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Sample records for learning theories relevant

  1. A Draft Conceptual Framework of Relevant Theories to Inform Future Rigorous Research on Student Service-Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Meredith A.

    2014-01-01

    While the quality and quantity of research on service-learning has increased considerably over the past 20 years, researchers as well as governmental and funding agencies have called for more rigor in service-learning research. One key variable in improving rigor is using relevant existing theories to improve the research. The purpose of this…

  2. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  3. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  4. Relevance theory: pragmatics and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Catherine J

    2015-01-01

    Relevance Theory is a cognitively oriented theory of pragmatics, i.e., a theory of language use. It builds on the seminal work of H.P. Grice(1) to develop a pragmatic theory which is at once philosophically sensitive and empirically plausible (in both psychological and evolutionary terms). This entry reviews the central commitments and chief contributions of Relevance Theory, including its Gricean commitment to the centrality of intention-reading and inference in communication; the cognitively grounded notion of relevance which provides the mechanism for explaining pragmatic interpretation as an intention-driven, inferential process; and several key applications of the theory (lexical pragmatics, metaphor and irony, procedural meaning). Relevance Theory is an important contribution to our understanding of the pragmatics of communication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Identity theory and personality theory: mutual relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Sheldon

    2007-12-01

    Some personality psychologists have found a structural symbolic interactionist frame and identity theory relevant to their work. This frame and theory, developed in sociology, are first reviewed. Emphasized in the review are a multiple identity conception of self, identities as internalized expectations derived from roles embedded in organized networks of social interaction, and a view of social structures as facilitators in bringing people into networks or constraints in keeping them out, subsequently, attention turns to a discussion of the mutual relevance of structural symbolic interactionism/identity theory and personality theory, looking to extensions of the current literature on these topics.

  6. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael

    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can

  7. Emotion as the amplifier and the primary motive: Some theories of emotion with relevance to language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Oxford

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotion is crucial to living and learning. The powerful intertwining of emotion and cognition ignites learning within a complex dynamic system, which, as several sections of this paper show, also includes societal and cultural influences. As “the primary human motive” (MacIntyre, 2002a, p. 61, emotion operates as an amplifier, which provides energetic intensity to all human behavior, including language learning. This chapter explains major theories of emotion drawn from positive psychology, social psychology, social constructivism, social constructionism, and existential psychotherapy. It also offers implications for language learning related to understanding and managing emotions; expressing emotions appropriately despite cultural and linguistic differences; viewing emotions as transitory social roles; enhancing positive emotions and developing resilience; and recognizing, perhaps paradoxically, both the negative and the positive aspects of anxiety. The chapter concludes with the statement that language learners can become more agentic in dealing with their emotions. This form of self-regulation can lead to greater success in language learning.

  8. Emotion as the Amplifier and the Primary Motive: Some Theories of Emotion with Relevance to Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Emotion is crucial to living and learning. The powerful intertwining of emotion and cognition ignites learning within a complex dynamic system, which, as several sections of this paper show, also includes societal and cultural influences. As "the primary human motive" (MacIntyre, 2002a, p. 61), emotion operates as an amplifier, which…

  9. Translation as secondary communication. The relevance theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ernst-August Gutt started one of the greatest translation debates of the past ten years when he suggested that relevance theory holds the key to providing a unified account of translation. The bulk of the debate has been between practitioners of functional equivalence and advocates of a relevance theoretic approach to ...

  10. Human error theory: relevance to nurse management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Gerry

    2009-03-01

    Describe, discuss and critically appraise human error theory and consider its relevance for nurse managers. Healthcare errors are a persistent threat to patient safety. Effective risk management and clinical governance depends on understanding the nature of error. This paper draws upon a wide literature from published works, largely from the field of cognitive psychology and human factors. Although the content of this paper is pertinent to any healthcare professional; it is written primarily for nurse managers. Error is inevitable. Causation is often attributed to individuals, yet causation in complex environments such as healthcare is predominantly multi-factorial. Individual performance is affected by the tendency to develop prepacked solutions and attention deficits, which can in turn be related to local conditions and systems or latent failures. Blame is often inappropriate. Defences should be constructed in the light of these considerations and to promote error wisdom and organizational resilience. Managing and learning from error is seen as a priority in the British National Health Service (NHS), this can be better achieved with an understanding of the roots, nature and consequences of error. Such an understanding can provide a helpful framework for a range of risk management activities.

  11. The sign learning theory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KING OF DAWN

    The sign learning theory also holds secrets that could be exploited in accomplishing motor tasks. ... Introduction ... In his classic work: Cognitive Map in Rats and Men (1948),Tolman talked about five groups of experiments viz: latent learning ...

  12. Bible Translation And Relevance Theory | Deist | Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22 (1992) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Bible Translation And Relevance Theory. F Deist ...

  13. Fostering Personal Meaning and Self-Relevance: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Aelterman, Nathalie; De Muynck, Gert-Jan; Haerens, Leen; Patall, Erika; Reeve, Johnmarshall

    2018-01-01

    Central to self-determination theory (SDT) is the notion that autonomously motivated learning relates to greater learning benefits. While learners' intrinsic motivation has received substantial attention, learners also display volitional learning when they come to endorse the personal meaning or self-relevance of the learning task. In Part I of…

  14. Learning and Development of Second and Foreign Language Pragmatics as a Higher-Order Language Skill: A Brief Overview of Relevant Theories. Research Report. ETS RR-16-35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpe-Laughlin, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    The development of effective second and foreign (L2) language learning materials needs to be grounded in two types of theories: (a) a theory of language and language use and (b) a theory of language learning. Both are equally important, insofar as an effective learning environment requires an understanding of the knowledge, skills, and abilities…

  15. Inferring feature relevances from metric learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander; Mokbel, Bassam; Biehl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Powerful metric learning algorithms have been proposed in the last years which do not only greatly enhance the accuracy of distance-based classifiers and nearest neighbor database retrieval, but which also enable the interpretability of these operations by assigning explicit relevance weights...

  16. Experiential learning: transforming theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Sarah; Teunissen, Pim W; Dornan, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Whilst much is debated about the importance of experiential learning in curriculum development, the concept only becomes effective if it is applied in an appropriate way. We believe that this effectiveness is directly related to a sound understanding of the theory, supporting the learning. The purpose of this article is to introduce readers to the theories underpinning experiential learning, which are then expanded further in an AMEE Guide, which considers the theoretical basis of experiential learning from a social learning, constructionist perspective and applies it to three stages of medical education: early workplace experience, clerkships and residency. This article argues for the importance and relevance of experiential learning and addresses questions that are commonly asked about it. First, we answer the questions 'what is experiential learning?' and 'how does it relate to social learning theory?' to orientate readers to the principles on which our arguments are based. Then, we consider why those ideas (theories) are relevant to educators--ranging from those with responsibilities for curriculum design to 'hands-on' teachers and workplace supervisors. The remainder of this article discusses how experiential learning theories and a socio-cultural perspective can be applied in practice. We hope that this will give readers a taste for our more detailed AMEE Guide and the further reading recommended at the end of it.

  17. Moral Learning: Conceptual foundations and normative relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railton, Peter

    2017-10-01

    What is distinctive about a bringing a learning perspective to moral psychology? Part of the answer lies in the remarkable transformations that have taken place in learning theory over the past two decades, which have revealed how powerful experience-based learning can be in the acquisition of abstract causal and evaluative representations, including generative models capable of attuning perception, cognition, affect, and action to the physical and social environment. When conjoined with developments in neuroscience, these advances in learning theory permit a rethinking of fundamental questions about the acquisition of moral understanding and its role in the guidance of behavior. For example, recent research indicates that spatial learning and navigation involve the formation of non-perspectival as well as ego-centric models of the physical environment, and that spatial representations are combined with learned information about risk and reward to guide choice and potentiate further learning. Research on infants provides evidence that they form non-perspectival expected-value representations of agents and actions as well, which help them to navigate the human environment. Such representations can be formed by highly-general mental processes such as causal and empathic simulation, and thus afford a foundation for spontaneous moral learning and action that requires no innate moral faculty and can exhibit substantial autonomy with respect to community norms. If moral learning is indeed integral with the acquisition and updating of casual and evaluative models, this affords a new way of understanding well-known but seemingly puzzling patterns in intuitive moral judgment-including the notorious "trolley problems." Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Moral learning as intuitive theory revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Wellman, Henry

    2017-10-01

    We argue that moral learning, like much of conceptual development more generally, involves development and change in children's intuitive theories of the world. Children's intuitive theories involve coherent and abstract representations of the world, which point to domain-specific, unobservable causal-explanatory entities. From this perspective, children rely on intuitive sociological theories (in particular, an abstract expectation that group memberships constrain people's obligations), and their intuitive psychological theories (including expectations that mental states motivate individual behavior) to predict, explain, and evaluate morally-relevant action. Thus, moral learning involves development and change in each of these theories of the world across childhood, as well as developmental change in how children integrate information from these two intuitive theories. This perspective is supported by a series of research studies on young children's moral reasoning and learning, and compared to other developmental approaches, including more traditional forms of constructivism and more recent nativist perspectives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. On the Relevance of Game Theory in Strategic Thinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the Relevance of Game Theory in Strategic Thinking. ... The author reviews some of the applicable literature and shows how game theory can be used to predict the outcome of a strategy, explain why a ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. Learning theory and gestalt therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, R; Bauer, R; Kannarkat, J

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses the theory and operations of Gestalt Therapy from the viewpoint of learning theory. General comparative issues are elaborated as well as the concepts of introjection, retroflextion, confluence, and projection. Principles and techniques of Gestalt Therapy are discussed in terms of learning theory paradigm. Practical implications of the various Gestalt techniques are presented.

  1. The Continuing Relevance of Austrian Capital Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory and the w......The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory...... and the works of Hayek on political philosophy and cultural evolution....

  2. The relevance of ''theory rich'' bridge assumptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, S

    1996-01-01

    Actor models are increasingly being used as a form of theory building in sociology because they can better represent the caul mechanisms that connect macro variables. However, actor models need additional assumptions, especially so-called bridge assumptions, for filling in the relatively empty

  3. A learning theory account of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnerö, Jonas; Folke, Fredrik; Kanter, Jonathan W

    2015-06-11

    Learning theory provides a foundation for understanding and deriving treatment principles for impacting a spectrum of functional processes relevant to the construct of depression. While behavioral interventions have been commonplace in the cognitive behavioral tradition, most often conceptualized within a cognitive theoretical framework, recent years have seen renewed interest in more purely behavioral models. These modern learning theory accounts of depression focus on the interchange between behavior and the environment, mainly in terms of lack of reinforcement, extinction of instrumental behavior, and excesses of aversive control, and include a conceptualization of relevant cognitive and emotional variables. These positions, drawn from extensive basic and applied research, cohere with biological theories on reduced reward learning and reward responsiveness and views of depression as a heterogeneous, complex set of disorders. Treatment techniques based on learning theory, often labeled Behavioral Activation (BA) focus on activating the individual in directions that increase contact with potential reinforcers, as defined ideographically with the client. BA is considered an empirically well-established treatment that generalizes well across diverse contexts and populations. The learning theory account is discussed in terms of being a parsimonious model and ground for treatments highly suitable for large scale dissemination. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Dynasting Theory: Lessons in learning grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnben Teik-Cheok Loy, MBA, MTS, Ph.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article captures the key learning lessons gleaned from the author’s experience learning and developing a grounded theory for his doctoral dissertation using the classic methodology as conceived by Barney Glaser. The theory was developed through data gathered on founders and successors of Malaysian Chinese family-own businesses. The main concern for Malaysian Chinese family businesses emerged as dynasting . the building, maintaining, and growing the power and resources of the business within the family lineage. The core category emerged as dynasting across cultures, where founders and successors struggle to transition from traditional Chinese to hybrid cultural and modernized forms of family business from one generation to the next. The key learning lessons were categorized under five headings: (a sorting through different versions of grounded theory, (b educating and managing research stakeholders, (c embracing experiential learning, (d discovering the core category: grounded intuition, and (e recognizing limitations and possibilities.Keywords: grounded theory, learning, dynasting, family business, Chinese

  5. Learning network theory : its contribution to our understanding of work-based learning projects and learning climate

    OpenAIRE

    Poell, R.F.; Moorsel, M.A.A.H. van

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of Van der Krogt's learning network theory (1995) for our understanding of the concepts of work-related learning projects and learning climate in organisations. The main assumptions of the learning network theory are presented and transferred to the level of learning groups in organisations. Four theoretical types of learning projects are distinguished. Four different approaches to the learning climate of work groups are compared to the approach offered by t...

  6. Learning network theory : its contribution to our understanding of work-based learning projects and learning climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, R.F.; Moorsel, M.A.A.H. van

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of Van der Krogt's learning network theory (1995) for our understanding of the concepts of work-related learning projects and learning climate in organisations. The main assumptions of the learning network theory are presented and transferred to the level of

  7. Geometrical methods in learning theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdet, G.; Combe, Ph.; Nencka, H.

    2001-01-01

    The methods of information theory provide natural approaches to learning algorithms in the case of stochastic formal neural networks. Most of the classical techniques are based on some extremization principle. A geometrical interpretation of the associated algorithms provides a powerful tool for understanding the learning process and its stability and offers a framework for discussing possible new learning rules. An illustration is given using sequential and parallel learning in the Boltzmann machine

  8. Constructivist learning theories and complex learning environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R-J. Simons; Dr. S. Bolhuis

    2004-01-01

    Learning theories broadly characterised as constructivist, agree on the importance to learning of the environment, but differ on what exactly it is that constitutes this importance. Accordingly, they also differ on the educational consequences to be drawn from the theoretical perspective. Cognitive

  9. On Reading Comprehension Teaching for English Majors under Relevance Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Relevance Theory from the perspective of cognitive psychology argues that human communication is an ostensive-inferential process, and emphasizes the function of the optimal relevance for communication. In this sense, reading comprehension could be considered as a kind of communication in which the writer manifests his/her communication intention…

  10. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N=162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a…

  11. Relevance Theory as model for analysing visual and multimodal communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forceville, C.; Machin, D.

    2014-01-01

    Elaborating on my earlier work (Forceville 1996: chapter 5, 2005, 2009; see also Yus 2008), I will here sketch how discussions of visual and multimodal discourse can be embedded in a more general theory of communication and cognition: Sperber and Wilson’s Relevance Theory/RT (Sperber and Wilson

  12. Deliberate practice theory: perceived relevance, effort, and inherent enjoyment of music practice: study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyllegard, Randy; Bories, Tamara L

    2009-10-01

    This study, based on the theory of deliberate practice, examined the practice relevance, effort, and inherent enjoyment aspects of the theory. 25 college undergraduates practiced playing a melody on an electronic keyboard for three 20-min. practice sessions. Following each session, the perceived relevance of the practice for improving performance of the melody, the effort needed to learn the melody, and the inherent enjoyment of the practice were each rated on 10-point scales. Findings were consistent with theory and similar to previous studies also involving music practice and other tasks.

  13. Learning Theory and Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhan, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Although theories of learning which stress the role of reinforcement can help us understand altruistic behaviors, it seems clear that a more complete comprehension calls for an expansion of our notions of learning, such that they incorporate affect and cognition. (Author/JM)

  14. Aspect-based Relevance Learning for Image Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Huiskes (Mark)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractWe analyze the special structure of the relevance feedback learning problem, focusing particularly on the effects of image selection by partial relevance on the clustering behavior of feedback examples. We propose a scheme, aspect-based relevance learning, which guarantees that feedback

  15. Employee Learning Theories and Their Organizational Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdussalaam Iyanda Ismail

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence identifies that organizational success hinges on employees with the required knowledge, skills, and abilities and that employees’ effectiveness at learning new skills and knowledge is connected with the kind of learning technique the organization adopts. Given this, this work explored employee learning theories and their organizational applications. Using far reaching literature survey and extensive theoretical and logical argument and exposition. This paper revealed that cognitive-based approaches, non-cognitive approach and need-based approaches play vital roles in shrinking the occurrence of unwanted behaviors and upturning the occurrence of desired behaviors in the organization. Proper application of the theories can induce positive employee behaviors such as task performance and organizational citizenship behavior and consequently enhance both individual and organizational performance. This work has hopefully contributed to the enrichment of the existing relevant literature and served as a useful guide for stakeholders on how they can stimulate positive employee behaviors and the consequent enhanced organizational performance.

  16. Are Learning Styles Relevant to Virtual Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chwen Jen; Toh, Seong Chong; Ismail, Wan Mohd Fauzy Wan

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of a virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners with different learning styles. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the VR (guided exploration) mode, irrespective of their learning styles. This shows that the VR-based…

  17. Theory in learning technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Czerniewicz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue is being published at a significant point in time in relation tosimultaneous changes in higher education, in technology and in the field of learningtechnology itself. As the 2011 ALT C conference themes clearly state, learningtechnology needs to learn to thrive in a colder and more challenging climate. In thisdifficult political and economic environment technological trends continue todevelop in terms of mobility, cloud computing, ubiquity and the emergence of whathas been called big data. E-learning has become mainstream and the field of learningtechnology itself is beginning to stabilise as a profession. Profession here isunderstood as a knowledge-based occupation and a form of cultural work where thetasks addressed are human problems amenable to expert advice and distinguishablefrom other kinds of work by the fact that it is underpinned by abstract knowledge(Macdonald, 1995.

  18. [Linking learning theory with practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávalos-Carranza, María Teresa; Amador-Olvera, Eric; Zerón-Gutiérrez, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    It is often said that it is easier to learn what is observed and practiced on a daily basis; to the need to effectively link theory with practice considered in the process of teaching and learning, many strategies have been developed to allow this process to be carried out in a more efficiently maner. It is, therefore, very important to recognize that an appropriate teacher/student relationship is essential for students to acquire the skills and abilities required.

  19. Learning automata theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Najim, K

    1994-01-01

    Learning systems have made a significant impact on all areas of engineering problems. They are attractive methods for solving many problems which are too complex, highly non-linear, uncertain, incomplete or non-stationary, and have subtle and interactive exchanges with the environment where they operate. The main aim of the book is to give a systematic treatment of learning automata and to produce a guide to a wide variety of ideas and methods that can be used in learning systems, including enough theoretical material to enable the user of the relevant techniques and concepts to understand why

  20. Learning Theories In Instructional Multimedia For English Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Farani, Rizki

    2016-01-01

    Learning theory is the concept of human learning. This concept is one of the important components in instructional for learning, especially English learning. English subject becomes one of important subjects for students but learning English needs specific strategy since it is not our vernacular. Considering human learning process in English learning is expected to increase students' motivation to understand English better. Nowadays, the application of learning theories in English learning ha...

  1. Early Learning Theories Made Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  2. Developments in entanglement theory and applications to relevant physical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lamata Manuel, Lucas

    2007-01-01

    This Thesis is devoted to the analysis of entanglement in relevant physical systems. Entanglement is the conducting theme of this research, though I do not dedicate to a single topic, but consider a wide scope of physical situations. I have followed mainly three lines of research for this Thesis, with a series of different works each, which are, Entanglement and Relativistic Quantum Theory, Continuous-variable entanglement, and Multipartite entanglement.

  3. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally Relevant Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah

    2014-01-01

    To test young children’s false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N = 162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered 3 tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an “accidental transgressor” task, which measured a morally relevant false belief theory of mind (MoToM). Children who did not pass false belief ToM were more likely to attribute negative intentions to an accidental transgressor than children who passed false belief ToM, and to use moral reasons when blaming the accidental transgressor. In Experiment 2, children (N = 46) who did not pass false belief ToM viewed it as more acceptable to punish the accidental transgressor than did participants who passed false belief ToM. Findings are discussed in light of research on the emergence of moral judgment and theory of mind. PMID:21377148

  4. An Analysis of Stochastic Game Theory for Multiagent Reinforcement Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowling, Michael

    2000-01-01

    .... In this paper we contribute a comprehensive presentation of the relevant techniques for solving stochastic games from both the game theory community and reinforcement learning communities. We examine the assumptions and limitations of these algorithms, and identify similarities between these algorithms, single agent reinforcement learners, and basic game theory techniques.

  5. Theories, models and frameworks used in capacity building interventions relevant to public health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Kim; Abdi, Samiya; DeCorby, Kara; Mensah, Gloria; Rempel, Benjamin; Manson, Heather

    2017-11-28

    There is limited research on capacity building interventions that include theoretical foundations. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify underlying theories, models and frameworks used to support capacity building interventions relevant to public health practice. The aim is to inform and improve capacity building practices and services offered by public health organizations. Four search strategies were used: 1) electronic database searching; 2) reference lists of included papers; 3) key informant consultation; and 4) grey literature searching. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are outlined with included papers focusing on capacity building, learning plans, professional development plans in combination with tools, resources, processes, procedures, steps, model, framework, guideline, described in a public health or healthcare setting, or non-government, government, or community organizations as they relate to healthcare, and explicitly or implicitly mention a theory, model and/or framework that grounds the type of capacity building approach developed. Quality assessment were performed on all included articles. Data analysis included a process for synthesizing, analyzing and presenting descriptive summaries, categorizing theoretical foundations according to which theory, model and/or framework was used and whether or not the theory, model or framework was implied or explicitly identified. Nineteen articles were included in this review. A total of 28 theories, models and frameworks were identified. Of this number, two theories (Diffusion of Innovations and Transformational Learning), two models (Ecological and Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation) and one framework (Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning) were identified as the most frequently cited. This review identifies specific theories, models and frameworks to support capacity building interventions relevant to public health organizations. It provides public health practitioners

  6. Dogs’ Body Language Relevant to Learning Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Masashi; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary For humans and dogs to live together amiably, dog training is required, and a lack of obedience training is significantly related to the prevalence of certain behavioral problems. To train efficiently, it is important that the trainer/owner ascertains the learning level of the dog. Understanding the dog’s body language helps humans understand the animal’s emotions. This study evaluated the posture of certain dog body parts during operant conditioning. Our findings suggest that certain postures were related to the dog’s learning level during operant conditioning. Being aware of these postures could be helpful to understand canine emotion during learning. Abstract The facial expressions and body postures of dogs can give helpful information about their moods and emotional states. People can more effectively obedience train their dogs if we can identify the mannerisms associated with learning in dogs. The aim of this study was to clarify the dog’s body language during operant conditioning to predict achievement in the test that followed by measuring the duration of behaviors. Forty-six untrained dogs (17 males and 26 females) of various breeds were used. Each session consisted of 5 minutes of training with a treat reward followed by 3 minutes of rest and finally an operant conditioning test that consisted of 20 “hand motion” cues. The operant tests were conducted a total of nine times over three consecutive days, and the success numbers were counted. The duration of the dog’s behavior, focusing on the dog’s eyes, mouth, ears, tail and tail-wagging, was recorded during the operant conditioning sessions before the test. Particular behaviors, including wide-eyes, closed mouth, erect ears, and forward and high tail carriage, without wagging or with short and quick wagging, related to high achievement results. It is concluded that dogs' body language during operant conditioning was related to their success rate. PMID:26479883

  7. Dogs’ Body Language Relevant to Learning Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Masashi; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary For humans and dogs to live together amiably, dog training is required, and a lack of obedience training is significantly related to the prevalence of certain behavioral problems. To train efficiently, it is important that the trainer/owner ascertains the learning level of the dog. Understanding the dog’s body language helps humans understand the animal’s emotions. This study evaluated the posture of certain dog body parts during operant conditioning. Our findings suggest that ...

  8. Chinese Learning Through Internet Inspired by Contructivist Learning Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Huang

    2011-01-01

    With the changing concept of education, there is growing emphasis on “student-centered”principle. This is one of the characteristics of Constructivist learning theory. On network teachingChinese, Constructivist learning theory is indispensable. This article is the design of online Chineseteaching which is basic on the Constructivist learning theory.

  9. Deliberate practice theory: relevance, effort, and inherent enjoyment of music practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyllegard, Randy; Bories, Tamara L

    2008-10-01

    This study examined three assumptions of the theory of deliberate practice for practice playing music on an electronic keyboard. 40 undergraduate students, divided into two separate groups, practiced one of two music sequences and rated the relevance of practice for improving performance on the sequences, the amount of effort needed to learn the sequences, and the inherent enjoyment of practice sessions. Findings for each assumption were consistent with those suggested by theory but also showed that perceptions are affected by the amount of practice completed and performance of the skill.

  10. Learned-Helplessness Theory: Implications for Research in Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canino, Frank J.

    1981-01-01

    The application of learned helplessness theory to achievement is discussed within the context of implications for research in learning disabilities. Finally, the similarities between helpless children and learning disabled students in terms of problems solving and attention are discussed. (Author)

  11. A Survey of Quantum Learning Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Arunachalam, Srinivasan; de Wolf, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    This paper surveys quantum learning theory: the theoretical aspects of machine learning using quantum computers. We describe the main results known for three models of learning: exact learning from membership queries, and Probably Approximately Correct (PAC) and agnostic learning from classical or quantum examples.

  12. Learning a commonsense moral theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman-Weiner, Max; Saxe, Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2017-10-01

    We introduce a computational framework for understanding the structure and dynamics of moral learning, with a focus on how people learn to trade off the interests and welfare of different individuals in their social groups and the larger society. We posit a minimal set of cognitive capacities that together can solve this learning problem: (1) an abstract and recursive utility calculus to quantitatively represent welfare trade-offs; (2) hierarchical Bayesian inference to understand the actions and judgments of others; and (3) meta-values for learning by value alignment both externally to the values of others and internally to make moral theories consistent with one's own attachments and feelings. Our model explains how children can build from sparse noisy observations of how a small set of individuals make moral decisions to a broad moral competence, able to support an infinite range of judgments and decisions that generalizes even to people they have never met and situations they have not been in or observed. It also provides insight into the causes and dynamics of moral change across time, including cases when moral change can be rapidly progressive, changing values significantly in just a few generations, and cases when it is likely to move more slowly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An Elementary Introduction to Statistical Learning Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, Sanjeev

    2011-01-01

    A thought-provoking look at statistical learning theory and its role in understanding human learning and inductive reasoning A joint endeavor from leading researchers in the fields of philosophy and electrical engineering, An Elementary Introduction to Statistical Learning Theory is a comprehensive and accessible primer on the rapidly evolving fields of statistical pattern recognition and statistical learning theory. Explaining these areas at a level and in a way that is not often found in other books on the topic, the authors present the basic theory behind contemporary machine learning and

  14. The Scientific Status of Learning Styles Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Daniel T.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Dobolyi, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Theories of learning styles suggest that individuals think and learn best in different ways. These are not differences of ability but rather preferences for processing certain types of information or for processing information in certain types of way. If accurate, learning styles theories could have important implications for instruction because…

  15. Fusion-relevant basic radiation effects: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, L.K.; Coghlan, W.A.; Farrell, K.; Horton, L.L.; Lee, E.H.; Lewis, M.B.; Packan, N.H.

    1983-01-01

    A summary is given of results of the basic radiation effects program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which are relevant to fusion reactor materials applications. The basic radiation effects program at ORNL is a large effort with the dual objectives of understanding the atomic and microstructural defect mechanisms underlying radiation effects and of determining principles for the design of radiation resistant materials. A strength of this effort is the parallel and integrated experimental and theoretical approaches in each major research area. The experimental effort is active in electron microscopy, ion irradiations and ion-beam techniques, neutron irradiations, surface analysis and in other areas. The theoretical effort is active in developing the theory of radiation effects for a broad range of phenomena and in applying it to the design and interpretation of experiments and to alloy design

  16. Learning Theory Foundations of Simulation-Based Mastery Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C; Harris, Ilene B

    2018-06-01

    Simulation-based mastery learning (SBML), like all education interventions, has learning theory foundations. Recognition and comprehension of SBML learning theory foundations are essential for thoughtful education program development, research, and scholarship. We begin with a description of SBML followed by a section on the importance of learning theory foundations to shape and direct SBML education and research. We then discuss three principal learning theory conceptual frameworks that are associated with SBML-behavioral, constructivist, social cognitive-and their contributions to SBML thought and practice. We then discuss how the three learning theory frameworks converge in the course of planning, conducting, and evaluating SBML education programs in the health professions. Convergence of these learning theory frameworks is illustrated by a description of an SBML education and research program in advanced cardiac life support. We conclude with a brief coda.

  17. Advanced Learning Theories Applied to Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Center for Army Leadership Technical Report 2006-2 Advanced Learning Theories Applied to Leadership Development Christina Curnow...2006 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W91QF4-05-F-0026 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Learning Theories Applied to Leadership Development 5c...ABSTRACT This report describes the development and implementation of an application of advanced learning theories to leadership development. A

  18. Some ideas for learning CP-theories

    OpenAIRE

    Fierens, Daan

    2008-01-01

    Causal Probabilistic logic (CP-logic) is a language for describing complex probabilistic processes. In this talk we consider the problem of learning CP-theories from data. We briefly discuss three possible approaches. First, we review the existing algorithm by Meert et al. Second, we show how simple CP-theories can be learned by using the learning algorithm for Logical Bayesian Networks and converting the result into a CP-theory. Third, we argue that for learning more complex CP-theories, an ...

  19. A Dynamic Logic for Learning Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltag, Alexandru; Gierasimczuk, Nina; Özgün, Aybüke

    2017-01-01

    Building on previous work that bridged Formal Learning Theory and Dynamic Epistemic Logic in a topological setting, we introduce a Dynamic Logic for Learning Theory (DLLT), extending Subset Space Logics with dynamic observation modalities, as well as with a learning operator, which encodes the le...... the learner’s conjecture after observing a finite sequence of data. We completely axiomatise DLLT, study its expressivity and use it to characterise various notions of knowledge, belief, and learning. ...

  20. Statistical Learning Theory: Models, Concepts, and Results

    OpenAIRE

    von Luxburg, Ulrike; Schoelkopf, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    Statistical learning theory provides the theoretical basis for many of today's machine learning algorithms. In this article we attempt to give a gentle, non-technical overview over the key ideas and insights of statistical learning theory. We target at a broad audience, not necessarily machine learning researchers. This paper can serve as a starting point for people who want to get an overview on the field before diving into technical details.

  1. Consideration on Singularities in Learning Theory and the Learning Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Aoyagi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the learning coefficients in learning theory and give two new methods for obtaining these coefficients in a homogeneous case: a method for finding a deepest singular point and a method to add variables. In application to Vandermonde matrix-type singularities, we show that these methods are effective. The learning coefficient of the generalization error in Bayesian estimation serves to measure the learning efficiency in singular learning models. Mathematically, the learning coefficient corresponds to a real log canonical threshold of singularities for the Kullback functions (relative entropy in learning theory.

  2. Effective Learning Environments in Relation to Different Learning Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Guney, Ali; Al, Selda

    2012-01-01

    There are diverse learning theories which explain learning processes which are discussed within this paper, through cognitive structure of learning process. Learning environments are usually described in terms of pedagogical philosophy, curriculum design and social climate. There have been only just a few studies about how physical environment is related to learning process. Many researchers generally consider teaching and learning issues as if independent from physical environment, whereas p...

  3. Mobile Affordances and Learning Theories in Supporting and Enhancing Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, Kathryn; Day, Stephanie; Skelton, David; Verhaart, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Mobile technology promises to enhance and better support students' learning. The exploration and adoption of appropriate pedagogies that enhance learning is crucial for the wider adoption of mobile learning. An increasing number of studies have started to address how existing learning theory can be used to underpin and better frame mobile learning…

  4. Effective Learning Environments in Relation to Different Learning Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guney, A.; Al, S.

    2012-01-01

    There are diverse learning theories which explain learning processes which are discussed within this paper, through cognitive structure of learning process. Learning environments are usually described in terms of pedagogical philosophy, curriculum design and social climate. There have been only just

  5. What Learning Systems do Intelligent Agents Need? Complementary Learning Systems Theory Updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Hassabis, Demis; McClelland, James L

    2016-07-01

    We update complementary learning systems (CLS) theory, which holds that intelligent agents must possess two learning systems, instantiated in mammalians in neocortex and hippocampus. The first gradually acquires structured knowledge representations while the second quickly learns the specifics of individual experiences. We broaden the role of replay of hippocampal memories in the theory, noting that replay allows goal-dependent weighting of experience statistics. We also address recent challenges to the theory and extend it by showing that recurrent activation of hippocampal traces can support some forms of generalization and that neocortical learning can be rapid for information that is consistent with known structure. Finally, we note the relevance of the theory to the design of artificial intelligent agents, highlighting connections between neuroscience and machine learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Game Engagement Theory and Adult Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    One of the benefits of computer game-based learning is the ability of certain types of game to engage and motivate learners. However, theories of learning and engagement, particularly in the sphere of higher education, typically fail to consider gaming engagement theory. In this article, the author examines the principles of engagement from games…

  7. Learning Theory Applied to the Biology Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Joseph D.

    1980-01-01

    The material presented in this article is intended to help students learn how to learn. The seven key concepts of David Ausubel's assimilation theory for cognitive learning are discussed with reference to the classroom. Concept mapping is suggested as a tool for demonstrating how the seven key concepts function. (SA)

  8. 278 THE RELEVANCE OF SPEECH ACT THEORY FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACQUISITION OF PRAGMATIC COMPETENCE BY SECOND LANGUAGE ... more general linguistic theory, i.e. a theory of language use. I shall start .... theories focused on learners' acquisition of grammatical ... knowledge required to construct or understand well-formed .... getting the neighbours' children to turn down their.

  9. Objectification Theory: Of Relevance for Eating Disorder Researchers and Clinicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a large and expanding body of research on Objectification Theory. Central to the theory is the proposition that self-objectification results in shame and anxiety surrounding the body, and as a consequence, the development of eating disorders. However, the theory and research have been developed and reported in the gender and…

  10. Constructivism, the so-called semantic learning theories, and situated cognition versus the psychological learning theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Juan José; Rodríguez Moneo, María

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, the perspective of situated cognition, which gave rise both to the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning and has probably become the most representative standpoint of constructivism, is examined. We consider the claim of situated cognition to provide alternative explanations of the learning phenomenon to those of psychology and, especially, to those of the symbolic perspective, currently predominant in cognitive psychology. The level of analysis of situated cognition (i.e., global interactive systems) is considered an inappropriate approach to the problem of learning. From our analysis, it is concluded that the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning which originated in situated cognition can hardly be considered alternatives to the psychological learning theories, and they are unlikely to add anything of interest to the learning theory or to contribute to the improvement of our knowledge about the learning phenomenon.

  11. The Activity Theory Approach to Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva Engeström

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author offers a practical view of the theory-grounded research on education action. She draws on studies carried out at the Center for Research on Activity, Development and Learning (CRADLE at the University of Helsinki in Finland. In its work, the Center draws on cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT and is well-known for the theory of Expansive Learning and its more practical application called Developmental Work Research (DWR. These approaches are widely used to understand professional learning and have served as a theoreticaland methodological foundation for studies examining change and professional development in various human activities.

  12. Learned Helplessness: Theory and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Steven F.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    1976-01-01

    Authors believes that three phenomena are all instances of "learned helplessness," instances in which an organism has learned that outcomes are uncontrollable by his responses and is seriously debilitated by this knowledge. This article explores the evidence for the phenomena of learned helplessness, and discussed a variety of theoretical…

  13. The Theory of Optimal Taxation: What is the Policy Relevance?

    OpenAIRE

    Birch Sørensen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses the implications of optimal tax theory for the debates on uniform commodity taxation and neutral capital income taxation. While strong administrative and political economy arguments in favor of uniform and neutral taxation remain, recent advances in optimal tax theory suggest that the information needed to implement the differentiated taxation prescribed by optimal tax theory may be easier to obtain than previously believed. The paper also points to the strong similarity b...

  14. Development and application of social learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, V; Archbold, J

    This article traces the development of social learning theory over the last 30 years, relating the developments to clinical nursing practice. Particular attention is focused on the contribution of Albert Bandura, the American psychologist, and his work on modelling.

  15. 278 THE RELEVANCE OF SPEECH ACT THEORY FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    language acquisition research. More precisely, underlying the this paper communicative will consider approachl to how second theories language teaching have been informed by the speech act theory which. Austin and Searle developed. I shall give an indication of how certain concepts that feature centrally in particular ...

  16. Making Theory Relevant: The Gender Attitude and Belief Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates the Gender Attitude and Belief Inventory (GABI), a teaching tool designed to aid students in (a) realizing how sociological theory links to their personal beliefs and (b) exploring any combination of 11 frequently used theoretical perspectives on gender, including both conservative theories (physiological,…

  17. Learning theories application in nursing education

    OpenAIRE

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Parvin, Neda; Heidari, Mohammad; Haghani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Learning theories are the main guide for educational systems planning in the classroom and clinical training included in nursing. The teachers by knowing the general principles of these theories can use their knowledge more effectively according to various learning situations. In this study, Eric, Medline, and Cochrane databases were used for articles in English and for the Persian literature, Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex, and Sid databases were used with the help of keywords including socia...

  18. An Interpretation of Dewey's Experiential Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T. Grady

    "Experience and Education" (John Dewey, 1938) serves as a foundation piece of literature when discussing experiential learning. To facilitate a better understanding, a conceptual model was developed. In John Dewey's experiential learning theory, everything occurs within a social environment. Knowledge is socially constructed and based on…

  19. Jigsaw Cooperative Learning: Acid-Base Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarhan, Leman; Sesen, Burcin Acar

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating the effectiveness of jigsaw cooperative learning instruction on first-year undergraduates' understanding of acid-base theories. Undergraduates' opinions about jigsaw cooperative learning instruction were also investigated. The participants of this study were 38 first-year undergraduates in chemistry education…

  20. Revisiting the relevance of economic theory to hotel revenue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: economic theory, hotels, revenue management, Big Data, hospitality education ... and the ease and quality in which pricing information is delivered to ...... Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 25(2), 27–40.

  1. Learning theories application in nursing education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Parvin, Neda; Heidari, Mohammad; Haghani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Learning theories are the main guide for educational systems planning in the classroom and clinical training included in nursing. The teachers by knowing the general principles of these theories can use their knowledge more effectively according to various learning situations. In this study, Eric, Medline, and Cochrane databases were used for articles in English and for the Persian literature, Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex, and Sid databases were used with the help of keywords including social cognitive learning, learning theory, behavioral theory, cognitive theory, constructive theory, and nursing education. The search period was considered from 1990 to 2012. Some related books were also studied about each method, its original vision, the founders, practical application of the training theory, especially training of nursing and its strengths and weaknesses. Behaviorists believe that learning is a change in an observable behavior and it happens when the communication occurs between the two events, a stimulus and a response. Among the applications of this approach is the influence on the learner's emotional reactions. Among the theories of this approach, Thorndike and Skinner works are subject to review and critique. Cognitive psychologists unlike the behaviorists believe that learning is an internal process objective and they focus on thinking, understanding, organizing, and consciousness. Fundamentalists believe that learners should be equipped with the skills of inquiry and problem solving in order to learn by the discovery and process of information. Among this group, we will pay attention to analyze Wertheimer, Brunner, Ausubel theories, Ganyeh information processing model, in addition to its applications in nursing education. Humanists in learning pay attention to the feelings and experiences. Carl Rogers support the retention of learning-centered approach and he is believed to a semantic continuum. At the other end of the continuum, experiential learning is

  2. Learning theories application in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Parvin, Neda; Heidari, Mohammad; Haghani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Learning theories are the main guide for educational systems planning in the classroom and clinical training included in nursing. The teachers by knowing the general principles of these theories can use their knowledge more effectively according to various learning situations. In this study, Eric, Medline, and Cochrane databases were used for articles in English and for the Persian literature, Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex, and Sid databases were used with the help of keywords including social cognitive learning, learning theory, behavioral theory, cognitive theory, constructive theory, and nursing education. The search period was considered from 1990 to 2012. Some related books were also studied about each method, its original vision, the founders, practical application of the training theory, especially training of nursing and its strengths and weaknesses. Behaviorists believe that learning is a change in an observable behavior and it happens when the communication occurs between the two events, a stimulus and a response. Among the applications of this approach is the influence on the learner's emotional reactions. Among the theories of this approach, Thorndike and Skinner works are subject to review and critique. Cognitive psychologists unlike the behaviorists believe that learning is an internal process objective and they focus on thinking, understanding, organizing, and consciousness. Fundamentalists believe that learners should be equipped with the skills of inquiry and problem solving in order to learn by the discovery and process of information. Among this group, we will pay attention to analyze Wertheimer, Brunner, Ausubel theories, Ganyeh information processing model, in addition to its applications in nursing education. Humanists in learning pay attention to the feelings and experiences. Carl Rogers support the retention of learning-centered approach and he is believed to a semantic continuum. At the other end of the continuum, experiential learning is

  3. On the Relevance of Game Theory in Strategic Thinking

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be used to predict the outcome of a strategy, explain why a particular outcome to a strategy ... concludes that game theory can aid decision makers at all levels in formulating quality strategies. In fact .... Also, for our argument, we assume that the USA has a free enterprise .... pay-offs based on the 2x2 game we find that.

  4. Aspects of statistical spectroscopy relevant to effective-interaction theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    The three aspects of statistical spectroscopy discussed in this paper are the information content of complex spectra: procedures for spectroscopy in huge model spaces, useful in effective-interaction theory; and practical ways of identifying and calculating measurable parameters of the effective Hamiltonian and other operators, and of comparing different effective Hamiltonians. (4 figures) (U.S.)

  5. ASCA Ethical Standards and the Relevance of Eastern Ethical Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Amy L.; Houser, Rick A.

    2009-01-01

    As schools become increasingly diverse through immigration and growth of minority groups, it is important that school counselors incorporate culturally sensitive ethical decision-making in their practice. The use of Western ethical theories in the application of professional codes of ethics provides a specific perspective in ethical…

  6. Revisiting the relevance of economic theory to hotel revenue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the role of economics in hospitality education and industry practice, with a particular focus on revenue management, and puts forward an argument for a return to the inclusion of economic theory in UK hospitality education, not seen since the 1990s. Given the increasing amounts of pricing data available ...

  7. Transition theory and its relevance to patients with chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, J A; Barrell, L M

    1998-01-01

    A wound, in the broadest sense, is a disruption of normal anatomic structure and function. Acute wounds progress through a timely and orderly sequence of repair that leads to the restoration of functional integrity. In chronic wounds, this timely and orderly sequence goes awry. As a result, people with chronic wounds often face not only physiological difficulties but emotional ones as well. The study of body image and its damage as a result of a chronic wound fits well with Selder's transition theory. This article describes interviews with seven patients with chronic wounds. The themes that emerged from those interviews were compared with Selder's theory to describe patients' experience with chronic wounds as a transition process that can be identified and better understood by healthcare providers.

  8. The Relevance of Using Mathematical Models in Macroeconomic Policies Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Mihail

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a look of the principal’s mathematical models – starting with Theil, Hansen and Tinbergen work – and their results used to analysis and design macroeconomic policies. In modeling field changes are very fast in theoretical aspects of modeling the many problems of macroeconomic policies and in using in practice the different political models elaboration. The article points out the problems of static and dynamic theory used in macro-policies modeling.

  9. The Relevance of Using Mathematical Models in Macroeconomic Policies Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Mihail

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a look of the principal’s mathematical models – starting with Theil, Hansen and Tinbergen work – and their results used to analysis and design macroeconomic policies. In modeling field changes are very fast in theoretical aspects of modeling the many problems of macroeconomic policies and in using in practice the different political models elaboration. The article points out the problems of static and dynamic theory used in macro-policies modeling.

  10. The Systemic Theory of Living Systems and Relevance to CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Olalde Rangel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Systemic Theory of Living Systems is being published in several parts in eCAM. The theory is axiomatic. It originates from the phenomenological idea that physiological health is based on three factors: integrity of its structure or organization, O, functional organic energy reserve, E, and level of active biological intelligence, I. From the theory is derived a treatment strategy called Systemic Medicine (SM. This is based on identifying and prescribing phytomedicines and/or other medications that strengthen each factor. Energy-stimulating phytomedicines increase available energy and decrease total entropy of an open biological system by providing negative entropy. The same occurs with phytomedicines that act as biological intelligence modulators. They should be used as the first line of treatment in all ailments, since all pathologies, by definition, imply a higher than normal organic entropy. SM postulates that the state of health, H, of an individual, is effectively equal to the product of the strength of each factor H = O × E × I. SM observes that when all three factors are brought back to ideal levels, patients' conditions begin the recovery to normal health.

  11. An instance theory of associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Randall K; Crump, Matthew J C; Hannah, Samuel D

    2012-03-01

    We present and test an instance model of associative learning. The model, Minerva-AL, treats associative learning as cued recall. Memory preserves the events of individual trials in separate traces. A probe presented to memory contacts all traces in parallel and retrieves a weighted sum of the traces, a structure called the echo. Learning of a cue-outcome relationship is measured by the cue's ability to retrieve a target outcome. The theory predicts a number of associative learning phenomena, including acquisition, extinction, reacquisition, conditioned inhibition, external inhibition, latent inhibition, discrimination, generalization, blocking, overshadowing, overexpectation, superconditioning, recovery from blocking, recovery from overshadowing, recovery from overexpectation, backward blocking, backward conditioned inhibition, and second-order retrospective revaluation. We argue that associative learning is consistent with an instance-based approach to learning and memory.

  12. Learning theory of distributed spectral algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zheng-Chu; Lin, Shao-Bo; Zhou, Ding-Xuan

    2017-01-01

    Spectral algorithms have been widely used and studied in learning theory and inverse problems. This paper is concerned with distributed spectral algorithms, for handling big data, based on a divide-and-conquer approach. We present a learning theory for these distributed kernel-based learning algorithms in a regression framework including nice error bounds and optimal minimax learning rates achieved by means of a novel integral operator approach and a second order decomposition of inverse operators. Our quantitative estimates are given in terms of regularity of the regression function, effective dimension of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space, and qualification of the filter function of the spectral algorithm. They do not need any eigenfunction or noise conditions and are better than the existing results even for the classical family of spectral algorithms. (paper)

  13. Factors that Influence the Perceived Advantages and Relevance of Facebook as a Learning Tool: An Extension of the UTAUT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Rodríguez, Tomás; Carvajal-Trujillo, Elena; Monge-Lozano, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Social media technologies are becoming a fundamental component of education. This study extends the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to identify factors that influence the perceived advantages and relevance of Facebook as a learning tool. The proposed model is based on previous models of UTAUT. Constructs from previous…

  14. Investigating the Learning-Theory Foundations of Game-Based Learning: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W-H.; Hsiao, H-C.; Wu, P-L.; Lin, C-H.; Huang, S-H.

    2012-01-01

    Past studies on the issue of learning-theory foundations in game-based learning stressed the importance of establishing learning-theory foundation and provided an exploratory examination of established learning theories. However, we found research seldom addressed the development of the use or failure to use learning-theory foundations and…

  15. Equation of state experiments and theory relevant to planetary modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.; Graboske, H.C. Jr.; Nellis, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    In recent years there have been a number of static and shockwave experiments on the properties of planetary materials. The highest pressure measurements, and the ones most relevant to planetary modelling, have been obtained by shock compression. Of particular interest to the Jovian group are results for H 2 , H 2 O, CH 4 and NH 3 . Although the properties of metallic hydrogen have not been measured, they have been the subject of extensive calculations. In addition recent shock wave experiments on iron report to have detected melting under Earth core conditions. From this data theoretical models have been developed for computing the equations of state of materials used in planetary studies. A compelling feature that has followed from the use of improved material properties is a simplification in the planetary models. (author)

  16. Learning with Uncertainty - Gaussian Processes and Relevance Vector Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela, Joaquin Quinonero

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with Gaussian Processes (GPs) and Relevance Vector Machines (RVMs), both of which are particular instances of probabilistic linear models. We look at both models from a Bayesian perspective, and are forced to adopt an approximate Bayesian treatment to learning for two...... reasons. The first reason is the analytical intractability of the full Bayesian treatment and the fact that we in principle do not want to resort to sampling methods. The second reason, which incidentally justifies our not wanting to sample, is that we are interested in computationally efficient models...... approaches that ignore the accumulated uncertainty are way overconfident. Finally we explore a much harder problem: that of training with uncertain inputs. We explore approximating the full Bayesian treatment, which implies an analytically intractable integral. We propose two preliminary approaches...

  17. IBN KHALDUN’S THEORY OF TAXATION AND ITS RELEVANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul AZIM ISLAHI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ibn Khaldun, the North African versatile genius scholar of fourteenth century produced his famous work ‘al-Muqaddimah’ (the Introduction which is considered as one of the most sublime and intellectual achievements of the Middle Ages. It is a treasury of many sciences like history, psychology, sociology, geography, economics, political sciences,etc. He strongly argued in this book for low tax rate so that incentive to work is not killed and taxes are paid happily. His theory of taxation is an important contribution to economic thought. He is forerunner of the idea that high tax rates shrink the tax base because they reduce the economic activity. He is considered as the forerunner of Laffer’s curve. His ideas are comparable with those of supply-side economics that emphasized incentives and tax cuts as a means of economic growth.

  18. The Meaningful Learning of Intellectual Skills: An Application of Ausubel's Subsumption Theory to the Domain of Intellectual Skills Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Leo H. T.; Kellett, Natalie C.

    1981-01-01

    Tests the applicability of Ausubel's theory to the meaningful learning of intellectual skills. Results of three studies of high school students indicate that advance organizers enhance learning of skills related to solubility product problems. This effect was removed if prior teaching in relevant background knowledge was included. (Author/WB)

  19. Enhancing Student Learning in Knowledge-Based Courses: Integrating Team-Based Learning in Mass Communication Theory Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gang; Newell, Jay

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the adoption of the team-based learning (TBL) method in knowledge-based and theory-oriented journalism and mass communication (J&MC) courses. It first reviews the origin and concept of TBL, the relevant theories, and then introduces the TBL method and implementation, including procedures and assessments, employed in an…

  20. Game-Based Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Persistent Immersive Synthetic Environments (PISE) are not just connection points, they are meeting places. They are the new public squares, village centers, malt shops, malls and pubs all rolled into one. They come with a sense of 'thereness" that engages the mind like a real place does. Learning starts as a real code. The code defines "objects." The objects exist in computer space, known as the "grid." The objects and space combine to create a "place." A "world" is created, Before long, the grid and code becomes obscure, and the "world maintains focus.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Three Unique Theories of Organizational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Carol C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present three classical theories on organizational learning and conduct a comparative analysis that highlights their strengths, similarities, and differences. Two of the theories -- experiential learning theory and adaptive -- generative learning theory -- represent the thinking of the cognitive perspective, while…

  2. Self Modeling: Expanding the Theories of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowrick, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Self modeling (SM) offers a unique expansion of learning theory. For several decades, a steady trickle of empirical studies has reported consistent evidence for the efficacy of SM as a procedure for positive behavior change across physical, social, educational, and diagnostic variations. SM became accepted as an extreme case of model similarity;…

  3. Networks and learning in game theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, W.

    2008-01-01

    This work concentrates on two topics, networks and game theory, and learning in games. The first part of this thesis looks at network games and the role of incomplete information in such games. It is assumed that players are located on a network and interact with their neighbors in the network.

  4. Understanding feedback: A learning theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to review literature on feedback to teachers. Because research has hardly focused on feedback among teachers, the review’s scope also includes feedback in class- rooms. The review proposes that the effectiveness of feedback and feedback processes depend on the learning theory

  5. Perceptual learning: toward a comprehensive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2015-01-03

    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is long-term performance increase resulting from visual perceptual experience. Task-relevant VPL of a feature results from training of a task on the feature relevant to the task. Task-irrelevant VPL arises as a result of exposure to the feature irrelevant to the trained task. At least two serious problems exist. First, there is the controversy over which stage of information processing is changed in association with task-relevant VPL. Second, no model has ever explained both task-relevant and task-irrelevant VPL. Here we propose a dual plasticity model in which feature-based plasticity is a change in a representation of the learned feature, and task-based plasticity is a change in processing of the trained task. Although the two types of plasticity underlie task-relevant VPL, only feature-based plasticity underlies task-irrelevant VPL. This model provides a new comprehensive framework in which apparently contradictory results could be explained.

  6. Job Search and Social Cognitive Theory: The Role of Career-Relevant Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikic, Jelena; Saks, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Social cognitive theory was used to explain the relationships between career-relevant activities (environmental and self career exploration, career resources, and training), self-regulatory variables (job search self-efficacy and job search clarity), variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (job search attitude, subjective norm, job search…

  7. Sens et temps de la Gestalt (Gestalt theory: critical overview and contemporary relevance)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, Victor; Visetti, Yves-Marie

    1999-01-01

    Rather than mere psychological doctrine, Gestalt theory was conceived of as a general theory of form and organization deemed to lay a unified groundwork for several domains of scientific endeavor. Our aim in this article is to assess the legacy of this framework, and examine its relevance for present-day research in cognitive science. We thus survey the intellectual contexts within which Gestalt theory originated and evolved, and review some of its central features: a phenomenological approac...

  8. THE RELEVANCE OF DUESENBERRY CONSUMPTION THEORY! AN APPLIED CASE TO LATIN AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    Parada Corrales, Jairo; Bacca Mejia, William

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine the to-date relevance of Duesenberry's Consumption Theory through an applied case to four economies in Latin America: Mexico, Brazil, Argentina and Colombia. Using annual time series of these countries we show that some empirical evidence of Duesenberry's theory still holds and should not be discarded in modern macroeconomics as it has happened in regular macro text books in mainstream economics. Duesenberry's theory includes important institutional factors that canno...

  9. A Framework for Culturally Relevant Online Learning: Lessons from Alaska's Tribal Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Katie; Cueva, Melany; Revels, Laura; Lanier, Anne P; Dignan, Mark; Viswanath, K; Fung, Teresa T; Geller, Alan C

    2018-03-22

    Culturally relevant health promotion is an opportunity to reduce health inequities in diseases with modifiable risks, such as cancer. Alaska Native people bear a disproportionate cancer burden, and Alaska's rural tribal health workers consequently requested cancer education accessible online. In response, the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium cancer education team sought to create a framework for culturally relevant online learning to inform the creation of distance-delivered cancer education. Guided by the principles of community-based participatory action research and grounded in empowerment theory, the project team conducted a focus group with 10 Alaska Native education experts, 12 culturally diverse key informant interviews, a key stakeholder survey of 62 Alaska Native tribal health workers and their instructors/supervisors, and a literature review on distance-delivered education with Alaska Native or American Indian people. Qualitative findings were analyzed in Atlas.ti, with common themes presented in this article as a framework for culturally relevant online education. This proposed framework includes four principles: collaborative development, interactive content delivery, contextualizing learning, and creating connection. As an Alaskan tribal health worker shared "we're all in this together. All about conversations, relationships. Always learn from you/with you, together what we know and understand from the center of our experience, our ways of knowing, being, caring." The proposed framework has been applied to support cancer education and promote cancer control with Alaska Native people and has motivated health behavior change to reduce cancer risk. This framework may be adaptable to other populations to guide effective and culturally relevant online interventions.

  10. The Development of a Comprehensive and Coherent Theory of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeris, Knud

    2015-01-01

    This article is an account of how the author developed a comprehensive understanding of human learning over a period of almost 50 years. The learning theory includes the structure of learning, different types of learning, barriers of learning as well as how individual dispositions, age, the learning environment and general social and societal…

  11. Workplace Learning - How We Keep Track of Relevant Information

    OpenAIRE

    Bischoff, Kerstin; Herder, Eelco; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    At the workplace, learning is often a by-product of working on complex projects, requiring self-steered, need-driven and goal-oriented retrieval of information just in time from documents or peers. The personal desktop provides one rich source for learning material and for adaptation of learning resources. Data within that personal information space enables learning from previous experience, sharing tacit and explicit knowledge, and allows for establishing context and context-aware delivery o...

  12. Workplace Learning - How We Keep Track of Relevant Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, Kerstin; Herder, Eelco; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    At the workplace, learning is often a by-product of working on complex projects, requiring self-steered, need-driven and goal-oriented retrieval of information just in time from documents or peers. The personal desktop provides one rich source for learning material and for adaptation of learning

  13. Professional Learning in Higher Education: Making Good Practice Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Jeannie

    2017-01-01

    Professionals working in a range of contexts are increasingly expected to engage in ongoing professional learning to maintain their skills and develop their practices. In this paper, I focus on professional learning in Higher Education and challenge the standardisation of professional learning that is becoming prevalent in a number of countries. I…

  14. Health education and multimedia learning: educational psychology and health behavior theory (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Francisco G Soto; Plass, Jan; Kane, William M; Papenfuss, Richard L

    2003-07-01

    When health education researchers began to investigate how individuals make decisions related to health and the factors that influence health behaviors, they referred to frameworks shared by educational and learning research. Health education adopted the basic principles of the cognitive revolution, which were instrumental in advancing the field. There is currently a new challenge to confront: the widespread use of new technologies for health education. To better overcome this challenge, educational psychology and instructional technology theory should be considered. Unfortunately, the passion to incorporate new technologies too often overshadows how people learn or, in particular, how people learn through computer technologies. This two-part article explains how educational theory contributed to the early development of health behavior theory, describes the most relevant multimedia learning theories and constructs, and provides recommendations for developing multimedia health education programs and connecting theory and practice.

  15. Application of Multilabel Learning Using the Relevant Feature for Each Label in Chronic Gastritis Syndrome Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Ping; Yan, Jian-Jun; Wang, Yi-Qin; Fu, Jing-Jing; Xu, Zhao-Xia; Guo, Rui; Qian, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Background. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), most of the algorithms are used to solve problems of syndrome diagnosis that only focus on one syndrome, that is, single label learning. However, in clinical practice, patients may simultaneously have more than one syndrome, which has its own symptoms (signs). Methods. We employed a multilabel learning using the relevant feature for each label (REAL) algorithm to construct a syndrome diagnostic model for chronic gastritis (CG) in TCM. REAL combines feature selection methods to select the significant symptoms (signs) of CG. The method was tested on 919 patients using the standard scale. Results. The highest prediction accuracy was achieved when 20 features were selected. The features selected with the information gain were more consistent with the TCM theory. The lowest average accuracy was 54% using multi-label neural networks (BP-MLL), whereas the highest was 82% using REAL for constructing the diagnostic model. For coverage, hamming loss, and ranking loss, the values obtained using the REAL algorithm were the lowest at 0.160, 0.142, and 0.177, respectively. Conclusion. REAL extracts the relevant symptoms (signs) for each syndrome and improves its recognition accuracy. Moreover, the studies will provide a reference for constructing syndrome diagnostic models and guide clinical practice. PMID:22719781

  16. Application of Multilabel Learning Using the Relevant Feature for Each Label in Chronic Gastritis Syndrome Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Ping Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, most of the algorithms are used to solve problems of syndrome diagnosis that only focus on one syndrome, that is, single label learning. However, in clinical practice, patients may simultaneously have more than one syndrome, which has its own symptoms (signs. Methods. We employed a multilabel learning using the relevant feature for each label (REAL algorithm to construct a syndrome diagnostic model for chronic gastritis (CG in TCM. REAL combines feature selection methods to select the significant symptoms (signs of CG. The method was tested on 919 patients using the standard scale. Results. The highest prediction accuracy was achieved when 20 features were selected. The features selected with the information gain were more consistent with the TCM theory. The lowest average accuracy was 54% using multi-label neural networks (BP-MLL, whereas the highest was 82% using REAL for constructing the diagnostic model. For coverage, hamming loss, and ranking loss, the values obtained using the REAL algorithm were the lowest at 0.160, 0.142, and 0.177, respectively. Conclusion. REAL extracts the relevant symptoms (signs for each syndrome and improves its recognition accuracy. Moreover, the studies will provide a reference for constructing syndrome diagnostic models and guide clinical practice.

  17. Making Learning Personally Meaningful: A New Framework for Relevance Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priniski, Stacy J.; Hecht, Cameron A.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2018-01-01

    Personal relevance goes by many names in the motivation literature, stemming from a number of theoretical frameworks. Currently these lines of research are being conducted in parallel with little synthesis across them, perhaps because there is no unifying definition of the relevance construct within which this research can be situated. In this…

  18. The Relevance of Organizational Subculture for Motivation to Transfer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Toby Marshall

    2008-01-01

    Although human resource development practitioners and researchers emphasize organizational culture as a major contributor to employee learning and development, results from this study suggest organizational subculture has greater influence on employee-related learning motivation. The relationships among organizational culture, organizational…

  19. The relevance of visual information on learning sounds in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Schure, S.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Newborn infants are sensitive to combinations of visual and auditory speech. Does this ability to match sounds and sights affect how infants learn the sounds of their native language? And are visual articulations the only type of visual information that can influence sound learning? This

  20. Relevance as a metric for evaluating machine learning algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kota Gopalakrishna, A.; Ozcelebi, T.; Liotta, A.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    In machine learning, the choice of a learning algorithm that is suitable for the application domain is critical. The performance metric used to compare different algorithms must also reflect the concerns of users in the application domain under consideration. In this work, we propose a novel

  1. Student learning for social relevance: the case of Melkhoutfontein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tourism as a vehicle for multi-faceted learning in a community setting. The article contextualises the project, highlights its aims and goals, describes its research approach and analyses its outcomes and results. Findings suggest that student contextualisation of learning tasks and their increased levels of social awareness ...

  2. Ecologically relevant neurobehavioral assessment of the development of threat learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger Bertolus, Julie; Mouly, Anne-Marie; Sullivan, Regina M

    2016-10-01

    As altricial infants gradually transition to adults, their proximate environment changes. In three short weeks, pups transition from a small world with the caregiver and siblings to a complex milieu rich in dangers as their environment expands. Such contrasting environments require different learning abilities and lead to distinct responses throughout development. Here, we will review some of the learned fear conditioned responses to threats in rats during their ontogeny, including behavioral and physiological measures that permit the assessment of learning and its supporting neurobiology from infancy through adulthood. In adulthood, odor-shock conditioning produces robust fear learning to the odor that depends upon the amygdala and related circuitry. Paradoxically, this conditioning in young pups fails to support fear learning and supports approach learning to the odor previously paired with shock. This approach learning is mediated by the infant attachment network that does not include the amygdala. During the age range when pups transition from the infant to the adult circuit (10-15 d old), pups have access to both networks: odor-shock conditioning in maternal presence uses the attachment circuit but the adult amygdala-dependent circuit when alone. However, throughout development (as young as 5 d old) the attachment associated learning can be overridden and amygdala-dependent fear learning supported, if the mother expresses fear in the presence of the pup. This social modulation of the fear permits the expression of defense reactions in life threatening situations informed by the caregiver but prevents the learning of the caregiver itself as a threat. © 2016 Boulanger Bertolus et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  3. Ecologically relevant neurobehavioral assessment of the development of threat learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouly, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    As altricial infants gradually transition to adults, their proximate environment changes. In three short weeks, pups transition from a small world with the caregiver and siblings to a complex milieu rich in dangers as their environment expands. Such contrasting environments require different learning abilities and lead to distinct responses throughout development. Here, we will review some of the learned fear conditioned responses to threats in rats during their ontogeny, including behavioral and physiological measures that permit the assessment of learning and its supporting neurobiology from infancy through adulthood. In adulthood, odor–shock conditioning produces robust fear learning to the odor that depends upon the amygdala and related circuitry. Paradoxically, this conditioning in young pups fails to support fear learning and supports approach learning to the odor previously paired with shock. This approach learning is mediated by the infant attachment network that does not include the amygdala. During the age range when pups transition from the infant to the adult circuit (10–15 d old), pups have access to both networks: odor–shock conditioning in maternal presence uses the attachment circuit but the adult amygdala-dependent circuit when alone. However, throughout development (as young as 5 d old) the attachment associated learning can be overridden and amygdala-dependent fear learning supported, if the mother expresses fear in the presence of the pup. This social modulation of the fear permits the expression of defense reactions in life threatening situations informed by the caregiver but prevents the learning of the caregiver itself as a threat. PMID:27634146

  4. Learning relationships from theory to design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J.H. Fowler

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last five years we have seen a very significant increase in the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT in schools, colleges and university. For example in 1998, there were over 195 accredited US universities offering a thousand or more distance learning courses (Philips and Yager, 1998. By no means were all of these new courses associated with educational innovation. The speed and ease of implementation of Webbased approaches, in particular, is resulting in design by imitation of current courses and methods, with a real lack of innovation or utilization of the power inherent in technologybased learning. Although matters are improving (see for example Brown, 1999, part of the reason for this failure to innovate is, we argue, because of the large gap between theory and practice.

  5. Stimulus fear-relevance and the vicarious learning pathway to childhood fears

    OpenAIRE

    Askew, C.; Dunne, G.; Ozdil, A.; Reynolds, G.; Field, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced fear learning for fear-relevant stimuli has been demonstrated in procedures with adults in the laboratory. Three experiments investigated the effect of stimulus fear-relevance on vicarious fear learning in children (aged 6-11 years). Pictures of stimuli with different levels of fear-relevance (flowers, caterpillars, snakes, worms, and Australian marsupials) were presented alone or together with scared faces. In line with previous studies, children's fear beliefs and avoidance prefere...

  6. Unsupervised deep learning reveals prognostically relevant subtypes of glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jonathan D; Cai, Chunhui; Lu, Xinghua

    2017-10-03

    One approach to improving the personalized treatment of cancer is to understand the cellular signaling transduction pathways that cause cancer at the level of the individual patient. In this study, we used unsupervised deep learning to learn the hierarchical structure within cancer gene expression data. Deep learning is a group of machine learning algorithms that use multiple layers of hidden units to capture hierarchically related, alternative representations of the input data. We hypothesize that this hierarchical structure learned by deep learning will be related to the cellular signaling system. Robust deep learning model selection identified a network architecture that is biologically plausible. Our model selection results indicated that the 1st hidden layer of our deep learning model should contain about 1300 hidden units to most effectively capture the covariance structure of the input data. This agrees with the estimated number of human transcription factors, which is approximately 1400. This result lends support to our hypothesis that the 1st hidden layer of a deep learning model trained on gene expression data may represent signals related to transcription factor activation. Using the 3rd hidden layer representation of each tumor as learned by our unsupervised deep learning model, we performed consensus clustering on all tumor samples-leading to the discovery of clusters of glioblastoma multiforme with differential survival. One of these clusters contained all of the glioblastoma samples with G-CIMP, a known methylation phenotype driven by the IDH1 mutation and associated with favorable prognosis, suggesting that the hidden units in the 3rd hidden layer representations captured a methylation signal without explicitly using methylation data as input. We also found differentially expressed genes and well-known mutations (NF1, IDH1, EGFR) that were uniquely correlated with each of these clusters. Exploring these unique genes and mutations will allow us to

  7. Repositioning Ideology Critique in a Critical Theory of Adult Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reexamines critical theory as a response to Marxism and repositions ideology critique as a crucial adult learning process. Argues that a critical theory of adult learning should focus on how adults learn to recognize and challenge ideological domination and manipulation. (Contains 31 references.) (SK)

  8. Optimizing Computer Assisted Instruction By Applying Principles of Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas O.

    The development of learning theory and its application to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) are described. Among the early theoretical constructs thought to be important are E. L. Thorndike's concept of learning connectisms, Neal Miller's theory of motivation, and B. F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. Early devices incorporating those…

  9. Simulation Methodology in Nursing Education and Adult Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford-Hemming, Tonya

    2012-01-01

    Simulation is often used in nursing education as a teaching methodology. Simulation is rooted in adult learning theory. Three learning theories, cognitive, social, and constructivist, explain how learners gain knowledge with simulation experiences. This article takes an in-depth look at each of these three theories as each relates to simulation.…

  10. Measuring reinforcement learning and motivation constructs in experimental animals: relevance to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Athina; Salamone, John D.; Bussey, Timothy; Mar, Adam; Brunner, Daniela; Gilmour, Gary; Balsam, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present review article summarizes and expands upon the discussions that were initiated during a meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS; http://cntrics.ucdavis.edu). A major goal of the CNTRICS meeting was to identify experimental procedures and measures that can be used in laboratory animals to assess psychological constructs that are related to the psychopathology of schizophrenia. The issues discussed in this review reflect the deliberations of the Motivation Working Group of the CNTRICS meeting, which included most of the authors of this article as well as additional participants. After receiving task nominations from the general research community, this working group was asked to identify experimental procedures in laboratory animals that can assess aspects of reinforcement learning and motivation that may be relevant for research on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as well as other disorders characterized by deficits in reinforcement learning and motivation. The tasks described here that assess reinforcement learning are the Autoshaping Task, Probabilistic Reward Learning Tasks, and the Response Bias Probabilistic Reward Task. The tasks described here that assess motivation are Outcome Devaluation and Contingency Degradation Tasks and Effort-Based Tasks. In addition to describing such methods and procedures, the present article provides a working vocabulary for research and theory in this field, as well as an industry perspective about how such tasks may be used in drug discovery. It is hoped that this review can aid investigators who are conducting research in this complex area, promote translational studies by highlighting shared research goals and fostering a common vocabulary across basic and clinical fields, and facilitate the development of medications for the treatment of symptoms mediated by reinforcement learning and motivational deficits. PMID:23994273

  11. Measuring reinforcement learning and motivation constructs in experimental animals: relevance to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Athina; Salamone, John D; Bussey, Timothy J; Mar, Adam C; Brunner, Daniela; Gilmour, Gary; Balsam, Peter

    2013-11-01

    The present review article summarizes and expands upon the discussions that were initiated during a meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS; http://cntrics.ucdavis.edu) meeting. A major goal of the CNTRICS meeting was to identify experimental procedures and measures that can be used in laboratory animals to assess psychological constructs that are related to the psychopathology of schizophrenia. The issues discussed in this review reflect the deliberations of the Motivation Working Group of the CNTRICS meeting, which included most of the authors of this article as well as additional participants. After receiving task nominations from the general research community, this working group was asked to identify experimental procedures in laboratory animals that can assess aspects of reinforcement learning and motivation that may be relevant for research on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as well as other disorders characterized by deficits in reinforcement learning and motivation. The tasks described here that assess reinforcement learning are the Autoshaping Task, Probabilistic Reward Learning Tasks, and the Response Bias Probabilistic Reward Task. The tasks described here that assess motivation are Outcome Devaluation and Contingency Degradation Tasks and Effort-Based Tasks. In addition to describing such methods and procedures, the present article provides a working vocabulary for research and theory in this field, as well as an industry perspective about how such tasks may be used in drug discovery. It is hoped that this review can aid investigators who are conducting research in this complex area, promote translational studies by highlighting shared research goals and fostering a common vocabulary across basic and clinical fields, and facilitate the development of medications for the treatment of symptoms mediated by reinforcement learning and motivational deficits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  12. Relevance Theory and the Language of Advertising. CLS Occasional Paper No. 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Barbara

    Relevance theory, the premise that a hearer will make the effort to process a communication if he or she feels it will alter or enrich his/her cognitive environment, can be useful for increasing the effectiveness of advertising communication. It is particularly helpful for analyzing and improving the effectiveness of the creative devices often…

  13. How relevant is social interaction in second language learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eVerga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Verbal language is the most widespread mode of human communication, and an intrinsically social activity. This claim is strengthen by evidence emerging from different fields, which clearly indicate that social interaction influences human communication, and more specifically, language learning. Indeed, research conducted with infants and children shows that interaction with a caregiver is necessary to acquire language. Further evidence on the influence of sociality on language comes from social and linguistic pathologies, in which deficits in social and linguistic abilities are tightly intertwined, as it is the case for Autism, for example. However, studies on adult second language learning have been mostly focused on individualistic approaches, partly because of methodological constraints especially of imaging methods. The question as to whether social interaction should be considered as a critical factor impacting upon adult language learning still remains underspecified. Here, we review evidence in support of the view that sociality plays a significant role in communication and language learning, in an attempt to emphasize factors that could facilitate this process in adult language learning. We suggest that sociality should be considered as a potentially influential factor in adult language learning and that future studies in this domain should explicitly target this factor.

  14. How relevant is social interaction in second language learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verga, Laura; Kotz, Sonja A

    2013-09-03

    Verbal language is the most widespread mode of human communication, and an intrinsically social activity. This claim is strengthened by evidence emerging from different fields, which clearly indicates that social interaction influences human communication, and more specifically, language learning. Indeed, research conducted with infants and children shows that interaction with a caregiver is necessary to acquire language. Further evidence on the influence of sociality on language comes from social and linguistic pathologies, in which deficits in social and linguistic abilities are tightly intertwined, as is the case for Autism, for example. However, studies on adult second language (L2) learning have been mostly focused on individualistic approaches, partly because of methodological constraints, especially of imaging methods. The question as to whether social interaction should be considered as a critical factor impacting upon adult language learning still remains underspecified. Here, we review evidence in support of the view that sociality plays a significant role in communication and language learning, in an attempt to emphasize factors that could facilitate this process in adult language learning. We suggest that sociality should be considered as a potentially influential factor in adult language learning and that future studies in this domain should explicitly target this factor.

  15. Developing a Domain Theory Defining and Exemplifying a Learning Theory of Progressive Attainments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, C. Victor

    2011-01-01

    This article defines the concept of Domain Theory, or, when educational measurement is the goal, one might call it a "Learning Theory of Progressive Attainments in X Domain". The concept of Domain Theory is first shown to be rooted in validity theory, then the concept of domain theory is expanded to amplify its necessary but long neglected…

  16. Psychological theory and pedagogical effectiveness: the learning promotion potential framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Peter

    2008-12-01

    After a century of educational psychology, eminent commentators are still lamenting problems besetting the appropriate relating of psychological insights to teaching design, a situation not helped by the persistence of crude assumptions concerning the nature of pedagogical effectiveness. To propose an analytical or meta-theoretical framework based on the concept of learning promotion potential (LPP) as a basis for understanding the basic relationship between psychological insights and teaching strategies, and to draw out implications for psychology-based pedagogical design, development and research. This is a theoretical and meta-theoretical paper relying mainly on conceptual analysis, though also calling on psychological theory and research. Since teaching consists essentially in activity designed to promote learning, it follows that a teaching strategy has the potential in principle to achieve particular kinds of learning gains (LPP) to the extent that it embodies or stimulates the relevant learning processes on the part of learners and enables the teacher's functions of on-line monitoring and assistance for such learning processes. Whether a teaching strategy actually does realize its LPP by way of achieving its intended learning goals depends also on the quality of its implementation, in conjunction with other factors in the situated interaction that teaching always involves. The core role of psychology is to provide well-grounded indication of the nature of such learning processes and the teaching functions that support them, rather than to directly generate particular ways of teaching. A critically eclectic stance towards potential sources of psychological insight is argued for. Applying this framework, the paper proposes five kinds of issue to be attended to in the design and evaluation of psychology-based pedagogy. Other work proposing comparable ideas is briefly reviewed, with particular attention to similarities and a key difference with the ideas of Oser

  17. Learning "in" or "with" Games? Quality Criteria for Digital Learning Games from the Perspectives of Learning, Emotion, and Motivation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hense, Jan; Mandl, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    This conceptual paper aims to clarify the theoretical underpinnings of game based learning (GBL) and learning with digital learning games (DLGs). To do so, it analyses learning of game related skills and contents, which occurs constantly during playing conventional entertainment games, from three perspectives: learning theory, emotion theory, and…

  18. Theories and control models and motor learning: clinical applications in neuro-rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-de-la-Cuerda, R; Molero-Sánchez, A; Carratalá-Tejada, M; Alguacil-Diego, I M; Molina-Rueda, F; Miangolarra-Page, J C; Torricelli, D

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there has been a special interest in theories that could explain the regulation of motor control, and their applications. These theories are often based on models of brain function, philosophically reflecting different criteria on how movement is controlled by the brain, each being emphasised in different neural components of the movement. The concept of motor learning, regarded as the set of internal processes associated with practice and experience that produce relatively permanent changes in the ability to produce motor activities through a specific skill, is also relevant in the context of neuroscience. Thus, both motor control and learning are seen as key fields of study for health professionals in the field of neuro-rehabilitation. The major theories of motor control are described, which include, motor programming theory, systems theory, the theory of dynamic action, and the theory of parallel distributed processing, as well as the factors that influence motor learning and its applications in neuro-rehabilitation. At present there is no consensus on which theory or model defines the regulations to explain motor control. Theories of motor learning should be the basis for motor rehabilitation. The new research should apply the knowledge generated in the fields of control and motor learning in neuro-rehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the ‘artificial grammar-learning’ paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective. PMID:22688631

  20. Rhetorical ways of thinking Vygotskian theory and mathematical learning

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Lillie R; Macadino, Vittoria

    2012-01-01

    Combining Vygotskian theory with current teaching and learning practices, this volume focuses on how the co-construction of learning models the interpretation of a mathematical situation, providing educationalists with a valuable practical methodology.

  1. Using David Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory in Portfolio Development Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Michael; Menson, Betty

    1982-01-01

    As personal portfolio assessment matures, practitioners continue to look for techniques that enhance both personal development and the process of seeking academic credit through assessment. Kolb's experiential learning theory and learning style inventory may have applications in this search. (Author)

  2. Learning tag relevance by neighbor voting for social image retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.

    2008-01-01

    Social image retrieval is important for exploiting the increasing amounts of amateur-tagged multimedia such as Flickr images. Since amateur tagging is known to be uncontrolled, ambiguous, and personalized, a fundamental problem is how to reliably interpret the relevance of a tag with respect to the

  3. Toward an Instructionally Oriented Theory of Example-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Learning from examples is a very effective means of initial cognitive skill acquisition. There is an enormous body of research on the specifics of this learning method. This article presents an instructionally oriented theory of example-based learning that integrates theoretical assumptions and findings from three research areas: learning from…

  4. Prototypes and matrix relevance learning in complex fourier space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straat, M.; Kaden, M.; Gay, M.; Villmann, T.; Lampe, Alexander; Seiffert, U.; Biehl, M.; Melchert, F.

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, we consider the classification of time-series and similar functional data which can be represented in complex Fourier coefficient space. We apply versions of Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) which are suitable for complex-valued data, based on the so-called Wirtinger

  5. The Systemic Theory of Living Systems and Relevance to CAM: the Theory (Part III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Olalde Rangel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Western medical science lacks a solid philosophical and theoretical approach to disease cognition and therapeutics. My first two articles provided a framework for a humane medicine based on Modern Biophysics. Its precepts encompass modern therapeutics and CAM. Modern Biophysics and its concepts are presently missing in medicine, whether orthodox or CAM, albeit they probably provide the long sought explanation that bridges the abyss between East and West. Key points that differentiate Systemic from other systems' approaches are ‘Intelligence’, ‘Energy’ and the objective ‘to survive’. The General System Theory (GST took a forward step by proposing a departure from the mechanistic biological concept—of analyzing parts and processes in isolation—and brought us towards an organismic model. GST examines the system's components and results of their interaction. However, GST still does not go far enough. GST assumes ‘Self-Organization’ as a spontaneous phenomenon, ignoring a causative entity or central controller to all systems: Intelligence. It also neglects ‘Survive’ as the directional motivation common to any living system, and scarcely assigns ‘Energy’ its true inherent value. These three parameters, Intelligence, Energy and Survive, are vital variables to be considered, in our human quest, if we are to achieve a unified theory of life.

  6. Critical evidence for the prediction error theory in associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Kanta; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Mizunami, Makoto

    2015-03-10

    In associative learning in mammals, it is widely accepted that the discrepancy, or error, between actual and predicted reward determines whether learning occurs. Complete evidence for the prediction error theory, however, has not been obtained in any learning systems: Prediction error theory stems from the finding of a blocking phenomenon, but blocking can also be accounted for by other theories, such as the attentional theory. We demonstrated blocking in classical conditioning in crickets and obtained evidence to reject the attentional theory. To obtain further evidence supporting the prediction error theory and rejecting alternative theories, we constructed a neural model to match the prediction error theory, by modifying our previous model of learning in crickets, and we tested a prediction from the model: the model predicts that pharmacological intervention of octopaminergic transmission during appetitive conditioning impairs learning but not formation of reward prediction itself, and it thus predicts no learning in subsequent training. We observed such an "auto-blocking", which could be accounted for by the prediction error theory but not by other competitive theories to account for blocking. This study unambiguously demonstrates validity of the prediction error theory in associative learning.

  7. Enabling multi-level relevance feedback on PubMed by integrating rank learning into DBMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwanjo; Kim, Taehoon; Oh, Jinoh; Ko, Ilhwan; Kim, Sungchul; Han, Wook-Shin

    2010-04-16

    Finding relevant articles from PubMed is challenging because it is hard to express the user's specific intention in the given query interface, and a keyword query typically retrieves a large number of results. Researchers have applied machine learning techniques to find relevant articles by ranking the articles according to the learned relevance function. However, the process of learning and ranking is usually done offline without integrated with the keyword queries, and the users have to provide a large amount of training documents to get a reasonable learning accuracy. This paper proposes a novel multi-level relevance feedback system for PubMed, called RefMed, which supports both ad-hoc keyword queries and a multi-level relevance feedback in real time on PubMed. RefMed supports a multi-level relevance feedback by using the RankSVM as the learning method, and thus it achieves higher accuracy with less feedback. RefMed "tightly" integrates the RankSVM into RDBMS to support both keyword queries and the multi-level relevance feedback in real time; the tight coupling of the RankSVM and DBMS substantially improves the processing time. An efficient parameter selection method for the RankSVM is also proposed, which tunes the RankSVM parameter without performing validation. Thereby, RefMed achieves a high learning accuracy in real time without performing a validation process. RefMed is accessible at http://dm.postech.ac.kr/refmed. RefMed is the first multi-level relevance feedback system for PubMed, which achieves a high accuracy with less feedback. It effectively learns an accurate relevance function from the user's feedback and efficiently processes the function to return relevant articles in real time.

  8. Unsupervised Learning and Pattern Recognition of Biological Data Structures with Density Functional Theory and Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Juan, Hung-Hui; Tsai, Meng-Yuan; Lu, Henry Horng-Shing

    2018-01-11

    By introducing the methods of machine learning into the density functional theory, we made a detour for the construction of the most probable density function, which can be estimated by learning relevant features from the system of interest. Using the properties of universal functional, the vital core of density functional theory, the most probable cluster numbers and the corresponding cluster boundaries in a studying system can be simultaneously and automatically determined and the plausibility is erected on the Hohenberg-Kohn theorems. For the method validation and pragmatic applications, interdisciplinary problems from physical to biological systems were enumerated. The amalgamation of uncharged atomic clusters validated the unsupervised searching process of the cluster numbers and the corresponding cluster boundaries were exhibited likewise. High accurate clustering results of the Fisher's iris dataset showed the feasibility and the flexibility of the proposed scheme. Brain tumor detections from low-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging datasets and segmentations of high-dimensional neural network imageries in the Brainbow system were also used to inspect the method practicality. The experimental results exhibit the successful connection between the physical theory and the machine learning methods and will benefit the clinical diagnoses.

  9. Is Wagner’s theory relevant in explaining health expenditure dynamics in Botswana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunofiwa Tsaurai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the relevance of the Wagner’s theory in explaining the health expenditure in Botswana. There is no consensus yet when it comes to the causality relationship between health expenditure and economy. At the moment, there are four dominant schools of thought explaining the causality relationship between health expenditure and economy. The first school of thought is that health expenditure spurs the economy whilst the second school of thought says that the economy drives health expenditure. The third school of thought maintains that there is a feedback effect between health expenditure and the economy whilst the fourth mentions that there is no causality at all between the two variables. However, this study found out that there is no causality relationship between health expenditure and GDP in Botswana thereby dismissing the relevance of the Wagner’s theory.

  10. Stimulus fear-relevance and the vicarious learning pathway to childhood fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Chris; Dunne, Güler; Özdil, Zehra; Reynolds, Gemma; Field, Andy P

    2013-10-01

    Enhanced fear learning for fear-relevant stimuli has been demonstrated in procedures with adults in the laboratory. Three experiments investigated the effect of stimulus fear-relevance on vicarious fear learning in children (aged 6-11 years). Pictures of stimuli with different levels of fear-relevance (flowers, caterpillars, snakes, worms, and Australian marsupials) were presented alone or together with scared faces. In line with previous studies, children's fear beliefs and avoidance preferences increased for stimuli they had seen with scared faces. However, in contrast to evidence with adults, learning was mostly similar for all stimulus types irrespective of fear-relevance. The results support a proposal that stimulus preparedness is bypassed when children observationally learn threat-related information from adults.

  11. Searchers' relevance judgments and criteria in evaluating Web pages in a learning style perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaeconomou, Chariste; Zijlema, Annemarie F.; Ingwersen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a case study of searcher's relevance criteria used for assessments of Web pages in a perspective of learning style. 15 test persons participated in the experiments based on two simulated work tasks that provided cover stories to trigger their information needs. Two...... learning styles were examined: Global and Sequential learners. The study applied eye-tracking for the observation of relevance hot spots on Web pages, learning style index analysis and post-search interviews to gain more in-depth information on relevance behavior. Findings reveal that with respect to use......, they are statistically insignificant. When interviewed in retrospective the resulting profiles tend to become even similar across learning styles but a shift occurs from instant assessments with content features of web pages replacing topicality judgments as predominant relevance criteria....

  12. Reflection of Learning Theories in Iranian ELT Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghad, Hossein Hashem

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate Iranian ELT English textbooks (Senior High school and Pre-University) in the light of three learning theories i.e., behaviourism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Each of these learning theories embedding an array of instructional strategies and techniques acted as evaluation checklist. That is, Iranian ELT…

  13. Task-Based Language Teaching and Expansive Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) has become increasingly recognized as an effective pedagogy, but its location in generalized sociocultural theories of learning has led to misunderstandings and criticism. The purpose of this article is to explain the congruence between TBLT and Expansive Learning Theory and the benefits of doing so. The merit…

  14. Strategies for application of learning theories in art studio practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study highlights the link between learning theories and art studio practices. The paper is of the opinion that if these theories are critically understood and applied to the practical aspect of fine and applied arts then learning will be more functional. Nigerian Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria Vol. 8(1) 2003: ...

  15. Three Theories of Learning and Their Implications for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Aura I.

    Currently, three theories of learning dominate classroom practice. First, B.F. Skinner's Theory of Operant Conditioning states that if behavior, including learning behavior, is reinforced, the probability of its being repeated increases strongly. Different types and schedules of reinforcement have been studied, by Skinner and others, and the…

  16. Linking Theory to Practice in Learning Technology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Cathy; Steel, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only…

  17. Constructing a Grounded Theory of E-Learning Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Díaz, Laura; Yuste-Tosina, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    This study traces the development of a grounded theory of assessment in e-learning environments, a field in need of research to establish the parameters of an assessment that is both reliable and worthy of higher learning accreditation. Using grounded theory as a research method, we studied an e-assessment model that does not require physical…

  18. Applying Distributed Learning Theory in Online Business Communication Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kristin

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the critical use of technology in online formats that entail relatively new teaching media. Argues that distributed learning theory is valuable for teachers of online business communication courses for several reasons. Discusses the application of distributed learning theory to the teaching of business communication online. (SG)

  19. Addressing special structure in the relevance feedback learning problem through aspect-based image search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Huiskes (Mark)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we focus on a number of issues regarding special structure in the relevance feedback learning problem, most notably the effects of image selection based on partial relevance on the clustering behavior of examples. We propose a simple scheme, aspect-based image search, which

  20. Linking theory to practice in learning technology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Gunn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only incidentally or not at all in many cases. We propose theory development as a unifying theme for learning technology research study design and reporting. The use of learning design as a strategy to develop and test theories in practice is integral to our argument. We conclude by supporting other researchers who recommend educational design research as a theory focused methodology to move the field forward in productive and consistent ways. The challenge of changing common practice will be involved. However, the potential to raise the profile of learning technology research and improve educational outcomes justifies the effort required.

  1. Towards Increased Relevance: Context-Adapted Models of the Learning Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örtenblad, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this paper are to take a closer look at the relevance of the idea of the learning organization for organizations in different generalized organizational contexts; to open up for the existence of multiple, context-adapted models of the learning organization; and to suggest a number of such models.…

  2. Some New Theoretical Issues in Systems Thinking Relevant for Modelling Corporate Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Gianfranco

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe fundamental concepts and theoretical challenges with regard to systems, and to build on these in proposing new theoretical frameworks relevant to learning, for example in so-called learning organizations. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on some crucial fundamental aspects introduced…

  3. Group processes in medical education: learning from social identity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, Bryan

    2012-02-01

    The clinical workplace in which doctors learn involves many social groups, including representatives of different professions, clinical specialties and workplace teams. This paper suggests that medical education research does not currently take full account of the effects of group membership, and describes a theoretical approach from social psychology, the social identity approach, which allows those effects to be explored. The social identity approach has a long history in social psychology and provides an integrated account of group processes, from the adoption of group identity through a process of self-categorisation, to the biases and conflicts between groups. This paper outlines key elements of this theoretical approach and illustrates their relevance to medical education. The relevance of the social identity approach is illustrated with reference to a number of areas of medical education. The paper shows how research questions in medical education may be usefully reframed in terms of social identity in ways that allow a deeper exploration of the psychological processes involved. Professional identity and professionalism may be viewed in terms of self-categorisation rather than simply attainment; the salience of different identities may be considered as influences on teamwork and interprofessional learning, and issues in communication and assessment may be considered in terms of intergroup biases. Social identity theory provides a powerful framework with which to consider many areas of medical education. It allows disparate influences on, and consequences of, group membership to be considered as part of an integrated system, and allows assumptions, such as about the nature of professional identity and interprofessional tensions, to be made explicit in the design of research studies. This power to question assumptions and develop deeper and more meaningful research questions may be increasingly relevant as the nature and role of the medical profession change

  4. Learning Theory and the Typewriter Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakin, B. Bertha

    1974-01-01

    Eight basic principles of learning are described and discussed in terms of practical learning strategies for typewriting. Described are goal setting, preassessment, active participation, individual differences, reinforcement, practice, transfer of learning, and evaluation. (SC)

  5. Bridging Theory and Practice: Using Hip-Hop Pedagogy As A Culturally Relevant Approach In The Urban Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Edmund S.

    This dissertation explores the context of urban science education as it relates to the achievement and engagement of urban youth. This study provides a framework for Hip-Hop Pedagogy, an approach to teaching and learning anchored in the creative elements of Hip-Hop culture, in STEM as an innovative approach to teaching and learning demonstrates the effect that Hip-Hop Pedagogy, as a culturally relevant approach to teaching has on teaching and learning in an urban science classroom. This study establishes practical tools and approaches, which were formed from by theory and research that transcend the traditional monolithic approaches to teaching science. Participants in this study are middle school students who attend an urban school in one of the largest school systems in the country. This research showed that as result of utilizing Hip-Hop pedagogical practices, students reported that they developed a deeper understanding of science content, students were more likely to identify as scientists, and students were provided a space and opportunities to deconstruct traditional classroom spaces and structures.

  6. An Overview of the History of Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeris, Knud

    2018-01-01

    This article is an account of the history of learning theory as the author has come to know and interpret it by dealing with this subject for almost half a century during which he has also himself gradually developed the broad understanding of human learning which is presented in his well known books on "How We Learn" and a lot of other…

  7. Motivational Classroom Climate for Learning Mathematics: A Reversal Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a case is made that affect is central in determining students' experience of learning or not learning mathematics. I show how reversal theory (Apter, 2001), and particularly its taxonomy of motivations and emotions, provides a basis for a thick description of students' experiences of learning in a mathematics classroom. Using data…

  8. Constructivist Learning Theory and Climate Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Communicating climate science is a form of education. A scientist giving a television interview or testifying before Congress is engaged in an educational activity, though one not identical to teaching graduate students. Knowledge, including knowledge about climate science, should never be communicated as a mere catalogue of facts. Science is a process, a way of regarding the natural world, and a fascinating human activity. A great deal is already known about how to do a better job of science communication, but implementing change is not easy. I am confident that improving climate science communication will involve the paradigm of constructivist learning theory, which traces its roots to the 20th-century Swiss epistemologist Jean Piaget, among others. This theory emphasizes the role of the teacher as supportive facilitator rather than didactic lecturer, "a guide on the side, not a sage on the stage." It also stresses the importance of the teacher making a serious effort to understand and appreciate the prior knowledge and viewpoint of the student, recognizing that students' minds are not empty vessels to be filled or blank slates to be written on. Instead, students come to class with a background of life experiences and a body of existing knowledge, of varying degrees of correctness or accuracy, about almost any topic. Effective communication is also usually a conversation rather than a monologue. We know too that for many audiences, the most trusted messengers are those who share the worldview and cultural values of those with whom they are communicating. Constructivist teaching methods stress making use of the parallels between learning and scientific research, such as the analogies between assessing prior knowledge of the audience and surveying scientific literature for a research project. Meanwhile, a well-funded and effective professional disinformation campaign has been successful in sowing confusion, and as a result, many people mistakenly think climate

  9. The Amygdala and the Relevance Detection Theory of Autism: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana eZalla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, there has been increasing interest in the role of the amygdala in psychiatric disorders and in particular its contribution to the socio-emotional impairments in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Given that the amygdala is a component structure of the social brain, several theoretical explanations compatible with amygdala dysfunction have been proposed to account for socio-emotional impairments in ASDs, including abnormal eye contact, gaze monitoring, face processing, mental state understanding and empathy. Nevertheless, many theoretical accounts, based on the Amygdala Theory of Autism, fail to elucidate the complex pattern of impairments observed in this population, which extends beyond the social domain. As posited by the Relevance Detector theory (Sander, Grafman and Zalla, 2003, the human amygdala is a critical component of a brain circuit involved in the appraisal of self-relevant events that include, but are not restricted to, social stimuli. Here, we propose that the behavioral and social-emotional features of ASDs may be better understood in terms of a disruption in a ‘Relevance Detector Network’ affecting the processing of stimuli that are relevant for the organism’s self-regulating functions. In the present review, we will first summarize the main literature supporting the involvement of the amygdala in socio-emotional disturbances in ASDs. Next, we will present a revised version of the amygdala Relevance Detector hypothesis and we will show that this theoretical framework can provide a better understanding of the heterogeneity of the impairments and symptomatology of ASDs. Finally, we will discuss some predictions of our model, and suggest new directions in the investigation of the role of the amygdala within the more generally disrupted cortical connectivity framework as a model of neural organization of the autistic brain.

  10. Learning Theories Applied to Teaching Technology: Constructivism versus Behavioral Theory for Instructing Multimedia Software Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Cajah S.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to find evidence for a beneficial learning theory to teach computer software programs. Additionally, software was analyzed for each learning theory's applicability to resolve whether certain software requires a specific method of education. The results are meant to give educators more effective teaching tools, so students…

  11. Reconstructing Constructivism: Causal Models, Bayesian Learning Mechanisms, and the Theory Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopnik, Alison; Wellman, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new version of the "theory theory" grounded in the computational framework of probabilistic causal models and Bayesian learning. Probabilistic models allow a constructivist but rigorous and detailed approach to cognitive development. They also explain the learning of both more specific causal hypotheses and more abstract framework…

  12. Adaptive vs. eductive learning : Theory and evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, T.; Duffy, J.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive learning and eductive learning are two widely used ways of modeling learning behavior in macroeconomics. Both approaches yield restrictions on model parameters under which agents are able to learn a rational expectation equilibrium (REE) but these restrictions do not always overlap with one

  13. Wittgenstein's language games as a theory of learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Sociological approaches to the understanding of learning disabilities are perhaps not as fully developed as they might be. Wittgenstein's notion of the language game is elucidated, and its relevance to the analysis of learning disabilities as a social phenomenon is explained. This gives some insight into an alternative conception of what learning disabilities might be, and why people who are classified as having learning disabilities continue, to some extent, to be excluded from full participation in society.

  14. The Learning Organization and Some Other Modern Theories of Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarman, Barry

    2003-01-01

    In the first part, Dr Sugarman reviewed several recent theories of management and their relevance to NPP management. These theories encompass basic aspects like bureaucracy, un-bureaucracy, quality and excellence, re-engineering, knowledge management, emotional intelligence and learning organisation. Dr Sugarman discussed evolution from the Old Paradigm (Bureaucracy) to the New One (Learning Organization), defining the main aspects of both models, that can be summarises primarily in regards to strategy and structure. In terms of strategy, the new paradigm moves away from being largely inflexible to a much more dynamic environment whereby innovation is encouraged as opposed to performing in the prescribed manner whether suitable or not. The structural changes in the new model are also evident. There has been a marked move away from a hierarchical 'top down' approach to a much flatter structure that encourages less empire building and more openness between teams of various. This ensures a much greater understanding by the whole organisation of what is happening. Dr Sugarman centred his talk on the new model and how this has affected the development of the current situation. The Learning Organisation, according to the definition of Peter Senge in The Fifth Discipline (1990), is an organisation where people continually expand their capacity to create results they truly desire, and where the people are continually learning how to learn together. The movements behind increasing quality introduced a new model into industry based on Production, where workers became responsible for quality assurance instead of quality controls being reviewed by inspectors. All the employees share responsibility for learning how to improve continuously. That means, complete involvement of all staff. Following on from this, the Quality Revolution made appearance and was driven by extra attention to the customer. Out-sourcing became common and the 'Internal customer' became more common. All

  15. Cognitive-behavioural theories and adherence: Application and relevance in antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegoke O. Adefolalu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adherence in chronic disease conditions is described as the extent to which a person‘s behaviour corresponds to the prescribed medical advice of the healthcare provider. This is not limited to medication intake only but also includes acts such as following instructions regarding dietary or fluid restrictions and taking medicines at the prescribed times and intervals. Although adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART is a predictor of good clinical outcome among HIV-infected persons on ART, it is a major challenge and strict adherence is not very common. This article aims to examine the application and relevance of some cognitive-behavioural theories in antiretroviral therapy adherence Methods: After doing a thorough literature review, contemporary theories of health behaviour at the individual and interpersonal levels referred to as cognitive-behavioural theories were explored. This review highlights some aspects of the cognitive perspective of health behaviour theories as a good theoretical framework that could be used for organising thoughts about adherence and other health behaviours among patients on lifelong treatment such as ART. Results: Key concepts of these theories stipulate that behaviour is mediated by cognition i.e. knowledge and attitude affect the person’s action. In addition, cognitive-behavioural theories recognise knowledge alone as being insufficient to produce behavioural change; a person’s perception, motivation, skills and social environment are all influential in the process of behavioural change. Conclusion: Prediction of medication adherence is complex, and health-related knowledge and beliefs alone are insufficient to achieve behaviour change, especially in chronic conditions such as HIV/AIDS. However, people can control or influence the events affecting their lives by integrating cognitive, social, and behavioural sub-skills related to beliefs of personal efficacy in performing these skills.

  16. Cognitive-behavioural theories and adherence: Application and relevance in antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefolalu, Adegoke O

    2018-01-01

    Adherence in chronic disease conditions is described as the extent to which a person's behaviour corresponds to the prescribed medical advice of the healthcare provider. This is not limited to medication intake only but also includes acts such as following instructions regarding dietary or fluid restrictions and taking medicines at the prescribed times and intervals. Although adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a predictor of good clinical outcome among HIV-infected persons on ART, it is a major challenge and strict adherence is not very common. This article aims to examine the application and relevance of some cognitive-behavioural theories in antiretroviral therapy adherence. After doing a thorough literature review, contemporary theories of health behaviour at the individual and interpersonal levels referred to as cognitive-behavioural theories were explored. This review highlights some aspects of the cognitive perspective of health behaviour theories as a good theoretical framework that could be used for organising thoughts about adherence and other health behaviours among patients on lifelong treatment such as ART. Key concepts of these theories stipulate that behaviour is mediated by cognition i.e. knowledge and attitude affect the person's action. In addition, cognitive-behavioural theories recognise knowledge alone as being insufficient to produce behavioural change; a person's perception, motivation, skills and social environment are all influential in the process of behavioural change. Prediction of medication adherence is complex, and health-related knowledge and beliefs alone are insufficient to achieve behaviour change, especially in chronic conditions such as HIV/AIDS. However, people can control or influence the events affecting their lives by integrating cognitive, social, and behavioural sub-skills related to beliefs of personal efficacy in performing these skills.

  17. Linking theory to practice in learning technology research

    OpenAIRE

    Cathy Gunn; Caroline Steel

    2012-01-01

    We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only incidentally or not at all in many cases. We propose theory development as a unifying theme for learning technology research study design and repor...

  18. Social Learning, Social Control, and Strain Theories: A Formalization of Micro-level Criminological Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Proctor, Kristopher Ryan

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation proposes theoretical formalization as a way of enhancing theory development within criminology. Differential association, social learning, social control, and general strain theories are formalized in order to identify assumptions of human nature, key theoretical concepts, theoretical knowledge claims, and scope conditions. The resulting formalization allows greater comparability between theories in terms of explanatory power, and additionally provides insights into integrat...

  19. Learning circumference concepts from the didactical situations theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir de Sousa Cavalcanti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The circumference study, as its importance, it is one of the most relevant contents in the Analytical Geometry curriculum. However, the complexity of related concepts to this theme linked to the content fragmentation, it difficulties the students thinking of transforming geometrical problems into equations solution, systems or inequations. Within, in this article we present a partial report of a master research work, of qualitative mode, which aimed to develop and to evaluate an alternative methodology by using musical parody composition to the teaching of Mathematics in trying to contribute to the circumference concepts learning process. For that, we carried out a case study with 36 third year high school students of a public school from the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba. The research work was based and discussed on Brousseau Didactical Situation Theory. It was chosen triangulation technique for the data analyses, collected from interviews, questionnaires and a list of mathematical exercises. We concluded that the parody composition resource allowed the students better understand the concepts of center, ratio, cord and the definition of the general circumference equation, as they were capable to identify the relative positions which a circumference assumes in relation to an equation of a straight line and between two circumferences in the various concepts that differentiated them. Thus, we can state that the musical parody composition as a didactical resource can contribute to the learning of mathematical contents.

  20. Stimulus fear relevance and the speed, magnitude, and robustness of vicariously learned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Güler; Reynolds, Gemma; Askew, Chris

    2017-08-01

    Superior learning for fear-relevant stimuli is typically indicated in the laboratory by faster acquisition of fear responses, greater learned fear, and enhanced resistance to extinction. Three experiments investigated the speed, magnitude, and robustness of UK children's (6-10 years; N = 290; 122 boys, 168 girls) vicariously learned fear responses for three types of stimuli. In two experiments, children were presented with pictures of novel animals (Australian marsupials) and flowers (fear-irrelevant stimuli) alone (control) or together with faces expressing fear or happiness. To determine learning speed the number of stimulus-face pairings seen by children was varied (1, 10, or 30 trials). Robustness of learning was examined via repeated extinction procedures over 3 weeks. A third experiment compared the magnitude and robustness of vicarious fear learning for snakes and marsupials. Significant increases in fear responses were found for snakes, marsupials and flowers. There was no indication that vicarious learning for marsupials was faster than for flowers. Moreover, vicariously learned fear was neither greater nor more robust for snakes compared to marsupials, or for marsupials compared to flowers. These findings suggest that for this age group stimulus fear relevance may have little influence on vicarious fear learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Critical Theory Perspective on Accelerated Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen D.

    2003-01-01

    Critically analyzes accelerated learning using concepts from Herbert Marcuse (rebellious subjectivity) and Erich Fromm (automaton conformity). Concludes that, by providing distance and separation, accelerated learning has more potential to stimulate critical autonomous thought. (SK)

  2. Learning theories 101: application to everyday teaching and scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Denise; Kibble, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Shifts in educational research, in how scholarship in higher education is defined, and in how funding is appropriated suggest that educators within basic science fields can benefit from increased understanding of learning theory and how it applies to classroom practice. This article uses a mock curriculum design scenario as a framework for the introduction of five major learning theories. Foundational constructs and principles from each theory and how they apply to the proposed curriculum designs are described. A summative table that includes basic principles, constructs, and classroom applications as well as the role of the teacher and learner is also provided for each theory. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  3. Talking back to theory: the missed opportunities in learning technology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oliver

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research into learning technology has developed a reputation for being drivenby rhetoric about the revolutionary nature of new developments, for payingscant attention to theories that might be used to frame and inform research, andfor producing shallow analyses that do little to inform the practice of education.Although there is theoretically-informed research in learning technology, this isin the minority, and has been actively marginalised by calls for applied designwork. This limits opportunities to advance knowledge in the field. Using threeexamples, alternative ways to engage with theory are identified. The paper concludesby calling for greater engagement with theory, and the development of ascholarship of learning technology, in order to enrich practice within the fieldand demonstrate its relevance to other fields of work.

  4. Why formal learning theory matters for cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulop, Sean; Chater, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews a number of different areas in the foundations of formal learning theory. After outlining the general framework for formal models of learning, the Bayesian approach to learning is summarized. This leads to a discussion of Solomonoff's Universal Prior Distribution for Bayesian learning. Gold's model of identification in the limit is also outlined. We next discuss a number of aspects of learning theory raised in contributed papers, related to both computational and representational complexity. The article concludes with a description of how semi-supervised learning can be applied to the study of cognitive learning models. Throughout this overview, the specific points raised by our contributing authors are connected to the models and methods under review. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Student nurse dyads create a community of learning: proposing a holistic clinical education theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A

    2011-11-01

    This paper is a report of a qualitative study of students' experiences of cooperative learning in the clinical setting. Although cooperative learning is often used successfully in the classroom, it has not been documented in the clinical setting with sophomore nursing students being paired with other sophomore nursing students. Using a grounded theory methodology a sample of 64 participants (32 student nurse dyads, eight clinical groups, in two different acute care institutions) were observed on their first day in the clinical setting while working as cooperative partners. Interviews were also conducted with students, patients and staff preceptors. Data were collected in the fall of 2008, spring and fall of 2009 and the spring of 2010 using semi-structured interviews and reflective surveys. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. A holistic clinical education theory for student nurses was identified from the data. This theory includes a reciprocal relationship among five categories relevant to a community of learning: supportive clinical experience; improved transition into practice; enhanced socialization into the profession; increased accountability and responsibility; and emergence of self-confidence as a beginning student nurse. The use of student dyads creates a supportive learning environment while students were able to meet the clinical learning objectives. Cooperative learning in the clinical setting creates a community of learning while instilling very early in the education process the importance of teamwork. This approach to clinical instruction eases the transition from the classroom to the clinical learning environment, and improves patient outcomes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Learning Theories Applied to the Teaching of Business Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Maxine Barton

    1980-01-01

    Reviews major learning theories that can be followed by business communication instructors, including those by David Ausubel, Albert Bandura, Kurt Lewin, Edward Thorndike, B.F. Skinner, and Robert Gagne. (LRA)

  7. Theories of willpower affect sustained learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Miller

    Full Text Available Building cognitive abilities often requires sustained engagement with effortful tasks. We demonstrate that beliefs about willpower-whether willpower is viewed as a limited or non-limited resource-impact sustained learning on a strenuous mental task. As predicted, beliefs about willpower did not affect accuracy or improvement during the initial phases of learning; however, participants who were led to view willpower as non-limited showed greater sustained learning over the full duration of the task. These findings highlight the interactive nature of motivational and cognitive processes: motivational factors can substantially affect people's ability to recruit their cognitive resources to sustain learning over time.

  8. Theories of willpower affect sustained learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric M; Walton, Gregory M; Dweck, Carol S; Job, Veronika; Trzesniewski, Kali H; McClure, Samuel M

    2012-01-01

    Building cognitive abilities often requires sustained engagement with effortful tasks. We demonstrate that beliefs about willpower-whether willpower is viewed as a limited or non-limited resource-impact sustained learning on a strenuous mental task. As predicted, beliefs about willpower did not affect accuracy or improvement during the initial phases of learning; however, participants who were led to view willpower as non-limited showed greater sustained learning over the full duration of the task. These findings highlight the interactive nature of motivational and cognitive processes: motivational factors can substantially affect people's ability to recruit their cognitive resources to sustain learning over time.

  9. Introduction to Views of Connectivism Theory of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sa’adi Sa’adi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ‘Traditional’ theories of learning as pratical dimensions of psychology majorly tend to focus their interest on humans’ inner factors that influence the process of learning such as intelligences, motivation, interest, attitude, concentration and aptitude. They never connect it with instruments and technological inventions such as multimedia, cyber celluler, internet, even social organization, cultural values, traditions etc., while these are very influential nowdays towards the progress and behaviors of human life. As such the application of connectivism theory of learning which connect those dimensions of life with learning activities, is now and then insparable from any effort to promote the quality of humans’ learning itself, including in teaching and learning languages.

  10. Experiential Learning Theory as a Guide for Effective Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Patricia H.; Claxton, Charles S.

    1987-01-01

    David Kolb's experiential learning theory involves a framework useful in designing courses that meet needs of diverse learners. Course designs providing systematic activities in concrete experience, reflective observations, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation will be sensitive to students' learning styles while challenging…

  11. Supporting Alternative Strategies for Learning Chemical Applications of Group Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam, Daniel C.; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    A group theory course for chemists was taught entirely with process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) to facilitate alternative strategies for learning. Students completed a test of one aspect of visuospatial aptitude to determine their individual approaches to solving spatial tasks, and were sorted into groups for analysis on the basis of…

  12. Assessing Student Learning in Academic Advising Using Social Cognitive Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether the social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning apply to academic advising for measuring student learning outcomes. Community college students (N = 120) participated in an individual academic-advising session. We assessed students' post-intervention self-efficacy in academic planning and…

  13. Structural Learning Theory: Current Status and New Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandura, Joseph M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents the current status and new perspectives on the Structured Learning Theory (SLT), with special consideration given to how SLT has been influenced by recent research in software engineering. Topics include theoretical constructs; content domains; structural analysis; cognition; assessing behavior potential; and teaching and learning issues,…

  14. Social Capital Theory: Implications for Women's Networking and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter describes social capital theory as a framework for exploring women's networking and social capital resources. It presents the foundational assumptions of the theory, the benefits and risks of social capital engagement, a feminist critique of social capital, and the role of social capital in adult learning.

  15. Children Balance Theories and Evidence in Exploration, Explanation, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonawitz, Elizabeth Baraff; van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Friel, Daniel; Schulz, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We look at the effect of evidence and prior beliefs on exploration, explanation and learning. In Experiment 1, we tested children both with and without differential prior beliefs about balance relationships (Center Theorists, mean: 82 months; Mass Theorists, mean: 89 months; No Theory children, mean: 62 months). Center and Mass Theory children who…

  16. High School Students' Implicit Theories of What Facilitates Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Eileen Carlton; Miles, Rhea; Petersen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research has primarily concentrated on adults' implicit theories about high quality science education for all students. Little work has considered the students' perspective. This study investigated high school students' implicit theories about what helped them learn science. Purpose: This study addressed (1) What characterizes high…

  17. Some Consequences of Learning Theory Applied to Division of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, James K.

    1971-01-01

    Reviews the learning theories of Robert Gagne and David Ausubel, and applies these theories to the three most common approaches to teaching division of fractions: common denominator, complex fraction, and inverse operation methods. Such analysis indicates the inverse approach should be most effective for meaningful teaching, as is verified by…

  18. Learning theories in computer-assisted foreign language acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Baeva, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the learning theories, focusing to the strong interest in technology use for language learning. It is important to look at how technology has been used in the field thus far. The goals of this review are to understand how computers have been used in the past years to support foreign language learning, and to explore any research evidence with regards to how computer technology can enhance language skills acquisition

  19. Juggling with Language Learning Theories. [Videotape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Learning to juggle has become popular among corporate training programs because it shows participants how to appreciate mistakes and use "Intelligent Fast Failure" (learning quickly by daring to make a lot of simple mistakes at the beginning of a process). Big business also likes the way juggling can get executives "out of the…

  20. Playing styles based on experiential learning theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontchev, Boyan; Vassileva, Dessislava; Aleksieva-Petrova, Adelina; Petrov, Milen

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have reported positive outcomes and effects from applying computer games to the educational process. The main preconditions for an effective game-based learning process include the presence of high learning interest and the desire to study hard. Therefore,

  1. The Self-Perception Theory vs. a Dynamic Learning Model

    OpenAIRE

    Swank, Otto H.

    2006-01-01

    Several economists have directed our attention to a finding in the social psychological literature that extrinsic motivation may undermine intrinsic motivation. The self-perception (SP) theory developed by Bem (1972) explains this finding. The crux of this theory is that people remember their past decisions and the extrinsic rewards they received, but they do not recall their intrinsic motives. In this paper I show that the SP theory can be modeled as a variant of a conventional dynamic learn...

  2. Cultural Speak: Culturally Relevant Pedagogy and Experiential Learning in a Public Speaking Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Janet; Tobler, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the efficacy of modifications made to a higher education Latina/o public speaking course to enhance student growth and understanding. The changes included the addition of a service-learning component and the incorporation of culturally relevant pedagogy. Selected research, particularly related to college students, on…

  3. The potential relevance of cognitive neuroscience for the development and use of technology-enhanced learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard-Jones, Paul; Ott, Michela; van Leeuwen, Theo; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the application of cognitive neuroscience in educational thinking and practice, and here we review findings from neuroscience that demonstrate its potential relevance to technology-enhanced learning (TEL). First, we identify some of the issues in integrating

  4. The Potential Relevance of Cognitive Neuroscience for the Development and Use of Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul; Ott, Michela; van Leeuwen, Theo; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the application of cognitive neuroscience in educational thinking and practice, and here we review findings from neuroscience that demonstrate its potential relevance to technology-enhanced learning (TEL). First, we identify some of the issues in integrating neuroscientific concepts into TEL research. We caution…

  5. Uses of Computer and its Relevance to Teaching and Learning in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the uses of computer and its relevance to teaching and learning in Nigerian secondary schools. The need for computer education and its objectives in Nigerian educational system were identified and discussed. The roles the classroom teachers would play and the challenges they would have to face in ...

  6. Impact of a novel teaching method based on feedback, activity, individuality and relevance on students’ learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William S.; Laskar, Simone N.; Benjamin, Miles W.; Chan, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examines the perceived impact of a novel clinical teaching method based on FAIR principles (feedback, activity, individuality and relevance) on students’ learning on clinical placement. Methods This was a qualitative research study. Participants were third year and final year medical students attached to one UK vascular firm over a four-year period (N=108). Students were asked to write a reflective essay on how FAIRness approach differs from previous clinical placement, and its advantages and disadvantages. Essays were thematically analysed and globally rated (positive, negative or neutral) by two independent researchers. Results Over 90% of essays reported positive experiences of feedback, activity, individuality and relevance model.  The model provided multifaceted feedback; active participation; longitudinal improvement; relevance to stage of learning and future goals; structured teaching; professional development; safe learning environment; consultant involvement in teaching. Students perceived preparation for tutorials to be time intensive for tutors/students; a lack of teaching on medical sciences and direct observation of performance; more than once weekly sessions would be beneficial; some issues with peer and public feedback, relevance to upcoming exam and large group sizes. Students described negative experiences of “standard” clinical teaching. Conclusions Progressive teaching programmes based on the FAIRness principles, feedback, activity, individuality and relevance, could be used as a model to improve current undergraduate clinical teaching. PMID:26995588

  7. Impact of a novel teaching method based on feedback, activity, individuality and relevance on students' learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edafe, Ovie; Brooks, William S; Laskar, Simone N; Benjamin, Miles W; Chan, Philip

    2016-03-20

    This study examines the perceived impact of a novel clinical teaching method based on FAIR principles (feedback, activity, individuality and relevance) on students' learning on clinical placement. This was a qualitative research study. Participants were third year and final year medical students attached to one UK vascular firm over a four-year period (N=108). Students were asked to write a reflective essay on how FAIRness approach differs from previous clinical placement, and its advantages and disadvantages. Essays were thematically analysed and globally rated (positive, negative or neutral) by two independent researchers. Over 90% of essays reported positive experiences of feedback, activity, individuality and relevance model. The model provided multifaceted feedback; active participation; longitudinal improvement; relevance to stage of learning and future goals; structured teaching; professional development; safe learning environment; consultant involvement in teaching. Students perceived preparation for tutorials to be time intensive for tutors/students; a lack of teaching on medical sciences and direct observation of performance; more than once weekly sessions would be beneficial; some issues with peer and public feedback, relevance to upcoming exam and large group sizes. Students described negative experiences of "standard" clinical teaching. Progressive teaching programmes based on the FAIRness principles, feedback, activity, individuality and relevance, could be used as a model to improve current undergraduate clinical teaching.

  8. Relevance Theory in advertisement translation%关联视角下的广告翻译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春辉

    2013-01-01

    As international trade develops at fast rate ,advertisement translation provides important package for the product to enter the international market .In the essay ,the author discusses the application of the Relevance Theory in translation ,makes an cognitive anal-ysis of strategies of advertisement translation ,summarizes regular ways of advertisement translation .%  随着国际贸易的飞速发展,广告翻译成为商品打入新市场的一个重要包装。运用关联理论对广告翻译策略的合理性进行认知方面的分析,总结了关联理论指导下广告翻译常用的方法。

  9. Conformal prediction for reliable machine learning theory, adaptations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, Vineeth; Vovk, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The conformal predictions framework is a recent development in machine learning that can associate a reliable measure of confidence with a prediction in any real-world pattern recognition application, including risk-sensitive applications such as medical diagnosis, face recognition, and financial risk prediction. Conformal Predictions for Reliable Machine Learning: Theory, Adaptations and Applications captures the basic theory of the framework, demonstrates how to apply it to real-world problems, and presents several adaptations, including active learning, change detection, and anomaly detecti

  10. The application of learning theory in horse training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLean, Andrew N.; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2017-01-01

    The millennia-old practices of horse training markedly predate and thus were isolated from the mid-twentieth century revelation of animal learning processes. From this standpoint, the progress made in the application and understanding of learning theory in horse training is reviewed including...... on the correct application of learning theory, and safety and welfare benefits for people and horses would follow. Finally it is also proposed that the term ‘conflict theory’ be taken up in equitation science to facilitate diagnosis of training-related behaviour disorders and thus enable the emergence...

  11. Theory-based Bayesian models of inductive learning and reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Griffiths, Thomas L; Kemp, Charles

    2006-07-01

    Inductive inference allows humans to make powerful generalizations from sparse data when learning about word meanings, unobserved properties, causal relationships, and many other aspects of the world. Traditional accounts of induction emphasize either the power of statistical learning, or the importance of strong constraints from structured domain knowledge, intuitive theories or schemas. We argue that both components are necessary to explain the nature, use and acquisition of human knowledge, and we introduce a theory-based Bayesian framework for modeling inductive learning and reasoning as statistical inferences over structured knowledge representations.

  12. Reconstructing constructivism: Causal models, Bayesian learning mechanisms and the theory theory

    OpenAIRE

    Gopnik, Alison; Wellman, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new version of the “theory theory” grounded in the computational framework of probabilistic causal models and Bayesian learning. Probabilistic models allow a constructivist but rigorous and detailed approach to cognitive development. They also explain the learning of both more specific causal hypotheses and more abstract framework theories. We outline the new theoretical ideas, explain the computational framework in an intuitive and non-technical way, and review an extensive but ...

  13. Joint Concept Correlation and Feature-Concept Relevance Learning for Multilabel Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Ma, Zhigang; Li, Zhi; Li, Zhihui

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, multilabel classification has attracted significant attention in multimedia annotation. However, most of the multilabel classification methods focus only on the inherent correlations existing among multiple labels and concepts and ignore the relevance between features and the target concepts. To obtain more robust multilabel classification results, we propose a new multilabel classification method aiming to capture the correlations among multiple concepts by leveraging hypergraph that is proved to be beneficial for relational learning. Moreover, we consider mining feature-concept relevance, which is often overlooked by many multilabel learning algorithms. To better show the feature-concept relevance, we impose a sparsity constraint on the proposed method. We compare the proposed method with several other multilabel classification methods and evaluate the classification performance by mean average precision on several data sets. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  14. Teaching Interaction Design and Children: Understanding the Relevance of Theory for Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilde Bekker

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the challenge of teaching interaction design for children’s products especially pertaining to bridging the gap between child development theories and interaction design issues. We describe our experiences from developing a one-week course on interaction design and children, that is part of a competency based Masters program in design. We conclude that key elements in this course, to support learning how to incorporate theoretical knowledge in design, are a providing design tool that covers a child developmental model of four domains (cognitive, social, emotional and physical , such as the Developmentally Situated Design cards for creating child personas and design concepts b using a design exercise c giving students the possibility to work on several iterations d giving students more than one age-group to work with in the project, and e providing the students with an evaluation protocol.

  15. From Theory Use to Theory Building in Learning Analytics: A Commentary on "Learning Analytics to Support Teachers during Synchronous CSCL"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bodong

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary on Van Leeuwen (2015, this issue), I explore the relation between theory and practice in learning analytics. Specifically, I caution against adhering to one specific theoretical doctrine while ignoring others, suggest deeper applications of cognitive load theory to understanding teaching with analytics tools, and comment on…

  16. The Attribution Theory of Learning and Advising Students on Academic Probation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriou, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Academic advisors need to be knowledgeable of the ways students learn. To aid advisors in their exploration of learning theories, I provide an overview of the attribution theory of learning, including recent applications of the theory to research in college student learning. An understanding of this theory may help advisors understand student…

  17. Developing Scale for Assimilate the Integration between Learning Theories and E-learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Maher Iskander

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As e-learning tend to get more and more significant for all kind of universities, researchers and consultants are becoming aware of the fact that a high technology approach and Blackboard do not guarantee successful teaching and learning. Thus, a move to pedagogy-based theories can be observed within the field of e-learning. This study describes the procedure of the development of an empirically-based psychometrically-sound instrument to measure instructional model for e-learning system at Middle East universities. In order to accelerate the acceptance of e-learning and implementation of institution-wide adoption of e-learning, it is important to understand students' perceptions with instructional model for e- learning. The 19-item scale developed shows a high probability of differentiating between positive and negative perceptions and the methods which can be used for embedding the traditional learning theories into e-learning.

  18. Effect of tDCS on task relevant and irrelevant perceptual learning of complex objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meel, Chayenne; Daniels, Nicky; de Beeck, Hans Op; Baeck, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    During perceptual learning the visual representations in the brain are altered, but these changes' causal role has not yet been fully characterized. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to investigate the role of higher visual regions in lateral occipital cortex (LO) in perceptual learning with complex objects. We also investigated whether object learning is dependent on the relevance of the objects for the learning task. Participants were trained in two tasks: object recognition using a backward masking paradigm and an orientation judgment task. During both tasks, an object with a red line on top of it were presented in each trial. The crucial difference between both tasks was the relevance of the object: the object was relevant for the object recognition task, but not for the orientation judgment task. During training, half of the participants received anodal tDCS stimulation targeted at the lateral occipital cortex (LO). Afterwards, participants were tested on how well they recognized the trained objects, the irrelevant objects presented during the orientation judgment task and a set of completely new objects. Participants stimulated with tDCS during training showed larger improvements of performance compared to participants in the sham condition. No learning effect was found for the objects presented during the orientation judgment task. To conclude, this study suggests a causal role of LO in relevant object learning, but given the rather low spatial resolution of tDCS, more research on the specificity of this effect is needed. Further, mere exposure is not sufficient to train object recognition in our paradigm.

  19. New approaches within the history and theory of medicine and their relevance for homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Josef M

    2014-04-01

    Conventional sciences have brought forth a wealth of knowledge and benefits, but they have not always been clear and precise about their legitimate scope and methodological limitations. In contrast, new and critical approaches in modern sciences question and reflect their own presuppositions, dependencies, and constraints. Examples are quantum physics, theory and history of science, as well as theory and history of medicine, sociology, and economics. In this way, deprecative dogmatism and animosity amongst sciences ought to be lessened, while the field opens up for each science to redefine its appropriate place in society. This would appear to be a chance for homeopathy, as new approaches, especially within the social and economic sciences, suggest that being a follower of Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) may have advantages and privileges that conventional medicine seems to be lacking and whose relevance was overlooked during the rise of economic thinking in the last two centuries. Copyright © 2013 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Historical maintenance relevant information road-map for a self-learning maintenance prediction procedural approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Francisco J.; Reyes, Antonio; Cáceres, Noelia; Romero, Luis M.; Benitez, Francisco G.; Morgado, Joao; Duarte, Emanuel; Martins, Teresa

    2017-09-01

    A large percentage of transport infrastructures are composed of linear assets, such as roads and rail tracks. The large social and economic relevance of these constructions force the stakeholders to ensure a prolonged health/durability. Even though, inevitable malfunctioning, breaking down, and out-of-service periods arise randomly during the life cycle of the infrastructure. Predictive maintenance techniques tend to diminish the appearance of unpredicted failures and the execution of needed corrective interventions, envisaging the adequate interventions to be conducted before failures show up. This communication presents: i) A procedural approach, to be conducted, in order to collect the relevant information regarding the evolving state condition of the assets involved in all maintenance interventions; this reported and stored information constitutes a rich historical data base to train Machine Learning algorithms in order to generate reliable predictions of the interventions to be carried out in further time scenarios. ii) A schematic flow chart of the automatic learning procedure. iii) Self-learning rules from automatic learning from false positive/negatives. The description, testing, automatic learning approach and the outcomes of a pilot case are presented; finally some conclusions are outlined regarding the methodology proposed for improving the self-learning predictive capability.

  1. Learning to perceive in the sensorimotor approach: Piaget's theory of equilibration interpreted dynamically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Alejandro Di Paolo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning to perceive faces a classical paradox: if understanding is required for perception, how can we learn to perceive something new, something we do not yet understand? According to the sensorimotor approach, perception involves mastery of regular sensorimotor co-variations that depend on the agent and the environment, also known as the ‘laws’ of sensorimotor contingencies. In this sense, perception involves enacting relevant sensorimotor skills in each situation. It is important for this proposal that such skills can be learned and refined with experience and yet up to this date, the sensorimotor approach has had no explicit theory of perceptual learning. The situation is made more complex if we acknowledge the open-ended nature of human learning. In this paper we propose Piaget’s theory of equilibration as a potential candidate to fulfill this role. This theory highlights the importance of intrinsic sensorimotor norms, in terms of the closure of sensorimotor schemes. It also explains how the equilibration of a sensorimotor organization faced with novelty or breakdowns proceeds by re-shaping pre-existing structures in coupling with dynamical regularities of the world. This way learning to perceive is guided by the equilibration of emerging forms of skillful coping with the world. We demonstrate the compatibility between Piaget’s theory and the sensorimotor approach by providing a dynamical formalization of equilibration to give an explicit micro-genetic account of sensorimotor learning and, by extension, of how we learn to perceive. This allows us to draw important lessons in the form of general principles for open-ended sensorimotor learning, including the need for an intrinsic normative evaluation by the agent itself. We also explore implications of our micro-genetic account at the personal level.

  2. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: Integrating Social Learning Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youse, Keith Edward

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…

  3. Adventure Learning: Theory and Implementation of Hybrid Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, A.

    2008-12-01

    Adventure Learning (AL), a hybrid distance education approach, provides students and teachers with the opportunity to learn about authentic curricular content areas while interacting with adventurers, students, and content experts at various locations throughout the world within an online learning environment (Doering, 2006). An AL curriculum and online environment provides collaborative community spaces where traditional hierarchical classroom roles are blurred and learning is transformed. AL has most recently become popular in K-12 classrooms nationally and internationally with millions of students participating online. However, in the literature, the term "adventure learning" many times gets confused with phrases such as "virtual fieldtrip" and activities where someone "exploring" is posting photos and text. This type of "adventure learning" is not "Adventure Learning" (AL), but merely a slideshow of their activities. The learning environment may not have any curricular and/or social goals, and if it does, the environment design many times does not support these objectives. AL, on the other hand, is designed so that both teachers and students understand that their online and curriculum activities are in synch and supportive of the curricular goals. In AL environments, there are no disparate activities as the design considers the educational, social, and technological affordances (Kirschner, Strijbos, Kreijns, & Beers, 2004); in other words, the artifacts of the learning environment encourage and support the instructional goals, social interactions, collaborative efforts, and ultimately learning. AL is grounded in two major theoretical approaches to learning - experiential and inquiry-based learning. As Kolb (1984) noted, in experiential learning, a learner creates meaning from direct experiences and reflections. Such is the goal of AL within the classroom. Additionally, AL affords learners a real-time authentic online learning experience concurrently as they

  4. Practice of Connectivism As Learning Theory: Enhancing Learning Process Through Social Networking Site (Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahriye Altınay Aksal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the digital age within learning and social interaction has been growing rapidly. The realm of digital age and computer mediated communication requires reconsidering instruction based on collaborative interactive learning process and socio-contextual experience for learning. Social networking sites such as facebook can help create group space for digital dialogue to inform, question and challenge within a frame of connectivism as learning theory within the digital age. The aim of this study is to elaborate the practice of connectivism as learning theory in terms of internship course. Facebook group space provided social learning platform for dialogue and negotiation beside the classroom learning and teaching process in this study. The 35 internship students provided self-reports within a frame of this qualitative research. This showed how principles of theory practiced and how this theory and facebook group space contribute learning, selfleadership, decision making and reflection skills. As the research reflects a practice of new theory based on action research, learning is not individualistic attempt in the digital age as regards the debate on learning in digital age within a frame of connectivism

  5. Machine learning in radiation oncology theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    El Naqa, Issam; Murphy, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    ​This book provides a complete overview of the role of machine learning in radiation oncology and medical physics, covering basic theory, methods, and a variety of applications in medical physics and radiotherapy. An introductory section explains machine learning, reviews supervised and unsupervised learning methods, discusses performance evaluation, and summarizes potential applications in radiation oncology. Detailed individual sections are then devoted to the use of machine learning in quality assurance; computer-aided detection, including treatment planning and contouring; image-guided rad

  6. Motivation to learn: an overview of contemporary theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Artino, Anthony R

    2016-10-01

    To succinctly summarise five contemporary theories about motivation to learn, articulate key intersections and distinctions among these theories, and identify important considerations for future research. Motivation has been defined as the process whereby goal-directed activities are initiated and sustained. In expectancy-value theory, motivation is a function of the expectation of success and perceived value. Attribution theory focuses on the causal attributions learners create to explain the results of an activity, and classifies these in terms of their locus, stability and controllability. Social- cognitive theory emphasises self-efficacy as the primary driver of motivated action, and also identifies cues that influence future self-efficacy and support self-regulated learning. Goal orientation theory suggests that learners tend to engage in tasks with concerns about mastering the content (mastery goal, arising from a 'growth' mindset regarding intelligence and learning) or about doing better than others or avoiding failure (performance goals, arising from a 'fixed' mindset). Finally, self-determination theory proposes that optimal performance results from actions motivated by intrinsic interests or by extrinsic values that have become integrated and internalised. Satisfying basic psychosocial needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness promotes such motivation. Looking across all five theories, we note recurrent themes of competence, value, attributions, and interactions between individuals and the learning context. To avoid conceptual confusion, and perhaps more importantly to maximise the theory-building potential of their work, researchers must be careful (and precise) in how they define, operationalise and measure different motivational constructs. We suggest that motivation research continue to build theory and extend it to health professions domains, identify key outcomes and outcome measures, and test practical educational applications of the principles

  7. Prior Knowledge and the Learning of Science. A Review of Ausubel's Theory of This Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, L. H. T.; Fensham, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Examines Ausubel's theory of learning as a model of the role concerning the influence of prior knowledge on how learning occurs. Research evidence for Ausubel's theory is presented and discussed. Implications of Ausubel's theory for teaching are summarized. (PEB)

  8. Predicting differences in the perceived relevance of crime's costs and benefits in a test of rational choice theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Jeffrey A

    2007-08-01

    Previous hypothetical scenario tests of rational choice theory have presented all participants with the same set of consequences, implicitly assuming that these consequences would be relevant for each individual. Recent research demonstrates that those researcher-presented consequences do not accurately reflect those considered by study participants and that there is individual variation in the relevance of various consequences. Despite this and some theoretical propositions that such differences should exist, little empirical research has explored the possibility of predicting such variation. This study allows participants to develop their own set of relevant consequences for three hypothetical offenses and examines how several demographic and theoretical variables impact those consequences' relevance. Exploratory results suggest individual factors impact the perceived relevance of several cost and benefit types, even among a relatively homogenous sample of college students. Implications for future tests of rational choice theory, as well as policy implications are discussed.

  9. High school students' implicit theories of what facilitates science learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton Parsons, Eileen; Miles, Rhea; Petersen, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Background: Research has primarily concentrated on adults' implicit theories about high quality science education for all students. Little work has considered the students' perspective. This study investigated high school students' implicit theories about what helped them learn science. Purpose: This study addressed (1) What characterizes high school students' implicit theories of what facilitates their learning of science?; (2) With respect to students' self-classifications as African American or European American and female or male, do differences exist in the students' implicit theories? Sample, design and methods: Students in an urban high school located in south-eastern United States were surveyed in 2006 about their thoughts on what helps them learn science. To confirm or disconfirm any differences, data from two different samples were analyzed. Responses of 112 African American and 118 European American students and responses from 297 European American students comprised the data for sample one and two, respectively. Results: Seven categories emerged from the deductive and inductive analyses of data: personal responsibility, learning arrangements, interest and knowledge, communication, student mastery, environmental responsiveness, and instructional strategies. Instructional strategies captured 82% and 80% of the data from sample one and two, respectively; consequently, this category was further subjected to Mann-Whitney statistical analysis at p ethnic differences. Significant differences did not exist for ethnicity but differences between females and males in sample one and sample two emerged. Conclusions: African American and European American students' implicit theories about instructional strategies that facilitated their science learning did not significantly differ but female and male students' implicit theories about instructional strategies that helped them learn science significantly differed. Because students attend and respond to what they think

  10. Evaluating theories of bird song learning: implications for future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margoliash, D

    2002-12-01

    Studies of birdsong learning have stimulated extensive hypotheses at all levels of behavioral and physiological organization. This hypothesis building is valuable for the field and is consistent with the remarkable range of issues that can be rigorously addressed in this system. The traditional instructional (template) theory of song learning has been challenged on multiple fronts, especially at a behavioral level by evidence consistent with selectional hypotheses. In this review I highlight the caveats associated with these theories to better define the limits of our knowledge and identify important experiments for the future. The sites and representational forms of the various conceptual entities posited by the template theory are unknown. The distinction between instruction and selection in vocal learning is not well established at a mechanistic level. There is as yet insufficient neurophysiological data to choose between competing mechanisms of error-driven learning and reinforcement learning. Both may obtain for vocal learning. The possible role of sleep in acoustic or procedural memory consolidation, while supported by some physiological observations, does not yet have support in the behavioral literature. The remarkable expansion of knowledge in the past 20 years and the recent development of new technologies for physiological and behavioral experiments should permit direct tests of these theories in the coming decade.

  11. Implications of learning theory for developing programs to decrease overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Bouton, Mark E

    2015-10-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with medical and psychological comorbidities, and interventions targeting overeating could be pragmatic and have a significant impact on weight. Calorically dense foods are easily available, variable, and tasty which allows for effective opportunities to learn to associate behaviors and cues in the environment with food through fundamental conditioning processes, resulting in measurable psychological and physiological food cue reactivity in vulnerable children. Basic research suggests that initial learning is difficult to erase, and that it is vulnerable to a number of phenomena that will allow the original learning to re-emerge after it is suppressed or replaced. These processes may help explain why it may be difficult to change food cue reactivity and overeating over the long term. Extinction theory may be used to develop effective cue-exposure treatments to decrease food cue reactivity through inhibitory learning, although these processes are complex and require an integral understanding of the theory and individual differences. Additionally, learning theory can be used to develop other interventions that may prove to be useful. Through an integration of learning theory, basic and translational research, it may be possible to develop interventions that can decrease the urges to overeat, and improve the weight status of children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan L

    2016-03-01

    Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about abstract causal constraints? Recent empirical studies have revealed that experience with one set of causal cues can dramatically alter subsequent learning and performance with entirely different cues, suggesting that learning involves abstract transfer, and such transfer effects involve sequential presentation of distinct sets of causal cues. It has been demonstrated that pre-training (or even post-training) can modulate classic causal learning phenomena such as forward and backward blocking. To account for these effects, we propose a Bayesian theory of sequential causal learning. The theory assumes that humans are able to consider and use several alternative causal generative models, each instantiating a different causal integration rule. Model selection is used to decide which integration rule to use in a given learning environment in order to infer causal knowledge from sequential data. Detailed computer simulations demonstrate that humans rely on the abstract characteristics of outcome variables (e.g., binary vs. continuous) to select a causal integration rule, which in turn alters causal learning in a variety of blocking and overshadowing paradigms. When the nature of the outcome variable is ambiguous, humans select the model that yields the best fit with the recent environment, and then apply it to subsequent learning tasks. Based on sequential patterns of cue-outcome co-occurrence, the theory can account for a range of phenomena in sequential causal learning, including various blocking effects, primacy effects in some experimental conditions, and apparently abstract transfer of causal knowledge. Copyright © 2015

  13. Teaching Density Functional Theory Through Experiential Learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, Shobhana

    2015-01-01

    Today, quantum mechanical density functional theory is often the method of choice for performing accurate calculations on atomic, molecular and condensed matter systems. Here, I share some of my experiences in teaching the necessary basics of solid state physics, as well as the theory and practice of density functional theory, in a number of workshops held in developing countries over the past two decades. I discuss the advantages of supplementing the usual mathematically formal teaching methods, characteristic of graduate courses, with the use of visual imagery and analogies. I also describe a successful experiment we carried out, which resulted in a joint publication co-authored by 67 lecturers and students participating in a summer school. (paper)

  14. The Social Life of Learning Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing understanding that public institutions need to be proactive in not only developing their welfare services but doing so continually through various concepts of learning. This article presents an ethnographic study of a public school that aims at working strategically...... with organizational learning through Donald Schön's concept of “the reflective practitioner.” Schön's concepts provide the school manager with a vocabulary to criticize the destructive effects of New Public Management's linear steering technologies. The study also illustrates that expectations of reflective...

  15. Social cognitive theory, metacognition, and simulation learning in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Helen; Mancuso, Lorraine

    2012-10-01

    Simulation learning encompasses simple, introductory scenarios requiring response to patients' needs during basic hygienic care and during situations demanding complex decision making. Simulation integrates principles of social cognitive theory (SCT) into an interactive approach to learning that encompasses the core principles of intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness, and self-reflectiveness. Effective simulation requires an environment conducive to learning and introduces activities that foster symbolic coding operations and mastery of new skills; debriefing builds self-efficacy and supports self-regulation of behavior. Tailoring the level of difficulty to students' mastery level supports successful outcomes and motivation to set higher standards. Mindful selection of simulation complexity and structure matches course learning objectives and supports progressive development of metacognition. Theory-based facilitation of simulated learning optimizes efficacy of this learning method to foster maturation of cognitive processes of SCT, metacognition, and self-directedness. Examples of metacognition that are supported through mindful, theory-based implementation of simulation learning are provided. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Prioritising the relevant information for learning and decision making within orbital and ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Mark E; Chau, Bolton K H; Kennerley, Steven W

    2015-02-01

    Our environment and internal states are frequently complex, ambiguous and dynamic, meaning we need to have selection mechanisms to ensure we are basing our decisions on currently relevant information. Here, we review evidence that orbitofrontal (OFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) play conserved, critical but distinct roles in this process. While OFC may use specific sensory associations to enhance task-relevant information, particularly in the context of learning, VMPFC plays a role in ensuring irrelevant information does not impinge on the decision in hand.

  17. Learning to perceive in the sensorimotor approach: Piaget's theory of equilibration interpreted dynamically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, Ezequiel Alejandro; Barandiaran, Xabier E; Beaton, Michael; Buhrmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    if understanding is required for perception, how can we learn to perceive something new, something we do not yet understand? According to the sensorimotor approach, perception involves mastery of regular sensorimotor co-variations that depend on the agent and the environment, also known as the "laws" of sensorimotor contingencies (SMCs). In this sense, perception involves enacting relevant sensorimotor skills in each situation. It is important for this proposal that such skills can be learned and refined with experience and yet up to this date, the sensorimotor approach has had no explicit theory of perceptual learning. The situation is made more complex if we acknowledge the open-ended nature of human learning. In this paper we propose Piaget's theory of equilibration as a potential candidate to fulfill this role. This theory highlights the importance of intrinsic sensorimotor norms, in terms of the closure of sensorimotor schemes. It also explains how the equilibration of a sensorimotor organization faced with novelty or breakdowns proceeds by re-shaping pre-existing structures in coupling with dynamical regularities of the world. This way learning to perceive is guided by the equilibration of emerging forms of skillful coping with the world. We demonstrate the compatibility between Piaget's theory and the sensorimotor approach by providing a dynamical formalization of equilibration to give an explicit micro-genetic account of sensorimotor learning and, by extension, of how we learn to perceive. This allows us to draw important lessons in the form of general principles for open-ended sensorimotor learning, including the need for an intrinsic normative evaluation by the agent itself. We also explore implications of our micro-genetic account at the personal level.

  18. Transformative Learning Theory in Gerontology: Nontraditional Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Pamela Pitman; Brown, Candace S.

    2015-01-01

    Mezirow (1978) applied and used Transformative Learning Theoretical (TLT) processes while studying women who reentered academics during the 1970s. Similar to Mezirow's original 1975 work, we identify "factors that impeded or facilitated" participants' progress to obtain their undergraduate degree during the traditional student…

  19. The Social Life of Learning Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2013-01-01

    with organizational learning through Donald Schön's concept of “the reflective practitioner.” Schön's concepts provide the school manager with a vocabulary to criticize the destructive effects of New Public Management's linear steering technologies. The study also illustrates that expectations of reflective...

  20. Contemporary Privacy Theory Contributions to Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    With the continued adoption of learning analytics in higher education institutions, vast volumes of data are generated and "big data" related issues, including privacy, emerge. Privacy is an ill-defined concept and subject to various interpretations and perspectives, including those of philosophers, lawyers, and information systems…

  1. Mean-field theory of meta-learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2009-01-01

    We discuss here the mean-field theory for a cellular automata model of meta-learning. Meta-learning is the process of combining outcomes of individual learning procedures in order to determine the final decision with higher accuracy than any single learning method. Our method is constructed from an ensemble of interacting, learning agents that acquire and process incoming information using various types, or different versions, of machine learning algorithms. The abstract learning space, where all agents are located, is constructed here using a fully connected model that couples all agents with random strength values. The cellular automata network simulates the higher level integration of information acquired from the independent learning trials. The final classification of incoming input data is therefore defined as the stationary state of the meta-learning system using simple majority rule, yet the minority clusters that share the opposite classification outcome can be observed in the system. Therefore, the probability of selecting a proper class for a given input data, can be estimated even without the prior knowledge of its affiliation. The fuzzy logic can be easily introduced into the system, even if learning agents are built from simple binary classification machine learning algorithms by calculating the percentage of agreeing agents

  2. Complexity Theory and CALL Curriculum in Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Complexity theory literally indicates the complexity of a system, behavior, or a process. Its connotative meaning, while, implies dynamism, openness, sensitivity to initial conditions and feedback, and adaptation properties of a system. Regarding English as a Foreign/ Second Language (EFL/ESL this theory emphasizes on the complexity of the process of teaching and learning, including all the properties of a complex system. The purpose of the current study is to discuss the role of CALL as a modern technology in simplifying the process of teaching and learning a new language while integrating into the complexity theory. Nonetheless, the findings obtained from reviewing previously conducted studies in this field confirmed the usefulness of CALL curriculum in EFL/ESL contexts. These findings can also provide pedagogical implications for employing computer as an effective teaching and learning tool.

  3. Supervised Variational Relevance Learning, An Analytic Geometric Feature Selection with Applications to Omic Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boareto, Marcelo; Cesar, Jonatas; Leite, Vitor B P; Caticha, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Supervised Variational Relevance Learning (Suvrel), a variational method to determine metric tensors to define distance based similarity in pattern classification, inspired in relevance learning. The variational method is applied to a cost function that penalizes large intraclass distances and favors small interclass distances. We find analytically the metric tensor that minimizes the cost function. Preprocessing the patterns by doing linear transformations using the metric tensor yields a dataset which can be more efficiently classified. We test our methods using publicly available datasets, for some standard classifiers. Among these datasets, two were tested by the MAQC-II project and, even without the use of further preprocessing, our results improve on their performance.

  4. Vaccination learning experiences of nursing students: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ildarabadi, Eshagh; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Heydari, Abbas; Taghipour, Ali; Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the experiences of nursing students being trained to perform vaccinations. The grounded theory method was applied to gather information through semi-structured interviews. The participants included 14 undergraduate nursing students in their fifth and eighth semesters of study in a nursing school in Iran. The information was analyzed according to Strauss and Corbin's method of grounded theory. A core category of experiential learning was identified, and the following eight subcategories were extracted: students' enthusiasm, vaccination sensitivity, stress, proper educational environment, absence of prerequisites, students' responsibility for learning, providing services, and learning outcomes. The vaccination training of nursing students was found to be in an acceptable state. However, some barriers to effective learning were identified. As such, the results of this study may provide empirical support for attempts to reform vaccination education by removing these barriers.

  5. Reconstructing constructivism: causal models, Bayesian learning mechanisms, and the theory theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopnik, Alison; Wellman, Henry M

    2012-11-01

    We propose a new version of the "theory theory" grounded in the computational framework of probabilistic causal models and Bayesian learning. Probabilistic models allow a constructivist but rigorous and detailed approach to cognitive development. They also explain the learning of both more specific causal hypotheses and more abstract framework theories. We outline the new theoretical ideas, explain the computational framework in an intuitive and nontechnical way, and review an extensive but relatively recent body of empirical results that supports these ideas. These include new studies of the mechanisms of learning. Children infer causal structure from statistical information, through their own actions on the world and through observations of the actions of others. Studies demonstrate these learning mechanisms in children from 16 months to 4 years old and include research on causal statistical learning, informal experimentation through play, and imitation and informal pedagogy. They also include studies of the variability and progressive character of intuitive theory change, particularly theory of mind. These studies investigate both the physical and the psychological and social domains. We conclude with suggestions for further collaborative projects between developmental and computational cognitive scientists.

  6. Aligning Theory and Design: The Development of an Online Learning Intervention to Teach Evidence-based Practice for Maximal Reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delagran, Louise; Vihstadt, Corrie; Evans, Roni

    2015-09-01

    Online educational interventions to teach evidence-based practice (EBP) are a promising mechanism for overcoming some of the barriers to incorporating research into practice. However, attention must be paid to aligning strategies with adult learning theories to achieve optimal outcomes. We describe the development of a series of short self-study modules, each covering a small set of learning objectives. Our approach, informed by design-based research (DBR), involved 6 phases: analysis, design, design evaluation, redesign, development/implementation, and evaluation. Participants were faculty and students in 3 health programs at a complementary and integrative educational institution. We chose a reusable learning object approach that allowed us to apply 4 main learning theories: events of instruction, cognitive load, dual processing, and ARCS (attention, relevance, confidence, satisfaction). A formative design evaluation suggested that the identified theories and instructional approaches were likely to facilitate learning and motivation. Summative evaluation was based on a student survey (N=116) that addressed how these theories supported learning. Results suggest that, overall, the selected theories helped students learn. The DBR approach allowed us to evaluate the specific intervention and theories for general applicability. This process also helped us define and document the intervention at a level of detail that covers almost all the proposed Guideline for Reporting Evidence-based practice Educational intervention and Teaching (GREET) items. This thorough description will facilitate the interpretation of future research and implementation of the intervention. Our approach can also serve as a model for others considering online EBP intervention development.

  7. Relevant teaching in higher education: an exercise from complexity theory in the social work profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Molina Correa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The requirements of our globalized world and the advancement of the teaching science show didactics as a fundamental category defined as the scientific discipline with principles, laws, theoretical and methodological frameworks, creatively modeling the pedagogical intervention in the academic environment.The implementation of the research "Teaching focused on the development of superior thinking and meaningful learning in students of first semester of Social Work Program", set the goal: Qualify the personal life and student projects from the acknowledgement of potentials of the subjects, for the development of competences meaningful to life. This is a research experience that has been developed since 2009 at Simon Bolivar University in the District of Barranquilla.The didactics was based on the development of superior thinking cognitive-process-centered, for the processing of information, creativity, readings of the reality of contexts, expounded/voiced subjectivities of life projects of students, the incorporation of TIC, in order to approach a humanizing and contextualized pedagogical practice. The critical theory was used in this research as a part of its epistemological basis for understanding and building a new academic scenario.The methodology used is the action with techniques such as mind mapping, dialogues, and stories of life, field works, and contents analysis, among others. The data analysis was guided by the hermeneutics as a possibility for the understanding and interpretation of the events that occurred in the classroom.

  8. Contextual learning theory: Concrete form and a software prototype to improve early education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2016-01-01

    In 'contextual learning theory' three types of contextual conditions (differentiation of learning procedures and materials, integrated ICT support, and improvement of development and learning progress) are related to four aspects of the learning process (diagnostic, instructional, managerial, and

  9. Game-Based Learning in Science Education: A Review of Relevant Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Chaun; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to review empirical research articles regarding game-based science learning (GBSL) published from 2000 to 2011. Thirty-one articles were identified through the Web of Science and SCOPUS databases. A qualitative content analysis technique was adopted to analyze the research purposes and designs, game design and implementation, theoretical backgrounds and learning foci of these reviewed studies. The theories and models employed by these studies were classified into four theoretical foundations including cognitivism, constructivism, the socio-cultural perspective, and enactivism. The results indicate that cognitivism and constructivism were the major theoretical foundations employed by the GBSL researchers and that the socio-cultural perspective and enactivism are two emerging theoretical paradigms that have started to draw attention from GBSL researchers in recent years. The analysis of the learning foci showed that most of the digital games were utilized to promote scientific knowledge/concept learning, while less than one-third were implemented to facilitate the students' problem-solving skills. Only a few studies explored the GBSL outcomes from the aspects of scientific processes, affect, engagement, and socio-contextual learning. Suggestions are made to extend the current GBSL research to address the affective and socio-contextual aspects of science learning. The roles of digital games as tutor, tool, and tutee for science education are discussed, while the potentials of digital games to bridge science learning between real and virtual worlds, to promote collaborative problem-solving, to provide affective learning environments, and to facilitate science learning for younger students are also addressed.

  10. Minimal groups increase young children's motivation and learning on group-relevant tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments (N = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the "puzzles child" or children in a control condition. Experiment 2 showed that this boost in motivation occurred only when the group was associated with the task. In Experiment 3, children assigned to a minimal group associated with word learning learned more words than children assigned an analogous individual identity. The studies demonstrate that fostering shared motivations may be a powerful means by which to shape young children's academic outcomes. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. SU-E-P-04: Transport Theory Learning Module in the Maple Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Both, J [University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The medical physics graduate program at the University of Miami is developing a computerized instructional module which provides an interactive mechanism for students to learn transport theory. While not essential in the medical physics curriculum, transport theory should be taught because the conceptual level of transport theory is fundamental, a substantial literature exists and ought to be accessible, and students should understand commercial software which solves the Boltzmann equation.But conventional teaching and learning of transport theory is challenging. Students may be under prepared to appreciate its methods, results, and relevance, and it is not substantially addressed in textbooks for the medical physicists. Other resources an instructor might reasonably use, while excellent, may be too briskly paced for beginning students. The purpose of this work is to render teaching of transport theory more tractable by making learning highly interactive. Methods: The module is being developed in the Maple mathematics environment by instructors and graduate students. It will refresh the students' knowledge of vector calculus and differential equations, and will develop users' intuition for phase space concepts. Scattering concepts will be developed with animated simulations using tunable parameters characterizing interactions, so that students may develop a “feel” for cross section. Transport equations for one and multiple types of radiation will be illustrated with phase space animations. Numerical methods of solution will be illustrated. Results: Attempts to teach rudiments of transport theory in radiation physics and dosimetry courses using conventional classroom techniques at the University of Miami have had small success, because classroom time is limited and the material has been hard for our students to appreciate intuitively. Conclusion: A joint effort of instructor and students to teach and learn transport theory by building an

  12. SU-E-P-04: Transport Theory Learning Module in the Maple Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The medical physics graduate program at the University of Miami is developing a computerized instructional module which provides an interactive mechanism for students to learn transport theory. While not essential in the medical physics curriculum, transport theory should be taught because the conceptual level of transport theory is fundamental, a substantial literature exists and ought to be accessible, and students should understand commercial software which solves the Boltzmann equation.But conventional teaching and learning of transport theory is challenging. Students may be under prepared to appreciate its methods, results, and relevance, and it is not substantially addressed in textbooks for the medical physicists. Other resources an instructor might reasonably use, while excellent, may be too briskly paced for beginning students. The purpose of this work is to render teaching of transport theory more tractable by making learning highly interactive. Methods: The module is being developed in the Maple mathematics environment by instructors and graduate students. It will refresh the students' knowledge of vector calculus and differential equations, and will develop users' intuition for phase space concepts. Scattering concepts will be developed with animated simulations using tunable parameters characterizing interactions, so that students may develop a “feel” for cross section. Transport equations for one and multiple types of radiation will be illustrated with phase space animations. Numerical methods of solution will be illustrated. Results: Attempts to teach rudiments of transport theory in radiation physics and dosimetry courses using conventional classroom techniques at the University of Miami have had small success, because classroom time is limited and the material has been hard for our students to appreciate intuitively. Conclusion: A joint effort of instructor and students to teach and learn transport theory by building an interactive

  13. A Teaching-Learning Sequence for the Special Relativity Theory at High School Level Historically and Epistemologically Contextualized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriassecq, Irene; Greca, Ileana Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses some topics that stem from recent contributions made by the History, the Philosophy, and the Didactics of Science. We consider these topics relevant to the introduction of the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) in high school within a contextualized approach. We offer an outline of a teaching-learning sequence dealing with the…

  14. Teaching and Learning of Knot Theory in School Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Kawauchi, Akio

    2012-01-01

    This book is the result of a joint venture between Professor Akio Kawauchi, Osaka City University, well-known for his research in knot theory, and the Osaka study group of mathematics education, founded by Professor Hirokazu Okamori and now chaired by his successor Professor Tomoko Yanagimoto, Osaka Kyoiku University. The seven chapters address the teaching and learning of knot theory from several perspectives. Readers will find an extremely clear and concise introduction to the fundamentals of knot theory, an overview of curricular developments in Japan, and in particular a series of teaching

  15. Competences, Learning Theories and MOOCs: Recent Developments in Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Our societies have come to be known as knowledge societies in which lifelong learning is becoming increasingly important. In this context, competences have become a much discussed topic. Many documents were published by international organisations (UNESCO, World Bank, European Commission) which enumerated 21st century key competences. The field of…

  16. Differential theory of learning for efficient neural network pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, John B., II; Vijaya Kumar, Bhagavatula

    1993-09-01

    We describe a new theory of differential learning by which a broad family of pattern classifiers (including many well-known neural network paradigms) can learn stochastic concepts efficiently. We describe the relationship between a classifier's ability to generate well to unseen test examples and the efficiency of the strategy by which it learns. We list a series of proofs that differential learning is efficient in its information and computational resource requirements, whereas traditional probabilistic learning strategies are not. The proofs are illustrated by a simple example that lends itself to closed-form analysis. We conclude with an optical character recognition task for which three different types of differentially generated classifiers generalize significantly better than their probabilistically generated counterparts.

  17. Developing the master learner: applying learning theory to the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Daniel J; Englander, Robert; Carraccio, Carol

    2013-11-01

    As a result of the paradigm shift to a competency-based framework, both self-directed lifelong learning and learner-centeredness have become essential tenets of medical education. In the competency-based framework, learners drive their own educational process, and both learners and teachers share the responsibility for the path and content of learning. This learner-centered emphasis requires each physician to develop and maintain lifelong learning skills, which the authors propose culminate in becoming a "master leaner." To better understand the development of these skills and the attainment of that goal, the authors explore how learning theories inform the development of master learners and how to translate these theories into practical strategies for the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment so as to optimize this development.The authors begin by exploring self-determination theory, which lays the groundwork for understanding the motivation to learn. They next consider the theories of cognitive load and situated cognition, which inform the optimal context and environment for learning. Building from this foundation, the authors consider key educational theories that affect learners' abilities to serve as primary drivers of their learning, including self-directed learning (SDL); the self-assessment skills necessary for SDL; factors affecting self-assessment (self-concept, self-efficacy, illusory superiority, gap filling); and ways to mitigate the inaccuracies of self-assessment (reflection, self-monitoring, external information seeking, and self-directed assessment seeking).For each theory, they suggest practical action steps for the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment in an effort to provide a road map for developing master learners.

  18. Constructivist Teaching/Learning Theory and Participatory Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Sithara Y. J. N.; Marikar, Faiz M. M. T.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for the teaching involves transmission of knowledge, superiority of guided transmission is explained in the context of our knowledge, but it is also much more that. In this study we have examined General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University's cadet and civilian students' response to constructivist learning theory and participatory…

  19. Learning Organisation Review--A "Good" Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa, Mijalce

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to perform integrative literature review of the learning organisation (LO) concept, on the basis of the results of the literature review to assess the concept on the principles of "good" theory, and provide future avenues for LO concept clarification and development. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  20. Writing for publication: faculty development initiative using social learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Bonnie K; Carter, Matt; Schuessler, Jenny B

    2012-01-01

    Demonstrating scholarly competency is an expectation for nurse faculty. However, there is hesitancy among some faculty to fully engage in scholarly activities. To strengthen a school of nursing's culture of scholarship, a faculty development writing initiative based on Social Learning Theory was implemented. The authors discuss this initiative to facilitate writing for publication productivity among faculty and the successful outcomes.

  1. Social Learning Theory: A Vanishing or Expanding Presence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews history and current status of social learning theory (SLT) including present conflict between "cognitive behaviorists" within the movement. Makes suggestions on how to resolve conflict in a way that will further secure the future role of SLT. Offers prescription for adoption of a multifaceted "indirect" approach to…

  2. Adult Basic Skills Instructor Training and Experiential Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Competency-based training workshops based on Kolb's experiential learning theory were held for North Carolina adult basic education teachers; 251 attended 1-day sessions and 91 a week-long summer institute. Topics included interpersonal communication, reading, numeracy, language arts, math, assessment, and program evaluation. (SK)

  3. Gestalt-A Learning Theory for Graphic Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ian

    2008-01-01

    This article will begin by seeking to define the notion of learning "by, through" and "from" experience. A linkage will then be established between these notions of experiences and gestalt theory. This will be explored within a subject specific context of graphic design. Links will be highlighted between the inherent nature of graphic design and…

  4. The Interdependence of Pedagogy, Learning Theory, Morality and Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunden, Ralph

    1997-01-01

    Explores the incompatibility between constructivist theories of learning and realist metaphysics (belief that knowledge and skills exist in mind-independent workplace practices). Shows how this results in conflict between constructivist teaching approaches and the transmission or banking mode favored by realist metaphysics. (SK)

  5. A Lifespan Perspective on Cooperative Education Learning: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study sits at the intersection of two trends in vocational education. The first trend is a narrative approach to understanding cooperative education learning; the second is a movement away from career development theories toward the view that individuals use work experiences to help construct their lives. Both trends view learning…

  6. Children balance theories and evidence in exploration, explanation, and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonawitz, E.B.; van Schijndel, T.J.P.; Friel, D.; Schulz, L.

    2012-01-01

    We look at the effect of evidence and prior beliefs on exploration, explanation and learning. In Experiment 1, we tested children both with and without differential prior beliefs about balance relationships (Center Theorists, mean: 82 months; Mass Theorists, mean: 89 months; No Theory children,

  7. Designing Opportunities to Learn Mathematics Theory-Building Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Hyman

    2017-01-01

    Mathematicians commonly distinguish two modes of work in the discipline: "Problem solving," and "theory building." Mathematics education offers many opportunities to learn problem solving. This paper explores the possibility, and value, of designing instructional activities that provide supported opportunities for students to…

  8. Cultural Historical Activity Theory, Expansive Learning and Agency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper focuses on how contradictions were used as sources of learning and development leading to 'real life expansions'. This demonstrates and reflects on the value of an interventionist research theory and methodology employed in the study to enhance participants' agency in sustainable agriculture workplaces.

  9. Amidst Multiple Theories of Learning in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there are more theories of learning in use in mathematics education research than ever before (Lerman & Tsatsaroni, 2004). Although this is a positive sign for the field, it also has brought with it a set of challenges. In this article, I identify some of these challenges and consider how mathematics education researchers might think…

  10. Conversations, Individuals and Knowables: Toward a Theory of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, John S.

    1975-01-01

    Presents a learning theory in the language of cybernetics based on the tenet that the minimal experimental situation for making psychological observations is a conversation. The account is directed at generating interest in the original work by G. Pask, et al. (GS)

  11. Learning and Emotion: Perspectives for Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hascher, Tina

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest in and knowledge about the interplay of learning and emotion. However, the different approaches and empirical studies correspond to each other only to a low extent. To prevent this research field from increasing fragmentation, a shared basis of theory and research is needed. The presentation aims at giving an overview of…

  12. The Impact of Cognitive Load Theory on Learning Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Every student is different, which is the challenge of astronomy education research (AER) and teaching astronomy. This difference also provides the greatest goal for education researchers - our GUT - we need to be able to quantify these differences and provide explanatory and predictive theories to curriculum developers and teachers. One educational theory that holds promise is Cognitive Load Theory. Cognitive Load Theory begins with the well-established fact that everyone's working memory can hold 7 ± 2 unique items. This quirk of the human brain is why phone numbers are 7 digits long. This quirk is also why we forget peoples’ names after just meeting them, leave the iron on when we leave the house, and become overwhelmed as students of new material. Once the intricacies of Cognitive Load are understood, it becomes possible to design learning environments to marshal the resources students have and guide them to success. Lessons learned from Cognitive Load Theory can and should be applied to learning astronomy. Classroom-ready ideas will be presented.

  13. Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory in Athletic Training Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhase, Kristen C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory offers insight into the development of learning styles, classification of learning styles, and how students learn through experience. Discussion is presented on the value of Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory for Athletic Training Education. Data Sources: This article reviews research related to…

  14. Learning Theory Expertise in the Design of Learning Spaces: Who Needs a Seat at the Table?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Michael M.; Choi, Koun; McDonald, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    This study highlights the impact of including stakeholders with expertise in learning theory in a learning space design process. We present the decision-making process during the design of the Krause Innovation Studio on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University to draw a distinction between the architect and faculty member's decision-making…

  15. Application of Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning to Curriculum, Teaching and Learning of Deaf Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biser, Eileen

    Implications of D. Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning and its derivative, the Advance Organizer Model of Teaching, for deaf students are examined. Ausubel believes that complex intellectual processes (thinking, language, problem-solving, concept formation) are the major aspects of learning, and that primary emphasis should be placed on…

  16. Sociocultural Theory Applied to Second Language Learning: Collaborative Learning with Reference to the Chinese Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongyu, Zhang; Fanyu, B.; Wanyi, Du

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the sociocultural theory (SCT). In particular, three significant concepts of Vyogtsky's theory: self-regulation, the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), and scaffolding all of which have been discussed in numerous second language acquisition (SLA) and second language learning (SLL) research papers. These concepts lay the…

  17. Social Science Theories on Adolescent Risk-Taking: The Relevance of Behavioral Inhibition and Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    The major social science theories on adolescent risk-taking--strain, social control, and differential association theories--have received substantial empirical support. The relationships between variables central to these theories and individual differences in temperament related to risk-taking, however, have not been adequately studied. In a…

  18. The Relevance of Theories of the Policy Process to Educational Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two case studies of educational decision making are used to test the utility of some current theories of the policy-formation process; a framework for the application of these theories is proposed; and the merits of applying existing theories before seeking new paradigms are stressed. (MSE)

  19. Investigating Students' Perceived Discipline Relevance Subsequent to Playing Educational Computer Games: A Personal Interest and Self-Determination Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorebo, Oystein; Haehre, Reidar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain students' perceived relevance of playing an educational game as a means for development of discipline competence. Based on self-determination theory and the concept of personal interest, we propose that: Satisfying students' basic needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness when playing educational games…

  20. What propels sexual murderers: a proposed integrated theory of social learning and routine activities theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Heide, Kathleen M; Beauregard, Eric

    2011-04-01

    Despite the great interest in the study of sexual homicide, little is known about the processes involved in an individual's becoming motivated to sexually kill, deciding to sexually kill, and acting on that desire, intention, and opportunity. To date, no comprehensive model of sexual murdering from the offending perspective has been proposed in the criminological literature. This article incorporates the works of Akers and Cohen and Felson regarding their social learning theory and routine activities theory, respectively, to construct an integrated conceptual offending framework in sexual homicide. This integrated model produces a stronger and more comprehensive explanation of sexual murder than any single theory currently available.

  1. Aligning Coordination Class Theory with a New Context: Applying a Theory of Individual Learning to Group Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth-Cohen, Lauren A.; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an empirical analysis of conceptual difficulties encountered and ways students made progress in learning at both individual and group levels in a classroom environment in which the students used an embodied modeling activity to make sense of a specific scientific scenario. The theoretical framework, coordination class theory,…

  2. Gaming mindsets: implicit theories in serious game learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Hao; Heeter, Carrie; Magerko, Brian; Medler, Ben

    2012-04-01

    Individuals' beliefs about the malleability of their abilities may predict their response and outcome in learning from serious games. Individuals with growth mindsets believe their abilities can develop with practice and effort, whereas individuals with fixed mindsets believe their abilities are static and cannot improve. This study uses survey and gameplay server data to examine the implicit theory of intelligence in the context of serious game learning. The findings show that growth mindset players performed better than fixed mindset players, their mistakes did not affect their attention to the game, and they read more learning feedback than fixed mindset players. In addition, growth mindset players were more likely to actively seek difficult challenges, which is often essential to self-directed learning. General mindset measurements and domain-specific measurements were also compared. These findings suggest that players' psychological attributes should be considered when designing and applying serious games.

  3. Theory of Digital Natives in the Light of Current and Future E-Learning Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo von der Heiden

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The digital generation has many names: Net Generation, Generation@ or Digital Natives. The meaning behind these terms is, that the current generation of students is digitally and media literate, technology-savvy and are able to use other learning approaches than former generations. But these topics are discussed controversial and even the cause-effect-relationship is not as clear as it seems. Did the digital generation really have other learning approaches, or do they have only the possibility to live other learning modes? Against this background this article tries to shed some light on this debate. Therefore we use current and future projects performed at RWTH Aachen University to illustrate the relevance, value and significance due to the theory of the digital natives.

  4. DIALOGIC LEARNING AND ITS CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Prieto

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the contributions of the dialogic learning approach toeducational theory, with the aim of providing some orientations in order to promoteegalitarian and scientific educational practice. The seven principles of dialogic learningare discussed, along with other reproductionist theories and practices from the educationalfield, demonstrating how the former both surpass the latter. The article also reflectsopen dialogue with the critical theories of education which the dialogic learningtheory is based on. These basic theories are, on the one hand, by authors who are distantin time but very close in their educational approach, such as Ferrer i Guàrdia, Vygotsky,or Paulo Freire, and, on the other hand, by other contemporary authors in critical pedagogy.Each of the seven principles presented are provided along with a critical examinationof a specific educational practice. The consequences of the implementation of dialogiclearning are underlined here through an analysis of innovative and critical educationalprojects which are academically successful.

  5. Midwifery students learning experiences in labor wards: a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstad, Anne; Hjälmhult, Esther

    2014-12-01

    The labor ward is an important and challenging learning area for midwifery students. It is there the students learn in authentic complex situations, in intimate situations, with potential risk for the life and health of mothers and their babies. The aim of this study was to explore the main concern expressed by midwifery students in labor wards and how they handled this concern. A longitudinal study based on grounded theory methodology was used. The participants were 10 postgraduate midwifery students, from a University College in Norway. Data were gathered and analyzed throughout the 2-year postgraduate program, in the students first, third and fourth semesters. Every student was interviewed three times in a total of 15 single and three focus-group sessions. The grounded theory of "building relationships" explains how students dealt with their main concern: "how to gain access to learning experiences". This theory consisted of three strategies; a) controlling vulnerability, b) cultivating trust and c) obtaining acceptance. Clarifying discussions involving midwives and students may facilitate the process of building relationships and contribute to confident learning. Students appreciate it when the midwives initiate discussions about acute situations and state that a novice may perceive labor and childbirth as more frightening than an experienced midwife would. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Learning preferences and attitudes by multi-criteria overlap dominance and relevance functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Nielsen, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes an interval-valued multi-criteria method for learning preferences and attitudes, identifying priorities with maximal robustness for decision support. The method is based on the notion of weighted overlap dominance, formalized by means of aggregation operators and interval......-valued fuzzy sets. The procedure handles uncertainty by estimating the likelihood of dominance among pairs of alternatives, inducing an attitude-based system of dominance and indifference relations. This system allows conflicting situations of indifference/dependency to arise, which need to be resolved...... for properly identifying preferences under any attitude. In order to do so, relevance functions are examined over the whole system of relations, obtaining a weak preference order together with its associated attitude and robustness index. As a result, the proposed method allows learning preferences...

  7. Concept-Based Learning in Clinical Experiences: Bringing Theory to Clinical Education for Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Ann

    2016-07-01

    Concept-based learning is used increasingly in nursing education to support the organization, transfer, and retention of knowledge. Concept-based learning activities (CBLAs) have been used in clinical education to explore key aspects of the patient situation and principles of nursing care, without responsibility for total patient care. The nature of best practices in teaching and the resultant learning are not well understood. The purpose of this multiple-case study research was to explore and describe concept-based learning in the context of clinical education in inpatient settings. Four clinical groups (each a case) were observed while they used CBLAs in the clinical setting. Major findings include that concept-based learning fosters deep learning, connection of theory with practice, and clinical judgment. Strategies used to support learning, major teaching-learning foci, and preconditions for concept-based teaching and learning will be described. Concept-based learning is promising to support integration of theory with practice and clinical judgment through application experiences with patients. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(7):365-371.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Men's passage to fatherhood: an analysis of the contemporary relevance of transition theory

    OpenAIRE

    Draper, Janet

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of men's experiences of pregnancy, birth and early fatherhood. It does so using a framework of ritual transition theory and argues that despite its earlier structural-functionalist roots, transition theory remains a valuable framework, illuminating contemporary transitions across the life course. The paper discusses the historical development of transition or ritual theory and, drawing upon data generated during longitudinal ethnographic interviews w...

  9. PAL driven organizational learning theory and practices a light on learning journey of organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Chuah, Kong

    2015-01-01

    Presenting an innovative concept and approach for organization management, this book serves to document an organization’s journey towards the ultimate goal of learning organization. This book also shares the experience on how a OL framework built on established learning theories, could be used effectively, overcoming many of the barriers in a real industrial setting. Utilizing a ready-to-use tool called Project Action Learning (PAL) to analyze real life case studies, the authors introduce a framework that allows teams of people to work and learn over the course of business projects. Equal emphasis is placed on the achievement of pre-set project outcomes and the learning objectives of the participants. In addition, a long term organizational learning strategy is put forward and the necessary supporting infrastructure, in the form of four ‘PAL Pillars’, is described. The concepts and development of the PAL driven Organizational Learning model are inspired by, and grounded in, Western and Eastern business ...

  10. Theories of risk and safety: what is their relevance to nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Hannah

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to review key theories of risk and safety and their implications for nursing. The concept of of patient safety has only recently risen to prominence as an organising principle in healthcare. The paper considers the wider social context in which contemporary concepts of risk and safety have developed. In particular it looks at sociological debates about the rise of risk culture and the risk society and their influence on the patient safety movement. The paper discusses three bodies of theory which have attempted to explain the management of risk and safety in organisations: normal accident theory, high reliability theory, and grid-group cultural theory. It examine debates between these theories and their implications for healthcare. It discusses reasons for the dominance of high reliability theory in healthcare and its strengths and limitations. The paper suggest that high reliability theory has particular difficulties in explaining some aspects of organisational culture. It also suggest that the implementation of high reliability theory in healthcare has involved over reliance on numerical indicators. It suggests that patient safety could be improved by openness to a wider range of theoretical perspectives.

  11. Development and Evaluation of a Web Map Mind Tool Environment with the Theory of Spatial Thinking and Project-Based Learning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huei-Tse; Yu, Tsai-Fang; Wu, Yi-Xuan; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En

    2016-01-01

    The theory of spatial thinking is relevant to the learning and teaching of many academic domains. One promising method to facilitate learners' higher-order thinking is to utilize a web map mind tool to assist learners in applying spatial thinking to cooperative problem solving. In this study, an environment is designed based on the theory of…

  12. What learning theories can teach us in designing neurofeedback treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehl, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Popular definitions of neurofeedback point out that neurofeedback is a process of operant conditioning which leads to self-regulation of brain activity. Self-regulation of brain activity is considered to be a skill. The aim of this paper is to clarify that not only operant conditioning plays a role in the acquisition of this skill. In order to design the learning process additional references have to be derived from classical conditioning, two-process-theory and in particular from skill learning and research into motivational aspects. The impact of learning by trial and error, cueing of behavior, feedback, reinforcement, and knowledge of results as well as transfer of self-regulation skills into everyday life will be analyzed in this paper. In addition to these learning theory basics this paper tries to summarize the knowledge about acquisition of self-regulation from neurofeedback studies with a main emphasis on clinical populations. As a conclusion it is hypothesized that learning to self-regulate has to be offered in a psychotherapeutic, i.e., behavior therapy framework.

  13. What learning theories can teach us in designing neurofeedback treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute eStrehl

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Popular definitions of neurofeedback point out that neurofeedback is a process of operant conditioning which leads to self-regulation of brain activity. Self-regulation of brain activity is considered to be a skill. The aim of this paper is to clarify that not only operant conditioning plays a role in the acquisition of this skill. In order to design the learning process additional references have to be derived from classical conditioning, two-process-theory and in particular from skill learning and research into motivational aspects. The impact of learning by trial and error, cueing of behavior, feedback, reinforcement, and knowledge of results as well as transfer of self-regulation skills into everyday life will be analyzed in this paper. In addition to these learning theory basics this paper tries to summarize the knowledge about acquisition of self-regulation from neurofeedback studies with a main emphasis on clinical populations. As a conclusion it is hypothesized that learning to self-regulate has to be offered in a psychotherapeutic, i.e. behavior therapy framework.

  14. Connectivism: A knowledge learning theory for the digital age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, John Gerard Scott

    2016-10-01

    The emergence of the internet, particularly Web 2.0 has provided access to the views and opinions of a wide range of individuals opening up opportunities for new forms of communication and knowledge formation. Previous ways of navigating and filtering available information are likely to prove ineffective in these new contexts. Connectivism is one of the most prominent of the network learning theories which have been developed for e-learning environments. It is beginning to be recognized by medical educators. This article aims to examine connectivism and its potential application. The conceptual framework and application of connectivism are presented along with an outline of the main criticisms. Its potential application in medical education is then considered. While connectivism provides a useful lens through which teaching and learning using digital technologies can be better understood and managed, further development and testing is required. There is unlikely to be a single theory that will explain learning in technological enabled networks. Educators have an important role to play in online network learning.

  15. Learning Theory Bases of Communicative Methodology and the Notional/Functional Syllabus

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline D., Beebe

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the learning theories that underlie the philosophy and practices known as communicative language teaching methodology. These theories are identified first as a reaction against the behavioristic learning theory of audiolingualism. Approaches to syllabus design based on both the "weak" version of communicative language teaching-learning to use the second language-and the "strong" version-using the second language to learn it-are examined. The application of cognitive theory...

  16. The application of learning theory in horse training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLean, Andrew N.; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2017-01-01

    additional techniques (approach conditioning and stimulus blending). The salience of different types of cues, the interaction of operant and classical conditioning and the impact of stress are also discussed. This paper also exposes the inflexibility and occasional inadequacy of the terminology of learning...... on the correct application of learning theory, and safety and welfare benefits for people and horses would follow. Finally it is also proposed that the term ‘conflict theory’ be taken up in equitation science to facilitate diagnosis of training-related behaviour disorders and thus enable the emergence...

  17. Theory-generating practice. Proposing a principle for learning design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2016-01-01

    This contribution proposes a principle for learning design – Theory-Generating Practice (TGP) – as an alternative to the way university courses are traditionally taught and structured, with a series of theoretical lectures isolated from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project...... building, and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP, contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics, and discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP. Finally, three...

  18. Use of the Learning together technique associated to the theory of significative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester López Donoso

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with an experimental research, regarding a qualitative and quantitative design, applied to a group of students of General Physics course during the first semester of the university career of Engineering. Historically, students of this course present learning difficulties that directly affect their performance, conceptualization and permanence in the university. The present methodology integrates the collaborative learning, denominated Learning Together", with the theory of significant learning to avoid the above-written difficulties. Results of this research show that the proposed methodology works properly, especially to improve the conceptualization.

  19. Gallery Educators as Adult Learners: The Active Application of Adult Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Kimberly H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand the importance of adult learning theory to museum educators' work, and that of their profession at large, museum professionals must address the need for more adult learning research and practice in museums--particularly work informed by existing theory and work seeking to generate new theory. Adult learning theory…

  20. Motivating Young Native American Students to Pursue STEM Learning Through a Culturally Relevant Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Sally; Andrade, Rosi; Page, Melissa

    2016-12-01

    Data indicate that females and ethnic/race minority groups are underrepresented in the science and engineering workforce calling for innovative strategies to engage and retain them in science education and careers. This study reports on the development, delivery, and outcomes of a culturally driven science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) program, iSTEM, aimed at increasing engagement in STEM learning among Native American 3rd-8th grade students. A culturally relevant theoretical framework, Funds of Knowledge, informs the iSTEM program, a program based on the contention that the synergistic effect of a hybrid program combining two strategic approaches (1) in-school mentoring and (2) out-of-school informal science education experiences would foster engagement and interest in STEM learning. Students are paired with one of three types of mentors: Native American community members, university students, and STEM professionals. The iSTEM program is theme based with all program activities specifically relevant to Native people living in southern Arizona. Student mentees and mentors complete interactive flash STEM activities at lunch hour and attend approximately six field trips per year. Data from the iSTEM program indicate that the program has been successful in engaging Native American students in iSTEM as well as increasing their interest in STEM and their science beliefs.

  1. Understanding of Accountancy Graduates on the Relevant Concepts Taught in the Subject Accounting Theory at HEI in Greater Florianópolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Frigo Souza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify the understanding of the undergraduate students in Accountancy about the relevant concepts taught in the discipline Accounting Theory. To reach this goal, a questionnaire was sent to selected institutions or applied in person, obtaining a total of 65 respondents who had already studied Accounting Theory. The results of this research show that students perceive the concepts related to the discipline in a way more linked to standardization and that, for most respondents, the discipline Accounting Theory was considered of fundamental importance and should not be eliminated. In addition, it cannot be affirmed that there is a relationship between the area and the time of action of the respondents and their perceptions regarding the concepts of the discipline. It was also observed that there is little discussion about some subjects, in which some students are totally unaware, like in the case of Agency Theory and Earnings Management, which may indicate a gap in the teaching of the discipline. For future research, the analysis of distance learning is suggested, as well as research that seeks to analyze the existence of this possible gap observed.

  2. UNIVERSITY TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS: REFLECTIONS THROUGHOUT THE AGENCY THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Jacques Parraguez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses some reasons that might explain the insufficient academic level which is perceived in universities of developing countries. The discussion element is the teacher-student relationship which is studied under the perspective of the agency theory. It is concluded that in absence of efficient monitoring mechanisms of the teacher and student’s behavior might proliferate gaps of due diligence which attempts against the quality of the teaching-learning process.

  3. Understanding psychiatric disorder by capturing ecologically relevant features of learning and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Jacqueline; Klein-Flügge, Miriam

    2017-09-28

    Recent research in cognitive neuroscience has begun to uncover the processes underlying increasingly complex voluntary behaviours, including learning and decision-making. Partly this success has been possible by progressing from simple experimental tasks to paradigms that incorporate more ecological features. More specifically, the premise is that to understand cognitions and brain functions relevant for real life, we need to introduce some of the ecological challenges that we have evolved to solve. This often entails an increase in task complexity, which can be managed by using computational models to help parse complex behaviours into specific component mechanisms. Here we propose that using computational models with tasks that capture ecologically relevant learning and decision-making processes may provide a critical advantage for capturing the mechanisms underlying symptoms of disorders in psychiatry. As a result, it may help develop mechanistic approaches towards diagnosis and treatment. We begin this review by mapping out the basic concepts and models of learning and decision-making. We then move on to consider specific challenges that emerge in realistic environments and describe how they can be captured by tasks. These include changes of context, uncertainty, reflexive/emotional biases, cost-benefit decision-making, and balancing exploration and exploitation. Where appropriate we highlight future or current links to psychiatry. We particularly draw examples from research on clinical depression, a disorder that greatly compromises motivated behaviours in real-life, but where simpler paradigms have yielded mixed results. Finally, we highlight several paradigms that could be used to help provide new insights into the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prognosis Essay Scoring and Article Relevancy Using Multi-Text Features and Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Mehmood

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a model for essay scoring and article relevancy. Essay scoring is a costly process when we consider the time spent by an evaluator. It may lead to inequalities of the effort by various evaluators to apply the same evaluation criteria. Bibliometric research uses the evaluation criteria to find relevancy of articles instead. Researchers mostly face relevancy issues while searching articles. Therefore, they classify the articles manually. However, manual classification is burdensome due to time needed for evaluation. The proposed model performs automatic essay evaluation using multi-text features and ensemble machine learning. The proposed method is implemented in two data sets: a Kaggle short answer data set for essay scoring that includes four ranges of disciplines (Science, Biology, English, and English language Arts, and a bibliometric data set having IoT (Internet of Things and non-IoT classes. The efficacy of the model is measured against the Tandalla and AutoP approach using Cohen’s kappa. The model achieves kappa values of 0.80 and 0.83 for the first and second data sets, respectively. Kappa values show that the proposed model has better performance than those of earlier approaches.

  5. Helplessness: a systematic translational review of theory and evidence for its relevance to understanding and treating depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Christopher R; Azzinnari, Damiano; Spinelli, Simona; Seifritz, Erich; Tegethoff, Marion; Meinlschmidt, Gunther

    2011-12-01

    Helplessness is a major concept in depression and a major theme in preclinical and clinical depression research. For example, in rodents and humans, the learned helplessness (LH) effect describes a specific deficit in behaviour to control aversive stimuli that is induced by prior exposure to uncontrollable aversive stimuli. The LH effect is objective and valid in that the cause of the behavioural deficit, namely uncontrollability, is clear; furthermore, the deficit induced is underlain by emotional, motivational and cognitive processes that are relevant to depression psychopathology. As a further example, helplessness, hopelessness, external locus of control and causal attribution are inter-related and major themes in psychological theories (primarily cognitive theories) of depression. Despite this broad interest in helplessness, it can be argued that its potential usefulness as a scientific and clinical concept has so far not been investigated optimally, including with respect to its application in research aimed at development of improved anti-depressant pharmacotherapy. The first aim of this review was to describe and integrate the psychological evidence and the neurobiological evidence for the LH effect in rodents and healthy humans and for helplessness in depressed patients. The second aim was to conduct three systematic reviews, namely of rodent studies of the LH effect, rodent studies of effects of psychopharmacological agents on the LH effect, and human studies of efficacy of pharmacotherapeutic and psychotherapeutic treatment on helplessness in depressed patients. With respect to the first aim, the major findings are: the specificity of the LH effect in otherwise non-manipulated rodents and healthy humans has been under-estimated, and the LH effect is a specific learned aversive uncontrollability (LAU) effect. There is theoretical and empirical support for a model in which a specific LAU effect induced by a life event of major emotional significance can

  6. Personalised Learning Object System Based on Self-Regulated Learning Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alharbi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulated learning has become an important construct in education research in the last few years. Selfregulated learning in its simple form is the learner’s ability to monitor and control the learning process. There is increasing research in the literature on how to support students become more self-regulated learners. However, the advancement in the information technology has led to paradigm changes in the design and development of educational content. The concept of learning object instructional technology has emerged as a result of this shift in educational technology paradigms. This paper presents the results of a study that investigated the potential educational effectiveness of a pedagogical framework based on the self-regulated learning theories to support the design of learning object systems to help computer science students. A prototype learning object system was developed based on the contemporary research on self-regulated learning. The system was educationally evaluated in a quasi-experimental study over two semesters in a core programming languages concepts course. The evaluation revealed that a learning object system that takes into consideration contemporary research on self-regulated learning can be an effective learning environment to support computer science education.

  7. Complementing theory with practice to enhance Students' learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Muhammad Imran; Imran, Faiqa; Ahmed, Syed Ahsanuddin; Rahim, Ikram Ur; Shafiq, Anser; Qayum, Iftikhar

    2016-01-01

    Combining cognitive skills teaching related to the techniques leads to better understanding in a skill training course; but still there a substantial disagreement in curriculum on such combinations. This study aims to help guide the designers in making the outline of instructional plan for a Clinical Skills Module (CSM) for the undergraduates. Objectives were to assess performance of students on a clinical skill after training by two different models of (hands-on only or with cognitive skills) instructions and explore their perception on the employment of educational strategies through Focus Group Discussions (FGD) through a Sequential mixed method study design: (1) Quantitative (Pre- and post-assessments and comparing their results (2) Qualitative (Exploration of perspectives through constructivist approach using qualitative phenomenological design) The study was conducted during the month of September, 2015 at Rabigh Medical College, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah. Students entering fourth year were randomized to two groups to participate in pre-post OSCE using global rating scale and their scores were compared. The examiners were kept blinded to the randomization of students undergoing two separate training methods. The test group (group A) was trained for both procedural as well as cognitive skills whereas the control group (Group-B) was trained only with hands-on practice. Later their perception about the addition of cognitive skills to improve of procedural skills was explored through focus group discussions. The recorded audio tapes of FGDs were transcribed and analysed thematically. Triangulation of themes and trends was achieved by relating the content analysis to the relevant frequency of quotes. Auditing of the data verification was done by all the authors separately.. A total of 42 students completed both pre- and post-tests. As a result, student performance in OSCE significantly increased from pre- to post-test (pdisadvantages of combining theory

  8. Theory-Generating Practice: Proposing a principle for learning design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Buhl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution proposes a principle for learning design: Theory-Generating Practice (TGP as an alternative to the way university courses often are taught and structured with a series of theoretical lectures separate from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project. The aim is to contribute to a development of theoretical frameworks for learning designs by suggesting TGP which may lead to new practices and turn the traditional dramaturgy for teaching upside down. TGP focuses on embodied experience prior to text reading and lectures to enhance theoretical knowledge building and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP and contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics as well as discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP, and is discussed through three empirical examples from bachelor and master programs involving technology, and showing three ways of practicing it.

  9. Theory-Generating Practice: Proposing a principle for learning design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Buhl

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution proposes a principle for learning design: Theory-Generating Practice (TGP as an alternative to the way university courses often are taught and structured with a series of theoretical lectures separate from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project. The aim is to contribute to a development of theoretical frameworks for learning designs by suggesting TGP which may lead to new practices and turn the traditional dramaturgy for teaching upside down. TGP focuses on embodied experience prior to text reading and lectures to enhance theoretical knowledge building and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP and contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics as well as discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP, and is discussed through three empirical examples from bachelor and master programs involving technology, and showing three ways of practicing it.

  10. Motivation in Second Language Learning: A Historical Overview and Its Relevance in a Public High School in Pasto, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Motivation has a significant role in the process of language learning. It is important to understand its theoretical evolution in this field to be able to consider its relevance in the learning and teaching of a foreign language. Motivation is a term that is commonly used among language teachers and language learners but perhaps many are not aware…

  11. The Relevance of Social Theory in the Practice of Environmental Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Richard

    2016-10-01

    In this paper I argue that the dominance of certain paradigms and theories on policies can have an influence on the value added by impact assessments. A link exists between paradigms and theories and policies and consequently the practices humans develop to tackle real world problems. I also argue that different types of thinking (contained in paradigms and theories) need to be integrated, at least at the scientific level, to enhance our understanding of social phenomena. This in turn can have a positive influence on policy processes that follow impact assessment recommendations. I am not arguing for the adoption of theoretical positions by practitioners, Instead, I contend that if impact assessments are informed by a variety of paradigms and theories, the policy practitioner might have a better understanding of the issue and the moral choices he or she needs to make. I will highlight the connection between theory and policies with practical examples from the social impact assessment of the De Hoop Dam, which was constructed on the Steelpoort River. I also argue for an integration of different theories to give a deeper understanding of real world problems.

  12. A Learning-Style Theory for Understanding Autistic Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ning; Lipkin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding autism's ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup table (LUT) learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT) learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities) from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low- and high-dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name–number association in a phonebook). However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response). The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm), restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity), impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn regularities

  13. A learning-style theory for understanding autistic behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eQian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding autism’s ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically-developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup-table (LUT learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low and high dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name-number association in a phonebook. However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response. The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm, restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity, impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn

  14. Why (we think) facilitation works: insights from organizational learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Whitney; Cranley, Lisa; Dearing, James W; Dogherty, Elizabeth J; Squires, Janet E; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2015-10-06

    Facilitation is a guided interactional process that has been popularized in health care. Its popularity arises from its potential to support uptake and application of scientific knowledge that stands to improve clinical and managerial decision-making, practice, and ultimately patient outcomes and organizational performance. While this popular concept has garnered attention in health services research, we know that both the content of facilitation and its impact on knowledge implementation vary. The basis of this variation is poorly understood, and understanding is hampered by a lack of conceptual clarity. In this paper, we argue that our understanding of facilitation and its effects is limited in part by a lack of clear theoretical grounding. We propose a theoretical home for facilitation in organizational learning theory. Referring to extant literature on facilitation and drawing on theoretical literature, we discuss the features of facilitation that suggest its role in contributing to learning capacity. We describe how facilitation may contribute to generating knowledge about the application of new scientific knowledge in health-care organizations. Facilitation's promise, we suggest, lies in its potential to stimulate higher-order learning in organizations through experimenting with, generating learning about, and sustaining small-scale adaptations to organizational processes and work routines. The varied effectiveness of facilitation observed in the literature is associated with the presence or absence of factors known to influence organizational learning, since facilitation itself appears to act as a learning mechanism. We offer propositions regarding the relationships between facilitation processes and key organizational learning concepts that have the potential to guide future work to further our understanding of the role that facilitation plays in learning and knowledge generation.

  15. From the social learning theory to a social learning algorithm for global optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Yue-Jiao; Zhang, Jun; Li, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, the Evolutionary Computation (EC) paradigm is inspired by Darwinian evolution or the swarm intelligence of animals. Bandura's Social Learning Theory pointed out that the social learning behavior of humans indicates a high level of intelligence in nature. We found that such intelligence of human society can be implemented by numerical computing and be utilized in computational algorithms for solving optimization problems. In this paper, we design a novel and generic optimization...

  16. Teaching laryngeal endoscopy skills to speech and language therapists: applying learning theory to optimize practical skills mastery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, H Fiona; Dennick, Reg

    2015-06-01

    This review was carried out to highlight relevant learning theory and its application to the teaching of endoscopic skills to speech and language therapists (SLTs). This article explains the most relevant models from Constructivist, Experiential and Humanistic Learning Theory, a combination that has been described as Constructive Experience, and describes the relevance and the benefits of applying educational frameworks in course design. This approach has been formally used to design and deliver practical skills teaching in medicine. SLTs carry out endoscopic evaluation of the larynx (EEL) to provide information for evaluation and rehabilitation of voice and swallowing disorders. These are essential procedures in ear, nose and throat, voice and swallowing specialist centres. Training in endoscopy skills for SLTs working in the ear, nose and throat specialist centres in the United Kingdom has traditionally been provided external to the local clinic environment as 1 or 2-day courses. In one survey in the United Kingdom, 79% of SLTs reported that they did not acquire the depth of skill required to carry out EEL autonomously after attending such courses. Course development to teach practical skills should be underpinned by educational theory. One EEL course in the United Kingdom is described, wherein sessions are interactive and experiential, promoting deep learning, constructive feedback and reflection, enriched by the completion of logs and portfolios. From course evaluations, all the learners met the learning objectives, developing and applying skills to become confident endoscopists in autonomous clinical practice.

  17. Neural coding of basic reward terms of animal learning theory, game theory, microeconomics and behavioural ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2004-04-01

    Neurons in a small number of brain structures detect rewards and reward-predicting stimuli and are active during the expectation of predictable food and liquid rewards. These neurons code the reward information according to basic terms of various behavioural theories that seek to explain reward-directed learning, approach behaviour and decision-making. The involved brain structures include groups of dopamine neurons, the striatum including the nucleus accumbens, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. The reward information is fed to brain structures involved in decision-making and organisation of behaviour, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and possibly the parietal cortex. The neural coding of basic reward terms derived from formal theories puts the neurophysiological investigation of reward mechanisms on firm conceptual grounds and provides neural correlates for the function of rewards in learning, approach behaviour and decision-making.

  18. Economics of Distance and Online Learning Theory, Practice and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reviewed by TOJDE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Economics of Distance and Online LearningTheory, Practice and ResearchBy William Bramble & Santosh PandaPrice: $125.00ISBN: 978-0-415-96388-6, Binding: Hardback, Publishedby: Routledge, New York, Publication Date: March 2008, Pages: 312TOJDEABOUT THE BOOKThis book provides a comprehensive overview of theorganizational models of distance and online learning froman international perspective and from the point of view ofeconomic planning, costing and management decisionmaking.The book points to directions for the further research anddevelopment in this area, and will promote furtherunderstanding and critical reflection on the part ofadministrators, practitioners and researchers of distanceeducation.The experiences and perspectives in distance education inthe US are balanced with those in other areas of the world.Table of ContentsPrefaceSECTION ONE: INTRODUCTIONChapter 1: Organizational and Cost Structures for Distanceand Online Learning, William J. Bramble and Santosh PandaSECTION TWO: PLANNING AND MANAGEMENTChapter 2: Changing Distance Education andChanging Organizational Issues, D. Randy Garrison and Heather KanukaChapter 3: Online Learning and the University, Chris Curran217Chapter 4: Virtual Schooling and Basic Education, Thomas ClarkChapter 5: Historical Perspectives on Distance Education in the United States, Paul J.Edelson and Von PittmanSECTION THREE: FUNDINGChapter 6: Funding of Distance and Online Learning in the United States, Mark J. Smithand William J. BrambleChapter 7: Funding Distance Education: A Regional Perspective, Santosh Panda andAshok GabaSECTION FOUR: COST STRUCTURES AND MODELSChapter 8: Costs and Quality of Online Learning, Alistair InglisChapter 9: Costing Virtual University Education, Insung JungChapter 10: Cost-Benefit of Student Retention Policies and Practices, Ormond SimpsonSECTION FIVE: DISTANCE TRAININGChapter 11: Cost Benefit of Online Learning, Zane Berge and Charlotte DonaldsonChapter 12: Transforming Workplace

  19. Academic learning for specialist nurses: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millberg, Lena German; Berg, Linda; Brämberg, Elisabeth Björk; Nordström, Gun; Ohlén, Joakim

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to explore the major concerns of specialist nurses pertaining to academic learning during their education and initial professional career. Specialist nursing education changed in tandem with the European educational reform in 2007. At the same time, greater demands were made on the healthcare services to provide evidence-based and safe patient-care. These changes have influenced specialist nursing programmes and consequently the profession. Grounded Theory guided the study. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire with open-ended questions distributed at the end of specialist nursing programmes in 2009 and 2010. Five universities were included. Further, individual, pair and group interviews were used to collect data from 12 specialist nurses, 5-14 months after graduation. A major concern for specialist nurses was that academic learning should be "meaningful" for their professional future. The specialist nurses' "meaningful academic learning process" was characterised by an ambivalence of partly believing in and partly being hesitant about the significance of academic learning and partly receiving but also lacking support. Specialist nurses were influenced by factors in two areas: curriculum and healthcare context. They felt that the outcome of contribution to professional confidence was critical in making academic learning meaningful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The theoretical basis for practice-relevant medication use research: patient-centered/behavioral theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, Susan J

    2011-12-01

    There is an urgent need for research to improve the quality of medication use among those who require pharmacotherapy. To describe how behavioral science theories can help to achieve this goal. We begin by describing what a theory is and the functions that theories serve. We then provide 8 guiding principles that are crucial for investigators to understand if they are to use theory appropriately. We conclude by discussing the need for a new model of patient medication self-management that incorporates information concerning factors operating at all levels of the ecological framework, ranging from patient-level to societal-level factors. The 8 guiding principles discussed are the following: (1) There is no single theory that is appropriate for guiding all medication use research; (2) Behavioral science theories are probabilistic, not deterministic; (3) When trying to influence a health behavior, the health behavior of interest must be defined precisely; (4) Many factors outside of patient control influence patient medication use; (5) Every patient is unique; (6) Patient motivation is a fundamental ingredient required to optimize medication use, especially when maintenance of long term behavior is the goal; (7) Health care providers can have a profound effect on patient medication use, and this effect can operate through several possible causal pathways; and (8) When planning an intervention to optimize medication use, it is important to develop a conceptual model that links intervention inputs to the ultimate outcomes that are desired. Medication use can be influenced by a wide variety of factors acting at different levels of the ecological model. The quality of research on medication use could be improved by development of an ecological model specific to medication self-management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Justice, Integrity and Fairness: Relevant Questions About Robert Nozick Political Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando Cruz da Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work develops and analysis about Robert Nozick political theory based in thesis defended by Ronald Dworkin. The central objective of this paper is to investigate the validity or the invalidity of the justice principles proposed by Nozick under the integrity theory. The methodology utilized to construct the definitive hypothesis was based, initially, in a theoretical search, developed through of an bibliographical lifting of the principal involved authors texts. After the survey, a descriptive analysis of the texts was executed and, then, was executed and critical analysis. At the end, an definitive proposal was constructed with an deductive reasoning.

  2. The relevance of social theory in the practice of environmental management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available as follows. In the first part I define the concepts ‘paradigm’, ‘theory’ and ‘ethics’. The purpose of this section is to show the difference between a paradigm and a theory and to lay the foundation for the rest of the article. I also illustrate the link... between paradigms and theories and ethics, and by implication practice. I follow this part with Rosenau’s (2003) argument that we are all theorists; the purpose of which is to highlight that environmental assessment practitioners use paradigms...

  3. Not all choices are created equal: Task-relevant choices enhance motor learning compared to task-irrelevant choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michael J; Ste-Marie, Diane M

    2017-12-01

    Lewthwaite et al. (2015) reported that the learning benefits of exercising choice (i.e., their self-controlled condition) are not restricted to task-relevant features (e.g., feedback). They found that choosing one's golf ball color (Exp. 1) or choosing which of two tasks to perform at a later time plus which of two artworks to hang (Exp. 2) resulted in better retention than did being denied these same choices (i.e., yoked condition). The researchers concluded that the learning benefits derived from choice, whether irrelevant or relevant to the to-be-learned task, are predominantly motivational because choice is intrinsically rewarding and satisfies basic psychological needs. However, the absence of a group that made task-relevant choices and the lack of psychological measures significantly weakened their conclusions. Here, we investigated how task-relevant and task-irrelevant choices affect motor-skill learning. Participants practiced a spatiotemporal motor task in either a task-relevant group (choice over feedback schedule), a task-irrelevant group (choice over the color of an arm-wrap plus game selection), or a no-choice group. The results showed significantly greater learning in the task-relevant group than in both the task-irrelevant and no-choice groups, who did not differ significantly. Critically, these learning differences were not attributed to differences in perceptions of competence or autonomy, but instead to superior error-estimation abilities. These results challenge the perspective that motivational influences are the root cause of self-controlled learning advantages. Instead, the findings add to the growing evidence highlighting that the informational value gained from task-relevant choices makes a greater relative contribution to these advantages than motivational influences do.

  4. The Relevance of Second Language Acquisition Theory to the Written Error Correction Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polio, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    The controversies surrounding written error correction can be traced to Truscott (1996) in his polemic against written error correction. He claimed that empirical studies showed that error correction was ineffective and that this was to be expected "given the nature of the correction process and "the nature of language learning" (p. 328, emphasis…

  5. On-the-Job Training and Social Learning Theory. A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    and discussed by Albert Bandura (47). The principles of social learning theory and learning from models are first described. Then a series of rules...developed by Bandura and his students (47, 48, 49) to be the most useful theory to account for observational learning and to provide a basis for...Learning Theory and Its Application 47. Bandura , A. Principles of Behavior Modification, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1969. 48. Bandura , A

  6. Timmermans’ Misleading Critique of Prospect Theory Actually Supports its Relevance for Travel Choice Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kaa, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    For a special issue of this journal Timmermans (2010) was asked to make critical comments on the suitability of Prospect Theory for travel behaviour research. His article offers a comprehensive overview of all kinds of criticism that one might encounter in the social sciences. When browsing through

  7. Cooperation or Competition: Does Game Theory Have Relevance for Public Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Cohen, Cynthia F.; Cooper, Elizabeth Elliott; Corvin, Jaime; McDermott, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we use game theory to understand decisions to cooperate or to compete in the delivery of public health services. Health care is a quasi-public good that is often associated with altruistic behavior, yet it operates in an increasingly competitive environment. With mounting health care regulation and changes in privatization,…

  8. Dependence and caring in clinical communication: the relevance of attachment and other theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Peter; Young, Bridget

    2009-03-01

    Clinical relationships are usually asymmetric, being defined by patients' dependence and practitioners' care. Our aims are to: (i) identify literature that can contribute to theory for researching and teaching clinical communication from this perspective; (ii) highlight where theoretical development is needed; and (iii) test the utility of the emerging theory by identifying whether it leads to implications for educational practice. Selective and critical review of research concerned with dependence and caring in clinical and non-clinical relationships. Attachment theory helps to understand patients' need to seek safety in relationships with expert and authoritative practitioners but is of limited help in understanding practitioners' caring. Different theories that formulate practitioners' care as altruistic, rewarded by personal connection or as a contract indicate the potential importance of practitioners' emotions, values and sense of role in understanding their clinical communication. Extending the theoretical grounding of clinical communication can accommodate patients' dependence and practitioners' caring without return to medical paternalism. A broader theoretical base will help educators to address the inherent subjectivity of clinical relationships, and researchers to distinguish scientific questions about how patients and clinicians are from normative questions about how they should be.

  9. A Biblical-Theological Model of Cognitive Dissonance Theory: Relevance for Christian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Danny Ray

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this content analysis research was to develop a biblical-theological model of Cognitive Dissonance Theory applicable to pedagogy. Evidence of cognitive dissonance found in Scripture was used to infer a purpose for the innate drive toward consonance. This inferred purpose was incorporated into a model that improves the descriptive…

  10. Semantic Relevance, Domain Specificity and the Sensory/Functional Theory of Category-Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Giuseppe; Gnoato, Francesca; Mariani, Ilenia; Prioni, Sara; Lombardi, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    According to the sensory/functional theory of semantic memory, Living items rely more on Sensory knowledge than Non-living ones. The sensory/functional explanation of category-specificity assumes that semantic features are organised on the basis of their content. We report here a study on DAT patients with impaired performance on Living items and…

  11. Managing conflict in Dutch organizations: A test of the relevance of DeutschUs cooperation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Tjosvold, D.

    1997-01-01

    Deutsch's theory of cooperative and competitive conflict may be usefully extended to Dutch people. Results of LISREL analyses on data collected from interviews of Dutch employees in 2 companies indicate that competitive goals interfered with the open, constructive discussion of opposing views.

  12. Theory and relevance of currency substitution with case studies for Canada and the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractAbstract--This paper develops the theory of currency substitution from a choice theoretic point of view. The main result offers a simple relationship between the relative amount of currencies held and their opportunity costs, i.e., interest and capital gains. Our hypothesis is tested by

  13. Dependence and caring in clinical communication: The relevance of attachment and other theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Peter; Young, Bridget

    2009-01-01

    Objective Clinical relationships are usually asymmetric, being defined by patients’ dependence and practitioners’ care. Our aims are to: (i) identify literature that can contribute to theory for researching and teaching clinical communication from this perspective; (ii) highlight where theoretical development is needed; and (iii) test the utility of the emerging theory by identifying whether it leads to implications for educational practice. Methods Selective and critical review of research concerned with dependence and caring in clinical and non-clinical relationships. Results Attachment theory helps to understand patients’ need to seek safety in relationships with expert and authoritative practitioners but is of limited help in understanding practitioners’ caring. Different theories that formulate practitioners’ care as altruistic, rewarded by personal connection or as a contract indicate the potential importance of practitioners’ emotions, values and sense of role in understanding their clinical communication. Conclusion Extending the theoretical grounding of clinical communication can accommodate patients’ dependence and practitioners’ caring without return to medical paternalism. Practice implications A broader theoretical base will help educators to address the inherent subjectivity of clinical relationships, and researchers to distinguish scientific questions about how patients and clinicians are from normative questions about how they should be. PMID:19157761

  14. Systems-theory of psychosis--the relevance of "internal censorship".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, H M; Leweke, F M; Schneider, U

    2006-02-01

    The different aspects of the neurobiology of psychotic disorders are presently discussed under the perspective of Arvid Calssons neurochemical theory of mesolimbic/cortico-thalamic loops. In this regard the question as to whether--neuropsychologically--a "filter-defect" or a disturbance of "internal censorship" is causative for psychoses. This topic is discussed in the present paper.

  15. (Re)igniting a Sociological Imagination in Adult Education: The Continuing Relevance of Classical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that sociology has been a foundational discipline for the field of adult education, but it has been largely implicit, until recently. This article contextualizes classical theories of sociology within contemporary critiques, reviews the historical roots of sociology and then briefly introduces the classical theories…

  16. Teaching Theory Construction With Initial Grounded Theory Tools: A Reflection on Lessons and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmaz, Kathy

    2015-12-01

    This article addresses criticisms of qualitative research for spawning studies that lack analytic development and theoretical import. It focuses on teaching initial grounded theory tools while interviewing, coding, and writing memos for the purpose of scaling up the analytic level of students' research and advancing theory construction. Adopting these tools can improve teaching qualitative methods at all levels although doctoral education is emphasized here. What teachers cover in qualitative methods courses matters. The pedagogy presented here requires a supportive environment and relies on demonstration, collective participation, measured tasks, progressive analytic complexity, and accountability. Lessons learned from using initial grounded theory tools are exemplified in a doctoral student's coding and memo-writing excerpts that demonstrate progressive analytic development. The conclusion calls for increasing the number and depth of qualitative methods courses and for creating a cadre of expert qualitative methodologists. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Transitional clerkship: an experiential course based on workplace learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittenden, Eva H; Henry, Duncan; Saxena, Varun; Loeser, Helen; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2009-07-01

    Starting clerkships is anxiety provoking for medical students. To ease the transition from preclerkship to clerkship curricula, schools offer classroom-based courses which may not be the best model for preparing learners. Drawing from workplace learning theory, the authors developed a seven-day transitional clerkship (TC) in 2007 at the University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine in which students spent half of the course in the hospital, learning routines and logistics of the wards along with their roles and responsibilities as members of ward teams. Twice, they admitted and followed a patient into the next day as part of a shadow team that had no patient-care responsibilities. Dedicated preceptors gave feedback on oral presentations and patient write-ups. Satisfaction with the TC was higher than with the previous year's classroom-based course. TC students felt clearer about their roles and more confident in their abilities as third-year students compared with previous students. TC students continued to rate the transitional course highly after their first clinical rotation. Preceptors were enthusiastic about the course and expressed willingness to commit to future TC preceptorships. The transitional course models an approach to translating workplace learning theory into practice and demonstrates improved satisfaction, better understanding of roles, and increased confidence among new third-year students.

  18. The Role of the Constructivist Learning Theory and Collaborative Learning Environment on Wiki Classroom, and the Relationship between Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Ibraheem; Woollard, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to discover the relationship between both the social constructivist learning theory and the collaborative learning environment. This relationship can be identified by giving an example of the learning environment. Due to wiki characteristics, Wiki technology is one of the most famous learning environments that can show the…

  19. Analysis of ensemble learning using simple perceptrons based on online learning theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Seiji; Hara, Kazuyuki; Okada, Masato

    2005-03-01

    Ensemble learning of K nonlinear perceptrons, which determine their outputs by sign functions, is discussed within the framework of online learning and statistical mechanics. One purpose of statistical learning theory is to theoretically obtain the generalization error. This paper shows that ensemble generalization error can be calculated by using two order parameters, that is, the similarity between a teacher and a student, and the similarity among students. The differential equations that describe the dynamical behaviors of these order parameters are derived in the case of general learning rules. The concrete forms of these differential equations are derived analytically in the cases of three well-known rules: Hebbian learning, perceptron learning, and AdaTron (adaptive perceptron) learning. Ensemble generalization errors of these three rules are calculated by using the results determined by solving their differential equations. As a result, these three rules show different characteristics in their affinity for ensemble learning, that is “maintaining variety among students.” Results show that AdaTron learning is superior to the other two rules with respect to that affinity.

  20. Daily sea level prediction at Chiayi coast, Taiwan using extreme learning machine and relevance vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Moslem; Kao, Huan-Chin; Lan, Wen-Hau; Kuo, Chung-Yen

    2018-02-01

    The analysis and the prediction of sea level fluctuations are core requirements of marine meteorology and operational oceanography. Estimates of sea level with hours-to-days warning times are especially important for low-lying regions and coastal zone management. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the applicability and capability of extreme learning machine (ELM) and relevance vector machine (RVM) models for predicting sea level variations and compare their performances with powerful machine learning methods, namely, support vector machine (SVM) and radial basis function (RBF) models. The input dataset from the period of January 2004 to May 2011 used in the study was obtained from the Dongshi tide gauge station in Chiayi, Taiwan. Results showed that the ELM and RVM models outperformed the other methods. The performance of the RVM approach was superior in predicting the daily sea level time series given the minimum root mean square error of 34.73 mm and the maximum determination coefficient of 0.93 (R2) during the testing periods. Furthermore, the obtained results were in close agreement with the original tide-gauge data, which indicates that RVM approach is a promising alternative method for time series prediction and could be successfully used for daily sea level forecasts.

  1. "What is relevant in a text document?": An interpretable machine learning approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Arras

    Full Text Available Text documents can be described by a number of abstract concepts such as semantic category, writing style, or sentiment. Machine learning (ML models have been trained to automatically map documents to these abstract concepts, allowing to annotate very large text collections, more than could be processed by a human in a lifetime. Besides predicting the text's category very accurately, it is also highly desirable to understand how and why the categorization process takes place. In this paper, we demonstrate that such understanding can be achieved by tracing the classification decision back to individual words using layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP, a recently developed technique for explaining predictions of complex non-linear classifiers. We train two word-based ML models, a convolutional neural network (CNN and a bag-of-words SVM classifier, on a topic categorization task and adapt the LRP method to decompose the predictions of these models onto words. Resulting scores indicate how much individual words contribute to the overall classification decision. This enables one to distill relevant information from text documents without an explicit semantic information extraction step. We further use the word-wise relevance scores for generating novel vector-based document representations which capture semantic information. Based on these document vectors, we introduce a measure of model explanatory power and show that, although the SVM and CNN models perform similarly in terms of classification accuracy, the latter exhibits a higher level of explainability which makes it more comprehensible for humans and potentially more useful for other applications.

  2. Learning in Context: Technology Integration in a Teacher Preparation Program Informed by Situated Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Randy L.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Binns, Ian C.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation explores the effectiveness of a teacher preparation program aligned with situated learning theory on preservice science teachers' use of technology during their student teaching experiences. Participants included 26 preservice science teachers enrolled in a 2-year Master of Teaching program. A specific program goal was to…

  3. Two early studies on learning theory and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marshall B

    2003-11-01

    The debate between Iowa and California, Spencians and Tolmanians, over the nature of learning was one of the most protracted and all-involving controversies in the history of psychology. Spencians argued that learning consisted of stimulus-response connections and grew incrementally; Tolmanians that it was perceptual or cognitive and saltatory in nature. The debate was conducted largely on the basis of experiments with rats, with each side finding evidence in its own laboratories to support its views. As the debate was winding down, two studies were carried out that called attention to a possible genetic basis of the great debate. The two schools used different strains of rat and characteristically different experimental situations. The two studies, however, were difficult to access at the time and even more so since. The present paper recalls these two studies in condensed form and discusses their relevance to the great debate and to selected current concerns.

  4. Theory and learning protocols for the material tempotron model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldassi, Carlo; Braunstein, Alfredo; Zecchina, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Neural networks are able to extract information from the timing of spikes. Here we provide new results on the behavior of the simplest neuronal model which is able to decode information embedded in temporal spike patterns, the so-called tempotron. Using statistical physics techniques we compute the capacity for the case of sparse, time-discretized input, and ‘material’ discrete synapses, showing that the device saturates the information theoretic bounds with a statistics of output spikes that is consistent with the statistics of the inputs. We also derive two simple and highly efficient learning algorithms which are able to learn a number of associations which are close to the theoretical limit. The simplest versions of these algorithms correspond to distributed online protocols of interest for neuromorphic devices, and can be adapted to address the more biologically relevant continuous-time version of the classification problem, hopefully allowing the understanding of some aspects of synaptic plasticity. (paper)

  5. Relevance of deterministic chaos theory to studies in functioning of dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glagolev, S. N.; Bukhonova, S. M.; Chikina, E. D.

    2018-03-01

    The paper considers chaotic behavior of dynamical systems typical for social and economic processes. Approaches to analysis and evaluation of system development processes are studies from the point of view of controllability and determinateness. Explanations are given for necessity to apply non-standard mathematical tools to explain states of dynamical social and economic systems on the basis of fractal theory. Features of fractal structures, such as non-regularity, self-similarity, dimensionality and fractionality are considered.

  6. Renormalization group in the theory of fully developed turbulence. Problem of the infrared relevant corrections to the Navier-Stokes equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, N.V.; Borisenok, S.V.; Girina, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    Within the framework of the renormalization group approach to the theory of fully developed turbulence we consider the problem of possible IR relevant corrections to the Navier-Stokes equation. We formulate an exact criterion of the actual IR relevance of the corrections. In accordance with this criterion we verify the IR relevance for certain classes of composite operators. 17 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Utilizing Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory to Implement a Golf Scramble

    OpenAIRE

    Glenna G. Bower

    2013-01-01

    This study introduced how Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory was used across the four-mode learning cycle of abstract conceptualization, active experimentation, concrete experience and reflective observation as a pedagogical tool for implementing a golf scramble. The primary research question was to see whether Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory four-mode learning cycle was an effective means for implementing a the golf scramble. The participants of the experiential learning experience wer...

  8. [Role of the implicit theories of intelligence in learning situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, D; Cury, F; Bailly, D; Rufo, M

    2004-01-01

    Most studies have tried to explain the school difficulties by analysing the intellectual factors that lead to school failure. However in addition to the instrumental capacities, authors also recognize the role played by other factors such as motivation. More specifically, the theory of achievement motivation aims to determine motivational factors involved in achievement situations when the students have to demonstrate their competencies. This paradigm attributes a central place to beliefs in order to explain children's behavior in academic situations. According to Dweck, it seems that beliefs about the nature of intelligence have a very powerful impact on behavior. These implicit theories of intelligence create a meaning system or conceptual framework that influences the individual interpretation of school situations. Thus, an entity theory of intelligence is the belief that intelligence is a fixed trait, a personal quality that cannot be changed. Students who subscribe to this theory believe that although people can learn new things, their underlying intelligence remains the same. In contrast, an incremental theory of intelligence is the belief that intelligence is a malleable quality that can increase through efforts. The identification of these two theories allows us to understand the cognition and behavior of individuals in achievement situations. Many studies carried out in the academic area show that students who hold an entity theory of intelligence (ie they consider intelligence like a stable quality) have a strong tendency to attribute their failures to a fixed trait. They are more likely to blame their intelligence for ne-gative outcomes and to attribute failures to their bad intellectual ability. In contrast, students who hold an incremental theory of intelligence (ie they consider intelligence as a malleable quality) are more likely to understand the same ne-gative outcomes in terms of specific factors: they attribute them to a lack of effort. This

  9. Action learning in virtual higher education: applying leadership theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Joseph

    2016-05-03

    This paper reports the historical foundation of Northeastern University's course, LDR 6100: Developing Your Leadership Capability, a partial literature review of action learning (AL) and virtual action learning (VAL), a course methodology of LDR 6100 requiring students to apply leadership perspectives using VAL as instructed by the author, questionnaire and survey results of students who evaluated the effectiveness of their application of leadership theories using VAL and insights believed to have been gained by the author administering VAL. Findings indicate most students thought applying leadership perspectives using AL was better than considering leadership perspectives not using AL. In addition as implemented in LDR 6100, more students evaluated VAL positively than did those who assessed VAL negatively.

  10. Learning Theory and Equity Valuation: an Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zoratto Sanvicente

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tested the Pástor and Veronesi (2003 hypothesis that the market-to-book ratio (M/B is negatively related to the number of years (age during which a firm has had its stock traded on an Exchange. The predicted decline takes place as a result of a learning process by investors. The authors tested this implication in the U.S. market using the Fama-MacBeth (1973 methodology. In the present article a more general econometric approach is adopted, with the use of panel data and fixed-factor regressors, with data for stocks traded at the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BOVESPA. The evidence does not reject the Pástor and Veronesi hypothesis. Additional conjectures were tested regarding the learning process. These tests indicate that the greater availability of data on a company amplifies the effect of the age variable on the M/B ratio, implying a more accelerated learning process. This paper concludes that the evidence for the Brazilian market supports the theory that investors learn.

  11. Application of Learning Theories on Medical Imaging Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama A. Mabrouk Kheiralla

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the education process is that student must learn well rather than the educators to teach well. If radiologists get involved in the process of medical education, it is important for them to do it through sound knowledge of how students learn. Researches have proved that most of the teachers in the field of medical education including diagnostic imaging are actually doctors or technicians, who didn’t have an opportunity to study the basics of learning. Mostly they have gained their knowledge through watching other educators, and they mostly rely on their personal skills and experience in doing their job. This will hinder them from conveying knowledge in an effective and scientific way, and they will find themselves lagging away behind the latest advances in the field of medical education and educational research, which will lead to negative cognitive outcomes among learners. This article presents an overview of three of the most influential basic theories of learning, upon which many teachers rely in their practical applications, which must be considered by radiologist who act as medical educators.

  12. Processes of Self-Regulated Learning in Music Theory in Elementary Music Schools in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Barbara Smolej; Peklaj, Cirila

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was determine how students regulate their learning in music theory (MT). The research is based on the socio-cognitive theory of learning. The aim of our study was twofold: first, to design the instruments for measuring (meta)cognitive and affective-motivational processes in learning MT, and, second, to examine the relationship…

  13. Using Active-Learning Pedagogy to Develop Essay-Writing Skills in Introductory Political Theory Tutorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael P. A.

    2017-01-01

    Building on prior research into active learning pedagogy in political science, I discuss the development of a new active learning strategy called the "thesis-building carousel," designed for use in political theory tutorials. This use of active learning pedagogy in a graduate student-led political theory tutorial represents the overlap…

  14. The Application of Carl Rogers' Person-Centered Learning Theory to Web-Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher T.

    This paper provides a review of literature that relates research on Carl Rogers' person-centered learning theory to Web-based learning. Based on the review of the literature, a set of criteria is described that can be used to determine how closely a Web-based course matches the different components of Rogers' person-centered learning theory. Using…

  15. Cooperative Learning: Improving University Instruction by Basing Practice on Validated Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.; Smith, Karl A.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is an example of how theory validated by research may be applied to instructional practice. The major theoretical base for cooperative learning is social interdependence theory. It provides clear definitions of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. Hundreds of research studies have validated its basic…

  16. Learning Study: Helping Teachers to Use Theory, Develop Professionally, and Produce New Knowledge to Be Shared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ming Fai; Ling, Lo Mun

    2012-01-01

    The lesson study approach is a systematic process for producing professional knowledge about teaching by teachers, and has spread rapidly and extensively in the United States. The learning study approach is essentially a kind of lesson study with an explicit learning theory--the variation theory of learning. In this paper, we argue that having an…

  17. Putting into practice error management theory: Unlearning and learning to manage action errors in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Peter E D; Smith, Jim; Teo, Pauline

    2018-05-01

    Error management theory is drawn upon to examine how a project-based organization, which took the form of a program alliance, was able to change its established error prevention mindset to one that enacted a learning mindfulness that provided an avenue to curtail its action errors. The program alliance was required to unlearn its existing routines and beliefs to accommodate the practices required to embrace error management. As a result of establishing an error management culture the program alliance was able to create a collective mindfulness that nurtured learning and supported innovation. The findings provide a much-needed context to demonstrate the relevance of error management theory to effectively address rework and safety problems in construction projects. The robust theoretical underpinning that is grounded in practice and presented in this paper provides a mechanism to engender learning from errors, which can be utilized by construction organizations to improve the productivity and performance of their projects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Learning Styles of Baccalaureate Nursing Students and Attitudes toward Theory-Based Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschinger, Heather K.; Boss, Marvin K.

    1989-01-01

    The personal and environmental factors related to undergraduate and post-RN nursing students' attitudes toward theory-based nursing from Kolb's experiential learning theory perspective were investigated. Learning style and environmental press perceptions were found to be related to attitudes toward theory-based nursing. (Author/MLW)

  19. A Critical Comparison of Transformation and Deep Approach Theories of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Peter; Bagnall, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a critical comparative analysis of two popular and significant theories of adult learning: the transformation and the deep approach theories of learning. These theories are operative in different educational sectors, are significant, respectively, in each, and they may be seen as both touching on similar concerns with learning…

  20. Knowledge translation in healthcare: Incorporating theories of learning and knowledge from the management literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Racko, Girts

    2013-01-01

    The authors draw selectively on theories of learning and knowledge, which currently have received little attention from knowledge translation (KT) researchers, and suggest how they might usefully inform future development of the KT literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide conceptual tools and strategies for the growing number of managers, clinicians and decision makers navigating this arena The authors conducted a narrative review to synthesise two streams of literature and examine evolving conceptual landscape concerning knowledge translation over the previous three decades. Conceptual mapping was used iteratively to develop and synthesise the literature. Iterative feedback from relevant research and practice stakeholder groups was used to focus and strengthen the review. KT has been conceptualised along three competing frames; one focusing on linear (largely unidirectional) transfer of knowledge; one focusing on KT as a social process; and another that seeks to more fully incorporate contextual issues in understanding research implementation. Three overlapping themes are found in the management literature that inform these debates in the health literature, namely knowledge boundaries, organisational learning and absorptive capacity. Literature on knowledge boundaries problematizes the nature of boundaries and the stickiness of knowledge. Organisational learning conceptualises the need for organisational wide systems to facilitate learning processes; it also draws on a more expansive view of knowledge. Absorptive capacity focuses at the firm level on the role of developing organisational capabilities that enable the identification, assimilation and use of new knowledge to enable innovation. The paper highlights the need to consider KT processes at multiple levels, including individual, organisational and strategic levels. These are important not only for research but also have practical implications for individuals and organisations involved in KT

  1. Implicit and explicit theories in the teaching and learning processes of music theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Roa Ordoñez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the characteristics of similarity and divergence between the pedagogical discourse of teachers and their performance in the classroom, from the different educational paradigms that guide, today, the educational events. The teaching and learning of music theory constitute the backbone of the proposed curriculum of the Department of Music, which has implications in the other musical areas and, therefore, the training program that orients the area of music theory, requires an assessment of the impacts and effects caused by the performance of the teacher in charge of running this course as an essential condition to establish elements of building and transfer of knowledge in each of the disciplines that make up the curricular structure of the Department of Music.

  2. Applications of operant learning theory to the management of challenging behavior after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Rodger Ll; Alderman, Nick

    2011-01-01

    For more than 3 decades, interventions derived from learning theory have been delivered within a neurobehavioral framework to manage challenging behavior after traumatic brain injury with the aim of promoting engagement in the rehabilitation process and ameliorating social handicap. Learning theory provides a conceptual structure that facilitates our ability to understand the relationship between challenging behavior and environmental contingencies, while accommodating the constraints upon learning imposed by impaired cognition. Interventions derived from operant learning theory have most frequently been described in the literature because this method of associational learning provides good evidence for the effectiveness of differential reinforcement methods. This article therefore examines the efficacy of applying operant learning theory to manage challenging behavior after TBI as well as some of the limitations of this approach. Future developments in the application of learning theory are also considered.

  3. The Implementation of Cumulative Learning Theory in Calculating Triangular Prism and Tube Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muklis, M.; Abidin, C.; Pamungkas, M. D.; Masriyah

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at describing the application of cumulative learning theory in calculating the volume of a triangular prism and a tube as well as revealing the students’ responses toward the learning. The research method used was descriptive qualitative with elementary school students as the subjects of the research. Data obtained through observation, field notes, questionnaire, tests, and interviews. The results from the application of cumulative learning theory obtained positive students’ responses in following the learning and students’ learning outcomes was dominantly above the average. This showed that cumulative learning could be used as a reference to be implemented in learning, so as to improve the students’ achievement.

  4. Toward a theory of childhood learning disorders, hyperactivity, and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Anthony R

    2012-01-01

    Learning disorders are often associated with persistent hyperactivity and aggression and are part of a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. A potential clue to understanding these linked phenomena is that physical exercise and passive forms of stimulation are calming, enhance cognitive functions and learning, and are recommended as complementary treatments for these problems. The theory is proposed that hyperactivity and aggression are intense stimulation-seeking behaviors (SSBs) driven by increased brain retinergic activity, and the stimulation thus obtained activates opposing nitrergic systems which inhibit retinergic activity, induce a state of calm, and enhance cognition and learning. In persons with cognitive deficits and associated behavioral disorders, the retinergic system may be chronically overactivated and the nitrergic system chronically underactivated due to environmental exposures occurring pre- and/or postnatally that affect retinoid metabolism or expression. For such individuals, the intensity of stimulation generated by SSB may be insufficient to activate the inhibitory nitrergic system. A multidisciplinary research program is needed to test the model and, in particular, to determine the extent to which applied physical treatments can activate the nitrergic system directly, providing the necessary level of intensity of sensory stimulation to substitute for that obtained in maladaptive and harmful ways by SSB, thereby reducing SSB and enhancing cognitive skills and performance.

  5. Ecosystem services and economic theory: integration for policy-relevant research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Brendan; Turner, Kerry; Zylstra, Matthew; Brouwer, Roy; de Groot, Rudolf; Farber, Stephen; Ferraro, Paul; Green, Rhys; Hadley, David; Harlow, Julian; Jefferiss, Paul; Kirkby, Chris; Morling, Paul; Mowatt, Shaun; Naidoo, Robin; Paavola, Jouni; Strassburg, Bernardo; Yu, Doug; Balmford, Andrew

    2008-12-01

    It has become essential in policy and decision-making circles to think about the economic benefits (in addition to moral and scientific motivations) humans derive from well-functioning ecosystems. The concept of ecosystem services has been developed to address this link between ecosystems and human welfare. Since policy decisions are often evaluated through cost-benefit assessments, an economic analysis can help make ecosystem service research operational. In this paper we provide some simple economic analyses to discuss key concepts involved in formalizing ecosystem service research. These include the distinction between services and benefits, understanding the importance of marginal ecosystem changes, formalizing the idea of a safe minimum standard for ecosystem service provision, and discussing how to capture the public benefits of ecosystem services. We discuss how the integration of economic concepts and ecosystem services can provide policy and decision makers with a fuller spectrum of information for making conservation-conversion trade-offs. We include the results from a survey of the literature and a questionnaire of researchers regarding how ecosystem service research can be integrated into the policy process. We feel this discussion of economic concepts will be a practical aid for ecosystem service research to become more immediately policy relevant.

  6. Integration of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy Into the Science Learning Progression Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Cyntra

    This study integrated elements of culturally relevant pedagogy into a science learning progression framework, with the goal of enhancing teachers' cultural knowledge and thereby creating better teaching practices in an urban public high school science classroom. The study was conducted using teachers, an administrator, a science coach, and students involved in science courses in public high school. Through a qualitative intrinsic case study, data were collected and analyzed using traditional methods. Data from primary participants (educators) were analyzed through identification of big ideas, open coding, and themes. Through this process, patterns and emergent ideas were reported. Outcomes of this study demonstrated that educators lack knowledge about research-based academic frameworks and multicultural education strategies, but benefit through institutionally-based professional development. Students from diverse cultures responded positively to culturally-based instruction. Their progress was further manifested in better communication and discourse with their teacher and peers, and increased academic outcomes. This study has postulated and provided an exemplar for science teachers to expand and improve multicultural knowledge, ultimately transferring these skills to their pedagogical practice.

  7. Computations Underlying Social Hierarchy Learning: Distinct Neural Mechanisms for Updating and Representing Self-Relevant Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Banino, Andrea; Blundell, Charles; Hassabis, Demis; Dayan, Peter

    2016-12-07

    Knowledge about social hierarchies organizes human behavior, yet we understand little about the underlying computations. Here we show that a Bayesian inference scheme, which tracks the power of individuals, better captures behavioral and neural data compared with a reinforcement learning model inspired by rating systems used in games such as chess. We provide evidence that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) selectively mediates the updating of knowledge about one's own hierarchy, as opposed to that of another individual, a process that underpinned successful performance and involved functional interactions with the amygdala and hippocampus. In contrast, we observed domain-general coding of rank in the amygdala and hippocampus, even when the task did not require it. Our findings reveal the computations underlying a core aspect of social cognition and provide new evidence that self-relevant information may indeed be afforded a unique representational status in the brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Designing the Electronic Classroom: Applying Learning Theory and Ergonomic Design Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Mark; Wilkinson, Frances C.

    2001-01-01

    Applies learning theory and ergonomic principles to the design of effective learning environments for library instruction. Discusses features of electronic classroom ergonomics, including the ergonomics of physical space, environmental factors, and workstations; and includes classroom layouts. (Author/LRW)

  9. Relevance of sampling schemes in light of Ruelle's linear response theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Wouters, Jeroen; Faranda, Davide; Kuna, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    We reconsider the theory of the linear response of non-equilibrium steady states to perturbations. We first show that using a general functional decomposition for space–time dependent forcings, we can define elementary susceptibilities that allow us to construct the linear response of the system to general perturbations. Starting from the definition of SRB measure, we then study the consequence of taking different sampling schemes for analysing the response of the system. We show that only a specific choice of the time horizon for evaluating the response of the system to a general time-dependent perturbation allows us to obtain the formula first presented by Ruelle. We also discuss the special case of periodic perturbations, showing that when they are taken into consideration the sampling can be fine-tuned to make the definition of the correct time horizon immaterial. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results in terms of strategies for analysing the outputs of numerical experiments by providing a critical review of a formula proposed by Reick

  10. A teacher-centered exploration of the relevance of social factors to theory of mind development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barlow C; Mahfoud, Janina

    2014-02-01

    Many accounts of children's Theory of Mind (ToM) development favor a cognitive explanation, for example, in terms of mental representational improvements at or before 4 years. Here, we investigated whether social factors as rated by a child's teacher, are related to ToM development. We tested 82 children of 3-6 years on each of four ToM tasks, and their class teacher completed a social questionnaire about each child's playing behavior, sharing, talkativeness, confidence, aggressiveness and outgoingness. A measure of task memory and the child's gender were also recorded. Here, children generally passed ToM tasks after 5 years-old, but no one gender performed reliably better than the other. Teacher-rated confidence and playing behavior were correlated to ToM. But in a regression analysis, these were replaced by teacher-rated talkativeness; with age and memory given primacy in both sets of analyses. It is concluded that maturation and cognitive factors may well have primacy but social factors, facilitated during early primary education, must also be given a role in ToM development. © 2013 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Observational attachment theory-based parenting measures predict children's attachment narratives independently from social learning theory-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Carla; O'Connor, Thomas G; Futh, Annabel; Scott, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Conceptually and methodologically distinct models exist for assessing quality of parent-child relationships, but few studies contrast competing models or assess their overlap in predicting developmental outcomes. Using observational methodology, the current study examined the distinctiveness of attachment theory-based and social learning theory-based measures of parenting in predicting two key measures of child adjustment: security of attachment narratives and social acceptance in peer nominations. A total of 113 5-6-year-old children from ethnically diverse families participated. Parent-child relationships were rated using standard paradigms. Measures derived from attachment theory included sensitive responding and mutuality; measures derived from social learning theory included positive attending, directives, and criticism. Child outcomes were independently-rated attachment narrative representations and peer nominations. Results indicated that Attachment theory-based and Social Learning theory-based measures were modestly correlated; nonetheless, parent-child mutuality predicted secure child attachment narratives independently of social learning theory-based measures; in contrast, criticism predicted peer-nominated fighting independently of attachment theory-based measures. In young children, there is some evidence that attachment theory-based measures may be particularly predictive of attachment narratives; however, no single model of measuring parent-child relationships is likely to best predict multiple developmental outcomes. Assessment in research and applied settings may benefit from integration of different theoretical and methodological paradigms.

  12. IMPROVING TRUST THROUGH ETHICAL LEADERSHIP: MOVING BEYOND THE SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY TO A HISTORICAL LEARNING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omoregie Charles Osifo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The complex nature of trust and its evolving relative concepts require a more idealistic and simpler review. Ethical leadership is related to trust, honesty, transparency, compassion, empathy, results-orientedness, and many other behavioral attributes. Ethical leadership and good leadership are the same, because they represent practicing what one preaches or showing a way to the accomplishment of set goals. The outcomes and findings of many research papers on trust and ethical leadership report positive correlations between ethical leadership and trust. Improving trust from different rational standpoints requires moving and looking beyond the popular theoretical framework through which most results are derived in order to create a new thinking perspective. Social learning theory strongly emphasizes modelling while the new historical learning approach, proposed by the author, is defined as an approach that creates unique historical awareness among individuals, groups, institutions, societies, and nations to use previous experience(s or occurrence(s as a guide in developing positive opinion(s and framework(s in order to tackle the problems and issues of today and tomorrow. Social learning theory is seen as limited from the perspectives of balancing the equation between leadership and trust, the non-compatibility of the values of different generations at work, and other approaches and methods that support the historical approach. This paper is argumentative, adopts a writer´s perspective, and employs a logical analysis of the literature. The main contention is that a historical learning approach can inform an independent-learning to improve trust and its relatives (e.g. motivation and performance, because independent learning can positively shape the value of integrity, which is an integral part of ethical leadership. Historical learning can positively shape leadership in every perspective, because good leadership can develop based on history and

  13. Applying Social Cognitive Theory to Academic Advising to Assess Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene

    2011-01-01

    Review of social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning is applied to academic advising for the purposes of assessing student learning. A brief overview of the history of student learning outcomes in higher education is followed by an explanation of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning constructs and how they…

  14. Using Game Theory and Competition-Based Learning to Stimulate Student Motivation and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguillo, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for using Game Theory tournaments as a base to implement Competition-based Learning (CnBL), together with other classical learning techniques, to motivate the students and increase their learning performance. The paper also presents a description of the learning activities performed along the past ten years of a…

  15. The Place of Learning Quantum Theory in Physics Teacher Education: Motivational Elements Arising from the Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis

    2015-01-01

    Quantum theory is one of the most successful theories in physics. Because of its abstract, mathematical, and counter-intuitive nature, many students have problems learning the theory, just as teachers experience difficulty in teaching it. Pedagogical research on quantum theory has mainly focused on cognitive issues. However, affective issues about…

  16. Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory and Its Application in Geography in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Mick; Jenkins, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Describes David Kolb's experiential learning theory focusing on the main features of his theory. Applies Kolb's theory to the teaching of geography addressing ideas such as teaching how theories of gender explain aspects of suburbia, teaching a field course, and encouraging staff to rethink their teaching style. Include references. (CMK)

  17. Deep Learning in Intermediate Microeconomics: Using Scaffolding Assignments to Teach Theory and Promote Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gareth P.; Bean, John C.; Peterson, Dean J.

    2013-01-01

    Intermediate microeconomics is typically viewed as a theory and tools course that relies on algorithmic problems to help students learn and apply economic theory. However, the authors' assessment research suggests that algorithmic problems by themselves do not encourage students to think about where the theory comes from, why the theory is…

  18. Reflections on Theories of Social Optimization and Their Relevance for Future City Management in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Higano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The paradigm of laissez-faire economy presumes that economic agents know efficient loci for input-output combinations and rationally act in the market by following their subjective values. Economy is efficiently organized and given dynamic forces to grow at its own risk. As a result, the greatest happiness for a great number is attained. It is difficult to correctly answer the question, why should we consider city management? Of course, the paradigm will not work in a city due to congestion and agglomeration as well as specificity of location. However, it is not sufficient to consider only subsidiary taxes and subsidy systems like Pigouvian prescriptions that lead the market equilibrium to a Pareto Optimum.In a mature economy such as the Japanese economy that faces a long depression under pressure of aging and decreasing population, there are few investable targets as long as it is taken for granted that the paradigm should be maintained. Moreover, in a globalized economy, cities must compete against their rivals. This means not only efficiency of activities in the Pareto sense in the city but a higher absolute level of activity must be realized.In this study, we focused on external costs and benefits that accrue through the activities of economic agents in a city. We argue that activities should be managed and controlled so external benefits are generated to a maximum extent and the activity level of the city is also maximized. KEYWORDS: Theories of social benefits, socially optimum optimorum, city management, urban future Japan

  19. Percolation transport theory and relevance to soil formation, vegetation growth, and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, A. G.; Ghanbarian, B.

    2016-12-01

    Scaling laws of percolation theory have been applied to generate the time dependence of vegetation growth rates (both intensively managed and natural) and soil formation rates. The soil depth is thus equal to the solute vertical transport distance, the soil production function, chemical weathering rates, and C and N storage rates are all given by the time derivative of the soil depth. Approximate numerical coefficients based on the maximum flow rates in soils have been proposed, leading to a broad understanding of such processes. What is now required is an accurate understanding of the variability of the coefficients in the scaling relationships. The present abstract focuses on the scaling relationship for solute transport and soil formation. A soil formation rate relates length, x, and time, t, scales, meaning that the missing coefficient must include information about fundamental space and time scales, x0 and t0. x0 is proposed to be a fundamental mineral heterogeneity scale, i.e. a median particle diameter. to is then found from the ratio of x0 and a fundamental flow rate, v0, which is identified with the net infiltration rate. The net infiltration rate is equal to precipitation P less evapotranspiration, ET, plus run-on less run-off. Using this hypothesis, it is possible to predict soil depths and formation rates as functions of time and P - ET, and the formation rate as a function of depth, soil calcic and gypsic horizon depths as functions of P-ET. It is also possible to determine when soils are in equilibrium, and predict relationships of erosion rates and soil formation rates.

  20. Learning about Learning: The Contributions of Ausubel's Assimilation Theory to a Teacher Education Program at the University of Vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Markley; Stowell, Mary Ellen

    An experiment employed cognitive based teaching and learning procedures in an undergraduate educational psychology course. The procedures were strongly influenced by David Ausubel's theory on learning and related skills. Ausubel defines effective learning as a process by which humans understand the structure of knowledge and consciously make…

  1. Computer-based teaching module design: principles derived from learning theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, K H Vincent

    2014-03-01

    The computer-based teaching module (CBTM), which has recently gained prominence in medical education, is a teaching format in which a multimedia program serves as a single source for knowledge acquisition rather than playing an adjunctive role as it does in computer-assisted learning (CAL). Despite empirical validation in the past decade, there is limited research into the optimisation of CBTM design. This review aims to summarise research in classic and modern multimedia-specific learning theories applied to computer learning, and to collapse the findings into a set of design principles to guide the development of CBTMs. Scopus was searched for: (i) studies of classic cognitivism, constructivism and behaviourism theories (search terms: 'cognitive theory' OR 'constructivism theory' OR 'behaviourism theory' AND 'e-learning' OR 'web-based learning') and their sub-theories applied to computer learning, and (ii) recent studies of modern learning theories applied to computer learning (search terms: 'learning theory' AND 'e-learning' OR 'web-based learning') for articles published between 1990 and 2012. The first search identified 29 studies, dominated in topic by the cognitive load, elaboration and scaffolding theories. The second search identified 139 studies, with diverse topics in connectivism, discovery and technical scaffolding. Based on their relative representation in the literature, the applications of these theories were collapsed into a list of CBTM design principles. Ten principles were identified and categorised into three levels of design: the global level (managing objectives, framing, minimising technical load); the rhetoric level (optimising modality, making modality explicit, scaffolding, elaboration, spaced repeating), and the detail level (managing text, managing devices). This review examined the literature in the application of learning theories to CAL to develop a set of principles that guide CBTM design. Further research will enable educators to

  2. Relevance of control theory to design and maintenance problems in time-variant reliability: The case of stochastic viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougé, Charles; Mathias, Jean-Denis; Deffuant, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is twofold: (1) to show that time-variant reliability and a branch of control theory called stochastic viability address similar problems with different points of view, and (2) to demonstrate the relevance of concepts and methods from stochastic viability in reliability problems. On the one hand, reliability aims at evaluating the probability of failure of a system subjected to uncertainty and stochasticity. On the other hand, viability aims at maintaining a controlled dynamical system within a survival set. When the dynamical system is stochastic, this work shows that a viability problem belongs to a specific class of design and maintenance problems in time-variant reliability. Dynamic programming, which is used for solving Markovian stochastic viability problems, then yields the set of design states for which there exists a maintenance strategy which guarantees reliability with a confidence level β for a given period of time T. Besides, it leads to a straightforward computation of the date of the first outcrossing, informing on when the system is most likely to fail. We illustrate this approach with a simple example of population dynamics, including a case where load increases with time. - Highlights: • Time-variant reliability tools cannot devise complex maintenance strategies. • Stochastic viability is a control theory that computes a probability of failure. • Some design and maintenance problems are stochastic viability problems. • Used in viability, dynamic programming can find reliable maintenance actions. • Confronting reliability and control theories such as viability is promising

  3. Understanding the essential elements of work-based learning and its relevance to everyday clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caroline

    2010-09-01

    To critically review the work-based learning literature and explore the implications of the findings for the development of work-based learning programmes. With NHS budgets under increasing pressure, and challenges to the impact of classroom-based learning on patient outcomes, work-based learning is likely to come under increased scrutiny as a potential solution. Evidence from higher education institutions suggests that work-based learning can improve practice, but in many cases it is perceived as little more than on-the-job training to perform tasks. The CINAHL database was searched using the keywords work-based learning, work-place learning and practice-based learning. Those articles that had a focus on post-registration nursing were selected and critically reviewed. Using the review of the literature, three key issues were explored. Work-based learning has the potential to change practice. Learning how to learn and critical reflection are key features. For effective work-based learning nurses need to take control of their own learning, receive support to critically reflect on their practice and be empowered to make changes to that practice. A critical review of the literature has identified essential considerations for the implementation of work-based learning. A change in culture from classroom to work-based learning requires careful planning and consideration of learning cultures. To enable effective work-based learning, nurse managers need to develop a learning culture in their workplace. They should ensure that skilled facilitation is provided to support staff with critical reflection and effecting changes in practice. CONTRIBUTION TO NEW KNOWLEDGE: This paper has identified three key issues that need to be considered in the development of work-based learning programmes. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning: The OPTIMAL theory of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Gabriele; Lewthwaite, Rebecca

    2016-10-01

    Effective motor performance is important for surviving and thriving, and skilled movement is critical in many activities. Much theorizing over the past few decades has focused on how certain practice conditions affect the processing of task-related information to affect learning. Yet, existing theoretical perspectives do not accommodate significant recent lines of evidence demonstrating motivational and attentional effects on performance and learning. These include research on (a) conditions that enhance expectancies for future performance, (b) variables that influence learners' autonomy, and (c) an external focus of attention on the intended movement effect. We propose the OPTIMAL (Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning) theory of motor learning. We suggest that motivational and attentional factors contribute to performance and learning by strengthening the coupling of goals to actions. We provide explanations for the performance and learning advantages of these variables on psychological and neuroscientific grounds. We describe a plausible mechanism for expectancy effects rooted in responses of dopamine to the anticipation of positive experience and temporally associated with skill practice. Learner autonomy acts perhaps largely through an enhanced expectancy pathway. Furthermore, we consider the influence of an external focus for the establishment of efficient functional connections across brain networks that subserve skilled movement. We speculate that enhanced expectancies and an external focus propel performers' cognitive and motor systems in productive "forward" directions and prevent "backsliding" into self- and non-task focused states. Expected success presumably breeds further success and helps consolidate memories. We discuss practical implications and future research directions.

  5. Sustainability of healthcare improvement: what can we learn from learning theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovlid Einar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes that improve the quality of health care should be sustained. Falling back to old, unsatisfactory ways of working is a waste of resources and can in the worst case increase resistance to later initiatives to improve care. Quality improvement relies on changing the clinical system yet factors that influence the sustainability of quality improvements are poorly understood. Theoretical frameworks can guide further research on the sustainability of quality improvements. Theories of organizational learning have contributed to a better understanding of organizational change in other contexts. To identify factors contributing to sustainability of improvements, we use learning theory to explore a case that had displayed sustained improvement. Methods Førde Hospital redesigned the pathway for elective surgery and achieved sustained reduction of cancellation rates. We used a qualitative case study design informed by theory to explore factors that contributed to sustain the improvements at Førde Hospital. The model Evidence in the Learning Organization describes how organizational learning contributes to change in healthcare institutions. This model constituted the framework for data collection and analysis. We interviewed a strategic sample of 20 employees. The in-depth interviews covered themes identified through our theoretical framework. Through a process of coding and condensing, we identified common themes that were interpreted in relation to our theoretical framework. Results Clinicians and leaders shared information about their everyday work and related this knowledge to how the entire clinical pathway could be improved. In this way they developed a revised and deeper understanding of their clinical system and its interdependencies. They became increasingly aware of how different elements needed to interact to enhance the performance and how their own efforts could contribute. Conclusions The improved understanding of

  6. Sustainability of healthcare improvement: what can we learn from learning theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovlid, Einar; Bukve, Oddbjørn; Haug, Kjell; Aslaksen, Aslak Bjarne; von Plessen, Christian

    2012-08-03

    Changes that improve the quality of health care should be sustained. Falling back to old, unsatisfactory ways of working is a waste of resources and can in the worst case increase resistance to later initiatives to improve care. Quality improvement relies on changing the clinical system yet factors that influence the sustainability of quality improvements are poorly understood. Theoretical frameworks can guide further research on the sustainability of quality improvements. Theories of organizational learning have contributed to a better understanding of organizational change in other contexts. To identify factors contributing to sustainability of improvements, we use learning theory to explore a case that had displayed sustained improvement. Førde Hospital redesigned the pathway for elective surgery and achieved sustained reduction of cancellation rates. We used a qualitative case study design informed by theory to explore factors that contributed to sustain the improvements at Førde Hospital. The model Evidence in the Learning Organization describes how organizational learning contributes to change in healthcare institutions. This model constituted the framework for data collection and analysis. We interviewed a strategic sample of 20 employees. The in-depth interviews covered themes identified through our theoretical framework. Through a process of coding and condensing, we identified common themes that were interpreted in relation to our theoretical framework. Clinicians and leaders shared information about their everyday work and related this knowledge to how the entire clinical pathway could be improved. In this way they developed a revised and deeper understanding of their clinical system and its interdependencies. They became increasingly aware of how different elements needed to interact to enhance the performance and how their own efforts could contribute. The improved understanding of the clinical system represented a change in mental models of

  7. Connectivism: Learning theory of the future or vestige of the past?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Kop

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Siemens and Downes initially received increasing attention in the blogosphere in 2005 when they discussed their ideas concerning distributed knowledge. An extended discourse has ensued in and around the status of ‘connectivism’ as a learning theory for the digital age. This has led to a number of questions in relation to existing learning theories. Do they still meet the needs of today’s learners, and anticipate the needs of learners of the future? Would a new theory that encompasses new developments in digital technology be more appropriate, and would it be suitable for other aspects of learning, including in the traditional class room, in distance education and e-learning? This paper will highlight current theories of learning and critically analyse connectivism within the context of its predecessors, to establish if it has anything new to offer as a learning theory or as an approach to teaching for the 21st Century.

  8. Not that Different in Theory: Discussing the Control-Value Theory of Emotions in Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Lia M.; Stupnisky, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary investigates the extent to which the control-value theory of emotions (Pekrun, 2006) is applicable in online learning environments. Four empirical studies in this special issue of "The Internet and Higher Education" explicitly used the control-value theory as their theoretical framework and several others have components of the…

  9. Applications of social constructivist learning theories in knowledge translation for healthcare professionals: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Aliki; Menon, Anita; Boruff, Jill; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Ahmed, Sara

    2014-05-06

    Use of theory is essential for advancing the science of knowledge translation (KT) and for increasing the likelihood that KT interventions will be successful in reducing existing research-practice gaps in health care. As a sociological theory of knowledge, social constructivist theory may be useful for informing the design and evaluation of KT interventions. As such, this scoping review explored the extent to which social constructivist theory has been applied in the KT literature for healthcare professionals. Searches were conducted in six databases: Ovid MEDLINE (1948 - May 16, 2011), Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycInfo, and AMED. Inclusion criteria were: publications from all health professions, research methodologies, as well as conceptual and theoretical papers related to KT. To be included in the review, key words such as constructivism, social constructivism, or social constructivist theories had to be included within the title or abstract. Papers that discussed the use of social constructivist theories in the context of undergraduate learning in academic settings were excluded from the review. An analytical framework of quantitative (numerical) and thematic analysis was used to examine and combine study findings. Of the 514 articles screened, 35 papers published between 1992 and 2011 were deemed eligible and included in the review. This review indicated that use of social constructivist theory in the KT literature was limited and haphazard. The lack of justification for the use of theory continues to represent a shortcoming of the papers reviewed. Potential applications and relevance of social constructivist theory in KT in general and in the specific studies were not made explicit in most papers. For the acquisition, expression and application of knowledge in practice, there was emphasis on how the social constructivist theory supports clinicians in expressing this knowledge in their professional interactions. This scoping review was the first to examine

  10. Applications of social constructivist learning theories in knowledge translation for healthcare professionals: a scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of theory is essential for advancing the science of knowledge translation (KT) and for increasing the likelihood that KT interventions will be successful in reducing existing research-practice gaps in health care. As a sociological theory of knowledge, social constructivist theory may be useful for informing the design and evaluation of KT interventions. As such, this scoping review explored the extent to which social constructivist theory has been applied in the KT literature for healthcare professionals. Methods Searches were conducted in six databases: Ovid MEDLINE (1948 – May 16, 2011), Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycInfo, and AMED. Inclusion criteria were: publications from all health professions, research methodologies, as well as conceptual and theoretical papers related to KT. To be included in the review, key words such as constructivism, social constructivism, or social constructivist theories had to be included within the title or abstract. Papers that discussed the use of social constructivist theories in the context of undergraduate learning in academic settings were excluded from the review. An analytical framework of quantitative (numerical) and thematic analysis was used to examine and combine study findings. Results Of the 514 articles screened, 35 papers published between 1992 and 2011 were deemed eligible and included in the review. This review indicated that use of social constructivist theory in the KT literature was limited and haphazard. The lack of justification for the use of theory continues to represent a shortcoming of the papers reviewed. Potential applications and relevance of social constructivist theory in KT in general and in the specific studies were not made explicit in most papers. For the acquisition, expression and application of knowledge in practice, there was emphasis on how the social constructivist theory supports clinicians in expressing this knowledge in their professional interactions. Conclusions This

  11. The (kinetic) theory of active particles applied to learning dynamics. Comment on "Collective learning modeling based on the kinetic theory of active particles" by D. Burini et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, J.

    2016-03-01

    The learning phenomena, their complexity, concepts, structure, suitable theories and models, have been extensively treated in the mathematical literature in the last century, and [4] contains a very good introduction to the literature describing the many approaches and lines of research developed about them. Two main schools have to be pointed out [5] in order to understand the two -not exclusive- kinds of existing models: the stimulus sampling models and the stochastic learning models. Also [6] should be mentioned as a survey where two methods of learning are pointed out, the cognitive and the social, and where the knowledge looks like a mathematical unknown. Finally, as the authors do, we refer to the works [9,10], where the concept of population thinking was introduced and which motivate the game theory rules as a tool (both included in [4] to develop their theory) and [7], where the ideas of developing a mathematical kinetic theory of perception and learning were proposed.

  12. Using complexity theory to develop a student-directed interprofessional learning activity for 1220 healthcare students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Christine; Nisbet, Gillian; Roberts, Chris; Gordon, Christopher; Gentilcore, Stacey; Chen, Timothy F

    2016-08-08

    More and better interprofessional practice is predicated to be necessary to deliver good care to the patients of the future. However, universities struggle to create authentic learning activities that enable students to experience the dynamic interprofessional interactions common in healthcare and that can accommodate large interprofessional student cohorts. We investigated a large-scale mandatory interprofessional learning (IPL) activity for health professional students designed to promote social learning. A mixed methods research approach determined feasibility, acceptability and the extent to which student IPL outcomes were met. We developed an IPL activity founded in complexity theory to prepare students for future practice by engaging them in a self-directed (self-organised) learning activity with a diverse team, whose assessable products would be emergent creations. Complicated but authentic clinical cases (n = 12) were developed to challenge student teams (n = 5 or 6). Assessment consisted of a written management plan (academically marked) and a five-minute video (peer marked) designed to assess creative collaboration as well as provide evidence of integrated collective knowledge; the cohesive patient-centred management plan. All students (including the disciplines of diagnostic radiology, exercise physiology, medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, pharmacy, physiotherapy and speech pathology), completed all tasks successfully. Of the 26 % of students who completed the evaluation survey, 70 % agreed or strongly agreed that the IPL activity was worthwhile, and 87 % agreed or strongly agreed that their case study was relevant. Thematic analysis found overarching themes of engagement and collaboration-in-action suggesting that the IPL activity enabled students to achieve the intended learning objectives. Students recognised the contribution of others and described negotiation, collaboration and creation of new collective knowledge after working

  13. Using Item Response Theory to Evaluate LSCI Learning Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlingman, Wayne M.; Prather, E. E.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing the data from the recent national study using the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI), this project uses Item Response Theory (IRT) to investigate the learning gains of students as measured by the LSCI. IRT provides a theoretical model to generate parameters accounting for students’ abilities. We use IRT to measure changes in students’ abilities to reason about light from pre- to post-instruction. Changes in students’ abilities are compared by classroom to better understand the learning that is taking place in classrooms across the country. We compare the average change in ability for each classroom to the Interactivity Assessment Score (IAS) to provide further insight into the prior results presented from this data set. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  14. Transformative learning theory: facilitating mammography screening in rural women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtzer, Mary Anne; Overstreet, Lindsey

    2014-03-01

    To use transformative learning to investigate what experiences serve as catalysts for mammography screening, the cognitive and affective responses that result from the catalyst, and how screening behavior is impacted. A descriptive qualitative study. Southeastern Wyoming. 25 low-income, rural women aged 40 years and older. Four focus group interviews. Cancer experiences triggered universal responses of fear by screeners and nonscreeners. The manner in which that fear response was interpreted was a critical factor in the facilitation of, or impedance to, screening. Dichotomous interpretations of fear responses provided the context for screening behavior. Immobilizing and isolating experiences were associated with nonscreening behavior, whereas motivation and self-efficacy were associated with screening behavior. Transformative learning theory is a useful framework from which to explain differences in mammography screening behavior. Creating opportunities that facilitate dialogue and critical reflection hold the potential to change immobilizing and isolating frames of reference in nonscreening women. To help women transcend their fear and become self-efficacious, nurses can assess how cancer and the screening experience is viewed and, if indicated, move beyond standard education and offer opportunities for dialogue and critical reflection.

  15. Differential impact of relevant and irrelevant dimension primes on rule-based and information-integration category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lisa R; Maddox, W Todd

    2013-11-01

    Research has identified multiple category-learning systems with each being "tuned" for learning categories with different task demands and each governed by different neurobiological systems. Rule-based (RB) classification involves testing verbalizable rules for category membership while information-integration (II) classification requires the implicit learning of stimulus-response mappings. In the first study to directly test rule priming with RB and II category learning, we investigated the influence of the availability of information presented at the beginning of the task. Participants viewed lines that varied in length, orientation, and position on the screen, and were primed to focus on stimulus dimensions that were relevant or irrelevant to the correct classification rule. In Experiment 1, we used an RB category structure, and in Experiment 2, we used an II category structure. Accuracy and model-based analyses suggested that a focus on relevant dimensions improves RB task performance later in learning while a focus on an irrelevant dimension improves II task performance early in learning. © 2013.

  16. Teaching organization theory for healthcare management: three applied learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    Organization theory (OT) provides a way of seeing, describing, analyzing, understanding, and improving organizations based on patterns of organizational design and behavior (Daft 2004). It gives managers models, principles, and methods with which to diagnose and fix organization structure, design, and process problems. Health care organizations (HCOs) face serious problems such as fatal medical errors, harmful treatment delays, misuse of scarce nurses, costly inefficiency, and service failures. Some of health care managers' most critical work involves designing and structuring their organizations so their missions, visions, and goals can be achieved-and in some cases so their organizations can survive. Thus, it is imperative that graduate healthcare management programs develop effective approaches for teaching OT to students who will manage HCOs. Guided by principles of education, three applied teaching/learning activities/assignments were created to teach OT in a graduate healthcare management program. These educationalmethods develop students' competency with OT applied to HCOs. The teaching techniques in this article may be useful to faculty teaching graduate courses in organization theory and related subjects such as leadership, quality, and operation management.

  17. Inference algorithms and learning theory for Bayesian sparse factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattray, Magnus; Sharp, Kevin; Stegle, Oliver; Winn, John

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian sparse factor analysis has many applications; for example, it has been applied to the problem of inferring a sparse regulatory network from gene expression data. We describe a number of inference algorithms for Bayesian sparse factor analysis using a slab and spike mixture prior. These include well-established Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and variational Bayes (VB) algorithms as well as a novel hybrid of VB and Expectation Propagation (EP). For the case of a single latent factor we derive a theory for learning performance using the replica method. We compare the MCMC and VB/EP algorithm results with simulated data to the theoretical prediction. The results for MCMC agree closely with the theory as expected. Results for VB/EP are slightly sub-optimal but show that the new algorithm is effective for sparse inference. In large-scale problems MCMC is infeasible due to computational limitations and the VB/EP algorithm then provides a very useful computationally efficient alternative.

  18. Inference algorithms and learning theory for Bayesian sparse factor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattray, Magnus; Sharp, Kevin [School of Computer Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Stegle, Oliver [Max-Planck-Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tuebingen (Germany); Winn, John, E-mail: magnus.rattray@manchester.ac.u [Microsoft Research Cambridge, Roger Needham Building, Cambridge, CB3 0FB (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-01

    Bayesian sparse factor analysis has many applications; for example, it has been applied to the problem of inferring a sparse regulatory network from gene expression data. We describe a number of inference algorithms for Bayesian sparse factor analysis using a slab and spike mixture prior. These include well-established Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and variational Bayes (VB) algorithms as well as a novel hybrid of VB and Expectation Propagation (EP). For the case of a single latent factor we derive a theory for learning performance using the replica method. We compare the MCMC and VB/EP algorithm results with simulated data to the theoretical prediction. The results for MCMC agree closely with the theory as expected. Results for VB/EP are slightly sub-optimal but show that the new algorithm is effective for sparse inference. In large-scale problems MCMC is infeasible due to computational limitations and the VB/EP algorithm then provides a very useful computationally efficient alternative.

  19. Which Management Control System principles and aspects are relevant when deploying a learning machine?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Johansson; Mikael, Göthager

    2017-01-01

    How shall a business adapt its management control systems when learning machines enter the arena? Will the control system continue to focus on humans aspects and continue to consider a learning machine to be an automation tool as any other historically programmed computer? Learning machines introduces productivity capabilities that achieve very high levels of efficiency and quality. A learning machine can sort through large amounts of data and make conclusions difficult by a human mind. Howev...

  20. En retorisk forståelsesramme for Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (A Rhetorical Theory on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harlung, Asger

    2003-01-01

    The dissertation explores the potential of rhetorical theories for understanding, analyzing, or planning communication and learning processes, and for integrating the digitized contexts and human interaction and communication proccesses in a single theoretical framework. Based on Cicero's rhetori...... applied to two empirical case studies of Master programs, the dissertation develops and presents a new theory on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL).......The dissertation explores the potential of rhetorical theories for understanding, analyzing, or planning communication and learning processes, and for integrating the digitized contexts and human interaction and communication proccesses in a single theoretical framework. Based on Cicero's rhetoric...

  1. Incorporating rapid neocortical learning of new schema-consistent information into complementary learning systems theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, James L

    2013-11-01

    The complementary learning systems theory of the roles of hippocampus and neocortex (McClelland, McNaughton, & O'Reilly, 1995) holds that the rapid integration of arbitrary new information into neocortical structures is avoided to prevent catastrophic interference with structured knowledge representations stored in synaptic connections among neocortical neurons. Recent studies (Tse et al., 2007, 2011) showed that neocortical circuits can rapidly acquire new associations that are consistent with prior knowledge. The findings challenge the complementary learning systems theory as previously presented. However, new simulations extending those reported in McClelland et al. (1995) show that new information that is consistent with knowledge previously acquired by a putatively cortexlike artificial neural network can be learned rapidly and without interfering with existing knowledge; it is when inconsistent new knowledge is acquired quickly that catastrophic interference ensues. Several important features of the findings of Tse et al. (2007, 2011) are captured in these simulations, indicating that the neural network model used in McClelland et al. has characteristics in common with neocortical learning mechanisms. An additional simulation generalizes beyond the network model previously used, showing how the rate of change of cortical connections can depend on prior knowledge in an arguably more biologically plausible network architecture. In sum, the findings of Tse et al. are fully consistent with the idea that hippocampus and neocortex are complementary learning systems. Taken together, these findings and the simulations reported here advance our knowledge by bringing out the role of consistency of new experience with existing knowledge and demonstrating that the rate of change of connections in real and artificial neural networks can be strongly prior-knowledge dependent. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Reexamining Theories of Adult Learning and Adult Development through the Lenses of Public Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Clark, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    The authors examine the modernist underpinnings of traditional adult learning and development theories and evaluate elements of those theories through more contemporary lenses. Drawing on recent literature focused on "public pedagogy," the authors argue that much learning takes place outside of formal educational institutions. They look beyond…

  3. Social Learning Theory Parenting Intervention Promotes Attachment-Based Caregiving in Young Children: Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Matias, Carla; Futh, Annabel; Tantam, Grace; Scott, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Parenting programs for school-aged children are typically based on behavioral principles as applied in social learning theory. It is not yet clear if the benefits of these interventions extend beyond aspects of the parent-child relationship quality conceptualized by social learning theory. The current study examined the extent to which a social…

  4. Social Learning Theory and Developmental Psychology: The Legacies of Robert Sears and Albert Bandura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusec, Joan E.

    1992-01-01

    Social learning theory is evaluated from a historical perspective that goes up to the present. Sears and others melded psychoanalytic and stimulus-response learning theory into a comprehensive explanation of human behavior. Bandura emphasized cognitive and information-processing capacities that mediate social behavior. (LB)

  5. Implications of Bandura's Observational Learning Theory for a Competency Based Teacher Education Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartjen, Raymond H.

    Albert Bandura of Stanford University has proposed four component processes to his theory of observational learning: a) attention, b) retention, c) motor reproduction, and d) reinforcement and motivation. This study represents one phase of an effort to relate modeling and observational learning theory to teacher training. The problem of this study…

  6. Collaborative Learning in an Undergraduate Theory Course: An Assessment of Goals and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuff, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    This project was designed to assess whether a collaborative learning approach to teaching sociological theory would be a successful means of improving student engagement in learning theory and of increasing both the depth of students' understanding of theoretical arguments and concepts and the ability of students to theorize for themselves. A…

  7. Instructional Theory for Using a Class Wiki to Support Collaborative Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an instructional theory for using a class wiki to support collaborative learning in higher education. Although wikis have been identified in theory as one of the most powerful emerging technologies to support collaborative learning, challenges have been revealed in a number of studies regarding student…

  8. A Visual Encapsulation of Adlerian Theory: A Tool for Teaching and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Cynthia J.

    2001-01-01

    A visual diagram is presented in this article to illustrate 6 key concepts of Adlerian theory discussed in corresponding narrative format. It is proposed that in an age of multimedia learning, a pictorial reference can enhance the teaching and learning of Adlerian theory, representing a commitment to humanistic education. (Contains 18 references.)…

  9. Towards a Semantic E-Learning Theory by Using a Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Luoma, Pertti V. J.; Naeve, Ambjorn

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, a semantic perspective on e-learning theory is advanced and a modelling approach is used. This modelling approach towards the new learning theory is based on the four SECI phases of knowledge conversion: Socialisation, Externalisation, Combination and Internalisation, introduced by Nonaka in 1994, and involving two levels of…

  10. Finding the Right Fit: Helping Students Apply Theory to Service-Learning Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricke, Audrey

    2018-01-01

    Background: Although past studies of service-learning focus on assessing student growth, few studies address how to support students in applying theory to their service-learning experiences. Yet, the task of applying theory is a central component of critical reflections within the social sciences in higher education and often causes anxiety among…

  11. Neural network modelling and dynamical system theory: are they relevant to study the governing dynamics of association football players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt-Mazumder, Aviroop; Button, Chris; Robins, Anthony; Bartlett, Roger

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have explored the organization of player movements in team sports using a range of statistical tools. However, the factors that best explain the performance of association football teams remain elusive. Arguably, this is due to the high-dimensional behavioural outputs that illustrate the complex, evolving configurations typical of team games. According to dynamical system analysts, movement patterns in team sports exhibit nonlinear self-organizing features. Nonlinear processing tools (i.e. Artificial Neural Networks; ANNs) are becoming increasingly popular to investigate the coordination of participants in sports competitions. ANNs are well suited to describing high-dimensional data sets with nonlinear attributes, however, limited information concerning the processes required to apply ANNs exists. This review investigates the relative value of various ANN learning approaches used in sports performance analysis of team sports focusing on potential applications for association football. Sixty-two research sources were summarized and reviewed from electronic literature search engines such as SPORTDiscus, Google Scholar, IEEE Xplore, Scirus, ScienceDirect and Elsevier. Typical ANN learning algorithms can be adapted to perform pattern recognition and pattern classification. Particularly, dimensionality reduction by a Kohonen feature map (KFM) can compress chaotic high-dimensional datasets into low-dimensional relevant information. Such information would be useful for developing effective training drills that should enhance self-organizing coordination among players. We conclude that ANN-based qualitative analysis is a promising approach to understand the dynamical attributes of association football players.

  12. Cross-cultural relevance of the Interpersonal Theory of suicide across Korean and U.S. undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sooyeon; Ebesutani, Chad K; Hagan, Christopher R; Rogers, Megan L; Hom, Melanie A; Ringer, Fallon B; Bernert, Rebecca A; Kim, Soohyun; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural relevance and validity of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide (ITS) utilizing young adult samples from South Korea (n =554) and the United States (U.S.; n =390). To examine the ITS, all participants completed self-report questionnaires measuring Thwarted Belongingness, Perceived Burdensomeness, and Capability for Suicide. We examined whether each construct significantly predicted the severity of suicidal risk in both samples. We also determined whether the strength of the effects of Thwarted Belongingness and Perceived Burdensomeness on suicidal ideation differed between the two samples due to the greater degree of importance placed on interpersonal relationships in collectivistic cultures such as South Korea. Structural equation modeling was used to examine these hypotheses. Thwarted Belongingness, Perceived Burdensomeness, and Capability for Suicide significantly predicted elevated suicidal risk. However, there were no significant differences in the paths from Thwarted Belongingness or Perceived Burdensomeness to suicide risk between the South Korean and U.S. These findings support the cross-cultural relevance and applicability of the ITS, whereby Thwarted Belongingness and Perceived Burdensomeness serve as indicators of suicide risk in both Western (U.S.) and East Asian (Korean) samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The relevance of western crisis communication theories to authoritarian Chinese practices : a study on the SARS epidemic and the Wenchuan earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Renna

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical field of crisis management has just been established and developed since 1970s and in the past three decades, most of such theories were western-oriented and US-dominated. Inspired by Huang, Lin and Su (Taiwan) and Lee (Hong Kong)‘s explorations of cultural context in crisis communication, this thesis applied crisis communication theories to governmental practices in the mainland China examining the relevancy between theory and practice in a non-western context. The thesis spe...

  14. eLearning--Theories, Design, Software and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislandi, Patrizia, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Chapters in this book include: (1) New e-Learning Environments: e-Merging Networks in the Relational Society (Blanca C. Garcia); (2) Knowledge Building in E-Learning (Xinyu Zhang and Lu Yuhao); (3) E-Learning and Desired Learning Outcomes (Ralph Palliam); (4) Innovative E-Learning Solutions and Environments for Small and Medium Sized Companies…

  15. Jorge A. Swieca's contributions to quantum field theory in the 60s and 70s and their relevance in present research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freie Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-02-15

    After revisiting some high points of particle physics and QFT of the two decades from 1960 to 1980, I comment on the work by Jorge Andre Swieca. I explain how it fits into the quantum field theory during these two decades and draw attention to its relevance to the ongoing particle physics research. A particular aim of this article is to draw attention to the relevance of what at the time of Swieca was called 'the Schwinger Higgs screening mechanism'. which, together with recent ideas which generalize the concept of gauge theories, have all the ingredients to revolutionize the issue of gauge theories and the standard model. (author)

  16. Jorge A. Swieca's contributions to quantum field theory in the 60s and 70s and their relevance in present research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freie Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-02-15

    After revisiting some high points of particle physics and QFT of the two decades from 1960 to 1980, I comment on the work by Jorge Andre Swieca. I explain how it fits into the quantum field theory during these two decades and draw attention to its relevance to the ongoing particle physics research. A particular aim of this article is to draw attention to the relevance of what at the time of Swieca was called 'the Schwinger Higgs screening mechanism'. which, together with recent ideas which generalize the concept of gauge theories, have all the ingredients to revolutionize the issue of gauge theories and the standard model. (author)

  17. Jorge A. Swieca's contributions to quantum field theory in the 60's and 70's and their relevance in present research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert

    2010-01-01

    After revisiting some high points of particle physics and QFT of the two decades from 1960 to 1980, I comment on the work by Jorge Andre Swieca. I explain how it fits into the quantum field theory during these two decades and draw attention to its relevance to the ongoing particle physics research. A particular aim of this article is to draw attention to the relevance of what at the time of Swieca was called t he Schwinger Higgs screening mechanism . which, together with recent ideas which generalize the concept of gauge theories, have all the ingredients to revolutionize the issue of gauge theories and the standard model. (author)

  18. Jorge A. Swieca's contributions to quantum field theory in the 60s and 70s and their relevance in present research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert; Freie Universitaet, Berlin

    2010-02-01

    After revisiting some high points of particle physics and QFT of the two decades from 1960 to 1980, I comment on the work by Jorge Andre Swieca. I explain how it fits into the quantum field theory during these two decades and draw attention to its relevance to the ongoing particle physics research. A particular aim of this article is to draw attention to the relevance of what at the time of Swieca was called 'the Schwinger Higgs screening mechanism'. which, together with recent ideas which generalize the concept of gauge theories, have all the ingredients to revolutionize the issue of gauge theories and the standard model. (author)

  19. Testing Confounds to a Developmental Theory of Children's Learning from Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lometti, Guy E.

    Children's learning from television was studied in 343 fourth, sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students who viewed an edited version of a television program and took a posttest. It was hypothesized that children would learn more plot-relevant information (central learning material) as they moved from concrete operational to formal operational…

  20. Developing a Model of Theory-to-Practice-to-Theory in Student Affairs: An Extended Case Analysis of Theories of Student Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Ezekiel W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent literature suggests a problematic connection between theory and practice in higher education scholarship generally and the study of student learning and development specifically (e.g. Bensimon, 2007; Kezar, 2000; Love, 2012). Much of this disconnect stems from a lack of differentiation between various types of theory used in student affairs…

  1. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, Instructional Design Principles, and Students with Learning Disabilities in Computer-Based and Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Diana L.; Crutchfield, Stephen A.; Woods, Kari L.

    2013-01-01

    Struggling learners and students with Learning Disabilities often exhibit unique cognitive processing and working memory characteristics that may not align with instructional design principles developed with typically developing learners. This paper explains the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning and underlying Cognitive Load Theory, and…

  2. Understanding the breakdown of classic two-phase theory and spray atomization at engine-relevant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Rainer N.

    2016-04-01

    A generalized framework for multi-component liquid injections is presented to understand and predict the breakdown of classic two-phase theory and spray atomization at engine-relevant conditions. The analysis focuses on the thermodynamic structure and the immiscibility state of representative gas-liquid interfaces. The most modern form of Helmholtz energy mixture state equation is utilized which exhibits a unique and physically consistent behavior over the entire two-phase regime of fluid densities. It is combined with generalized models for non-linear gradient theory and for liquid injections to quantify multi-component two-phase interface structures in global thermal equilibrium. Then, the Helmholtz free energy is minimized which determines the interfacial species distribution as a consequence. This minimal free energy state is demonstrated to validate the underlying assumptions of classic two-phase theory and spray atomization. However, under certain engine-relevant conditions for which corroborating experimental data are presented, this requirement for interfacial thermal equilibrium becomes unsustainable. A rigorously derived probability density function quantifies the ability of the interface to develop internal spatial temperature gradients in the presence of significant temperature differences between injected liquid and ambient gas. Then, the interface can no longer be viewed as an isolated system at minimal free energy. Instead, the interfacial dynamics become intimately connected to those of the separated homogeneous phases. Hence, the interface transitions toward a state in local equilibrium whereupon it becomes a dense-fluid mixing layer. A new conceptual view of a transitional liquid injection process emerges from a transition time scale analysis. Close to the nozzle exit, the two-phase interface still remains largely intact and more classic two-phase processes prevail as a consequence. Further downstream, however, the transition to dense-fluid mixing

  3. Understanding the breakdown of classic two-phase theory and spray atomization at engine-relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahms, Rainer N., E-mail: Rndahms@sandia.gov [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    A generalized framework for multi-component liquid injections is presented to understand and predict the breakdown of classic two-phase theory and spray atomization at engine-relevant conditions. The analysis focuses on the thermodynamic structure and the immiscibility state of representative gas-liquid interfaces. The most modern form of Helmholtz energy mixture state equation is utilized which exhibits a unique and physically consistent behavior over the entire two-phase regime of fluid densities. It is combined with generalized models for non-linear gradient theory and for liquid injections to quantify multi-component two-phase interface structures in global thermal equilibrium. Then, the Helmholtz free energy is minimized which determines the interfacial species distribution as a consequence. This minimal free energy state is demonstrated to validate the underlying assumptions of classic two-phase theory and spray atomization. However, under certain engine-relevant conditions for which corroborating experimental data are presented, this requirement for interfacial thermal equilibrium becomes unsustainable. A rigorously derived probability density function quantifies the ability of the interface to develop internal spatial temperature gradients in the presence of significant temperature differences between injected liquid and ambient gas. Then, the interface can no longer be viewed as an isolated system at minimal free energy. Instead, the interfacial dynamics become intimately connected to those of the separated homogeneous phases. Hence, the interface transitions toward a state in local equilibrium whereupon it becomes a dense-fluid mixing layer. A new conceptual view of a transitional liquid injection process emerges from a transition time scale analysis. Close to the nozzle exit, the two-phase interface still remains largely intact and more classic two-phase processes prevail as a consequence. Further downstream, however, the transition to dense-fluid mixing

  4. A corrective emotional experience - or just a bit of exercise? The relevance of interpersonal learning in Exercise on prescription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    2011-01-01

    Roessler, K. K. (2011). A corrective emotional experience - or just a bit of exercise? The relevance of interpersonal learning in Exercise on prescription. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. The objective of the present study was to examine psychological aspects of intra- and interpersonal......, but could not sustain, a change in health behavior. The article concludes that behavioral change is strengthened by interaction with health personnel and with the training group. These new insights likewise demand an increased focus on the human resources of general practitioners or physiotherapists who...... handle the training. They should learn about their supportive role for the participants, the regressive urges of the participants and the benefits of promoting group relations....

  5. Shaping a valued learning journey: Student satisfaction with learning in undergraduate nursing programs, a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Morgan R; Grealish, Laurie; Henderson, Saras

    2018-05-01

    Student satisfaction is a quality measure of increasing importance in undergraduate programs, including nursing programs. To date theories of student satisfaction have focused primarily on students' perceptions of the educational environment rather than their perceptions of learning. Understanding how students determine satisfaction with learning is necessary to facilitate student learning across a range of educational contexts and meet the expectations of diverse stakeholders. To understand undergraduate nursing students' satisfaction with learning. Constructivist grounded theory methodology was used to identify how nursing students determined satisfaction with learning. Two large, multi-campus, nursing schools in Australia. Seventeen demographically diverse undergraduate nursing students studying different stages of a three year program participated in the study. Twenty nine semi-structured interviews were conducted. Students were invited to describe situations where they had been satisfied or dissatisfied with their learning. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyse the data. Students are satisfied with learning when they shape a valued learning journey that accommodates social contexts of self, university and nursing workplace. The theory has three phases. Phase 1 - orienting self to valued learning in the pedagogical landscape; phase 2 - engaging with valued learning experiences across diverse pedagogical terrain; and phase 3 - recognising valued achievement along the way. When students experience a valued learning journey they are satisfied with their learning. Student satisfaction with learning is unique to the individual, changes over time and maybe transient or sustained, mild or intense. Finding from the research indicate areas where nurse academics may facilitate satisfaction with learning in undergraduate nursing programs while mindful of the expectations of other stakeholders such as the university, nurse registering authorities

  6. Processes of self-regulated learning in music theory in elementary music schools in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Peklaj, Cirila; Smolej-Fritz, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was determine how students regulate their learning in music theory (MT). The research is based on the socio-cognitive theory of learning. The aim of our study was twofold: first, to design the instruments for measuring (meta)cognitive and affective-motivational processes in learning MT, and, second, to examine the relationship between these processes. A total of 457 fifth- and sixth- grade students from 10 different elementary music schools in Slovenia participated in the...

  7. The many facets of motor learning and their relevance for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Lucio; Quartarone, Angelo; Hallett, Mark; Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Ghilardi, Maria Felice

    2017-07-01

    The final goal of motor learning, a complex process that includes both implicit and explicit (or declarative) components, is the optimization and automatization of motor skills. Motor learning involves different neural networks and neurotransmitters systems depending on the type of task and on the stage of learning. After the first phase of acquisition, a motor skill goes through consolidation (i.e., becoming resistant to interference) and retention, processes in which sleep and long-term potentiation seem to play important roles. The studies of motor learning in Parkinson's disease have yielded controversial results that likely stem from the use of different experimental paradigms. When a task's characteristics, instructions, context, learning phase and type of measures are taken into consideration, it is apparent that, in general, only learning that relies on attentional resources and cognitive strategies is affected by PD, in agreement with the finding of a fronto-striatal deficit in this disease. Levodopa administration does not seem to reverse the learning deficits in PD, while deep brain stimulation of either globus pallidus or subthalamic nucleus appears to be beneficial. Finally and most importantly, patients with PD often show a decrease in retention of newly learned skill, a problem that is present even in the early stages of the disease. A thorough dissection and understanding of the processes involved in motor learning is warranted to provide solid bases for effective medical, surgical and rehabilitative approaches in PD. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. All rights reserved.

  8. Collective learning modeling based on the kinetic theory of active particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burini, D.; De Lillo, S.; Gibelli, L.

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a systems approach to the theory of perception and learning in populations composed of many living entities. Starting from a phenomenological description of these processes, a mathematical structure is derived which is deemed to incorporate their complexity features. The modeling is based on a generalization of kinetic theory methods where interactions are described by theoretical tools of game theory. As an application, the proposed approach is used to model the learning processes that take place in a classroom.

  9. A Reflective Journey through Theory and Research in Mathematical Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbase, Shashidhar

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to reflect on class sessions during the fall 2010 in a course "Theory and Research in Mathematical Learning and Development". This reflection as a learning journey portrays discussions based on foundational perspectives (FP), historical highlights (HH), and guiding questions (GQ) related to mathematics learning and…

  10. Combining theories to reach multi-faceted insights into learning opportunities in doctoral supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Rump, Camilla Østerberg

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate how theories can be combined to explore opportunities for learning in doctoral supervision. While our earlier research into learning dynamics in doctoral supervision in life science research (Kobayashi, 2014) has focused on illustrating learning opportunitie...

  11. Constructivism and Reflectivism as the Logical Counterparts in TESOL: Learning Theory versus Teaching Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    al Mahmud, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    The gist of the entire constructivist learning theory is that learners are self-builders of their learning that occurs through a mental process in a social context or communication setting, and teachers as facilitators generate learning by creating the expected environment and/or utilizing the process. This article theoretically proves…

  12. Connected and Ubiquitous: A Discussion of Two Theories That Impact Future Learning Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Richard A.; Stafford, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Mobile media break down traditional barriers that have defined learning in schools because they enable constant, personalized access to media. This information-rich environment could dramatically expand learning opportunities. This article identifies and discusses two instructional design theories for mobile learning including the major…

  13. Pedagogical Distance: Explaining Misalignment in Student-Driven Online Learning Activities Using Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberry, Nicola; Franken, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an Activity Theory analysis of two online student-driven interactive learning activities to interrogate assumptions that such groups can effectively learn in the absence of the teacher. Such an analysis conceptualises learning tasks as constructed objects that drive pedagogical activity. The analysis shows a disconnect between…

  14. Action Learning and Constructivist Grounded Theory: Powerfully Overlapping Fields of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the shared characteristics between action learning (AL) and the research methodology constructivist grounded theory (CGT). Mirroring Edmonstone's [2011. "Action Learning and Organisation Development: Overlapping Fields of Practice." "Action Learning: Research and Practice" 8 (2): 93-102] article, which…

  15. Transformative Learning: A Case for Using Grounded Theory as an Assessment Analytic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Barbara A. B.; Munoz, Leslie; Abrams, Leah; Bass, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Transformative Learning Theory and pedagogies leverage disruptive experiences as catalysts for learning and teaching. By facilitating processes of critical analysis and reflection that challenge assumptions, transformative learning reframes what counts as knowledge and the sources and processes for gaining and producing it. Students develop a…

  16. Situated learning theory: adding rate and complexity effects via Kauffman's NK model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu; McKelvey, Bill

    2004-01-01

    For many firms, producing information, knowledge, and enhancing learning capability have become the primary basis of competitive advantage. A review of organizational learning theory identifies two approaches: (1) those that treat symbolic information processing as fundamental to learning, and (2) those that view the situated nature of cognition as fundamental. After noting that the former is inadequate because it focuses primarily on behavioral and cognitive aspects of individual learning, this paper argues the importance of studying learning as interactions among people in the context of their environment. It contributes to organizational learning in three ways. First, it argues that situated learning theory is to be preferred over traditional behavioral and cognitive learning theories, because it treats organizations as complex adaptive systems rather than mere information processors. Second, it adds rate and nonlinear learning effects. Third, following model-centered epistemology, it uses an agent-based computational model, in particular a "humanized" version of Kauffman's NK model, to study the situated nature of learning. Using simulation results, we test eight hypotheses extending situated learning theory in new directions. The paper ends with a discussion of possible extensions of the current study to better address key issues in situated learning.

  17. An Integrated Theory of Prospective Time Interval Estimation: The Role of Cognition, Attention, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taatgen, Niels A.; van Rijn, Hedderik; Anderson, John

    2007-01-01

    A theory of prospective time perception is introduced and incorporated as a module in an integrated theory of cognition, thereby extending existing theories and allowing predictions about attention and learning. First, a time perception module is established by fitting existing datasets (interval estimation and bisection and impact of secondary…

  18. An integrated theory of prospective time interval estimation : The role of cognition, attention, and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, Niels A.; van Rijn, Hedderik; Anderson, John

    A theory of prospective time perception is introduced and incorporated as a module in an integrated theory of cognition, thereby extending existing theories and allowing predictions about attention and learning. First, a time perception module is established by fitting existing datasets (interval

  19. Help-Seeking Decisions of Battered Women: A Test of Learned Helplessness and Two Stress Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauchope, Barbara A.

    This study tested the learned helplessness theory, stress theory, and a modified stress theory to determine the best model for predicting the probability that a woman would seek help when she experienced severe violence from a male partner. The probability was hypothesized to increase as the stress of the violence experienced increased. Data were…

  20. Learning theories and tools for the assessment of core nursing competencies in simulation: A theoretical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Patrick; Michaud, Cécile; Bélisle, Marilou; Boyer, Louise; Gosselin, Émilie; Grondin, Myrian; Larue, Caroline; Lavoie, Stéphan; Pepin, Jacinthe

    2018-02-01

    To identify the theories used to explain learning in simulation and to examine how these theories guided the assessment of learning outcomes related to core competencies in undergraduate nursing students. Nurse educators face the challenge of making explicit the outcomes of competency-based education, especially when competencies are conceptualized as holistic and context dependent. Theoretical review. Research papers (N = 182) published between 1999-2015 describing simulation in nursing education. Two members of the research team extracted data from the papers, including theories used to explain how simulation could engender learning and tools used to assess simulation outcomes. Contingency tables were created to examine the associations between theories, outcomes and tools. Some papers (N = 79) did not provide an explicit theory. The 103 remaining papers identified one or more learning or teaching theories; the most frequent were the National League for Nursing/Jeffries Simulation Framework, Kolb's theory of experiential learning and Bandura's social cognitive theory and concept of self-efficacy. Students' perceptions of simulation, knowledge and self-confidence were the most frequently assessed, mainly via scales designed for the study where they were used. Core competencies were mostly assessed with an observational approach. This review highlighted the fact that few studies examined the use of simulation in nursing education through learning theories and via assessment of core competencies. It also identified observational tools used to assess competencies in action, as holistic and context-dependent constructs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. From Periphery to Core: The Increasing Relevance of Experiential Learning in Undergraduate Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Laurin; Proudford, Karen L.; Holt, Harry, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Business educators have been challenged to provide a learning experience that prepares graduates to successfully compete in a dynamic business environment. The insistence on building demonstrable competencies prior to entering the workforce has led to a shift in the academic community. Experiential learning has gone from the uncommon, exceptional…

  2. The Relevance of Learning Styles for International Pedagogy in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Mina

    2011-01-01

    As the number of international students and transnational education agreements continue to rise at an unprecedented rate in many countries, an area of research that continues to lag behind is how far students' learning styles can adapt to different educational contexts. Learning styles research has recently developed from simplistic yet popular…

  3. From Continuous Improvement to Organisational Learning: Developmental Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Peter; Chapman, Ross

    2003-01-01

    Explores continuous improvement methods, which underlie total quality management, finding barriers to implementation in practice that are related to a one-dimensional approach. Suggests a multiple, unbounded learning cycle, a holistic approach that includes adaptive learning, learning styles, generative learning, and capability development.…

  4. The Current Perspectives, Theories and Practices of Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Nilgun Ozdamar; Metcalf, David

    2011-01-01

    Mobile learning (m-learning) is a highly popular multidisciplinary study field around the world. It has attracted a great deal of attention from researchers in different disciplines who have realized the potential to apply mobile technologies to enhance learning. Thus, mobile learning has been defined differently by different people. This study is…

  5. Service-learning in Higher Education Relevant to the Promotion of Physical Activity, Healthful Eating, and Prevention of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Richard R

    2012-10-01

    Service-learning is a type of experiential teaching and learning strategy combining classroom instruction and meaningful community service and guided activities for reflection. This educational approach has been used frequently in higher education settings, including an array of disciplines such as medicine, theology, public health, physical education, nutrition, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. The purpose of the present review paper was to provide guidance on the use of service-learning within higher education, relevant to the preventive medicine and public health topics of healthful eating, physical activity, and obesity prevention. In service-learning, coursework is structured to address community needs, and to benefit students through the real-world application of knowledge. The benefits for students include positive impacts on social skills, empathy, awareness, understanding, and concern regarding community issues, plus greater confidence and skills to work with diverse populations, increased awareness of community resources, improved motivation, and enhanced knowledge. Educational institutions may also benefit through improved "town and gown" relations, as strong ties, partnerships, and mutually beneficial activities take place. The present literature review describes several service-learning applications such as nutrition education for kids, dietary improvement for seniors, foodservice recipe modification on a college campus, an intergenerational physical activity program for nursing home residents, motor skill development in kindergarteners, organized elementary school recess physical activities, health education, and obesity prevention in children. From this review, service-learning appears to have great potential as a flexible component of academic coursework in the areas of preventive medicine and public health.

  6. Learning through the Variation Theory: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Eddie W. L.

    2016-01-01

    The variation theory stems from the concept of phenomenography. Although some applications of the theory can be found, the theory is not well known in the field of education, especially with respect to the teaching of business and management subjects. The aim of this paper is to explore the use of the variation theory for teaching management…

  7. Presentation-Practice-Production and Task-Based Learning in the Light of Second Language Learning Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Graeme

    2003-01-01

    Features of presentation-practice-production (PPP) and task-based learning (TBL) models for language teaching are discussed with reference to language learning theories. Pre-selection of target structures, use of controlled repetition, and explicit grammar instruction in a PPP lesson are given. Suggests TBL approaches afford greater learning…

  8. The Relative Effect of Team-Based Learning on Motivation and Learning: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeno, Lucas M.; Raaheim, Arild; Kristensen, Sara Madeleine; Kristensen, Kjell Daniel; Hole, Torstein Nielsen; Haugland, Mildrid J.; Mæland, Silje

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effects of team-based learning (TBL) on motivation and learning in a quasi-experimental study. The study employs a self-determination theory perspective to investigate the motivational effects of implementing TBL in a physiotherapy course in higher education. We adopted a one-group pretest-posttest design. The results show that…

  9. Effect of Environmental Education Based on Transformational Learning Theory on Perceptions towards Environmental Problems and Permanency of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanik, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine effect of environmental education based on transformational learning theory on primary school teacher candidates' perceptions towards environmental problems and permanency of learning. Pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design have been used in this study. The study group consists of 66 teacher candidates who…

  10. Learning, Action and Solutions in Action Learning: Investigation of Facilitation Practice Using the Concept of Living Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Chandana

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the practice of action learning (AL) facilitation in supporting AL set members to address their 'messy' problems through a self-reflexive approach using the concept of 'living theory' [Whitehead, J., and J. McNiff. 2006. "Action Research Living Theory." London: Sage]. The facilitation practice is investigated through…

  11. Role of Adult Learning Theories in the Development of Corporate Training in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Lytovchenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the role of adult learning theories in the development of corporate training in the USA. Considering that corporate education is part of the adult education system in this country, the author examines theories of organizational learning in the context of adult learning. The results of the study have revealed that adult education in the US is based on dif erent learning theories which should be viewed from the perspective of several main orientations: behaviorism, cognitivism, humanism, developmental theories, social learning, constructivism, which have dif erent philosophical background and, accordingly, different understanding of the nature and methodology of adult learning. Based on the results of the study it has been concluded that theories of organizational learning which explain motivation of students, their needs and goals, cognitive processes and other aspects of the learning in organizations and have had the main influence on the development of corporate education in the United States should be viewed in the context of the above-mentioned basic orientations to learning, too. From the methodological perspective, the research was based on interdisciplinary and systemic approaches. Thus, we used a set of interrelated research methods: comparative, structural, systemic-functional analyses, comparison and synthesis.

  12. The Experimental Research on E-Learning Instructional Design Model Based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xianzhong; Wang, Feng; Zheng, Zhongmei

    The paper reports an educational experiment on the e-Learning instructional design model based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory, the experiment were made to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of the model in promoting the learning quality in ill-structured domain. The study performed the experiment on two groups of students: one group learned through the system designed by the model and the other learned by the traditional method. The results of the experiment indicate that the e-Learning designed through the model is helpful to promote the intrinsic motivation, learning quality in ill-structured domains, ability to resolve ill-structured problem and creative thinking ability of the students.

  13. VALUE RELEVANCE OF GROUP FINANCIAL STATEMENTS BASED ON ENTITY VERSUS PARENT COMPANY THEORY: EVIDENCE FROM THE LARGEST THREE EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Victor-Octavian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Financial statementsn#8217; main objective is to give information on the financial position, performance and changes in financial position of the reporting entity, which is useful to investors and other users in making economic decisions. In order to be useful, financial information needs to be relevant to the decision-making process of users in general, and investors in particular. Regarding consolidated financial statements, the accounting theory knows four perspectives (theories on which the preparation of those statements is based, namely, the proprietary theory, the parent company theory, the parent company extension theory and the entity theory (Baxter and Spinney, 1975. Of practical importance are especially the parent company extension perspective and the entity perspective. The IASB and FASB decided (within an ED regarding the Improvement of the Conceptual Framework that consolidated financial statements should be presented from the perspective of the group entity, and not from the perspective of the parent-company. However, this support for the entity theory is to our knowledge not backed by empirical findings in the academic literature. Therefore, in our paper we set to contribute with empirical arguments to finding an actual answer to the question about the superior market value relevance of one of the two concurrent perspectives (theories. We set to carry out an empirical association study on the problem of market value relevance of consolidated financial statements based on the entity theory respectively on the parent company (extension theory, searching for an answer to the above question. In this sense, we pursued an analysis of market value relevance of consolidated accounting information (based on the two perspectives of listed entities between 2003-2008 on the largest three European Stock Exchanges (London, Paris and Frankfurt. The obtained results showed that a n#8222;restrainedn#8221; entity perspective, which would combine

  14. Theories and models of and for online learning

    OpenAIRE

    Haythornthwaite, Caroline; Andrews, Richard; Kazmer, Michelle M.; Bruce, Bertram C.; Montague, Rae-Anne; Preston, Christina

    2007-01-01

    For many years, discussion of online learning, or e-learning, has been pre-occupied with the practice of teaching online and the debate about whether being online is 'as good as' being offline. The authors contributing to this paper see this past as an incubation period for the emergence of new teaching and learning practices. We see changes in teaching and learning emerging from the nexus of a changing landscape of information and communication technologies, an active and motivated teaching ...

  15. Emergent theory and technology in e-learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browaeys, M.-J.; Wahyudi, S.

    2006-01-01

    E-learning should be approached via a new paradigm, one where instruction and information are involved in a recursive process, an approach which counters the concept of linearity. New ways of thinking about how people learn and new technologies favour the emergence of principles of e-learning that

  16. An Interactive Learning Environment for Information and Communication Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Mohamed; Hassan, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Interactive learning tools are emerging as effective educational materials in the area of computer science and engineering. It is a research domain that is rapidly expanding because of its positive impacts on motivating and improving students' performance during the learning process. This paper introduces an interactive learning environment for…

  17. Telling Active Learning Pedagogies Apart: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Kelsey Hood

    2017-01-01

    Designing learning environments to incorporate active learning pedagogies is difficult as definitions are often contested and intertwined. This article seeks to determine whether classification of active learning pedagogies (i.e., project-based, problem-based, inquiry-based, case-based, and discovery-based), through theoretical and practical…

  18. VALUE RELEVANCE OF GROUP FINANCIAL STATEMENTS BASED ON ENTITY VERSUS PARENT COMPANY THEORY: EVIDENCE FROM THE LARGEST THREE EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Müller Victor-Octavian

    2012-01-01

    Financial statementsn#8217; main objective is to give information on the financial position, performance and changes in financial position of the reporting entity, which is useful to investors and other users in making economic decisions. In order to be useful, financial information needs to be relevant to the decision-making process of users in general, and investors in particular. Regarding consolidated financial statements, the accounting theory knows four perspectives (theories) on which ...

  19. Evaluating clinical simulations for learning procedural skills: a theory-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneebone, Roger

    2005-06-01

    Simulation-based learning is becoming widely established within medical education. It offers obvious benefits to novices learning invasive procedural skills, especially in a climate of decreasing clinical exposure. However, simulations are often accepted uncritically, with undue emphasis being placed on technological sophistication at the expense of theory-based design. The author proposes four key areas that underpin simulation-based learning, and summarizes the theoretical grounding for each. These are (1) gaining technical proficiency (psychomotor skills and learning theory, the importance of repeated practice and regular reinforcement), (2) the place of expert assistance (a Vygotskian interpretation of tutor support, where assistance is tailored to each learner's needs), (3) learning within a professional context (situated learning and contemporary apprenticeship theory), and (4) the affective component of learning (the effect of emotion on learning). The author then offers four criteria for critically evaluating new or existing simulations, based on the theoretical framework outlined above. These are: (1) Simulations should allow for sustained, deliberate practice within a safe environment, ensuring that recently-acquired skills are consolidated within a defined curriculum which assures regular reinforcement; (2) simulations should provide access to expert tutors when appropriate, ensuring that such support fades when no longer needed; (3) simulations should map onto real-life clinical experience, ensuring that learning supports the experience gained within communities of actual practice; and (4) simulation-based learning environments should provide a supportive, motivational, and learner-centered milieu which is conducive to learning.

  20. Learning From Rudolf Steiner: The Relevance of Waldorf Education for Urban Public School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberman, Ida

    2007-01-01

    The author of this paper investigates the relevance of Waldorf education for public urban school reform. Based on analysis of survey data from over 500 graduates of private U.S. Waldorf schools, review of documents from the Gates Foundation, and staff-interview and student-achievement data from four public Waldorf-methods schools, she develops…

  1. The Last Planner System Style of Planning: Its Basis in Learning Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Terje Kalsaas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to contribute to creating a better understanding of the Last Planner System (LPS – which is associated with Lean Construction – in the light of the learning processes at the basis of knowledge development, and of change and innovation. Founded on a theoretical discussion, three research questions are asked, namely: In what ways can the LPS be expected to alter the learning arenas compared to conventional project management in construction; according to learning theory, what are the main challenges associated with implementing the LPS; and, finally, what kind of learning can be linked to an implemented LPS that functions as intended? The implementation of the LPS is shown to require substantial changes to the technical-organisational learning arena. In order for the implementation to be successful, the work identity has to alter on the individual level so that an overlap occurs with the new work practices prescribed by the LPS. The LPS has an inbuilt experiential learning cycle, and provides a good starting point for single-loop learning, as well as for simple forms of double-loop learning (“routinized learning capability”. However, it is argued that the LPS understood as experiential learning has clear limitations with regard to “evolutionary learning capability”. This is amplified by the context project organisation provides. In terms of theoretical implications, this article promotes an understanding of the planning process informed by the theory describing it as an experiential learning cycle. The conceptualisation which separates the LPS from conventional production control theory is critiqued. Finally, it is argued that an understanding of the LPS grounded in learning theory will improve the possibilities for successful implementation and maximise the learning effects.

  2. Using Machine Learning to Advance Personality Assessment and Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Hopwood, Christopher James

    2018-05-01

    Machine learning has led to important advances in society. One of the most exciting applications of machine learning in psychological science has been the development of assessment tools that can powerfully predict human behavior and personality traits. Thus far, machine learning approaches to personality assessment have focused on the associations between social media and other digital records with established personality measures. The goal of this article is to expand the potential of machine learning approaches to personality assessment by embedding it in a more comprehensive construct validation framework. We review recent applications of machine learning to personality assessment, place machine learning research in the broader context of fundamental principles of construct validation, and provide recommendations for how to use machine learning to advance our understanding of personality.

  3. Game-Based Learning in Science Education: A Review of Relevant Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Chaun; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review empirical research articles regarding game-based science learning (GBSL) published from 2000 to 2011. Thirty-one articles were identified through the Web of Science and SCOPUS databases. A qualitative content analysis technique was adopted to analyze the research purposes and designs, game design and…

  4. Undergraduate Reflective Journaling in Work Integrated Learning: Is It Relevant to Professional Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Susan; Francis-Coad, Jacqueline; Connaughton, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the research findings from a study reviewing graduates' opinions on completing online reflective journaling tasks during work integrated learning as an undergraduate. The study was divided into two parts with an initial focus group conducted with six physiotherapy graduates seven months following graduation. Findings from the…

  5. Corporate Image of Public Higher Education Institutions: Relevant Factors to Distance Learning Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Fabio R.; Pelissari, Anderson S.; Gonzalez, Inayara V. D. P.

    2018-01-01

    Technological advances are generating a significant increase in the supply of distance learning (DL) courses via the Internet, increasing the importance of this type of education for the university's structure. This article identifies factors associated with perceptions of the public higher education institutions' image from the perspective of DL…

  6. Implementation of a Project-Based Engineering School: Increasing Student Motivation and Relevant Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrón-López, María-José; García-García, María-José; Velasco-Quintana, Paloma-Julia; Ocampo, Jared; Vigil Montaño, María-Reyes; Gaya-López, María-Cruz

    2017-01-01

    The School of Engineering at Universidad Europea de Madrid (UEM) implemented, starting in the 2012-2013 period, a unified academic model based on project-based learning as the methodology used throughout the entire School. This model expects that every year, in each grade, all the students should participate in a capstone project integrating the…

  7. Doping Among Professional Athletes in Iran: A Test of Akers's Social Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Saeed; Cochran, John K; Stewart, Bernadette J; Sharepour, Mahmoud; Rahmati, Mohammad Mahdi; Shadmanfaat, Syede Massomeh

    2018-04-01

    The use of performance-enhancing drugs (PED) is common among Iranian professional athletes. As this phenomenon is a social problem, the main purpose of this research is to explain why athletes engage in "doping" activity, using social learning theory. For this purpose, a sample of 589 professional athletes from Rasht, Iran, was used to test assumptions related to social learning theory. The results showed that there are positive and significant relationships between the components of social learning theory (differential association, differential reinforcement, imitation, and definitions) and doping behavior (past, present, and future use of PED). The structural modeling analysis indicated that the components of social learning theory accounts for 36% of the variance in past doping behavior, 35% of the variance in current doping behavior, and 32% of the variance in future use of PED.

  8. Can Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Learning Become an Alternative to Piagetian Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Edna

    1979-01-01

    Discusses Novak's views that Ausubel's meaningful learning can become an alternative to Piagetian psychology and argues that Ausubel does not provide a theory that can be an alternative to Piaget's developmental psychology. (HM)

  9. Application of Advances in Learning Theory and Philosophy of Science to the Improvement of Chemistry Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Joseph D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses seven key concepts in Ausubel's learning theory which function to guide research and teaching. Also discusses concept mapping and Gowins Vee, providing examples of how they are used in chemistry instruction. (JN)

  10. Optimisation of simulated team training through the application of learning theories: a debate for a conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background As a conceptual review, this paper will debate relevant learning theories to inform the development, design and delivery of an effective educational programme for simulated team training relevant to health professionals. Discussion Kolb’s experiential learning theory is used as the main conceptual framework to define the sequence of activities. Dewey’s theory of reflective thought and action, Jarvis modification of Kolb’s learning cycle and Schön’s reflection-on-action serve as a model to design scenarios for optimal concrete experience and debriefing for challenging participants’ beliefs and habits. Bandura’s theory of self-efficacy and newer socio-cultural learning models outline that for efficient team training, it is mandatory to introduce the social-cultural context of a team. Summary The ideal simulated team training programme needs a scenario for concrete experience, followed by a debriefing with a critical reflexive observation and abstract conceptualisation phase, and ending with a second scenario for active experimentation. Let them re-experiment to optimise the effect of a simulated training session. Challenge them to the edge: The scenario needs to challenge participants to generate failures and feelings of inadequacy to drive and motivate team members to critical reflect and learn. Not experience itself but the inadequacy and contradictions of habitual experience serve as basis for reflection. Facilitate critical reflection: Facilitators and group members must guide and motivate individual participants through the debriefing session, inciting and empowering learners to challenge their own beliefs and habits. To do this, learners need to feel psychological safe. Let the group talk and critical explore. Motivate with reality and context: Training with multidisciplinary team members, with different levels of expertise, acting in their usual environment (in-situ simulation) on physiological variables is mandatory to introduce

  11. Constructivism: the view of knowledge that ended philosophy or a theory of learning and instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliver, Jerry A

    2002-01-01

    Constructivism is referred to in two very different ways in education including medical education: to refer to a view of knowledge and to refer to a theory of learning and hence instruction. This proposal (a) distinguishes between these two usages of constructivism and (b) concludes that constructivism is not a theory of learning and thus as such has little to offer that might be of value to medical education.

  12. Theory of Belief Functions for Data Analysis and Machine Learning Applications: Review and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoeux, Thierry

    The Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions provides a unified framework for handling both aleatory uncertainty, arising from statistical variability in populations, and epistemic uncertainty, arising from incompleteness of knowledge. An overview of both the fundamentals and some recent developments in this theory will first be presented. Several applications in data analysis and machine learning will then be reviewed, including learning under partial supervision, multi-label classification, ensemble clustering and the treatment of pairwise comparisons in sensory or preference analysis.

  13. Andragogy And Pedagogy Theories Of Learning In Joint Professional Military Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-27

    needs of joint military leaders. This research examines each theory and its fundamental design in an attempt to determine if pedagogy alone can meet... Abraham H. Maslow , known largely for his studies in motivation and personality, saw the goal of learning to be self-actualization, or a person’s...AU/ACSC/MCMAHON, S/AY16 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY ANDRAGOGY AND PEDAGOGY THEORIES OF LEARNING IN JOINT PROFESSIONAL

  14. BROA: An agent-based model to recommend relevant Learning Objects from Repository Federations adapted to learner profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Rodríguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning Objects (LOs are distinguished from traditional educational resources for their easy and quickly availability through Web-based repositories, from which they are accessed through their metadata. In addition, having a user profile allows an educational recommender system to help the learner to find the most relevant LOs based on their needs and preferences. The aim of this paper is to propose an agent-based model so-called BROA to recommend relevant LOs recovered from Repository Federations as well as LOs adapted to learner profile. The model proposed uses both role and service models of GAIA methodology, and the analysis models of the MAS-CommonKADS methodology. A prototype was built based on this model and validated to obtain some assessing results that are finally presented.

  15. Pigeons learn stimulus identity and stimulus relations when both serve as redundant, relevant cues during same-different discrimination training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Brett M; Wasserman, Edward A

    2003-01-01

    The authors taught pigeons to discriminate displays of 16 identical items from displays of 16 nonidentical items. Unlike most same-different discrimination studies--where only stimulus relations could serve a discriminative function--both the identity of the items and the relations among the items were discriminative features of the displays. The pigeons learned about both stimulus identity and stimulus relations when these 2 sources of information served as redundant, relevant cues. In tests of associative competition, identity cues exerted greater stimulus control than relational cues. These results suggest that the pigeon can respond to both specific stimuli and general relations in the environment.

  16. Understanding Self-Controlled Motor Learning Protocols through the Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanli, Elizabeth A; Patterson, Jae T; Bray, Steven R; Lee, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT). Three micro-theories within the macro-theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory, and Organismic Integration Theory) are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable, but also can help to better understand and measure the changes occurring between the practice environment and the observed behavioral outcomes.

  17. Understanding self-controlled motor learning protocols through the self determination theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Sanli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT. Three micro theories within the macro theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory & Organismic Integration Theory are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable, but also can help to better understand and measure the changes occurring between the practice environment and the observed behavioral outcomes.

  18. Virtual Learning Environments: A View from the Theory of Conceptual Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iralí Araque

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of communication and information technologies for formative purposes has given way to virtual learning environments, which, backed by constructivist theories, provide a theoretical and methodological framework, thus contributing to the cognitive development of students at university level, evidenced in the development of their learning schemes. The theory of conceptual fields offers an analysis of the elements of schemas and the process of knowledge construction. In this sense, the present work had as objective to raise some elements, such as teaching methodology, didactic strategies, materials and resources for learning, teacher and student roles, which should be considered in the design of virtual learning environments, in the light of the theory of conceptual fields, so as to enhance the construction of knowledge and where the emphasis of the educational process lies on learning rather than teaching. The methodology used is a documentary study, type descriptive, based on the review and bibliographical analysis of constructivist theories, as well as researchers related to the design and construction of virtual learning environments. The results show that conceptual fields theory is an excellent option to consider, as a constructivist theory, in order to consolidate the process of knowledge construction, from the individual to the collective.

  19. Service-learning in higher education relevant to the promotion of physical activity, healthful eating, and prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R Rosenkranz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Service-learning is a type of experiential teaching and learning strategy combining classroom instruction and meaningful community service and guided activities for reflection. This educational approach has been used frequently in higher education settings, including an array of disciplines such as medicine, theology, public health, physical education, nutrition, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. The purpose of the present review paper was to provide guidance on the use of service-learning within higher education, relevant to the preventive medicine and public health topics of healthful eating, physical activity, and obesity prevention. In service-learning, coursework is structured to address community needs, and to benefit students through the real-world application of knowledge. The benefits for students include positive impacts on social skills, empathy, awareness, understanding, and concern regarding community issues, plus greater confidence and skills to work with diverse populations, increased awareness of community resources, improved motivation, and enhanced knowledge. Educational institutions may also benefit through improved "town and gown" relations, as strong ties, partnerships, and mutually beneficial activities take place. The present literature review describes several service-learning applications such as nutrition education for kids, dietary improvement for seniors, foodservice recipe modification on a college campus, an intergenerational physical activity program for nursing home residents, motor skill development in kindergarteners, organized elementary school recess physical activities, health education, and obesity prevention in children. From this review, service-learning appears to have great potential as a flexible component of academic coursework in the areas of preventive medicine and public health.

  20. THE RELEVANCE OF LEARNING APPLIED ENGLISH FOR ACADEMICS TO FOSTER PROFESSIONALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Algadrie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Academics who are not competent in communication skills, particularly language skills, will develop less compared to those who are. Communication skills in general and language skills in particular will foster professionalism since professionals will spend less time doing and more time managing as experience grows. Professionalism grows from qualities that can be learned and developed as well as information learned and acquired. Negotiating skills will enable them to win deals more readily. Moreover, internet based realms of communications are mostly English speaking creations, which vary in terms of level of formality and choice of words. In this paper the writer shares her experience in materials preparations and a classroom-centered research done on a group of academics of non-English majors who came to ITS Language Centre to improve their English language competence for career development and further studies.

  1. Relevance of Videogames in the Learning and Development of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhuxuan; Linaza-Iglesias, José L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The study was carried out with children of 2nd, 4th and 6th grades of elementary school in order to explore what and how will children learn from a completely new videogame. Method: We organized children from 2nd, 4th and 6th grades of elemental school, giving them chance to play a freshly released videogame by that time. We formed…

  2. Relevance of deep learning to facilitate the diagnosis of HER2 status in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Michel E.; Scott, Marietta L. J.; Scorer, Paul W.; Söderberg, Magnus; Balcerzak, Denis; Barker, Craig

    2017-04-01

    Tissue biomarker scoring by pathologists is central to defining the appropriate therapy for patients with cancer. Yet, inter-pathologist variability in the interpretation of ambiguous cases can affect diagnostic accuracy. Modern artificial intelligence methods such as deep learning have the potential to supplement pathologist expertise to ensure constant diagnostic accuracy. We developed a computational approach based on deep learning that automatically scores HER2, a biomarker that defines patient eligibility for anti-HER2 targeted therapies in breast cancer. In a cohort of 71 breast tumour resection samples, automated scoring showed a concordance of 83% with a pathologist. The twelve discordant cases were then independently reviewed, leading to a modification of diagnosis from initial pathologist assessment for eight cases. Diagnostic discordance was found to be largely caused by perceptual differences in assessing HER2 expression due to high HER2 staining heterogeneity. This study provides evidence that deep learning aided diagnosis can facilitate clinical decision making in breast cancer by identifying cases at high risk of misdiagnosis.

  3. Synaesthesia and learning: A critical review and novel theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Robert Watson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Learning and synaesthesia are profoundly interconnected. On the one hand, the development of synaesthesia is clearly influenced by learning. Synaesthetic inducers—the stimuli that evoke these unusual experiences—often involve the perception of complex properties learned in early childhood, e.g. letters, musical notes, numbers, months of the year and even swimming strokes. Further, recent research has shown that the associations individual synaesthetes make with these learned inducers are not arbitrary, but are strongly influenced by the structure of the learnt do- main. For instance, the synaesthetic colours of letters are partially determined by letter frequency and the relative positions of letters in the alphabet. On the other hand, there is also a small, but growing, body of literature which shows that synaesthesia can influence or be helpful in learning. For instance, synaesthetes appear to be able to use their unusual experiences as mnemonic de- vices and can even exploit them while learning novel abstract categories. Here we review these two directions of influence and argue that they are interconnected. We propose that synaesthesia arises, at least in part, because of the cognitive demands of learning in childhood, and that it is used to aid perception and understanding of a variety of learned categories. Our thesis is that the structural similarities between synaesthetic triggering stimuli and synaesthetic experiences are the remnants, the fossilized traces, of past learning challenges for which synasethesia was helpful.

  4. The Role of Spirituality in Transition to Parenthood: Qualitative Research Using Transformative Learning Theory.

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    Klobučar, Nataša Rijavec

    2016-08-01

    This article presents results of a qualitative study of 12 adult couples making transition to parenthood. The aim of the study was to research the meaning of transition to parenthood through the lens of transformative learning theory. Transformative learning theory explains learning through meaning-making of that life experience. In this paper, the spiritual dimension of learning is emphasized. An important part of research methodology included biographical method, using semi-structured interviews before and after the birth of the first child. The research showed that transformative learning occurs in different spheres of life during transition to parenthood. This paper discusses the spiritual dimension of learning, meaning-making and presents results of the research.

  5. Teaching Theory in Occupational Therapy Using a Cooperative Learning: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hinojosa, Jim

    2018-01-01

    Cooperative learning provides an important vehicle for active learning, as knowledge is socially constructed through interaction with others. This study investigated the effect of cooperative learning on occupational therapy (OT) theory knowledge attainment in professional-level OT students in a classroom environment. Using a pre- and post-test group design, 24 first-year, entry-level OT students participated while taking a theory course in their second semester of the program. Cooperative learning methods were implemented via in-class group assignments. The students were asked to complete two questionnaires regarding their attitudes toward group environments and their perception toward group learning before and after the semester. MANCOVA was used to examine changes in attitudes and perceived learning among groups. Students' summary sheets for each in-class assignment and course evaluations were collected for content analysis. Results indicated significant changes in students' attitude toward working in small groups regardless of their prior group experience.

  6. Climate change communication: what can we learn from communication theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballantyne, Anne Gammelgaard

    2016-01-01

    the field of communication theory are highlighted and discussed in the context of communicating climate change. Rooted in the interaction paradigm, the article proposes a meta‐theoretical framework that conceptualizes communication as a constitutive process of producing and reproducing shared meanings...... as a theoretical construct. In some instances, communication theory appears reduced to an ‘ad hoc’ toolbox, from which theories are randomly picked to provide studies with a fitting framework. Inspired by the paradigm shift from transmission to interaction within communication theory, potential lessons from...

  7. Investigating Learner Attitudes toward E-Books as Learning Tools: Based on the Activity Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of e-books as learning tools in terms of learner satisfaction, usefulness, behavioral intention, and learning effectiveness. Based on the activity theory approach, this research develops a research model to understand learner attitudes toward e-books in two physical sizes: 10? and 7?. Results suggest that screen…

  8. e-Research and Learning Theory: What Do Sequence and Process Mining Methods Contribute?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Peter; Markauskaite, Lina; Bannert, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental question of how data-intensive e-research methods could contribute to the development of learning theories. Using methodological developments in research on self-regulated learning as an example, it argues that current applications of data-driven analytical techniques, such as educational data mining and its…

  9. Social Learning Theories--An Important Design Consideration for Geoscience Fieldwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streule, M. J.; Craig, L. E.

    2016-01-01

    The nature of field trips in geoscience lends them to the application of social learning theories for three key reasons. First, they provide opportunity for meaningful practical experience and promote effective learning afforded by no other educational vehicle in the subject. Second, they are integral for students creating a strong but changing…

  10. Aligning Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory with a Comprehensive Agricultural Education Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Marshall A.; Robinson, J. Shane; Kolb, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Experiential learning has been a foundational tenant of agricultural education since its inception. However, the theory of experiential education has received limited attention in the permanent agricultural education literature base. As such, this philosophical manuscript examined Kolb's experiential learning process further, and considered the…

  11. Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory: A Meta-Model for Career Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, George, Jr.; Murrell, Patricia H.

    1988-01-01

    Kolb's experiential learning theory offers the career counselor a meta-model with which to structure career exploration exercises and ensure a thorough investigation of self and the world of work in a manner that provides the client with an optimal amount of learning and personal development. (Author)

  12. Second Language Developmental Dynamics: How Dynamic Systems Theory Accounts for Issues in Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmawati

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic systems theory (DST) is presented in this article as a suitable approach to research the acquisition of second language (L2) because of its close alignment with the process of second language learning. Through a process of identifying and comparing the characteristics of a dynamic system with the process of L2 learning, this article…

  13. Towards a Robuster Interpretive Parsing: learning from overt forms in Optimality Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biró, T.

    2013-01-01

    The input data to grammar learning algorithms often consist of overt forms that do not contain full structural descriptions. This lack of information may contribute to the failure of learning. Past work on Optimality Theory introduced Robust Interpretive Parsing (RIP) as a partial solution to this

  14. Gamified Pedagogy: From Gaming Theory to Creating a Self-Motivated Learning Environment in Studio Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hsiao-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    This research is an empirical study using gamified pedagogy in a 3-D animation course in a Visual Communication Design Department. By conducting this research, I hope to increase student interest in learning 3-D animation and to decrease student fears of learning professional 3-D software. Through this research, I have developed a theory of…

  15. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency: Interpretations from Information-Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zhenhui

    2016-01-01

    The research reported here investigated the relationship between students' use of language learning strategies and their English proficiency, and then interpreted the data from two models in information-processing theory. Results showed that the students' English proficiency significantly affected their use of learning strategies, with high-level…

  16. A Comparative Study of the Application of Learning Theories as Perceived by Faculty and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Lula M.

    To test the similarity of student and instructor perceptions of the learning approaches used by particular instructors in the classroom, teachers and students (n=138) of ten social science classes at Valencia Community College (Florida) responded to a questionnaire. Items tested the instructors' application of the learning theories of Pavlov,…

  17. Dynamic Training Elements in a Circuit Theory Course to Implement a Self-Directed Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouk, B. I.; Zhuravleva, O. B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of a self-directed learning process in a circuit theory course, incorporating dynamic training elements which were designed on the basis of a cybernetic model of cognitive process management. These elements are centrally linked in a dynamic learning frame, created on the monitor screen, which displays the…

  18. Social Learning Theory in the Age of Social Media: Implications for Educational Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Following the research of Albert Bandura, the advent of social media has changed the platform for social interaction and human experience. Educators have a unique opportunity to apply the concepts of Bandura's Social Learning Theory toward enhanced student engagement and learning in a social media context. This article synthesizes current research…

  19. What Motivates Students to Provide Feedback to Teachers about Teaching and Learning? An Expectancy Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Jay

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical research study was to investigate what motivates students to provide formative anonymous feedback to teachers regarding their perceptions of the teaching and learning experience in order to improve student learning. Expectancy theory, specifically Vroom's Model, was used as the conceptual framework for the study.…

  20. The Spiral and the Lattice: Changes in Cognitive Learning Theory with Implications for Art Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efland, Arthur D.

    1995-01-01

    Contrasts recent views of learning and cognition with cognitive learning theories of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Maintains that Jerome Bruner's spiral curriculum approach, still valuable, is not sufficient to explain cognitive development. Proposes a lattice-like cognitive development structure, inviting differing paths of exploration. (CFR)