifery students in labor wards and how they handled this concern. A longitudinal study based on grounded theory methodology was used. The participants were 10 postgraduate midwifery students, from a University College in Norway. Data were gathered and analyzed throughout the 2-year postgraduate program, in the students first, third and fourth semesters. Every student was interviewed three times in a total of 15 single and three focus-group sessions. The grounded theory of "building relationships" explains how students dealt with their main concern: "how to gain access to learning experiences". This theory consisted of three strategies; a) controlling vulnerability, b) cultivating trust and c) obtaining acceptance. Clarifying discussions involving midwives and students may facilitate the process of building relationships and contribute to confident learning. Students appreciate it when the midwives initiate discussions about acute situations and state that a novice may perceive labor and childbirth as more frightening than an experienced midwife would. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interrogative suggestibility, confabulation, and acquiescence in people with mild learning disabilities (mental handicap): implications for reliability during police interrogations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, I C; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-09-01

    In order to assess a criminal suspect's ability to make a reliable statement, performance on three measures--interrogative suggestibility, confabulation and acquiescence--may be used. This paper presents preliminary data on these measures for people with mild learning disabilities (Full Scale IQ [FSIQ]: 57-75). It was found that they were more suggestible than their average ability counterparts (FSIQ: 83-111) because they were much more susceptible to 'leading questions'. They also confabulated more and were more acquiescent. Overall, the data emphasized their potential vulnerability to giving erroneous testimony during interrogations.

  7. Concept-Based Learning in Clinical Experiences: Bringing Theory to Clinical Education for Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Ann

    2016-07-01

    Concept-based learning is used increasingly in nursing education to support the organization, transfer, and retention of knowledge. Concept-based learning activities (CBLAs) have been used in clinical education to explore key aspects of the patient situation and principles of nursing care, without responsibility for total patient care. The nature of best practices in teaching and the resultant learning are not well understood. The purpose of this multiple-case study research was to explore and describe concept-based learning in the context of clinical education in inpatient settings. Four clinical groups (each a case) were observed while they used CBLAs in the clinical setting. Major findings include that concept-based learning fosters deep learning, connection of theory with practice, and clinical judgment. Strategies used to support learning, major teaching-learning foci, and preconditions for concept-based teaching and learning will be described. Concept-based learning is promising to support integration of theory with practice and clinical judgment through application experiences with patients. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(7):365-371.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. PAL driven organizational learning theory and practices a light on learning journey of organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Chuah, Kong

    2015-01-01

    Presenting an innovative concept and approach for organization management, this book serves to document an organization’s journey towards the ultimate goal of learning organization. This book also shares the experience on how a OL framework built on established learning theories, could be used effectively, overcoming many of the barriers in a real industrial setting. Utilizing a ready-to-use tool called Project Action Learning (PAL) to analyze real life case studies, the authors introduce a framework that allows teams of people to work and learn over the course of business projects. Equal emphasis is placed on the achievement of pre-set project outcomes and the learning objectives of the participants. In addition, a long term organizational learning strategy is put forward and the necessary supporting infrastructure, in the form of four ‘PAL Pillars’, is described. The concepts and development of the PAL driven Organizational Learning model are inspired by, and grounded in, Western and Eastern business ...

  9. What learning theories can teach us in designing neurofeedback treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehl, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Popular definitions of neurofeedback point out that neurofeedback is a process of operant conditioning which leads to self-regulation of brain activity. Self-regulation of brain activity is considered to be a skill. The aim of this paper is to clarify that not only operant conditioning plays a role in the acquisition of this skill. In order to design the learning process additional references have to be derived from classical conditioning, two-process-theory and in particular from skill learning and research into motivational aspects. The impact of learning by trial and error, cueing of behavior, feedback, reinforcement, and knowledge of results as well as transfer of self-regulation skills into everyday life will be analyzed in this paper. In addition to these learning theory basics this paper tries to summarize the knowledge about acquisition of self-regulation from neurofeedback studies with a main emphasis on clinical populations. As a conclusion it is hypothesized that learning to self-regulate has to be offered in a psychotherapeutic, i.e., behavior therapy framework.

  10. What learning theories can teach us in designing neurofeedback treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute eStrehl

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Popular definitions of neurofeedback point out that neurofeedback is a process of operant conditioning which leads to self-regulation of brain activity. Self-regulation of brain activity is considered to be a skill. The aim of this paper is to clarify that not only operant conditioning plays a role in the acquisition of this skill. In order to design the learning process additional references have to be derived from classical conditioning, two-process-theory and in particular from skill learning and research into motivational aspects. The impact of learning by trial and error, cueing of behavior, feedback, reinforcement, and knowledge of results as well as transfer of self-regulation skills into everyday life will be analyzed in this paper. In addition to these learning theory basics this paper tries to summarize the knowledge about acquisition of self-regulation from neurofeedback studies with a main emphasis on clinical populations. As a conclusion it is hypothesized that learning to self-regulate has to be offered in a psychotherapeutic, i.e. behavior therapy framework.

  11. Connectivism: A knowledge learning theory for the digital age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, John Gerard Scott

    2016-10-01

    The emergence of the internet, particularly Web 2.0 has provided access to the views and opinions of a wide range of individuals opening up opportunities for new forms of communication and knowledge formation. Previous ways of navigating and filtering available information are likely to prove ineffective in these new contexts. Connectivism is one of the most prominent of the network learning theories which have been developed for e-learning environments. It is beginning to be recognized by medical educators. This article aims to examine connectivism and its potential application. The conceptual framework and application of connectivism are presented along with an outline of the main criticisms. Its potential application in medical education is then considered. While connectivism provides a useful lens through which teaching and learning using digital technologies can be better understood and managed, further development and testing is required. There is unlikely to be a single theory that will explain learning in technological enabled networks. Educators have an important role to play in online network learning.

  12. Learning Theory Bases of Communicative Methodology and the Notional/Functional Syllabus

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline D., Beebe

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the learning theories that underlie the philosophy and practices known as communicative language teaching methodology. These theories are identified first as a reaction against the behavioristic learning theory of audiolingualism. Approaches to syllabus design based on both the "weak" version of communicative language teaching-learning to use the second language-and the "strong" version-using the second language to learn it-are examined. The application of cognitive theory...

  13. The application of learning theory in horse training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLean, Andrew N.; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2017-01-01

    additional techniques (approach conditioning and stimulus blending). The salience of different types of cues, the interaction of operant and classical conditioning and the impact of stress are also discussed. This paper also exposes the inflexibility and occasional inadequacy of the terminology of learning...... on the correct application of learning theory, and safety and welfare benefits for people and horses would follow. Finally it is also proposed that the term ‘conflict theory’ be taken up in equitation science to facilitate diagnosis of training-related behaviour disorders and thus enable the emergence...

  14. Theory-generating practice. Proposing a principle for learning design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2016-01-01

    This contribution proposes a principle for learning design – Theory-Generating Practice (TGP) – as an alternative to the way university courses are traditionally taught and structured, with a series of theoretical lectures isolated from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project...... building, and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP, contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics, and discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP. Finally, three...

  15. Use of the Learning together technique associated to the theory of significative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester López Donoso

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with an experimental research, regarding a qualitative and quantitative design, applied to a group of students of General Physics course during the first semester of the university career of Engineering. Historically, students of this course present learning difficulties that directly affect their performance, conceptualization and permanence in the university. The present methodology integrates the collaborative learning, denominated Learning Together", with the theory of significant learning to avoid the above-written difficulties. Results of this research show that the proposed methodology works properly, especially to improve the conceptualization.

  16. Learning semantic query suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Bron, M.; Hollink, L.; Huurnink, B.; de Rijke, M.

    2009-01-01

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide

  17. Gallery Educators as Adult Learners: The Active Application of Adult Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Kimberly H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand the importance of adult learning theory to museum educators' work, and that of their profession at large, museum professionals must address the need for more adult learning research and practice in museums--particularly work informed by existing theory and work seeking to generate new theory. Adult learning theory…

  18. Continuing education in athletic training: an alternative approach based on adult learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitney, W A

    1998-01-01

    To offer an alternative perspective on current continuing education practices and to propose a model for facilitating continuing education in the athletic training workplace. Professional knowledge can quickly become outdated, and the personal/professional contexts of allied medical fields such as athletic training are becoming increasingly more complex, making continuing education paramount. Adult learning theory suggests that individuals are self- directed, autonomous learners in nature and that experience is a rich source for learning, subsequently making the workplace a fruitful environment in which to engage in continuing education. Unfortunately, mandating continuing education may violate the voluntary nature of adult learning, making the practice questionable. Therefore, alternative aspects of continuing education may be helpful. This article consists of a brief synthesis of related literature that offers an alternative perspective of continuing education and proposes a model for facilitating continuing education in the workplace. The model's foundation includes preparing an environment conducive to learning and then focuses on identifying learning needs, setting goals, implementing specific strategies to facilitate self-directed learning, and assessing leaming. Additionally, the model suggests that ongoing reflection is a key factor in enhancing the identification of learning needs, goals, and strategies. The model may best be used by clinical coordinators, directors, and supervisors to better facilitate employee learning and subsequently improve patient care delivery.

  19. UNIVERSITY TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS: REFLECTIONS THROUGHOUT THE AGENCY THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Jacques Parraguez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses some reasons that might explain the insufficient academic level which is perceived in universities of developing countries. The discussion element is the teacher-student relationship which is studied under the perspective of the agency theory. It is concluded that in absence of efficient monitoring mechanisms of the teacher and student’s behavior might proliferate gaps of due diligence which attempts against the quality of the teaching-learning process.

  20. Personalised Learning Object System Based on Self-Regulated Learning Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alharbi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulated learning has become an important construct in education research in the last few years. Selfregulated learning in its simple form is the learner’s ability to monitor and control the learning process. There is increasing research in the literature on how to support students become more self-regulated learners. However, the advancement in the information technology has led to paradigm changes in the design and development of educational content. The concept of learning object instructional technology has emerged as a result of this shift in educational technology paradigms. This paper presents the results of a study that investigated the potential educational effectiveness of a pedagogical framework based on the self-regulated learning theories to support the design of learning object systems to help computer science students. A prototype learning object system was developed based on the contemporary research on self-regulated learning. The system was educationally evaluated in a quasi-experimental study over two semesters in a core programming languages concepts course. The evaluation revealed that a learning object system that takes into consideration contemporary research on self-regulated learning can be an effective learning environment to support computer science education.

  1. Assessment of Student Performance in a PSI College Physics Course Using Ausubel's Learning Theory as a Theoretical Framework for Content Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriera, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    David Ausubel's learning theory was used as a framework for the content organization of an experimental Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) course in physics. Evaluation suggests that the combination of PSI as a method of instruction and Ausubel's theory for organization might result in better learning outcomes. (Author/JMD)

  2. From the social learning theory to a social learning algorithm for global optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Yue-Jiao; Zhang, Jun; Li, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, the Evolutionary Computation (EC) paradigm is inspired by Darwinian evolution or the swarm intelligence of animals. Bandura's Social Learning Theory pointed out that the social learning behavior of humans indicates a high level of intelligence in nature. We found that such intelligence of human society can be implemented by numerical computing and be utilized in computational algorithms for solving optimization problems. In this paper, we design a novel and generic optimization...

  3. Bridging Theory and Practice: Developing Guidelines to Facilitate the Design of Computer-based Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa D. Young

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The design of computer-based learning environments has undergone a paradigm shift; moving students away from instruction that was considered to promote technical rationality grounded in objectivism, to the application of computers to create cognitive tools utilized in constructivist environments. The goal of the resulting computer-based learning environment design principles is to have students learn with technology, rather than from technology. This paper reviews the general constructivist theory that has guided the development of these environments, and offers suggestions for the adaptation of modest, generic guidelines, not mandated principles, that can be flexibly applied and allow for the expression of true constructivist ideals in online learning environments.

  4. Neural coding of basic reward terms of animal learning theory, game theory, microeconomics and behavioural ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2004-04-01

    Neurons in a small number of brain structures detect rewards and reward-predicting stimuli and are active during the expectation of predictable food and liquid rewards. These neurons code the reward information according to basic terms of various behavioural theories that seek to explain reward-directed learning, approach behaviour and decision-making. The involved brain structures include groups of dopamine neurons, the striatum including the nucleus accumbens, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. The reward information is fed to brain structures involved in decision-making and organisation of behaviour, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and possibly the parietal cortex. The neural coding of basic reward terms derived from formal theories puts the neurophysiological investigation of reward mechanisms on firm conceptual grounds and provides neural correlates for the function of rewards in learning, approach behaviour and decision-making.

  5. What can governance theory learn from complexity theory? Mirroring two perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F.M. Koppenjan (Joop); E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Recently the New Public Governance (NPG) has been suggested as an alternative paradigm to the traditional Public Administration Model (PAM) and New Public Management (NPM). NPG strongly builds upon Governance Network Theory (GNT). This suggestion assumes that the

  6. Economics of Distance and Online Learning Theory, Practice and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reviewed by TOJDE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Economics of Distance and Online LearningTheory, Practice and ResearchBy William Bramble & Santosh PandaPrice: $125.00ISBN: 978-0-415-96388-6, Binding: Hardback, Publishedby: Routledge, New York, Publication Date: March 2008, Pages: 312TOJDEABOUT THE BOOKThis book provides a comprehensive overview of theorganizational models of distance and online learning froman international perspective and from the point of view ofeconomic planning, costing and management decisionmaking.The book points to directions for the further research anddevelopment in this area, and will promote furtherunderstanding and critical reflection on the part ofadministrators, practitioners and researchers of distanceeducation.The experiences and perspectives in distance education inthe US are balanced with those in other areas of the world.Table of ContentsPrefaceSECTION ONE: INTRODUCTIONChapter 1: Organizational and Cost Structures for Distanceand Online Learning, William J. Bramble and Santosh PandaSECTION TWO: PLANNING AND MANAGEMENTChapter 2: Changing Distance Education andChanging Organizational Issues, D. Randy Garrison and Heather KanukaChapter 3: Online Learning and the University, Chris Curran217Chapter 4: Virtual Schooling and Basic Education, Thomas ClarkChapter 5: Historical Perspectives on Distance Education in the United States, Paul J.Edelson and Von PittmanSECTION THREE: FUNDINGChapter 6: Funding of Distance and Online Learning in the United States, Mark J. Smithand William J. BrambleChapter 7: Funding Distance Education: A Regional Perspective, Santosh Panda andAshok GabaSECTION FOUR: COST STRUCTURES AND MODELSChapter 8: Costs and Quality of Online Learning, Alistair InglisChapter 9: Costing Virtual University Education, Insung JungChapter 10: Cost-Benefit of Student Retention Policies and Practices, Ormond SimpsonSECTION FIVE: DISTANCE TRAININGChapter 11: Cost Benefit of Online Learning, Zane Berge and Charlotte DonaldsonChapter 12: Transforming Workplace

  7. Academic learning for specialist nurses: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millberg, Lena German; Berg, Linda; Brämberg, Elisabeth Björk; Nordström, Gun; Ohlén, Joakim

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to explore the major concerns of specialist nurses pertaining to academic learning during their education and initial professional career. Specialist nursing education changed in tandem with the European educational reform in 2007. At the same time, greater demands were made on the healthcare services to provide evidence-based and safe patient-care. These changes have influenced specialist nursing programmes and consequently the profession. Grounded Theory guided the study. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire with open-ended questions distributed at the end of specialist nursing programmes in 2009 and 2010. Five universities were included. Further, individual, pair and group interviews were used to collect data from 12 specialist nurses, 5-14 months after graduation. A major concern for specialist nurses was that academic learning should be "meaningful" for their professional future. The specialist nurses' "meaningful academic learning process" was characterised by an ambivalence of partly believing in and partly being hesitant about the significance of academic learning and partly receiving but also lacking support. Specialist nurses were influenced by factors in two areas: curriculum and healthcare context. They felt that the outcome of contribution to professional confidence was critical in making academic learning meaningful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychological theory and pedagogical effectiveness: the learning promotion potential framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Peter

    2008-12-01

    After a century of educational psychology, eminent commentators are still lamenting problems besetting the appropriate relating of psychological insights to teaching design, a situation not helped by the persistence of crude assumptions concerning the nature of pedagogical effectiveness. To propose an analytical or meta-theoretical framework based on the concept of learning promotion potential (LPP) as a basis for understanding the basic relationship between psychological insights and teaching strategies, and to draw out implications for psychology-based pedagogical design, development and research. This is a theoretical and meta-theoretical paper relying mainly on conceptual analysis, though also calling on psychological theory and research. Since teaching consists essentially in activity designed to promote learning, it follows that a teaching strategy has the potential in principle to achieve particular kinds of learning gains (LPP) to the extent that it embodies or stimulates the relevant learning processes on the part of learners and enables the teacher's functions of on-line monitoring and assistance for such learning processes. Whether a teaching strategy actually does realize its LPP by way of achieving its intended learning goals depends also on the quality of its implementation, in conjunction with other factors in the situated interaction that teaching always involves. The core role of psychology is to provide well-grounded indication of the nature of such learning processes and the teaching functions that support them, rather than to directly generate particular ways of teaching. A critically eclectic stance towards potential sources of psychological insight is argued for. Applying this framework, the paper proposes five kinds of issue to be attended to in the design and evaluation of psychology-based pedagogy. Other work proposing comparable ideas is briefly reviewed, with particular attention to similarities and a key difference with the ideas of Oser

  9. On-the-Job Training and Social Learning Theory. A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    and discussed by Albert Bandura (47). The principles of social learning theory and learning from models are first described. Then a series of rules...developed by Bandura and his students (47, 48, 49) to be the most useful theory to account for observational learning and to provide a basis for...Learning Theory and Its Application 47. Bandura , A. Principles of Behavior Modification, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1969. 48. Bandura , A

  10. Teaching Theory Construction With Initial Grounded Theory Tools: A Reflection on Lessons and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmaz, Kathy

    2015-12-01

    This article addresses criticisms of qualitative research for spawning studies that lack analytic development and theoretical import. It focuses on teaching initial grounded theory tools while interviewing, coding, and writing memos for the purpose of scaling up the analytic level of students' research and advancing theory construction. Adopting these tools can improve teaching qualitative methods at all levels although doctoral education is emphasized here. What teachers cover in qualitative methods courses matters. The pedagogy presented here requires a supportive environment and relies on demonstration, collective participation, measured tasks, progressive analytic complexity, and accountability. Lessons learned from using initial grounded theory tools are exemplified in a doctoral student's coding and memo-writing excerpts that demonstrate progressive analytic development. The conclusion calls for increasing the number and depth of qualitative methods courses and for creating a cadre of expert qualitative methodologists. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Transitional clerkship: an experiential course based on workplace learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittenden, Eva H; Henry, Duncan; Saxena, Varun; Loeser, Helen; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2009-07-01

    Starting clerkships is anxiety provoking for medical students. To ease the transition from preclerkship to clerkship curricula, schools offer classroom-based courses which may not be the best model for preparing learners. Drawing from workplace learning theory, the authors developed a seven-day transitional clerkship (TC) in 2007 at the University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine in which students spent half of the course in the hospital, learning routines and logistics of the wards along with their roles and responsibilities as members of ward teams. Twice, they admitted and followed a patient into the next day as part of a shadow team that had no patient-care responsibilities. Dedicated preceptors gave feedback on oral presentations and patient write-ups. Satisfaction with the TC was higher than with the previous year's classroom-based course. TC students felt clearer about their roles and more confident in their abilities as third-year students compared with previous students. TC students continued to rate the transitional course highly after their first clinical rotation. Preceptors were enthusiastic about the course and expressed willingness to commit to future TC preceptorships. The transitional course models an approach to translating workplace learning theory into practice and demonstrates improved satisfaction, better understanding of roles, and increased confidence among new third-year students.

  12. The Role of the Constructivist Learning Theory and Collaborative Learning Environment on Wiki Classroom, and the Relationship between Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Ibraheem; Woollard, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to discover the relationship between both the social constructivist learning theory and the collaborative learning environment. This relationship can be identified by giving an example of the learning environment. Due to wiki characteristics, Wiki technology is one of the most famous learning environments that can show the…

  13. Analysis of ensemble learning using simple perceptrons based on online learning theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Seiji; Hara, Kazuyuki; Okada, Masato

    2005-03-01

    Ensemble learning of K nonlinear perceptrons, which determine their outputs by sign functions, is discussed within the framework of online learning and statistical mechanics. One purpose of statistical learning theory is to theoretically obtain the generalization error. This paper shows that ensemble generalization error can be calculated by using two order parameters, that is, the similarity between a teacher and a student, and the similarity among students. The differential equations that describe the dynamical behaviors of these order parameters are derived in the case of general learning rules. The concrete forms of these differential equations are derived analytically in the cases of three well-known rules: Hebbian learning, perceptron learning, and AdaTron (adaptive perceptron) learning. Ensemble generalization errors of these three rules are calculated by using the results determined by solving their differential equations. As a result, these three rules show different characteristics in their affinity for ensemble learning, that is “maintaining variety among students.” Results show that AdaTron learning is superior to the other two rules with respect to that affinity.

  14. Learning in Context: Technology Integration in a Teacher Preparation Program Informed by Situated Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Randy L.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Binns, Ian C.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation explores the effectiveness of a teacher preparation program aligned with situated learning theory on preservice science teachers' use of technology during their student teaching experiences. Participants included 26 preservice science teachers enrolled in a 2-year Master of Teaching program. A specific program goal was to…

  15. Some Behavioral and Neurobiological Constraints on Theories of Audiovisual Speech Integration: A Review and Suggestions for New Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Nicholas; Pisoni, David B.; Townsend, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Summerfield (1987) proposed several accounts of audiovisual speech perception, a field of research that has burgeoned in recent years. The proposed accounts included the integration of discrete phonetic features, vectors describing the values of independent acoustical and optical parameters, the filter function of the vocal tract, and articulatory dynamics of the vocal tract. The latter two accounts assume that the representations of audiovisual speech perception are based on abstract gestures, while the former two assume that the representations consist of symbolic or featural information obtained from visual and auditory modalities. Recent converging evidence from several different disciplines reveals that the general framework of Summerfield’s feature-based theories should be expanded. An updated framework building upon the feature-based theories is presented. We propose a processing model arguing that auditory and visual brain circuits provide facilitatory information when the inputs are correctly timed, and that auditory and visual speech representations do not necessarily undergo translation into a common code during information processing. Future research on multisensory processing in speech perception should investigate the connections between auditory and visual brain regions, and utilize dynamic modeling tools to further understand the timing and information processing mechanisms involved in audiovisual speech integration. PMID:21968081

  16. Utilizing Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory to Implement a Golf Scramble

    OpenAIRE

    Glenna G. Bower

    2013-01-01

    This study introduced how Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory was used across the four-mode learning cycle of abstract conceptualization, active experimentation, concrete experience and reflective observation as a pedagogical tool for implementing a golf scramble. The primary research question was to see whether Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory four-mode learning cycle was an effective means for implementing a the golf scramble. The participants of the experiential learning experience wer...

  17. Action learning in virtual higher education: applying leadership theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Joseph

    2016-05-03

    This paper reports the historical foundation of Northeastern University's course, LDR 6100: Developing Your Leadership Capability, a partial literature review of action learning (AL) and virtual action learning (VAL), a course methodology of LDR 6100 requiring students to apply leadership perspectives using VAL as instructed by the author, questionnaire and survey results of students who evaluated the effectiveness of their application of leadership theories using VAL and insights believed to have been gained by the author administering VAL. Findings indicate most students thought applying leadership perspectives using AL was better than considering leadership perspectives not using AL. In addition as implemented in LDR 6100, more students evaluated VAL positively than did those who assessed VAL negatively.

  18. Learning Theory and Equity Valuation: an Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zoratto Sanvicente

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tested the Pástor and Veronesi (2003 hypothesis that the market-to-book ratio (M/B is negatively related to the number of years (age during which a firm has had its stock traded on an Exchange. The predicted decline takes place as a result of a learning process by investors. The authors tested this implication in the U.S. market using the Fama-MacBeth (1973 methodology. In the present article a more general econometric approach is adopted, with the use of panel data and fixed-factor regressors, with data for stocks traded at the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BOVESPA. The evidence does not reject the Pástor and Veronesi hypothesis. Additional conjectures were tested regarding the learning process. These tests indicate that the greater availability of data on a company amplifies the effect of the age variable on the M/B ratio, implying a more accelerated learning process. This paper concludes that the evidence for the Brazilian market supports the theory that investors learn.

  19. Application of Learning Theories on Medical Imaging Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama A. Mabrouk Kheiralla

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the education process is that student must learn well rather than the educators to teach well. If radiologists get involved in the process of medical education, it is important for them to do it through sound knowledge of how students learn. Researches have proved that most of the teachers in the field of medical education including diagnostic imaging are actually doctors or technicians, who didn’t have an opportunity to study the basics of learning. Mostly they have gained their knowledge through watching other educators, and they mostly rely on their personal skills and experience in doing their job. This will hinder them from conveying knowledge in an effective and scientific way, and they will find themselves lagging away behind the latest advances in the field of medical education and educational research, which will lead to negative cognitive outcomes among learners. This article presents an overview of three of the most influential basic theories of learning, upon which many teachers rely in their practical applications, which must be considered by radiologist who act as medical educators.

  20. The Learning Organization and Some Other Modern Theories of Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarman, Barry

    2003-01-01

    In the first part, Dr Sugarman reviewed several recent theories of management and their relevance to NPP management. These theories encompass basic aspects like bureaucracy, un-bureaucracy, quality and excellence, re-engineering, knowledge management, emotional intelligence and learning organisation. Dr Sugarman discussed evolution from the Old Paradigm (Bureaucracy) to the New One (Learning Organization), defining the main aspects of both models, that can be summarises primarily in regards to strategy and structure. In terms of strategy, the new paradigm moves away from being largely inflexible to a much more dynamic environment whereby innovation is encouraged as opposed to performing in the prescribed manner whether suitable or not. The structural changes in the new model are also evident. There has been a marked move away from a hierarchical 'top down' approach to a much flatter structure that encourages less empire building and more openness between teams of various. This ensures a much greater understanding by the whole organisation of what is happening. Dr Sugarman centred his talk on the new model and how this has affected the development of the current situation. The Learning Organisation, according to the definition of Peter Senge in The Fifth Discipline (1990), is an organisation where people continually expand their capacity to create results they truly desire, and where the people are continually learning how to learn together. The movements behind increasing quality introduced a new model into industry based on Production, where workers became responsible for quality assurance instead of quality controls being reviewed by inspectors. All the employees share responsibility for learning how to improve continuously. That means, complete involvement of all staff. Following on from this, the Quality Revolution made appearance and was driven by extra attention to the customer. Out-sourcing became common and the 'Internal customer' became more common. All

  1. Processes of Self-Regulated Learning in Music Theory in Elementary Music Schools in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Barbara Smolej; Peklaj, Cirila

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was determine how students regulate their learning in music theory (MT). The research is based on the socio-cognitive theory of learning. The aim of our study was twofold: first, to design the instruments for measuring (meta)cognitive and affective-motivational processes in learning MT, and, second, to examine the relationship…

  2. Using Active-Learning Pedagogy to Develop Essay-Writing Skills in Introductory Political Theory Tutorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael P. A.

    2017-01-01

    Building on prior research into active learning pedagogy in political science, I discuss the development of a new active learning strategy called the "thesis-building carousel," designed for use in political theory tutorials. This use of active learning pedagogy in a graduate student-led political theory tutorial represents the overlap…

  3. The Application of Carl Rogers' Person-Centered Learning Theory to Web-Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher T.

    This paper provides a review of literature that relates research on Carl Rogers' person-centered learning theory to Web-based learning. Based on the review of the literature, a set of criteria is described that can be used to determine how closely a Web-based course matches the different components of Rogers' person-centered learning theory. Using…

  4. Cooperative Learning: Improving University Instruction by Basing Practice on Validated Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.; Smith, Karl A.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is an example of how theory validated by research may be applied to instructional practice. The major theoretical base for cooperative learning is social interdependence theory. It provides clear definitions of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. Hundreds of research studies have validated its basic…

  5. Learning Study: Helping Teachers to Use Theory, Develop Professionally, and Produce New Knowledge to Be Shared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ming Fai; Ling, Lo Mun

    2012-01-01

    The lesson study approach is a systematic process for producing professional knowledge about teaching by teachers, and has spread rapidly and extensively in the United States. The learning study approach is essentially a kind of lesson study with an explicit learning theory--the variation theory of learning. In this paper, we argue that having an…

  6. Learning Styles of Baccalaureate Nursing Students and Attitudes toward Theory-Based Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschinger, Heather K.; Boss, Marvin K.

    1989-01-01

    The personal and environmental factors related to undergraduate and post-RN nursing students' attitudes toward theory-based nursing from Kolb's experiential learning theory perspective were investigated. Learning style and environmental press perceptions were found to be related to attitudes toward theory-based nursing. (Author/MLW)

  7. A Critical Comparison of Transformation and Deep Approach Theories of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Peter; Bagnall, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a critical comparative analysis of two popular and significant theories of adult learning: the transformation and the deep approach theories of learning. These theories are operative in different educational sectors, are significant, respectively, in each, and they may be seen as both touching on similar concerns with learning…

  8. The specificity of parenting effects: Differential relations of parent praise and criticism to children's theories of intelligence and learning goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Donnellan, M Brent; Robins, Richard W; Trzesniewski, Kali H

    2018-04-24

    Individuals who believe that intelligence can be improved with effort (an incremental theory of intelligence) and who approach challenges with the goal of improving their understanding (a learning goal) tend to have higher academic achievement. Furthermore, parent praise is associated with children's incremental theories and learning goals. However, the influences of parental criticism, as well as different forms of praise and criticism (e.g., process vs. person), have received less attention. We examine these associations by analyzing two existing datasets (Study 1: N = 317 first to eighth graders; Study 2: N = 282 fifth and eighth graders). In both studies, older children held more incremental theories of intelligence, but lower learning goals, than younger children. Unexpectedly, the relation between theories of intelligence and learning goals was nonsignificant and did not vary with children's grade level. In both studies, overall perceived parent praise positively related to children's learning goals, whereas perceived parent criticism negatively related to incremental theories of intelligence. In Study 2, perceived parent process praise was the only significant (positive) predictor of children's learning goals, whereas perceived parent person criticism was the only significant (negative) predictor of incremental theories of intelligence. Finally, Study 2 provided some support for our hypothesis that age-related differences in perceived parent praise and criticism can explain age-related differences in children's learning goals. Results suggest that incremental theories of intelligence and learning goals might not be strongly related during childhood and that perceived parent praise and criticism have important, but distinct, relations with each motivational construct. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A neurocomputational theory of how explicit learning bootstraps early procedural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Erick J; Ashby, F Gregory

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that human learning and memory is mediated by multiple memory systems that are each best suited to different requirements and demands. Within the domain of categorization, at least two systems are thought to facilitate learning: an explicit (declarative) system depending largely on the prefrontal cortex, and a procedural (non-declarative) system depending on the basal ganglia. Substantial evidence suggests that each system is optimally suited to learn particular categorization tasks. However, it remains unknown precisely how these systems interact to produce optimal learning and behavior. In order to investigate this issue, the present research evaluated the progression of learning through simulation of categorization tasks using COVIS, a well-known model of human category learning that includes both explicit and procedural learning systems. Specifically, the model's parameter space was thoroughly explored in procedurally learned categorization tasks across a variety of conditions and architectures to identify plausible interaction architectures. The simulation results support the hypothesis that one-way interaction between the systems occurs such that the explicit system "bootstraps" learning early on in the procedural system. Thus, the procedural system initially learns a suboptimal strategy employed by the explicit system and later refines its strategy. This bootstrapping could be from cortical-striatal projections that originate in premotor or motor regions of cortex, or possibly by the explicit system's control of motor responses through basal ganglia-mediated loops.

  10. A Neurocomputational Theory of how Explicit Learning Bootstraps Early Procedural Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Joseph Paul

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that human learning and memory is mediated by multiple memory systems that are each best suited to different requirements and demands. Within the domain of categorization, at least two systems are thought to facilitate learning: an explicit (declarative system depending largely on the prefrontal cortex, and a procedural (non-declarative system depending on the basal ganglia. Substantial evidence suggests that each system is optimally suited to learn particular categorization tasks. However, it remains unknown precisely how these systems interact to produce optimal learning and behavior. In order to investigate this issue, the present research evaluated the progression of learning through simulation of categorization tasks using COVIS, a well-known model of human category learning that includes both explicit and procedural learning systems. Specifically, the model's parameter space was thoroughly explored in procedurally learned categorization tasks across a variety of conditions and architectures to identify plausible interaction architectures. The simulation results support the hypothesis that one-way interaction between the systems occurs such that the explicit system "bootstraps" learning early on in the procedural system. Thus, the procedural system initially learns a suboptimal strategy employed by the explicit system and later refines its strategy. This bootstrapping could be from cortical-striatal projections that originate in premotor or motor regions of cortex, or possibly by the explicit system’s control of motor responses through basal ganglia-mediated loops.

  11. A qualitative study of middle school students' perceptions of factors facilitating the learning of science: Grounded theory and existing theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Barbara S.; Gibson, Charles W.

    The purpose of this study was to explore middle school students' perceptions of what factors facilitated their learning of science. Florida's Educational Reform Act of 1983 funded programs providing the state's precollege students with summer learning opportunities in science. mathematics, and computers. The programs were intended to encourage the development of creative approaches to the teaching of these disciplines. Under this program, between 50 and 60 high-achieving middle school students were in residence on the University of South Florida campus for 12 consecutive days of study in the World of Water (WOW) program. There were two sessions per summer involving a total of 572 participants. Eighi specially trained teachers were in residence with the students. Between 50 and 70 experts from the university, government. business, and industry interacted with the students each year in an innovative science/technology/society (STS) program. An assignment toward the close of the program asked students to reflect on their experiences in residence at the university and write an essay comparing learning in the WOW program to learning in their schools. Those essays were the base for this study. This was a qualitative study using a discursive approach to emergent design to generate grounded theory. Document review, participant observation, and open-ended interviews were used to gather and triangulate data in five phases. Some of the factors that middle school students perceived as helpful to learning science were (a) experiencing the situations about which they were learning; (b) having live presentations by professional experts; (c) doing hands-on activities: (d) being active learners; (e) using inductive reasoning to generate new knowledge; (f) exploring transdisciplinary approaches to problem solving; (g) having adult mentors; (h) interacting with peers and adults; (i) establishing networks; (j) having close personal friends who shared their interest in learning; (k

  12. Implicit and explicit theories in the teaching and learning processes of music theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Roa Ordoñez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the characteristics of similarity and divergence between the pedagogical discourse of teachers and their performance in the classroom, from the different educational paradigms that guide, today, the educational events. The teaching and learning of music theory constitute the backbone of the proposed curriculum of the Department of Music, which has implications in the other musical areas and, therefore, the training program that orients the area of music theory, requires an assessment of the impacts and effects caused by the performance of the teacher in charge of running this course as an essential condition to establish elements of building and transfer of knowledge in each of the disciplines that make up the curricular structure of the Department of Music.

  13. Applications of operant learning theory to the management of challenging behavior after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Rodger Ll; Alderman, Nick

    2011-01-01

    For more than 3 decades, interventions derived from learning theory have been delivered within a neurobehavioral framework to manage challenging behavior after traumatic brain injury with the aim of promoting engagement in the rehabilitation process and ameliorating social handicap. Learning theory provides a conceptual structure that facilitates our ability to understand the relationship between challenging behavior and environmental contingencies, while accommodating the constraints upon learning imposed by impaired cognition. Interventions derived from operant learning theory have most frequently been described in the literature because this method of associational learning provides good evidence for the effectiveness of differential reinforcement methods. This article therefore examines the efficacy of applying operant learning theory to manage challenging behavior after TBI as well as some of the limitations of this approach. Future developments in the application of learning theory are also considered.

  14. Expectancy-Value Theory in Persistence of Learning Effects in Schizophrenia: Role of Task Value and Perceived Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jimmy; Fiszdon, Joanna M.; Medalia, Alice

    2010-01-01

    Expectancy-value theory, a widely accepted model of motivation, posits that expectations of success on a learning task and the individual value placed on the task are central determinants of motivation to learn. This is supported by research in healthy controls suggesting that beliefs of self-and-content mastery can be so influential they can predict the degree of improvement on challenging cognitive tasks even more so than general cognitive ability. We examined components of expectancy-value...

  15. The Implementation of Cumulative Learning Theory in Calculating Triangular Prism and Tube Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muklis, M.; Abidin, C.; Pamungkas, M. D.; Masriyah

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at describing the application of cumulative learning theory in calculating the volume of a triangular prism and a tube as well as revealing the students’ responses toward the learning. The research method used was descriptive qualitative with elementary school students as the subjects of the research. Data obtained through observation, field notes, questionnaire, tests, and interviews. The results from the application of cumulative learning theory obtained positive students’ responses in following the learning and students’ learning outcomes was dominantly above the average. This showed that cumulative learning could be used as a reference to be implemented in learning, so as to improve the students’ achievement.

  16. Toward a theory of childhood learning disorders, hyperactivity, and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Anthony R

    2012-01-01

    Learning disorders are often associated with persistent hyperactivity and aggression and are part of a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. A potential clue to understanding these linked phenomena is that physical exercise and passive forms of stimulation are calming, enhance cognitive functions and learning, and are recommended as complementary treatments for these problems. The theory is proposed that hyperactivity and aggression are intense stimulation-seeking behaviors (SSBs) driven by increased brain retinergic activity, and the stimulation thus obtained activates opposing nitrergic systems which inhibit retinergic activity, induce a state of calm, and enhance cognition and learning. In persons with cognitive deficits and associated behavioral disorders, the retinergic system may be chronically overactivated and the nitrergic system chronically underactivated due to environmental exposures occurring pre- and/or postnatally that affect retinoid metabolism or expression. For such individuals, the intensity of stimulation generated by SSB may be insufficient to activate the inhibitory nitrergic system. A multidisciplinary research program is needed to test the model and, in particular, to determine the extent to which applied physical treatments can activate the nitrergic system directly, providing the necessary level of intensity of sensory stimulation to substitute for that obtained in maladaptive and harmful ways by SSB, thereby reducing SSB and enhancing cognitive skills and performance.

  17. Designing the Electronic Classroom: Applying Learning Theory and Ergonomic Design Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Mark; Wilkinson, Frances C.

    2001-01-01

    Applies learning theory and ergonomic principles to the design of effective learning environments for library instruction. Discusses features of electronic classroom ergonomics, including the ergonomics of physical space, environmental factors, and workstations; and includes classroom layouts. (Author/LRW)

  18. Observational attachment theory-based parenting measures predict children's attachment narratives independently from social learning theory-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Carla; O'Connor, Thomas G; Futh, Annabel; Scott, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Conceptually and methodologically distinct models exist for assessing quality of parent-child relationships, but few studies contrast competing models or assess their overlap in predicting developmental outcomes. Using observational methodology, the current study examined the distinctiveness of attachment theory-based and social learning theory-based measures of parenting in predicting two key measures of child adjustment: security of attachment narratives and social acceptance in peer nominations. A total of 113 5-6-year-old children from ethnically diverse families participated. Parent-child relationships were rated using standard paradigms. Measures derived from attachment theory included sensitive responding and mutuality; measures derived from social learning theory included positive attending, directives, and criticism. Child outcomes were independently-rated attachment narrative representations and peer nominations. Results indicated that Attachment theory-based and Social Learning theory-based measures were modestly correlated; nonetheless, parent-child mutuality predicted secure child attachment narratives independently of social learning theory-based measures; in contrast, criticism predicted peer-nominated fighting independently of attachment theory-based measures. In young children, there is some evidence that attachment theory-based measures may be particularly predictive of attachment narratives; however, no single model of measuring parent-child relationships is likely to best predict multiple developmental outcomes. Assessment in research and applied settings may benefit from integration of different theoretical and methodological paradigms.

  19. IMPROVING TRUST THROUGH ETHICAL LEADERSHIP: MOVING BEYOND THE SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY TO A HISTORICAL LEARNING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omoregie Charles Osifo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The complex nature of trust and its evolving relative concepts require a more idealistic and simpler review. Ethical leadership is related to trust, honesty, transparency, compassion, empathy, results-orientedness, and many other behavioral attributes. Ethical leadership and good leadership are the same, because they represent practicing what one preaches or showing a way to the accomplishment of set goals. The outcomes and findings of many research papers on trust and ethical leadership report positive correlations between ethical leadership and trust. Improving trust from different rational standpoints requires moving and looking beyond the popular theoretical framework through which most results are derived in order to create a new thinking perspective. Social learning theory strongly emphasizes modelling while the new historical learning approach, proposed by the author, is defined as an approach that creates unique historical awareness among individuals, groups, institutions, societies, and nations to use previous experience(s or occurrence(s as a guide in developing positive opinion(s and framework(s in order to tackle the problems and issues of today and tomorrow. Social learning theory is seen as limited from the perspectives of balancing the equation between leadership and trust, the non-compatibility of the values of different generations at work, and other approaches and methods that support the historical approach. This paper is argumentative, adopts a writer´s perspective, and employs a logical analysis of the literature. The main contention is that a historical learning approach can inform an independent-learning to improve trust and its relatives (e.g. motivation and performance, because independent learning can positively shape the value of integrity, which is an integral part of ethical leadership. Historical learning can positively shape leadership in every perspective, because good leadership can develop based on history and

  20. An approach to children's smoking behavior using social cognitive learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Murat; Ozturk, Candan; Armstrong, Merry

    2010-01-01

    This review article discusses the theoretical principles of social cognitive learning theory and children's risk-taking behavior of cigarette smoking, along with preventive initiatives. Social cognitive learning theorists examine the behavior of initiating and sustained smoking using a social systems approach. The authors discuss the reciprocal determinism aspect of the theory as applied to the importance of individual factors, and environment and behavioral interactions that influence smoking behavior. Included is the concept of vicarious capability that suggests that smoking behavior is determined in response to and interaction with feedback provided by the environment. The principle of self-regulatory capability asserts that people have control over their own behavior and thus that behavior change is possible. The principle of self-efficacy proposes that high level of self-efficacy of an individual may decrease the behavior of attempting to or continuing to smoke. Examples of initiatives to be undertaken in order to prevent smoking in accordance with social cognitive learning theory are presented at the end of each principle.

  1. Applying Social Cognitive Theory to Academic Advising to Assess Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene

    2011-01-01

    Review of social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning is applied to academic advising for the purposes of assessing student learning. A brief overview of the history of student learning outcomes in higher education is followed by an explanation of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning constructs and how they…

  2. Using Game Theory and Competition-Based Learning to Stimulate Student Motivation and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguillo, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for using Game Theory tournaments as a base to implement Competition-based Learning (CnBL), together with other classical learning techniques, to motivate the students and increase their learning performance. The paper also presents a description of the learning activities performed along the past ten years of a…

  3. Students' approaches to learning in a clinical practicum: A psychometric evaluation based on item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Kuan, Hoi Kei; Chung, Joyce O K; Chan, Cecilia K Y; Li, William H C

    2018-07-01

    The investigation of learning approaches in the clinical workplace context has remained an under-researched area. Despite the validation of learning approach instruments and their applications in various clinical contexts, little is known about the extent to which an individual item, that reflects a specific learning strategy and motive, effectively contributes to characterizing students' learning approaches. This study aimed to measure nursing students' approaches to learning in a clinical practicum using the Approaches to Learning at Work Questionnaire (ALWQ). Survey research design was used in the study. A sample of year 3 nursing students (n = 208) who undertook a 6-week clinical practicum course participated in the study. Factor analyses were conducted, followed by an item response theory analysis, including model assumption evaluation (unidimensionality and local independence), item calibration and goodness-of-fit assessment. Two subscales, deep and surface, were derived. Findings suggested that: (a) items measuring the deep motive from intrinsic interest and deep strategies of relating new ideas to similar situations, and that of concept mapping served as the strongest discriminating indicators; (b) the surface strategy of memorizing facts and details without an overall picture exhibited the highest discriminating power among all surface items; and, (c) both subscales appeared to be informative in assessing a broad range of the corresponding latent trait. The 21-item ALWQ derived from this study presented an efficient, internally consistent and precise measure. Findings provided a useful psychometric evaluation of the ALWQ in the clinical practicum context, added evidence to the utility of the ALWQ for nursing education practice and research, and echoed the discussions from previous studies on the role of the contextual factors in influencing student choices of different learning strategies. They provided insights for clinical educators to measure

  4. The Place of Learning Quantum Theory in Physics Teacher Education: Motivational Elements Arising from the Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis

    2015-01-01

    Quantum theory is one of the most successful theories in physics. Because of its abstract, mathematical, and counter-intuitive nature, many students have problems learning the theory, just as teachers experience difficulty in teaching it. Pedagogical research on quantum theory has mainly focused on cognitive issues. However, affective issues about…

  5. Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory and Its Application in Geography in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Mick; Jenkins, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Describes David Kolb's experiential learning theory focusing on the main features of his theory. Applies Kolb's theory to the teaching of geography addressing ideas such as teaching how theories of gender explain aspects of suburbia, teaching a field course, and encouraging staff to rethink their teaching style. Include references. (CMK)

  6. Introducing Computers to Kindergarten Children Based on Vygotsky's Theory about Socio-Cultural Learning: The Greek Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pange, Jenny; Kontozisis, Dimitrios

    2001-01-01

    Greek preschoolers' level of knowledge about computers was examined as they participated in a classroom project to introduce them to new technologies. The project was based on Vygotsky's theory of socio-cultural learning. Findings suggest that this approach is a successful way to introduce new technologies to young children. (JPB)

  7. Learning about Learning: The Contributions of Ausubel's Assimilation Theory to a Teacher Education Program at the University of Vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Markley; Stowell, Mary Ellen

    An experiment employed cognitive based teaching and learning procedures in an undergraduate educational psychology course. The procedures were strongly influenced by David Ausubel's theory on learning and related skills. Ausubel defines effective learning as a process by which humans understand the structure of knowledge and consciously make…

  8. Computer-based teaching module design: principles derived from learning theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, K H Vincent

    2014-03-01

    The computer-based teaching module (CBTM), which has recently gained prominence in medical education, is a teaching format in which a multimedia program serves as a single source for knowledge acquisition rather than playing an adjunctive role as it does in computer-assisted learning (CAL). Despite empirical validation in the past decade, there is limited research into the optimisation of CBTM design. This review aims to summarise research in classic and modern multimedia-specific learning theories applied to computer learning, and to collapse the findings into a set of design principles to guide the development of CBTMs. Scopus was searched for: (i) studies of classic cognitivism, constructivism and behaviourism theories (search terms: 'cognitive theory' OR 'constructivism theory' OR 'behaviourism theory' AND 'e-learning' OR 'web-based learning') and their sub-theories applied to computer learning, and (ii) recent studies of modern learning theories applied to computer learning (search terms: 'learning theory' AND 'e-learning' OR 'web-based learning') for articles published between 1990 and 2012. The first search identified 29 studies, dominated in topic by the cognitive load, elaboration and scaffolding theories. The second search identified 139 studies, with diverse topics in connectivism, discovery and technical scaffolding. Based on their relative representation in the literature, the applications of these theories were collapsed into a list of CBTM design principles. Ten principles were identified and categorised into three levels of design: the global level (managing objectives, framing, minimising technical load); the rhetoric level (optimising modality, making modality explicit, scaffolding, elaboration, spaced repeating), and the detail level (managing text, managing devices). This review examined the literature in the application of learning theories to CAL to develop a set of principles that guide CBTM design. Further research will enable educators to

  9. Unsupervised Learning and Pattern Recognition of Biological Data Structures with Density Functional Theory and Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Juan, Hung-Hui; Tsai, Meng-Yuan; Lu, Henry Horng-Shing

    2018-01-11

    By introducing the methods of machine learning into the density functional theory, we made a detour for the construction of the most probable density function, which can be estimated by learning relevant features from the system of interest. Using the properties of universal functional, the vital core of density functional theory, the most probable cluster numbers and the corresponding cluster boundaries in a studying system can be simultaneously and automatically determined and the plausibility is erected on the Hohenberg-Kohn theorems. For the method validation and pragmatic applications, interdisciplinary problems from physical to biological systems were enumerated. The amalgamation of uncharged atomic clusters validated the unsupervised searching process of the cluster numbers and the corresponding cluster boundaries were exhibited likewise. High accurate clustering results of the Fisher's iris dataset showed the feasibility and the flexibility of the proposed scheme. Brain tumor detections from low-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging datasets and segmentations of high-dimensional neural network imageries in the Brainbow system were also used to inspect the method practicality. The experimental results exhibit the successful connection between the physical theory and the machine learning methods and will benefit the clinical diagnoses.

  10. Sustainability of healthcare improvement: what can we learn from learning theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovlid Einar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes that improve the quality of health care should be sustained. Falling back to old, unsatisfactory ways of working is a waste of resources and can in the worst case increase resistance to later initiatives to improve care. Quality improvement relies on changing the clinical system yet factors that influence the sustainability of quality improvements are poorly understood. Theoretical frameworks can guide further research on the sustainability of quality improvements. Theories of organizational learning have contributed to a better understanding of organizational change in other contexts. To identify factors contributing to sustainability of improvements, we use learning theory to explore a case that had displayed sustained improvement. Methods Førde Hospital redesigned the pathway for elective surgery and achieved sustained reduction of cancellation rates. We used a qualitative case study design informed by theory to explore factors that contributed to sustain the improvements at Førde Hospital. The model Evidence in the Learning Organization describes how organizational learning contributes to change in healthcare institutions. This model constituted the framework for data collection and analysis. We interviewed a strategic sample of 20 employees. The in-depth interviews covered themes identified through our theoretical framework. Through a process of coding and condensing, we identified common themes that were interpreted in relation to our theoretical framework. Results Clinicians and leaders shared information about their everyday work and related this knowledge to how the entire clinical pathway could be improved. In this way they developed a revised and deeper understanding of their clinical system and its interdependencies. They became increasingly aware of how different elements needed to interact to enhance the performance and how their own efforts could contribute. Conclusions The improved understanding of

  11. Sustainability of healthcare improvement: what can we learn from learning theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovlid, Einar; Bukve, Oddbjørn; Haug, Kjell; Aslaksen, Aslak Bjarne; von Plessen, Christian

    2012-08-03

    Changes that improve the quality of health care should be sustained. Falling back to old, unsatisfactory ways of working is a waste of resources and can in the worst case increase resistance to later initiatives to improve care. Quality improvement relies on changing the clinical system yet factors that influence the sustainability of quality improvements are poorly understood. Theoretical frameworks can guide further research on the sustainability of quality improvements. Theories of organizational learning have contributed to a better understanding of organizational change in other contexts. To identify factors contributing to sustainability of improvements, we use learning theory to explore a case that had displayed sustained improvement. Førde Hospital redesigned the pathway for elective surgery and achieved sustained reduction of cancellation rates. We used a qualitative case study design informed by theory to explore factors that contributed to sustain the improvements at Førde Hospital. The model Evidence in the Learning Organization describes how organizational learning contributes to change in healthcare institutions. This model constituted the framework for data collection and analysis. We interviewed a strategic sample of 20 employees. The in-depth interviews covered themes identified through our theoretical framework. Through a process of coding and condensing, we identified common themes that were interpreted in relation to our theoretical framework. Clinicians and leaders shared information about their everyday work and related this knowledge to how the entire clinical pathway could be improved. In this way they developed a revised and deeper understanding of their clinical system and its interdependencies. They became increasingly aware of how different elements needed to interact to enhance the performance and how their own efforts could contribute. The improved understanding of the clinical system represented a change in mental models of

  12. Connectivism: Learning theory of the future or vestige of the past?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Kop

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Siemens and Downes initially received increasing attention in the blogosphere in 2005 when they discussed their ideas concerning distributed knowledge. An extended discourse has ensued in and around the status of ‘connectivism’ as a learning theory for the digital age. This has led to a number of questions in relation to existing learning theories. Do they still meet the needs of today’s learners, and anticipate the needs of learners of the future? Would a new theory that encompasses new developments in digital technology be more appropriate, and would it be suitable for other aspects of learning, including in the traditional class room, in distance education and e-learning? This paper will highlight current theories of learning and critically analyse connectivism within the context of its predecessors, to establish if it has anything new to offer as a learning theory or as an approach to teaching for the 21st Century.

  13. Not that Different in Theory: Discussing the Control-Value Theory of Emotions in Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Lia M.; Stupnisky, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary investigates the extent to which the control-value theory of emotions (Pekrun, 2006) is applicable in online learning environments. Four empirical studies in this special issue of "The Internet and Higher Education" explicitly used the control-value theory as their theoretical framework and several others have components of the…

  14. The (kinetic) theory of active particles applied to learning dynamics. Comment on "Collective learning modeling based on the kinetic theory of active particles" by D. Burini et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, J.

    2016-03-01

    The learning phenomena, their complexity, concepts, structure, suitable theories and models, have been extensively treated in the mathematical literature in the last century, and [4] contains a very good introduction to the literature describing the many approaches and lines of research developed about them. Two main schools have to be pointed out [5] in order to understand the two -not exclusive- kinds of existing models: the stimulus sampling models and the stochastic learning models. Also [6] should be mentioned as a survey where two methods of learning are pointed out, the cognitive and the social, and where the knowledge looks like a mathematical unknown. Finally, as the authors do, we refer to the works [9,10], where the concept of population thinking was introduced and which motivate the game theory rules as a tool (both included in [4] to develop their theory) and [7], where the ideas of developing a mathematical kinetic theory of perception and learning were proposed.

  15. From Mario to FIFA: What Qualitative Case Study Research Suggests about Games-Based Learning in a US Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Hannah R.; Abrams, Sandra Schamroth; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Benge, Cindy L.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the impact of using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) videogames in a high school curriculum when developed through a connected learning frame by examining the influence that COTS videogames have on transforming students' literacy learning in-school. However, it must be noted that transforming literacy in school is about more…

  16. Learning circumference concepts from the didactical situations theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir de Sousa Cavalcanti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The circumference study, as its importance, it is one of the most relevant contents in the Analytical Geometry curriculum. However, the complexity of related concepts to this theme linked to the content fragmentation, it difficulties the students thinking of transforming geometrical problems into equations solution, systems or inequations. Within, in this article we present a partial report of a master research work, of qualitative mode, which aimed to develop and to evaluate an alternative methodology by using musical parody composition to the teaching of Mathematics in trying to contribute to the circumference concepts learning process. For that, we carried out a case study with 36 third year high school students of a public school from the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba. The research work was based and discussed on Brousseau Didactical Situation Theory. It was chosen triangulation technique for the data analyses, collected from interviews, questionnaires and a list of mathematical exercises. We concluded that the parody composition resource allowed the students better understand the concepts of center, ratio, cord and the definition of the general circumference equation, as they were capable to identify the relative positions which a circumference assumes in relation to an equation of a straight line and between two circumferences in the various concepts that differentiated them. Thus, we can state that the musical parody composition as a didactical resource can contribute to the learning of mathematical contents.

  17. Using Item Response Theory to Evaluate LSCI Learning Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlingman, Wayne M.; Prather, E. E.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing the data from the recent national study using the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI), this project uses Item Response Theory (IRT) to investigate the learning gains of students as measured by the LSCI. IRT provides a theoretical model to generate parameters accounting for students’ abilities. We use IRT to measure changes in students’ abilities to reason about light from pre- to post-instruction. Changes in students’ abilities are compared by classroom to better understand the learning that is taking place in classrooms across the country. We compare the average change in ability for each classroom to the Interactivity Assessment Score (IAS) to provide further insight into the prior results presented from this data set. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  18. Transformative learning theory: facilitating mammography screening in rural women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtzer, Mary Anne; Overstreet, Lindsey

    2014-03-01

    To use transformative learning to investigate what experiences serve as catalysts for mammography screening, the cognitive and affective responses that result from the catalyst, and how screening behavior is impacted. A descriptive qualitative study. Southeastern Wyoming. 25 low-income, rural women aged 40 years and older. Four focus group interviews. Cancer experiences triggered universal responses of fear by screeners and nonscreeners. The manner in which that fear response was interpreted was a critical factor in the facilitation of, or impedance to, screening. Dichotomous interpretations of fear responses provided the context for screening behavior. Immobilizing and isolating experiences were associated with nonscreening behavior, whereas motivation and self-efficacy were associated with screening behavior. Transformative learning theory is a useful framework from which to explain differences in mammography screening behavior. Creating opportunities that facilitate dialogue and critical reflection hold the potential to change immobilizing and isolating frames of reference in nonscreening women. To help women transcend their fear and become self-efficacious, nurses can assess how cancer and the screening experience is viewed and, if indicated, move beyond standard education and offer opportunities for dialogue and critical reflection.

  19. Teaching organization theory for healthcare management: three applied learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    Organization theory (OT) provides a way of seeing, describing, analyzing, understanding, and improving organizations based on patterns of organizational design and behavior (Daft 2004). It gives managers models, principles, and methods with which to diagnose and fix organization structure, design, and process problems. Health care organizations (HCOs) face serious problems such as fatal medical errors, harmful treatment delays, misuse of scarce nurses, costly inefficiency, and service failures. Some of health care managers' most critical work involves designing and structuring their organizations so their missions, visions, and goals can be achieved-and in some cases so their organizations can survive. Thus, it is imperative that graduate healthcare management programs develop effective approaches for teaching OT to students who will manage HCOs. Guided by principles of education, three applied teaching/learning activities/assignments were created to teach OT in a graduate healthcare management program. These educationalmethods develop students' competency with OT applied to HCOs. The teaching techniques in this article may be useful to faculty teaching graduate courses in organization theory and related subjects such as leadership, quality, and operation management.

  20. Inference algorithms and learning theory for Bayesian sparse factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattray, Magnus; Sharp, Kevin; Stegle, Oliver; Winn, John

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian sparse factor analysis has many applications; for example, it has been applied to the problem of inferring a sparse regulatory network from gene expression data. We describe a number of inference algorithms for Bayesian sparse factor analysis using a slab and spike mixture prior. These include well-established Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and variational Bayes (VB) algorithms as well as a novel hybrid of VB and Expectation Propagation (EP). For the case of a single latent factor we derive a theory for learning performance using the replica method. We compare the MCMC and VB/EP algorithm results with simulated data to the theoretical prediction. The results for MCMC agree closely with the theory as expected. Results for VB/EP are slightly sub-optimal but show that the new algorithm is effective for sparse inference. In large-scale problems MCMC is infeasible due to computational limitations and the VB/EP algorithm then provides a very useful computationally efficient alternative.

  1. Inference algorithms and learning theory for Bayesian sparse factor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattray, Magnus; Sharp, Kevin [School of Computer Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Stegle, Oliver [Max-Planck-Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tuebingen (Germany); Winn, John, E-mail: magnus.rattray@manchester.ac.u [Microsoft Research Cambridge, Roger Needham Building, Cambridge, CB3 0FB (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-01

    Bayesian sparse factor analysis has many applications; for example, it has been applied to the problem of inferring a sparse regulatory network from gene expression data. We describe a number of inference algorithms for Bayesian sparse factor analysis using a slab and spike mixture prior. These include well-established Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and variational Bayes (VB) algorithms as well as a novel hybrid of VB and Expectation Propagation (EP). For the case of a single latent factor we derive a theory for learning performance using the replica method. We compare the MCMC and VB/EP algorithm results with simulated data to the theoretical prediction. The results for MCMC agree closely with the theory as expected. Results for VB/EP are slightly sub-optimal but show that the new algorithm is effective for sparse inference. In large-scale problems MCMC is infeasible due to computational limitations and the VB/EP algorithm then provides a very useful computationally efficient alternative.

  2. En retorisk forståelsesramme for Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (A Rhetorical Theory on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harlung, Asger

    2003-01-01

    The dissertation explores the potential of rhetorical theories for understanding, analyzing, or planning communication and learning processes, and for integrating the digitized contexts and human interaction and communication proccesses in a single theoretical framework. Based on Cicero's rhetori...... applied to two empirical case studies of Master programs, the dissertation develops and presents a new theory on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL).......The dissertation explores the potential of rhetorical theories for understanding, analyzing, or planning communication and learning processes, and for integrating the digitized contexts and human interaction and communication proccesses in a single theoretical framework. Based on Cicero's rhetoric...

  3. Incorporating rapid neocortical learning of new schema-consistent information into complementary learning systems theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, James L

    2013-11-01

    The complementary learning systems theory of the roles of hippocampus and neocortex (McClelland, McNaughton, & O'Reilly, 1995) holds that the rapid integration of arbitrary new information into neocortical structures is avoided to prevent catastrophic interference with structured knowledge representations stored in synaptic connections among neocortical neurons. Recent studies (Tse et al., 2007, 2011) showed that neocortical circuits can rapidly acquire new associations that are consistent with prior knowledge. The findings challenge the complementary learning systems theory as previously presented. However, new simulations extending those reported in McClelland et al. (1995) show that new information that is consistent with knowledge previously acquired by a putatively cortexlike artificial neural network can be learned rapidly and without interfering with existing knowledge; it is when inconsistent new knowledge is acquired quickly that catastrophic interference ensues. Several important features of the findings of Tse et al. (2007, 2011) are captured in these simulations, indicating that the neural network model used in McClelland et al. has characteristics in common with neocortical learning mechanisms. An additional simulation generalizes beyond the network model previously used, showing how the rate of change of cortical connections can depend on prior knowledge in an arguably more biologically plausible network architecture. In sum, the findings of Tse et al. are fully consistent with the idea that hippocampus and neocortex are complementary learning systems. Taken together, these findings and the simulations reported here advance our knowledge by bringing out the role of consistency of new experience with existing knowledge and demonstrating that the rate of change of connections in real and artificial neural networks can be strongly prior-knowledge dependent. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Reexamining Theories of Adult Learning and Adult Development through the Lenses of Public Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Clark, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    The authors examine the modernist underpinnings of traditional adult learning and development theories and evaluate elements of those theories through more contemporary lenses. Drawing on recent literature focused on "public pedagogy," the authors argue that much learning takes place outside of formal educational institutions. They look beyond…

  5. Social Learning Theory Parenting Intervention Promotes Attachment-Based Caregiving in Young Children: Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Matias, Carla; Futh, Annabel; Tantam, Grace; Scott, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Parenting programs for school-aged children are typically based on behavioral principles as applied in social learning theory. It is not yet clear if the benefits of these interventions extend beyond aspects of the parent-child relationship quality conceptualized by social learning theory. The current study examined the extent to which a social…

  6. Social Learning Theory and Developmental Psychology: The Legacies of Robert Sears and Albert Bandura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusec, Joan E.

    1992-01-01

    Social learning theory is evaluated from a historical perspective that goes up to the present. Sears and others melded psychoanalytic and stimulus-response learning theory into a comprehensive explanation of human behavior. Bandura emphasized cognitive and information-processing capacities that mediate social behavior. (LB)

  7. Implications of Bandura's Observational Learning Theory for a Competency Based Teacher Education Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartjen, Raymond H.

    Albert Bandura of Stanford University has proposed four component processes to his theory of observational learning: a) attention, b) retention, c) motor reproduction, and d) reinforcement and motivation. This study represents one phase of an effort to relate modeling and observational learning theory to teacher training. The problem of this study…

  8. Collaborative Learning in an Undergraduate Theory Course: An Assessment of Goals and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuff, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    This project was designed to assess whether a collaborative learning approach to teaching sociological theory would be a successful means of improving student engagement in learning theory and of increasing both the depth of students' understanding of theoretical arguments and concepts and the ability of students to theorize for themselves. A…

  9. Instructional Theory for Using a Class Wiki to Support Collaborative Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an instructional theory for using a class wiki to support collaborative learning in higher education. Although wikis have been identified in theory as one of the most powerful emerging technologies to support collaborative learning, challenges have been revealed in a number of studies regarding student…

  10. A Visual Encapsulation of Adlerian Theory: A Tool for Teaching and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Cynthia J.

    2001-01-01

    A visual diagram is presented in this article to illustrate 6 key concepts of Adlerian theory discussed in corresponding narrative format. It is proposed that in an age of multimedia learning, a pictorial reference can enhance the teaching and learning of Adlerian theory, representing a commitment to humanistic education. (Contains 18 references.)…

  11. Towards a Semantic E-Learning Theory by Using a Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Luoma, Pertti V. J.; Naeve, Ambjorn

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, a semantic perspective on e-learning theory is advanced and a modelling approach is used. This modelling approach towards the new learning theory is based on the four SECI phases of knowledge conversion: Socialisation, Externalisation, Combination and Internalisation, introduced by Nonaka in 1994, and involving two levels of…

  12. Finding the Right Fit: Helping Students Apply Theory to Service-Learning Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricke, Audrey

    2018-01-01

    Background: Although past studies of service-learning focus on assessing student growth, few studies address how to support students in applying theory to their service-learning experiences. Yet, the task of applying theory is a central component of critical reflections within the social sciences in higher education and often causes anxiety among…

  13. Learning to Learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Helen; Weiss, Martin

    1988-01-01

    The article reviews theories of learning (e.g., stimulus-response, trial and error, operant conditioning, cognitive), considers the role of motivation, and summarizes nine research-supported rules of effective learning. Suggestions are applied to teaching learning strategies to learning-disabled students. (DB)

  14. Inter- and intra-firm learning synergy through integrating absorptive capacity and employee suggestion processes: The case study of Frauenthal Automotive Toruń company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Lis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to study relationships between the processes of absorptive capacity (inter-firm learning and learning lessons through employee suggestions (intra-firm learning and identify potential synergies between them. The research interest is focused on investigating the following problems: (1 How do organizations apply external knowledge to support intra-organizational learning processes? (2 How should the employee suggestion system be organized to increase (or build absorptive capacity? The exploratory case study analysis is applied to answer research questions and achieve the aim of the study. The unit of analysis is constituted by inter-firm and intra-firm learning processes observed in the firm Frauenthal Automotive Toruń (FTO.

  15. eLearning--Theories, Design, Software and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislandi, Patrizia, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Chapters in this book include: (1) New e-Learning Environments: e-Merging Networks in the Relational Society (Blanca C. Garcia); (2) Knowledge Building in E-Learning (Xinyu Zhang and Lu Yuhao); (3) E-Learning and Desired Learning Outcomes (Ralph Palliam); (4) Innovative E-Learning Solutions and Environments for Small and Medium Sized Companies…

  16. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, Instructional Design Principles, and Students with Learning Disabilities in Computer-Based and Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Diana L.; Crutchfield, Stephen A.; Woods, Kari L.

    2013-01-01

    Struggling learners and students with Learning Disabilities often exhibit unique cognitive processing and working memory characteristics that may not align with instructional design principles developed with typically developing learners. This paper explains the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning and underlying Cognitive Load Theory, and…

  17. Predicting the stability of ternary intermetallics with density functional theory and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jonathan; Chen, Liming; Botti, Silvana; Marques, Miguel A. L.

    2018-06-01

    We use a combination of machine learning techniques and high-throughput density-functional theory calculations to explore ternary compounds with the AB2C2 composition. We chose the two most common intermetallic prototypes for this composition, namely, the tI10-CeAl2Ga2 and the tP10-FeMo2B2 structures. Our results suggest that there may be ˜10 times more stable compounds in these phases than previously known. These are mostly metallic and non-magnetic. While the use of machine learning reduces the overall calculation cost by around 75%, some limitations of its predictive power still exist, in particular, for compounds involving the second-row of the periodic table or magnetic elements.

  18. Multimedia for occupational safety and health training: a pilot study examining a multimedia learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Erik S; Mulloy, Karen B

    2006-10-01

    Occupational diseases are a significant problem affecting public health. Safety training is an important method of preventing occupational illness. Training is increasingly being delivered by computer although theories of learning from computer-based multimedia have been tested almost entirely on college students. This study was designed to determine whether these theories might also be applied to safety training applications for working adults. Participants viewed either computer-based multimedia respirator use training with concurrent narration, narration prior to the animation, or unrelated safety training. Participants then took a five-item transfer test which measured their ability to use their knowledge in new and creative ways. Participants who viewed the computer-based multimedia trainings both did significantly better than the control group on the transfer test. The results of this pilot study suggest that design guidelines developed for younger learners may be effective for training workers in occupational safety and health although more investigation is needed.

  19. Knowledge translation in healthcare: Incorporating theories of learning and knowledge from the management literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Racko, Girts

    2013-01-01

    The authors draw selectively on theories of learning and knowledge, which currently have received little attention from knowledge translation (KT) researchers, and suggest how they might usefully inform future development of the KT literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide conceptual tools and strategies for the growing number of managers, clinicians and decision makers navigating this arena The authors conducted a narrative review to synthesise two streams of literature and examine evolving conceptual landscape concerning knowledge translation over the previous three decades. Conceptual mapping was used iteratively to develop and synthesise the literature. Iterative feedback from relevant research and practice stakeholder groups was used to focus and strengthen the review. KT has been conceptualised along three competing frames; one focusing on linear (largely unidirectional) transfer of knowledge; one focusing on KT as a social process; and another that seeks to more fully incorporate contextual issues in understanding research implementation. Three overlapping themes are found in the management literature that inform these debates in the health literature, namely knowledge boundaries, organisational learning and absorptive capacity. Literature on knowledge boundaries problematizes the nature of boundaries and the stickiness of knowledge. Organisational learning conceptualises the need for organisational wide systems to facilitate learning processes; it also draws on a more expansive view of knowledge. Absorptive capacity focuses at the firm level on the role of developing organisational capabilities that enable the identification, assimilation and use of new knowledge to enable innovation. The paper highlights the need to consider KT processes at multiple levels, including individual, organisational and strategic levels. These are important not only for research but also have practical implications for individuals and organisations involved in KT

  20. Shaping a valued learning journey: Student satisfaction with learning in undergraduate nursing programs, a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Morgan R; Grealish, Laurie; Henderson, Saras

    2018-05-01

    Student satisfaction is a quality measure of increasing importance in undergraduate programs, including nursing programs. To date theories of student satisfaction have focused primarily on students' perceptions of the educational environment rather than their perceptions of learning. Understanding how students determine satisfaction with learning is necessary to facilitate student learning across a range of educational contexts and meet the expectations of diverse stakeholders. To understand undergraduate nursing students' satisfaction with learning. Constructivist grounded theory methodology was used to identify how nursing students determined satisfaction with learning. Two large, multi-campus, nursing schools in Australia. Seventeen demographically diverse undergraduate nursing students studying different stages of a three year program participated in the study. Twenty nine semi-structured interviews were conducted. Students were invited to describe situations where they had been satisfied or dissatisfied with their learning. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyse the data. Students are satisfied with learning when they shape a valued learning journey that accommodates social contexts of self, university and nursing workplace. The theory has three phases. Phase 1 - orienting self to valued learning in the pedagogical landscape; phase 2 - engaging with valued learning experiences across diverse pedagogical terrain; and phase 3 - recognising valued achievement along the way. When students experience a valued learning journey they are satisfied with their learning. Student satisfaction with learning is unique to the individual, changes over time and maybe transient or sustained, mild or intense. Finding from the research indicate areas where nurse academics may facilitate satisfaction with learning in undergraduate nursing programs while mindful of the expectations of other stakeholders such as the university, nurse registering authorities

  1. Processes of self-regulated learning in music theory in elementary music schools in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Peklaj, Cirila; Smolej-Fritz, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was determine how students regulate their learning in music theory (MT). The research is based on the socio-cognitive theory of learning. The aim of our study was twofold: first, to design the instruments for measuring (meta)cognitive and affective-motivational processes in learning MT, and, second, to examine the relationship between these processes. A total of 457 fifth- and sixth- grade students from 10 different elementary music schools in Slovenia participated in the...

  2. Collective learning modeling based on the kinetic theory of active particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burini, D.; De Lillo, S.; Gibelli, L.

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a systems approach to the theory of perception and learning in populations composed of many living entities. Starting from a phenomenological description of these processes, a mathematical structure is derived which is deemed to incorporate their complexity features. The modeling is based on a generalization of kinetic theory methods where interactions are described by theoretical tools of game theory. As an application, the proposed approach is used to model the learning processes that take place in a classroom.

  3. A Reflective Journey through Theory and Research in Mathematical Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbase, Shashidhar

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to reflect on class sessions during the fall 2010 in a course "Theory and Research in Mathematical Learning and Development". This reflection as a learning journey portrays discussions based on foundational perspectives (FP), historical highlights (HH), and guiding questions (GQ) related to mathematics learning and…

  4. Combining theories to reach multi-faceted insights into learning opportunities in doctoral supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Rump, Camilla Østerberg

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate how theories can be combined to explore opportunities for learning in doctoral supervision. While our earlier research into learning dynamics in doctoral supervision in life science research (Kobayashi, 2014) has focused on illustrating learning opportunitie...

  5. Constructivism and Reflectivism as the Logical Counterparts in TESOL: Learning Theory versus Teaching Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    al Mahmud, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    The gist of the entire constructivist learning theory is that learners are self-builders of their learning that occurs through a mental process in a social context or communication setting, and teachers as facilitators generate learning by creating the expected environment and/or utilizing the process. This article theoretically proves…

  6. Connected and Ubiquitous: A Discussion of Two Theories That Impact Future Learning Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Richard A.; Stafford, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Mobile media break down traditional barriers that have defined learning in schools because they enable constant, personalized access to media. This information-rich environment could dramatically expand learning opportunities. This article identifies and discusses two instructional design theories for mobile learning including the major…

  7. Pedagogical Distance: Explaining Misalignment in Student-Driven Online Learning Activities Using Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberry, Nicola; Franken, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an Activity Theory analysis of two online student-driven interactive learning activities to interrogate assumptions that such groups can effectively learn in the absence of the teacher. Such an analysis conceptualises learning tasks as constructed objects that drive pedagogical activity. The analysis shows a disconnect between…

  8. Action Learning and Constructivist Grounded Theory: Powerfully Overlapping Fields of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the shared characteristics between action learning (AL) and the research methodology constructivist grounded theory (CGT). Mirroring Edmonstone's [2011. "Action Learning and Organisation Development: Overlapping Fields of Practice." "Action Learning: Research and Practice" 8 (2): 93-102] article, which…

  9. Transformative Learning: A Case for Using Grounded Theory as an Assessment Analytic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Barbara A. B.; Munoz, Leslie; Abrams, Leah; Bass, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Transformative Learning Theory and pedagogies leverage disruptive experiences as catalysts for learning and teaching. By facilitating processes of critical analysis and reflection that challenge assumptions, transformative learning reframes what counts as knowledge and the sources and processes for gaining and producing it. Students develop a…

  10. Situated learning theory: adding rate and complexity effects via Kauffman's NK model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu; McKelvey, Bill

    2004-01-01

    For many firms, producing information, knowledge, and enhancing learning capability have become the primary basis of competitive advantage. A review of organizational learning theory identifies two approaches: (1) those that treat symbolic information processing as fundamental to learning, and (2) those that view the situated nature of cognition as fundamental. After noting that the former is inadequate because it focuses primarily on behavioral and cognitive aspects of individual learning, this paper argues the importance of studying learning as interactions among people in the context of their environment. It contributes to organizational learning in three ways. First, it argues that situated learning theory is to be preferred over traditional behavioral and cognitive learning theories, because it treats organizations as complex adaptive systems rather than mere information processors. Second, it adds rate and nonlinear learning effects. Third, following model-centered epistemology, it uses an agent-based computational model, in particular a "humanized" version of Kauffman's NK model, to study the situated nature of learning. Using simulation results, we test eight hypotheses extending situated learning theory in new directions. The paper ends with a discussion of possible extensions of the current study to better address key issues in situated learning.

  11. An Integrated Theory of Prospective Time Interval Estimation: The Role of Cognition, Attention, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taatgen, Niels A.; van Rijn, Hedderik; Anderson, John

    2007-01-01

    A theory of prospective time perception is introduced and incorporated as a module in an integrated theory of cognition, thereby extending existing theories and allowing predictions about attention and learning. First, a time perception module is established by fitting existing datasets (interval estimation and bisection and impact of secondary…

  12. An integrated theory of prospective time interval estimation : The role of cognition, attention, and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, Niels A.; van Rijn, Hedderik; Anderson, John

    A theory of prospective time perception is introduced and incorporated as a module in an integrated theory of cognition, thereby extending existing theories and allowing predictions about attention and learning. First, a time perception module is established by fitting existing datasets (interval

  13. Help-Seeking Decisions of Battered Women: A Test of Learned Helplessness and Two Stress Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauchope, Barbara A.

    This study tested the learned helplessness theory, stress theory, and a modified stress theory to determine the best model for predicting the probability that a woman would seek help when she experienced severe violence from a male partner. The probability was hypothesized to increase as the stress of the violence experienced increased. Data were…

  14. Learning theories and tools for the assessment of core nursing competencies in simulation: A theoretical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Patrick; Michaud, Cécile; Bélisle, Marilou; Boyer, Louise; Gosselin, Émilie; Grondin, Myrian; Larue, Caroline; Lavoie, Stéphan; Pepin, Jacinthe

    2018-02-01

    To identify the theories used to explain learning in simulation and to examine how these theories guided the assessment of learning outcomes related to core competencies in undergraduate nursing students. Nurse educators face the challenge of making explicit the outcomes of competency-based education, especially when competencies are conceptualized as holistic and context dependent. Theoretical review. Research papers (N = 182) published between 1999-2015 describing simulation in nursing education. Two members of the research team extracted data from the papers, including theories used to explain how simulation could engender learning and tools used to assess simulation outcomes. Contingency tables were created to examine the associations between theories, outcomes and tools. Some papers (N = 79) did not provide an explicit theory. The 103 remaining papers identified one or more learning or teaching theories; the most frequent were the National League for Nursing/Jeffries Simulation Framework, Kolb's theory of experiential learning and Bandura's social cognitive theory and concept of self-efficacy. Students' perceptions of simulation, knowledge and self-confidence were the most frequently assessed, mainly via scales designed for the study where they were used. Core competencies were mostly assessed with an observational approach. This review highlighted the fact that few studies examined the use of simulation in nursing education through learning theories and via assessment of core competencies. It also identified observational tools used to assess competencies in action, as holistic and context-dependent constructs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Workplace Identity as a Mediator in the Relationship between Learning Climate and Job Satisfaction during Apprenticeship: Suggestions for HR Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortini, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to explore if and to what extent workplace identity can mediate the relationship between learning climate dimensions and job satisfaction in a group of apprentices. Design/methodology/approach: Data were gathered thanks to a non-profit organization devoted to vocational training. Participants (N 87) were…

  16. The Current Perspectives, Theories and Practices of Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Nilgun Ozdamar; Metcalf, David

    2011-01-01

    Mobile learning (m-learning) is a highly popular multidisciplinary study field around the world. It has attracted a great deal of attention from researchers in different disciplines who have realized the potential to apply mobile technologies to enhance learning. Thus, mobile learning has been defined differently by different people. This study is…

  17. Learning through the Variation Theory: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Eddie W. L.

    2016-01-01

    The variation theory stems from the concept of phenomenography. Although some applications of the theory can be found, the theory is not well known in the field of education, especially with respect to the teaching of business and management subjects. The aim of this paper is to explore the use of the variation theory for teaching management…

  18. The Relative Effect of Team-Based Learning on Motivation and Learning: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeno, Lucas M.; Raaheim, Arild; Kristensen, Sara Madeleine; Kristensen, Kjell Daniel; Hole, Torstein Nielsen; Haugland, Mildrid J.; Mæland, Silje

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effects of team-based learning (TBL) on motivation and learning in a quasi-experimental study. The study employs a self-determination theory perspective to investigate the motivational effects of implementing TBL in a physiotherapy course in higher education. We adopted a one-group pretest-posttest design. The results show that…

  19. Effect of Environmental Education Based on Transformational Learning Theory on Perceptions towards Environmental Problems and Permanency of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanik, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine effect of environmental education based on transformational learning theory on primary school teacher candidates' perceptions towards environmental problems and permanency of learning. Pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design have been used in this study. The study group consists of 66 teacher candidates who…

  20. The Meaningful Learning of Intellectual Skills: An Application of Ausubel's Subsumption Theory to the Domain of Intellectual Skills Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Leo H. T.; Kellett, Natalie C.

    1981-01-01

    Tests the applicability of Ausubel's theory to the meaningful learning of intellectual skills. Results of three studies of high school students indicate that advance organizers enhance learning of skills related to solubility product problems. This effect was removed if prior teaching in relevant background knowledge was included. (Author/WB)

  1. Learning, Action and Solutions in Action Learning: Investigation of Facilitation Practice Using the Concept of Living Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Chandana

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the practice of action learning (AL) facilitation in supporting AL set members to address their 'messy' problems through a self-reflexive approach using the concept of 'living theory' [Whitehead, J., and J. McNiff. 2006. "Action Research Living Theory." London: Sage]. The facilitation practice is investigated through…

  2. Enhancing Student Learning in Knowledge-Based Courses: Integrating Team-Based Learning in Mass Communication Theory Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gang; Newell, Jay

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the adoption of the team-based learning (TBL) method in knowledge-based and theory-oriented journalism and mass communication (J&MC) courses. It first reviews the origin and concept of TBL, the relevant theories, and then introduces the TBL method and implementation, including procedures and assessments, employed in an…

  3. Health education and multimedia learning: educational psychology and health behavior theory (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Francisco G Soto; Plass, Jan; Kane, William M; Papenfuss, Richard L

    2003-07-01

    When health education researchers began to investigate how individuals make decisions related to health and the factors that influence health behaviors, they referred to frameworks shared by educational and learning research. Health education adopted the basic principles of the cognitive revolution, which were instrumental in advancing the field. There is currently a new challenge to confront: the widespread use of new technologies for health education. To better overcome this challenge, educational psychology and instructional technology theory should be considered. Unfortunately, the passion to incorporate new technologies too often overshadows how people learn or, in particular, how people learn through computer technologies. This two-part article explains how educational theory contributed to the early development of health behavior theory, describes the most relevant multimedia learning theories and constructs, and provides recommendations for developing multimedia health education programs and connecting theory and practice.

  4. Role of Adult Learning Theories in the Development of Corporate Training in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Lytovchenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the role of adult learning theories in the development of corporate training in the USA. Considering that corporate education is part of the adult education system in this country, the author examines theories of organizational learning in the context of adult learning. The results of the study have revealed that adult education in the US is based on dif erent learning theories which should be viewed from the perspective of several main orientations: behaviorism, cognitivism, humanism, developmental theories, social learning, constructivism, which have dif erent philosophical background and, accordingly, different understanding of the nature and methodology of adult learning. Based on the results of the study it has been concluded that theories of organizational learning which explain motivation of students, their needs and goals, cognitive processes and other aspects of the learning in organizations and have had the main influence on the development of corporate education in the United States should be viewed in the context of the above-mentioned basic orientations to learning, too. From the methodological perspective, the research was based on interdisciplinary and systemic approaches. Thus, we used a set of interrelated research methods: comparative, structural, systemic-functional analyses, comparison and synthesis.

  5. Theories and control models and motor learning: clinical applications in neuro-rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-de-la-Cuerda, R; Molero-Sánchez, A; Carratalá-Tejada, M; Alguacil-Diego, I M; Molina-Rueda, F; Miangolarra-Page, J C; Torricelli, D

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there has been a special interest in theories that could explain the regulation of motor control, and their applications. These theories are often based on models of brain function, philosophically reflecting different criteria on how movement is controlled by the brain, each being emphasised in different neural components of the movement. The concept of motor learning, regarded as the set of internal processes associated with practice and experience that produce relatively permanent changes in the ability to produce motor activities through a specific skill, is also relevant in the context of neuroscience. Thus, both motor control and learning are seen as key fields of study for health professionals in the field of neuro-rehabilitation. The major theories of motor control are described, which include, motor programming theory, systems theory, the theory of dynamic action, and the theory of parallel distributed processing, as well as the factors that influence motor learning and its applications in neuro-rehabilitation. At present there is no consensus on which theory or model defines the regulations to explain motor control. Theories of motor learning should be the basis for motor rehabilitation. The new research should apply the knowledge generated in the fields of control and motor learning in neuro-rehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. The Experimental Research on E-Learning Instructional Design Model Based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xianzhong; Wang, Feng; Zheng, Zhongmei

    The paper reports an educational experiment on the e-Learning instructional design model based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory, the experiment were made to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of the model in promoting the learning quality in ill-structured domain. The study performed the experiment on two groups of students: one group learned through the system designed by the model and the other learned by the traditional method. The results of the experiment indicate that the e-Learning designed through the model is helpful to promote the intrinsic motivation, learning quality in ill-structured domains, ability to resolve ill-structured problem and creative thinking ability of the students.

  7. Wittgenstein's language games as a theory of learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Sociological approaches to the understanding of learning disabilities are perhaps not as fully developed as they might be. Wittgenstein's notion of the language game is elucidated, and its relevance to the analysis of learning disabilities as a social phenomenon is explained. This gives some insight into an alternative conception of what learning disabilities might be, and why people who are classified as having learning disabilities continue, to some extent, to be excluded from full participation in society.

  8. Theories and models of and for online learning

    OpenAIRE

    Haythornthwaite, Caroline; Andrews, Richard; Kazmer, Michelle M.; Bruce, Bertram C.; Montague, Rae-Anne; Preston, Christina

    2007-01-01

    For many years, discussion of online learning, or e-learning, has been pre-occupied with the practice of teaching online and the debate about whether being online is 'as good as' being offline. The authors contributing to this paper see this past as an incubation period for the emergence of new teaching and learning practices. We see changes in teaching and learning emerging from the nexus of a changing landscape of information and communication technologies, an active and motivated teaching ...

  9. Emergent theory and technology in e-learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browaeys, M.-J.; Wahyudi, S.

    2006-01-01

    E-learning should be approached via a new paradigm, one where instruction and information are involved in a recursive process, an approach which counters the concept of linearity. New ways of thinking about how people learn and new technologies favour the emergence of principles of e-learning that

  10. An Interactive Learning Environment for Information and Communication Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Mohamed; Hassan, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Interactive learning tools are emerging as effective educational materials in the area of computer science and engineering. It is a research domain that is rapidly expanding because of its positive impacts on motivating and improving students' performance during the learning process. This paper introduces an interactive learning environment for…

  11. Telling Active Learning Pedagogies Apart: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Kelsey Hood

    2017-01-01

    Designing learning environments to incorporate active learning pedagogies is difficult as definitions are often contested and intertwined. This article seeks to determine whether classification of active learning pedagogies (i.e., project-based, problem-based, inquiry-based, case-based, and discovery-based), through theoretical and practical…

  12. Evaluating clinical simulations for learning procedural skills: a theory-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneebone, Roger

    2005-06-01

    Simulation-based learning is becoming widely established within medical education. It offers obvious benefits to novices learning invasive procedural skills, especially in a climate of decreasing clinical exposure. However, simulations are often accepted uncritically, with undue emphasis being placed on technological sophistication at the expense of theory-based design. The author proposes four key areas that underpin simulation-based learning, and summarizes the theoretical grounding for each. These are (1) gaining technical proficiency (psychomotor skills and learning theory, the importance of repeated practice and regular reinforcement), (2) the place of expert assistance (a Vygotskian interpretation of tutor support, where assistance is tailored to each learner's needs), (3) learning within a professional context (situated learning and contemporary apprenticeship theory), and (4) the affective component of learning (the effect of emotion on learning). The author then offers four criteria for critically evaluating new or existing simulations, based on the theoretical framework outlined above. These are: (1) Simulations should allow for sustained, deliberate practice within a safe environment, ensuring that recently-acquired skills are consolidated within a defined curriculum which assures regular reinforcement; (2) simulations should provide access to expert tutors when appropriate, ensuring that such support fades when no longer needed; (3) simulations should map onto real-life clinical experience, ensuring that learning supports the experience gained within communities of actual practice; and (4) simulation-based learning environments should provide a supportive, motivational, and learner-centered milieu which is conducive to learning.

  13. The Last Planner System Style of Planning: Its Basis in Learning Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Terje Kalsaas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to contribute to creating a better understanding of the Last Planner System (LPS – which is associated with Lean Construction – in the light of the learning processes at the basis of knowledge development, and of change and innovation. Founded on a theoretical discussion, three research questions are asked, namely: In what ways can the LPS be expected to alter the learning arenas compared to conventional project management in construction; according to learning theory, what are the main challenges associated with implementing the LPS; and, finally, what kind of learning can be linked to an implemented LPS that functions as intended? The implementation of the LPS is shown to require substantial changes to the technical-organisational learning arena. In order for the implementation to be successful, the work identity has to alter on the individual level so that an overlap occurs with the new work practices prescribed by the LPS. The LPS has an inbuilt experiential learning cycle, and provides a good starting point for single-loop learning, as well as for simple forms of double-loop learning (“routinized learning capability”. However, it is argued that the LPS understood as experiential learning has clear limitations with regard to “evolutionary learning capability”. This is amplified by the context project organisation provides. In terms of theoretical implications, this article promotes an understanding of the planning process informed by the theory describing it as an experiential learning cycle. The conceptualisation which separates the LPS from conventional production control theory is critiqued. Finally, it is argued that an understanding of the LPS grounded in learning theory will improve the possibilities for successful implementation and maximise the learning effects.

  14. Using Machine Learning to Advance Personality Assessment and Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Hopwood, Christopher James

    2018-05-01

    Machine learning has led to important advances in society. One of the most exciting applications of machine learning in psychological science has been the development of assessment tools that can powerfully predict human behavior and personality traits. Thus far, machine learning approaches to personality assessment have focused on the associations between social media and other digital records with established personality measures. The goal of this article is to expand the potential of machine learning approaches to personality assessment by embedding it in a more comprehensive construct validation framework. We review recent applications of machine learning to personality assessment, place machine learning research in the broader context of fundamental principles of construct validation, and provide recommendations for how to use machine learning to advance our understanding of personality.

  15. Doping Among Professional Athletes in Iran: A Test of Akers's Social Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Saeed; Cochran, John K; Stewart, Bernadette J; Sharepour, Mahmoud; Rahmati, Mohammad Mahdi; Shadmanfaat, Syede Massomeh

    2018-04-01

    The use of performance-enhancing drugs (PED) is common among Iranian professional athletes. As this phenomenon is a social problem, the main purpose of this research is to explain why athletes engage in "doping" activity, using social learning theory. For this purpose, a sample of 589 professional athletes from Rasht, Iran, was used to test assumptions related to social learning theory. The results showed that there are positive and significant relationships between the components of social learning theory (differential association, differential reinforcement, imitation, and definitions) and doping behavior (past, present, and future use of PED). The structural modeling analysis indicated that the components of social learning theory accounts for 36% of the variance in past doping behavior, 35% of the variance in current doping behavior, and 32% of the variance in future use of PED.

  16. Can Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Learning Become an Alternative to Piagetian Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Edna

    1979-01-01

    Discusses Novak's views that Ausubel's meaningful learning can become an alternative to Piagetian psychology and argues that Ausubel does not provide a theory that can be an alternative to Piaget's developmental psychology. (HM)

  17. Application of Advances in Learning Theory and Philosophy of Science to the Improvement of Chemistry Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Joseph D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses seven key concepts in Ausubel's learning theory which function to guide research and teaching. Also discusses concept mapping and Gowins Vee, providing examples of how they are used in chemistry instruction. (JN)

  18. Constructivism: the view of knowledge that ended philosophy or a theory of learning and instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliver, Jerry A

    2002-01-01

    Constructivism is referred to in two very different ways in education including medical education: to refer to a view of knowledge and to refer to a theory of learning and hence instruction. This proposal (a) distinguishes between these two usages of constructivism and (b) concludes that constructivism is not a theory of learning and thus as such has little to offer that might be of value to medical education.

  19. Theory of Belief Functions for Data Analysis and Machine Learning Applications: Review and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoeux, Thierry

    The Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions provides a unified framework for handling both aleatory uncertainty, arising from statistical variability in populations, and epistemic uncertainty, arising from incompleteness of knowledge. An overview of both the fundamentals and some recent developments in this theory will first be presented. Several applications in data analysis and machine learning will then be reviewed, including learning under partial supervision, multi-label classification, ensemble clustering and the treatment of pairwise comparisons in sensory or preference analysis.

  20. Andragogy And Pedagogy Theories Of Learning In Joint Professional Military Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-27

    needs of joint military leaders. This research examines each theory and its fundamental design in an attempt to determine if pedagogy alone can meet... Abraham H. Maslow , known largely for his studies in motivation and personality, saw the goal of learning to be self-actualization, or a person’s...AU/ACSC/MCMAHON, S/AY16 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY ANDRAGOGY AND PEDAGOGY THEORIES OF LEARNING IN JOINT PROFESSIONAL

  1. The influence of Weismann's germ-plasm theory on the distinction between learned and innate behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, T D

    1995-04-01

    Since the early twentieth century it has been common in both psychology and behavioral biology to draw a sharp distinction between learned and innate behavior, or elements of behavior. The persistence of this dichotomy may be attributed in part to the fundamental importance of the separation of inherited and acquired characters within neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory, one of the essential foundations for the modern study of behavior. A cornerstone of early neo-Darwinian thought was August Weismann's theory of the germ plasm, which proposed a segregation between germinal and somatic cells during development, thus ruling out the possibility that acquired characters could be inherited. This denial of Lamarckian hereditary mechanisms became one of the hallmarks of neo-Darwinism, as opposed to classical Darwinism. Within the neo-Darwinian framework it thus became important, as Weismann himself pointed out, to distinguish sharply between inherited and acquired characters. Although the dichotomy has frequently been criticized it remains tenacious, surfacing in different guises as older versions of it became terminologically unacceptable. The analysis offered here suggests that this tenacity may partly be explained by the implications of Weismann's germ-plasm theory, and its modern incarnation in the central dogma of molecular genetics, and by the central thematic position of those ideas in the neo-Darwinian foundations of modern behavioral biology.

  2. Virtual Learning Environments: A View from the Theory of Conceptual Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iralí Araque

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of communication and information technologies for formative purposes has given way to virtual learning environments, which, backed by constructivist theories, provide a theoretical and methodological framework, thus contributing to the cognitive development of students at university level, evidenced in the development of their learning schemes. The theory of conceptual fields offers an analysis of the elements of schemas and the process of knowledge construction. In this sense, the present work had as objective to raise some elements, such as teaching methodology, didactic strategies, materials and resources for learning, teacher and student roles, which should be considered in the design of virtual learning environments, in the light of the theory of conceptual fields, so as to enhance the construction of knowledge and where the emphasis of the educational process lies on learning rather than teaching. The methodology used is a documentary study, type descriptive, based on the review and bibliographical analysis of constructivist theories, as well as researchers related to the design and construction of virtual learning environments. The results show that conceptual fields theory is an excellent option to consider, as a constructivist theory, in order to consolidate the process of knowledge construction, from the individual to the collective.

  3. Synaesthesia and learning: A critical review and novel theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Robert Watson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Learning and synaesthesia are profoundly interconnected. On the one hand, the development of synaesthesia is clearly influenced by learning. Synaesthetic inducers—the stimuli that evoke these unusual experiences—often involve the perception of complex properties learned in early childhood, e.g. letters, musical notes, numbers, months of the year and even swimming strokes. Further, recent research has shown that the associations individual synaesthetes make with these learned inducers are not arbitrary, but are strongly influenced by the structure of the learnt do- main. For instance, the synaesthetic colours of letters are partially determined by letter frequency and the relative positions of letters in the alphabet. On the other hand, there is also a small, but growing, body of literature which shows that synaesthesia can influence or be helpful in learning. For instance, synaesthetes appear to be able to use their unusual experiences as mnemonic de- vices and can even exploit them while learning novel abstract categories. Here we review these two directions of influence and argue that they are interconnected. We propose that synaesthesia arises, at least in part, because of the cognitive demands of learning in childhood, and that it is used to aid perception and understanding of a variety of learned categories. Our thesis is that the structural similarities between synaesthetic triggering stimuli and synaesthetic experiences are the remnants, the fossilized traces, of past learning challenges for which synasethesia was helpful.

  4. Complementing theory with practice to enhance Students' learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Muhammad Imran; Imran, Faiqa; Ahmed, Syed Ahsanuddin; Rahim, Ikram Ur; Shafiq, Anser; Qayum, Iftikhar

    2016-01-01

    Combining cognitive skills teaching related to the techniques leads to better understanding in a skill training course; but still there a substantial disagreement in curriculum on such combinations. This study aims to help guide the designers in making the outline of instructional plan for a Clinical Skills Module (CSM) for the undergraduates. Objectives were to assess performance of students on a clinical skill after training by two different models of (hands-on only or with cognitive skills) instructions and explore their perception on the employment of educational strategies through Focus Group Discussions (FGD) through a Sequential mixed method study design: (1) Quantitative (Pre- and post-assessments and comparing their results (2) Qualitative (Exploration of perspectives through constructivist approach using qualitative phenomenological design) The study was conducted during the month of September, 2015 at Rabigh Medical College, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah. Students entering fourth year were randomized to two groups to participate in pre-post OSCE using global rating scale and their scores were compared. The examiners were kept blinded to the randomization of students undergoing two separate training methods. The test group (group A) was trained for both procedural as well as cognitive skills whereas the control group (Group-B) was trained only with hands-on practice. Later their perception about the addition of cognitive skills to improve of procedural skills was explored through focus group discussions. The recorded audio tapes of FGDs were transcribed and analysed thematically. Triangulation of themes and trends was achieved by relating the content analysis to the relevant frequency of quotes. Auditing of the data verification was done by all the authors separately.. A total of 42 students completed both pre- and post-tests. As a result, student performance in OSCE significantly increased from pre- to post-test (pdisadvantages of combining theory

  5. The Role of Spirituality in Transition to Parenthood: Qualitative Research Using Transformative Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobučar, Nataša Rijavec

    2016-08-01

    This article presents results of a qualitative study of 12 adult couples making transition to parenthood. The aim of the study was to research the meaning of transition to parenthood through the lens of transformative learning theory. Transformative learning theory explains learning through meaning-making of that life experience. In this paper, the spiritual dimension of learning is emphasized. An important part of research methodology included biographical method, using semi-structured interviews before and after the birth of the first child. The research showed that transformative learning occurs in different spheres of life during transition to parenthood. This paper discusses the spiritual dimension of learning, meaning-making and presents results of the research.

  6. Teaching Theory in Occupational Therapy Using a Cooperative Learning: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hinojosa, Jim

    2018-01-01

    Cooperative learning provides an important vehicle for active learning, as knowledge is socially constructed through interaction with others. This study investigated the effect of cooperative learning on occupational therapy (OT) theory knowledge attainment in professional-level OT students in a classroom environment. Using a pre- and post-test group design, 24 first-year, entry-level OT students participated while taking a theory course in their second semester of the program. Cooperative learning methods were implemented via in-class group assignments. The students were asked to complete two questionnaires regarding their attitudes toward group environments and their perception toward group learning before and after the semester. MANCOVA was used to examine changes in attitudes and perceived learning among groups. Students' summary sheets for each in-class assignment and course evaluations were collected for content analysis. Results indicated significant changes in students' attitude toward working in small groups regardless of their prior group experience.

  7. Climate change communication: what can we learn from communication theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballantyne, Anne Gammelgaard

    2016-01-01

    the field of communication theory are highlighted and discussed in the context of communicating climate change. Rooted in the interaction paradigm, the article proposes a meta‐theoretical framework that conceptualizes communication as a constitutive process of producing and reproducing shared meanings...... as a theoretical construct. In some instances, communication theory appears reduced to an ‘ad hoc’ toolbox, from which theories are randomly picked to provide studies with a fitting framework. Inspired by the paradigm shift from transmission to interaction within communication theory, potential lessons from...

  8. e-Research and Learning Theory: What Do Sequence and Process Mining Methods Contribute?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Peter; Markauskaite, Lina; Bannert, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental question of how data-intensive e-research methods could contribute to the development of learning theories. Using methodological developments in research on self-regulated learning as an example, it argues that current applications of data-driven analytical techniques, such as educational data mining and its…

  9. Social Learning Theories--An Important Design Consideration for Geoscience Fieldwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streule, M. J.; Craig, L. E.

    2016-01-01

    The nature of field trips in geoscience lends them to the application of social learning theories for three key reasons. First, they provide opportunity for meaningful practical experience and promote effective learning afforded by no other educational vehicle in the subject. Second, they are integral for students creating a strong but changing…

  10. Aligning Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory with a Comprehensive Agricultural Education Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Marshall A.; Robinson, J. Shane; Kolb, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Experiential learning has been a foundational tenant of agricultural education since its inception. However, the theory of experiential education has received limited attention in the permanent agricultural education literature base. As such, this philosophical manuscript examined Kolb's experiential learning process further, and considered the…

  11. Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory: A Meta-Model for Career Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, George, Jr.; Murrell, Patricia H.

    1988-01-01

    Kolb's experiential learning theory offers the career counselor a meta-model with which to structure career exploration exercises and ensure a thorough investigation of self and the world of work in a manner that provides the client with an optimal amount of learning and personal development. (Author)

  12. Second Language Developmental Dynamics: How Dynamic Systems Theory Accounts for Issues in Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmawati

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic systems theory (DST) is presented in this article as a suitable approach to research the acquisition of second language (L2) because of its close alignment with the process of second language learning. Through a process of identifying and comparing the characteristics of a dynamic system with the process of L2 learning, this article…

  13. Towards a Robuster Interpretive Parsing: learning from overt forms in Optimality Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biró, T.

    2013-01-01

    The input data to grammar learning algorithms often consist of overt forms that do not contain full structural descriptions. This lack of information may contribute to the failure of learning. Past work on Optimality Theory introduced Robust Interpretive Parsing (RIP) as a partial solution to this

  14. Gamified Pedagogy: From Gaming Theory to Creating a Self-Motivated Learning Environment in Studio Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hsiao-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    This research is an empirical study using gamified pedagogy in a 3-D animation course in a Visual Communication Design Department. By conducting this research, I hope to increase student interest in learning 3-D animation and to decrease student fears of learning professional 3-D software. Through this research, I have developed a theory of…

  15. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency: Interpretations from Information-Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zhenhui

    2016-01-01

    The research reported here investigated the relationship between students' use of language learning strategies and their English proficiency, and then interpreted the data from two models in information-processing theory. Results showed that the students' English proficiency significantly affected their use of learning strategies, with high-level…

  16. A Comparative Study of the Application of Learning Theories as Perceived by Faculty and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Lula M.

    To test the similarity of student and instructor perceptions of the learning approaches used by particular instructors in the classroom, teachers and students (n=138) of ten social science classes at Valencia Community College (Florida) responded to a questionnaire. Items tested the instructors' application of the learning theories of Pavlov,…

  17. Dynamic Training Elements in a Circuit Theory Course to Implement a Self-Directed Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouk, B. I.; Zhuravleva, O. B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of a self-directed learning process in a circuit theory course, incorporating dynamic training elements which were designed on the basis of a cybernetic model of cognitive process management. These elements are centrally linked in a dynamic learning frame, created on the monitor screen, which displays the…

  18. Social Learning Theory in the Age of Social Media: Implications for Educational Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Following the research of Albert Bandura, the advent of social media has changed the platform for social interaction and human experience. Educators have a unique opportunity to apply the concepts of Bandura's Social Learning Theory toward enhanced student engagement and learning in a social media context. This article synthesizes current research…

  19. What Motivates Students to Provide Feedback to Teachers about Teaching and Learning? An Expectancy Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Jay

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical research study was to investigate what motivates students to provide formative anonymous feedback to teachers regarding their perceptions of the teaching and learning experience in order to improve student learning. Expectancy theory, specifically Vroom's Model, was used as the conceptual framework for the study.…

  20. The Spiral and the Lattice: Changes in Cognitive Learning Theory with Implications for Art Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efland, Arthur D.

    1995-01-01

    Contrasts recent views of learning and cognition with cognitive learning theories of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Maintains that Jerome Bruner's spiral curriculum approach, still valuable, is not sufficient to explain cognitive development. Proposes a lattice-like cognitive development structure, inviting differing paths of exploration. (CFR)

  1. Shorthand Instruction in Light of Recent Theories of Learning and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Charles T.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports the highlights of three learning models (behaviorist, cognitive, and humanist), and examines them for the guidance they offer for instruction and learning in shorthand. Included are the theories of Skinner, Gagne, Carroll, Bloom, Wittrock, Ausubel, Bruner, Dember, Nebes, Scriven, Anderson, and Rogers. (Author/AJ)

  2. A Social Practice Theory of Learning and Becoming across Contexts and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuel, William R.; DiGiacomo, Daniela K.; Van Horne, Katie; Kirshner, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a social practice theory of learning and becoming across contexts and time. Our perspective is rooted in the Danish tradition of critical psychology (Dreier, 1997; Mørck & Huniche, 2006; Nissen, 2005), and we use social practice theory to interpret the pathway of one adolescent whom we followed as part of a longitudinal…

  3. Social Theories of Learning: A Need for a New Paradigm in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper is theoretical in orientation and explores the limitations of the current field of mathematics education which has been dominated by social theories of learning. It is proposed that the field is approaching its limits for these theories and there is a need for shift that moves from the idiosyncratic possibilities of subjective meaning…

  4. Educational Theories, Cultures and Learning: A Critical Perspective. Critical Perspectives on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Harry, Ed.; Lauder, Hugh, Ed.; Porter, Jill, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Educational Theories, Cultures and Learning" focuses on how education is understood in different cultures, the theories and related assumptions we make about learners and students and how we think about them, and how we can understand the principle actors in education--learners and teachers. Within this volume, internationally renowned…

  5. Small Group Learning: Do Group Members' Implicit Theories of Ability Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Nadin; Wood, Robert E.; Minbashian, Amirali; Tabernero, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined the impact of members' implicit theories of ability on group learning and the mediating role of several group process variables, such as goal-setting, effort attributions, and efficacy beliefs. Comparisons were between 15 groups with a strong incremental view on ability (high incremental theory groups), and 15 groups with a weak…

  6. Change Of Learning Environment Using Game Production ­Theory, Methods And Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reng, Lars; Kofoed, Lise; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    will focus on cases in which development of games did change the learning environments into production units where students or employees were producing games as part of the learning process. The cases indicate that the motivation as well as the learning curve became very high. The pedagogical theories......Game Based Learning has proven to have many possibilities for supporting better learning outcomes, when using educational or commercial games in the classroom. However, there is also a great potential in using game development as a motivator in other kinds of learning scenarios. This study...... and methods are based on Problem Based Learning (PBL), but are developed further by combining PBL with a production-oriented/design based approach. We illustrate the potential of using game production as a learning environment with investigation of three game productions. We can conclude that using game...

  7. Lifelong learning in obstetrics and gynaecology: how theory can influence clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, S; Smith, S; Cresswell, J

    2011-08-01

    Lifelong learning refers to the systematic acquisition, renewal, updating and completion of knowledge. It is synonymous with the term 'self-directed learning'. This is a new educational strategy meant to consolidate knowledge in a fashion that is reproducible for a lifetime with successful application to both known and unknown clinical exercises. The development of lifelong learning is based on the principles of andragogy (autonomy and independence in one's learning activities), reflection and learning from experience. This paper deals with the development of these theories culminating in the advent of self-directed learning. Evidence to support experiential, reflective and self-directed learning is provided, including the use of rating scales. An example from obstetrics is used to highlight the application of these principles. There are barriers to adopting a new educational paradigm, however, lifelong learning remains an excellent tool for continuous professional development.

  8. Expectancy-value theory in persistence of learning effects in schizophrenia: role of task value and perceived competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jimmy; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Medalia, Alice

    2010-09-01

    Expectancy-value theory, a widely accepted model of motivation, posits that expectations of success on a learning task and the individual value placed on the task are central determinants of motivation to learn. This is supported by research in healthy controls suggesting that beliefs of self-and-content mastery can be so influential they can predict the degree of improvement on challenging cognitive tasks even more so than general cognitive ability. We examined components of expectancy-value theory (perceived competency and task value), along with baseline arithmetic performance and neuropsychological performance, as possible predictors of learning outcome in a sample of 70 outpatients with schizophrenia randomized to 1 of 2 different arithmetic learning conditions and followed up after 3 months. Results indicated that as with nonpsychiatric samples, perceived self-competency for the learning task was significantly related to perceptions of task value attributed to the learning task. Baseline expectations of success predicted persistence of learning on the task at 3-month follow-up, even after accounting for variance attributable to different arithmetic instruction, baseline arithmetic ability, attention, and self-reports of task interest and task value. We also found that expectation of success is a malleable construct, with posttraining improvements persisting at follow-up. These findings support the notion that expectancy-value theory is operative in schizophrenia. Thus, similar to the nonpsychiatric population, treatment benefits may be enhanced and better maintained if remediation programs also focus on perceptions of self-competency for the training tasks. Treatment issues related to instilling self-efficacy in cognitive recovery programs are discussed.

  9. USE OF VIRTUAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS: A THEORETICAL MODEL USING DECOMPOSED EXPECTANCY DISCONFIRMATION THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Fernando Antonio de Melo; Ramos, Anatália Saraiva Martins; Andrade, Adrianne Paula Vieira de; Oliveira, Bruna Miyuki Kasuya de

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study aims to investigate the determinants of satisfaction and the resulting continuance intention in the e-learning context. The constructs of decomposed expectancy disconfirmation theory (DEDT) are evaluated from the perspective of users of a virtual learning environment (VLE) in relation to expectations and perceived performance. An online survey collected responses from 197 students of a public management distance learning course. Structural equation modeling was oper...

  10. E-Learning Content Design Standards Based on Interactive Digital Concepts Maps in the Light of Meaningful and Constructivist Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afify, Mohammed Kamal

    2018-01-01

    The present study aims to identify standards of interactive digital concepts maps design and their measurement indicators as a tool to develop, organize and administer e-learning content in the light of Meaningful Learning Theory and Constructivist Learning Theory. To achieve the objective of the research, the author prepared a list of E-learning…

  11. Action Learning in Virtual Higher Education: Applying Leadership Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the historical foundation of Northeastern University's course, LDR 6100: Developing Your Leadership Capability, a partial literature review of action learning (AL) and virtual action learning (VAL), a course methodology of LDR 6100 requiring students to apply leadership perspectives using VAL as instructed by the author,…

  12. Learned Helplessness: A Theory for the Age of Personal Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher; And Others

    Experiences with uncontrollable events may lead to the expectation that future events will elude control, resulting in disruptions in motivation, emotion, and learning. This text explores this phenomenon, termed learned helplessness, tracking it from its discovery to its entrenchment in the psychological canon. The volume summarizes and integrates…

  13. Learning to Spell Words: Findings, Theories, and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    There has been less research on how children learn to spell than on how they learn to read, but a good deal is now known about spelling development. This article reviews studies of normative development, beginning with children's early scribbles and proceeding to prephonological spelling involving letters, phonologically influenced invented…

  14. The mistake to mistake learning theory for didactics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Ane; Keiding, Tina Bering

    2016-01-01

    a simple replacement of one word with another without significance of the meaning. On the contrary, it deprives us a systematic framework for reflection on teaching, at the risk of becoming blind for the many didactic decisions that we make whenever we try to design “learning environments” and “learning...

  15. Contrasting dynamics of organizational learning : a process theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, J.J.; Lammers, I.S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the process characteristics of organizational learning. A wide variety of process models of organizational learning have been proposed in the literature, but these models have not been systematically investigated. In this paper we use Van de Ven and Poole's (1995) taxonomy

  16. The Adoption of e-Learning: An Institutional Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Pi-Tzong; Lu, Hsi-Peng; Chou, Tzu-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Several models have been proposed in the literature to understand e-learning acceptance in which social environmental factors are not primarily addressed. This paper aims to improve understanding of what social forces influence employee's attitude and intention of e-learning adoption within an organizational context. Drawing upon the institutional…

  17. The history of imitation in learning theory: the language acquisition process.

    OpenAIRE

    Kymissis, E; Poulson, C L

    1990-01-01

    The concept of imitation has undergone different analyses in the hands of different learning theorists throughout the history of psychology. From Thorndike's connectionism to Pavlov's classical conditioning, Hull's monistic theory, Mowrer's two-factor theory, and Skinner's operant theory, there have been several divergent accounts of the conditions that produce imitation and the conditions under which imitation itself may facilitate language acquisition. In tracing the roots of the concept of...

  18. Telling Active Learning Pedagogies Apart: from theory to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Hood Cattaneo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Designing learning environments to incorporate active learning pedagogies is difficult as definitions are often contested and intertwined. This article seeks to determine whether classification of active learning pedagogies (i.e., project-based, problem-based, inquiry-based, case-based, and discovery-based, through theoretical and practical lenses, could function as a useful tool for researchers and practitioners in comparing pedagogies. This article classified five active learning pedagogies based on six constructivist elements. The comparison was completed through a comparative analysis and a content analysis informed by a systematic literature review. The findings were that learner-centeredness is a primary goal of all pedagogies; however, there is a strong dissonance between each pedagogy’s theoretical underpinnings and implementation realities. This dissonance complicates differentiating active learning pedagogies and classification as a comparative tool has proved to have limited usefulness.

  19. Rethinking the Boundaries of Cognitive Load Theory in Complex Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyuga, Slava; Singh, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    In the traditional framework of cognitive load theory, it is assumed that the acquisition of domain-specific knowledge structures (or schemas) is the only instructional goal, and therefore, the theory is applicable to any instructional task. Accordingly, the basic concepts of intrinsic (productive) and extraneous (unproductive) types of cognitive…

  20. Theory Learning as Stochastic Search in the Language of Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Tomer D.; Goodman, Noah D.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2012-01-01

    We present an algorithmic model for the development of children's intuitive theories within a hierarchical Bayesian framework, where theories are described as sets of logical laws generated by a probabilistic context-free grammar. We contrast our approach with connectionist and other emergentist approaches to modeling cognitive development. While…

  1. Occupational therapy students in the process of interprofessional collaborative learning: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Dana

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to generate a theory of the interprofessional collaborative learning process of occupational therapy (OT) students who were engaged in a collaborative learning experience with students from other allied health disciplines. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews with nine OT students from four different interprofessional collaborative learning experiences at three universities. The emergent theory explained OT students' need to build a culture of mutual respect among disciplines in order to facilitate interprofessional collaborative learning. Occupational therapy students went through a progression of learned skills that included learning how to represent the profession of OT, hold their weight within a team situation, solve problems collaboratively, work as a team, and ultimately, to work in an actual team in practice. This learning process occurred simultaneously as students also learned course content. The students had to contend with barriers and facilitators that influenced their participation and the success of their collaboration. Understanding the interprofessional learning process of OT students will help allied health faculty to design more effective, inclusive interprofessional courses.

  2. Log In to Experiential Learning Theory: Supporting Web-Based Faculty Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brien, Sarah; Parry, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Background For an increasingly busy and geographically dispersed faculty, the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Southampton, United Kingdom, developed a range of Web-based faculty development modules, based on Kolb’s experiential learning cycle, to complement the faculty’s face-to-face workshops. Objective The objective of this study was to assess users’ views and perceptions of the effectiveness of Web-based faculty development modules based on Kolb’s experiential learning cycle. We explored (1) users’ satisfaction with the modules, (2) whether Kolb’s design framework supported users’ learning, and (3) whether the design principle impacts their work as educators. Methods We gathered data from users over a 3-year period using evaluation surveys built into each of the seven modules. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and responses to open-ended questions were analyzed using content analysis. Results Out of the 409 module users, 283 completed the survey (69.1% response rate). Over 80% of the users reported being satisfied or very satisfied with seven individual aspects of the modules. The findings suggest a strong synergy between the design features that users rated most highly and the key stages of Kolb’s learning cycle. The use of simulations and videos to give the users an initial experience as well as the opportunity to “Have a go” and receive feedback in a safe environment were both considered particularly useful. In addition to providing an opportunity for reflection, many participants considered that the modules would enhance their roles as educators through: increasing their knowledge on various education topics and the required standards for medical training, and improving their skills in teaching and assessing students through practice and feedback and ultimately increasing their confidence. Conclusions Kolb’s theory-based design principle used for Web-based faculty development can support faculty to

  3. Using complexity theory to develop a student-directed interprofessional learning activity for 1220 healthcare students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Christine; Nisbet, Gillian; Roberts, Chris; Gordon, Christopher; Gentilcore, Stacey; Chen, Timothy F

    2016-08-08

    More and better interprofessional practice is predicated to be necessary to deliver good care to the patients of the future. However, universities struggle to create authentic learning activities that enable students to experience the dynamic interprofessional interactions common in healthcare and that can accommodate large interprofessional student cohorts. We investigated a large-scale mandatory interprofessional learning (IPL) activity for health professional students designed to promote social learning. A mixed methods research approach determined feasibility, acceptability and the extent to which student IPL outcomes were met. We developed an IPL activity founded in complexity theory to prepare students for future practice by engaging them in a self-directed (self-organised) learning activity with a diverse team, whose assessable products would be emergent creations. Complicated but authentic clinical cases (n = 12) were developed to challenge student teams (n = 5 or 6). Assessment consisted of a written management plan (academically marked) and a five-minute video (peer marked) designed to assess creative collaboration as well as provide evidence of integrated collective knowledge; the cohesive patient-centred management plan. All students (including the disciplines of diagnostic radiology, exercise physiology, medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, pharmacy, physiotherapy and speech pathology), completed all tasks successfully. Of the 26 % of students who completed the evaluation survey, 70 % agreed or strongly agreed that the IPL activity was worthwhile, and 87 % agreed or strongly agreed that their case study was relevant. Thematic analysis found overarching themes of engagement and collaboration-in-action suggesting that the IPL activity enabled students to achieve the intended learning objectives. Students recognised the contribution of others and described negotiation, collaboration and creation of new collective knowledge after working

  4. Log In to Experiential Learning Theory: Supporting Web-Based Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Selma; Choi, Sunhea; Brien, Sarah; Parry, Marcus

    2017-09-27

    For an increasingly busy and geographically dispersed faculty, the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Southampton, United Kingdom, developed a range of Web-based faculty development modules, based on Kolb's experiential learning cycle, to complement the faculty's face-to-face workshops. The objective of this study was to assess users' views and perceptions of the effectiveness of Web-based faculty development modules based on Kolb's experiential learning cycle. We explored (1) users' satisfaction with the modules, (2) whether Kolb's design framework supported users' learning, and (3) whether the design principle impacts their work as educators. We gathered data from users over a 3-year period using evaluation surveys built into each of the seven modules. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and responses to open-ended questions were analyzed using content analysis. Out of the 409 module users, 283 completed the survey (69.1% response rate). Over 80% of the users reported being satisfied or very satisfied with seven individual aspects of the modules. The findings suggest a strong synergy between the design features that users rated most highly and the key stages of Kolb's learning cycle. The use of simulations and videos to give the users an initial experience as well as the opportunity to "Have a go" and receive feedback in a safe environment were both considered particularly useful. In addition to providing an opportunity for reflection, many participants considered that the modules would enhance their roles as educators through: increasing their knowledge on various education topics and the required standards for medical training, and improving their skills in teaching and assessing students through practice and feedback and ultimately increasing their confidence. Kolb's theory-based design principle used for Web-based faculty development can support faculty to improve their skills and has impact on their role as educators

  5. Collective learning modeling based on the kinetic theory of active particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burini, D; De Lillo, S; Gibelli, L

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a systems approach to the theory of perception and learning in populations composed of many living entities. Starting from a phenomenological description of these processes, a mathematical structure is derived which is deemed to incorporate their complexity features. The modeling is based on a generalization of kinetic theory methods where interactions are described by theoretical tools of game theory. As an application, the proposed approach is used to model the learning processes that take place in a classroom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Using Expectancy Value Theory as a Framework to Reduce Student Resistance to Active Learning: A Proof of Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Katelyn M; Ashley, Michael; Brownell, Sara E

    2017-01-01

    There has been a national movement to transition college science courses from passive lectures to active learning environments. Active learning has been shown to be a more effective way for students to learn, yet there is concern that some students are resistant to active learning approaches. Although there is much discussion about student resistance to active learning, few studies have explored this topic. Furthermore, a limited number of studies have applied theoretical frameworks to student engagement in active learning. We propose using a theoretical lens of expectancy value theory to understand student resistance to active learning. In this study, we examined student perceptions of active learning after participating in 40 hours of active learning. We used the principal components of expectancy value theory to probe student experience in active learning: student perceived self-efficacy in active learning, value of active learning, and potential cost of participating in active learning. We found that students showed positive changes in the components of expectancy value theory and reported high levels of engagement in active learning, which provide proof of concept that expectancy value theory can be used to boost student perceptions of active learning and their engagement in active learning classrooms. From these findings, we have built a theoretical framework of expectancy value theory applied to active learning.

  7. Suggestions for Modifications in the Teaching of General Chemistry to Accommodate Learning Disabled Students: Alternative Techniques for Teaching General Chemistry to Learning Disabled Students in the University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, H. S.

    A professor involved with the HELDS project (Higher Education for Learning Disabled Students) describes modifications in a general chemistry course. A syllabus lists program objectives for eight text chapters, evaluation components, and course rules. Two units are described in detail, with information presented on modifications made for LD…

  8. Research Notes ~ Second Language Acquisition Theories as a Framework for Creating Distance Learning Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen N. Ariza

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Moore and Kearsley (1996 maintain distance educators should provide for three types of interaction: a learner-content; b learner-instructor; and c learner-learner. According to interactionist second language acquisition (SLA theories that reflect Krashen’s theory (1994 that comprehensible input is critical for second language acquisition, interaction can enhance second language acquisition and fluency. Effective output is necessary as well. We reviewed the research on distance learning for second language learners and concluded that SLA theories can, and should, be the framework that drives the development of courses for students seeking to learn languages by distance technology. This article delineates issues to consider in support of combining SLA theories and research literature as a guide in creating distance language learning courses.

  9. Towards an understanding of the attributes of simulation that enable learning in undergraduate nurse education: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Andrew J; Tobbell, Jane

    2016-09-01

    Simulation has become an established feature of nurse education yet little is understood about the mechanisms that lead to learning. To explore the attributes of simulation-based education that enable student learning in undergraduate nurse education. Final year students drawn from one UK University (n=46) participated in a grounded theory study. First, nonparticipant observation and video recording of student activity was undertaken. Following initial analysis, recordings and observations were deconstructed during focus group interviews that enabled both the researcher and participants to unpack meaning. Lastly emergent findings were verified with final year students drawn from a second UK University (n=6). A staged approach to learning emerged from engagement in simulation. This began with initial hesitation as students moved through nonlinear stages to making connections and thinking like a nurse. Core findings suggest that simulation enables curiosity and intellect (main concern) through doing (core category) and interaction with others identified as social collaboration (category). This study offers a theoretical basis for understanding simulation-based education and integration of strategies that maximise the potential for learning. Additionally it offers direction for further research, particularly with regards to how the application of theory to practice is accelerated through learning by doing and working collaboratively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

  11. Adult learning in veterinary education: theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Vicki H M; Sullivan, Martin; May, Stephen A

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues the case for the increased application of adult learning principles to veterinary education. It encapsulates evidence from the United Kingdom, Europe, North America, and Australia to explain why it has taken veterinary schools so long to transform their curricula to best facilitate the development of lifelong learning skills, such as independent and self-directed learning, problem solving, and critical thinking. Despite the variation in training programs in these different regions, the paper identifies common issues-conflicting educational paradigms and the need for faculty development-and ultimately concludes that professional and continuing education should be viewed as a continuous process, supporting the adult learner's cognitive development and facilitated through experiential learning.

  12. RG-inspired machine learning for lattice field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foreman Sam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning has been a fast growing field of research in several areas dealing with large datasets. We report recent attempts to use renormalization group (RG ideas in the context of machine learning. We examine coarse graining procedures for perceptron models designed to identify the digits of the MNIST data. We discuss the correspondence between principal components analysis (PCA and RG flows across the transition for worm configurations of the 2D Ising model. Preliminary results regarding the logarithmic divergence of the leading PCA eigenvalue were presented at the conference. More generally, we discuss the relationship between PCA and observables in Monte Carlo simulations and the possibility of reducing the number of learning parameters in supervised learning based on RG inspired hierarchical ansatzes.

  13. RG-inspired machine learning for lattice field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Sam; Giedt, Joel; Meurice, Yannick; Unmuth-Yockey, Judah

    2018-03-01

    Machine learning has been a fast growing field of research in several areas dealing with large datasets. We report recent attempts to use renormalization group (RG) ideas in the context of machine learning. We examine coarse graining procedures for perceptron models designed to identify the digits of the MNIST data. We discuss the correspondence between principal components analysis (PCA) and RG flows across the transition for worm configurations of the 2D Ising model. Preliminary results regarding the logarithmic divergence of the leading PCA eigenvalue were presented at the conference. More generally, we discuss the relationship between PCA and observables in Monte Carlo simulations and the possibility of reducing the number of learning parameters in supervised learning based on RG inspired hierarchical ansatzes.

  14. Using Learning and Motivation Theories to Coherently Link Formative Assessment, Grading Practices, and Large-Scale Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, L. A.; Penuel, W. R.; Pellegrino, J. W.

    2018-01-01

    To support equitable and ambitious teaching practices, classroom assessment design must be grounded in a research-based theory of learning. Compared to other theories, sociocultural theory offers a more powerful, integrative account of how motivational aspects of learning--such as self-regulation, self-efficacy, sense of belonging, and…

  15. Inductive Learning and Theory Testing: Applications in Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores the opportunities for economic research that arise from importing empirical methods from the field of machine learning. Chapter 1 applies inductive learning to cross-sectional asset pricing. Researchers have documented over three hundred variables that can explain differences in cross-sectional stock returns. But which ones contain independent information? Chapter 1 develops a framework, deep conditional portfolio sorts, that can be used to answer this question and th...

  16. Implementation of Automata Theory to Improve the Learning Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Syed Asif; Soomro, Safeeullah; Memon, Abdul Ghafoor; Baqi, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    There are various types of disability egress in world like blindness, deafness, and Physical disabilities. It is quite difficult to deal with people with disability. Learning disability (LD) is types of disability totally different from general disability. To deal children with learning disability is difficult for both parents and teacher. As parent deal with only single child so it bit easy. But teacher deals with different students at a time so its more difficult to deal with group of stude...

  17. Cultural Historical Activity Theory, Expansive Learning and Agency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper reports on how Cultural Historical Activity Theory was used to identify and analyse ..... marketing and transport and the contradiction here is between the (surplus) production – ... We thought you could start by educating the.

  18. Can theories of animal discrimination explain perceptual learning in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Chris; Hall, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of recent studies of perceptual learning conducted with nonhuman animals. The focus of this research has been to elucidate the mechanisms by which mere exposure to a pair of similar stimuli can increase the ease with which those stimuli are discriminated. These studies establish an important role for 2 mechanisms, one involving inhibitory associations between the unique features of the stimuli, the other involving a long-term habituation process that enhances the relative salience of these features. We then examine recent work investigating equivalent perceptual learning procedures with human participants. Our aim is to determine the extent to which the phenomena exhibited by people are susceptible to explanation in terms of the mechanisms revealed by the animal studies. Although we find no evidence that associative inhibition contributes to the perceptual learning effect in humans, initial detection of unique features (those that allow discrimination between 2 similar stimuli) appears to depend on an habituation process. Once the unique features have been detected, a tendency to attend to those features and to learn about their properties enhances subsequent discrimination. We conclude that the effects obtained with humans engage mechanisms additional to those seen in animals but argue that, for the most part, these have their basis in learning processes that are common to animals and people. In a final section, we discuss some implications of this analysis of perceptual learning for other aspects of experimental psychology and consider some potential applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Increasing Bellevue School District's elementary teachers' capacity for teaching inquiry-based science: Using ideas from contemporary learning theory to inform professional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, Tracy Anne

    This Capstone project examined how leaders in the Bellevue School District can increase elementary teachers' capacity for teaching inquiry-based science through the use of professional learning activities that are grounded in ideas from human learning theory. A framework for professional development was constructed and from that framework, a set of professional learning activities were developed as a means to support teacher learning while project participants piloted new curriculum called the Isopod Habitat Challenge. Teachers in the project increased their understanding of the learning theory principles of preconceptions and metacognition. Teachers did not increase their understanding of the principle of learning with understanding, although they did articulate the significance of engaging children in student-led inquiry cycles. Data from the curriculum revision and professional development project coupled with ideas from learning theory, cognition and policy implementation, and learning community literatures suggest Bellevue's leaders can encourage peer-to-peer interaction, link professional development to teachers' daily practice, and capitalize on technology as ways to increase elementary teachers' capacity for teaching inquiry-based science. These lessons also have significance for supporting teacher learning and efficacy in other subject areas and at other levels in the system.

  20. The lack of foundation in the mechanism on which are based the physico-chemical theories for the origin of the genetic code is counterposed to the credible and natural mechanism suggested by the coevolution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, Massimo

    2016-06-21

    I analyze the mechanism on which are based the majority of theories that put to the center of the origin of the genetic code the physico-chemical properties of amino acids. As this mechanism is based on excessive mutational steps, I conclude that it could not have been operative or if operative it would not have allowed a full realization of predictions of these theories, because this mechanism contained, evidently, a high indeterminacy. I make that disapproving the four-column theory of the origin of the genetic code (Higgs, 2009) and reply to the criticism that was directed towards the coevolution theory of the origin of the genetic code. In this context, I suggest a new hypothesis that clarifies the mechanism by which the domains of codons of the precursor amino acids would have evolved, as predicted by the coevolution theory. This mechanism would have used particular elongation factors that would have constrained the evolution of all amino acids belonging to a given biosynthetic family to the progenitor pre-tRNA, that for first recognized, the first codons that evolved in a certain codon domain of a determined precursor amino acid. This happened because the elongation factors recognized two characteristics of the progenitor pre-tRNAs of precursor amino acids, which prevented the elongation factors from recognizing the pre-tRNAs belonging to biosynthetic families of different precursor amino acids. Finally, I analyze by means of Fisher's exact test, the distribution, within the genetic code, of the biosynthetic classes of amino acids and the ones of polarity values of amino acids. This analysis would seem to support the biosynthetic classes of amino acids over the ones of polarity values, as the main factor that led to the structuring of the genetic code, with the physico-chemical properties of amino acids playing only a subsidiary role in this evolution. As a whole, the full analysis brings to the conclusion that the coevolution theory of the origin of the

  1. Student nurse dyads create a community of learning: proposing a holistic clinical education theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A

    2011-11-01

    This paper is a report of a qualitative study of students' experiences of cooperative learning in the clinical setting. Although cooperative learning is often used successfully in the classroom, it has not been documented in the clinical setting with sophomore nursing students being paired with other sophomore nursing students. Using a grounded theory methodology a sample of 64 participants (32 student nurse dyads, eight clinical groups, in two different acute care institutions) were observed on their first day in the clinical setting while working as cooperative partners. Interviews were also conducted with students, patients and staff preceptors. Data were collected in the fall of 2008, spring and fall of 2009 and the spring of 2010 using semi-structured interviews and reflective surveys. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. A holistic clinical education theory for student nurses was identified from the data. This theory includes a reciprocal relationship among five categories relevant to a community of learning: supportive clinical experience; improved transition into practice; enhanced socialization into the profession; increased accountability and responsibility; and emergence of self-confidence as a beginning student nurse. The use of student dyads creates a supportive learning environment while students were able to meet the clinical learning objectives. Cooperative learning in the clinical setting creates a community of learning while instilling very early in the education process the importance of teamwork. This approach to clinical instruction eases the transition from the classroom to the clinical learning environment, and improves patient outcomes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Tying knots: an activity theory analysis of student learning goals in clinical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Douglas P; Wesevich, Austin; Lichtenfeld, Jana; Artino, Antony R; Brydges, Ryan; Varpio, Lara

    2017-07-01

    Learning goal programmes are often created to help students develop self-regulated learning skills; however, these programmes do not necessarily consider the social contexts surrounding learning goals or how they fit into daily educational practice. We investigated a high-frequency learning goal programme in which students generated and shared weekly learning goals with their clinical teams in core Year 3 clerkships. Our study explores: (i) how learning goals were incorporated into the clinical work, and (ii) the factors that influenced the use of students' learning goals in work-based learning. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 14 students and 14 supervisors (attending physicians and residents) sampled from all participating core clerkships. Interviews were coded for emerging themes. Using cultural historical activity theory and knotworking as theoretical lenses, we developed a model of the factors that influenced students' learning goal usage in a work-based learning context. Students and supervisors often faced the challenge of reconciling contradictions that arose when the desired outcomes of student skill development, grading and patient care were not aligned. Learning goals could function as tools for developing new ways of acting that overcame those contradictions by facilitating collaborative effort between students and their supervisors. However, for new collaborations to take place, both students and supervisors had to engage with the goals, and the necessary patients needed to be present. When any one part of the system did not converge around the learning goals, the impact of the learning goals programme was limited. Learning goals are potentially powerful tools to mediate interactions between students, supervisors and patients, and to reconcile contradictions in work-based learning environments. Learning goals provide a means to develop not only learners, but also learning systems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the

  3. Learning Theory Estimates with Observations from General Stationary Stochastic Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Hanyuan; Feng, Yunlong; Steinwart, Ingo; Suykens, Johan A K

    2016-12-01

    This letter investigates the supervised learning problem with observations drawn from certain general stationary stochastic processes. Here by general, we mean that many stationary stochastic processes can be included. We show that when the stochastic processes satisfy a generalized Bernstein-type inequality, a unified treatment on analyzing the learning schemes with various mixing processes can be conducted and a sharp oracle inequality for generic regularized empirical risk minimization schemes can be established. The obtained oracle inequality is then applied to derive convergence rates for several learning schemes such as empirical risk minimization (ERM), least squares support vector machines (LS-SVMs) using given generic kernels, and SVMs using gaussian kernels for both least squares and quantile regression. It turns out that for independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) processes, our learning rates for ERM recover the optimal rates. For non-i.i.d. processes, including geometrically [Formula: see text]-mixing Markov processes, geometrically [Formula: see text]-mixing processes with restricted decay, [Formula: see text]-mixing processes, and (time-reversed) geometrically [Formula: see text]-mixing processes, our learning rates for SVMs with gaussian kernels match, up to some arbitrarily small extra term in the exponent, the optimal rates. For the remaining cases, our rates are at least close to the optimal rates. As a by-product, the assumed generalized Bernstein-type inequality also provides an interpretation of the so-called effective number of observations for various mixing processes.

  4. Beyond Measurement-Driven Instruction: Achieving Deep Learning Based on Constructivist Learning Theory, Integrated Assessment, and a Flipped Classroom Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, James A.; Fuller, Richard G.

    2017-01-01

    The authors focus on the critical role of assessment within a flipped classroom environment where instruction is based on constructivist learning theory and where desired student outcomes are at the higher levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. While assessment is typically thought of in terms of providing summative measures of performance or achievement, it…

  5. Paradoxes of a Long Life Learning: An Exploration of Peter Jarvis's Contribution to Experiential Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The paper explores the work of Peter Jarvis related to learning with particular reference to his definitions of learning and his models of the learning process. This exploration will consider different approaches to experiential learning and demonstrate the contribution Jarvis has made, noting how his writing on the subject has changed over time.…

  6. Surgical education and adult learning: Integrating theory into practice [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Rashid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Surgical education continues to evolve from the master-apprentice model. Newer methods of the process need to be used to manage the dual challenges of educating while providing safe surgical care. This requires integrating adult learning concepts into delivery of practical training and education in busy clinical environments. A narrative review aimed at outlining and integrating adult learning and surgical education theory was undertaken. Additionally, this information was used to relate the practical delivery of surgical training and education in day-to-day surgical practice. Concepts were sourced from reference material. Additional material was found using a PubMed search of the words: ‘surgical education theory’ and ‘adult learning theory medical’. This yielded 1351 abstracts, of which 43 articles with a focus on key concepts in adult education theory were used. Key papers were used to formulate structure and additional cross-referenced papers were included where appropriate. Current concepts within adult learning have a lot to offer when considering how to better deliver surgical education and training. Better integration of adult learning theory can be fruitful. Individual teaching surgical units need to rethink their paradigms and consider how each individual can contribute to the education experience. Up skilling courses for trainers can do much to improve the delivery of surgical education. Understanding adult learning concepts and integrating these into day-to-day teaching can be valuable.

  7. Characterizing representational learning: A combined simulation and tutorial on perturbation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Kohnle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing, constructing, and translating between graphical, pictorial, and mathematical representations of physics ideas and reasoning flexibly through them (“representational competence” is a key characteristic of expertise in physics but is a challenge for learners to develop. Interactive computer simulations and University of Washington style tutorials both have affordances to support representational learning. This article describes work to characterize students’ spontaneous use of representations before and after working with a combined simulation and tutorial on first-order energy corrections in the context of quantum-mechanical time-independent perturbation theory. Data were collected from two institutions using pre-, mid-, and post-tests to assess short- and long-term gains. A representational competence level framework was adapted to devise level descriptors for the assessment items. The results indicate an increase in the number of representations used by students and the consistency between them following the combined simulation tutorial. The distributions of representational competence levels suggest a shift from perceptual to semantic use of representations based on their underlying meaning. In terms of activity design, this study illustrates the need to support students in making sense of the representations shown in a simulation and in learning to choose the most appropriate representation for a given task. In terms of characterizing representational abilities, this study illustrates the usefulness of a framework focusing on perceptual, syntactic, and semantic use of representations.

  8. Attentional Bias for Uncertain Cues of Shock in Human Fear Conditioning: Evidence for Attentional Learning Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Koenig

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a human fear conditioning experiment in which three different color cues were followed by an aversive electric shock on 0, 50, and 100% of the trials, and thus induced low (L, partial (P, and high (H shock expectancy, respectively. The cues differed with respect to the strength of their shock association (L < P < H and the uncertainty of their prediction (L < P > H. During conditioning we measured pupil dilation and ocular fixations to index differences in the attentional processing of the cues. After conditioning, the shock-associated colors were introduced as irrelevant distracters during visual search for a shape target while shocks were no longer administered and we analyzed the cues’ potential to capture and hold overt attention automatically. Our findings suggest that fear conditioning creates an automatic attention bias for the conditioned cues that depends on their correlation with the aversive outcome. This bias was exclusively linked to the strength of the cues’ shock association for the early attentional processing of cues in the visual periphery, but additionally was influenced by the uncertainty of the shock prediction after participants fixated on the cues. These findings are in accord with attentional learning theories that formalize how associative learning shapes automatic attention.

  9. Characterizing representational learning: A combined simulation and tutorial on perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnle, Antje; Passante, Gina

    2017-12-01

    Analyzing, constructing, and translating between graphical, pictorial, and mathematical representations of physics ideas and reasoning flexibly through them ("representational competence") is a key characteristic of expertise in physics but is a challenge for learners to develop. Interactive computer simulations and University of Washington style tutorials both have affordances to support representational learning. This article describes work to characterize students' spontaneous use of representations before and after working with a combined simulation and tutorial on first-order energy corrections in the context of quantum-mechanical time-independent perturbation theory. Data were collected from two institutions using pre-, mid-, and post-tests to assess short- and long-term gains. A representational competence level framework was adapted to devise level descriptors for the assessment items. The results indicate an increase in the number of representations used by students and the consistency between them following the combined simulation tutorial. The distributions of representational competence levels suggest a shift from perceptual to semantic use of representations based on their underlying meaning. In terms of activity design, this study illustrates the need to support students in making sense of the representations shown in a simulation and in learning to choose the most appropriate representation for a given task. In terms of characterizing representational abilities, this study illustrates the usefulness of a framework focusing on perceptual, syntactic, and semantic use of representations.

  10. Attentional Bias for Uncertain Cues of Shock in Human Fear Conditioning: Evidence for Attentional Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Stephan; Uengoer, Metin; Lachnit, Harald

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a human fear conditioning experiment in which three different color cues were followed by an aversive electric shock on 0, 50, and 100% of the trials, and thus induced low (L), partial (P), and high (H) shock expectancy, respectively. The cues differed with respect to the strength of their shock association (L H). During conditioning we measured pupil dilation and ocular fixations to index differences in the attentional processing of the cues. After conditioning, the shock-associated colors were introduced as irrelevant distracters during visual search for a shape target while shocks were no longer administered and we analyzed the cues’ potential to capture and hold overt attention automatically. Our findings suggest that fear conditioning creates an automatic attention bias for the conditioned cues that depends on their correlation with the aversive outcome. This bias was exclusively linked to the strength of the cues’ shock association for the early attentional processing of cues in the visual periphery, but additionally was influenced by the uncertainty of the shock prediction after participants fixated on the cues. These findings are in accord with attentional learning theories that formalize how associative learning shapes automatic attention. PMID:28588466

  11. Cultural Learning Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael

    2016-01-01

    M. Tomasello, A. Kruger, and H. Ratner (1993) proposed a theory of cultural learning comprising imitative learning, instructed learning, and collaborative learning. Empirical and theoretical advances in the past 20 years suggest modifications to the theory; for example, children do not just imitate but overimitate in order to identify and…

  12. Learning to perceive in the sensorimotor approach: Piaget's theory of equilibration interpreted dynamically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Alejandro Di Paolo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning to perceive faces a classical paradox: if understanding is required for perception, how can we learn to perceive something new, something we do not yet understand? According to the sensorimotor approach, perception involves mastery of regular sensorimotor co-variations that depend on the agent and the environment, also known as the ‘laws’ of sensorimotor contingencies. In this sense, perception involves enacting relevant sensorimotor skills in each situation. It is important for this proposal that such skills can be learned and refined with experience and yet up to this date, the sensorimotor approach has had no explicit theory of perceptual learning. The situation is made more complex if we acknowledge the open-ended nature of human learning. In this paper we propose Piaget’s theory of equilibration as a potential candidate to fulfill this role. This theory highlights the importance of intrinsic sensorimotor norms, in terms of the closure of sensorimotor schemes. It also explains how the equilibration of a sensorimotor organization faced with novelty or breakdowns proceeds by re-shaping pre-existing structures in coupling with dynamical regularities of the world. This way learning to perceive is guided by the equilibration of emerging forms of skillful coping with the world. We demonstrate the compatibility between Piaget’s theory and the sensorimotor approach by providing a dynamical formalization of equilibration to give an explicit micro-genetic account of sensorimotor learning and, by extension, of how we learn to perceive. This allows us to draw important lessons in the form of general principles for open-ended sensorimotor learning, including the need for an intrinsic normative evaluation by the agent itself. We also explore implications of our micro-genetic account at the personal level.

  13. The Effects of Students' Learning Anxiety and Motivation on the Learning Achievement in the Activity Theory Based Gamified Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The advancement of mobile game-based learning has encouraged many related studies, which has enabled students to learn more and faster. To enhance the clinical path of cardiac catheterization learning, this paper has developed a mobile 3D-CCGBLS (3D Cardiac Catheterization Game-Based Learning System) with a learning assessment for cardiac…

  14. The clinical associate curriculum . the learning theory underpinning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Bachelor of Clinical Medical Practice (BCMP) is a new degree at the University of Pretoria (UP), designed to create a new category of mid-level medical workers, namely clinical associates. UP produced its first 44 graduates in 2011. The BCMP created the opportunity to innovate learning and teaching through ...

  15. Learning to Generate Dialogue: Theory, Practice, and Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCallie, Ellen; Simonsson, Elin; Gammon, Ben

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade in the UK, communities of scientists, governmental bodies, and informal learning organizations have increasingly promoted public engagement with science. One of the most visible features of these efforts within museums is the staging of adult-focused, face-to-face forums...

  16. The Ecology of Interactive Learning Environments: Situating Traditional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2014-01-01

    In educational discourse on human learning (i.e. the result of experience) and development (i.e. the result of maturation), there are three fundamental theoretical frameworks, -- behaviourism, cognitivism and constructivism, each of which have been applied, with varying degrees of success, in online environments. An ecological framework of human…

  17. Idea Management: Perspectives from Leadership, Learning, and Network Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Deichmann (Dirk)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, we focus on how leadership styles, individual learning behaviors, and social network structures drive or inhibit organizational members to repeatedly generate and develop innovative ideas. Taking the idea management programs of three multinational companies as the

  18. Personalized E-Learning System Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih-Ming, Chen; Lee, Hahn-Ming; Chen, Ya-Hui

    2005-01-01

    Personalized service is important on the Internet, especially in Web-based learning. Generally, most personalized systems consider learner preferences, interests, and browsing behaviors in providing personalized services. However, learner ability usually is neglected as an important factor in implementing personalization mechanisms. Besides, too…

  19. Ideas for Teaching Economics Derived from Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armento, Beverly J.

    1987-01-01

    This article identifies some behaviorial approaches for teaching economics at the pre-college level, including contiguity, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and social learning. The cognitive school of thought is also considered. Implications of research on problem-solving are drawn. (CB)

  20. "Theory repositories" via the web for problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Johan (CTIT); van Riemsdijk, Maarten; Jones, Valerie M.; Collis, Betty

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments conducted at the School of Management Studies at the University of Twente designed to improve students' concentration on the theoretical study materials in a particular course. In 1997 a problem-based learning approach was introduced into a course on

  1. Visitor Learning on Guided Tours: An Activity Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lily Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Guided tours, field trips, and other non-formal learning experiences occur in a variety of settings such as museums, parks, civic buildings, and architectural landmarks for the purpose of educating the public. This study yielded four main findings. (1) Program educational goals were visitor awareness, positive affective experience, and advocacy.…

  2. Implications of Complexity and Chaos Theories for Organizations that Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter A. C.

    2003-01-01

    In 1996 Hubert Saint-Onge and Smith published an article ("The evolutionary organization: avoiding a Titanic fate", in The Learning Organization, Vol. 3 No. 4), based on their experience at the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC). It was established at CIBC that change could be successfully facilitated through blended application…

  3. Media Analysis as Critical Reflexology in Exploring Adult Learning Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Holly M.; Bierema, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Examining media artifacts as a learning method has received little attention in human resource development (HRD) despite it being a predominate form of information and influence in popular culture. As Giroux (2002) opines, media functions as a form of public pedagogy by offering situations and contexts through which viewers can vicariously…

  4. Learning quantum field theory from elementary quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosdzinsky, P.; Tarrach, R.

    1991-01-01

    The study of the Dirac delta potentials in more than one dimension allows the introduction within the framework of elementary quantum mechanics of many of the basic concepts of modern quantum field theory: regularization, renormalization group, asymptotic freedom, dimensional transmutation, triviality, etc. It is also interesting, by itself, as a nonstandard quantum mechanical problem

  5. Aesthetic Creativity: Insights from Classical Literary Theory on Creative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrom, Tomas Georg

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the subject of textual creativity by drawing on work done in classical literary theory and criticism, specifically new criticism, structuralism and early poststructuralism. The question of how readers and writers engage creatively with the text is closely related to educational concerns, though they are often thought of as…

  6. Active Learning with Monty Hall in a Game Theory Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, Alan J.; Merz, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe a game that students can play on the first day of a game theory class. The game introduces the 4 essential elements of any game and is designed so that its sequel, also played on the first day of class, has students playing the well-known Monty Hall game, which raises the question: Should you switch doors? By implementing a…

  7. Uh-Oh...Second Thoughts about Adult Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuer, Dale; Geber, Beverly

    1988-01-01

    The authors review the concept of andragogy and synthesize recent criticisms of this theory. The use of andragogical techniques in job training is discussed. The authors conclude that, despite some weaknesses, andragogy is important in that it makes the teacher sensitive to the needs and interests of the learner. (CH)

  8. Theory Z and Schools: What Can We Learn from Toyota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Paul S.

    1984-01-01

    William Ouchi's 1981 book designates as "Type Z" American firms that effectively combine domestic and Japanese management strategies. Applications of this theory to improving school effectiveness would involve combining in each school the components of vital philosophy, curricular clarity, instructional focus, social organization, and…

  9. Schoenfeld's problem solving theory in a student controlled learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, E.; Suhre, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a student controlled computer program for high school mathematics based on instruction principles derived from Schoenfeld's theory of problem solving. The computer program allows students to choose problems and to make use of hints during different episodes

  10. Profiles in Leadership: Enhancing Learning through Model and Theory Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Jeffrey A.

    2003-01-01

    A class assignment was designed to present factors affecting leadership dynamics, allow practice in model and theory building, and examine leadership from multicultural perspectives. Students developed a profile of a fictional or real leader and analyzed qualities, motivations, context, and effectiveness in written and oral presentations.…

  11. Do Advance Organizers Facilitate Learning? A Review of Subsumption Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEneany, John E.

    1990-01-01

    A review of four studies conducted by Ausubel raises serious doubts about the efficacy of advance organizers under a variety of circumstances. In addition, this review questions the adequacy of definitions for two central notions of subsumption theory (discriminability and advance organizer). (IAH)

  12. School Readiness and Rudolf Steiner's Theory of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Earl J.; Ujlaki, Vilma

    This paper presents Rudolf Steiner's maturational readiness theory of human physiopsychology and comments on education in the Waldorf Schools. Discussion asserts that Steiner's concept of human development is complex and that intensive study is required for even a superficial understanding of "the four members of man": the physical,…

  13. Talking back to theory: the missed opportunities in learning technology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oliver

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research into learning technology has developed a reputation for being drivenby rhetoric about the revolutionary nature of new developments, for payingscant attention to theories that might be used to frame and inform research, andfor producing shallow analyses that do little to inform the practice of education.Although there is theoretically-informed research in learning technology, this isin the minority, and has been actively marginalised by calls for applied designwork. This limits opportunities to advance knowledge in the field. Using threeexamples, alternative ways to engage with theory are identified. The paper concludesby calling for greater engagement with theory, and the development of ascholarship of learning technology, in order to enrich practice within the fieldand demonstrate its relevance to other fields of work.

  14. Elemental representation and configural mappings: combining elemental and configural theories of associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, I P L; Forrest, C L; McLaren, R P

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we present our first attempt at combining an elemental theory designed to model representation development in an associative system (based on McLaren, Kaye, & Mackintosh, 1989) with a configural theory that models associative learning and memory (McLaren, 1993). After considering the possible advantages of such a combination (and some possible pitfalls), we offer a hybrid model that allows both components to produce the phenomena that they are capable of without introducing unwanted interactions. We then successfully apply the model to a range of phenomena, including latent inhibition, perceptual learning, the Espinet effect, and first- and second-order retrospective revaluation. In some cases, we present new data for comparison with our model's predictions. In all cases, the model replicates the pattern observed in our experimental results. We conclude that this line of development is a promising one for arriving at general theories of associative learning and memory.

  15. Using theories of learning in workplaces to enhance physiotherapy clinical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Narelle; Higgs, Joy; Smith, Megan

    2013-10-01

    Clinical education has long been accepted as integral to the education of physiotherapy students and their preparation for professional practice. The clinical environment, through practice immersion, situates students in a powerful learning context and plays a critical role in students' construction of professional knowledge. Despite this acknowledged centrality of practice and clinical environments to the students' experiential construction of professional knowledge, there has been limited exploration of learning theories underpinning clinical education in the literature. In this paper, we explore a selection of learning theories underpinning physiotherapy clinical education with a view to providing clinical educators with a firm foundation on which to base wise educational practices and potentially enhance physiotherapy students' clinical learning experiences. This exploration has drawn from leading thinkers in the field of education over the past century.

  16. How adolescents learn about risk perception and behavior in regards to alcohol use in light of social learning theory: a qualitative study in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Elena María; Suárez, Daniel Enrique; Lema, Mariana; Londoño, Alicia

    2015-02-01

    In Colombia, the use of alcohol is one of the main risky behaviors carried out by adolescents, given that alcohol is the principal drug of abuse in this age group. Understanding how adolescents learn about risk and behavior is important in developing effective prevention programs. The Theory of Social learning underlines the importance of social interaction in the learning process. It suggests that learning can occur in three ways: a live model in which a person is enacting the desired behavior, verbal instruction when the desired behavior is described, and symbolic learning in which modeling occurs by influence of the media. This study explores these three forms of learning in the perception of risk and behavior related to the use of alcohol in a group of students between 12 and 14 years of age in Bogotá, Colombia. This is a qualitative research study, which is part of a larger study exploring the social representations of risk and alcohol use in adolescents and their communities. The sample group included 160 students from two middle schools (7th and 8th graders) in Bogotá, Colombia. Six sessions of participant observation, 12 semi-structured interviews, and 12 focus group discussions were conducted for data collection. Data were analyzed using the Atlas ti software (V7.0) (ATLAS.ti Scientific Software Development GmbH, London, UK), and categories of analysis were developed using a framework analysis approach. Adolescents can identify several risks related to the use of alcohol, which for the most part, appear to have been learned through verbal instruction. However, this risk recognition does not appear to correlate with their behavior. Parental modeling and messages conveyed by the media represent two other significant sources of learning that are constantly contradicting the messages relayed through verbal instruction and correlate to a greater extent with adolescent behavior. The three different forms of learning described by Social Learning Theory play a

  17. The Theory about didactical situations used to analyze practice related teaching and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Vibe

    2018-01-01

    Based on research showing that the students’ challenges in practice based learning can be located to the transitions between theory and practice, this study focuses on how teachers support the students in these transitions. The theoretical framework is mainly Brousseau’s ‘Theory about didactical...... the results show that the Theory of didactical situations can be a useful framework accomplishing practice related teaching and learning. In the discussion a number of challenges in relation to practice related teaching is highlighted focusing on the relation between the five situations in the theory...... situations’ that defines five situations of practice related teaching. The data includes observations combined with interviews of teachers in relation to various examples of practice related teaching in the social and health care programs. Based on the analysis of three examples of practice related teaching...

  18. Technologies for learning? An actor-network theory critique of ‘affordances' in research on mobile learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gale Parchoma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How is the link between learner and technology made in mobile learning? Whatis the value of the concept of ‘affordances'? And how does research articulatingthis concept act to position mobile devices as ‘technologies for learning'? Thisliterature review used both unstructured and structured search samples of publishedresearch on mobile learning to critically evaluate the prevalence and influenceof the concept of the affordances of mobile technologies. Actor-networktheory is drawn on as a theoretical lens through which to critically considerhow this concept is articulated, and in particular to explore the way it positionsand controls mobile devices as technologies for learning. Parallels in contemporaryaccounts of mobile learning are drawn with classifications of previous discoursesaround the introduction of computers into schools. An alternativeagenda for mobile learning research is suggested with a focus on authentic andinformal contexts rather than controlled experiments.

  19. Two early studies on learning theory and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marshall B

    2003-11-01

    The debate between Iowa and California, Spencians and Tolmanians, over the nature of learning was one of the most protracted and all-involving controversies in the history of psychology. Spencians argued that learning consisted of stimulus-response connections and grew incrementally; Tolmanians that it was perceptual or cognitive and saltatory in nature. The debate was conducted largely on the basis of experiments with rats, with each side finding evidence in its own laboratories to support its views. As the debate was winding down, two studies were carried out that called attention to a possible genetic basis of the great debate. The two schools used different strains of rat and characteristically different experimental situations. The two studies, however, were difficult to access at the time and even more so since. The present paper recalls these two studies in condensed form and discusses their relevance to the great debate and to selected current concerns.

  20. Theory and learning protocols for the material tempotron model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldassi, Carlo; Braunstein, Alfredo; Zecchina, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Neural networks are able to extract information from the timing of spikes. Here we provide new results on the behavior of the simplest neuronal model which is able to decode information embedded in temporal spike patterns, the so-called tempotron. Using statistical physics techniques we compute the capacity for the case of sparse, time-discretized input, and ‘material’ discrete synapses, showing that the device saturates the information theoretic bounds with a statistics of output spikes that is consistent with the statistics of the inputs. We also derive two simple and highly efficient learning algorithms which are able to learn a number of associations which are close to the theoretical limit. The simplest versions of these algorithms correspond to distributed online protocols of interest for neuromorphic devices, and can be adapted to address the more biologically relevant continuous-time version of the classification problem, hopefully allowing the understanding of some aspects of synaptic plasticity. (paper)

  1. Extending Social Learning Theory to Explain Victimization Among Gang and Ex-Gang Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Analisa

    2018-03-01

    This study is among the first to extend and test social learning theory's ability to understand property and violent victimization. It specifically tests whether aspects of definitions, differential reinforcement, and differential association/modeling can explain the three types of victimization of gang members: actual experience, perception of likelihood, and fear. The sample consists of over 300 male and female gang members incarcerated in jails throughout Florida. The results show that all three types of victimization can be explained by the three aspects of social learning theory.

  2. Assessing 3D Virtual World Disaster Training Through Adult Learning Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Taylor-Nelms

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As role-play, virtual reality, and simulated environments gain popularity through virtual worlds such as Second Life, the importance of identifying best practices for education and emergency management training becomes necessary. Using a formal needs assessment approach, we examined the extent to which 3D virtual tornado simulation trainings follow the principles of adult learning theory employed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA National Training and Education Division. Through a three-fold methodology of observation, interviews, and reflection on action, 3D virtual world tornado trainings were analyzed for congruence to adult learning theory.

  3. Social Learning Theory: its application in the context of nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, D

    2001-02-01

    Cognitive theories are fundamental to enable problem solving and the ability to understand and apply principles in a variety of situations. This article looks at Social Learning Theory, critically analysing its principles, which are based on observational learning and modelling, and considering its value and application in the context of nurse education. It also considers the component processes that will determine the outcome of observed behaviour, other than reinforcement, as identified by Bandura, namely: attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  4. Brief Overview of Motor Learning and It's Application to Rehabilitation: Part Ⅰ: Motor Learning Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher A Zaino

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 DEFINITION OF MOTOR LEARNING Motor learning is the study of how we acquire and modify movements.1 The acquisition of motor skills is the process of learning how to do a particular movement (performance), but the real key to therapeutic intervention is being able to affect permanent changes in motor skills via the process of motor learning. Therefore, motor learning is defined as the ability to retain the ability to perform a motor task at a later time. In rehabilitation, it is important to be cognizant of the concepts of acquisition and retention. We can facilitate acquisition,but do little to assist in the retention of the task (learning). Conversely, we can arrange practice such that acquisition is slowed, but we can actually be assisting learning the task. It is important to have a clear goal in mind and work towards the eventual learning of the task to allow full functional use of that skill.

  5. The importance of educational theories for facilitating learning when using technology in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandars, John; Patel, Rakesh S; Goh, Poh Sun; Kokatailo, Patricia K; Lafferty, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing use of technology for teaching and learning in medical education but often the use of educational theory to inform the design is not made explicit. The educational theories, both normative and descriptive, used by medical educators determine how the technology is intended to facilitate learning and may explain why some interventions with technology may be less effective compared with others. The aim of this study is to highlight the importance of medical educators making explicit the educational theories that inform their design of interventions using technology. The use of illustrative examples of the main educational theories to demonstrate the importance of theories informing the design of interventions using technology. Highlights the use of educational theories for theory-based and realistic evaluations of the use of technology in medical education. An explicit description of the educational theories used to inform the design of an intervention with technology can provide potentially useful insights into why some interventions with technology are more effective than others. An explicit description is also an important aspect of the scholarship of using technology in medical education.

  6. Learning to perceive in the sensorimotor approach: Piaget's theory of equilibration interpreted dynamically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, Ezequiel Alejandro; Barandiaran, Xabier E; Beaton, Michael; Buhrmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    if understanding is required for perception, how can we learn to perceive something new, something we do not yet understand? According to the sensorimotor approach, perception involves mastery of regular sensorimotor co-variations that depend on the agent and the environment, also known as the "laws" of sensorimotor contingencies (SMCs). In this sense, perception involves enacting relevant sensorimotor skills in each situation. It is important for this proposal that such skills can be learned and refined with experience and yet up to this date, the sensorimotor approach has had no explicit theory of perceptual learning. The situation is made more complex if we acknowledge the open-ended nature of human learning. In this paper we propose Piaget's theory of equilibration as a potential candidate to fulfill this role. This theory highlights the importance of intrinsic sensorimotor norms, in terms of the closure of sensorimotor schemes. It also explains how the equilibration of a sensorimotor organization faced with novelty or breakdowns proceeds by re-shaping pre-existing structures in coupling with dynamical regularities of the world. This way learning to perceive is guided by the equilibration of emerging forms of skillful coping with the world. We demonstrate the compatibility between Piaget's theory and the sensorimotor approach by providing a dynamical formalization of equilibration to give an explicit micro-genetic account of sensorimotor learning and, by extension, of how we learn to perceive. This allows us to draw important lessons in the form of general principles for open-ended sensorimotor learning, including the need for an intrinsic normative evaluation by the agent itself. We also explore implications of our micro-genetic account at the personal level.

  7. In-Service Teachers’ Learning Through Integrating Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esa Virkkula

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vocational education aims to prepare competent workforce for the needs of continuously changing work life. A competent employee does not only carry out routine tasks but is also required to have the ability to act in the communities of practice in his field and develop his way of working. The challenge of Finnish school-based vocational education has been in creating such learning environments that promote learning professional knowledge demanded by work life. The challenge has required vocational teachers to develop their competences in collaboration with employers. The research covers the role of Finnish vocational teachers’ authentic work placement periods in developing competences from the viewpoint of sociocultural learning. During the work placement period, a teacher furthers his or her competences by working in goal-oriented and planned ways in the work communities of enterprises or in the public sector of their fields. The purpose of the present qualitative case study is to increase the understanding of the role of authentic work placement periods in vocational teachers’ competence. Experiences of teachers representing different subjects were studied during their work placement periods. The results show that work placement period supports the development of teachers’ competences and provides prerequisites for work-based vocational education.

  8. Corporate Social Responsibility and Stakeholder Theory: Learning From Each Other

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, R. Edward; Dmytriyev, Sergiy

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between two major concepts in business ethics - stakeholder theory and corporate social responsibility (CSR). We argue that CSR is a part of corporate responsibilities (company responsibilities to all stakeholders), and show that there is a need for both concepts in business ethics, and their applicability is dependent on a particular problem we want to solve. After reviewing some criticisms of CSR - covering wrongdoing and creating false dichotomies, we s...

  9. The E-Learning Setting Circle: First Steps toward Theory Development in E-Learning Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüth, Marco; Kaspar, Kai

    2017-01-01

    E-learning projects and related research generate an increasing amount of evidence within and across various disciplines and contexts. The field is very heterogeneous as e-learning approaches are often characterized by rather unique combinations of situational factors that guide the design and realization of e-learning in a bottom-up fashion.…

  10. Learning Theories and Skills in Online Second Language Teaching and Learning: Dilemmas and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    For decades foreign and second language teachers have taken advantage of the technology development and ensuing possibilities to use e-learning facilities for language training. Since the 1980s, the use of computer assisted language learning (CALL), Internet, web 2.0, and various kinds of e-learning technology has been developed and researched…

  11. A theory of causal learning in children: causal maps and Bayes nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopnik, Alison; Glymour, Clark; Sobel, David M; Schulz, Laura E; Kushnir, Tamar; Danks, David

    2004-01-01

    The authors outline a cognitive and computational account of causal learning in children. They propose that children use specialized cognitive systems that allow them to recover an accurate "causal map" of the world: an abstract, coherent, learned representation of the causal relations among events. This kind of knowledge can be perspicuously understood in terms of the formalism of directed graphical causal models, or Bayes nets. Children's causal learning and inference may involve computations similar to those for learning causal Bayes nets and for predicting with them. Experimental results suggest that 2- to 4-year-old children construct new causal maps and that their learning is consistent with the Bayes net formalism.

  12. Mobile Collaborative Informal Learning Design: Study of collaborative effectiveness using Activity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnain Zafar Baloch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart Mobile Devices (SMD are there for many years but using them as learning tools started to emerge as new research area. The trend to merge collaborative learning methodology by using mobile devices in informal context is important for implementation of Learner Centric Learning (LCL. Survey and numerous studies show that more than 95% of students in colleges are users of these smart mobile devices in developed world. Developing counties are also catching up and we can see this percentage is almost same in university level in these countries. Students are using SMDs for learning in some form. Higher education Institutions also try to embark their E-learning to Mobile learning (ML. The aim of this paper is to do propose operational framework for designing Mobile Collaborative Informal learning activities using SMDs. Show results of experimental and case study done to study the Mobile Collaborative Informal learning using Activity Theory (AT. Core Components of framework are Mobile Learning Activities/Objects, Wireless/Mobile Smart devices, Collaborative knowledge and Collaborative learning. The research mention here is its infancy stage.

  13. Exploring an experiential learning project through Kolb's Learning Theory using a qualitative research method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk Chan, Cecilia Ka

    2012-08-01

    Experiential learning pedagogy is taking a lead in the development of graduate attributes and educational aims as these are of prime importance for society. This paper shows a community service experiential project conducted in China. The project enabled students to serve the affected community in a post-earthquake area by applying their knowledge and skills. This paper documented the students' learning process from their project goals, pre-trip preparations, work progress, obstacles encountered to the final results and reflections. Using the data gathered from a focus group interview approach, the four components of Kolb's learning cycle, the concrete experience, reflection observation, abstract conceptualisation and active experimentation, have been shown to transform and internalise student's learning experience, achieving a variety of learning outcomes. The author will also explore how this community service type of experiential learning in the engineering discipline allowed students to experience deep learning and develop their graduate attributes.

  14. Learning to Generate Dialogue: Theory, Practice, and Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCallie, Ellen; Simonsson, Elin; Gammon, Ben

    2007-01-01

    -commonly called dialogue events-that bring scientific and technical experts, social scientists, and policymakers into discussion with members of the public about contemporary science-based issues. This article clarifies the difference between non-policy-informing dialogue events and other interactions in museums......Over the past decade in the UK, communities of scientists, governmental bodies, and informal learning organizations have increasingly promoted public engagement with science. One of the most visible features of these efforts within museums is the staging of adult-focused, face-to-face forums...... of engagement through dialogue related to science and society...

  15. Cognitive load theory: implications of cognitive load theory on the design of learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive load theory (CLT) can provide guidelines to assist in the presentation of information in a manner that encourages learner activities that optimise intellectual performance. It is based on a cognitive architecture that consists of a limited working memory, with partly independent

  16. Variation Theory: A Theory of Learning and a Useful Theoretical Framework for Chemical Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Thomas J.; Orgill, MaryKay; Crippen, Kent J.

    2013-01-01

    Instructors are constantly baffled by the fact that two students who are sitting in the same class, who have access to the same materials, can come to understand a particular chemistry concept differently. Variation theory offers a theoretical framework from which to explore possible variations in experience and the resulting differences in…

  17. A BCM theory of meta-plasticity for online self-reorganizing fuzzy-associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Javan; Quek, Chai

    2010-06-01

    Self-organizing neurofuzzy approaches have matured in their online learning of fuzzy-associative structures under time-invariant conditions. To maximize their operative value for online reasoning, these self-sustaining mechanisms must also be able to reorganize fuzzy-associative knowledge in real-time dynamic environments. Hence, it is critical to recognize that they would require self-reorganizational skills to rebuild fluid associative structures when their existing organizations fail to respond well to changing circumstances. In this light, while Hebbian theory (Hebb, 1949) is the basic computational framework for associative learning, it is less attractive for time-variant online learning because it suffers from stability limitations that impedes unlearning. Instead, this paper adopts the Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro (BCM) theory of neurological learning via meta-plasticity principles (Bienenstock et al., 1982) that provides for both online associative and dissociative learning. For almost three decades, BCM theory has been shown to effectively brace physiological evidence of synaptic potentiation (association) and depression (dissociation) into a sound mathematical framework for computational learning. This paper proposes an interpretation of the BCM theory of meta-plasticity for an online self-reorganizing fuzzy-associative learning system to realize online-reasoning capabilities. Experimental findings are twofold: 1) the analysis using S&P-500 stock index illustrated that the self-reorganizing approach could follow the trajectory shifts in the time-variant S&P-500 index for about 60 years, and 2) the benchmark profiles showed that the fuzzy-associative approach yielded comparable results with other fuzzy-precision models with similar online objectives.

  18. Machine learning approaches: from theory to application in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Elisa; Castellani, Umberto; Peruzzo, Denis; Bellani, Marcella; Brambilla, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, machine learning approaches have been successfully applied for analysis of neuroimaging data, to help in the context of disease diagnosis. We provide, in this paper, an overview of recent support vector machine-based methods developed and applied in psychiatric neuroimaging for the investigation of schizophrenia. In particular, we focus on the algorithms implemented by our group, which have been applied to classify subjects affected by schizophrenia and healthy controls, comparing them in terms of accuracy results with other recently published studies. First we give a description of the basic terminology used in pattern recognition and machine learning. Then we separately summarize and explain each study, highlighting the main features that characterize each method. Finally, as an outcome of the comparison of the results obtained applying the described different techniques, conclusions are drawn in order to understand how much automatic classification approaches can be considered a useful tool in understanding the biological underpinnings of schizophrenia. We then conclude by discussing the main implications achievable by the application of these methods into clinical practice.

  19. Machine Learning Approaches: From Theory to Application in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Veronese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, machine learning approaches have been successfully applied for analysis of neuroimaging data, to help in the context of disease diagnosis. We provide, in this paper, an overview of recent support vector machine-based methods developed and applied in psychiatric neuroimaging for the investigation of schizophrenia. In particular, we focus on the algorithms implemented by our group, which have been applied to classify subjects affected by schizophrenia and healthy controls, comparing them in terms of accuracy results with other recently published studies. First we give a description of the basic terminology used in pattern recognition and machine learning. Then we separately summarize and explain each study, highlighting the main features that characterize each method. Finally, as an outcome of the comparison of the results obtained applying the described different techniques, conclusions are drawn in order to understand how much automatic classification approaches can be considered a useful tool in understanding the biological underpinnings of schizophrenia. We then conclude by discussing the main implications achievable by the application of these methods into clinical practice.

  20. SU-E-P-04: Transport Theory Learning Module in the Maple Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Both, J [University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The medical physics graduate program at the University of Miami is developing a computerized instructional module which provides an interactive mechanism for students to learn transport theory. While not essential in the medical physics curriculum, transport theory should be taught because the conceptual level of transport theory is fundamental, a substantial literature exists and ought to be accessible, and students should understand commercial software which solves the Boltzmann equation.But conventional teaching and learning of transport theory is challenging. Students may be under prepared to appreciate its methods, results, and relevance, and it is not substantially addressed in textbooks for the medical physicists. Other resources an instructor might reasonably use, while excellent, may be too briskly paced for beginning students. The purpose of this work is to render teaching of transport theory more tractable by making learning highly interactive. Methods: The module is being developed in the Maple mathematics environment by instructors and graduate students. It will refresh the students' knowledge of vector calculus and differential equations, and will develop users' intuition for phase space concepts. Scattering concepts will be developed with animated simulations using tunable parameters characterizing interactions, so that students may develop a “feel” for cross section. Transport equations for one and multiple types of radiation will be illustrated with phase space animations. Numerical methods of solution will be illustrated. Results: Attempts to teach rudiments of transport theory in radiation physics and dosimetry courses using conventional classroom techniques at the University of Miami have had small success, because classroom time is limited and the material has been hard for our students to appreciate intuitively. Conclusion: A joint effort of instructor and students to teach and learn transport theory by building an

  1. SU-E-P-04: Transport Theory Learning Module in the Maple Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The medical physics graduate program at the University of Miami is developing a computerized instructional module which provides an interactive mechanism for students to learn transport theory. While not essential in the medical physics curriculum, transport theory should be taught because the conceptual level of transport theory is fundamental, a substantial literature exists and ought to be accessible, and students should understand commercial software which solves the Boltzmann equation.But conventional teaching and learning of transport theory is challenging. Students may be under prepared to appreciate its methods, results, and relevance, and it is not substantially addressed in textbooks for the medical physicists. Other resources an instructor might reasonably use, while excellent, may be too briskly paced for beginning students. The purpose of this work is to render teaching of transport theory more tractable by making learning highly interactive. Methods: The module is being developed in the Maple mathematics environment by instructors and graduate students. It will refresh the students' knowledge of vector calculus and differential equations, and will develop users' intuition for phase space concepts. Scattering concepts will be developed with animated simulations using tunable parameters characterizing interactions, so that students may develop a “feel” for cross section. Transport equations for one and multiple types of radiation will be illustrated with phase space animations. Numerical methods of solution will be illustrated. Results: Attempts to teach rudiments of transport theory in radiation physics and dosimetry courses using conventional classroom techniques at the University of Miami have had small success, because classroom time is limited and the material has been hard for our students to appreciate intuitively. Conclusion: A joint effort of instructor and students to teach and learn transport theory by building an interactive

  2. Grounding theories of W(e)Learn: a framework for online interprofessional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casimiro, Lynn; MacDonald, Colla J; Thompson, Terrie Lynn; Stodel, Emma J

    2009-07-01

    Interprofessional care (IPC) is a prerequisite for enhanced communication between healthcare team members, improved quality of care, and better outcomes for patients. A move to an IPC model requires changing the learning experiences of healthcare providers during and after their qualification program. With the rapid growth of online and blended approaches to learning, an educational framework that explains how to construct quality learning events to provide IPC is pressing. Such a framework would offer a quality standard to help educators design, develop, deliver, and evaluate online interprofessional education (IPE) programs. IPE is an extremely delicate process due to issues related to knowledge, status, power, accountability, personality traits, and culture that surround IPC. In this paper, a review of the pertinent literature that would inform the development of such a framework is presented. The review covers IPC, IPE, learning theories, and eLearning in healthcare.

  3. Theories of Learning and Their Implications for On-Line Assesment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Francis UNDERHILL,

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The pedagogy underlying online learning and teaching is being reconceptualised to incorporate the opportunities being offered by the development of online educational settings. The pedagogy of constructivism and in particular socio-constructivism is underpinning much of the online learning and teaching developments currently being developed. The developments in online learning and teaching however are not being matched by developments in computer based assessment. The scope of computers to offer varied, adaptive and unique assessment is still underdeveloped according to Brown, Race and Bull (1999. This paper briefly reviews the theories of learning and their relationship with traditional forms of assessment and seeks to argue for the need to further develop online assessment tools to further facilitate the growth in process based learning activities such as collaborative and cooperative group work consistent with a socio-constructivist pedagogy.

  4. Cooperative learning of neutron diffusion and transport theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    A cooperative group instructional strategy is being used to teach a unit on neutron transport and diffusion theory in a first-year-graduate level, Reactor Theory course that was formerly presented in the traditional lecture/discussion style. Students are divided into groups of two or three for the duration of the unit. Class meetings are divided into traditional lecture/discussion segments punctuated by cooperative group exercises. The group exercises were designed to require the students to elaborate, summarize, or practice the material presented in the lecture/discussion segments. Both positive interdependence and individual accountability are fostered by adjusting individual grades on the unit exam by a factor dependent upon group achievement. Group collaboration was also encouraged on homework assignments by assigning each group a single grade on each assignment. The results of the unit exam have been above average in the two classes in which the cooperative group method was employed. In particular, the problem solving ability of the students has shown particular improvement. Further,the students felt that the cooperative group format was both more educationally effective and more enjoyable than the lecture/discussion format

  5. Social Learning Theory: Toward a Unified Approach of Pediatric Procedural Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Lynn Olson; Blanchette, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Undermanaged procedural pain has been shown to have short and long term effects on children. While significant progress regarding empirically supported treatments has been made, theoretical bases for the development and management of procedural pain are lacking. This paper examines the role of social learning theory in our current understanding of…

  6. Recognition of Prior Learning, Self-Realisation and Identity within Axel Honneth's Theory of Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Fredrik; Kubiak, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues for the significance of Axel Honneth's theory of recognition for understanding recognition of prior learning (RPL). Case studies of the experiences of RPL by paraprofessional workers in health and social care in the UK and Sweden are used to explicate this significance. The results maintain that there are varying conditions of…

  7. The Moore Method and the Constructivist Theory of Learning: Was R. L. Moore a Constructivist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Lida K.; Long, B. Vena

    2012-01-01

    Constructivism is currently a hotly debated topic, with proponents and opponents equally adamant and emotional with respect to their viewpoints. Many misconceptions exist on both sides of the debate, and misuses of terminology and attribution are rampant. Constructivism is a theory of learning, not a particular approach to instruction and not a…

  8. Understanding Frame-of-Reference Training Success: A Social Learning Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulsky, Lorne M.; Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2007-01-01

    Employing the social learning theory (SLT) perspective on training, we analysed the effects of alternative frame-of-reference (FOR) training protocols on various criteria of training effectiveness. Undergraduate participants (N = 65) were randomly assigned to one of four FOR training conditions and a control condition. Training effectiveness was…

  9. An Analysis of Theories Related to Experiential Learning for Practical Ethics in Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parahakaran, Suma

    2017-01-01

    Learners in higher education are self -driven to attain goals and objectives of what is required by the Universities for career prospects in the fields of Sciences and Technology. This paper analyses theories of experiential learning which will contribute to implementation of Ethical behaviors in science and technology towards citizenship…

  10. Research on Cognitive Load Theory and its Design Implications for E-Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Ayres, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue provides a context for the contributing articles. For readers who are not familiar with Cognitive Load Theory (CLT), it provides a very brief description of assumptions regarding memory systems and learning processes, different types of cognitive load

  11. Perceptions of Challenge: The Role of Catastrophe Theory in Piano Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugos, Jennifer; Lee, William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the perceptions of private piano instructors on the role of challenge in teaching and learning the piano and to examine the potential application of catastrophe theory in understanding the role and outcomes of such challenges. A 23-item electronic questionnaire was administered to collect quantitative and…

  12. A theory of improvement for teachers' professional development in assessment for learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benthum, N.; Gulikers, J.T.M.; Jong, de F.; Mulder, M.

    2012-01-01

    To strengthen the practice of Competence-based Education (CBE) it’s needed to realise the potential of Assessment for Learning (AfL). However, teachers are usually not trained in designing assessment practices in CBE and professionalization in AfL is complicated. It’s needed to design a Theory of

  13. Designing and Testing a Mathematics Card Game for Teaching and Learning Elementary Group Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the viability and development of the first edition of the researcher's mathematical card game, Groups, as a learning tool for elementary group theory, a topic in abstract algebra. "Groups" was play-tested by six undergraduate students in late 2016 who provided feedback on "Groups" from both utility-centric…

  14. Talking Back to Theory: The Missed Opportunities in Learning Technology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sue; Oliver, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Research into learning technology has developed a reputation for being driven by rhetoric about the revolutionary nature of new developments, for paying scant attention to theories that might be used to frame and inform research, and for producing shallow analyses that do little to inform the practice of education. Although there is…

  15. Design of the Model of Constructivist Learning Theory for Moral Education in Physical Education Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenyu

    2011-01-01

    In order to achieve better effect of moral education in physical education teaching, this article employed constructivist learning theory to design the model of moral education according to the characteristics of physical education teaching, in order that the majority of P.E. teachers draw lessons from it in their teaching practice, and service to…

  16. Using Achievement Motivation Theory to Explain Student Participation in a Residential Leadership Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lori L.; Grabsch, Dustin K.; Rotter, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to examine student motives for participating in a residential leadership learning community for incoming freshmen using McClelland's Achievement Motivation Theory (McClelland, 1958, 1961). Eighty-nine students began the program in the Fall 2009 semester and were administered a single, researcher-developed instrument. Responses to…

  17. Web Support for Activating Use of Theory in Group based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Johan (CTIT); van Riemsdijk, Maarten; Laagland, Eelko; Gommer, E.M.; Jones, Valerie M.; Davies, Gordon; Owen, Charles B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments conducted within the context of a course on organisational theory which is taught at the Department of Management Sciences at the University of Twente. In 1997 a group-based learning approach was adopted but after the first year it was apparent that

  18. The Emergence of the Teaching/Learning Process in Preschoolers: Theory of Mind and Age Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalah, Leila

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the gradual emergence of the teaching/learning process by examining theory of mind (ToM) acquisition and age effects in the preschool period. We observed five dyads performing a jigsaw task drawn from a previous study. Three stages were identified. In the first one, the teacher focuses on the execution of her/his own task…

  19. The Dance of the Magic Dragon: Embodied Knowledge in the Context of Transformative Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouvala, Maria; Magos, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a dance-based research project conducted at the Department of Early Childhood Education of the University of Thessaly. The main aim of the project was to explore the possibilities of dance in understanding the self in relation to the world, under the perspective of the transformative learning theory. The methodology applied…

  20. Assessing Cognitive Load Theory to Improve Student Learning for Mechanical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impelluso, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    A computer programming class for students of mechanical engineering was redesigned and assessed: Cognitive Load Theory was used to redesign the content; online technologies were used to redesign the delivery. Student learning improved and the dropout rate was reduced. This article reports on both attitudinal and objective assessment: comparing…