Strom, Paris S.; Strom, Robert D.
Teamwork skills are required at work, but teacher efforts in many countries to track achievement within this context have been hindered by lack of assessment tools and input from students. The Teamwork Skills Inventory relies on peer and self-evaluation to establish accountability, identify competencies, and detect learning needs. Twenty-five…
Aarnio, Matti; Nieminen, Juha; Pyörälä, Eeva; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari
This study examined teaching teamwork skills to first-year medical students. Teamwork skills focused on verbal communication in PBL-tutorial sessions and in healthcare teams. The aim was to find out how to teach teamwork skills to first-year medical students and how to motivate them to learn these skills. Three consecutive classes of first-year medical students (N = 342) participated in teamwork skills module in the years 2006, 2007 and 2008. After the first year, the introduction to the topic was revised in order to be more motivating to medical students. After each module data were collected with a feedback questionnaire containing numerical and open questions. By analyzing the students' numerical answers and the content of students' open answers regarding the module, we examined how the revised introduction affected students' perceptions of the usefulness of the module. Medical students' feedback in the years 1 (n = 81), 2 (n = 99) and 3 (n = 95) showed that the students found the module in the second and third years significantly more useful than in the first year. These results support earlier findings that clearly stated clinical relevance motivates medical students. When introducing multidisciplinary subjects to medical students, it is important to think through the clinical relevance of the topic and how it is introduced to medical students.
Watland, Kathleen Hanold; Santori, David
Teamwork and the ability to work collaboratively on a team are important skills in almost every industry or profession. The use of student teams in college courses is increasing and most academic programs require teamwork as part of the students' academic learning experience. While teamwork and other experiential collaborative learning…
Tseng, Hung Wei; Yeh, Hsin-Te
Teamwork factors can facilitate team members, committing themselves to the purposes of maximizing their own and others' contributions and successes. It is important for online instructors to comprehend students' expectations on learning collaboratively. The aims of this study were to investigate online collaborative learning experiences and to…
-power distance values. Teamwork orientation was significantly associated with personal learning independent of the degree of perceived value congruence between individual member and other team members. Practical or managerial implications: Our study offers implications for managing teams and facilitating employee learning and development in organisations. The study may also benefit teachers in higher education in facilitating students’ learning through group activities. Contribution or value-added: This study provides initial evidence on the contingent effect of power distance and uncertainty avoidance in the collectivism–teamwork orientation relationship. The study further contributes to the existing literature on the effects of preference to work in teams by assessing the influence of teamwork orientation on personal learning in addition to considering the role of perceived value congruence in this relationship.
Chan, Lim Ha; Chen, Ching-Huei
This study investigated the conflict occurring during teamwork among college seniors in project-based collaborative learning in a capstone course. It found that conflict emerged with poor communication, task management, and work allocation; unequal treatments among classmates; egocentricity; a clash of values; and lack of responsibility and…
Pinho-Lopes, Margarida; Macedo, Joaquim
Since 2007/2008 project-based learning models have been used to deliver two fundamental courses on Geotechnics in University of Aveiro, Portugal. These models have evolved and have encompassed either cooperative or collaborative teamwork. Using data collected in five editions of each course (Soil Mechanics I and Soil Mechanics II), the different…
Kelly, Martina; Bennett, Deirdre; O'Flynn, Siun; Foley, Tony
Teamwork and patient centredness are frequently articulated concepts in medical education, but are not always explicit in the curriculum. In Ireland, recent government policy emphasises the importance of a primary care team approach to health care. We report on an appraisal of a newly introduced community-based student attachment, which focused on teamwork. To review students' experience of teamwork following a community clinical placement by examining student assignments: essays, poetry, music and art. Year-2 graduate-entry students (n = 45) spent 2 weeks with a primary care team. Attachments comprised placements with members of the primary care team, emphasising team dynamics, at the end of which students submitted a representative piece of work, which captured their learning. Essays (n = 22) were analysed using a thematic content analysis. Artwork consisted of painting, collage, photography, poetry and original music (n = 23). These were analysed using Gardner's entry points. Three core themes emerged in both written and visual work: patient centredness; communication; and an improved appreciation of the skills of other health care professionals. Students identified optimal team communication occurring when patient outcomes were prioritised. Metaphors relating to puzzles, hands and inter-connectedness feature strongly. The poems and artwork had a high impact when they were presented to tutors. Primary care team placements focus student attention on teamwork and patient centredness. Student artwork shows potential as a tool to evaluate student learning in medical education. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-technical skills are seen as an important contributor to reducing adverse events and improving medical management in healthcare teams. Previous research on the effectiveness of teams has suggested that shared mental models facilitate coordination and team performance. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether demonstrated teamwork skills and behaviour indicating shared mental models would be associated with observed improved medical management in trauma team simulations. Methods Revised versions of the 'Anesthetists' Non-Technical Skills Behavioural marker system' and 'Anti-Air Teamwork Observation Measure' were field tested in moment-to-moment observation of 27 trauma team simulations in Norwegian hospitals. Independent subject matter experts rated medical management in the teams. An independent group design was used to explore differences in teamwork skills between higher-performing and lower-performing teams. Results Specific teamwork skills and behavioural markers were associated with indicators of good team performance. Higher and lower-performing teams differed in information exchange, supporting behaviour and communication, with higher performing teams showing more effective information exchange and communication, and less supporting behaviours. Behavioural markers of shared mental models predicted effective medical management better than teamwork skills. Conclusions The present study replicates and extends previous research by providing new empirical evidence of the significance of specific teamwork skills and a shared mental model for the effective medical management of trauma teams. In addition, the study underlines the generic nature of teamwork skills by demonstrating their transferability from different clinical simulations like the anaesthesia environment to trauma care, as well as the potential usefulness of behavioural frequency analysis in future research on non-technical skills.
Putranto, A.; Pradipto, Y. D.
Open distance learning students in doing team assignment, they seldom face to some problems such as student fell unfair in numbers of workload contribution, instructors also do not know which students do more work than others. So there are some questions ie: how to connect between instructor, team members, and working documents. Methods will be used are first, analyzing current condition and last by designing systems to connect between instructor, team members, and document. The expected result is support systems for open distance learning student teamwork.
Laatsch, Linda; Britton, Lynda; Keating, Susan; Kirchner, Phyllis; Lehman, Don; Madsen-Myers, Karen; Milson, Linda; Otto, Catherine; Spence, Libby
To evaluate clinical laboratory science (CLS) student attitudes toward teamwork when using cooperative learning (CL) as compared to individual learning (IL) in a course and to determine if learning method affects student attitudes toward the course itself. This was a multi-institutional study involving eight classrooms in seven states. The effects of CL and IL on student attitudes were compared for 216 student participants. One group of students learned the course material through a CL approach while a second group of students learned via a traditional IL approach. For each course, the instructor, class material, and examination content was identical for the CL and IL students; the only variable was learning method. Student attitudes toward teamwork and toward the course were evaluated with a 35-item Attitude Questionnaire administered as a posttest. Mean scores for the CL and IL groups were compared using the Student t-test for independent samples. No significant difference was seen between the CL and IL students when assessing the first 30 questions on student attitudes toward teamwork (means = 98.42 and 98.22, respectively) when all institutions were combined. Comparable results were seen for each of the eight institutions. For the five questions comparing attitudes toward the course itself, there usually was no significant difference in attitude between CL and IL students. The only classrooms where CL students had more positive attitudes were those with instructors who had more than 10 years experience with CL. Results suggest that CL produces similar student attitudes toward teamwork and toward a CLS course as does IL.
The dental program at the Malmö Dental School, the so called Malmö-model, is guided by four linked principles: self-directed learning, teamwork, a holistic view of patient care, and oral health (Fig.1). Self-assessment ability is a critical competence for healthcare professionals, necessary for the successful adaptation to the modern life-long learning environment. Educational research seems to point out two critical factors for the development of such skills, continuous practice of self-assessment and constructive feedback. The first study presented in this thesis assessed students' self-assessment ability by means of the Interactive Examination in a cohort of senior dental students, who had gone through an identical assessment procedure during their second year of studies. The results indicated that self-assessment ability was not directly relevant to subject knowledge. Upon graduation, there were a number of students (10%) with significant self-assessment difficulties. Early detection of students with weak self-assessment abilities appears possible to achieve. The aim of the second study, concerning teamwork and holistic view, was to investigate if highlighting teamwork between dental and dental hygienist students could improve the students' holistic view on patients, as well as their knowledge of, and insight into, each other's future professions. This project showed that by initiating teamwork between dental and dental hygienist students, it was possible to increase students' knowledge on dental hygienists competence, develop students' perceived holistic view on patients, and prepare students for teamwork. The third study explored findings clinicians used when diagnosing chronic periodontitis. A questionnaire was distributed to students, dental teachers and clinical supervisors in the Public Dental Services. Within all categories of clinicians, the majority of the clinicians used deepened pocket, bone loss on x-rays, and bleeding as findings. There were
Johanna Lorena Aristizabal-Almanza
Full Text Available This action-research project was conducted to determine how the use of principles of active learning, specifically collaboration, had an effect on psychomotor performance and achievement in teamwork. The research setting included 20 students of first grade from a private school located in Bogota, Colombia. The students were selected through not randomized sampling based on criteria. The methodological process included observation, interviews, and a scale based on standardized tests to measure skills; the latter was applied before and after the intervention. Data analysis was performed using a triangulation of qualitative data, and through comparative analysis of the initial and final student profile for quantitative inputs. The results showed that, after the intervention with collaborative techniques based on action learning, students achieved a positive variation in their performance. Being part of a team positively affected the achievement of the objectives. Systematical reflection on their practices fostered their capacity to identify strengths and weaknesses to build knowledge in interaction with others. Knowledge construction was nurtured based in their previous experiences. Students showed more accountability and self-directed learning behaviors, according to their age. Overall the experience showed the importance of research and innovation in the classroom in order to provide meaningful data, so teachers and researchers can engage in providing learning experiences based in active learning.
Hall, Pippa; Brajtman, Susan; Weaver, Lynda; Grassau, Pamela Anne; Varpio, Lara
A holistic, collaborative interprofessional team approach, which includes patients and families as significant decision-making members, has been proposed to address the increasing burden being placed on the health-care system. This project hypothesized that learning activities related to the humanities during clinical placements could enhance interprofessional teamwork. Through an interprofessional team of faculty, clinical staff, students, and patient representatives, we developed and piloted the self-learning module, "interprofessional education for collaborative person-centred practice through the humanities". The module was designed to provide learners from different professions and educational levels with a clinical placement/residency experience that would enable them, through a lens of the humanities, to better understand interprofessional collaborative person-centred care without structured interprofessional placement activities. Learners reported the self-paced and self-directed module to be a satisfactory learning experience in all four areas of care at our institution, and certain attitudes and knowledge were significantly and positively affected. The module's evaluation resulted in a revised edition providing improved structure and instruction for students with no experience in self-directed learning. The module was recently adapted into an interactive bilingual (French and English) online e-learning module to facilitate its integration into the pre-licensure curriculum at colleges and universities.
Team-based learning (TBL) was applied within a third-year unit of study about ethics and management with the aim of enhancing students' teamwork skills. A survey used to collect students' opinions about their experience with TBL provided insights about how TBL helped students to develop an appreciation for teamwork and team collaboration. The team…
Balasooriya, Chinthaka; Olupeliyawa, Asela; Iqbal, Maha; Lawley, Claire; Cohn, Amanda; Ma, David; Luu, Queenie
The development of teamwork skills is a critical aspect of modern medical education. This paper reports on a project that aimed to identify student perceptions of teamwork-focused learning activities and generate student recommendations for the development of effective educational strategies. The project utilized a unique method, which drew on the skills of student research assistants (RAs) to explore the views of their peers. Using structured interview guides, the RAs interviewed their colleagues to clarify their perceptions of the effectiveness of current methods of teamwork teaching and to explore ideas for more effective methods. The RAs shared their deidentified findings with each other, identified preliminary themes, and developed a number of recommendations which were finalized through consultation with faculty. The key themes that emerged focused on the need to clarify the relevance of teamwork skills to clinical practice, reward individual contributions to group process, facilitate feedback and reflection on teamwork skills, and systematically utilize clinical experiences to support experiential learning of teamwork. Based on these findings, a number of recommendations for stage appropriate teamwork learning and assessment activities were developed. Key among these were recommendations to set up a peer-mentoring system for students, suggestions for more authentic teamwork assessment methods, and strategies to utilize the clinical learning environment in developing teamwork skills. The student-led research process enabled identification of issues that may not have been otherwise revealed by students, facilitated a better understanding of teamwork teaching and developed ownership of the curriculum among students. The project enabled the development of recommendations for designing learning, teaching, and assessment methods that were likely to be more effective from a student perspective.
Cortez, C.; Nussbaum, M.; Woywood, G.; Aravena, R.
In today's fast-changing business environment, teams have emerged as a requirement for business success. However, in schools and universities, students are usually not taught teamwork skills. In this paper, we introduce learning to collaborate by collaborating, a process that enables collaboration and teamwork skills to be taught and measured…
Kuehster, Christina R; Hall, Carla D
Medical errors are one of the leading causes of death annually in the United States. Many of these errors are related to poor communication and/or lack of teamwork. Using simulation as a teaching modality provides a dual role in helping to reduce these errors. Thorough integration of clinical practice with teamwork and communication in a safe environment increases the likelihood of reducing the error rates in medicine. By allowing practitioners to make potential errors in a safe environment, such as simulation, these valuable lessons improve retention and will rarely be repeated.
Dina Zakiyyatul Fuadah
Full Text Available Introduction: Indonesia as a developing country have a higher Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR. The prevention efforts is developing interprofessional collaborative practice (IPCP in the level of health care. Collaboration attitudes should start from education level through interprofessional education training and simulation for student. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of interprofessional education training toward the readiness of students to learn interprofessional teamwork in antenatal care. Methods: Quasi-experimental design (pre test and post test without control with Time-Series Design. Participants used in this study were students of five semester in STIKes Karya Husada Kediri year of 2011/2012 and the number of samples are 60 students. Technique sampling using simple random. The data collected by used questionnaires Readiness Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS and checklist observations using Teamwork Score (TWS. Anova, Friedman test, and Kruskal Wallis was used to statistically analyzed the data. Results: Readiness to learn interprofessional teamwork indicates the value of p = 0.001 thats means there are significant differences between the readiness before and after training IPE. Delta test showed that p value > 0.05 so there is no difference between the three programs study on readiness to learn interprofessional teamwork in antenatal care. Discussion: Interprofessional education training using simulation methods can affect the readiness of nursing, midwifery and nutritionist students for learning interprofessional teamwork in antenatal care. Keywords: interprofessional education, readiness, training and simulations, pre clinics students, antenatal care.
Karimi, Reza; Cawley, Pauline; Arendt, Cassandra S
To implement a Learning Bridge tool to improve educational outcomes for pharmacy students as well as for preceptors and faculty members. Pharmacy faculty members collaborated to write 9 case-based assignments that first-year pharmacy (P1) students worked with preceptors to complete while at experiential sites. Students, faculty members, and preceptors were surveyed about their perceptions of the Learning Bridge process. As in our pilot study,(1) the Learning Bridge process promoted student learning. Additionally, the Learning Bridge assignments familiarized preceptors with the school's P1 curriculum and its content. Faculty teamwork also was increased through collaborating on the assignments. The Learning Bridge assignments provided a compelling learning environment and benefited students, preceptors, and faculty members.
Gershwin, Mary Crabbe, Ed.; Cyr, Anne Reis; Smith, Elizabeth Amidon; Travis, Lisa; Wiseman, Tim
Designed as a reference for teaching teamwork skills in the workplace, this manual presents teaching strategies and activities for beginning, intermediate, and advanced learners. Following an overview of the manual's purpose, definitions are provided of the three skill levels integrated into the activities, indicating that beginning activities…
Kyprianidou, Maria; Demetriadis, Stavros; Tsiatsos, Thrasyvoulos; Pombortsis, Andreas
This work explores the impact of teacher-led heterogeneous group formation on students' teamwork, based on students' learning styles. Fifty senior university students participated in a project-based course with two key organizational features: first, a web system (PEGASUS) was developed to help students identify their learning styles and…
Martín-Pérez, Víctor; Martín-Cruz, Natalia; Pérez-Santana, Pilar
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of strategic management simulations as a learning-by-doing tool so that university students can learn to work in a team, that is, they can enhance their knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) for effective teamwork. The authors have carried out an analysis of the effect of strategic…
Curseu, Petru L.; Pluut, Helen
Collaborative learning has important group-level benefits, yet most studies in higher education only focus on individual benefits of collaborative learning experiences. This study extends these insights by testing a model in which teamwork quality mediates the impact of several compositional differences (gender, nationality and teamwork expertise…
Magzan, Masa; Aleksic-Maslac, Karmela; Juric, Visnja
This paper describes several models of teamwork used in business curricula at Zagreb School of Economics and Management (ZSEM) in Croatia. Since its foundation in 2002, ZSEM has been implementing best academic practices for quality assurance. This is done both in terms of integrating ICT in teaching and learning, as well as applying contemporary…
Mayen, Patrick; Olry, Paul
One of the dimensions of work that is not well known in training is teamwork and the work of the team leader. The team leader is the personne who provides local supervision. Teachers and trainers, as well as business employers aknowledge the place and importance of teamwork and the role of the team leader. However, most consider themselves, insufficiently prepared to offer training in line with these elements. This paper thus aims to present the results of an analysis of group work in the field of landscaping conducted from the perspective of team work and team leader learning and training.
Aoki, Hideyuki; Kamata, Motohiro; Yamagami, Norihisa
The purpose of my study was to develop of cooperative learning support on Educational Function as Teamwork in Project-based Learning with Regional Cooperation. Analysis of validation of the original method were made using correlation analysis of student satisfaction of relationships among teammate and educational function as teamwork, result of self-diagnose. As a result, we achieved analysis results with a collective creativity were involved in student‧s planning skill. It was shown that educational functions as teamwork plays an important part in the growth of students. Our study revealed that there was method using cooperative learning technique helps to promote improvement of educational function as teamwork.
Carson, O M; Laird, E A; Reid, B B; Deeny, P G; McGarvey, H E
A cohort of year two students (n = 181) was exposed to a transformational and experiential learning intervention in the form of team-led poster development workshops to enhance competence and interpersonal skills for working in teams. The aims of this study were to test the suitability of an amended TeamSTEPPS teamwork perceptions questionnaire (T-TPQ) for measuring the impact of the intervention on students' perceptions of team working, and to ascertain students' views about the experience. This was a two phase pilot study. Phase 1 was a repeated measures design to test the T-TPQ for evaluating the impact of the experiential intervention, and Phase 2 was a survey of students' views and opinions. Descriptive and statistical analysis of the data were performed. Our findings suggest that age and part-time employment mediate towards more positive teamwork perceptions. Teamwork perceptions increased from week 3 to week 9 of the experiential intervention, and students viewed the experience positively. This was the first time that the T-TPQ was tested for suitability for measuring the impact of an experiential learning intervention among nursing students. Despite limitations, our study indicates that the amended T-TPQ is sensitive to changes in teamwork perceptions in repeated measures design studies among nursing students. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goh, Swee C; Chan, Christopher; Kuziemsky, Craig
This article aims to encourage healthcare administrators to consider the learning organization concept and foster collaborative learning among teams in their attempt to improve patient safety. Relevant healthcare, organizational behavior and human resource management literature was reviewed. A patient safety culture, fostered by healthcare leaders, should include an organizational culture that encourages collaborative learning, replaces the blame culture, prioritizes patient safety and rewards individuals who identify serious mistakes. As healthcare institution staffs are being asked to deliver more complex medical services with fewer resources, there is a need to understand how hospital staff can learn from other organizational settings, especially the non-healthcare sectors. The paper provides suggestions for improving patient safety which are drawn from the health and business management literature.
Williams, Ethlyn A.; Duray, Rebecca; Reddy, Venkateshwar
This research examines computer-supported collaborative learning. Master's of business administration (MBA) students in an online program were surveyed to examine the extent to which an orientation toward teamwork and the development of group cohesiveness affect overall student learning and the learning that results specifically from team…
Curseu, P.L.; Pluut, H.
Collaborative learning has important group-level benefits, yet most studies in higher education only focus on individual benefits of collaborative learning experiences. This study extends these insights by testing a model in which teamwork quality mediates the impact of several compositional
Huitt, Tiffany W.; Killins, Anita; Brooks, William S.
As the healthcare climate shifts toward increased interdisciplinary patient care, it is essential that students become accomplished at group problem solving and develop positive attitudes toward teamwork. Team-based learning (TBL) has become a popular approach to medical education because of its ability to promote active learning, problem-solving…
Anderson, Elizabeth Susan; Thorpe, Lucy
the paper reports on the first 100 students who completed ward-based interprofessional learning using the Leicester Model of Interprofessional Education. Pre-registration health and social care students were placed in small groups (n = 2-5) to learn together on a care of the elderly ward. The students cared for one in-patient to analyse the care package and the contributions of all members of the ward clinical team. At the end of the week the student team presented their patient case to the ward team offering solutions to problems in an interactive feedback session. a multi-method evaluation aimed to assess the impact of the learning. Tutors completed a post-course questionnaire. the results confirmed that the learning was worthwhile. Students learned about related policy, patient involvement in discharge, the roles and responsibilities of team members in care delivery, the importance of effective communication, the complexity of teamworking and team decisions on discharge. They highlighted the added benefit of learning interprofessionally. All tutors saw the value of the interprofessional learning and welcomed student feedback which could be used to improve patient care. Clinicians had to balance clinical work and teaching. interprofessional learning in clinical areas requires effective models which engage students and ward teams. The Leicester Model can be applied in hospital settings to establish student team learning that is experiential, reflective and contributes to improving the quality of patient care. Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.
Jorge, Maria Lucia da Silva Germano; Coelho, Izabel Cristina Meister; Paraizo, Mariana Martins; Paciornik, Ester Fogel
Professionalism in medicine requires preparation for the globalized world. Our objective was to describe a project that introduces medical students to the community, hospital and laboratory activities, thereby allowing them to gain experience in people management, leadership and teamwork. Descriptive study of the process applied at a philanthropic medical school in Curitiba, Paraná. Inclusion of management and leadership practices as part of the medical degree program. The study groups consisted of fifteen students. After six months, any of the participants could be elected as a subcoordinator, with responsibility for managing tasks and representing the team in hospital departments and the community. The activities required increasing levels of responsibility. In medical schools, students' involvement in practical activities is often limited to observation. They are not required to take responsibilities or to interact with other students and stakeholders. However, they will become accountable, which thus has an adverse effect on all involved. The learning space described here aims to fill this gap by bringing students closer to the daily lives and experiences of healthcare professionals. Being a physician requires not only management and leadership, but also transferrable competencies, communication and critical thinking. These attributes can be acquired through experience of teamwork, under qualified supervision from teaching staff. Students are thus expected to develop skills to deal with and resolve conflicts, learn to share leadership, prepare others to help and replace them, adopt an approach based on mutual responsibility and discuss their performance.
Title: Teamwork in Adventure racing Goals: The main goal is to make up the chapter about an ideal teamwork in Adventure racing. And so, to help starting teams but also help experienced teams to learn about their lacks in cooperation and to shift teamwork level above. Method: We used the method of literature retrieval from books, articles and researches. Results: It is very hard task to define ideal teamwork, we would not find same two teams in the world and therefore each team suits something...
Maria Lucia da Silva Germano Jorge
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Professionalism in medicine requires preparation for the globalized world. Our objective was to describe a project that introduces medical students to the community, hospital and laboratory activities, thereby allowing them to gain experience in people management, leadership and teamwork.DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study of the process applied at a philanthropic medical school in Curitiba, Paraná.METHOD: Inclusion of management and leadership practices as part of the medical degree program.RESULTS: The study groups consisted of fifteen students. After six months, any of the participants could be elected as a subcoordinator, with responsibility for managing tasks and representing the team in hospital departments and the community. The activities required increasing levels of responsibility. In medical schools, students' involvement in practical activities is often limited to observation. They are not required to take responsibilities or to interact with other students and stakeholders. However, they will become accountable, which thus has an adverse effect on all involved. The learning space described here aims to fill this gap by bringing students closer to the daily lives and experiences of healthcare professionals.CONCLUSION: Being a physician requires not only management and leadership, but also transferrable competencies, communication and critical thinking. These attributes can be acquired through experience of teamwork, under qualified supervision from teaching staff. Students are thus expected to develop skills to deal with and resolve conflicts, learn to share leadership, prepare others to help and replace them, adopt an approach based on mutual responsibility and discuss their performance.
Park, Hyung-Ran; Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, Jee-Won; Park, Eunyoung
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of team-based learning (a well-recognized learning and teaching strategy), applied in a health assessment subject, on nursing students' perceived teamwork (team-efficacy and team skills) and academic performance (individual and team readiness assurance tests, and examination scores). A prospective, one-group, pre- and post-test design enrolled a convenience sample of 74 second-year nursing students at a university in Suwon, Korea. Team-based learning was applied in a 2-credit health assessment subject over a 16-week semester. All students received written material one week before each class for readiness preparation. After administering individual- and team-readiness assurance tests consecutively, the subject instructor gave immediate feedback and delivered a mini-lecture to the students. Finally, students carried out skill based application exercises. The findings showed significant improvements in the mean scores of students' perceived teamwork after the introduction of team-based learning. In addition, team-efficacy was associated with team-adaptability skills and team-interpersonal skills. Regarding academic performance, team readiness assurance tests were significantly higher than individual readiness assurance tests over time. Individual readiness assurance tests were significantly related with examination scores, while team readiness assurance tests were correlated with team-efficacy and team-interpersonal skills. The application of team-based learning in a health assessment subject can enhance students' perceived teamwork and academic performance. This finding suggests that team-based learning may be an effective learning and teaching strategy for improving team-work of nursing students, who need to collaborate and effectively communicate with health care providers to improve patients' health.
The topics of autonomy and independence play an increasingly important role in language education. They raise issues such as learners' responsibility for their own learning, and their right to determine the direction of their own learning, the skills which can be learned and applied in self-directed learning and capacity for independent learning and the extents to which this can be suppressed by institutional education. This volume offers new insights into the principles of autonomy and independence and the practices associated with them focusing on the area of EFL teaching. The editors' introduction provides the context and outlines the main issues involved in autonomy and independence. Later chapters discuss the social and political implications of autonomy and independence and their effects on educational structures. The consequences for the design of learner-centred materials and methods is discussed, together with an exploration of the practical ways of implementing autonomy and independence in language ...
In the education sector, teamwork assessment and self/peer evaluation are widely applied in higher education nationally and internationally. This assessment is designed to encourage students to promote and improve their skills in teamwork, communication (writing, interpersonal interaction and cultural awareness, and presenting), critical and…
Ivey, Carole K.; Reed, Evelyn
Although interdisciplinary teamwork is a recommended practice and important for coordinated interdisciplinary programming in special education, there is limited research on pedagogical practices to prepare professionals to work together effectively. This study examined the effectiveness of a graduate interdisciplinary teamwork course taught…
Huitt, Tiffany W; Killins, Anita; Brooks, William S
As the healthcare climate shifts toward increased interdisciplinary patient care, it is essential that students become accomplished at group problem solving and develop positive attitudes toward teamwork. Team-based learning (TBL) has become a popular approach to medical education because of its ability to promote active learning, problem-solving skills, communication, and teamwork. However, its documented use in the laboratory setting and physical therapy education is limited. We used TBL as a substitute for one-third of cadaveric dissections in the gross anatomy laboratories at two Doctor of Physical Therapy programs to study its effect on both students' perceptions and academic performance. We surveyed students at the beginning and completion of their anatomy course as well as students who had previously completed a traditional anatomy course to measure the impact of TBL on students' perceptions of teamwork. We found that the inclusion of TBL in the anatomy laboratory improves students' attitudes toward working with peers (P < 0.01). Non-TBL students had significantly lower attitudes toward teamwork (P < 0.01). Comparison of academic performance between TBL and non-TBL students revealed that students who participated in TBL scored significantly higher on their first anatomy practical examination and on their head/neck written examination (P < 0.001). When asked to rate their role in a team, a 10.5% increase in the mean rank score for Problem Solver resulted after the completion of the TBL-based anatomy course. Our data indicate that TBL is an effective supplement to cadaveric dissection in the laboratory portion of gross anatomy, improving both students' grades and perceptions of teamwork. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.
Weinstock, Peter; Halamek, Louis P
Effective resuscitation requires the integration of several cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills. Because resuscitation is performed by teams of health care professionals, these individuals must be able to work together in a coordinated and efficient manner, making teamwork a critical skill for care of patients in distress. Despite the importance of teamwork in health care, little consensus exists as to what it is, how it can most effectively be learned, and how it should be assessed. This article reviews current knowledge on the measurement, training, and importance of teamwork in pediatric resuscitation.
Full Text Available This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry creativity is an essential component of the job description and inspirational leadership that promotes teamwork is essential.
Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh
speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategy’s performance on different robot conﬁgurations. On the physical platform, we perform learning experiments with ATRON robots learning to move as fast...
Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh
speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategy?s performance on different robot con?gurations. On the physical platform, we perform learning experiments with ATRON robots learning to move as fast...
Forough L. Nowrouzian
Full Text Available Teamwork has become an integral part of most organisations today, and it is clearly important in Science and other disciplines. In Science, research teams increase in size while the number of single-authored papers and patents decline. Team-work in laboratory sciences permits projects that are too big or complex for one individual to be tackled. This development requires that students gain experience of team-work before they start their professional career. Students working in teams this may increase productivity, confidence, innovative capacity and improvement of interpersonal skills. Problem-based learning (PBL is an instructional approach focusing on real analytical problems as a means of training an analytical scientist. PBL may have a positive impact on team-work skills that are important for undergraduates and postgraduates to enable effective collaborative work. This survey of the current literature explores the development of the team-work skills in Biomedical Science students using PBL.
Kanade, Varun; Thaler, Justin
We study several questions in the reliable agnostic learning framework of Kalai et al. (2009), which captures learning tasks in which one type of error is costlier than others. A positive reliable classifier is one that makes no false positive errors. The goal in the positive reliable agnostic framework is to output a hypothesis with the following properties: (i) its false positive error rate is at most $\\epsilon$, (ii) its false negative error rate is at most $\\epsilon$ more than that of the...
Hood, Kerry; Cant, Robyn; Baulch, Julie; Gilbee, Alana; Leech, Michelle; Anderson, Amanda; Davies, Kate
How willing are today's medical, nursing and other healthcare students to undertake some of their studies as shared learning? There is a lack of evidence of students' views by discipline despite this being a priority task for higher education sectors. This study explored the views of nursing, midwifery, nursing-emergency health (paramedic), medical, physiotherapy and nutrition-dietetics students. Senior undergraduate students from six disciplines at one university completed the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale prior to participating in interprofessional clinical learning modules. For 741 students, the highest ranked response was agreement about a need for teamwork (mean 4.42 of 5 points). Nursing students held significantly more positive attitudes towards Teamwork/Collaboration, and were more positive about Professional Identity than medical students (p students rejected uncertainty about Roles/Responsibilities compared with medical students (p students who had prior experience of interprofessional learning held more positive attitudes in each of four attitude domains (p students' attitudes towards interprofessional learning were positive and all student groups were willing to engage in learning interprofessionally. Early introduction of IPL is recommended. Further studies should explore the trajectory of students' attitudes throughout the university degree. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh
Hand-coding locomotion controllers for modular robots is difﬁcult due to their polymorphic nature. Instead, we propose to use a simple and distributed reinforcement learning strategy. ATRON modules with identical controllers can be assembled in any conﬁguration. To optimize the robot’s locomotion...... speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategy’s performance on different robot conﬁgurations. On the physical platform, we perform learning experiments with ATRON robots learning to move as fast...
Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber
. The present training study was conducted to assess experimentally whether this relation between prior orthographic knowledge and orthographic learning while reading is causal by assessing whether instruction designed to increase sublexical orthographic knowledge would facilitate orthographic learning during......Research has shown that phonological decoding is critical for orthographic learning of new words during independent reading. Moreover, correlational studies have demonstrated that the strength of orthographic learning is related to the orthographic knowledge with which readers approach a text...... independent reading. A group of Danish-speaking third graders (n = 21) was taught conditional spelling patterns conforming to the opaque Danish writing system, with emphasis on how to map the spellings onto their pronunciations. A matched control group (n = 21) received no treatment. Both groups were exposed...
Ngai, Eric W. T.
In this paper, we describe an e-commerce teamwork-based project designed and implemented at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) for undergraduate business and management students. The teaching objectives of this e-commerce project are to develop the students' knowledge and skills, such as in the use of e-commerce site building tools,…
Bovbjerg, Kirsten Marie; Søgaard Sørensen, Marianne
of knowledge, the authors attempt to discover what factors are actually at play when a school introduces teamwork among teachers. The two co-operation logics appear to make use, for example, of two different types of democratic approaches that in turn influence the democratic domain in which students learn....
This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry creativity is an essential c...
Semler, Matthew W; Keriwala, Raj D; Clune, Jennifer K; Rice, Todd W; Pugh, Meredith E; Wheeler, Arthur P; Miller, Alison N; Banerjee, Arna; Terhune, Kyla; Bastarache, Julie A
Effective teamwork is fundamental to the management of medical emergencies, and yet the best method to teach teamwork skills to trainees remains unknown. In a cohort of incoming internal medicine interns, we tested the hypothesis that expert demonstration of teamwork principles and participation in high-fidelity simulation would each result in objectively assessed teamwork behavior superior to traditional didactics. This was a randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial comparing three teamwork teaching modalities for incoming internal medicine interns. Participants in a single-day orientation at the Vanderbilt University Center for Experiential Learning and Assessment were randomized 1:1:1 to didactic, demonstration-based, or simulation-based instruction and then evaluated in their management of a simulated crisis by five independent, blinded observers using the Teamwork Behavioral Rater score. Clinical performance was assessed using the American Heart Association Advanced Cardiac Life Support algorithm and a novel "Recognize, Respond, Reassess" score. Participants randomized to didactics (n = 18), demonstration (n = 17), and simulation (n = 17) were similar at baseline. The primary outcome of average overall Teamwork Behavioral Rater score for those who received demonstration-based training was similar to simulation participation (4.40 ± 1.15 vs. 4.10 ± 0.95, P = 0.917) and significantly higher than didactic instruction (4.40 ± 1.15 vs. 3.10 ± 0.51, P = 0.045). Clinical performance scores were similar between the three groups and correlated only weakly with teamwork behavior (coefficient of determination [Rs(2)] = 0.267, P teamwork training by expert demonstration resulted in similar teamwork behavior to participation in high-fidelity simulation and was more effective than traditional didactics. Clinical performance was largely independent of teamwork behavior and did not differ between training modalities.
It has been suggested that problem-based learning (PBL) has a positive impact on the team-working skills of medical, health and social care students. These skills are important for graduates to master to enable effective collaborative working in today's diverse health and social care settings. What is not clear from the literature is how…
Missingham, Dorothy; Matthews, Robert
This work examines an innovative and evolving approach to facilitating teamwork learning in a generic first-year mechanical engineering course. Principles of inclusive, student-active and democratic pedagogy were utilised to engage students on both the social and personal planes. Learner opportunities to facilitate, direct and lead the learning direction were emphasised. This emphasis encouraged a rich learning process and motivated students dismissive of the need to examine their communication skills and those who initially perceived the topic as a personal intrusion. Through a sharing of curriculum decisions, a climate of trust, ownership and shared value arose. Students chose from a range of tools across personality-type indicators, learning style indicators and hierarchies of human needs, to assist their capacity to express and discuss engineering designs and concepts. Peer teaching and collaborative exercises were incorporated to provide an authentic learning context and to further the student's sense of ownership.
Earnest, Mark A; Williams, Jason; Aagaard, Eva M
Teamwork and collaboration are increasingly listed as core competencies for undergraduate health professions education. Despite the clear mandate for teamwork training, the optimal method for providing that training is much less certain. In this Perspective, the authors propose a three-level classification of pedagogical approaches to teamwork training based on the presence of two key learning factors: interdependent work and explicit training in teamwork. In this classification framework, level 1-minimal team learning-is where learners work in small groups but neither of the key learning factors is present. Level 2-implicit team learning-engages learners in interdependent learning activities but does not include an explicit focus on teamwork. Level 3-explicit team learning-creates environments where teams work interdependently toward common goals and are given explicit instruction and practice in teamwork. The authors provide examples that demonstrate each level. They then propose that the third level of team learning, explicit team learning, represents a best practice approach in teaching teamwork, highlighting their experience with an explicit team learning course at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. Finally, they discuss several challenges to implementing explicit team-learning-based curricula: the lack of a common teamwork model on which to anchor such a curriculum; the question of whether the knowledge, skills, and attitudes acquired during training would be transferable to the authentic clinical environment; and effectively evaluating the impact of explicit team learning.
Spiro, Jane; Henderson, Juliet; Clifford, Valerie
This paper contrasts the notion of "independent learning" as perceived by two informant groups at a UK institution of higher education: (1) teachers, educators and providers of education and (2) their students or "consumers" of education. Both informant groups are staff and students studying in a culture different to that of…
There is a mismatch between the broad range of learning theories offered in the wider education literature and a relatively narrow range of theories privileged in the medical education literature. The latter are usually described under the heading of 'adult learning theory'. This paper critically addresses the limitations of the current dominant learning theories informing medical education. An argument is made that such theories, which address how an individual learns, fail to explain how learning occurs in dynamic, complex and unstable systems such as fluid clinical teams. Models of learning that take into account distributed knowing, learning through time as well as space, and the complexity of a learning environment including relationships between persons and artefacts, are more powerful in explaining and predicting how learning occurs in clinical teams. Learning theories may be privileged for ideological reasons, such as medicine's concern with autonomy. Where an increasing amount of medical education occurs in workplace contexts, sociocultural learning theories offer a best-fit exploration and explanation of such learning. We need to continue to develop testable models of learning that inform safe work practice. One type of learning theory will not inform all practice contexts and we need to think about a range of fit-for-purpose theories that are testable in practice. Exciting current developments include dynamicist models of learning drawing on complexity theory.
Procino, Matthew C.
Since the 2003 release of the AACSB's Assurance of Learning standards, outcomes assessment has been a required practice for business schools wishing to receive their endorsement. While most accredited institutions had been dabbling with the measurement of student learning, the new standards raised the bar considerably. It is now necessary to…
Keriwala, Raj D.; Clune, Jennifer K.; Rice, Todd W.; Pugh, Meredith E.; Wheeler, Arthur P.; Miller, Alison N.; Banerjee, Arna; Terhune, Kyla; Bastarache, Julie A.
Rationale: Effective teamwork is fundamental to the management of medical emergencies, and yet the best method to teach teamwork skills to trainees remains unknown. Objectives: In a cohort of incoming internal medicine interns, we tested the hypothesis that expert demonstration of teamwork principles and participation in high-fidelity simulation would each result in objectively assessed teamwork behavior superior to traditional didactics. Methods: This was a randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial comparing three teamwork teaching modalities for incoming internal medicine interns. Participants in a single-day orientation at the Vanderbilt University Center for Experiential Learning and Assessment were randomized 1:1:1 to didactic, demonstration-based, or simulation-based instruction and then evaluated in their management of a simulated crisis by five independent, blinded observers using the Teamwork Behavioral Rater score. Clinical performance was assessed using the American Heart Association Advanced Cardiac Life Support algorithm and a novel “Recognize, Respond, Reassess” score. Measurements and Main Results: Participants randomized to didactics (n = 18), demonstration (n = 17), and simulation (n = 17) were similar at baseline. The primary outcome of average overall Teamwork Behavioral Rater score for those who received demonstration-based training was similar to simulation participation (4.40 ± 1.15 vs. 4.10 ± 0.95, P = 0.917) and significantly higher than didactic instruction (4.40 ± 1.15 vs. 3.10 ± 0.51, P = 0.045). Clinical performance scores were similar between the three groups and correlated only weakly with teamwork behavior (coefficient of determination [Rs2] = 0.267, P didactics. Clinical performance was largely independent of teamwork behavior and did not differ between training modalities. PMID:25730661
Heikkinen, Juho; Isomöttönen, Ville
Recently, there has been a trend towards adding a multidisciplinary or multicultural element to traditional monodisciplinary project courses in computing and engineering. In this article, we examine the implications of multidisciplinarity for students' learning experiences during a one-semester project course for real customers. We use a qualitative research approach and base our analysis on students' learning reports on three instances of a project course titled Multidisciplinary working life project. The main contribution of this article is the unified theoretical picture of the learning mechanisms stemming from multidisciplinarity. Our main conclusions are that (1) students generally have a positive view of multidisciplinarity; (2) multidisciplinary teams enable students to better identify their own expertise, which leads to increased occupational identity; and (3) learning experiences are not fixed, as team spirit and student attitude play an important role in how students react to challenging situations arising from introduction of the multidisciplinarity.
Gibert, Anaïs; Tozer, Wade C; Westoby, Mark
We provide a list of soft skills that are important for collaboration and teamwork, based on our own experience and from an opinion survey of team leaders. Each skill can be learned to some extent. We also outline workable short courses for graduate schools to strengthen teamwork and collaboration skills among research students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wahyu Utami, Niken; Aziz Saefudin, Abdul
This study aims to determine: 1) differences in students taking independent learning by using e-learning and the students who attend the learning by using the print instructional materials ; 2) differences in the creativity of students who follow learning with e-learning and the students who attend the learning by using the print instructional materials ; 3) differences in learning independence and creativity of students attend learning with e-learning and the students who attend lessons using printed teaching materials in the subject of Mathematics Instructional Media Development. This study was a quasi-experimental research design using only posttest control design. The study population was all students who take courses in Learning Mathematics Media Development, Academic Year 2014/2015 100 students and used a random sample (random sampling) is 60 students. To test the hypothesis used multivariate analysis of variance or multivariable analysis of variance (MANOVA) of the track. The results of this study indicate that 1) There is a difference in student learning independence following study using the e-learning and the students who attend lessons using printed teaching materials in the lecture PMPM ( F = 4.177, p = 0.046 0.05) ; No difference learning independence and creativity of students attend learning by using e-learning and the students who attend the learning using printed teaching materials in the lecture PMPM (F = 2.452, p = 0.095 > 0.05). Based on these studies suggested that the learning using e -learning can be used to develop student creativity, while learning to use e -learning and teaching materials can be printed to use to develop students’ independence.
Heikkinen, Juho; Isomöttönen, Ville
Recently, there has been a trend towards adding a multidisciplinary or multicultural element to traditional monodisciplinary project courses in computing and engineering. In this article, we examine the implications of multidisciplinarity for students' learning experiences during a one-semester project course for real customers. We use a…
Loughry, Misty L.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Woehr, David J.
Colleges of business must meet assurance of learning requirements to gain or maintain AACSB accreditation under the new standards adopted April 8, 2013. Team skills are among the most important skills desired by recruiters, yet employers and scholars perceive that team skills are frequently deficient in college graduates. This article describes…
Scott-Ladd, Brenda; Chan, Christopher C. A.
This article reports on a study investigating strategies that students can use to develop skills in managing team learning. Two groups of second-year management students participated in a semester-long action research project over two semesters. The students were educated on team development, team processes and conflict management and how to…
Lacedón Montemayor, Marta
Treball Final de Grau en Administració d'Empreses. Codi: AE1049. Curs: 2015/2016 The objective of this paper is to examine the influence that leadership has on creating a good working environment, on work teams and on organisational learning, through a theoretical revision. For this, concepts are addressed related to leadership such as the leader's profile, the role he represents within an organisation, his functions and skills, which will help us understand the importance of ...
Bezemer, Jeff; Korkiakangas, Terhi; Weldon, Sharon-Marie; Kress, Gunther; Kneebone, Roger
To explore the unsettling effects of increased mobility of nurses, surgeons and other healthcare professionals on communication and learning in the operating theatre. Increasingly, healthcare professionals step in and out of newly formed transient teams and work with colleagues they have not met before, unsettling previously relatively stable team work based on shared, local knowledge accumulated over significant periods of close collaboration. An ethnographic case study was conducted of the operating theatre department of a major teaching hospital in London. Video recordings were made of 20 operations, involving different teams. The recordings were systematically reviewed and coded. Instances where difficulties arose in the communication between scrub nurse and surgeons were identified and subjected to detailed, interactional analysis. Instrument requests frequently prompted clarification from the scrub nurse (e.g. 'Sorry, what did you want?'). Such requests were either followed by a relatively elaborate clarification, designed to maximize learning opportunities, or a by a relatively minimal clarification, designed to achieve the immediate task at hand. Significant variation exists in the degree of support given to scrub nurses requesting clarification. Some surgeons experience such requests as disruptions, while others treat them as opportunities to build shared knowledge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hood, Kerry; Cant, Robyn; Leech, Michelle; Baulch, Julie; Gilbee, Alana
This study aims to describe how senior nursing students viewed the clinical learning environment and matured their professional identity through interprofessional learning in a student-led hospital 'ward'. Undergraduate nursing and medical student teams participated in a trial of ward-based interprofessional clinical learning, managing patients over 2 weeks in a rehabilitation ward. Qualitative and quantitative program evaluation was conducted using exit student focus groups and a satisfaction survey. Twenty-three nursing and medical students in three placement rounds provided positive feedback. Five main themes emerged describing their engagement in 'trying on' a professional role: 'experiencing independence and autonomy'; 'seeing clearly what nursing's all about'; 'altered images of other professions'; 'ways of communicating and collaborating' and 'becoming a functioning team'. Ward-based interprofessional clinical placements offer senior students authentic ideal clinical experiences. We consider this essential learning for future interprofessional collaboration which should be included in senior nursing students' education. © 2014.
Full Text Available Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL mapping is a widely used technique to uncover regulatory relationships between genes. A range of methodologies have been developed to map links between expression traits and genotypes. The DREAM (Dialogue on Reverse Engineering Assessments and Methods initiative is a community project to objectively assess the relative performance of different computational approaches for solving specific systems biology problems. The goal of one of the DREAM5 challenges was to reverse-engineer genetic interaction networks from synthetic genetic variation and gene expression data, which simulates the problem of eQTL mapping. In this framework, we proposed an approach whose originality resides in the use of a combination of existing machine learning algorithms (committee. Although it was not the best performer, this method was by far the most precise on average. After the competition, we continued in this direction by evaluating other committees using the DREAM5 data and developed a method that relies on Random Forests and LASSO. It achieved a much higher average precision than the DREAM best performer at the cost of slightly lower average sensitivity.
Kemery, Edward R.; Stickney, Lisa T.
We describe a multifaceted, multilevel approach to teamwork learning and assessment. It includes teamwork knowledge, peer and self-appraisal of teamwork behavior, and individual and team performance on objective tests for teaching and assessing teamwork in an undergraduate business program. At the beginning of this semester-long process, students…
Lori, Jody R; Munro, Michelle L; Moore, Jennifer E; Fladger, Jessica
Post-conflict Liberia has one of the fastest growing populations on the continent and one of the highest maternal mortality rates among the world. However, in the rural regions, less than half of all births are attended by a skilled birth attendant. There is a need to evaluate the relationship between trained traditional healthcare providers and skilled birth attendants to improve maternal health outcomes. This evaluation must also take into consideration the needs and desires of the patients. The purpose of this pilot study was to establish the validity and reliability of a survey tool to evaluate trust and teamwork in the working relationships between trained traditional midwives and certified midwives in a post-conflict country. A previously established scale, the Trust and Teambuilding Scale, was used with non- and low-literate trained traditional midwives (n=48) in rural Liberia to evaluate trust and teamwork with certified midwives in their communities. Initial results indicated that the scale and response keys were culturally inadequate for this population. A revised version of the scale, the Trust and Teamwork Scale - Liberia, was created and administered to an additional group of non- and low-literate, trained traditional midwives (n=42). Exploratory factor analysis using Mplus for dichotomous variables was used to determine the psychometric properties of the revised scale and was then confirmed with the full sample (n=90). Additional analyses included contrast validity, convergent validity, and Kuder-Richardson reliability. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors in the revised Trust and Teamwork Scale - Liberia. These two factors, labeled trust and teamwork, included eleven of the original eighteen items used in the Trust and Teamwork Scale and demonstrated contrast and convergent validity and adequate reliability. The revised scale is suitable for use with non- and low-literate, trained traditional midwives in rural Liberia. Continued cross
Effective teamwork and communication is critical to the delivery of safe and reliable patient care. Communication breakdowns account for the overwhelming majority of sentinel events. Effective teamwork and communication can help prevent mistakes and decrease patient risk. The implementation of simple tools and behaviors can greatly enhance patient safety and improve perceptions of teamwork.
Hazel, Susan J; Heberle, Nicole; McEwen, Margaret-Mary; Adams, Karen
Team-based learning (TBL) was implemented into a first-year course (Principles in Animal Behaviour, Welfare and Ethics) for BSc Veterinary Bioscience (VB) and Animal Science (AS) students. TBL is now used widely in teaching medical students, but has had more limited uptake in veterinary education. This study reports its use over 2 years with cohorts of 126 and 138 students in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Average individual marks for multiple-choice question (MCQ) tests in the Readiness Assurance component of TBL were higher for the teams than for individuals for each session, explicitly demonstrating the advantages of teamwork. Students reported that they felt actively involved and that TBL helped them both with their learning and in developing other important skills, such as teamwork and communication. Qualitative analysis of written feedback from the students revealed positive themes of discussion, application, revelation, socializing, engagement, clarification, and retention/revision. In 2011 negative comments included the need to shorten the TBL sessions, but in 2012 tightening of the timelines meant that this was no longer a major concern. Requests to provide better introductory and background materials and ambiguity in questions in the TBL activities were what students least liked about the TBL. However, most comments were positive rather than negative in nature, and many students preferred the TBL to lectures. With requirements for curricula to teach professional skills, such as communication and teamwork, and the positive results from TBL's implementation, it is hoped that this study will encourage others to trial the use of TBL in veterinary education.
Phitayakorn, Roy; Minehart, Rebecca; Pian-Smith, May C M; Hemingway, Maureen W; Milosh-Zinkus, Tanya; Oriol-Morway, Danika; Petrusa, Emil
High-quality teamwork among operating room (OR) professionals is a key to efficient and safe practice. Quantification of teamwork facilitates feedback, assessment, and improvement. Several valid and reliable instruments are available for assessing separate OR disciplines and teams. We sought to determine the most feasible approach for routine documentation of teamwork in in-situ OR simulations. We compared rater agreement, hypothetical training costs, and feasibility ratings from five clinicians and two nonclinicians with instruments for assessment of separate OR groups and teams. Five teams of anesthesia or surgery residents and OR nurses (RN) or surgical technicians were videotaped in simulations of an epigastric hernia repair where the patient develops malignant hyperthermia. Two anesthesiologists, one OR clinical RN specialist, one educational psychologist, one simulation specialist, and one general surgeon discussed and then independently completed Anesthesiologists' Non-Technical Skills, Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons, Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, and Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery forms to rate nontechnical performance of anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, technicians, and the whole team. Intraclass correlations of agreement ranged from 0.17-0.85. Clinicians' agreements were not different from nonclinicians'. Published rater training was 4 h for Anesthesiologists' Non-Technical Skills and Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, 2.5 h for Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons, and 15.5 h for Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery. Estimated costs to train one rater to use all instruments ranged from $442 for a simulation specialist to $6006 for a general surgeon. Additional training is needed to achieve higher levels of agreement; however, costs may be prohibitive. The most cost-effective model for real-time OR teamwork assessment may be to use a simulation technician
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine correlation between learning independence attitudes and student’s learning achievement. Type of this research is a correlation study to detect the connection of learning independence attitude’s variance in relation to learning achievement variance. This study used an attitude scale to measure the student’s learning independence attitude and objective multiple-choice questions to measure the student’s learning achievement. The results showed that there is a positive correlation (unidirectional and significant betweenthe learning independence attitude and learning achievement. This means that the better student’s learning independence attitude, it will be the better students learning achievement. The attitude of learning independence contributed to 40.96% of students learning achievement.
Full Text Available The evolution of online teaching in higher education demands a change in the types of pedagogies used in those courses. An example of one of these important pedagogies includes online teamwork. Teamwork in this context is one in which the majority of the individual’s grade is dependent on the positive or negative group experiences. This study utilized the theoretical framework of social motivation and cohesion to identify the factors shaping students’ perceptions of teamwork in online college courses. In these courses, the pedagogical approach known as the Five Pillars of effective collaborative work was applied. An Online Teamwork Learning Survey was developed based on these principles and completed by 62 undergraduate students enrolled in semester-long online courses required in their early childhood education program of study. Using a comparison between pre–postsurveys and regression analysis, the results showed that although the students’ perceptions of teamwork did not significantly change, the factors influencing their responses during the posttest doubled in number. The results showed that through carefully designed virtual teamwork activities, students learned that essential team characteristics such as promotive interaction, individual accountability, and positive interdependence are an integral part of effective collaboration and strong predictors of teamwork perception.
Lerner, Susan; Magrane, Diane; Friedman, Erica
situations (ie, anesthesia, trauma, and labor and delivery). We describe the current programs for teaching medical students these essential skills and what recommendations have been made about the best ways to introduce teaching this skill set into the curriculum. Finally, we include a review on assessing teamwork because one cannot teach team training without implementing an assessment to ensure that the skills are being learned.
Maylín Rodríguez Sánchez
Full Text Available The paper is intended to describe a didactic strategy to contribute to the development of foreign languages course students’ cognitive independence at Camagüey University. In its theoretical conception it is re-defined the concept “cognitive independence”, springing from the context in which the research is carried out, and the distinguishing features that characterize this capacity in students of foreign languages for pedagogical purposes are determined. The strategy comprises four stages: diagnosis, planning, execution, and evaluation. It is included the exemplification of the actions comprised in each stage, as well as the valuation of its effectiveness by means of experts’ opinions. Theoretical and empirical methods were applied, allowing the identification of the scientific problem and the modeling of its solution.
Gordon, Christopher J.; Jorm, Christine; Shulruf, Boaz; Weller, Jennifer; Currie, Jane; Lim, Renee; Osomanski, Adam
Background Teamwork training is an essential component of health professional student education. A valid and reliable teamwork self-assessment tool could assist students to identify desirable teamwork behaviours with the potential to promote learning about effective teamwork. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a self-assessment teamwork tool for health professional students for use in the context of emergency response to a mass casualty. Methods The authors modified a previousl...
Students of Open University are strongly required to be able to study independently. They rely heavily on the cognitive learning styles that they have in attempt to get maximum scores in every final exam. The participants of this research were students in the Physics Education program taking Thermodynamic subject course. The research analysis…
Polytechnique Montréal has integrated an approach of teamwork in its twelve engineering programs, in the bachelor's degree program since 2005. Students must take a compulsory 45 hours course on teamwork and are then accompanied with team coaching throughout the four years program, in all the engineering integration projects. These integration…
Board, John C.
This paper discusses lessons learned from becoming an independent standards board. It begins by explaining that teachers lacked adequate academic preparation during the two World Wars and shortly thereafter. At the end of World War II, public education had to deal with poor pay, little job security, inadequate pensions, and inadequate and…
Koh, Elizabeth; Hong, Helen; Tan, Jennifer Pei-Ling
Teamwork, one of the core competencies for the twenty-first century learner, is a critical skill for work and learning. However, assessing teamwork is complex, in particular, developing a measure of teamwork that is domain-generic and applicable across a wide range of learners. This paper documents one such study that leverages technology to help…
Full Text Available In response to the limited vocabulary size of its undergraduates, an independent vocabulary learning platform, VLearn was designed and launched in a university in Hong Kong. As an elearning environment that supports self-directed vocabulary learning of Chinese learners, the primary aim of VLearn is to equip users with appropriate knowledge and skills for vocabulary expansion. This paper introduces the contents of VLearn, and the theoretical underpinnings of its design. It also reports on the vocabulary learning experience of its users during an eight week evaluation study. Suggestions are made on how independent vocabulary building at higher education, as well as comprehensive vocabulary instruction at early years could be supported by means of technology.
Kaycie Kuss Tayler
Full Text Available It is currently thought that memory formation requires the activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs in the hippocampus. However, recent studies indicate that these receptors are not necessary for all forms of learning. The current experiments examine this issue using context fear conditioning in mice. First, we show that context fear can be acquired without NMDAR activation in previously trained animals. Mice trained in one environment (context A are subsequently able to learn about a second environment (context B in the presence of NMDAR antagonists. Second, we demonstrate that NMDAR-independent learning requires the hippocampus and is dependent on protein synthesis. However, unlike NMDAR-dependent learning, it is not contingent on the expression of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc. Lastly, we present data that suggests NMDAR-independent learning is only observed when recently stimulated neurons are re-activated during conditioning. These data suggest that context fear conditioning modifies synaptic plasticity mechanisms in the hippocampus and allows subsequent learning to occur in the absence of NMDAR activation.
Forough L. Nowrouzian; Anne Farewell
Teamwork has become an integral part of most organisations today, and it is clearly important in Science and other disciplines. In Science, research teams increase in size while the number of single-authored papers and patents decline. Team-work in laboratory sciences permits projects that are too big or complex for one individual to be tackled. This development requires that students gain experience of team-work before they start their professional career. Students working in teams this may ...
Ericson-Lidman, Eva; Strandberg, Gunilla
Conscience can be perceived as an asset that helps care providers to provide good care, but it can also be a burden that generates stress of conscience (stress related to a troubled conscience). Participatory action research (PAR) has been shown to be successful in supporting care providers in residential care of older people to learn to deal with their troubled conscience in challenging and demanding care situations. The aim of the study was to describe an intervention process to assist care providers in residential care of older people to constructively deal with their troubled conscience related to perceptions of deficient teamwork. The study design was grounded in PAR. Nine enrolled nurses (ENs), two nursing aids (NAs), one Registered Nurse (RN) and their manager participated in 12 PAR sessions. All sessions were tape-recorded, and a domain analysis of the transcriptions was performed. Findings show that a PAR-based intervention can support care providers to understand, handle and take measures against deficient teamwork. Using troubled conscience as a driving force can increase the opportunities to improve quality of care in residential care for older people. During the PAR process, participants raised their awareness of the need to view the team in a wider sense and that the manager and the Registered Nurse should also be members of the team to improve team outcome. To improve clinical practice, we suggest that teams in residential care of older people should be enabled to share and reflect on challenging situations that generate troubled conscience. However, as shown in this study, care providers might need support in order to facilitate and promote sharing and reflecting on what their conscience tells them. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Martens, Rob; Valcke, Martin; Portier, Stanley
In this article the effectivity of prototypes of interactive learning environments (ILE) is investigated. These computer-based environments are used for independent learning. In the learning materials, represented in the prototypes, a clear distinction is made between the basic content and embedded
High quality, safe care for patients depends on effective teamwork, and where multi-professional teams work together there is higher patient satisfaction, increased staff innovation, less stress and more communication ( West 2013 ). Conversely, lapses in teamwork and poor communication can result in adverse events ranging from retained foreign objects to perinatal events and medication errors ( Peter and Pronovost 2013 ), and even the death of patients ( Resuscitation Council UK 2011 ). Teamwork requires a set of skills and behaviours that, once learned by clinicians, can save lives ( Peter and Pronovost 2013 ). This article refers to a case study to explore the topic of teamwork in a tertiary care emergency setting.
Full Text Available There are different views on self-regulation in the learning process, how it has to be monitored, controlled, which are the circumstances and external factors that affect independent learning. Dominant are the opinions in which the self-regulation is treated as interaction of processes related to the personality, behavioural and contextual processes. Special attention has been given to motivational strategies and students’ desire to focus on goals. By enabling students to make decisions, set their own goals, make a choice, plan and organize activities, the development of self-learning and student autonomy is being encouraged. If students are given the opportunity of independent activities, effect of self-control in the process of learning and self-regulation becomes more pronounced. The paper will explain the factors that influence the process of self-learning that takes place in regular teaching with the help of map as the basic geographic media. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 17008
Amitay, Sygal; Moore, David R.; Molloy, Katharine; Halliday, Lorna F.
Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they were doing equally well, while 10% positive or 90% negative feedback informed them they were doing equally badly. In all conditions the feedback was random in relation to the listeners’ responses (because the task was to discriminate three identical tones), yet both the valence (negative vs. positive) and the probability of feedback (10% vs. 90%) affected learning. Feedback that informed listeners they were doing badly resulted in better post-training performance than feedback that informed them they were doing well, independent of valence. In addition, positive feedback during training resulted in better post-training performance than negative feedback, but only positive feedback indicating listeners were doing badly on the task resulted in learning. As we have previously speculated, feedback that better reflected the difficulty of the task was more effective in driving learning than feedback that suggested performance was better than it should have been given perceived task difficulty. But contrary to expectations, positive feedback was more effective than negative feedback in driving learning. Feedback thus had two separable effects on learning: feedback valence affected motivation on a subjectively difficult task, and learning occurred only when feedback probability reflected the subjective difficulty. To optimize learning, training programs need to take into consideration both feedback valence and probability. PMID:25946173
Bingham, Ella; Laaksonen, Jorma; Lampinen, Jouko
In honour of Professor Erkki Oja, one of the pioneers of Independent Component Analysis (ICA), this book reviews key advances in the theory and application of ICA, as well as its influence on signal processing, pattern recognition, machine learning, and data mining. Examples of topics which have developed from the advances of ICA, which are covered in the book are: A unifying probabilistic model for PCA and ICA Optimization methods for matrix decompositions Insights into the FastICA algorithmUnsupervised deep learning Machine vision and image retrieval A review of developments in the t
Nemenman, Ilya; Bialek, William
Learning of a smooth but nonparametric probability density can be regularized using methods of quantum field theory. We implement a field theoretic prior numerically, test its efficacy, and show that the data and the phase space factors arising from the integration over the model space determine the free parameter of the theory ('smoothness scale') self-consistently. This persists even for distributions that are atypical in the prior and is a step towards a model independent theory for learning continuous distributions. Finally, we point out that a wrong parametrization of a model family may sometimes be advantageous for small data sets
Nowrouzian, Forough L.; Farewell, Anne
Teamwork has become an integral part of most organisations today, and it is clearly important in Science and other disciplines. In Science, research teams increase in size while the number of single-authored papers and patents decline. Team-work in laboratory sciences permits projects that are too big or complex for one individual to be tackled.…
Fransen, Annemarie F.; de Boer, Liza; Kienhorst, Dieneke; Truijens, Sophie E.; van Runnard Heimel, Pieter J.; Oei, S. Guid
Teamwork performance is an essential component for the clinical efficiency of multi-professional teams in obstetric care. As patient safety is related to teamwork performance, it has become an important learning goal in simulation-based education. In order to improve teamwork performance, reliable
McNaughton, Susan Maree
Implementing an interprofessional teamwork project for first-year students presents pedagogical and practical challenges. While transferable skills and attributes are important, engagement of students with limited professional experience in teamwork depends on relevance to current learning needs. This report outlines principles learned from planning and implementing a teamwork project for an interprofessional health administration and service development course. Practising interprofessional teamwork as leaders and teachers, aligning with previous, current and future teamwork content and processes and responding to student feedback and achievement have been the key factors in shaping the project over three semesters. Face-to-face and online interprofessional teamwork learning has necessitated developing resources that support self-direction, using familiar technology and providing enabling physical environments. Implications for first-year interprofessional teamwork are that structured well-resourced processes, responsiveness and alignment of learning all improve student outcomes.
Chakraborti, Chayan; Boonyasai, Romsai T; Wright, Scott M; Kern, David E
Teamwork is important for improving care across transitions between providers and for increasing patient safety. This review's objective was to assess the characteristics and efficacy of published curricula designed to teach teamwork to medical students and house staff. The authors searched MEDLINE, Education Resources Information Center, Excerpta Medica Database, PsychInfo, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Scopus for original data articles published in English between January 1980 and July 2006 that reported descriptions of teamwork training and evaluation results. Two reviewers independently abstracted information about curricular content (using Baker's framework of teamwork competencies), educational methods, evaluation design, outcomes measured, and results. Thirteen studies met inclusion criteria. All curricula employed active learning methods; the majority (77%) included multidisciplinary training. Ten curricula (77%) used an uncontrolled pre/post design and 3 (23%) used controlled pre/post designs. Only 3 curricula (23%) reported outcomes beyond end of program, and only 1 (8%) >6 weeks after program completion. One program evaluated a clinical outcome (patient satisfaction), which was unchanged after the intervention. The median effect size was 0.40 (interquartile range (IQR) 0.29, 0.61) for knowledge, 0.38 (IQR 0.32, 0.41) for attitudes, 0.41 (IQR 0.35, 0.49) for skills and behavior. The relationship between the number of teamwork principles taught and effect size achieved a Spearman's correlation of .74 (p = .01) for overall effect size and .64 (p = .03) for median skills/behaviors effect size. Reported curricula employ some sound educational principles and appear to be modestly effective in the short term. Curricula may be more effective when they address more teamwork principles.
This article examines computer-supported collaborative learning. It focuses on thestudents in an online program where an orientation toward teamwork and thedevelopment of group cohesiveness affect overall student learning and the learningthat results specifically from team interactions (team-source learning). Someresearches indicate that both teamwork orientation and group cohesiveness predictstudent learning, with group cohesiveness mediating the relationship betweenteamwork orientation and ...
The focus of this paper is a project conducted in 2011, exploring the use of "YouTube" in the classroom. The project conducted a number of focus groups for which highlighted a number of issues surrounding independent informal learning environments. The questions posed by this research are concerned with what constitutes learning in these…
Sun, Geng; Shen, Jun
Mobile learning is an emerging trend that brings many advantages to distributed learners, enabling them to achieve collaborative learning, in which the virtual teams are usually built to engage multiple learners working together towards the same pedagogical goals in online courses. However, the socio-technical mechanisms to enhance teamwork…
Xyrichis, Andreas; Ream, Emma
This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept of teamwork. Teamwork is seen as an important facilitator in delivering quality healthcare services internationally. However, research studies of teamwork in health care are criticized for lacking a basic conceptual understanding of what this concept represents. A universal definition for healthcare settings and professionals is missing from published literature. Walker and Avant's approach was used to guide this concept analysis. Literature searches used bibliographic databases (Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, Proquest CSA), internet search engines (GoogleScholar), and hand searches. Literature published between 1976 and 2006 was reviewed but only material in English was included. Based on the analysis undertaken, teamwork is proposed as a dynamic process involving two or more healthcare professionals with complementary backgrounds and skills, sharing common health goals and exercising concerted physical and mental effort in assessing, planning, or evaluating patient care. This is accomplished through interdependent collaboration, open communication and shared decision-making, and generates value-added patient, organizational and staff outcomes. Praising the value of teamwork without a common understanding of what this concept represents endangers both research into this way of working and its effective utilization in practice. The proposed definition helps reconcile discrepancies between how this concept is understood by nurses and doctors, as well as allied health professionals. A common understanding can facilitate communication in educational, research and clinical settings and is imperative for improving clarity and validity of future research.
Serrat, Maria A; Dom, Aaron M; Buchanan, James T; Williams, Alison R; Efaw, Morgan L; Richardson, Laura L
Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in anatomy, self-study modules were introduced to supplement human gross anatomy instruction at Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University. Modules use three-dimensional constructs to help students understand complex anatomical regions. Resources are self-contained in portable bins and are accessible at any time. Students use modules individually or in groups in a structured self-study format that augments material presented in lecture and laboratory. Pilot outcome data, measured by feedback surveys and examination performance statistics, suggest that the activity may be improving learning in gross anatomy. Positive feedback on both pre- and post-examination surveys showed that students felt the activity helped to increase their understanding of the topic. In concordance with student perception, average examination scores on module-related laboratory and lecture questions were higher in the two years of the pilot program compared with the year before its initiation. Modules can be fabricated on a modest budget using minimal resources, making implementation practical for smaller institutions. Upper level medical students assist in module design and upkeep, enabling continuous opportunities for vertical integration across the curriculum. This resource offers a feasible mechanism for enhancing independent and lifelong learning competencies, which could be a valuable complement to any gross anatomy curriculum. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.
Guchait, Priyanko; Lei, Puiwa; Tews, Michael J
This study examined the impact of two types of team knowledge on team effectiveness. The study assessed the impact of taskwork knowledge and teamwork knowledge on team satisfaction and performance. A longitudinal study was conducted with 27 service-management teams involving 178 students in a real-life restaurant setting. Teamwork knowledge was found to impact both team outcomes. Furthermore, team learning behavior was found to mediate the relationships between teamwork knowledge and team outcomes. Educators and managers should therefore ensure these types of knowledge are developed in teams along with learning behavior for maximum effectiveness.
Chang, Todd P; Kwan, Karen Y; Liberman, Danica; Song, Eric; Dao, Eugene H; Chung, Dayun; Morton, Inge; Festekjian, Ara
Poor teamwork and communication during resuscitations are linked to patient safety problems and poorer outcomes. We present a novel simulation-based educational intervention using game cards to introduce challenges in teamwork. This intervention uses sets of game cards that designate roles, limitations, or communication challenges designed to introduce common communication or teamwork problems. Game cards are designed to be applicable for any simulation-based scenario and are independent from patient physiology. In our example, participants were pediatric emergency medicine fellows undergoing simulation training for orientation. We describe the use of card sets in different scenarios with increasing teamwork challenge and difficulty. Both postscenario and summative debriefings were facilitated to allow participants to reflect on their performance and discover ways to apply their strategies to real resuscitations. In this article, we present our experience with the novel use of game cards to modify simulation scenarios to improve communication and teamwork skills.
Lauridsen, Barbara L.
The purpose of this research was to determine if the effectiveness of technology education can be significantly increased through use of team-based activities including both real-time team encounters and results-driven team assignments. The research addresses this purpose by examining perceptions regarding effectiveness of team-based learning in…
Lee, Soo-Hoon; Khanuja, Harpal S; Blanding, Renee J; Sedgwick, Jeanne; Pressimone, Kathleen; Ficke, James R; Jones, Lynne C
Teamwork training improves short-term teamwork behaviors. However, improvements are often not sustained. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which teamwork reinforcement activities for orthopedic surgery teams lead to sustained teamwork behaviors. Seven months after 104 staff from an orthopedic surgical unit were trained in Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety principles, 4 reinforcement activities were implemented regarding leadership and communication: lectures with videos on leadership skills for nursing staff; an online self-paced learning program on communication skills for nursing staff; a 1-page summary on leadership skills e-mailed to surgical staff; and a 1-hour perioperative grand rounds on Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety principles for anesthesia staff and new staff. Twenty-four orthopedic surgical teams were evaluated on teamwork behaviors during surgery by 2 observers before and after the reinforcement period using the Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery tool. After reinforcement, leadership (P = 0.022) and communication (P = 0.044) behaviors improved compared with prereinforcement levels. Specifically, nursing staff improved in leadership (P = 0.016) and communication (P = 0.028) behaviors, surgical staff improved in leadership behaviors (P = 0.009), but anesthesia staff did not improve in any teamwork behaviors. Sustained improvement in teamwork behaviors requires reinforcement. Level III, prospective pre-post cohort study.
Bovbjerg, Kirsten Marie; Søgaard Sørensen, Marianne
Kapitlet beskæftiger sig med teamwork som en af de sociale teknologier, der i dag, også indenfor undervisningssektoren, er med til at forandre medarbejderes, og altså her læreres, forståelse af deres arbejdsliv. Ud fra empiriske studier på erhvervsskoleområdet kontrasteres team-samarbejde med de...
Foyle, David C.; Shafto, Michael G.; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is well known for its roles in the space program and in aeronautics. Because teamwork is essential for most NASA missions, NASA has experience in both research on teamwork and implementation of team projects. The purpose of this chapter is not to summarize research results on teamwork. This chapter will summarize our insight into teamwork as it applies to the large institutions and organizations with which we have been associated: University academic systems, Navy research laboratories, and NASA. These organizations represent a variety of systems in which teamwork is commonplace.
Teamwork Management in a Creative Organization Problem of Thesis - lack of researches investigating teamwork resolution, management specificity and interferences in cultural organizations. Aim – to analyze features of teamwork management in cultural organization. Tasks: 1. To define the concept of teamwork; 2. To disclose features of teamwork forming process; 3. To analyze features of teamwork management. 4. To examine factors of teamwork management in cultural organization; 5. To investigate...
Issa, Tomayess; Issa, Theodora; Kommers, Petrus A.M.
This paper aims to examine students’ reactions to formative (i.e. face to face, audio, wiki and live, email) feedback. This approach is used to improve students’ communication and critical-thinking skills and to encourage independent learning. This paper provides empirical evidence from 327 students
Vasilijević Danijela N.
Full Text Available Research to date has shown that teacher teamwork results in higher motivation among students and higher quality knowledge, and also facilitates the sharing of professional experiences and stimulates teachers' creativity and their openness to change. Team forming and development depend on multiple factors, particularly on the individual and group traits of team members. This paper examines teachers' attitudes as an individual factor significant for their inclination for team teaching, and the aim of the study presented in the paper was to study teachers' attitudes to teamwork. The sample consisted of 240 teachers from fifteen elementary schools in Belgrade. Factor analysis has singled out three factors around which teachers' attitudes are grouped: a teaching; b team and individual development; and c professional challenge. The study has shown that overall, teachers have a positive attitude to teamwork because it is conducive to a stimulating environment for work and learning, and also provides an opportunity for teachers' personal and professional development. Significant differences in the perception of teamwork have been noted among lower-grade teachers depending on their years of service and the extent to which they have been engaged in team teaching.
Roussos, E.; Roberts, S.; Daubechies, I.
In an exploratory approach to data analysis, it is often useful to consider the observations as generated from a set of latent generators or "sources" via a generally unknown mapping. For the noisy overcomplete case, where we have more sources than observations, the problem becomes extremely ill-posed. Solutions to such inverse problems can, in many cases, be achieved by incorporating prior knowledge about the problem, captured in the form of constraints. This setting is a natural candidate for the application of the Bayesian methodology, allowing us to incorporate "soft" constraints in a natural manner. The work described in this paper is mainly driven by problems in functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, for the neuro-scientific goal of extracting relevant "maps" from the data. This can be stated as a `blind' source separation problem. Recent experiments in the field of neuroscience show that these maps are sparse, in some appropriate sense. The separation problem can be solved by independent component analysis (ICA), viewed as a technique for seeking sparse components, assuming appropriate distributions for the sources. We derive a hybrid wavelet-ICA model, transforming the signals into a domain where the modeling assumption of sparsity of the coefficients with respect to a dictionary is natural. We follow a graphical modeling formalism, viewing ICA as a probabilistic generative model. We use hierarchical source and mixing models and apply Bayesian inference to the problem. This allows us to perform model selection in order to infer the complexity of the representation, as well as automatic denoising. Since exact inference and learning in such a model is intractable, we follow a variational Bayesian mean-field approach in the conjugate-exponential family of distributions, for efficient unsupervised learning in multi-dimensional settings. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated on some representative experiments.
Abstract The past few decades the use of teams has increased, also in complex sociotechnical systems such as the maritime industry. Safety issues involve a wide range of elements, including human factors, and pose a number of challenges to organisations in the shipping industry. The primary aim of this study was to examine the Big Five of teamwork model and its ability to capture teamwork aspects of all kinds of teams, independent of team type, organisational level and domain. The collect...
Paul F. Levy
One way that people learn teamwork, informal mentoring, and other workplace skills is through participating in sports. Yet, many women of my generation did not get a chance to develop these talents since they had fewer opportunities to participate in organized athletics when they were young. I came to understand the importance of sports from my own experience: My passion—all the rest is a hobby—is coaching girls’ soccer, something I have done for the last 15 years.
Lakkala, Suvi; Turunen, Tuija A.; Kangas, Hennariikka; Pulju, Marja; Kuukasjärvi, Ulla; Autti, Hanna
This paper explores ways of enhancing inter-professional skills as part of professional development during university studies. From a socio-psychological viewpoint, inter-professional teamwork can be regarded as an interface between the group and individual levels, where collective commitment, efficiency, shared processes and outcomes, as well as…
González-Fernández, María Jesús; Sáiz-Manzanares, María Consuelo; Alaoui, Fatima E. M.; Aguilar, Fernando; Meneses, Jesús; Montero, Eduardo
The learning and development of teamwork skill is only possible if its achievement is a self-building process of the student. In turn, the teachers must become guides in the process of a learning which is not limited only to the topic of their own course, but which must be imbedded with a good dose of this skill. Promotion of teamwork is not…
O'Connell, Mark T; Pascoe, John M
The health care delivery system is experiencing enormous flux. The knowledge and skills sets required of today's physicians include expertise in competency areas that have not been included in the traditional medical curricula. The Undergraduate Medical Education for the 21st Century (UME-21) project was designed to develop innovative curricula that addressed the training necessary for medical students to gain skills required to provide high-quality, accessible, and affordable care in the modern health care environment. One of the nine UME-21 content areas, leadership and teamwork, has historically received relatively little attention in medical education. Each school participating in the UME-21 project submitted a final report that provided information for this descriptive summary of curricular innovations for teaching the concepts of leadership and teamwork to medical students. A classification lexicon for the curricular content and experiences in this content area was derived from these UME-21 project reports. Each school evaluated its curricular innovations independently using a variety of methods, largely descriptive and qualitative in nature. Eight UME-21 schools developed curricula addressing the content area of leadership and teamwork. The majority of these curricula used the clinical care teams in the clinical rotations to demonstrate the principles and importance of leadership and teamwork. Three of the schools implemented didactic sessions and workshops to explicitly address leadership and teamwork. One school used the gross anatomy dissection teams as the "laboratory" for demonstrating this content material. The evaluations of these curricular efforts showed them to be positively regarded by the medical students. Outcomes of measurable changes in competency in this area of expertise were not evaluated. There is little past experience in teaching leadership and teamwork in medical school. The UME-21 project supported the design and implementation of
In this thesis, we propose two new machine learning schemes, a subband-based Independent Component Analysis scheme and a hybrid Independent Component Analysis/Support Vector Machine scheme, and apply...
Sulisworo, Dwi; Sutadi, Novitasari
There have been many studies related to the implementation of cooperative learning. However, there are still many problems in school related to the learning outcomes on science lesson, especially in physics. The aim of this study is to observe the application of science learning cycle (SLC) model on improving scientific literacy for secondary…
Gordon, Christopher J; Jorm, Christine; Shulruf, Boaz; Weller, Jennifer; Currie, Jane; Lim, Renee; Osomanski, Adam
Teamwork training is an essential component of health professional student education. A valid and reliable teamwork self-assessment tool could assist students to identify desirable teamwork behaviours with the potential to promote learning about effective teamwork. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a self-assessment teamwork tool for health professional students for use in the context of emergency response to a mass casualty. The authors modified a previously published teamwork instrument designed for experienced critical care teams for use with medical and nursing students involved in mass casualty simulations. The 17-item questionnaire was administered to students immediately following the simulations. These scores were used to explore the psychometric properties of the tool, using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. 202 (128 medical and 74 nursing) students completed the self-assessment teamwork tool for students. Exploratory factor analysis revealed 2 factors (5 items - Teamwork coordination and communication; 4 items - Information sharing and support) and these were justified with confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was 0.823 for Teamwork coordination and communication, and 0.812 for Information sharing and support. These data provide evidence to support the validity and reliability of the self-assessment teamwork tool for students This self-assessment tool could be of value to health professional students following team training activities to help them identify the attributes of effective teamwork.
Gary, Jodie C; Gosselin, Kevin; Bentley, Regina
The attitudes of faculty towards interprofessional education (IPE) and teamwork impact the education of health professions education (HPE) students. This paper reports on a study evaluating attitudes from health professions educators towards IPE and teamwork at one academic health science center (HSC) where modest IPE initiatives have commenced. Drawing from the results of a previous investigation, this study was conducted to examine current attitudes of the faculty responsible for the training of future healthcare professionals. Survey data were collected to evaluate attitudes from HSC faculty, dentistry, nursing, medicine, pharmacy and public health. In general, positive HSC faculty attitudes towards interprofessional learning, education, and teamwork were significantly predicted by those affiliated with the component of nursing. Faculty development aimed at changing attitudes and increasing understanding of IPE and teamwork are critical. Results of this study serve as an underpinning to leverage strengths and evaluate weakness in initiating IPE.
Roper, Lucinda; Shulruf, Boaz; Jorm, Christine; Currie, Jane; Gordon, Christopher J
Poor teamwork has been implicated in medical error and teamwork training has been shown to improve patient care. Simulation is an effective educational method for teamwork training. Post-simulation reflection aims to promote learning and we have previously developed a self-assessment teamwork tool (SATT) for health students to measure teamwork performance. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of a revised self-assessment teamwork tool. The tool was tested in 257 medical and nursing students after their participation in one of several mass casualty simulations. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, the revised self-assessment teamwork tool was shown to have strong construct validity, high reliability, and the construct demonstrated invariance across groups (Medicine & Nursing). The modified SATT was shown to be a reliable and valid student self-assessment tool. The SATT is a quick and practical method of guiding students' reflection on important teamwork skills.
Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Segel, Sally
Whether seeing a patient in the ambulatory clinic environment, performing a delivery or managing a critically ill patient, obstetric care is a team activity. Failures in teamwork and communication are among the leading causes of adverse obstetric events, accounting for over 70% of sentinel events according to the Joint Commission. Effective, efficient and safe care requires good teamwork. Although nurses, doctors and healthcare staff who work in critical care environments are extremely well trained and competent medically, they have not traditionally been trained in how to work well as part of a team. Given the complexity and acuity of critical care medicine, which often relies on more than one medical team, teamwork skills are essential. This chapter discusses the history and importance of teamwork in high-reliability fields, reviews key concepts and skills in teamwork, and discusses approaches to training and working in teams.
O'Leary, Kevin J; Sehgal, Niraj L; Terrell, Grace; Williams, Mark V
Recognizing the importance of teamwork in hospitals, senior leadership from the American College of Physician Executives (ACPE), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE), and the Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) established the High Performance Teams and the Hospital of the Future project. This collaborative learning effort aims to redesign care delivery to provide optimal value to hospitalized patients. With input from members of this initiative, we prepared this report which reviews the literature related to teamwork in hospitals. Teamwork is critically important to provide safe and effective hospital care. Hospitals with high teamwork ratings experience higher patient satisfaction, higher nurse retention, and lower hospital costs. Elements of effective teamwork have been defined and provide a framework for assessment and improvement efforts in hospitals. Measurement of teamwork is essential to understand baseline performance, and to demonstrate the utility of resources invested to enhance it and the subsequent impact on patient care. Interventions designed to improve teamwork in hospitals include localization of physicians, daily goals of care forms and checklists, teamwork training, and interdisciplinary rounds. Though additional research is needed to evaluate the impact on patient outcomes, these interventions consistently result in improved teamwork knowledge, ratings of teamwork climate, and better understanding of patients' plans of care. The optimal approach is implementation of a combination of interventions, with adaptations to fit unique clinical settings and local culture. Copyright © 2011 Society of Hospital Medicine.
O'Leary, Kevin J; Boudreau, Yvonne N; Creden, Amanda J; Slade, Maureen E; Williams, Mark V
Interdisciplinary rounds (IDR) provide a means to assemble hospital team members and improve collaboration. Little is known about teamwork during IDR. To evaluate and characterize teamwork during IDR. Cross-sectional observational study. Six medical units which had implemented structured interdisciplinary rounds (SIDR). We adapted the Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery (OTAS) tool, a behaviorally anchored rating scale shown to be reliable and valid in surgical settings. OTAS provides scores ranging from 0 to 6 (0 = problematic behavior; 6 = exemplary behavior) across 5 domains (communication, coordination, cooperation/backup behavior, leadership, and monitoring/situational awareness) and for prespecified subteams. Two researchers conducted direct observations using the adapted OTAS tool. We conducted 7-8 independent observations for each unit (total = 44) and 20 joint observations. Inter-rater reliability was excellent at the unit level (Spearman's rho = 0.75), and good across domains (rho = 0.53-0.68) and subteams (rho = 0.53-0.76) with the exception of the physician subteam, for which it was poor (rho = 0.35). Though teamwork scores were generally high, we found differences across units, with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) 4.5 (3.9-4.9) for the lowest and 5.4 (5.3-5.5) for the highest performing unit (P teamwork during SIDR across units, domains, and most subteams. Variation in performance suggests a need to improve consistency of teamwork and emphasizes the importance of leadership. Copyright © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Renschler, Lauren; Rhodes, Darson; Cox, Carol
This article reports on a study involving a range of health professions students who participated in similar one-semester (short) or two-semester (long) interprofessional clinical education programmes that focused on clinical assessment of senior citizens living independently in the community. Students' attitudes towards teamwork skills and perceptions of their own teamwork skills both before and after the programmes were assessed using two validated scales. Osteopathic medical student participants reported no significant changes in attitudes towards interprofessional healthcare teamwork skills or their perceptions of their own interprofessional teamwork skills after either the one- or two-semester programmes. For athletic training, speech-language pathology, exercise sciences, public health, and nursing students, though, attitudes towards teamwork skills significantly improved (p teamwork attitude change, but with a significant difference between medical as compared to nursing, allied health, and public health students.
Hains-Wesson, Rachael; Pollard, Vikki; Campbell, Angela
This study examines street performing arts students' responses to using improvisation for teamwork during a first year, non-placement, work-integrated learning (WIL) experience. The aim of the study was to investigate: (1) students' perceptions of improvisation and (2) ways in which to design teamwork assessments that utilise improvisation. Data…
Sykes, Christopher; Moerman, Lee; Gibbons, Belinda; Dean, Bonnie Amelia
Research in Australian business education continues to emphasise the importance of students learning teamwork as an integral part of the undergraduate curriculum. However, entrenched conceptual and practical confusion as to what the term "teamwork" means and how it ought to be enacted remains a vexed issue capable of distorting and…
Finds that both experienced scientists and college students found it difficult to carry out intellectual teamwork involving collaboratively authored documents without the interactivity and expressiveness permitted by face-to-face communication. (SR)
Ritter, Kristy L.
The constructive learning team model for secondary mathematics teachers (CLTM) was created to provide students with learning opportunities and experiences that address deficiencies in oral and written communication, logical processes and analysis, mathematical operations, independent learning, teamwork, and technology utilization. This study…
Rodger, Sylvia; Mickan, Sharon; Marinac, Julie; Woodyatt, Gail
This report outlines the teamwork learning outcomes of an interprofessional workshop conducted with a cohort of 81 graduate-entry students of occupational therapy, physiotherapy, speech pathology, and audiology. This four-hour workshop was based around a case scenario of a child with developmental coordination disorder. This report describes and evaluates the development of knowledge and skills of teamwork that were facilitated through this workshop. Students completed questionnaires before and after the workshop about their knowledge of teamwork, requisites for working together, the utility of the workshop, and learning outcomes. The evaluation indicated that the workshop was successful from the students' perspectives in confirming the importance of teamwork and the processes of communication and collaborative goal setting. Students refined their own professional roles and developed an appreciation of the contribution of other professions and parents. This recognition of the comparative value of different professional contributions in providing holistic patient care is one of the starting points for education about interprofessional teamwork.
Strom, Paris S.; Thompson, MaryEllen; Strom, Robert D.
Teamwork skills are considered essential in a work environment characterized by diversity and interdependence. Consequently, middle grade teachers arrange cooperative learning so students can acquire experience with solving problems in groups. Teachers also acknowledge that they are frustrated because appropriate instruments are lacking to track…
Shibani, Antonette; Koh, Elizabeth; Lai, Vivian; Shim, Kyong Jin
In technology-enhanced language learning, many pedagogical activities involve students in online discussion such as synchronous chat, in order to help them practice their language skills. Besides developing the language competency of students, it is also crucial to nurture their teamwork competencies for today's global and complex environment.…
Jarecki, Jana B.; Meder, Björn; Nelson, Jonathan D.
Humans excel in categorization. Yet from a computational standpoint, learning a novel probabilistic classification task involves severe computational challenges. The present paper investigates one way to address these challenges: assuming class-conditional independence of features. This feature independence assumption simplifies the inference…
Kyndt, Eva; Raes, Elisabeth; Dochy, Filip; Janssens, Els
Learning and development are taking up a central role in the human resource policies of organizations because of their crucial contribution to the competitiveness of those organizations. The present study investigates the relationship of work motivation, perceived workload, and choice independence with employees' approaches to learning at work.…
Elizabeth Ruiz-Esparza Barajas
Full Text Available This study reports on the first stage of a larger joint research project undertaken by five universities in Mexico to explore university teachers’ thinking about out-of-class teamwork. Data from interviews were analyzed using open and axial coding. Although results suggest a positive perception towards teamwork, the study unveiled important negative opinions. These opinions suggest the lack of success in promoting deep learning and in developing students’ socio-cognitive abilities. Findings were used to develop a survey to be applied to more teachers to gain a broader perspective and to corroborate results.
Irina V. Abakumova
Full Text Available The research in question investigates the technologies of initiating independent activity within the framework of distance learning and their psychological aspects. The authors’ classification of educational technologies of initiating students into independent cognitive activity is presented. Such technologies utilize various psychological mechanisms of exciting students’ cognitive interest, intensifying cognitive processes, developing independent activity skills, and, as a result, increase motivation for independent activity and learning on the whole. These include such types of technologies as developmental technologies, interactive technologies, technologies of information transfer, technologies of meaning-making initiation. The research of the attitude of distance learning educators to independent activity of students and the content of the academic courses were done at Moodle-based education programs. The findings show the differences in retention rate among distance learning educators whose competence in terms of initiating students into independent (self-guided activity varies. It’s emphasized that interactive lectures, videoconferences, audio-visual aids, interactive seminars, glossaries, interactive tests are considered the most efficient technologies in initiating students into independent (self-guided activity. The obtained results have made it possible to stress the developmental effect of distance learning technologies and the technologies of initiating students into independent (self-guided activity in various psychic spheres of students: cognitive, individual, emotional. We mention the changes in motivational sphere of students and their meaning-making activity. In the course of correct development of distance learning we notice the development of voluntary and nonvoluntary cognitive activity. A student starts actively participating in educational process, he becomes the creator of his own world.
Whelan, Alexander; Leddy, John J; Mindra, Sean; Matthew Hughes, J D; El-Bialy, Safaa; Ramnanan, Christopher J
The purpose of this study was to compare student perceptions regarding two, small group learning approaches to compressed (46.5 prosection-based laboratory hours), integrated anatomy education at the University of Ottawa medical program. In the facilitated active learning (FAL) approach, tutors engage students and are expected to enable and balance both active learning and progression through laboratory objectives. In contrast, the emphasized independent learning (EIL) approach stresses elements from the "flipped classroom" educational model: prelaboratory preparation, independent laboratory learning, and limited tutor involvement. Quantitative (Likert-style questions) and qualitative data (independent thematic analysis of open-ended commentary) from a survey of students who had completed the preclerkship curriculum identified strengths from the EIL (promoting student collaboration and communication) and FAL (successful progression through objectives) approaches. However, EIL led to student frustration related to a lack of direction and impaired completion of objectives, whereas active learning opportunities in FAL were highly variable and dependent on tutor teaching style. A "hidden curriculum" was also identified, where students (particularly EIL and clerkship students) commonly compared their compressed anatomy education or their anatomy learning environment with other approaches. Finally, while both groups highly regarded the efficiency of prosection-based learning and expressed value for cadaveric-based learning, student commentary noted that the lack of grade value dedicated to anatomy assessment limited student accountability. This study revealed critical insights into small group learning in compressed anatomy education, including the need to balance student active learning opportunities with appropriate direction and feedback (including assessment). © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.
López-Barroso, Diana; Ripollés, Pablo; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Mohammadi, Bahram; Münte, Thomas F; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth
Although neuroimaging studies using standard subtraction-based analysis from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have suggested that frontal and temporal regions are involved in word learning from fluent speech, the possible contribution of different brain networks during this type of learning is still largely unknown. Indeed, univariate fMRI analyses cannot identify the full extent of distributed networks that are engaged by a complex task such as word learning. Here we used Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to characterize the different brain networks subserving word learning from an artificial language speech stream. Results were replicated in a second cohort of participants with a different linguistic background. Four spatially independent networks were associated with the task in both cohorts: (i) a dorsal Auditory-Premotor network; (ii) a dorsal Sensory-Motor network; (iii) a dorsal Fronto-Parietal network; and (iv) a ventral Fronto-Temporal network. The level of engagement of these networks varied through the learning period with only the dorsal Auditory-Premotor network being engaged across all blocks. In addition, the connectivity strength of this network in the second block of the learning phase correlated with the individual variability in word learning performance. These findings suggest that: (i) word learning relies on segregated connectivity patterns involving dorsal and ventral networks; and (ii) specifically, the dorsal auditory-premotor network connectivity strength is directly correlated with word learning performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Setyowidodo, I.; Pramesti, Y. S.; Handayani, A. D.
Learning science developed as an integrative science rather than disciplinary education, the reality of the nation character development has not been able to form a more creative and independent Indonesian man. Problem Based Learning based on real time data in the website is a learning method focuses on developing high-level thinking skills in problem-oriented situations by integrating technology in learning. The essence of this study is the presentation of authentic problems in the real time data situation in the website. The purpose of this research is to develop student independence through Problem Based Learning based on real time data in website. The type of this research is development research with implementation using purposive sampling technique. Based on the study there is an increase in student self-reliance, where the students in very high category is 47% and in the high category is 53%. This learning method can be said to be effective in improving students learning independence in problem-oriented situations.
Eldar, Reuben; Marincek, Crt; Kullmann, Lajos
Teamwork is the cornerstone of rehabilitation medicine. Rehabilitation workers in European countries are well educated in their own disciplines and attain appropriate professional knowledge; however, they lack educational opportunities for acquiring skills and attitudes necessary for effective teamwork, mainly communication, cooperation, and leadership. Consequently, teamwork is compromised and rehabilitation effectiveness reduced. Therefore, training in these components of professional compe...
Tucker, Richard; Abbasi, Neda
Positive experiences of teamwork in design contexts significantly improve students' satisfaction with teaching and their attitudes towards future teamwork. Thus, an understanding of the factors leading to negative and positive team experiences can inform strategies to support effective teamwork. This paper examines design students' perceptions and…
McArthur, Polly; Burch, Lillian; Moore, Katherine; Hodges, Mary Sue
This article describes interactive learning about independent living for people with disabilities and features the partnership of the College of Nursing and a Center for Independent Living (CIL). Using qualitative descriptive approach, students' written reflections were analyzed. Through "Xtreme Challenge," 82 undergraduate nursing students participated in aspects of independent living as well as identifying barriers. Students were engaged and learned to consider the person before the disability. Moreover, students valued the activity leaders' openness, which facilitated understanding the point of view of a person with disability. The value of partnership was evident as it allowed students to participate in active learning, which led to growth in the affective domain. Students became aware of potential education resources through the CIL. This article will guide educators in designing experiences that teach nursing care at the individual, family, and community level for people living with disabilities. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.
Weller, J; Shulruf, B; Torrie, J; Frengley, R; Boyd, M; Paul, A; Yee, B; Dzendrowskyj, P
Teamwork is an important contributor to patient safety and a validated teamwork measurement tool could help healthcare teams identify areas for improvement and measure progress. We explored the psychometric properties of a teamwork measurement tool when used for self-assessment. We hypothesized that the tool had a valid factor structure and that scores from participants and external assessors would correlate. Forty intensive care teams (one doctor, three nurses) participated in four simulated emergencies, and each independently rated their team's performance at the end of each case using the teamwork measurement tool, without prior training in the use of the tool. We used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and compared factor structure between participants and external assessors (using previously reported data). Scores from participants and external assessors were compared using Pearson's correlation coefficient. EFA demonstrated items loaded onto three distinct factors which were supported by the CFA. We found significant correlations between external and participant scores for overall teamwork scores and the three factors. Participants agreed with external assessors on the ranking of overall team performance but scored themselves significantly higher than external assessors. The teamwork measurement tool has a valid structure when used for self-assessment. Participant and external assessor scores correlated significantly, suggesting that participants could discriminate between different levels of performance, although leniency in self-assessed scores indicated the need for calibration. This tool could help structure reflection on teamwork and potentially facilitate self-directed, workplace-based improvement in teamwork.
According to a recent article in the "Chronicle of Higher Education" (April 2011), team assignments are increasingly prevalent in business schools. Not only are they ubiquitous, they are critically important, as our university's strategic plan states, "collaboration and teamwork are the keys to creating successful leaders."…
Keijser, Wouter Alexander; Glaudemans, Andor; Medema, Jitze; Dierckx, Rudi; Ahaus, Kees
In this chapter, we describe the enhanced TeamSTEPPS® curriculum as fundament to creating a “culture of continuous improvement” in nuclear medicine. This evidence-based and modular teamwork system is deployed in concordance with a novel medical leadership development program. It provides a
Thoracic epidural catheter placement is an example of a demanding and high-risk clinical skill that junior anaesthetists need to learn by experience and under the supervision of consultants. This learning is known to present challenges that require further study. Ten consultant and 10 trainee anaesthetists in a teaching hospital were interviewed about teaching and learning this skill in the operating theatre, and a phenomenological analysis of their experience was performed. Trainee participation was limited by time pressure, lack of familiarity with consultants, and consultants' own need for clinical experience. There was a particular tension between safe and effective consultant practice and permitting trainees' independence. Three distinct stages of participation and assistance were identified from reports of ideal practice: early (part-task or basic procedure, consultant always present giving instruction and feedback), middle (independent practice with straightforward cases without further instruction), and late (skill extension and transfer). Learning assistance provided by consultants varied, but it was often not matched to the trainees' stages of learning. Negotiation of participation and assistance was recognized as being useful, but it did not happen routinely. There are many obstacles to trainees' participation in thoracic epidural catheter insertion, and learning assistance is not matched to need. A more explicit understanding of stages of learning is required to benefit the learning of this and other advanced clinical skills.
Full Text Available The research was aimed at developing learning resources for mathematics logic using the hypothetical learning trajectory designed through reflection on the history of Indonesian independence struggle. The study was carried out at the Department of Mathematics Education of the Faculty of Teacher Training and Educational Sciences Nusantara Islamic University (Uninus. The study used design research consisted of three stages: preparing the experiments, design the experiments, and retrospective analysis. Preparing the experiments stage has been completed and design the experiments stage is currently under preparation. The main activities accomplished in preparing the experiments stage consisted of: studies of Indonesian independence struggle, curriculum analysis, literature review, and early prototype design. Design the experiments phase has enabled the development of the research instruments. The learning trajectory which has been designed in the first stage involved: reflections on the history of Indonesian independence struggle; implication and bi-implication; implication, bi-implication and their truth in the context of the history of the Indonesian independence struggle; and implication, bi-implication and their truth in the context of mathematics. Based on the results of discussions with colleagues, the students’ ability in mathematical thinking can be developed by using the history of Indonesian independence struggle as the context of learning in a mathematics logics course.
McDaniel, Scott N.; Green, Lisa
Simulations can make complex ideas easier for students to visualize and understand. It has been shown that guidance in the use of these simulations enhances students’ learning. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of the Independent Interactive Inquiry-based (I3) Learning Modules, which use existing open-source Java applets, combined with audio-visual instruction. Students are guided to discover and visualize important concepts in post-calculus and algebra-based courses in p...
Олександр Іванович Пушкар
Full Text Available The concept of organization of professional competence formation of students’ independent work in e-learning is proposed in the article. Implementation of the proposed model of competence formation in e-learning is done on the example of multimedia complex for discipline "Processes of publishing and printing". Selection of the most important components for each competence is made on the basis of Saaty method
Scaria, Minimol Kulakkottu
Cohesive interprofessional teamwork is essential to successful healthcare services. Interprofessional teamwork is the means by which different healthcare professionals - with diverse knowledge, skills and talents - collaborate to achieve a common goal. Several interventions are available to improve teamwork in the healthcare setting. This article explores the role of care pathways in improving interprofessional teamwork. Care pathways enhance teamwork by promoting coordination, collaboration, communication and decision making to achieve optimal healthcare outcomes. They result in improved staff knowledge, communication, documentation and interprofessional relations. Care pathways also contribute to patient-centred care and increase patient satisfaction.
Yip, George W; Rajendran, Kanagasuntheram
Computer-aided instruction materials are becoming increasing popular in medical education and particularly in the teaching of human anatomy. This paper describes SnapAnatomy, a new interactive program that the authors designed for independent learning of anatomy. SnapAnatomy is primarily tailored for the beginner student to encourage the learning of anatomy by developing a three-dimensional visualization of human structure that is essential to applications in clinical practice and the understanding of function. The program allows the student to take apart and to accurately put together body components in an interactive, self-paced and variable manner to achieve the learning outcome.
To ensure a modern bioscience curriculum that responds to the current needs of stakeholders, there is a need to embed a range of generic capabilities that enables graduates to succeed in and contribute to a rapidly changing world, as well as building strong bioscience skills and knowledge. The curriculum must also prepare students for a rapidly evolving competitive work place and align with the needs of industry. This creates a challenge, how do we develop generic capabilities without losing discipline content. This report analyses teamwork projects embedded in an undergraduate Biotechnology degree designed to promote teamwork skills along with a deeper understanding of the underpinning biochemistry. Student reflective writing was used to capture students' understanding and experience of teamwork as well as provide insight into their metacognition. The analysis demonstrates that 73% of Year 3 and 93% of Year 4 students were capable of learning about teamwork through reflective writing. While the importance of frequent high quality communication was a common theme, evidence suggests that many students were unsophisticated in their use of communication software. The analysis also highlighted the depth of metacognition that underpins successful team function and the significant weaknesses in self-insight some students possess. These findings challenge assumptions regarding student capacity for leadership and the ability of some students to contribute to successful team outcomes. It is essential for the design of teamwork experiences to fully understand the competencies that underlie teamwork, the metacognitive processes required, and ensure that assessments are fair and measure individual academic performance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Oxelmark, Lena; Nordahl Amorøe, Torben; Carlzon, Liisa; Rystedt, Hans
This study explores how interprofessional simulation-based education (IPSE) can contribute to a change in students' understanding of teamwork and professional roles. A series of 1-day training sessions was arranged involving undergraduate nursing and medical students. Scenarios were designed for practicing teamwork principles and interprofessional communication skills by endorsing active participation by all team members. Four focus groups occurred 2-4 weeks after the training. Thematic analysis of the transcribed focus groups was applied, guided by questions on what changes in students' understanding of teamwork and professional roles were identified and how such changes had been achieved. The first question, aiming to identify changes in students' understanding of teamwork, resulted in three categories: realizing and embracing teamwork fundamentals, reconsidering professional roles, and achieving increased confidence. The second question, regarding how participation in IPSE could support the transformation of students' understanding of teamwork and of professional roles, embraced another three categories: feeling confident in the learning environment, embodying experiences, and obtaining an outside perspective. This study showed the potential of IPSE to transform students' understanding of others' professional roles and responsibilities. Students displayed extensive knowledge on fundamental teamwork principles and what these meant in the midst of participating in the scenarios. A critical prerequisite for the development of these new insights was to feel confident in the learning environment. The significance of how the environment was set up calls for further research on the design of IPSE in influencing role understanding and communicative skills in significant ways.
Kiesewetter, Jan; Fischer, Martin R
Simulation-based teamwork trainings are considered a powerful training method to advance teamwork, which becomes more relevant in medical education. The measurement of teamwork is of high importance and several instruments have been developed for various medical domains to meet this need. To our knowledge, no theoretically-based and easy-to-use measurement instrument has been published nor developed specifically for simulation-based teamwork trainings of medical students. Internist ward-rounds function as an important example of teamwork in medicine. The purpose of this study was to provide a validated, theoretically-based instrument that is easy-to-use. Furthermore, this study aimed to identify if and when rater scores relate to performance. Based on a theoretical framework for teamwork behaviour, items regarding four teamwork components (Team Coordination, Team Cooperation, Information Exchange, Team Adjustment Behaviours) were developed. In study one, three ward-round scenarios, simulated by 69 students, were videotaped and rated independently by four trained raters. The instrument was tested for the embedded psychometric properties and factorial structure. In study two, the instrument was tested for construct validity with an external criterion with a second set of 100 students and four raters. In study one, the factorial structure matched the theoretical components but was unable to separate Information Exchange and Team Cooperation. The preliminary version showed adequate psychometric properties (Cronbach's α=.75). In study two, the instrument showed physician rater scores were more reliable in measurement than those of student raters. Furthermore, a close correlation between the scale and clinical performance as an external criteria was shown (r=.64) and the sufficient psychometric properties were replicated (Cronbach's α=.78). The validation allows for use of the simulated teamwork assessment scale in undergraduate medical ward-round trainings to reliably
Full Text Available Background: Simulation-based teamwork trainings are considered a powerful training method to advance teamwork, which becomes more relevant in medical education. The measurement of teamwork is of high importance and several instruments have been developed for various medical domains to meet this need. To our knowledge, no theoretically-based and easy-to-use measurement instrument has been published nor developed specifically for simulation-based teamwork trainings of medical students. Internist ward-rounds function as an important example of teamwork in medicine.Purposes: The purpose of this study was to provide a validated, theoretically-based instrument that is easy-to-use. Furthermore, this study aimed to identify if and when rater scores relate to performance.Methods: Based on a theoretical framework for teamwork behaviour, items regarding four teamwork components ( were developed. In study one, three ward-round scenarios, simulated by 69 students, were videotaped and rated independently by four trained raters. The instrument was tested for the embedded psychometric properties and factorial structure. In study two, the instrument was tested for construct validity with an external criterion with a second set of 100 students and four raters. Results: In study one, the factorial structure matched the theoretical components but was unable to separate Information Exchange and Team Cooperation. The preliminary version showed adequate psychometric properties (Cronbach’s α=.75. In study two, the instrument showed physician rater scores were more reliable in measurement than those of student raters. Furthermore, a close correlation between the scale and clinical performance as an external criteria was shown (r=.64 and the sufficient psychometric properties were replicated (Cronbach’s α=.78.Conclusions: The validation allows for use of the simulated teamwork assessment scale in undergraduate medical ward-round trainings to reliably measure
Inner London Education Authority (England).
This unit on equilibrium is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two levels, focuses on the application of equilibrium principles to equilibria involving weak acids and bases, including buffer solutions and indicators. Level one uses Le Chatelier's…
Inner London Education Authority (England).
This unit on the principles of equilibrium is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit consists of two levels. After a treatment of non-mathematical aspects in level one (the idea of a reversible reaction, characteristics of an equilibrium state, the Le Chatelier's principle),…
Arista, Fitra Suci; Kuswanto, Heru
The research study concerned here was to: (1) produce a virtual physics laboratory application to be called ViPhyLab by using the Android smartphone as basis; (2) determine the appropriateness and quality of the virtual physics laboratory application that had been developed; and (3) describe the improvement in learning independence and conceptual…
Inner London Education Authority (England).
This unit on hydrocarbons is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit is divided into sections dealing with alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, arenes, and several aspects of the petroleum industry. Two experiments, exercises (with answers), and pre- and post-tests are included.…
Inner London Education Authority (England).
This unit on the gaseous state is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit consists of two levels. Level one deals with the distinctive characteristics of gases, then considers the gas laws, in particular the ideal gas equation and its applications. Level two concentrates on…
Ghedotti, Michael J.; Fielitz, Christopher; Leonard, Daniel J.
This paper presents a teaching methodology involving an independent research project component for use in undergraduate Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy laboratory courses. The proposed project introduces cooperative, active learning in a research context to comparative vertebrate anatomy. This project involves pairs or groups of three students…
Batorowicz, Beata; Shepherd, Tracy A
This study examines Prescription Review (PR), a model of teamwork practiced in Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) centres in Ontario, Canada. PR is a process in which teams make decisions about AAC system recommendations. For this study, 92 out of 141 professionals working on AAC teams completed questionnaires measuring the benefits of PR. Findings suggest that PR is beneficial in the areas of learning, providing quality services, team support, and decision making. Participants reported satisfaction with the quality of treatment plan, the PR results, and process. Perceptions of PR were related to size of the teams, participants' years of experience, and the range of experience on teams. This study supports PR and highlights the importance of healthy working relationships.
In a year when, with the inception of the new Clinical Commissioning Groups, the way that healthcare is procured and delivered will see radical changes, this month's HefmA 2013 National Conference & Exhibition will have as its theme, 'Many Players, One Goal: The Patient'. As HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie reports, among the wide-ranging estates and facilities topics set for discussion will be 'Getting the patient environment right'; 'Dementia Building for the Future'; 'Waterborne Infections; Lessons Learned'; 'Incorporating lean thinking into design', and the key challenges faced by the estates and facilities sector. The keynote address, touching on a wide range of issues common to all large organisations, will be given by one of the best known 'women in football', and will also reflect particularly on the importance of teamwork.
Full Text Available Currently it is undeniable that the competition to get a job is very tight and of course universities have an important role in printing human resources that can compete globally not least with the Department of Industrial Engineering Faculty of Engineering Muhammadiyah University of Jakarta FT UMJ. Problems that occur is based on the analysis obtained from the track record of graduates researchers found that 60 percent of students of Industrial Engineering FT UMJ work not in accordance with the level of education owned so financially their income is still below the standard. This study aims to improve the competence of students of Industrial Engineering Department FT UMJ in entrepreneurship courses especially through the development of Problem Based Learning based learning model. Specific targets of this research were conducted with the aim to identify and analyze the need to implement learning model based on Problem Based Learning Entrepreneurship and to design and develop the model of entrepreneurship based on Problem Based Learning to improve the competence independence and creativity of Industrial Engineering students of FT UMJ in Entrepreneurship course. To achieve the above objectives this research uses research and development R amp D method. The product produced in this research is the detail of learning model of entrepreneurial model based on Problem Based Learning entrepreneurship model based on Problem Based Learning and international journals
Eddy, Kylie; Jordan, Zoe; Stephenson, Matthew
standardized critical appraisal tool the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI) was used to assess the methodological quality of included papers. Data that included statements and text of interest was extracted from papers included in the study using the standardized data extraction tool from JBI-QARI. Qualitative research findings were pooled using JBI-QARI. This involved the aggregation and synthesis of findings to generate a set of statements that represented that aggregation. In total, 116 papers were selected for analysis of full text, 11 papers were selected for critical appraisal and seven papers were selected for data synthesis. This resulted in 44 findings. The findings were assigned to 16 categories based on identified similarities across the papers. The categories were integrated into six meta-syntheses. These were: Meta-synthesis One: It is important to recognize that organizational culture and expectations have an impact on health professionals' participation and experience of teamwork education. Meta-synthesis Two: Understanding how successful teams function is central to the development of teamwork education programs and the experience of participants. Meta-synthesis Three: A health professional's experience of teamwork education will be influenced by his/her starting point of learning. Meta-synthesis Four: Participants highly value teamwork education programs that are implemented by facilitators who create practical authentic learning opportunities and foster reflection and debriefing for participants. Meta-synthesis Five: High fidelity simulation used with specific communication strategies provides a powerful learning opportunity for health professions to practice teamwork skills. Meta-synthesis Six: Participants have increased confidence and are motivated to apply their newly learnt teamwork skills into their daily practice. The review identified qualitative evidence that can guide organizations and education
Deering, Shad; Johnston, Lindsay C; Colacchio, Kathryn
Every delivery is a multidisciplinary event, involving nursing, obstetricians, anesthesiologists, and pediatricians. Patients are often in labor across multiple provider shifts, necessitating numerous handoffs between teams. Each handoff provides an opportunity for errors. Although a traditional approach to improving patient outcomes has been to address individual knowledge and skills, it is now recognized that a significant number of complications result from team, rather than individual, failures. In 2004, a Sentinel Alert issued by the Joint Commission revealed that most cases of perinatal death and injury are caused by problems with an organization's culture and communication failures. It was recommended that hospitals implement teamwork training programs in an effort to improve outcomes. Instituting a multidisciplinary teamwork training program that uses simulation offers a risk-free environment to practice skills, including communication, role clarification, and mutual support. This experience should improve patient safety and outcomes, as well as enhance employee morale. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Jones, W. Monty; Dexter, Sara
A qualitative study of math and science teachers at two middle schools identifies how their system for learning to integrate technology into their teaching goes beyond what school leaders typically consider when planning for teachers' learning. In addition to (a) the district-initiated, or formal, system of professional development (PD) and…
Fransen, Annemarie F; de Boer, Liza; Kienhorst, Dieneke; Truijens, Sophie E; van Runnard Heimel, Pieter J; Oei, S Guid
Teamwork performance is an essential component for the clinical efficiency of multi-professional teams in obstetric care. As patient safety is related to teamwork performance, it has become an important learning goal in simulation-based education. In order to improve teamwork performance, reliable assessment tools are required. These can be used to provide feedback during training courses, or to compare learning effects between different types of training courses. The aim of the current study is to (1) identify the available assessment tools to evaluate obstetric teamwork performance in a simulated environment, and (2) evaluate their psychometric properties in order to identify the most valuable tool(s) to use. We performed a systematic search in PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE to identify articles describing assessment tools for the evaluation of obstetric teamwork performance in a simulated environment. In order to evaluate the quality of the identified assessment tools the standards and grading rules have been applied as recommended by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Committee on Educational Outcomes. The included studies were also assessed according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (OCEBM) levels of evidence. This search resulted in the inclusion of five articles describing the following six tools: Clinical Teamwork Scale, Human Factors Rating Scale, Global Rating Scale, Assessment of Obstetric Team Performance, Global Assessment of Obstetric Team Performance, and the Teamwork Measurement Tool. Based on the ACGME guidelines we assigned a Class 3, level C of evidence, to all tools. Regarding the OCEBM levels of evidence, a level 3b was assigned to two studies and a level 4 to four studies. The Clinical Teamwork Scale demonstrated the most comprehensive validation, and the Teamwork Measurement Tool demonstrated promising results, however it is recommended to further investigate its reliability. Copyright © 2017
Robert W. Lingard
Full Text Available It is important that engineering and computer science students learn teamwork skills as an integral part of their educational development. These skills are often not explicitly taught, but rather it is expected that students learn them on their own through participation in various team projects. Furthermore, the actual skills that students are expected to learn are usually not well articulated, or even understood. The approach outlined here attempts to address these problems by first establishing a process for defining what is meant by teamwork, by using this definition to assess the extent to which students are learning teamwork skills, and by using the assessment results to formulate approaches to improve student learning with respect to these skills. Specific attempts at the definition, assessment, and instruction improvement process are discussed.
Leasure, Emily L; Jones, Ronald R; Meade, Lauren B; Sanger, Marla I; Thomas, Kris G; Tilden, Virginia P; Bowen, Judith L; Warm, Eric J
Evidence suggests that teamwork is essential for safe, reliable practice. Creating health care teams able to function effectively in patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs), practices that organize care around the patient and demonstrate achievement of defined quality care standards, remains challenging. Preparing trainees for practice in interprofessional teams is particularly challenging in academic health centers where health professions curricula are largely siloed. Here, the authors review a well-delineated set of teamwork competencies that are important for high-functioning teams and suggest how these competencies might be useful for interprofessional team training and achievement of PCMH standards. The five competencies are (1) team leadership, the ability to coordinate team members' activities, ensure appropriate task distribution, evaluate effectiveness, and inspire high-level performance, (2) mutual performance monitoring, the ability to develop a shared understanding among team members regarding intentions, roles, and responsibilities so as to accurately monitor one another's performance for collective success, (3) backup behavior, the ability to anticipate the needs of other team members and shift responsibilities during times of variable workload, (4) adaptability, the capability of team members to adjust their strategy for completing tasks on the basis of feedback from the work environment, and (5) team orientation, the tendency to prioritize team goals over individual goals, encourage alternative perspectives, and show respect and regard for each team member. Relating each competency to a vignette from an academic primary care clinic, the authors describe potential strategies for improving teamwork learning and applying the teamwork competences to academic PCMH practices.
This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.
Brian R. Morrison
Full Text Available Learners studying for exams sometimes show a lack of awareness in their abilities as tested through the framework of that exam. Instead, such learners focus on the score obtained in exams, and exam preparation includes using textbooks, online materials and timed use of past papers. The purpose of exam-focused flexible self-directed learning modules (FSDLMs at Kanda University of International Studies have been designed to address this by developing learners’ ability to identify their strengths and weaknesses, to make informed decisions about their own learning, and to improve their test-taking skills. Each FSDLM has at its core a diagnostic for learners to use for self-evaluation, often with guidance from a learning advisor. This process leads to the setting of clear goals and the development and implementation of an individual learning plan through a variety of dialogues. Learners have the potential to transfer this skill beyond examination preparation to other areas of learning. In other words, learners’ awareness of needs analysis, planning, implementation and evaluation is fostered with a view to developing their language learning ability within and beyond this module.
Greenwood, B N; Strong, P V; Foley, T E; Thompson, R S; Fleshner, M
Reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus have been implicated in human affective disorders and behavioral stress responses. The current studies examined the role of BDNF in the behavioral consequences of inescapable stress, or learned helplessness. Inescapable stress decreased BDNF mRNA and protein in the hippocampus of sedentary rats. Rats allowed voluntary access to running wheels for either 3 or 6 weeks prior to exposure to stress were protected against stress-induced reductions of hippocampal BDNF protein. The observed prevention of stress-induced deceases in BDNF, however, occurred in a time course inconsistent with the prevention of learned helplessness by wheel running, which is evident following 6 weeks, but not 3 weeks, of wheel running. BDNF suppression in physically active rats was produced by administering a single injection of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) just prior to stress. Despite reduced levels of hippocampal BDNF mRNA following stress, physically active rats given the combination of fluoxetine and stress remained resistant against learned helplessness. Sedentary rats given both fluoxetine and stress still demonstrated typical learned helplessness behaviors. Fluoxetine by itself reduced BDNF mRNA in sedentary rats only, but did not affect freezing or escape learning 24 h later. Finally, bilateral injections of BDNF (1 mug) into the dentate gyrus prior to stress prevented stress-induced reductions of hippocampal BDNF but did not prevent learned helplessness in sedentary rats. These data indicate that learned helplessness behaviors are independent of the presence or absence of hippocampal BDNF because blocking inescapable stress-induced BDNF suppression does not always prevent learned helplessness, and learned helplessness does not always occur in the presence of reduced BDNF. Results also suggest that the prevention of stress-induced hippocampal BDNF suppression is not
Willoughby, Michael B
.... However, concern exists that only rewarding individual performance may adversely impact teamwork, collaboration, and information sharing, which could ultimately impact organizational performance...
Bahar, Amir S.; Shapiro, Matthew L.
The neural mechanisms that integrate new episodes with established memories are unknown. When rats explore an environment, CA1 cells fire in place fields that indicate locations. In goal-directed spatial memory tasks, some place fields differentiate behavioral histories (journey-dependent place fields) while others do not (journey-independent place fields). To investigate how these signals inform learning and memory for new and familiar episodes, we recorded CA1 and CA3 activity in rats train...
Full Text Available Globally, universities are striving to increase enrolment rates, especially for low socioeconomic status and mature-aged students. In order to meet these targets, universities are accepting a broader range of students, often resulting in a widening mathematical knowledge gap between secondary school and university (Hoyles, Newman & Noss, 2001. Therefore, even amid the growing trend of scaling back services, there exists a need for extra learning support in mathematics. Mathematics support services are recognised as vital in assisting students to both bridge the knowledge gap and become independent learners. Through a survey of students using the Mathematics Learning Centre at Central Queensland University Australia, it was found that the implementation of scaffolding, adult learning principles and the embedding of mathematics support provides students with not only fundamental mathematical knowledge but also the skills required to become self-directed learners.
Hastie, Carolyn; Fahy, Kathleen; Parratt, Jenny
Poor teamwork is cited as one of the major root causes of adverse events in healthcare. Bullying, resulting in illness for staff, is an expression of poor teamwork skills. Despite this knowledge, poor teamwork persists in healthcare and teamwork skills are rarely the focus of teaching and assessment in undergraduate health courses. To develop and implement an assessment tool for use in facilitating midwifery students' learning of teamwork skills. This paper describes how the TeamUP rubric tool was developed. A review of the literature found no research reports on how to teach and assess health students' teamwork skills in standing teams. The literature, however, gives guidance about how university educators should evaluate individual students using peer assessment. The developmental processes of the rubric were grounded in the theoretical literature and feminist collaborative conversations. The rubric incorporates five domains of teamwork skills: Fostering a Team Climate; Project Planning; Facilitating Teams; Managing Conflict and Quality Individual Contribution. The process and outcomes of student and academic content validation are described. The TeamUP rubric is useful for articulating, teaching and assessing teamwork skills for health professional students. The TeamUP rubric is a robust, theoretically grounded model that defines and details effective teamwork skills and related behaviours. If these skills are mastered, we predict that graduates will be more effective in teams. Our assumption is that graduates, empowered by having these skills, are more likely to manage conflict effectively and less likely to engage in bullying behaviours. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Banning, Maggi; Cortazzi, Martin
This illuminative evaluation study gives insights into attitudes to learning, interaction and the perceived roles of theory, evidence, reading and previous experience. These insights lead us to question some aspects of the course as currently presented. Students indicated that they found the course material stimulating but prior guidance on the…
Lyons, Kevin J; Giordano, Carolyn; Speakman, Elizabeth; Smith, Kellie; Horowitz, June A
Interprofessional education (IPE) is becoming an integral part of the education of health professions students. However, teaching students to become successful members of interprofessional teams is complex, and it is important for students to learn the combinations of skills necessary for teams to function effectively. There are many instruments available to measure many features related to IPE. However, these instruments are often too cumbersome to use in an observational situation since they tend to be lengthy and contain many abstract characteristics that are difficult to identify. The Jefferson Teamwork Observation Guide (JTOG) is a short tool that was created for students early in their educational program to observe teams in action with a set of guidelines to help them focus their observation on behaviors indicative of good teamwork. The JTOG was developed over a 2-year period based on student and clinician feedback and the input of experts in IPE. While initially developed as a purely educational tool for prelicensure students, it is becoming clear that it is an easy-to-use instrument that assesses the behavior of clinicians in practice.
The ability to collaborate in teams is a central learning objective in a course for students enrolled in the elective 6th semester Civil Engineering Program. Therefore, methods for project management and team collaboration were facilitated through a designated course. The teamwork collaboration...... competencies of each student are, however, very difficult to assess for external supervisors not being part of the team. As a consequence, a model for peer and self-assessment of this competence was included as a central part of the course assessment. Each team of 4 persons had a facilitated process of making...... an Agreement of Collaboration (AC) for the project, including listing of values, norms and rules defining their mutual understanding of good teamwork behavior. The AC was discussed with the supervisors and finally signed by each member of the team. At the completion of the project period each team member...
Mahramus, Tara L; Penoyer, Daleen A; Waterval, Eugene M E; Sole, Mary L; Bowe, Eileen M
Teamwork during cardiopulmonary arrest events is important for resuscitation. Teamwork improvement programs are usually lengthy. This study assessed the effectiveness of a 2-hour teamwork training program. A prospective, pretest/posttest, quasi-experimental design assessed the teamwork training program targeted to resident physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists. Participants took part in a simulated cardiac arrest. After the simulation, participants and trained observers assessed perceptions of teamwork using the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) tool (ratings of 0 [low] to 4 [high]). A debriefing and 45 minutes of teamwork education followed. Participants then took part in a second simulated cardiac arrest scenario. Afterward, participants and observers assessed teamwork. Seventy-three team members participated-resident physicians (25%), registered nurses (32%), and respiratory therapists (41%). The physicians had significantly less experience on code teams (P teamwork scores were 2.57 to 2.72. Participants' mean (SD) scores on the TEAM tool for the first and second simulations were 3.2 (0.5) and 3.7 (0.4), respectively (P teamwork educational intervention resulted in improved perceptions of teamwork behaviors. Participants reported interactions with other disciplines, teamwork behavior education, and debriefing sessions were beneficial for enhancing the program.
Wilson, Jennifer L; Whyte, Richard I; Gangadharan, Sidhu P; Kent, Michael S
Teamwork and communication skills are essential for the safe practice of cardiothoracic surgery. In this article, we will summarize the literature on teamwork and the culture of safety, and discuss how surgeons may directly improve the outcomes of their patients by addressing these factors. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Riebe, Linda; Roepen, Dean; Santarelli, Bruno; Marchioro, Gary
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a case study on improvements to professional teaching practice within an undergraduate university business programme to more effectively teach an employability skill and enhance the student experience of teamwork. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase approach to teaching teamwork was…
Fitzgerald, Meghan M.; Theilheimer, Rachel
This qualitative study of three Head Start Centers analyzed surveys, interviews, and focus group data to determine how education coordinators, teachers, and teacher assistants believed professional development activities could support teamwork at their centers. The researchers sorted data related to teamwork into four categories: knowledge and…
Godskesen, Mirjam Irene
The Belbin method has been applied at the education in Arctic Technology in Greenland as a way of improving the student’s teamwork abilities. The feedback from the students is that Belbin is a meaningful and relevant tool and they are very engaged during the teamwork exercises. They get...
Vo, Andrew; Seergobin, Ken N; MacDonald, Penny A
The dopamine overdose hypothesis has provided an important theoretical framework for understanding cognition in Parkinson's disease. It posits that effects of dopaminergic therapy on cognition in Parkinson's disease depend on baseline dopamine levels in brain regions that support different functions. Although functions performed by more severely dopamine-depleted brain regions improve with medication, those associated with less dopamine deficient areas are actually worsened. It is presumed that medication-related worsening of cognition owes to dopamine overdose. We investigated whether age-related changes in baseline dopamine levels would modulate effects of dopaminergic therapy on reward learning in healthy volunteers. In a double-blind, crossover design, healthy younger and older adults completed a probabilistic reversal learning task after treatment with 100/25 mg of levodopa/carbidopa versus placebo. Older adults learned more poorly than younger adults at baseline, being more likely to shift responses after misleading punishment. Levodopa worsened stimulus-reward learning relative to placebo to the same extent in both groups, irrespective of differences in baseline performance and expected dopamine levels. When order effects were eliminated, levodopa induced response shifts after reward more often than placebo. Our results reveal independent deleterious effects of age group and exogenous dopamine on reward learning, suggesting a more complex scenario than predicted by the dopamine overdose hypothesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; Mannix, Judy; O'Hara-Aarons, Maureen; Jackson, Debra
In this qualitative study, the experiences of a small cohort of registered nurses (RN) during the first 2 years of mental health employment were documented. A total of 13 semistructured interviews were completed from within a specialist mental health setting. Eleven issues were identified: (i) teamwork; (ii) experiential learning; (iii) self-development; (iv) confidence; (v) listening; (vi) rapport; (vii) keen observation; (viii) patience; (ix) empathy; (x) learning from colleagues; and (xi) maintaining a positive approach towards patients. The nurses focused on the here-and-now circumstances, rather than on future plans, or past preparation, and were able to elucidate the qualities and skills that they brought to their clinical work. Participants were most proud of achievements that bridged the personal and professional, such as self-development, working closely with patients to develop rapport, experiential learning, and teamwork. Findings highlight the importance of teamwork to newly-graduated RN entering the mental health environment. It is known that teamwork can convey a sense of belonging and help create an environment in which applied experiential clinical learning can occur. Therefore, it is important that efforts are made to facilitate team building and opportunities for teamwork when new graduates are transitioning into the mental health clinical practice environment. © 2011 The Authors; International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Goldberg, A; Silverman, E; Samuelson, S; Katz, D; Lin, H M; Levine, A; DeMaria, S
Anaesthetists may fail to recognize and manage certain rare intraoperative events. Simulation has been shown to be an effective educational adjunct to typical operating room-based education to train for these events. It is yet unclear, however, why simulation has any benefit. We hypothesize that learners who are allowed to manage a scenario independently and allowed to fail, thus causing simulated morbidity, will consequently perform better when re-exposed to a similar scenario. Using a randomized, controlled, observer-blinded design, 24 first-year residents were exposed to an oxygen pipeline contamination scenario, either where patient harm occurred (independent group, n=12) or where a simulated attending anaesthetist intervened to prevent harm (supervised group, n=12). Residents were brought back 6 months later and exposed to a different scenario (pipeline contamination) with the same end point. Participants' proper treatment, time to diagnosis, and non-technical skills (measured using the Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills Checklist, ANTS) were measured. No participants provided proper treatment in the initial exposure. In the repeat encounter 6 months later, 67% in the independent group vs 17% in the supervised group resumed adequate oxygen delivery (P=0.013). The independent group also had better ANTS scores [median (interquartile range): 42.3 (31.5-53.1) vs 31.3 (21.6-41), P=0.015]. There was no difference in time to treatment if proper management was provided [602 (490-820) vs 610 (420-800) s, P=0.79]. Allowing residents to practise independently in the simulation laboratory, and subsequently, allowing them to fail, can be an important part of simulation-based learning. This is not feasible in real clinical practice but appears to have improved resident performance in this study. The purposeful use of independent practice and its potentially negative outcomes thus sets simulation-based learning apart from traditional operating room learning. © The Author
Volkov, Arabella; Volkov, Michael
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the development of students' skills in the context of team-based learning. Academics have heeded the call to incorporate team learning activities into the curricula, yet little is known of student perception of teamwork and whether they view it as beneficial to them and…
The Internet has emerged as a mainstream communication medium, resulting in the development of new educational opportunities for teaching and learning. This article describes and evaluates a learning opportunity which used a Wiki technology to support an aligned assessment activity which was focused around teamwork and students construction of…
Educators are increasingly required to assist learners not simply with subject content, but with developing metacognitive skills for independent learning, interdisciplinary learning and lifelong learning. However, there is a dearth of research on how metacognitive processing interacts with other forms of processing in authentic, real-world learning environments. In light of this, this study concerned itself with furthering understanding of metacognition, cognition and its interactions with ...
Profit, Jochen; Sharek, Paul J.; Kan, Peiyi; Rigdon, Joseph; Desai, Manisha; Nisbet, Courtney C.; Tawfik, Daniel S.; Thomas, Eric J.; Lee, Henry C.; Sexton, J. Bryan
Background and Objective Teamwork may affect clinical care in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting. The objective of this study was to assess teamwork climate across NICUs and to test scale level and item level associations with healthcare-associated infection (HAI) rates in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Methods Cross-sectional study of the association between HAI rates, defined as any bacterial or fungal infection during the birth hospitalization, among 6663 VLBW infants cared for in 44 NICUs between 2010 and 2012. NICU HAI rates were correlated with teamwork climate ratings obtained in 2011 from 2073 of 3294 eligible (response rate 63%) NICU health professionals. The relation between HAI rates and NICU teamwork climate was assessed using logistic regression models including NICU as a random effect. Results Across NICUs, 36 to 100% (mean 66%) of respondents reported good teamwork. HAI rates were significantly and independently associated with teamwork climate (OR [95% CI] 0.82 [0.73-0.92], p = 0.005), such that the odds of an infant contracting a HAI decreased by 18% with each 10% rise in NICU respondents reporting good teamwork. Conclusion Improving teamwork may be an important element in infection control efforts. PMID:28395366
Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Basarovska, Vera; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sasho; Angeleska, Nada; Atanasovska, Aneta
Few studies have examined teamwork as mediator and moderator of work demands-burnout and job engagement-job satisfaction relationships in healthcare workers (HCWs) in South-East Europe. To assess mediation and moderation effect of teamwork on the relationship between independent (work demands or job engagement) and dependent (burnout or job satisfaction) variables. Work demands, burnout, job engagement, and job satisfaction were measured with Hospital Experience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and Job Satisfaction Survey, respectively. Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was used for assessment of teamwork. In order to examine role of teamwork as a mediating variable we fit series of regression models for burnout and job satisfaction. We also fit regression models predicting outcome (burnout or job satisfaction) from predictor (work demands or job engagement) and moderator (teamwork) variable. Teamwork was partial mediator of work demands-burnout relationship and full mediator of job engagement-job satisfaction relationship. We found that only job engagement-job satisfaction relationship was moderated by teamwork. Occupational health services should target detection of burnout in HCWs and implementation of organizational interventions in hospitals, taking into account findings that teamwork predicted reduced burnout and higher job satisfaction.
Fox, Lanae; Onders, Robert; Hermansen-Kobulnicky, Carol J; Nguyen, Thanh-Nga; Myran, Leena; Linn, Becky; Hornecker, Jaime
An expanding body of literature is examining interprofessional teamwork and its effect in healthcare. To produce capable healthcare professionals prepared to participate in interprofessional roles, teamwork training must begin early in health professional students' training. The focus of this scoping review was to explore interprofessional education (IPE) studies designed to teach and/or assess interprofessional teamwork skills to students from two or more different health professions, to find and describe effective pedagogy and assessment strategies. Using a scoping review methodology, 1,106 abstracts were reviewed by three teams of investigators. Eligibility criteria were inclusion of students in interprofessional teams, an intervention to improve interprofessional teamwork skills and assessment of outcomes related to teamwork. Thirty-three studies met the criteria for inclusion. The literature was varied in terms of study design, teaching methods and assessment measures for interprofessional teamwork. The lack of rigorous, comparable studies in this area makes recommending one teaching method or assessment measure over another difficult. Regardless of teaching method, it appears that most learning activities where interprofessional teams interact result in positive changes in student perceptions and attitudes towards IPE and practice. As health education programs seek to incorporate more interprofessional activities into their respective programs, it is important to review methods and measures that would best fit their individual program. This review highlights the importance of standardising the reporting of methods and outcomes for those who wish to incorporate the studied methods into their curricula.
Havyer, Rachel D A; Wingo, Majken T; Comfere, Nneka I; Nelson, Darlene R; Halvorsen, Andrew J; McDonald, Furman S; Reed, Darcy A
Valid teamwork assessment is imperative to determine physician competency and optimize patient outcomes. We systematically reviewed published instruments assessing teamwork in undergraduate, graduate, and continuing medical education in general internal medicine and all medical subspecialties. We searched MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-process, CINAHL and PsycINFO from January 1979 through October 2012, references of included articles, and abstracts from four professional meetings. Two content experts were queried for additional studies. Included studies described quantitative tools measuring teamwork among medical students, residents, fellows, and practicing physicians on single or multi-professional (interprofessional) teams. Instrument validity and study quality were extracted using established frameworks with existing validity evidence. Two authors independently abstracted 30 % of articles and agreement was calculated. Of 12,922 citations, 178 articles describing 73 unique teamwork assessment tools met inclusion criteria. Interrater agreement was intraclass correlation coefficient 0.73 (95 % CI 0.63-0.81). Studies involved practicing physicians (142, 80 %), residents/fellows (70, 39 %), and medical students (11, 6 %). The majority (152, 85 %) assessed interprofessional teams. Studies were conducted in inpatient (77, 43 %), outpatient (42, 24 %), simulation (37, 21 %), and classroom (13, 7 %) settings. Validity evidence for the 73 tools included content (54, 74 %), internal structure (51, 70 %), relationships to other variables (25, 34 %), and response process (12, 16 %). Attitudes and opinions were the most frequently assessed outcomes. Relationships between teamwork scores and patient outcomes were directly examined for 13 (18 %) of tools. Scores from the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire and Team Climate Inventory have substantial validity evidence and have been associated with improved patient outcomes. Review is limited to quantitative assessments of teamwork in internal
Alverson, Dale C; Saiki, Stanley M; Jacobs, Joshua; Saland, Linda; Keep, Marcus F; Norenberg, Jeffrey; Baker, Rex; Nakatsu, Curtis; Kalishman, Summers; Lindberg, Marlene; Wax, Diane; Mowafi, Moad; Summers, Kenneth L; Holten, James R; Greenfield, John A; Aalseth, Edward; Nickles, David; Sherstyuk, Andrei; Haines, Karen; Caudell, Thomas P
between Western Australia and UNM. We successfully demonstrated the ability to fully immerse participants in a distributed virtual environment independent of distance for collaborative team interaction in medical simulation designed for education and training. The ability to make mistakes in a safe environment is well received by students and has a positive impact on their understanding, as well as memory of the principles involved in correcting those mistakes. Bringing people together as virtual teams for interactive experiential learning and collaborative training, independent of distance, provides a platform for distributed "just-in-time" training, performance assessment and credentialing. Further validation is necessary to determine the potential value of the distributed VRE in knowledge transfer, improved future performance and should entail training participants to competence in using these tools.
Sahar Mohamadi; Sayedeh Maryam Hosseiny; Sayedeh Sana Hosseiny
Introduction: Today, due to the speed and amount of science production in the world, knowledge processing and learning is changing. In this regard, independent learning using new instructional methods interactively with a specific goal in order to dominate the content and assignments with self-regulation strategies is of great importance. This study is aimed to evaluate interactive e-learning role on medical students’ learning in psychology courses. Methods: This study is a experimental r...
West, Michael A
Updated to reflect the latest research evidence, the third edition of Effective Teamwork provides business managers with the necessary guidance and tools to build and maintain effective teamwork strategies. A new edition of a bestselling book on teamwork from an acknowledged leader in the fieldOffers a unique integration of rigorous research with practical guidance to develop effective leadership teamsFeatures new chapters on virtual teams and top management teams, plus contemporary themes of ethics and valuesUtilizes research based on positive psychology techniques
Walsh, M; Walsh, A
In this report of a study using the Team Climate Inventory (TCI) tool, the researchers explain how the tool can be used in preparation for creating a practice development unit (PDU). The TCI provides a picture of the level and quality of teamwork in a unit using a series of Likert scales. The ward in this study was found to lack the necessary level of teamwork for successful PDU development and the researchers show how this information shaped trust plans. They recommend that units contemplating PDU accreditation should assess their level of teamwork prior to proceeding with bids.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. In the implementation section the data from the survey of 250 workers is employed in call centers in Erzurum by using relevant statistical methods. Consequently, it is found that there is a positive and significant relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. Thus, the hypothesis of the study is supported as it was expected. Besides, it is found that there are positive and significant relationships between communication, openness to innovation, participation-trust in teamwork and organizational trust, trust in management, trust in co-workers, and trust in workplace.
With the widespread use of mobile phones and portable devices it is inevitable to think of Mobile Assisted Language Learning as a means of independent learning in Higher Education. Nowadays many learners are keen to explore the wide variety of applications available in their portable and always readily available mobile phones and tablets. The fact…
Nicholas Roy Waytowich
Full Text Available Recent advances in signal processing and machine learning techniques have enabled the application of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI technologies to fields such as medicine, industry and recreation. However, BCIs still suffer from the requirement of frequent calibration sessions due to the intra- and inter- individual variability of brain-signals, which makes calibration suppression through transfer learning an area of increasing interest for the development of practical BCI systems. In this paper, we present an unsupervised transfer method (spectral transfer using information geometry, STIG, which ranks and combines unlabeled predictions from an ensemble of information geometry classifiers built on data from individual training subjects. The STIG method is validated in both offline and real-time feedback analysis during a rapid serial visual presentation task (RSVP. For detection of single-trial, event-related potentials (ERPs, the proposed method can significantly outperform existing calibration-free techniques as well as outperform traditional within-subject calibration techniques when limited data is available. This method demonstrates that unsupervised transfer learning for single-trial detection in ERP-based BCIs can be achieved without the requirement of costly training data, representing a step-forward in the overall goal of achieving a practical user-independent BCI system.
Waytowich, Nicholas R; Lawhern, Vernon J; Bohannon, Addison W; Ball, Kenneth R; Lance, Brent J
Recent advances in signal processing and machine learning techniques have enabled the application of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technologies to fields such as medicine, industry, and recreation; however, BCIs still suffer from the requirement of frequent calibration sessions due to the intra- and inter-individual variability of brain-signals, which makes calibration suppression through transfer learning an area of increasing interest for the development of practical BCI systems. In this paper, we present an unsupervised transfer method (spectral transfer using information geometry, STIG), which ranks and combines unlabeled predictions from an ensemble of information geometry classifiers built on data from individual training subjects. The STIG method is validated in both off-line and real-time feedback analysis during a rapid serial visual presentation task (RSVP). For detection of single-trial, event-related potentials (ERPs), the proposed method can significantly outperform existing calibration-free techniques as well as outperform traditional within-subject calibration techniques when limited data is available. This method demonstrates that unsupervised transfer learning for single-trial detection in ERP-based BCIs can be achieved without the requirement of costly training data, representing a step-forward in the overall goal of achieving a practical user-independent BCI system.
Djukic, Maja; Fulmer, Terry; Adams, Jennifer G; Lee, Sabrina; Triola, Marc M
Interprofessional education is a critical precursor to effective teamwork and the collaboration of health care professionals in clinical settings. Numerous barriers have been identified that preclude scalable and sustainable interprofessional education (IPE) efforts. This article describes NYU3T: Teaching, Technology, Teamwork, a model that uses novel technologies such as Web-based learning, virtual patients, and high-fidelity simulation to overcome some of the common barriers and drive implementation of evidence-based teamwork curricula. It outlines the program's curricular components, implementation strategy, evaluation methods, and lessons learned from the first year of delivery and describes implications for future large-scale IPE initiatives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Makary, Martin A; Sexton, J Bryan; Freischlag, Julie A; Holzmueller, Christine G; Millman, E Anne; Rowen, Lisa; Pronovost, Peter J
Teamwork is an important component of patient safety. In fact, communication errors are the most common cause of sentinel events and wrong-site operations in the US. Although efforts to improve patient safety through improving teamwork are growing, there is no validated tool to scientifically measure teamwork in the surgical setting. Operating room personnel in 60 hospitals were surveyed using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. Surgeons, anesthesiologists, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and operating room nurses rated their own peers and each other using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = very low, 5 = very high). Overall response rate was 77.1% (2,135 of 2,769). Ratings of teamwork differed substantially by operating room caregiver type, with the greatest differences in ratings shown by physicians: surgeons (F[4, 2058] = 41.73, p teamwork exist in the operating room, with physicians rating the teamwork of others as good, but at the same time, nurses perceive teamwork as mediocre. Given the importance of communication and collaboration in patient safety, health care organizations should measure teamwork using a scientifically valid method. The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire can be used to measure teamwork, identify disconnects between or within disciplines, and evaluate interventions aimed at improving patient safety.
Chayati, Ichda; Purwanti, Sutriyati; Nugraheni, Mutiara
The objectives of the study were: 1) to identify the profile of the Hospitality Engineering Education students’ teamwork skills, 2) to identify the profile of the Hospitality Engineering Students’ teamwork skills, 3) to describe the general overview of the students’ teamwork skills, 4) to identify the group of Bachelor program with the highest and the lowest teamwork skills, 5) to identify the group of the Associate program with the highest and the lowest teamwork skills. This study was a des...
McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Hamblin, Lydia; Luborsky, Mark; Upfal, Mark; Arnetz, Judith
Although many studies link teamwork in health care settings to patient safety, evidence linking teamwork to hospital worker safety is lacking. This study addresses this gap by providing evidence linking teamwork perceptions in hospital workers to worker injuries, and further, finds a linkage between manager commitment to safety and teamwork. Organizational records of worker injuries and survey responses regarding management commitment to safety and teamwork from 446 hospital workers within 42...
Describes a teamwork approach in which business communications students handwrite letters to be prepared by typewriting students; the letters are then revised and graded by the respective teachers. Both sets of students benefit from this simulated office experience. (SK)
Sorensen, Asta; Poehlman, Jon; Bollenbacher, John; Riggan, Scott; Davis, Stan; Miller, Kristi; Ivester, Thomas; Kahwati, Leila
In situ simulations allow healthcare teams to practice teamwork and communication as well as clinical management skills in a team's usual work setting with typically available resources and equipment. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate how to plan and conduct in situ simulation training sessions, with particular emphasis on how such training can be used to improve communication and teamwork. The video features an in situ simulation conducted at a labour and delivery unit in response to postpartum hemorrhage. PMID:26294962
M. W. Syahroni
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the influence of digimon based scientific approach on independence and learning autcomes of learners. This research has designed as quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group design. Subjects of this reaserch is learners at 8 E and 8 F on SMP N 1 Magelang in year 2014/2015. The results showed that there was a strong perfect linear relationship between digimon with independent learning or learning outcomes of learners. The result of independent assessment on the experiment group was 85,47 while the result of independent assessment on the control group was 69,94. Digimon based scientific approach are influential 51.93% to the independence of learners, while the rest influenced by other factors. Digimon give influence 39.69% on learning outcomes of learners, while the rest influenced by other factors.This relation is empharized through an independent test (t-test which shows dependent bridge between digimon with independence toward concept understanding of learners in experiment group.
Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Basarovska, Vera; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sasho; Angeleska, Nada; Atanasovska, Aneta
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined teamwork as mediator and moderator of work demands-burnout and job engagement-job satisfaction relationships in healthcare workers (HCWs) in South-East Europe. AIM: To assess mediation and moderation effect of teamwork on the relationship between independent (work demands or job engagement) and dependent (burnout or job satisfaction) variables. METHODS: Work demands, burnout, job engagement, and job satisfaction were measured with Hospital Experienc...
Van Driel, Mieke L.; McGuire, Treasure M.; Stark, Richard; Lazure, Patrice; Garcia, Tina; Sullivan, Lisa
ABSTRACT The importance of interprofessional education (IPE) in continuing medical education and professional development has long been recognised by health organisations and academic societies, benefiting not only patient outcomes and interprofessional relationships but also overall health systems and workforce shortage. We report on the outcomes of an Australian IPE activity on medication-overuse headache (MOH) with general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists as learners. The design of the activity, which followed the predisposing–enabling–reinforcing instructional framework by Green and Kreuter, aimed to: (1) improve knowledge and foster a willingness in GPs and pharmacists to work collaboratively to enhance the prevention, diagnosis and management of MOH; and (2) address their educational gap by demonstrating the utility of a blended learning IPE strategy on MOH. Integrated into the activity was an assessment of its effectiveness and impact to instil change in the participants’ knowledge of MOH, attitude and willingness to treat, and clinical practice behaviours of GPs and pharmacists to work together. The learners gained knowledge and confidence in diagnosing and managing MOH and in their ability to educate patients. The IPE approach suited the activity and was valued by the participating GPs and pharmacists, who seldom experience such learning formats. However, for educational providers in Australia, developing and deploying an independent medical education (IME) programme can be challenging. Providers of IMEs need to be aware of the potential pitfalls when competing with pharmaceutical-company-sponsored and delivered programmes. PMID:29644141
Jäncke, Lutz; Alahmadi, Nsreen
In this study, the neurophysiological underpinnings of learning disabilities (LD) in children are examined using resting state EEG. We were particularly interested in the neurophysiological differences between children with learning disabilities not otherwise specified (LD-NOS), learning disabilities with verbal disabilities (LD-Verbal), and healthy control (HC) children. We applied 2 different approaches to examine the differences between the different groups. First, we calculated theta/beta and theta/alpha ratios in order to quantify the relationship between slow and fast EEG oscillations. Second, we used a recently developed method for analyzing spectral EEG, namely the group independent component analysis (gICA) model. Using these measures, we identified substantial differences between LD and HC children and between LD-NOS and LD-Verbal children in terms of their spectral EEG profiles. We obtained the following findings: (a) theta/beta and theta/alpha ratios were substantially larger in LD than in HC children, with no difference between LD-NOS and LD-Verbal children; (b) there was substantial slowing of EEG oscillations, especially for gICs located in frontal scalp positions, with LD-NOS children demonstrating the strongest slowing; (c) the estimated intracortical sources of these gICs were mostly located in brain areas involved in the control of executive functions, attention, planning, and language; and (d) the LD-Verbal children demonstrated substantial differences in EEG oscillations compared with LD-NOS children, and these differences were localized in language-related brain areas. The general pattern of atypical neurophysiological activation found in LD children suggests that they suffer from neurophysiological dysfunction in brain areas involved with the control of attention, executive functions, planning, and language functions. LD-Verbal children also demonstrate atypical activation, especially in language-related brain areas. These atypical
French, Kimberly A.; Kottke, Janet L.
Multilevel modeling is used to examine the impact of teamwork interest and group extraversion on group satisfaction. Participants included 206 undergraduates in 65 groups who were surveyed at the beginning and end of a requisite term-length group project for an upper-division university course. We hypothesized that teamwork interest and both…
Britton, Emily; Simper, Natalie; Leger, Andrew; Stephenson, Jenn
Effective teamwork skills are essential for success in an increasingly team-based workplace. However, research suggests that there is often confusion concerning how teamwork is measured and assessed, making it difficult to develop these skills in undergraduate curricula. The goal of the present study was to develop a sustainable tool for assessing…
Morphet, Julia; Hood, Kerry; Cant, Robyn; Baulch, Julie; Gilbee, Alana; Sandry, Kate
The establishment of interprofessional teamwork training in the preprofessional health care curriculum is a major challenge for teaching faculties. Interprofessional clinical placements offer an opportunity for teamwork education, as students in various professions can work and learn together. In this sequential, mixed-method study, focus group and survey techniques were used to evaluate students' educational experiences after 2-week ward-based interprofessional clinical placements. Forty-five senior nursing, medicine, and other health care students cared for patients in hospital wards under professional supervision, with nursing-medicine student "teams" leading care. Thirty-six students attended nine exit focus groups. Five central themes that emerged about training were student autonomy and workload, understanding of other professional roles, communication and shared knowledge, interprofessional teamwork/collaboration, and the "inner circle", or being part of the unit team. The learning environment was described as positive. In a postplacement satisfaction survey (n=38), students likewise rated the educational experience highly. In practicing teamwork and collaboration, students were able to rehearse their future professional role. We suggest that interprofessional clinical placements be regarded as an essential learning experience for senior preprofessional students. More work is needed to fully understand the effect of this interactive program on students' clinical learning and preparation for practice.
Head, Barbara A; Furman, Christian Davis; Lally, Andrew M; Leake, Kimberly; Pfeifer, Mark
Interprofessional Education (IPE) is an important component of medical education. Rotations with palliative care interdisciplinary teams (IDTs) provide an optimal environment for IPE and teaching teamwork skills. Our objective was to assess the learning of senior medical students during a palliative care rotation. A constant comparison method based on grounded theory was used in this qualitative study. Senior medical students completed a semi-structured reflective writing exercise after a required one-week palliative care clerkship. Sixty randomly selected reflective writings were analyzed. The reflective writings were analyzed to evaluate the student's experiences. Dominant themes identified were related to teams and teamwork. Eight specific themes were identified: value of IDT for team members; value of IDT for patient/family; importance of each team member; reliance on other team members; roles of team members; how teams work; team communication; and interdisciplinary assessment and care planning. Students described exposure to novel experiences and planned to incorporate newly learned behaviors in their future practice. By participating in palliative care IDTs, medical students consistently learned about teamwork within healthcare. Additionally, they learned the importance of such teamwork to patients and the team itself. Rotations with palliative care IDTs have a significant role to play in IPE and preparing medical students to practice on teams.
Petty, Gayle M; Lingham, Tony
The importance of health professionals working in teams was first acknowledged by the Institute of Medicine more than 15 years ago. Since then, teaching students to function in teams continues to present challenges in nursing education. This article presents an innovative process, using faculty as coaches in the classroom, to enhance student learning through experiential teamwork.
Dayan, M.; Benedetto, Di A.C.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the quality of interactions among new product development team members, wherein functional diversity, team stability, and transactive memory system are antecedents of teamwork quality. Three measures of outcomes are used (team learning, speed to
Full Text Available Julia Morphet,1 Kerry Hood,2 Robyn Cant,2 Julie Baulch,3 Alana Gilbee,3 Kate Sandry4 1School of Nursing and Midwifery, Monash University, Frankston, Victoria, Australia; 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; 3Southern Clinical School, Monash University, Monash Health, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; 4Dandenong Emergency Department, Monash Health, David St, Dandenong, Victoria, Australia Abstract: The establishment of interprofessional teamwork training in the preprofessional health care curriculum is a major challenge for teaching faculties. Interprofessional clinical placements offer an opportunity for teamwork education, as students in various professions can work and learn together. In this sequential, mixed-method study, focus group and survey techniques were used to evaluate students' educational experiences after 2-week ward-based interprofessional clinical placements. Forty-five senior nursing, medicine, and other health care students cared for patients in hospital wards under professional supervision, with nursing-medicine student "teams" leading care. Thirty-six students attended nine exit focus groups. Five central themes that emerged about training were student autonomy and workload, understanding of other professional roles, communication and shared knowledge, interprofessional teamwork/collaboration, and the "inner circle", or being part of the unit team. The learning environment was described as positive. In a postplacement satisfaction survey (n=38, students likewise rated the educational experience highly. In practicing teamwork and collaboration, students were able to rehearse their future professional role. We suggest that interprofessional clinical placements be regarded as an essential learning experience for senior preprofessional students. More work is needed to fully understand the effect of this interactive program on students' clinical learning and preparation for practice
Full Text Available With the widespread use of mobile phones and portable devices it is inevitable to think of Mobile Assisted Language Learning as a means of independent learning in Higher Education. Nowadays many learners are keen to explore the wide variety of applications available in their portable and always readily available mobile phones and tablets. The fact that they are keen to take control of their learning and autonomy is thought to lead to greater motivation and engagement, and the link with games-based learning suggests that the fun factor involved should not be overseen. This paper focuses on the use of mobile applications for independent language learning in higher education. It investigates how learners use mobile apps in line with their classes to enhance their learning experience. We base our analysis on a survey carried out in autumn 2013 in which 286 credited and non-credited language students from various levels of proficiency at The University of Manchester express their perceptions on the advantages and disadvantages of the use of mobile applications for independent language learning, together with examples of useful apps and suggestions of how these could be integrated in the language class.
This study aims to see the improvement of student learning outcomes by independent learning using computer-based learning media in the course of STBM (Teaching and Learning Strategy) Chemistry. Population in this research all student of class of 2014 which take subject STBM Chemistry as many as 4 class. While the sample is taken by purposive as many as 2 classes, each 32 students, as control class and expriment class. The instrument used is the test of learning outcomes in the form of multiple choice with the number of questions as many as 20 questions that have been declared valid, and reliable. Data analysis techniques used one-sided t test and improved learning outcomes using a normalized gain test. Based on the learning result data, the average of normalized gain values for the experimental class is 0,530 and for the control class is 0,224. The result of the experimental student learning result is 53% and the control class is 22,4%. Hypothesis testing results obtained t count> ttable is 9.02> 1.6723 at the level of significance α = 0.05 and db = 58. This means that the acceptance of Ha is the use of computer-based learning media (CAI Computer) can improve student learning outcomes in the course Learning Teaching Strategy (STBM) Chemistry academic year 2017/2018.
Hastie, Carolyn Ruth
to develop an effective model to enable educators to teach, develop and assess the development of midwifery students' teamwork skills DESIGN: an action research project involving participant interviews and academic feedback. a regional university PARTICIPANTS: midwifery students (n = 21) and new graduate midwives (n = 20) INTERVENTIONS: a whole of course program using a rubric, with five teamwork domains and behavioural descriptors, to provide a framework for teaching and assessment. Students self and peer assess. Lectures, tutorials and eight different groupwork assignments of increasing difficulty, spread over the three years of the undergraduate degree are incorporated into the TeamUP model. the assignments provide students with the opportunity to practice and develop their teamwork skills in a safe, supported environment. the social, emotional and practical behaviours required for effective teamwork can be taught and developed in undergraduate health students. students require a clear overview of the TeamUP model at the beginning of the degree. They need to be informed of the skills and behaviours that the TeamUP model is designed to help develop and why they are important. The success of the model depends upon the educator's commitment to supporting students to learn teamwork skills. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Dijk-de Vries, Anneke; van Dongen, Jerôme Jean Jacques; van Bokhoven, Marloes Amantia
The significance of effective interprofessional teamwork to improve the quality of care has been widely recognised. Effective interprofessional teamwork calls on good collaboration between professionals and patients, coordination between professionals, and the development of teamwork over time. Effective development of teams also requires support from the wider organisational context. In a Dutch village, healthcare professionals work closely together, and mutual consultations as well as interprofessional meetings take place on a regular basis. The network was created as a precondition for sustainable interprofessional teamwork in elderly care. However, several external barriers were experienced regarding the supportive structure and cooperative attitude of the healthcare insurer and municipality. The aim of the article is to examine these experience-based issues regarding internal organisation, perspective, and definition of effective teamwork. Complicating factors refer to finding the right key figures, and the different perspectives on team development and team effectiveness. Our conclusion is that the organisation of healthcare insurance companies needs to implement fundamental changes to facilitate an interprofessional care approach. Furthermore, municipalities should work on their vision of the needs and benefits of a fruitful collaboration with interprofessional healthcare teams. The challenge for healthcare teams is to learn to speak the language of external partners. To support the development of interprofessional teams, external parties need to recognise and trust in a shared aim to provide quality of care in an efficient and effective way.
Background Little is known about the ways in which nursing and medical students perceive and understand their roles in interprofessional teamwork. A 2010 report by the World Health Organization highlights the importance of students’ understanding of teamwork in healthcare, and their ability to be effective team players. This study aims at describing nursing and medical students’ perceptions of interprofessional teamwork, focusing on experiences and recommendations that can be used to guide future educational efforts. Methods The study uses a qualitative research design. Data were collected from four focus group interviews: two homogenous groups (one with medical students, one with nursing students) and two mixed groups (medical and nursing students). Results The results show that traditional patterns of professional role perception still prevail and strongly influence students’ professional attitudes about taking responsibility and sharing responsibility across disciplinary and professional boundaries. It was found that many students had experienced group cultures detrimental to team work. Focusing on clinical training, the study found a substantial variation in perception with regard to the different arenas for interprofessional teamwork, ranging from arenas with collaborative learning to arenas characterized by distrust, confrontation, disrespect and hierarchical structure. Conclusions This study underlines the importance of a stronger focus on interprofessional teamwork in health care education, particularly in clinical training. The study results suggest that the daily rounds and pre-visit “huddles,” or alternatively psychiatric wards, offer arenas suitable for interprofessional training, in keeping with the students’ assessments and criteria proposed in previous studies. PMID:25124090
Aase, Ingunn; Hansen, Britt Sæthre; Aase, Karina
Little is known about the ways in which nursing and medical students perceive and understand their roles in interprofessional teamwork. A 2010 report by the World Health Organization highlights the importance of students' understanding of teamwork in healthcare, and their ability to be effective team players. This study aims at describing nursing and medical students' perceptions of interprofessional teamwork, focusing on experiences and recommendations that can be used to guide future educational efforts. The study uses a qualitative research design. Data were collected from four focus group interviews: two homogenous groups (one with medical students, one with nursing students) and two mixed groups (medical and nursing students). The results show that traditional patterns of professional role perception still prevail and strongly influence students' professional attitudes about taking responsibility and sharing responsibility across disciplinary and professional boundaries. It was found that many students had experienced group cultures detrimental to team work. Focusing on clinical training, the study found a substantial variation in perception with regard to the different arenas for interprofessional teamwork, ranging from arenas with collaborative learning to arenas characterized by distrust, confrontation, disrespect and hierarchical structure. This study underlines the importance of a stronger focus on interprofessional teamwork in health care education, particularly in clinical training. The study results suggest that the daily rounds and pre-visit "huddles," or alternatively psychiatric wards, offer arenas suitable for interprofessional training, in keeping with the students' assessments and criteria proposed in previous studies.
Khanna, Niharika; Shaya, Fadia T; Gaitonde, Priyanka; Abiamiri, Andrea; Steffen, Ben; Sharp, David
Each of the participating patient-centered medical home (PCMH) received coaching and participated in learning collaborative for improving teamwork. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of trainings on patient-centered teamwork. The Teamwork Perception Questionnaire (TPQ) was administered once in spring 2014 and then in fall 2015. The TPQ consists of 35 questions across 5 domains: mutual support, situation monitoring, communication, team structure, and leadership. Based on our objective we compared the frequencies of strongly agree/agree by domain. The difference was tested using chi-square test. We compared the scores on each domain (strongly agree/agree = 1; maximum score = 7) via Wilcoxon rank sum test. The response rate for this survey was n = 29 (80.6%) in spring 2014, and n = 31 (86.1%) in fall 2015. We found that the practice members significantly ( P safety.
Matson, Jack E.
The Spacelab Mission Independent Training Program provides an overview of payload operations. Most of the training material is currently presented in workbook form with some lecture sessions to supplement selected topics. The goal of this project was to develop a prototype interactive learning system for one of the Mission Independent Training topics to demonstrate how the learning process can be improved by incorporating multi-media technology into an interactive system. This report documents the development process and some of the problems encountered during the analysis, design, and production phases of this system.
Bahar, Amir S; Shapiro, Matthew L
The neural mechanisms that integrate new episodes with established memories are unknown. When rats explore an environment, CA1 cells fire in place fields that indicate locations. In goal-directed spatial memory tasks, some place fields differentiate behavioral histories ("journey-dependent" place fields) while others do not ("journey-independent" place fields). To investigate how these signals inform learning and memory for new and familiar episodes, we recorded CA1 and CA3 activity in rats trained to perform a "standard" spatial memory task in a plus maze and in two new task variants. A "switch" task exchanged the start and goal locations in the same environment; an "altered environment" task contained unfamiliar local and distal cues. In the switch task, performance was mildly impaired, new firing maps were stable, but the proportion and stability of journey-dependent place fields declined. In the altered environment, overall performance was strongly impaired, new firing maps were unstable, and stable proportions of journey-dependent place fields were maintained. In both tasks, memory errors were accompanied by a decline in journey codes. The different dynamics of place and journey coding suggest that they reflect separate mechanisms and contribute to distinct memory computations. Stable place fields may represent familiar relationships among environmental features that are required for consistent memory performance. Journey-dependent activity may correspond with goal-directed behavioral sequences that reflect expectancies that generalize across environments. The complementary signals could help link current events with established memories, so that familiarity with either a behavioral strategy or an environment can inform goal-directed learning.
Logan, Todd R; Michael Malone, D
The purpose of this study was to explore the association between nurses' perceptions and attitudes of teamwork and workplace bullying. A total of 128 nurses in two hospitals in the northeast USA completed three surveys: Attitudes about teamwork survey, Team characteristics survey, and Negative intention questionnaire. A majority of nurses believed that teamwork was an important vehicle for providing quality patient care. Two thirds of the nurses reported the presence of important variables such as leadership, trust and communication on their teams. Despite these positive perceptions, a third of the nurses reported being bullied and half observed others being bullied. A number of effective team skills were associated with fewer occurrences of workplace bullying. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard
The emergence of virtual teamwork represents a dynamic response to globalization, the growth of communication technologies and dismantling of industrial based organizational hierarchies. These developments pose new challenges as the completion of the distributed tasks must be integrated across th...... the barriers of cultural differences, and with fewer face-to-face clues, Virtual teamwork involves demands regarding communication, trust and knowledge. The implications for future work design are immense, and still open for clarification and discussion.......The emergence of virtual teamwork represents a dynamic response to globalization, the growth of communication technologies and dismantling of industrial based organizational hierarchies. These developments pose new challenges as the completion of the distributed tasks must be integrated across...
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. In the implementation section the data from the survey of 250 workers is employed in call centers in Erzurum by using relevant statistical methods. Consequently, it is found that there is a positive and significant relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. Thus, the hypothesis of the study is supported as it was expected. Besides, it is found that there are positive and significant relationships between communication, openness to innovation, participation-trust in teamwork and organizational trust, trust in management, trust in co-workers, and trust in workplace.
Vîrgă, D.; Curseu, P.L.; Maricuţoiu, L.; Sava, S.A.; Macsinga, I.; Măgurean, S.
This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models). Data from 216 students, nested
McGonagle, Alyssa K; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Hamblin, Lydia; Luborsky, Mark; Upfal, Mark; Arnetz, Judith
Although many studies link teamwork in health care settings to patient safety, evidence linking teamwork to hospital worker safety is lacking. This study addresses this gap by providing evidence linking teamwork perceptions in hospital workers to worker injuries, and further, finds a linkage between manager commitment to safety and teamwork. Organizational records of worker injuries and survey responses regarding management commitment to safety and teamwork from 446 hospital workers within 42 work units in a multi-site hospital system were examined. Results underscored the particular importance of teamwork on worker injuries as well as the importance of management commitment to safety as relating to teamwork. To improve worker safety, organizational leaders and unit managers should work to maintain environments wherein teamwork can thrive.
Jee-In Hwang, PhD
Conclusions: Teamwork was rated as moderate and was positively associated with nurses' error reporting performance. Hospital executives and nurse managers should make substantial efforts to enhance teamwork, which will contribute to encouraging the reporting of errors and improving patient safety.
Teamwork requires co-operation, co-ordination and communication between members of a team to achieve desired outcomes. In industries with a high degree of risk, such as health care, effective teamwork has been shown to achieve team goals successfully and efficiently, with fewer errors. This article introduces behaviours that support communication, co-operation and co-ordination in teams. The central role of communication in enabling co-operation and co-ordination is explored. A human factors perspective is used to examine tools to improve communication and identify barriers to effective team communication in health care.
Ajeigbe, David Oladipo
Background: Teamwork gained momentum in the 1980s. Research studies in the military and aviation demonstrated that teamwork is essential to safety. There were limited studies dealing with the practice of teamwork between nurses and physicians in the Emergence Departments (EDs). Aims: Descriptive aim of the study was to examine differences between staff in the Interventional and Control Groups on perception of staff teamwork. The exploratory aim was to examine staff perception of job satisfac...
Bjørnsrud, Halvor; Engh, Knut Roar
This article has as its main focus the contextual factors connected with teachers' teamwork. Firstly, it deals with the question of how to create reflections among teachers on the topic of teamwork. Their written answers function as empirical data for researchers and also as contributions to the further professional development of teamwork. Secondly, the authors discuss the content of teamwork in the sense of how teachers as a community might support the individual teacher's work with both ad...
Jee-In Hwang, PhD; Jeonghoon Ahn, PhD
Purpose: To examine levels of teamwork and its relationships with clinical error reporting among Korean hospital nurses. Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional survey design. We distributed a questionnaire to 674 nurses in two teaching hospitals in Korea. The questionnaire included items on teamwork and the reporting of clinical errors. We measured teamwork using the Teamwork Perceptions Questionnaire, which has five subscales including team structure, leadership, situation monitori...
This research investigated a comparison between the effect of cooperative learning and lecture teaching on Comprehensive English classes in a Chinese Independent College. An empirical study for two semesters was carried out in the forms of pretest, posttest, questionnaire and interviews. While control class was taught in the conventional way,…
Lower, Leeann M.; Newman, Tarkington J.; Anderson-Butcher, Dawn
Purpose: This study examines the psychometric properties of the Teamwork Scale for Youth, an assessment designed to measure youths' perceptions of their teamwork competency. Methods: The Teamwork Scale for Youth was administered to a sample of 460 youths. Confirmatory factor analyses examined the factor structure and measurement invariance of the…
Kliegl, Julie A.; Weaver, Kari D.
Business educators recognize the importance of developing teamwork as an employability skill. However, current methods used to teach teamwork have been met with mixed results from both students and educators. This article integrates research on the importance of teamwork, team development processes, and coteaching through examining a case study…
Bjornsrud, Halvor; Engh, Roar
This article has as its main focus the contextual factors connected with teachers' teamwork. Firstly, it deals with the question of how to create reflections among teachers on the topic of teamwork. Their written answers function as empirical data for researchers and also as contributions to the further professional development of teamwork.…
Fyle, Clifford Omodele
The purpose of this study was to examine whether field-dependent/independent style awareness affects learning outcomes and learning strategies used in a hypermedia instructional module. Field-dependent/independent style was measured using the Global Embedded Figures Test. Style awareness meant that students were provided with information and explanations about their individual cognitive styles and the learning strategies that accommodate those styles. The study entailed examining students' achievement in a multiple-choice test and performance in a design task, and also their navigation patterns as they studied a science-oriented Webquest. The sample consisted of 149 eighth-grade students in 10 sections of a science class taught by two teachers in a public middle school. A two-group posttest-only design on one factor (style awareness) was used. Sixty-eight students in five sections of the class were assigned to the treatment group (field dependent/independent style awareness) while the other 81 students in five sections were assigned to the control group (no field dependent/independent style awareness). The study took place over a period of 6 days. On the first day, students in the treatment group were first tested and debriefed on their individual styles. Next, all students in both the treatment and control groups studied the hypermedia instructional module (Webquest) over a period of two days. On the fourth and fifth days students worked on the performance tasks, and on the sixth day students took the multiple-choice test and students in the control group were tested and debriefed on their individual styles. The findings indicate that style awareness significantly influenced the learning strategies of field-dependent students as they studied and carried out learning tasks in the Webquest. Field-dependent students with style awareness used hypertext links and navigated the menu sequentially a greater number of times than their counterparts with no style awareness
Mendo-Lázaro, Santiago; Polo-del-Río, María I.; Iglesias-Gallego, Damián; Felipe-Castaño, Elena; León-del-Barco, Benito
Cooperative, collaborative learning and other forms of group learning methods are increasingly used in classrooms. Knowing students’ attitudes toward teamwork has great value since they influence the students’ learning results as well as their social development. So it is necessary to have robust instruments to provide a better understanding of these attitudes and preferences concerning teamwork. Such instruments also help to identify the factors that promote positive or negative attitudes within the context of group activities. Using a sample of 750 first and second year university students studying a degree in Kindergarten, Primary and Social Education, an instrument measuring attitudes toward team learning has been developed. Two distinct factors were obtained through various factorial analyses and structural equations: Academic attitudes and Social and emotional attitudes. Our study reveals that the instrument is both valid and reliable. Its application is both simple and fast and it has important implications for planning teaching and learning activities that contribute to an improvement in attitudes as well as the practice of teaching in the context of learning through teamwork. PMID:28676775
Full Text Available Cooperative, collaborative learning and other forms of group learning methods are increasingly used in classrooms. Knowing students’ attitudes toward teamwork has great value since they influence the students’ learning results as well as their social development. So it is necessary to have robust instruments to provide a better understanding of these attitudes and preferences concerning teamwork. Such instruments also help to identify the factors that promote positive or negative attitudes within the context of group activities. Using a sample of 750 first and second year university students studying a degree in Kindergarten, Primary and Social Education, an instrument measuring attitudes toward team learning has been developed. Two distinct factors were obtained through various factorial analyses and structural equations: Academic attitudes and Social and emotional attitudes. Our study reveals that the instrument is both valid and reliable. Its application is both simple and fast and it has important implications for planning teaching and learning activities that contribute to an improvement in attitudes as well as the practice of teaching in the context of learning through teamwork.
Profit, Jochen; Sharek, Paul J; Kan, Peiyi; Rigdon, Joseph; Desai, Manisha; Nisbet, Courtney C; Tawfik, Daniel S; Thomas, Eric J; Lee, Henry C; Sexton, J Bryan
Background and Objective Teamwork may affect clinical care in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting. The objective of this study was to assess teamwork climate across NICUs and to test scale-level and item-level associations with health care-associated infection (HAI) rates in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Methods Cross-sectional study of the association between HAI rates, defined as any bacterial or fungal infection during the birth hospitalization, among 6,663 VLBW infants cared for in 44 NICUs between 2010 and 2012. NICU HAI rates were correlated with teamwork climate ratings obtained in 2011 from 2,073 of 3,294 eligible NICU health professionals (response rate 63%). The relation between HAI rates and NICU teamwork climate was assessed using logistic regression models including NICU as a random effect. Results Across NICUs, 36 to 100% (mean 66%) of respondents reported good teamwork. HAI rates were significantly and independently associated with teamwork climate (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.92, p = 0.005), such that the odds of an infant contracting a HAI decreased by 18% with each 10% rise in NICU respondents reporting good teamwork. Conclusion Improving teamwork may be an important element in infection control efforts. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
The purpose of this participatory action research study was to answer the following research question: How does online instructional design impact students' virtual teamwork performance? Through the lens of social constructivism, a qualitative, in-depth multi-case study design was utilized to conduct document analyses, observations, and student…
Hughes, Richard L.; Jones, Steven K.
Some form of team-oriented work is employed in most, if not all, organizations today. It would seem, then, that an important role for higher education should involve developing critical teamwork skills among students so as to prepare them for success in life. This very point was highlighted in a 2009 poll conducted on behalf of the Association of…
Barker, Dean M.; Rossi, Anthony
Background: Teamwork sits comfortably within the vocabularies of most physical education teachers. It is used to both describe and prescribe student behaviour in a variety of physical and sport-related activities. Yet while supporters of sport and PE have readily employed the term, remarkably few pedagogues have taken the time to consider what…
Sweigart, Linda I; Umoren, Rachel A; Scott, Patrician J; Carlton, Kay Hodson; Jones, James A; Truman, Barbara; Gossett, Evalyn J
The majority of the estimated 400,000 or more patient deaths per year in the United States are from preventable medical errors due to poor communication. Team training programs have been established to teach teamwork skills to health professions students. However, it is often challenging to provide this training at a physical site. A brief intervention using a virtual learning environment with TeamSTEPPS(®)-based scenarios is described. Using a pretest-posttest design, the effects on teamwork attitudes in 109 health professional students from two institutions and multiple disciplines were measured using the TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Attitudes questionnaire. Participants showed significant attitude changes in the categories of leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, and communication (p ⩽ .05), with significance in four of the six indicator attitudes in the communication section at the p ⩽ .001 level. These findings indicate the potential impact that virtual learning experiences may have on teamwork attitudes in learners across professions on multiple campuses. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available Teamwork is one of the most common educational strategies in Higher Education Institutions, documenting widely that cooperative learning has advantages in terms of individual performance, comprehensive knowledge, school performance and even in school adaptation. Even though it has its benefits, the general analysis concentrates on the product that is the result of teamwork, there is little systematic work about the process, that is, the way in which individual competences are intertwined to satisfy group criteria. A first step in this direction requires the specific identification of individual competence in each member of a team and to later observe how they are coordinated given a collective task. In this sense, a study was conducted with dyads of participants whom were identified as having compatible (same functional type or incompatible (different functional type which were exposed to a task that required the conjoint performance of both members of the dyad, the task could either correspond o not correspond with the competence primacy identified for such dyads members. Results are analyzed in terms of the correspondence between task complexity and competence primacy of dyad members. Conclusion are drawn as to the possible educational implications for work team organization.
Rosen, Michael A; Dietz, Aaron S; Yang, Ting; Priebe, Carey E; Pronovost, Peter J
There is a strong link between teamwork and patient safety. Emerging evidence supports the efficacy of teamwork improvement interventions. However, the availability of reliable, valid, and practical measurement tools and strategies is commonly cited as a barrier to long-term sustainment and spread of these teamwork interventions. This article describes the potential value of sensor-based technology as a methodology to measure and evaluate teamwork in healthcare. The article summarizes the teamwork literature within healthcare, including team improvement interventions and measurement. Current applications of sensor-based measurement of teamwork are reviewed to assess the feasibility of employing this approach in healthcare. The article concludes with a discussion highlighting current application needs and gaps and relevant analytical techniques to overcome the challenges to implementation. Compelling studies exist documenting the feasibility of capturing a broad array of team input, process, and output variables with sensor-based methods. Implications of this research are summarized in a framework for development of multi-method team performance measurement systems. Sensor-based measurement within healthcare can unobtrusively capture information related to social networks, conversational patterns, physical activity, and an array of other meaningful information without having to directly observe or periodically survey clinicians. However, trust and privacy concerns present challenges that need to be overcome through engagement of end users in healthcare. Initial evidence exists to support the feasibility of sensor-based measurement to drive feedback and learning across individual, team, unit, and organizational levels. Future research is needed to refine methods, technologies, theory, and analytical strategies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions
Passauer-Baierl, Stefanie; Baschnegger, Heiko; Bruns, Christiane; Weigl, Matthias
Effective teamwork is one of the essentials in conducting successful and safe surgical procedures in the operating theatre (OT). The present paper aims to provide a selective review of various approaches describing effective interdisciplinary teamwork in the OT. Furthermore, it covers observational methods to assess OT teamwork with particular focus on Germany. Our definition of successful surgical teamwork is based on an already established classification system considering five criteria for effective and safe OT teams: coordination, communication, cooperation, leadership, and team monitoring. Well-defined and reliable measures are necessary to examine the quality of OT teamwork. Those methods should entail the special characteristics of the OT team. They should include all phases of the surgical procedure and incorporate all the professions involved (surgeons, surgical nurses, and anaesthetic staff). We conclude that research into methods for the assessment of OTs in Germany needs to be undertaken as a prerequisite to investigating the relationship between OT teamwork and its effects on patient safety and surgical quality. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Suddick, Kitty M; De Souza, Lorraine H
This paper reports the second part of an exploratory study into occupational therapists' and physiotherapists' perceptions and experiences of teamwork in neurological rehabilitation: the factors that were thought to influence effective and ineffective teamwork, and the meaning behind effective and ineffective teamwork in neurological rehabilitation. The study was undertaken through semi-structured interviews of 10 therapists from three different neurological rehabilitation teams based in the United Kingdom, and used the critical incident technique. Through analysis of the data, several main themes emerged regarding the perceived critical happenings in effective and ineffective teamwork. These were: team events and characteristics, team members' characteristics, shared and collaborative working practices, communication, specific organizational structures, environmental, external, and patient and family-related factors. Effective and ineffective team-work was perceived to impact on a number of levels: having implications for the team, the patient, individual team members, and the neurological rehabilitation service. The study supported the perceived value of team work within neurological rehabilitation. It also indicated the extensive and variable factors that may influence the team-working process as well as the complex and diverse nature of the process.
Describes how technology helped one elementary teacher meet the needs and celebrate the strengths of all his students in a mixed-ability-grouped, student-centered classroom. Technology allowed the children many more choices for different kinds of learning and helped them develop their individual strengths. (SM)
Vilà Falgueras, Maite; Cruzate Muñoz, Carlota; Orfila Pernas, Francesc; Creixell Sureda, Joan; González López, María Pilar; Davins Miralles, Josep
To estimate the prevalence of burnout and the perception of teamwork in Primary Care teams from Barcelona. Multicenter cross-sectional. Primary Health Care Teams from Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut. All permanent employees or temporary professionals of all categories from 51 teams (N=2398). A total of 879 responses (36.7%) were obtained. The Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire, with 3 dimensions, was sent by emotional exhaustion (AE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (RP). Burnout is considered present when two or more dimensions scored high marks. Perception of teamwork and evaluation of leaders was evaluated using an ad hoc questionnaire. The prevalence of burnout was17.2% (two or more dimensions affected), and 46.2% had at least one of the three dimensions with a high level. A high level of AE was found in 38.2%, of DP in 23.8%, and 7.7% had low RP. Almost half (49.2%) believe that teamwork is encouraged in their workplace. Social workers overall, have a higher average of dimensions affected at a high level, followed by administrative personnel, dentists, doctors and nurses (p<0.001). Permanent staff have a greater degree of emotional exhaustion (p<0.002). Those who rated their leaders worst and least rated teamwork had more emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and higher level of burnout in general (p<0.001). The level of burnout among professionals is considerable, with differences existing between occupational categories. Teamwork and appreciating their leaders protect from burnout. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Mohammed Abdallh Otair
Full Text Available Attempting to deliver a monolithic mobile learning system is too inflexible in view of the heterogeneous mixture of hardware and services available and the desirability of facility blended approaches to learning delivery, and how to build learning materials to run on all platforms. This paper proposes a framework of mobile learning system using an intelligent method (IP-MLI . A fuzzy matching method is used to find suitable learning material design. It will provide a best matching for each specific platform type for each learner. The main contribution of the proposed method is to use software layer to insulate learning materials from device-specific features. Consequently, many versions of learning materials can be designed to work on many platform types.
Tawfik, Daniel S; Sexton, John Bryan; Adair, Kathryn C; Kaplan, Heather C; Profit, Jochen
Quality improvement in health care is an ongoing challenge. Consideration of the context of the health care system is of paramount importance. Staff resilience and teamwork climate are key aspects of context that drive quality. Teamwork climate is dynamic, with well-established tools available to improve teamwork for specific tasks or global applications. Similarly, burnout and resilience can be modified with interventions such as cultivating gratitude, positivity, and awe. A growing body of literature has shown that teamwork and burnout relate to quality of care, with improved teamwork and decreased burnout expected to produce improved patient quality and safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gettman, Matthew T; Pereira, Claudio W; Lipsky, Katja; Wilson, Torrence; Arnold, Jacqueline J; Leibovich, Bradley C; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Dong, Yue
Structured opportunities for learning communication, teamwork and laparoscopic principles are limited for urology residents. We evaluated and taught teamwork, communication and laparoscopic skills to urology residents in a simulated operating room. Scenarios related to laparoscopy (insufflator failure, carbon dioxide embolism) were developed using mannequins, urology residents and nurses. These scenarios were developed based on Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies and performed in a simulation center. Between the pretest scenario (insufflation failure) and the posttest scenario (carbon dioxide embolism) instruction was given on teamwork, communication and laparoscopic skills. A total of 19 urology residents participated in the training that involved participation in at least 2 scenarios. Performance was evaluated using validated teamwork instruments, questionnaires and videotape analysis. Significant improvement was noted on validated teamwork instruments between scenarios based on resident (pretest 24, posttest 27, p = 0.01) and expert (pretest 16, posttest 25, p = 0.008) evaluation. Increased teamwork and team performance were also noted between scenarios on videotape analysis with significant improvement for adherence to best practice (p = 0.01) and maintenance of positive rapport among team members (p = 0.02). Significant improvement in the setup of the laparoscopic procedure was observed (p = 0.01). Favorable face and content validity was noted for both scenarios. Teamwork, intraoperative communication and laparoscopic skills of urology residents improved during the high fidelity simulation course. Face and content validity of the individual sessions was favorable. In this study high fidelity simulation was effective for assessing and teaching Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies related to intraoperative communication, teamwork and laparoscopic skills.
Full Text Available This study investigated whether and to what extent an English Language Voluntary Intensive Independent Catch-up Study (ELVIICS, a Self-Access Language Learning (SALL programme, was effective in helping first-year Greek-Cypriot students fill in the gaps in their English language learning and come closer to the required language competence level of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR B1 level. It also examined students’ perceptions of such learning. The students followed the ELVIICS at their own pace, time and space until they felt they had reached the aimed level. Analysis of the achievement test results revealed that students’ language competence improved and reached the required level. Additional quantitative data also revealed that students felt ELVIICS also helped them improve their self-confidence, computer skills and autonomous learning. Moreover, students claimed that ELVIICS assisted them in getting through and successfully completing their compulsory course.
Matias, Carla; O'Connor, Thomas G; Futh, Annabel; Scott, Stephen
Conceptually and methodologically distinct models exist for assessing quality of parent-child relationships, but few studies contrast competing models or assess their overlap in predicting developmental outcomes. Using observational methodology, the current study examined the distinctiveness of attachment theory-based and social learning theory-based measures of parenting in predicting two key measures of child adjustment: security of attachment narratives and social acceptance in peer nominations. A total of 113 5-6-year-old children from ethnically diverse families participated. Parent-child relationships were rated using standard paradigms. Measures derived from attachment theory included sensitive responding and mutuality; measures derived from social learning theory included positive attending, directives, and criticism. Child outcomes were independently-rated attachment narrative representations and peer nominations. Results indicated that Attachment theory-based and Social Learning theory-based measures were modestly correlated; nonetheless, parent-child mutuality predicted secure child attachment narratives independently of social learning theory-based measures; in contrast, criticism predicted peer-nominated fighting independently of attachment theory-based measures. In young children, there is some evidence that attachment theory-based measures may be particularly predictive of attachment narratives; however, no single model of measuring parent-child relationships is likely to best predict multiple developmental outcomes. Assessment in research and applied settings may benefit from integration of different theoretical and methodological paradigms.
Beddoes, Kacey; Panther, Grace
Teamwork is increasingly seen as an important component of engineering education programmes. Yet, prior research has shown that there are numerous ways in which teamwork is gendered, and can lead to negative experiences for women students. This article presents the first interview findings on professors' perspectives on gender and teamwork. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 39 engineering professors to determine what and how they thought about gender in engineering and engineering education. For this article, the parts of the interviews about teamwork are analysed. We conclude that professors need tools to help them facilitate gender-inclusive teamwork, and those tools must address the beliefs that they already hold about teamwork. The findings raise questions about the adoption of evidence-based instructional practices and suggest current teamwork practices may exacerbate gender inequalities in engineering.
Szu, Harold H.
The early vision principle of redundancy reduction of 108 sensor excitations is understandable from computer vision viewpoint toward sparse edge maps. It is only recently derived using a truly unsupervised learning paradigm of artificial neural networks (ANN). In fact, the biological vision, Hubel- Wiesel edge maps, is reproduced seeking the underlying independent components analyses (ICA) among 102 image samples by maximizing the ANN output entropy (partial)H(V)/(partial)[W] equals (partial)[W]/(partial)t. When a pair of newborn eyes or ears meet the bustling and hustling world without supervision, they seek ICA by comparing 2 sensory measurements (x1(t), x2(t))T equalsV X(t). Assuming a linear and instantaneous mixture model of the external world X(t) equals [A] S(t), where both the mixing matrix ([A] equalsV [a1, a2] of ICA vectors and the source percentages (s1(t), s2(t))T equalsV S(t) are unknown, we seek the independent sources approximately equals [I] where the approximated sign indicates that higher order statistics (HOS) may not be trivial. Without a teacher, the ANN weight matrix [W] equalsV [w1, w2] adjusts the outputs V(t) equals tanh([W]X(t)) approximately equals [W]X(t) until no desired outputs except the (Gaussian) 'garbage' (neither YES '1' nor NO '-1' but at linear may-be range 'origin 0') defined by Gaussian covariance G equals [I] equals [W][A] the internal knowledge representation [W], as the inverse of the external world matrix [A]-1. To unify IC, PCA, ANN & HOS theories since 1991 (advanced by Jutten & Herault, Comon, Oja, Bell-Sejnowski, Amari-Cichocki, Cardoso), the LYAPONOV function L(v1,...,vn, w1,...wn,) equals E(v1,...,vn) - H(w1,...wn) is constructed as the HELMHOTZ free energy to prove both convergences of supervised energy E and unsupervised entropy H learning. Consequently, rather using the faithful but dumb computer: 'GARBAGE-IN, GARBAGE-OUT,' the smarter neurocomputer will be equipped with an unsupervised learning that extracts
Huang, Lyen C; Conley, Dante; Lipsitz, Stu; Wright, Christopher C; Diller, Thomas W; Edmondson, Lizabeth; Berry, William R; Singer, Sara J
To assess the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of two novel observation tools for measuring surgical safety checklist performance and teamwork. Data surgical safety checklists can promote adherence to standards of care and improve teamwork in the operating room. Their use has been associated with reductions in mortality and other postoperative complications. However, checklist effectiveness depends on how well they are performed. Authors from the Safe Surgery 2015 initiative developed a pair of novel observation tools through literature review, expert consultation and end-user testing. In one South Carolina hospital participating in the initiative, two observers jointly attended 50 surgical cases and independently rated surgical teams using both tools. We used descriptive statistics to measure checklist performance and teamwork at the hospital. We assessed IRR by measuring percent agreement, Cohen's κ, and weighted κ scores. The overall percent agreement and κ between the two observers was 93% and 0.74 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.79), respectively, for the Checklist Coaching Tool and 86% and 0.84 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.90) for the Surgical Teamwork Tool. Percent agreement for individual sections of both tools was 79% or higher. Additionally, κ scores for six of eight sections on the Checklist Coaching Tool and for two of five domains on the Surgical Teamwork Tool achieved the desired 0.7 threshold. However, teamwork scores were high and variation was limited. There were no significant changes in the percent agreement or κ scores between the first 10 and last 10 cases observed. Both tools demonstrated substantial IRR and required limited training to use. These instruments may be used to observe checklist performance and teamwork in the operating room. However, further refinement and calibration of observer expectations, particularly in rating teamwork, could improve the utility of the tools. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already
Bracken, Maeve; Rohrer, Nicole
The current study assessed the effectiveness of an adapted form of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in increasing independent requesting in deafblind adults with learning disabilities. PECS cards were created to accommodate individual needs, including adaptations such as enlarging photographs and using swelled images which consisted of images created on raised line drawing paper. Training included up to Phase III of PECS and procedures ensuring generalizations across individuals and contexts were included. The effects of the intervention were evaluated using a multiple baseline design across participants. Results demonstrated an increase in independent requesting with each of the participants reaching mastery criterion. These results suggest that PECS, in combination with some minor adaptations, may be an effective communicative alternative for individuals who are deafblind and have learning impairments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fougner, M; Horntvedt, T
This article reports the students' reflections on interprofessional teamwork during brief exposures to real-life experiences in hospitals or home-based rehabilitation service. Each of the 10 interprofessional groups, comprising three students, followed a rehabilitation team for a day. The composition of each student group correlated with the rehabilitation team. Data were collected from interviews with the student groups and subjected to a thematic analysis. The following four main themes were identified for which the students seemed to affect collaboration: sharing knowledge; team setting and position within the organisation; patient centred focus; and challenges in crossing professional borders when performing tasks. Each of these themes is presented and discussed in relation to the educational literature. In conclusion, the data suggest that a well organized, one-day observation-based learning experience helped to motivate students and helped to enable them to relate theory and practice.
Kopzhassarova, Umit; Akbayeva, Gulden; Eskazinova, Zhanar; Belgibayeva, Gulbarshyn; Tazhikeyeva, Akerke
The article focuses on the problem of developing students' critical thinking skills, which help them become independent learners. Analysis of research works of educators and scholars enable the authors to reveal qualities, necessary for students to enhance their critical thinking skills and become independent learners. Different points of view on…
Shurygin, Viktor Yurjevich; Krasnova, Lyubov Alekseevna
Currently, there are special requirements to the system of higher education, focused not only on imparting knowledge to students, but also on the formation of the continuous need for independent self-education, self-creative approach to getting knowledge throughout their active life. In this regard, the role of students' independent work with its…
Jones, Monty; Dexter, Sara
This mixed-methods study examined the technology integration learning activities of four teachers throughout one year using weekly quantitative surveys and a series of three qualitative individual interviews. Through the teachers' own voices an illustration of their learning processes is presented, and the gap between what is supported by their…
Anyone familiar with the nuclear industry realizes the importance of operators. Operators can achieve error-free plant operations, i.e., excellence on shift through teamwork. As a shift supervisor (senior reactor operator/shift technical advisor) the author went through the plant's first cycle of operations with no scrams and no equipment damaged by operator error, having since changed roles (and companies) to one of assessing plant operations. This change has provided the opportunity to see objectively the importance of operators working together and of the team building and teamwork that contribute to the shift's success. This paper uses examples to show the effectiveness of working together and outlines steps for building a group of operators into a team
Rydenfält, Christofer; Odenrick, Per; Larsson, Per Anders
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how organizational design could support teamwork and to identify organizational design principles that promote successful teamwork. Design/methodology/approach Since traditional team training sessions take resources away from production, the alternative approach pursued here explores the promotion of teamwork by means of organizational design. A wide and pragmatic definition of teamwork is applied: a team is considered to be a group of people that are set to work together on a task, and teamwork is then what they do in relation to their task. The input - process - output model of teamwork provides structure to the investigation. Findings Six teamwork enablers from the healthcare team literature - cohesion, collaboration, communication, conflict resolution, coordination, and leadership - are discussed, and the organizational design measures required to implement them are identified. Three organizational principles are argued to facilitate the teamwork enablers: team stability, occasions for communication, and a participative and adaptive approach to leadership. Research limitations/implications The findings could be used as a foundation for intervention studies to improve team performance or as a framework for evaluation of existing organizations. Practical implications By implementing these organizational principles, it is possible to achieve many of the organizational traits associated with good teamwork. Thus, thoughtful organization for teamwork can be used as an alternative or complement to the traditional team training approach. Originality/value With regards to the vast literature on team training, this paper offers an alternative perspective on how to improve team performance in healthcare.
Smith-Jentsch, Kimberly A.; Sierra, Mary Jane
The success of future long-duration exploration missions (LDEMs) will be determined largely by the extent to which mission-critical personnel possess and effectively exercise essential teamwork competencies throughout the entire mission lifecycle (e.g., Galarza & Holland, 1999; Hysong, Galarza, & Holland, 2007; Noe, Dachner, Saxton, & Keeton, 2011). To ensure that such personnel develop and exercise these necessary teamwork competencies prior to and over the full course of future LDEMs, it is essential that a teamwork training curriculum be developed and put into place at NASA that is both 1) comprehensive, in that it targets all teamwork competencies critical for mission success and 2) structured around empirically-based best practices for enhancing teamwork training effectiveness. In response to this demand, the current teamwork-oriented training needs analysis (TNA) was initiated to 1) identify the teamwork training needs (i.e., essential teamwork-related competencies) of future LDEM crews, 2) identify critical gaps within NASA’s current and future teamwork training curriculum (i.e., gaps in the competencies targeted and in the training practices utilized) that threaten to impact the success of future LDEMs, and to 3) identify a broad set of practical nonprescriptive recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of NASA’s teamwork training curriculum in order to increase the probability of future LDEM success.
Hollar, David; Hobgood, Cherri; Foster, Beverly; Aleman, Marco; Sawning, Susan
Positive attitudes towards teamwork among health care professionals are critical to patient safety. The purpose of this study is to describe the development and concurrent validation of a new instrument to measure attitudes towards healthcare teamwork that is generalizable across various populations of healthcare students. The Collaborative Healthcare Interdisciplinary Planning (CHIRP) scale was validated against the Readiness for Inter-Professional Learning Scale (RIPLS). Analyses included student (n = 266) demographics, ANOVA, internal consistency, factor analysis, and Rasch analysis. The two instruments correlated at r = .582. The CHIRP showed a multifactorial structure having excellent internal consistency (alpha = .850), with 25 of the 36 scale items loading onto a single Teamwork Attitudes factor. The RIPLS likewise had strong internal consistency (alpha = .796) and a three-factor structure, supporting previous studies of the instrument. However, Rasch analyses showed 14 (38.9%) of the 36 CHIRP items, but only four (21.1%) of the 19 RIPLS items remaining within the satisfactory standardized OUTFIT zone of 2.0 standard deviation units. We propose the 14 fitting items as a new, validated teamwork attitudes scale.
Braarud, Per Oeivind; Brendryen, Haavar
The current approach to mental workload assessment in process control was evaluated in 3 previous HAMMLAB studies, by analysing the relationship between workload related measures and performance. The results showed that subjective task complexity rating was related to team's control room performance, that mental effort (NASA-TLX) was weakly related to performance, and that overall activity level was unrelated to performance. The results support the argument that general cognitive measures, i.e., mental workload, are weakly related to performance in the process control domain. This implies that other workload concepts than general mental workload are needed for valid assessment of human reliability and for valid assessment of control room configurations. An assessment of task load in process control suggested that how effort is used to handle task demand is more important then the level of effort invested to solve the task. The report suggests two main workload related concepts with a potential as performance predictors in process control: task requirements, and the work style describing how effort is invested to solve the task. The task requirements are seen as composed of individual task demand and team demand. In a similar way work style are seen as composed of individual task management and teamwork style. A framework for the development of the concepts is suggested based on a literature review and experiences from HAMMLAB research. It is suggested that operational definitions of workload concepts should be based on observable control room behaviour, to assure a potential for developing performance-shaping factors. Finally an explorative analysis of teamwork measures and performance in one study indicated that teamwork concepts are related to performance. This lends support to the suggested development of team demand and teamwork style as elements of a framework for the analysis of workload in process control. (Author)
Berman, M.; Crespin, G.; Garcia, L.R.; Jansma, R.; Lovato, L.; Randall, G.; Sanchez, A.
As part of Sandia`s Corporate Diversity Program, a Diversity Action Team was assembled to study the impact of diversity on teamwork. We reviewed the available literature on successful teaming, both with homogeneous (more alike than different) and heterogeneous teams. Although many principles and guidelines for successful homogeneous teams also apply to diverse teams, we believe that a document concentrating on diverse teams will be useful both for Sandians and for the outside world.
Furukawa, Tetsuro; Matsuishi, Masakatu; Matsumoto, Shigeo; Takemata, Kazuya; Yamakawa, Taketo
At the subject that aims to develop the student's teamwork competencies which is one of the most important ability as an engineer, the appraisal method was investigated. Almost all the team activities were evaluated, and correlations with that result and the peer evaluation, the self-evaluation and the team peer evaluation were examined. It was found that the correlation between the quality of the team activities and the team peer evaluation which is evaluated by other team members is highest.
Gurram, Chaitanya; Bandi, Srinivas Goud
Context: Distributed software development has become a most desired way of software development. Application of agile development methodologies in distributed environments has taken a new trend in developing software due to its benefits of improved communication and collaboration. Teamwork is an important concept that agile methodologies facilitate and is one of the potential determinants of team performance which was not focused in distributed agile software development. Objectives: This res...
Wissman, Kathryn T; Rawson, Katherine A
Arnold and McDermott [(2013). Test-potentiated learning: Distinguishing between direct and indirect effects of testing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 940-945] isolated the indirect effects of testing and concluded that encoding is enhanced to a greater extent following more versus fewer practice tests, referred to as test-potentiated learning. The current research provided further evidence for test-potentiated learning and evaluated the covert retrieval hypothesis as an alternative explanation for the observed effect. Learners initially studied foreign language word pairs and then completed either one or five practice tests before restudy occurred. Results of greatest interest concern performance on test trials following restudy for items that were not correctly recalled on the test trials that preceded restudy. Results replicate Arnold and McDermott (2013) by demonstrating that more versus fewer tests potentiate learning when trial time is limited. Results also provide strong evidence against the covert retrieval hypothesis concerning why the effect occurs (i.e., it does not reflect differential covert retrieval during pre-restudy trials). In addition, outcomes indicate that the magnitude of the test-potentiated learning effect decreases as trial length increases, revealing an unexpected boundary condition to test-potentiated learning.
Moradi, Kamran; Najarkolai, Atena Rahmati; Keshmiri, Fatemeh
HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.3 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Interprofessional Teamwork Education: Moving Toward the Patient-Centered Approach," found on pages 449-460, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until September 30, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Explain the recommended framework in teaching and implementing interprofessional competencies. Identify
Nicholas Roy Waytowich; Nicholas Roy Waytowich; Vernon Lawhern; Vernon Lawhern; Addison Bohannon; Addison Bohannon; Kenneth Ball; Brent Lance
Recent advances in signal processing and machine learning techniques have enabled the application of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technologies to fields such as medicine, industry and recreation. However, BCIs still suffer from the requirement of frequent calibration sessions due to the intra- and inter- individual variability of brain-signals, which makes calibration suppression through transfer learning an area of increasing interest for the development of practical BCI systems. In this p...
Waytowich, Nicholas R.; Lawhern, Vernon J.; Bohannon, Addison W.; Ball, Kenneth R.; Lance, Brent J.
Recent advances in signal processing and machine learning techniques have enabled the application of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technologies to fields such as medicine, industry, and recreation; however, BCIs still suffer from the requirement of frequent calibration sessions due to the intra- and inter-individual variability of brain-signals, which makes calibration suppression through transfer learning an area of increasing interest for the development of practical BCI systems. In this p...
Maria J. Oltra Mestre
Full Text Available Team working is a form to organize the work in numerosus production contexts and so an competence to be develop in students from several high educational courses. The objective of the work is to research on how to facilitate the teamworking competence development on operations management students. Action learning is use as methodology and student’s reflections are the base for making proposals which are mainly related with using process analysis as reference for the teams flow work analysis.
Zimmermann, Friederike G S; Eimer, Martin
Recognizing unfamiliar faces is more difficult than familiar face recognition, and this has been attributed to qualitative differences in the processing of familiar and unfamiliar faces. Familiar faces are assumed to be represented by view-independent codes, whereas unfamiliar face recognition depends mainly on view-dependent low-level pictorial representations. We employed an electrophysiological marker of visual face recognition processes in order to track the emergence of view-independence during the learning of previously unfamiliar faces. Two face images showing either the same or two different individuals in the same or two different views were presented in rapid succession, and participants had to perform an identity-matching task. On trials where both faces showed the same view, repeating the face of the same individual triggered an N250r component at occipito-temporal electrodes, reflecting the rapid activation of visual face memory. A reliable N250r component was also observed on view-change trials. Crucially, this view-independence emerged as a result of face learning. In the first half of the experiment, N250r components were present only on view-repetition trials but were absent on view-change trials, demonstrating that matching unfamiliar faces was initially based on strictly view-dependent codes. In the second half, the N250r was triggered not only on view-repetition trials but also on view-change trials, indicating that face recognition had now become more view-independent. This transition may be due to the acquisition of abstract structural codes of individual faces during face learning, but could also reflect the formation of associative links between sets of view-specific pictorial representations of individual faces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Purpose: The aim of the study is to evaluate the inﬂuence of team project experiences of students (presence and role of a leader; fairness in team projects; conditions supporting teamwork created by a university) on their attitudes towards teamwork, especially the perception of teamwork effectiveness and the preference of working in teams. Methodology: In the study the quantitative research was done among master degree Polish students of Management (105 questionnaires). The measures used f...
Carter, Deborah Faye; Ro, Hyun Kyoung; Alcott, Benjamin; Lattuca, Lisa R.
This study examined the impact of undergraduate research (UR) in engineering, focusing on three particular learning outcomes: communication, teamwork, and leadership. The study included 5126 students across 31 colleges of engineering. The authors employed propensity score matching method to address the selection bias for selection into (and…
Sun, Rosa; Marshall, Dominic C; Sykes, Mark C; Maruthappu, Mahiben; Shalhoub, Joseph
The aviation industry pioneered formalised crew training in order to improve safety and reduce consequences of non-technical error. This formalised training has been successfully adapted and used to in the field of surgery to improve post-operative patient outcomes. The need to implement teamwork training as an integral part of a surgical programme is increasingly being recognised. We aim to systematically review the impact of surgical teamwork training on post-operative outcomes. Two independent researchers systematically searched MEDLINE and Embase in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Studies were screened and subjected to inclusion/exclusion criteria. Study characteristics and outcomes were reported and analysed. Our initial search identified 2720 articles. Following duplicate removal, title and abstract screening, 107 full text articles were analysed. Eight articles met our inclusion criteria. Overall, three articles supported a positive effect of good teamwork on post-operative patient outcomes. We identified key areas in study methodology that can be improved upon, including small cohort size, lack of unified training programme, and short training duration, should future studies be designed and implemented in this field. At present, there is insufficient evidence to support the hypothesis that teamwork training interventions improve patient outcomes. We believe that non-significant and conflicting results can be attributed to flaws in methodology and non-uniform training methods. With increasing amounts of evidence in this field, we predict a positive association between teamwork training and patient outcomes will come to light. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bernardi, Richard A
This study examined the differential moderating effects associated with field dependence-independence and perceptions of stress on students' performance after controlling for SAT Mathematics and Verbal scores as well as students' actual effort on homework. The average performance of 178 third-year accounting majors over three examinations was used to evaluate their understanding of financial accounting. The students also took the Group Embedded Figures Test. While the data indicate that the most significant variables were students' effort, SAT Verbal scores, and their perceptions of stress, these variables were differentially associated with students' performance depending upon whether the student was classified as a field-independent or field-dependent learner.
Dunin-Keplicz, Barbara Maria
What makes teamwork tick?. Cooperation matters, in daily life and in complex applications. After all, many tasks need more than a single agent to be effectively performed. Therefore, teamwork rules!. Teams are social groups of agents dedicated to the fulfilment of particular persistent tasks. In modern multiagent environments, heterogeneous teams often consist of autonomous software agents, various types of robots and human beings. Teamwork in Multi-agent Systems: A Formal Approach explains teamwork rules in terms of agents' attitudes and their complex interplay. It provides the first comprehe
Aug 27, 2015 ... Principles, theoretical concepts and factors affecting ... Keywords: Team, Teamwork, Effectiveness, Financial, Management,. Companies, Strategic ..... The response rates were higher from the Accounting, Client Service and.
Johnson, E. Janet
Online courses require students to be independent readers and efficient learners. College students who need developmental reading lack these qualities; consequently, faculty do not generally view developmental reading courses as appropriate for an online format. However, an effectively designed online course based on best practices can engage less…
Houston Independent School District, 2015
No other city in the nation more clearly exemplifies the dramatically changing social, political, and economic landscape of America's urban centers than Houston. Houston has transformed from a bi-racial southern city on the bayou to one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse communities in the nation. Houston Independent School District…
Tare, Medha; Golonka, Ewa M.; Vatz, Karen; Bonilla, Carrie L.; Crooks, Carolyn; Strong, Rachel
This study examines the importance of interaction for second language (L2) acquisition by analyzing outcomes from two types of out-of-class activities. The study compared: (a) interactive homework, completed via text chat, and (b) individual homework, completed via independent writing. In a between-subjects design, participants in two…
Brook, Julia; Upitis, Rena
The body of research examining deliberate practice and self-regulation in musical instruction has grown extensively over the past several decades, while at the same time many practices in the independent music studio remain unchanged and/or under-researched. Compelling evidence indicates that students with high levels of self-regulation experience…
Marchant, Robert L.; Bonneau, Thomas
Transition from small, independent LANs into larger enterprise managed infrastructures is becoming more prominent in academia, business and government. Consolidation of IT resources into larger, more disciplined, and more professionally managed environments has significant advantages however they do bring their own unique issues to solve in order…
Sicile-Kira, Chantal; Sicile-Kira, Jeremy
A guide for helping our children lead meaningful and independent lives as they reach adulthood. In the next five years, hundreds of thousands of children with autism spectrum disorder will reach adulthood. And while diagnosis and treatment for children has improved in recent years, parents want to know: What happens to my child when I am no longer…
This pilot study looks at the effect of learning second language vocabulary with gesture. Specifically, this current study asks whether researcher-instructed or student-constructed gestures are more effective. Depth of processing theories (Craik and Lockhart 1972) as well as more recent educational frameworks like ICAP ("Interactive,"…
Geraghty, Barbara; Quinn, Ann Marcus
As Japanese uses three writing systems (hiragana, katakana, and the ideograms known as kanji), and as materials in the target language include all three, it is a major challenge to learn to read and write quickly. This paper focuses on interactive multi-media methods of teaching Japanese reading which foster learner autonomy. As little has been…
Bowman, Stephanie L.; Plourde, Lee A.
Teens and young adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) meet the criteria of teen and adult learners chronologically, but may be deficient in many other areas of teen and adult learning. The spectrum of intellectual and adaptive capabilities among teens and adults with ID is vast, with each individual being unique. There are specific teaching…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on teamwork by focusing on the influence support systems, like industrial relations, have on teamwork. Teamwork is conceptualized through three dimensions; technical, governmental and normative. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a case study approach in a single company with available data over a long period of time. Findings – Industrial relations conceptualized as local representation a...
Marloes Amantia van Bokhoven; Jerôme Jean Jacques van Dongen; Anneke van Dijk-de Vries
The significance of effective interprofessional teamwork to improve the quality of care has been widely recognised. Effective interprofessional teamwork calls on good collaboration between professionals and patients, coordination between professionals, and the development of teamwork over time.
College and university science educators from across Connecticut gathered at Yale's West Campus in April 2010 for a Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL) program entitled "Taking the Plunge: Next Steps in Engaged Learning." Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and co-sponsored by the Connecticut Conference of Independent Colleges (CCIC) and Yale's McDougal Graduate Teaching Center, the event was the latest in a PKAL series of one-day conferences aimed at equipping science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) instructors with effective approaches to engaging students and training future scientists.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Interprofessional Education (IPE is now spreading worldwide and many universities are now including IPE in their curricula. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not such student characteristics as gender, previous working experience in healthcare, educational progress and features of the learning environment, such as educational programmes and curriculum design, have an impact on their open-mindedness about co-operation with other professions. Methods Medical and nursing students at two Swedish universities were invited to fill in the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS. Totally, 955 students were invited and 70.2% (n = 670 participated in the study. A factor analysis of the RIPLS revealed four item groupings (factors for our empirical data, but only one had sufficient internal consistency. This factor was labelled "Team Player". Results Regardless of the educational programme, female students were more positive to teamwork than male students. Nursing students in general displayed more positive beliefs about teamwork and collaboration than medical students. Exposure to different interprofessional curricula and previous exposure to interprofessional education were only to a minor extent associated with a positive attitude towards teamwork. Educational progress did not seem to influence these beliefs. Conclusions The establishment of interprofessional teamwork is a major challenge for modern healthcare. This study indicates some directions for more successful interprofessional education. Efforts should be directed at informing particularly male medical students about the need for teamwork in modern healthcare systems. The results also imply that study of other factors, such as the student's personality, is needed for fully understanding readiness for teamwork and interprofessional collaboration in healthcare. We also believe that the RIPL Scale still can be further adjusted.
Wilhelmsson, Margaretha; Ponzer, Sari; Dahlgren, Lars-Ove; Timpka, Toomas; Faresjö, Tomas
Interprofessional Education (IPE) is now spreading worldwide and many universities are now including IPE in their curricula. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not such student characteristics as gender, previous working experience in healthcare, educational progress and features of the learning environment, such as educational programmes and curriculum design, have an impact on their open-mindedness about co-operation with other professions. Medical and nursing students at two Swedish universities were invited to fill in the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS). Totally, 955 students were invited and 70.2% (n=670) participated in the study. A factor analysis of the RIPLS revealed four item groupings (factors) for our empirical data, but only one had sufficient internal consistency. This factor was labelled "Team Player". Regardless of the educational programme, female students were more positive to teamwork than male students. Nursing students in general displayed more positive beliefs about teamwork and collaboration than medical students. Exposure to different interprofessional curricula and previous exposure to interprofessional education were only to a minor extent associated with a positive attitude towards teamwork. Educational progress did not seem to influence these beliefs. The establishment of interprofessional teamwork is a major challenge for modern healthcare. This study indicates some directions for more successful interprofessional education. Efforts should be directed at informing particularly male medical students about the need for teamwork in modern healthcare systems. The results also imply that study of other factors, such as the student's personality, is needed for fully understanding readiness for teamwork and interprofessional collaboration in healthcare. We also believe that the RIPL Scale still can be further adjusted.
Whereas the business professions have long recognized that conflict can be a source of learning and innovation, the health professions still tend to view conflict negatively as being disruptive, inefficient, and unprofessional. As a consequence, the health professions tend to avoid conflict or resolve it quickly. This neglect to appreciate conflict's positive attributes appears to be driven in part by (1) individuals' fears about being negatively perceived and the potential negative consequences in an organization of being implicated in conflict, (2) constrained views and approaches to professionalism and to evaluation and assessment, and (3) lingering autocracies and hierarchies of power that view conflict as a disruptive threat.The author describes changing perspectives on collaboration and teamwork in the health professions, discusses how the health professions have neglected to appreciate the positive attributes of conflict, and presents three alternative approaches to more effectively integrating conflict into collaboration and teamwork in the health professions. These three approaches are (1) cultivating psychological safety on teams to make space for safe interpersonal risk taking, (2) viewing conflict as a source of expansive learning and innovation (via models such as activity theory), and (3) democratizing hierarchies of power through health humanities education ideally by advancing the health humanities to the core of the curriculum.The author suggests that understanding conflict's inevitability and its innovative potential, and integrating it into collaboration and teamwork, may have a reassuring and emancipating impact on individuals and teams. This may ultimately improve performance in health care organizations.
Greeff, J. de; Hindriks, K.; Neerincx, M.A.; Kruijff-Korbayova, I.
The TRADR project aims at developing methods and models for human-robot teamwork, enabling robots to operate in search and rescue environments alongside humans as teammates, rather than as tools. Through a user-centered cognitive engineering method, human-robot teamwork is analyzed, modeled,
Ruiz-Esparza Barajas, Elizabeth; Medrano Vela, Cecilia Araceli; Zepeda Huerta, Jesús Helbert Karim
This study reports on the first stage of a larger joint research project undertaken by five universities in Mexico to explore university teachers' thinking about out-of-class teamwork. Data from interviews were analyzed using open and axial coding. Although results suggest a positive perception towards teamwork, the study unveiled important…
Cater, Melissa; Jones, Kimberly Y.
The literature regarding teamwork has supported the idea that the key to improving team performance is to understand team processes. Early work within the realm of teamwork focused on quantifiable measures of team performance, like number of products developed. The measure of a successful team hinged on whether or not the team accomplished the end…
The Department of Research and Evaluation (DRE) has completed an analysis of the performance of students who participated in the Teamwork USA Program, administered in FY2014 at three District schools. Teamwork USA hopes to improve student achievement at select Title I elementary schools via its Instrumental Music Program grant. This memorandum to…
Carver, Tracey L.; Stickley, Amanda
There is an abundance of literature on the importance of teamwork in undergraduate degrees; how to teach it, how to assess it and how to manage it. However, there is also much recorded about students' dislike of teamwork, especially where an early experience is unsatisfactory and builds resistance against such assessment. Accordingly, despite the…
Harbers, M.; Jonker, C.M.; Van Riemsdijk, M.B.
Teamwork between humans and intelligent systems gains importance with the maturing of agent and robot technology. In the social sciences, sharedness of mental models is used to explain and understand teamwork. To use this concept for developing teams that include agents, we propose contextsensitive
Purpose: The first purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which students in university capstone public relations classes who receive teamwork training demonstrate effective team behaviors, produce quality work, experience satisfaction in the teamwork process, and engender client satisfaction. The second purpose was to determine the…
Leggat Sandra G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although effective teamwork has been consistently identified as a requirement for enhanced clinical outcomes in the provision of healthcare, there is limited knowledge of what makes health professionals effective team members, and even less information on how to develop skills for teamwork. This study identified critical teamwork competencies for health service managers. Methods Members of a state branch of the professional association of Australian health service managers participated in a teamwork survey. Results The 37% response rate enabled identification of a management teamwork competency set comprising leadership, knowledge of organizational goals and strategies and organizational commitment, respect for others, commitment to working collaboratively and to achieving a quality outcome. Conclusion Although not part of the research question the data suggested that the competencies for effective teamwork are perceived to be different for management and clinical teams, and there are differences in the perceptions of effective teamwork competencies between male and female health service managers. This study adds to the growing evidence that the focus on individual skill development and individual accountability and achievement that results from existing models of health professional training, and which is continually reinforced by human resource management practices within healthcare systems, is not consistent with the competencies required for effective teamwork.
Malin, Jane T.
This slide presentation reviews the development of software agents to support of mission operations teamwork. The goals of the work was to make automation by agents easy to use, supervise and direct, manage information and communication to decrease distraction, interruptions, workload and errors, reduce mission impact of off-nominal situations and increase morale and decrease turnover. The accomplishments or the project are: 1. Collaborative agents - mixed initiative and creation of instructions for mediating agent 2. Methods for prototyping, evaluating and evolving socio-technical systems 3. Technology infusion: teamwork tools in mISSIons 4. Demonstrations in simulation testbed An example of the use of agent is given, the use of an agent to monitor a N2 tank leak. An incomplete instruction to the agent is handled with mediating assistants, or Intelligent Briefing and Response Assistant (IBRA). The IBRA Engine also watches data stream for triggers and executes Act-Whenever actions. There is also a Briefing and Response Instruction (BRI) which is easy for a discipline specialist to create through a BRI editor.
The article focuses on the need for and the characteristics and positive consequences of interdisciplinary teamwork in health care. Interprofessional collaboration is an important element in total quality management. Factors that determine the success of team work are described, such as a management that promotes openness and an administrative organization that promotes interdisciplinary consultation. Other factors have to do with leadership, shared goals and values, meeting management and planning skills, communication, and also the (degree of) knowledge and the (quality of) perception of competences of other health care workers. The shared care plan is stressed as an important tool. In this, the joint planning of goals for intervention and care is essential. Health care workers with different professional knowledge and background have to harmonize their intervention plan according to the competences and goal settings of the other team members. The core of effective interprofessional teamwork is the presence of interprofessional competences such as these. A brief description of the components and performance criteria of the competence of interprofessional collaboration is given.
Rutherford, J S; Flin, R; Mitchell, L
Teamwork involves supporting others, solving conflicts, exchanging information, and co-ordinating activities. This article describes the results of interviews with anaesthetic assistants (n=22) and consultant anaesthetists (n=11), investigating the non-technical skills involved in the effective teamwork of the anaesthetic assistants in the operating theatre. Anaesthetic assistants most commonly saw themselves as either being part of a theatre team or an anaesthetic subgroup and most commonly described the senior theatre nurse as their team leader. Examples of supporting others included the following: checking equipment, providing equipment, being a second pair of eyes, providing emotional and decision support, and supporting trainee anaesthetists. Of the 19 anaesthetic assistants who were asked if they would speak up if they disagreed with a decision in theatre, only 14 said that they would voice their concerns, and the most common approach was to ask for the logic behind the decision. The WHO checklist was described as prompting some anaesthetists to describe their anaesthetic plan to the anaesthetic assistant, when previously the anaesthetist would have failed to communicate their intentions in time for equipment to be prepared. The prioritization of activities to achieve co-ordination and the anaesthetic assistants becoming familiar with the idiosyncrasies of their regular anaesthetists were also described by anaesthetic assistants.
Marsella, Stacy C.; Plaunt, Christian (Technical Monitor)
NASA is rapidly moving towards the use of spatially distributed multiple satellites operating in near Earth orbit and Deep Space. Effective operation of such multi-satellite constellations raises many key research issues. In particular, the satellites will be required to cooperate with each other as a team that must achieve common objectives with a high degree of autonomy from ground based operations. The multi-agent research community has made considerable progress in investigating the challenges of realizing such teamwork. In this report, we discuss some of the teamwork issues that will be faced by multi-satellite operations. The basis of the discussion is a particular proposed mission, the Magnetospheric MultiScale mission to explore Earth's magnetosphere. We describe this mission and then consider how multi-agent technologies might be applied in the design and operation of these missions. We consider the potential benefits of these technologies as well as the research challenges that will be raised in applying them to NASA multi-satellite missions. We conclude with some recommendations for future work.
Full Text Available The roles that self-access centers play in language learners’ development of autonomy considerably vary in accordance with the institutional features attributed to their structure and the services they offer. As part of a larger study which assessed 100 learners’ readiness for autonomy, this paper reports on the status quo of two facilities at the humanities faculty of an Iranian university, based on English-as-Foreign-Language (EFL learners’ views and practices. Seven undergraduate EFL learners from various years of study were asked to describe the ways in which they exploit self-access services for language learning purposes and express their opinions vis-à-vis their functionality through semi-structured interviews. Findings reveal that most learners preferred not to attend the computer center, principally because, the Internet, as the most widely acknowledged service, had become available in other places around the university, such as in the dormitory. The reasons for this reluctance are highlighted, along with a presentation of some suggestions for upgrading learners’ participation in self-access language learning in similar contexts.
Freytag, Julia; Stroben, Fabian; Hautz, Wolf E; Eisenmann, Dorothea; Kämmer, Juliane E
Medical errors have an incidence of 9% and may lead to worse patient outcome. Teamwork training has the capacity to significantly reduce medical errors and therefore improve patient outcome. One common framework for teamwork training is crisis resource management, adapted from aviation and usually trained in simulation settings. Debriefing after simulation is thought to be crucial to learning teamwork-related concepts and behaviours but it remains unclear how best to debrief these aspects. Furthermore, teamwork-training sessions and studies examining education effects on undergraduates are rare. The study aims to evaluate the effects of two teamwork-focused debriefings on team performance after an extensive medical student teamwork training. A prospective experimental study has been designed to compare a well-established three-phase debriefing method (gather-analyse-summarise; the GAS method ) to a newly developed and more structured debriefing approach that extends the GAS method with TeamTAG (teamwork techniques analysis grid). TeamTAG is a cognitive aid listing preselected teamwork principles and descriptions of behavioural anchors that serve as observable patterns of teamwork and is supposed to help structure teamwork-focused debriefing. Both debriefing methods will be tested during an emergency room teamwork-training simulation comprising six emergency medicine cases faced by 35 final-year medical students in teams of five. Teams will be randomised into the two debriefing conditions. Team performance during simulation and the number of principles discussed during debriefing will be evaluated. Learning opportunities, helpfulness and feasibility will be rated by participants and instructors. Analyses will include descriptive, inferential and explorative statistics. The study protocol was approved by the institutional office for data protection and the ethics committee of Charité Medical School Berlin and registered under EA2/172/16. All students will
Kalisch, Beatrice J; Lee, Hyunhwa
This study aimed to explore whether and how staff characteristics, staffing, and scheduling variables are associated with the level of teamwork in nursing staff on acute care hospital patient units. This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 1,758 nursing staff members from two different hospitals on 38 patient care units who completed the Nursing Teamwork Survey in 2008. This study focused on nursing teams who are stationed on a particular patient care unit (as opposed to visitors to the units). The return rate was 56.9%. The sample was made up of 77.4% nurses (registered nurses and licensed practical nurses), 11.9% assistive personnel, and 7.9% unit secretaries. Teamwork varied by unit and service type, with the highest scores occurring in pediatrics and maternity and the lowest scores on the medical-surgical and emergency units. Staff with less than 6 months of experience, those working 8- or 10-hour shifts (as opposed to 12 hours or a combination of 8 and 12 hours), part-time staff (as opposed to full time), and those working on night shift had higher teamwork scores. The higher teamwork scores were also associated with no or little overtime. The higher perception of the adequacy of staffing and the fewer patients cared for on a previous shift, the higher the teamwork scores. There is a relationship between selected staff characteristics, aspects of work schedules, staffing, and teamwork. Nursing staff want to work where teamwork is high, and perceptions of good staffing lead to higher teamwork. Higher teamwork scores correlated with those who worked less overtime.
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study is to evaluate the inﬂuence of team project experiences of students (presence and role of a leader; fairness in team projects; conditions supporting teamwork created by a university on their attitudes towards teamwork, especially the perception of teamwork effectiveness and the preference of working in teams. Methodology: In the study the quantitative research was done among master degree Polish students of Management (105 questionnaires. The measures used for the study were developed specifcally for the study referring to the previous research in the feld. Findings: Results indicate that leaders in team projects and conditions supporting teamwork are connected with the students’ perception of teamwork effectiveness, while the fairness in team projects is connected with students’ preference of working collectively. Research implications: We conclude that in order to develop a positive attitude towards teamwork, the teamwork projects should be better supported by the instructors (especially supporting the emergence of leader(s and minimising the problem of free riders and the university should create a climate that facilitates teamworking, otherwise team projects might negatively inﬂuence students’ attitude towards collective work. Value: On the labour market the teamwork skills are one of the most important skills of employees, as the team-based organizational designs are becoming the norm in work organization. The study is contributing to the understanding of the relations between student experiences and their attitudes as well as the role played by high education in the development of these attitudes. Some previous research in Anglo-Saxon culture countries indicate that team project assignments realised by students during studies might even hinder their attitudes to teamwork and their willingness to work in teams in the future.
Stahlke Wall, Sarah
Employee engagement is of growing interest in healthcare organizations. Engaged employees give an extra measure of effort to contribute to organization goals, whereas disengaged employees withdraw, have lower performance and are more likely to leave their jobs. The aim of this ethnographic study was, in part, to explore the reasons why high-calibre nurses became disengaged from their work and opted to leave their hospital-based employment in favour of independent practice, as well as to consider the organizational conditions that influenced their desire to leave. The findings revealed that nurses left their hospital-based jobs because of health system change, job characteristics, working conditions and lack of respect, which relate closely to the antecedents of employee engagement. Employee engagement can be fostered through organizational support, trust-building management behaviour and transformational leadership. Copyright © 2015 Longwoods Publishing.
Ryan Thomas Philips
Full Text Available Cerebral vascular dynamics are generally thought to be controlled by neural activity in a unidirectional fashion. However, both computational modeling and experimental evidence point to the feedback effects of vascular dynamics on neural activity. Vascular feedback in the form of glucose and oxygen controls neuronal ATP, either directly or via the agency of astrocytes, which in turn modulates neural firing. Recently, a detailed model of the neuron-astrocyte-vessel system has shown how vasomotion can modulate neural firing. Similarly, arguing from known cerebrovascular physiology, an approach known as `hemoneural hypothesis' postulates functional modulation of neural activity by vascular feedback. To instantiate this perspective, we present a computational model in which a network of `vascular units' supplies energy to a neural network. The complex dynamics of the vascular network, modeled by a network of oscillators, turns neurons ON and OFF randomly. The informational consequence of such dynamics is explored in the context of an auto-encoder network. In the proposed model, each vascular unit supplies energy to a subset of hidden neurons of an autoencoder network, which constitutes its `projective field'. Neurons that receive adequate energy in a given trial have reduced threshold, and thus are prone to fire. Dynamics of the vascular network are governed by changes in the reconstruction error of the auto-encoder network, interpreted as the neuronal demand. Vascular feedback causes random inactivation of a subset of hidden neurons in every trial. We observe that, under conditions of desynchronized vascular dynamics, the output reconstruction error is low and the feature vectors learnt are sparse and independent. Our earlier modeling study highlighted the link between desynchronized vascular dynamics and efficient energy delivery in skeletal muscle. We now show that desynchronized vascular dynamics leads to efficient training in an auto
Hwang, Jee-In; Ahn, Jeonghoon
To examine levels of teamwork and its relationships with clinical error reporting among Korean hospital nurses. The study employed a cross-sectional survey design. We distributed a questionnaire to 674 nurses in two teaching hospitals in Korea. The questionnaire included items on teamwork and the reporting of clinical errors. We measured teamwork using the Teamwork Perceptions Questionnaire, which has five subscales including team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, and communication. Using logistic regression analysis, we determined the relationships between teamwork and error reporting. The response rate was 85.5%. The mean score of teamwork was 3.5 out of 5. At the subscale level, mutual support was rated highest, while leadership was rated lowest. Of the participating nurses, 522 responded that they had experienced at least one clinical error in the last 6 months. Among those, only 53.0% responded that they always or usually reported clinical errors to their managers and/or the patient safety department. Teamwork was significantly associated with better error reporting. Specifically, nurses with a higher team communication score were more likely to report clinical errors to their managers and the patient safety department (odds ratio = 1.82, 95% confidence intervals [1.05, 3.14]). Teamwork was rated as moderate and was positively associated with nurses' error reporting performance. Hospital executives and nurse managers should make substantial efforts to enhance teamwork, which will contribute to encouraging the reporting of errors and improving patient safety. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Lairamore, Chad; Morris, Duston; Schichtl, Rachel; George-Paschal, Lorrie; Martens, Heather; Maragakis, Alexandros; Garnica, Mary; Jones, Barbara; Grantham, Myra; Bruenger, Adam
Interprofessional education (IPE) provides students with opportunities to learn about the roles and responsibilities of other professions and develop communication and teamwork skills. As different health professions have recognised the importance of IPE, the number of disciplines participating in IPE events is increasing. Consequently, it is important to examine the effect group structure has on the learning environment and student knowledge acquisition during IPE events. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of group composition on student perceptions of interprofessional teamwork and collaboration when participating in a case-based IPE forum. To examine this construct, six cohorts of students were divided into two groups: Group-one (2010-2012) included students from five professions. Group-two (2013-2015) included students from 10 professions. The only other change for group-two was broadening the case scenarios to ensure a role for each profession. At the conclusion of the case-based IPE forums, both groups demonstrated a statistically significant increase in 'readiness for interprofessional learning' and 'interdisciplinary education perceptions'. However, participants in group-one (2010-2012) demonstrated a greater change in scores when compared to group-two (2013-2015). It was concluded a case-based IPE forum with students from numerous health professions participating in a discussion about broad case scenarios was moderately effective at introducing students to other health professions and increasing their knowledge of others' identities. However, a smaller grouping of professions with targeted cases was more effective at influencing student perceptions of the need for teamwork. When planning an IPE event, faculty should focus on intentional groupings of professions to reflect the social context of healthcare teams so all students can fully participate and experience shared learning.
Wrammert, Johan; Sapkota, Sabitri; Baral, Kedar; Kc, Ashish; Målqvist, Mats; Larsson, Margareta
The ability of health care providers to work together is essential for favourable outcomes in neonatal resuscitation, but perceptions of such teamwork have rarely been studied in low-income settings. Neonatal resuscitation is a proven intervention for reducing neonatal mortality globally, but the long-term effects of clinical training for this skill need further attention. Having an understanding of barriers to teamwork among nurse midwives can contribute to the sustainability of improved clinical practice. To explore nurse midwives' perceptions of teamwork when caring for newborns in need of resuscitation. Nurse midwives from a tertiary-level government hospital in Nepal participated in five focus groups of between 4 and 11 participants each. Qualitative Content Analysis was used for analysis. One overarching theme emerged: looking for comprehensive guidelines and shared responsibilities in neonatal resuscitation to avoid personal blame and learn from mistakes. Participants discussed the need for protocols relating to neonatal resuscitation and the importance of shared medical responsibility, and the importance of the presence of a strong and transparent leadership. The call for clear and comprehensive protocols relating to neonatal resuscitation corresponded with previous research from different contexts. Nurse midwives working at a maternity health care facility in Nepal discussed the benefits and challenges of teamwork in neonatal resuscitation. The findings suggest potential benefits can be made from clarifying guidelines and responsibilities in neonatal resuscitation. Furthermore, a structured process to deal with clinical incidents must be considered. Management must be involved in all processes. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Friedel, Michael; Buscema, Massimo
A training scheme is proposed for the real-time classification of soil and vegetation (landscape) components in EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral images. First, an auto-contractive map is used to compute connectivity of reflectance values for spectral bands (N=200) from independent laboratory spectral library components. Second, a minimum spanning tree is used to identify optimal grouping of training components from connectivity values. Third, the reflectance values for optimal landscape component signatures are sorted. Fourth, empirical distribution functions (EDF) are computed for each landscape component. Fifth, the Monte-Carlo technique is used to generate realizations (N=30) for each landscape EDF. The correspondence of component realizations to original signatures validates the stochastic procedure. Presentation of the realizations to the self-organizing map (SOM) is done using three different map sizes: 14x10, 28x20, and 40 x 30. In each case, the SOM training proceeds first with a rough phase (20 iterations using a Gaussian neighborhood with an initial and final radius of 11 units and 3 units) and then fine phase (400 iterations using a Gaussian neighborhood with an initial and final radius of 3 units and 1 unit). The initial and final learning rates of 0.5 and 0.05 decay linearly down to 10-5, and the Gaussian neighborhood function decreases exponentially (decay rate of 10-3 iteration-1) providing reasonable convergence. Following training of the three networks, each corresponding SOM is used to independently classify the original spectral library signatures. In comparing the different SOM networks, the 28x20 map size is chosen for independent reproducibility and processing speed. The corresponding universal distance matrix reveals separation of the seven component classes for this map size thereby supporting it use as a Hyperion classifier.
Nguyen, Ngan; Watson, William D; Dominguez, Edward
Simulation is a technique recommended for teaching and measuring teamwork, but few published methodologies are available on how best to design simulation for teamwork training in surgery and health care in general. The purpose of this article is to describe a general methodology, called event-based approach to training (EBAT), to guide the design of simulation for teamwork training and discuss its application to surgery. The EBAT methodology draws on the science of training by systematically introducing training exercise events that are linked to training requirements (i.e., competencies being trained and learning objectives) and performance assessment. The EBAT process involves: Of the 4 teamwork competencies endorsed by the Agency for Healthcare Research Quality and Department of Defense, "communication" was chosen to be the focus of our training efforts. A total of 5 learning objectives were defined based on 5 validated teamwork and communication techniques. Diagnostic laparoscopy was chosen as the clinical context to frame the training scenario, and 29 KSAs were defined based on review of published literature on patient safety and input from subject matter experts. Critical events included those that correspond to a specific phase in the normal flow of a surgical procedure as well as clinical events that may occur when performing the operation. Similar to the targeted KSAs, targeted responses to the critical events were developed based on existing literature and gathering input from content experts. Finally, a 29-item EBAT-derived checklist was created to assess communication performance. Like any instructional tool, simulation is only effective if it is designed and implemented appropriately. It is recognized that the effectiveness of simulation depends on whether (1) it is built upon a theoretical framework, (2) it uses preplanned structured exercises or events to allow learners the opportunity to exhibit the targeted KSAs, (3) it assesses performance, and (4
Teamwork in the automotive industry varies significantly from plant to plant. This article compares teamwork in four automobile plants in Germany and Britain, and addresses two questions: (1) Do different models of teamwork fit into a bi-polar model of teamwork, being either innovative or structural conservative? (2) Do current models of teamwork signify a development towards post-fordism, or are they merely part of a neo-fordist rationalisation of production? The following answers are sugges...
Full Text Available The paper is designed and contextualized as a meaningful whole which includes the triple helix model: a combination of science, the real sector and local government. The basis of this research is teamwork in insurance companies operating in eastern Croatia whose indicators reflect on other insurance companies in Croatia and beyond. The conclusions of the paper suggest that teamwork is omnipresent in insurance companies, and that it affects the efficiency in meeting their objectives. A survey was used to test and prove the hypotheses, indicating that especially during the economic crisis it is crucial to invest in human resources and encourage teamwork via key motivational factors. The conclusions of the paper show that teamwork contributes to the efficiency of the organization, dissemination of new ideas and greater synergy within the insurance company.
Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; van der Vet, P.E.; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Whitworth, B.; de Moor, A.
This chapter addresses awareness support to enhance teamwork in co-located collaborative environments. In particular, we focus on the concept of situational awareness which is essential for successful team collaboration. Mutual situational awareness leads to informal social interactions, development
Robert W. Lingard
Full Text Available To be successful in today's workplace, engineering and computer science students must possess high levels of teamwork skills. Unfortunately, most engineering programs provide little or no specific instruction in this area. This paper outlines an assessment-driven approach toward teaching teamwork skills. Working with the Industrial Advisory Board for the College, a set of performance criteria for teamwork was developed. This set of criteria was used to build an assessment instrument to measure the extent to which students are able to achieve the necessary skills. This set of criteria provides a clear basis for the development of an approach toward teaching teamwork skills. Furthermore, the results from the assessment can be used to adjust the teaching techniques to address the particular skills where students show some weaknesses. Although this effort is in the early stages, the approach seems promising and will be improved over time.
Dellinger, E Patchen
The surgeon has been regarded as the "captain of the ship" in the operating room (OR) for many years, but cannot accomplish successful operative intervention without the rest of the team. Review of the pertinent English-language literature. Many reports demonstrate very different impressions of teamwork and communication in the OR held by different members of the surgical team. Objective measures of teamwork and communication demonstrate a reduction in complications including surgical site infections with improved teamwork and communication, with fewer distractions such as noise, and with effective use of checklists. Efforts to improve teamwork and communication and promote the effective use of checklists promote patient safety and improved outcomes for patients with reduction in surgical site infections.
Sterling, Bruce S; Lickteig, Carl W
.... This paper examines how participant ratings of command and control planning and observer assessments of teamwork were related in a series of futuristic missions conducted by the Mounted Maneuver...
Silvia Helena Henriques Camelo
Full Text Available Objective. The aim in this study was to identify how Intensive Care Unit nurses perceive professional competences in thecare team. Methodology. Qualitative multiple case study with an exploratory focus. The sample consisted of 24 nurses from Intensive Care Units (ICU at two large hospitals. To collect the information, direct observation and - structured, non-structuredand participant - interviews were used. Results. Ninety-six percent of the participants were women, 79% were less than 40 years old, and 63% possessed less than five years of professional experience in ICU. Data analysis revealed three study categories: teamwork as a nursing management tool, improving teamwork, and interpersonal communication for teamwork. Conclusion. At the ICU where the nurses work, a teamwork strategy is observed, which demands cooperation and participation by other disciplines.
KEDROWICZ, By April; WATANABE, Sundy
This paper highlights a unique approach to infusing formal training and practice in oral and written communication and teamwork development in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) at the University of Utah. Faculty and graduate (Ph.D.) students from the College of Humanities have teamed up with faculty from engineering to develop communication and teamwork instruction that is integrated into the existing engineering curriculum. These skills are used as a vehicle ...
Aase, Ingunn; Aase, Karina; Dieckmann, Peter
The notions of interprofessional education and interprofessional teamwork have attained widespread acceptance, partly because lack of teamwork has been tentatively linked to adverse incidents in healthcare. By analyzing data from 32 educational institutions, this study identifies the status of in......), practical difficulties (e.g. finding time to bring students of various professions together) and possibly managerial issues (e.g. lack of strategic perspective and change management)....
Evans, J; Henderson, A; Johnson, N
Teamwork is essential for the provision of contemporary, high quality oral health care. Teamwork skills need to be taught and learnt and therefore ought to be one of the core competencies in all dental education programmes: dentistry, oral health therapy, dental technology and dental assisting. Currently, lack of opportunities for collaborative learning and practice within educational establishments, and in the practising professions, hamper the development of effective teamwork. For students across oral health care, learning 'together' requires positive action for teamwork skills to be developed. Interprofessional curricula need to be formally developed, based on evidence from the wider education literature that demonstrates how to maximise the engagements needed for teamwork in practice. Rigorous study of interprofessional education within dentistry and oral health is in its infancy. Anecdotal evidence indicates that dental technology students who experience an interprofessional curriculum are better prepared for collaborative practice. Formalised interprofessional education is posited as an effective strategy to improve interactions among oral health professionals leading to improved patient care. This paper reviews the extant literature and describes the approach currently being trialled at Griffith University.
Vîrgă, Delia; CurŞeu, Petru Lucian; Maricuţoiu, Laurenţiu; Sava, Florin A.; Macsinga, Irina; Măgurean, Silvia
This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models). Data from 216 students, nested in 48 groups were analyzed using a multilevel modeling approach. Our results show that the experience of relationship conflict leads to a negative shift from the pre-task to the post-task teamwork-related mental models. Moreover, the results indicate that conscientiousness buffered the negative association between relationship conflict and the change in teamwork-related mental models. Our results did not support the hypothesized moderating effect of agreeableness and show that the detrimental effect of relationship conflict on the shift in teamwork-related mental models is accentuated for group members scoring low rather than high on neuroticism. These findings open new research venues for exploring the association between personality, coping styles and change in teamwork-related mental models. PMID:25372143
Fan, Xiaocong; Yen, John
Among researchers in multi-agent systems there has been growing interest in using intelligent agents to model and simulate human teamwork behaviors. Teamwork modeling is important for training humans in gaining collaborative skills, for supporting humans in making critical decisions by proactively gathering, fusing, and sharing information, and for building coherent teams with both humans and agents working effectively on intelligence-intensive problems. Teamwork modeling is also challenging because the research has spanned diverse disciplines from business management to cognitive science, human discourse, and distributed artificial intelligence. This article presents an extensive, but not exhaustive, list of work in the field, where the taxonomy is organized along two main dimensions: team social structure and social behaviors. Along the dimension of social structure, we consider agent-only teams and mixed human-agent teams. Along the dimension of social behaviors, we consider collaborative behaviors, communicative behaviors, helping behaviors, and the underpinning of effective teamwork-shared mental models. The contribution of this article is that it presents an organizational framework for analyzing a variety of teamwork simulation systems and for further studying simulated teamwork behaviors.
Full Text Available This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models. Data from 216 students, nested in 48 groups were analyzed using a multilevel modeling approach. Our results show that the experience of relationship conflict leads to a negative shift from the pre-task to the post-task teamwork-related mental models. Moreover, the results indicate that conscientiousness buffered the negative association between relationship conflict and the change in teamwork-related mental models. Our results did not support the hypothesized moderating effect of agreeableness and show that the detrimental effect of relationship conflict on the shift in teamwork-related mental models is accentuated for group members scoring low rather than high on neuroticism. These findings open new research venues for exploring the association between personality, coping styles and change in teamwork-related mental models.
Vîrgă, Delia; Curşeu, Petru Lucian; CurŞeu, Petru Lucian; Maricuţoiu, Laurenţiu; Sava, Florin A; Macsinga, Irina; Măgurean, Silvia
This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models). Data from 216 students, nested in 48 groups were analyzed using a multilevel modeling approach. Our results show that the experience of relationship conflict leads to a negative shift from the pre-task to the post-task teamwork-related mental models. Moreover, the results indicate that conscientiousness buffered the negative association between relationship conflict and the change in teamwork-related mental models. Our results did not support the hypothesized moderating effect of agreeableness and show that the detrimental effect of relationship conflict on the shift in teamwork-related mental models is accentuated for group members scoring low rather than high on neuroticism. These findings open new research venues for exploring the association between personality, coping styles and change in teamwork-related mental models.
Kaiser, Jennifer A; Westers, Judith B
The aim of this study was to examine how the facets of teamwork exist among nurse-only teams in acute and continuing care settings. The health care 'team' conventionally describes the interdisciplinary team in both literature and practice. Nursing-specific teams are rarely considered in the literature. An examination of this specific professional cohort is important to understand how teamwork exists among those who provide the majority of patient care. This was a descriptive, comparative, cross-sectional study using the Nursing Teamwork Survey to measure teamwork of nursing-based teams among 1414 participants in multiple acute care environments across a large Midwestern health system. The characteristics of nursing teams were analysed. The results from the subscales within the teamwork model showed that nursing teams had a good understanding of the various roles and responsibilities. However, nurse team members held a more individualistic rather than collective team-oriented mindset. Increased teamwork has a positive effect on job satisfaction, staffing efficiencies, retention and care delivery. Nurse leaders can use the information provided in this study to target the aspects of highly functioning teams by improving team orientation, trust and backup behaviours. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Körner, Mirjam; Lippenberger, Corinna; Becker, Sonja; Reichler, Lars; Müller, Christian; Zimmermann, Linda; Rundel, Manfred; Baumeister, Harald
Knowledge integration is the process of building shared mental models. The integration of the diverse knowledge of the health professions in shared mental models is a precondition for effective teamwork and team performance. As it is known that different groups of health care professionals often tend to work in isolation, the authors compared the perceptions of knowledge integration. It can be expected that based on this isolation, knowledge integration is assessed differently. The purpose of this paper is to test these differences in the perception of knowledge integration between the professional groups and to identify to what extent knowledge integration predicts perceptions of teamwork and team performance and to determine if teamwork has a mediating effect. The study is a multi-center cross-sectional study with a descriptive-explorative design. Data were collected by means of a staff questionnaire for all health care professionals working in the rehabilitation clinics. The results showed that there are significant differences in knowledge integration within interprofessional health care teams. Furthermore, it could be shown that knowledge integration is significantly related to patient-centered teamwork as well as to team performance. Mediation analysis revealed partial mediation of the effect of knowledge integration on team performance through teamwork. PRACTICAL/IMPLICATIONS: In practice, the results of the study provide a valuable starting point for team development interventions. This is the first study that explored knowledge integration in medical rehabilitation teams and its relation to patient-centered teamwork and team performance.
Friesel, Anna; Timcenko, Olga
cooperation between Ballerup Community, Copenhagen University College of Engineering and Aalborg University in Copenhagen. We focus on girls' engagement in FIRST LEGO League competitions, in order to motivate them in the future to study engineering. LEGO Mindstorm robots and RoboLab graphical programming......This paper describes competition-motivated teamwork and narratives to motivate teenager girls, 11-17 years old, to learn programming and basics of control. FIRST LEGO League competitions have been held at the Copenhagen University College of Engineering for several years because of successful...
Thistlethwaite, Jill; Dallest, Kathy; Moran, Monica; Dunston, Roger; Roberts, Chris; Eley, Diann; Bogossian, Fiona; Forman, Dawn; Bainbridge, Lesley; Drynan, Donna; Fyfe, Sue
The individual Teamwork Observation and Feedback Tool (iTOFT) was devised by a consortium of seven universities in recognition of the need for a means of observing and giving feedback to individual learners undertaking an interprofessional teamwork task. It was developed through a literature review of the existing teamwork assessment tools, a discussion of accreditation standards for the health professions, Delphi consultation and field-testing with an emphasis on its feasibility and acceptability for formative assessment. There are two versions: the Basic tool is for use with students who have little clinical teamwork experience and lists 11 observable behaviours under two headings: 'shared decision making' and 'working in a team'. The Advanced version is for senior students and junior health professionals and has 10 observable behaviours under four headings: 'shared decision making', 'working in a team', 'leadership', and 'patient safety'. Both versions include a comprehensive scale and item descriptors. Further testing is required to focus on its validity and educational impact.
Ramos-Mendes, Maria Goreti; Rodrigues Araújo, Beatriz; Pereira Martins, Manuela
Analyze the negotiation and interaction process within nurses' practice with mothers of hospitalized children in pediatric unit from the teamwork perspective. A qualitative approach was used in this study, based on the Grounded Theory from the symbolic interaction perspective. The study included 12 nurses of the pediatric unit and 18 mothers who stayed in the hospital with their hospitalized children. The number of participants was defined according to data saturation. Participant observation and semi-structured interviews were chosen as data collection techniques and it was analyzed using the program NVivo8. From the analysis performed, the central category identified was «weaknesses in the negotiation process», within the interactions between nurses and mothers. Nurses revealed difficulties in the communication process, they did not include roles definition with mothers in order to establish their participation in the care process and a power imbalance was also evidenced. Within the studied settings, an important lack of collaborative work with hospitalized children's mothers was observed. The weaknesses in the negotiation process and specifically the difficulties found in communication; the lack of roles and tasks clarification and the perceived power imbalance regarding relationships, prevent mothers involvement in their children care process, considered a basic component to achieve a greater mother implication, better results in terms of health and a lower impact of hospitalization in the children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Banerjee, Arna; Slagle, Jason M; Mercaldo, Nathaniel D; Booker, Ray; Miller, Anne; France, Daniel J; Rawn, Lisa; Weinger, Matthew B
Failures of teamwork and interpersonal communication have been cited as a major patient safety issue. Although healthcare is increasingly being provided in interdisciplinary teams, medical school curricula have traditionally not explicitly included the specific knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors required to function effectively as part of such teams. As part of a new "Foundations" core course for beginning medical students that provided a two-week introduction to the most important themes in modern healthcare, a multidisciplinary team, in collaboration with the Center for Experiential Learning and Assessment, was asked to create an experiential introduction to teamwork and interpersonal communication. We designed and implemented a novel, all-day course to teach second-week medical students basic teamwork and interpersonal principles and skills using immersive simulation methods. Students' anonymous comprehensive course evaluations were collected at the end of the day. Through four years of iterative refinement based on students' course evaluations, faculty reflection, and debriefing, the course changed and matured. Four hundred twenty evaluations were collected. Course evaluations were positive with almost all questions having means and medians greater than 5 out of 7 across all 4 years. Sequential year comparisons were of greatest interest for examining the effects of year-to-year curricular improvements. Differences were not detected among any of the course evaluation questions between 2007 and 2008 except that more students in 2008 felt that the course further developed their "Decision Making Abilities" (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.07-2.67). With extensive changes to the syllabus and debriefer selection/assignment, concomitant improvements were observed in these aspects between 2008 and 2009 (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.28-3.50). Substantive improvements in specific exercises also yielded significant improvements in the evaluations of those exercises. This
Tool to assess teamwork performance in higher education Tool to assess teamwork performance in higher education Herramienta para evaluar el funcionamiento de los equipos de trabajo en entornos docentes
Carmen Jaca García
Full Text Available Purpose: In this article, we present a tool for assessing the performance of teamwork activities. The results obtained from this tool can be used to guide teamwork learning and mentor students by giving them feedback on their work.Design/methodology/approach: The tool was based on a model of teamwork effectiveness from the literature. In this sense, analyzing a series of activities performed of by the same team can allow us to know whether the students involved in these activities are acquiring the ability to effectively engage in teamwork.Findings: The tool was used with 53 teams in a Bachelor’s Degree Programme inIndustrial Engineering. In this case, the results were used to analyze whether theproposed tool is suitable for assessing teamwork effectiveness in the university context.Practical implications: This tool will serve to provide feedback to students about the acquisition of their teamwork competency throughout the course of a Bachelor’s Degree.Social implications: Teamwork is a professional ability required by a great number of organizations, and universities should incorporate the development and assessment o fteamwork skills into their degree programmes.Originality/value: Developing this competence requires different social and personalskills, which are very difficult for students to acquire only by engaging in teamwork-building activities. The crucial step of providing feedbaPurpose: In this article, we present a tool for assessing the performance of teamwork activities. The results obtained from this tool can be used to guide teamwork learning and mentor students by giving them feedback on their work.Design/methodology/approach: The tool was based on a model of teamwork effectiveness from the literature. In this sense, analyzing a series of activities performed of by the same team can allow us to know whether the students involved in these activities are acquiring the ability to effectively engage in teamwork.Findings: The tool
Hull, L; Bicknell, C; Patel, K; Vyas, R; Van Herzeele, I; Sevdalis, N; Rudarakanchana, N
To modify, content validate, and evaluate a teamwork assessment tool for use in endovascular surgery. A multistage, multimethod study was conducted. Stage 1 included expert review and modification of the existing Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery (OTAS) tool. Stage 2 included identification of additional exemplar behaviours contributing to effective teamwork and enhanced patient safety in endovascular surgery (using real-time observation, focus groups, and semistructured interviews of multidisciplinary teams). Stage 3 included content validation of exemplar behaviours using expert consensus according to established psychometric recommendations and evaluation of structure, content, feasibility, and usability of the Endovascular Observational Teamwork Assessment Tool (Endo-OTAS) by an expert multidisciplinary panel. Stage 4 included final team expert review of exemplars. OTAS core team behaviours were maintained (communication, coordination, cooperation, leadership team monitoring). Of the 114 OTAS behavioural exemplars, 19 were modified, four removed, and 39 additional endovascular-specific behaviours identified. Content validation of these 153 exemplar behaviours showed that 113/153 (73.9%) reached the predetermined Item-Content Validity Index rating for teamwork and/or patient safety. After expert team review, 140/153 (91.5%) exemplars were deemed to warrant inclusion in the tool. More than 90% of the expert panel agreed that Endo-OTAS is an appropriate teamwork assessment tool with observable behaviours. Some concerns were noted about the time required to conduct observations and provide performance feedback. Endo-OTAS is a novel teamwork assessment tool, with evidence for content validity and relevance to endovascular teams. Endo-OTAS enables systematic objective assessment of the quality of team performance during endovascular procedures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Chien, Shu Feng; Wan, Thomas Th; Chen, Yu-Chih
To understand how work climate and related factors influence teamwork and collaboration in a large medical center. A survey of 3462 employees was conducted to generate responses to Sexton's Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) to assess perceptions of work environment via a series of five-point, Likert-scaled questions. Path analysis was performed, using teamwork (TW) and collaboration (CO) as endogenous variables. The exogenous variables are effective communication (EC), safety culture (SC), job satisfaction (JS), work pressure (PR), and work climate (WC). The measurement instruments for the variables or summated subscales are presented. Reliability of each sub-scale are calculated. Alpha Cronbach coefficients are relatively strong: TW (0.81), CO (0.76), EC (0.70), SC (0.83), JS (0.91), WP (0.85), and WC (0.78). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed for each of these constructs. Path analysis enables to identify statistically significant predictors of two endogenous variables, teamwork and intra-organizational collaboration. Significant amounts of variance in perceived teamwork (R(2) = 0.59) and in collaboration (R(2) = 0.75) are accounted for by the predictor variables. In the initial model, safety culture is the most important predictor of perceived teamwork, with a β weight of 0.51, and work climate is the most significant predictor of collaboration, with a β weight of 0.84. After eliminating statistically insignificant causal paths and allowing correlated predictors1, the revised model shows that work climate is the only predictor positively influencing both teamwork (β = 0.26) and collaboration (β = 0.88). A relatively weak positive (β = 0.14) but statistically significant relationship exists between teamwork and collaboration when the effects of other predictors are simultaneously controlled. Hospital executives who are interested in improving collaboration should assess the work climate to ensure that employees are operating in a setting conducive
Chien, Shu Feng; Wan, Thomas TH; Chen, Yu-Chih
AIM: To understand how work climate and related factors influence teamwork and collaboration in a large medical center. METHODS: A survey of 3462 employees was conducted to generate responses to Sexton’s Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) to assess perceptions of work environment via a series of five-point, Likert-scaled questions. Path analysis was performed, using teamwork (TW) and collaboration (CO) as endogenous variables. The exogenous variables are effective communication (EC), safety culture (SC), job satisfaction (JS), work pressure (PR), and work climate (WC). The measurement instruments for the variables or summated subscales are presented. Reliability of each sub-scale are calculated. Alpha Cronbach coefficients are relatively strong: TW (0.81), CO (0.76), EC (0.70), SC (0.83), JS (0.91), WP (0.85), and WC (0.78). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed for each of these constructs. RESULTS: Path analysis enables to identify statistically significant predictors of two endogenous variables, teamwork and intra-organizational collaboration. Significant amounts of variance in perceived teamwork (R2 = 0.59) and in collaboration (R2 = 0.75) are accounted for by the predictor variables. In the initial model, safety culture is the most important predictor of perceived teamwork, with a β weight of 0.51, and work climate is the most significant predictor of collaboration, with a β weight of 0.84. After eliminating statistically insignificant causal paths and allowing correlated predictors1, the revised model shows that work climate is the only predictor positively influencing both teamwork (β = 0.26) and collaboration (β = 0.88). A relatively weak positive (β = 0.14) but statistically significant relationship exists between teamwork and collaboration when the effects of other predictors are simultaneously controlled. CONCLUSION: Hospital executives who are interested in improving collaboration should assess the work climate to ensure that employees are
Skjerve, Ann Britt; Strand, Stine; Skraaning, Gyrd Jr.; Nihlwing, Christer; Helgar, Stein; Olsen, Asle; Kvilesjoe, Hans Oeyvind; Meyer, Geir; Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir; Svengren, Haakan
The report documents the study plan for the Extended Teamwork 2004/2005 exploratory study, which is performed within the Extended Teamwork HRP research program. The purpose of the research program is to generate ideas on how teamwork in nuclear power plants may be affected by the introduction of new operational concepts. The Extended Teamwork 2004/2005 exploratory study contributes with empirical knowledge on the effect of a new operational concept, implying increased automation levels, changed operator roles, redefined competence requirements to the operators, and new technologies to support co-operation, on teamwork. The Extended Teamwork 2004/2005 exploratory study covered occurrences during the early transition phase, i.e., from the time the operators are introduced to the possible future operational environment, to the time they have completed the twelve scenarios comprised by the study. The study assessed how familiarity with operation in the possible future operational environment may affect the extent and quality of co-operation. The report accounts for the motivation for performing the exploratory study, and explains the research question. It describes the theoretical approach, which is based on Co-operation Theory, the human-centered automation approach, and theories on co-operation across distances, and introduces the concept extended teamwork. It also describes the method applied: it provides a detailed description of the possible future operational environment, including requirements with respect to autonomy and authority - both for humans and for automatic agents, and describes the technology applied to support co-operation in the control-room team. In addition, all measurement techniques applied in the study are accounted for (system logs, questionnaires, interviews, etc.). (Author)
Chapman, Rose; Rahman, Asheq; Courtney, Mary; Chalmers, Cheyne
Investigate effects of teamwork on missed nursing care across a healthcare network in Australia. Missed care is universally used as an indicator of quality nursing care, however, little is known about mitigating effects of teamwork on these events. A descriptive exploratory study. Missed Care and Team Work surveys were completed by 334 nurses. Using Stata software, nursing staff demographic information and components of missed care and teamwork were compared across the healthcare network. Statistical tests were performed to identify predicting factors for missed care. The most commonly reported components of missed care were as follows: ambulation three times per day (43·3%), turning patient every two hours (29%) and mouth care (27·7%). The commonest reasons mentioned for missed care were as follows: inadequate labour resources (range 69·8-52·7%), followed by material resources (range 59·3-33·3%) and communication (range 39·3-27·2%). There were significant differences in missed care scores across units. Using the mean scores in regression correlation matrix, the negative relationship of missed care and teamwork was supported (r = -0·34, p teamwork alone accounted for about 9% of missed nursing care. Similar to previous international research findings, our results showed nursing teamwork significantly impacted on missed nursing care. Teamwork may be a mitigating factor to address missed care and future research is needed. These results may provide administrators, educators and clinicians with information to develop practices and policies to improve patient care internationally. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Welp, Annalena; Manser, Tanja
There is growing evidence that teamwork in hospitals is related to both patient outcomes and clinician occupational well-being. Furthermore, clinician well-being is associated with patient safety. Despite considerable research activity, few studies include all three concepts, and their interrelations have not yet been investigated systematically. To advance our understanding of these potentially complex interrelations we propose an integrative framework taking into account current evidence and research gaps identified in a systematic review. We conducted a literature search in six major databases (Medline, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, Psyndex, ScienceDirect, and Web of Knowledge). Inclusion criteria were: peer reviewed papers published between January 2000 and June 2015 investigating a statistical relationship between at least two of the three concepts; teamwork, patient safety, and clinician occupational well-being in hospital settings, including practicing nurses and physicians. We assessed methodological quality using a standardized rating system and qualitatively appraised and extracted relevant data, such as instruments, analyses and outcomes. The 98 studies included in this review were highly diverse regarding quality, methodology and outcomes. We found support for the existence of independent associations between teamwork, clinician occupational well-being and patient safety. However, we identified several conceptual and methodological limitations. The main barrier to advancing our understanding of the causal relationships between teamwork, clinician well-being and patient safety is the lack of an integrative, theory-based, and methodologically thorough approach investigating the three concepts simultaneously and longitudinally. Based on psychological theory and our findings, we developed an integrative framework that addresses these limitations and proposes mechanisms by which these concepts might be linked. Knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the
Smith, Derick Graham
This study sought to answer the question: "To what extent do prior beliefs about and experiences of teaching and learning influence the instructional practices of new independent school teachers," who are generally not required to have any formal pedagogical training or hold teacher certification prior to beginning full-time employment.…
Tamayo, M; Besoaín-Saldaña, A; Aguirre, M; Leiva, J
Determine the perception of university students regarding interprofessional and interdependent work between team members in their inclusion in primary care. Analytical cross-sectional study. The sampling had a probabilistic, stratified random type with 95% confidence and 5% margin of error. Seven-hundred and four students of Public Universities in Santiago (Chile) answered self-administered questionnaire. Ninety-seven point eight of students say that interprofessional work is important; 27.1% of them declare that their university did not seem to show that their study plans were important. The professionals listed as most important in teams are physicians and nurses. Spaces for development and institutional support are key elements to promote interprofessional work. If this competence can involve each academic unit in their different formative spaces there will be a significant contribution to said promotion. Teamwork is a pending task. Determinar la percepción de estudiantes universitarios respecto al trabajo interprofesional e interdependencia entre los miembros del equipo en su inserción en la atención primaria. Estudio de tipo analítico y transversal. El muestreo fue de tipo aleatorio, probabilístico estratificado con un 95% de confianza y un 5% de margen de error. Se utilizó un cuestionario auto-administrado en 704 estudiantes de Universidades del Estado en Santiago de Chile. Un 97,8% de los estudiantes opinan que el trabajo interprofesional es importante; un 27,1% de ellos declara que su universidad no le ha entregado importancia en sus planes de estudios. Los profesionales mencionados como más importantes en el equipo son los médicos y enfermeras. Espacios de desarrollo y respaldo institucional son elementos claves para promover el trabajo interprofesional. Que esta competencia logre involucrar a cada unidad académica en sus diferentes espacios formativos será un aporte significativo en aquello. Trabajo en equipo es una tarea pendiente.
Whittaker, George; Abboudi, Hamid; Khan, Muhammed Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran
Introduction. Deficiencies in teamwork skills have been shown to contribute to the occurrence of adverse events during surgery. Consequently, several teamwork assessment tools have been developed to evaluate trainee nontechnical performance. This paper aims to provide an overview of these instruments and review the validity of each tool. Furthermore, the present paper aims to review the deficiencies surrounding training and propose several recommendations to address these issues. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify teamwork assessment tools using MEDLINE (1946 to August 2015), EMBASE (1974 to August 2015), and PsycINFO (1806 to August 2015) databases. Results. Eight assessment tools which encompass aspects of teamwork were identified. The Nontechnical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) assessment was found to possess the highest level of validity from a variety of sources; reliability and acceptability have also been established for this tool. Conclusions. Deficits in current surgical training pathways have prompted several recommendations to meet the evolving requirements of surgeons. Recommendations from the current paper include integration of teamwork training and assessment into medical school curricula, standardised formal training of assessors to ensure accurate evaluation of nontechnical skill acquisition, and integration of concurrent technical and nontechnical skills training throughout training. PMID:26425732
Curran, Vernon R; Sharpe, Dennis; Forristall, Jennifer
Faculty attitudes are believed to be a barrier to successful implementation of interprofessional education (IPE) initiatives within academic health sciences settings. The purpose of this study was to examine specific attributes of faculty members, which might relate to attitudes towards IPE and interprofessional teamwork. A survey was distributed to all faculty members in the medicine, nursing, pharmacy and social work programmes at our institution. Respondents were asked to rate their attitudes towards interprofessional health care teams, IPE and interprofessional learning in an academic setting using scales adopted from the peer-reviewed literature. Information on the characteristics of the respondents was also collected, including data on gender, prior experience with IPE, age and years of practice experience. A total response rate of 63.0% was achieved. Medicine faculty members reported significantly lower mean scores (P nursing faculty on attitudes towards IPE, interprofessional teams and interprofessional learning in the academic setting. Female faculty and faculty who reported prior experience in IPE reported significantly higher mean scores (P teamwork. The findings have implications for both the advancement of IPE within academic institutions and strategies to promote faculty development initiatives. In terms of IPE evaluation, the findings also highlight the importance of measuring baseline attitudinal constructs as part of systematic evaluative activities when introducing new IPE initiatives within academic settings.
Ford, Jane; O'Hare, David; Henderson, Robert
The study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of a manipulation derived from social categorization and social identity theory to promote greater cabin crew willingness to engage in intergroup communication and teamwork in airline operations. Failures of communication and teamwork between airline crew have been implicated in a number of airline crashes. Flight attendants based domestically (n = 254) or overseas (n = 230) received a manipulation designed to prime either their social identity or personal identity and then read a brief outline of an in-flight event before completing a teamwork questionnaire. Flight attendants who received a social identity prime indicated increased willingness to engage in coordinated team action compared with those who received a personal identity prime. Priming social identity can enhance attitudes toward teamwork and communication, potentially leading to increased willingness to engage in intergroup cooperation. Social categorization and social identity theories can be used to inform joint training program development for flight attendants and pilots to create increased willingness for group members to participate in effective communication and teamwork behaviors.
Full Text Available The present study examines the association between team incivility climate and team members’ perceived support for innovation. To extend findings on the negative effects of incivility (which are low intensity deviant behaviors, such as rudeness in studies focusing on the individual level, the effects of organizational incivility are examined at the work team level. Drawing on the spiral model of incivility and the literature on teams, this study suggests that team incivility climate has a negative impact on perceived support for innovation through team members’ teamwork behaviors. Using data collected from 411 subordinates on 62 work teams, the hypothesized mediation model is tested. The results show a negative effect of team incivility climate on teamwork and a positive effect of teamwork on perceived support for innovation, supporting the hypothesized negative indirect effect. Research and practical implications for organizational sustainability are discussed.
It is critical to prepare nurses for future practice to work in teams by engaging students in interprofessional education (IPE) that fosters positive attitudes toward teamwork. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of computer-supported IPE on students’ attitudes and perceptions toward health care teamwork and team performance. A hybrid approach to IPE was used to provide students with an educational experience that combined the benefits of traditional face-to-face communication methodology with a computer-mediated platform that focused on reflection and team building. A statistically significant difference was found in students’ perceptions of team performance after engaging in computer-supported IPE. No statistically significant difference in students’ pretest–posttest composite attitude toward teamwork scores was noted; however, there was a positive trend toward improved scores.
Full Text Available Introduction: Leadership skills are described by the American College of Surgeons’ Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS course as necessary to provide care for patients during resuscitations. However, leadership is a complex concept, and the tools used to assess the quality of leadership are poorly described, inadequately validated, and infrequently used. Despite its importance, dedicated leadership education is rarely part of physician training programs. The goals of this investigation were the following: 1. Describe how leadership and leadership style affect patient care; 2. Describe how effective leadership is measured; and 3. Describe how to train future physician leaders. Methods: We searched the PubMed database using the keywords “leadership” and then either “trauma” or “resuscitation” as title search terms, and an expert in emergency medicine and trauma then identified prospective observational and randomized controlled studies measuring leadership and teamwork quality. Study results were categorized as follows: 1 how leadership affects patient care; 2 which tools are available to measure leadership; and 3 methods to train physicians to become better leaders. Results: We included 16 relevant studies in this review. Overall, these studies showed that strong leadership improves processes of care in trauma resuscitation including speed and completion of the primary and secondary surveys. The optimal style and structure of leadership are influenced by patient characteristics and team composition. Directive leadership is most effective when Injury Severity Score (ISS is high or teams are inexperienced, while empowering leadership is most effective when ISS is low or teams more experienced. Many scales were employed to measure leadership. The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ was the only scale used in more than one study. Seven studies described methods for training leaders. Leadership training programs
Ford, Kelsey; Menchine, Michael; Burner, Elizabeth; Arora, Sanjay; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios; Yersin, Bertrand
Introduction Leadership skills are described by the American College of Surgeons’ Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) course as necessary to provide care for patients during resuscitations. However, leadership is a complex concept, and the tools used to assess the quality of leadership are poorly described, inadequately validated, and infrequently used. Despite its importance, dedicated leadership education is rarely part of physician training programs. The goals of this investigation were the following: 1. Describe how leadership and leadership style affect patient care; 2. Describe how effective leadership is measured; and 3. Describe how to train future physician leaders. Methods We searched the PubMed database using the keywords “leadership” and then either “trauma” or “resuscitation” as title search terms, and an expert in emergency medicine and trauma then identified prospective observational and randomized controlled studies measuring leadership and teamwork quality. Study results were categorized as follows: 1) how leadership affects patient care; 2) which tools are available to measure leadership; and 3) methods to train physicians to become better leaders. Results We included 16 relevant studies in this review. Overall, these studies showed that strong leadership improves processes of care in trauma resuscitation including speed and completion of the primary and secondary surveys. The optimal style and structure of leadership are influenced by patient characteristics and team composition. Directive leadership is most effective when Injury Severity Score (ISS) is high or teams are inexperienced, while empowering leadership is most effective when ISS is low or teams more experienced. Many scales were employed to measure leadership. The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) was the only scale used in more than one study. Seven studies described methods for training leaders. Leadership training programs included didactic teaching
Ford, Kelsey; Menchine, Michael; Burner, Elizabeth; Arora, Sanjay; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios; Yersin, Bertrand
Leadership skills are described by the American College of Surgeons' Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) course as necessary to provide care for patients during resuscitations. However, leadership is a complex concept, and the tools used to assess the quality of leadership are poorly described, inadequately validated, and infrequently used. Despite its importance, dedicated leadership education is rarely part of physician training programs. The goals of this investigation were the following: 1. Describe how leadership and leadership style affect patient care; 2. Describe how effective leadership is measured; and 3. Describe how to train future physician leaders. We searched the PubMed database using the keywords "leadership" and then either "trauma" or "resuscitation" as title search terms, and an expert in emergency medicine and trauma then identified prospective observational and randomized controlled studies measuring leadership and teamwork quality. Study results were categorized as follows: 1) how leadership affects patient care; 2) which tools are available to measure leadership; and 3) methods to train physicians to become better leaders. We included 16 relevant studies in this review. Overall, these studies showed that strong leadership improves processes of care in trauma resuscitation including speed and completion of the primary and secondary surveys. The optimal style and structure of leadership are influenced by patient characteristics and team composition. Directive leadership is most effective when Injury Severity Score (ISS) is high or teams are inexperienced, while empowering leadership is most effective when ISS is low or teams more experienced. Many scales were employed to measure leadership. The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) was the only scale used in more than one study. Seven studies described methods for training leaders. Leadership training programs included didactic teaching followed by simulations. Although programs
Patterson, P Daniel; Weaver, Matthew D; Weaver, Sallie J; Rosen, Michael A; Todorova, Gergana; Weingart, Laurie R; Krackhardt, David; Lave, Judith R; Arnold, Robert M; Yealy, Donald M; Salas, Eduardo
We sought to develop a reliable and valid tool for measuring teamwork among emergency medical technician (EMT) partnerships. We adapted existing scales and developed new items to measure components of teamwork. After recruiting a convenience sample of 39 agencies, we tested a 122-item draft survey tool (EMT-TEAMWORK). We performed a series of exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test reliability and construct validity, describing variation in domain and global scores using descriptive statistics. We received 687 completed surveys. The EFAs identified a nine-factor solution. We labeled these factors 1) Team Orientation, 2) Team Structure & Leadership, 3) Partner Communication, Team Support, & Monitoring, 4) Partner Trust and Shared Mental Models, 5) Partner Adaptability & Back-Up Behavior, 6) Process Conflict, 7) Strong Task Conflict, 8) Mild Task Conflict, and 9) Interpersonal Conflict. We tested a short-form (30-item SF) and long-form (45-item LF) version. The CFAs determined that both the SF and the LF possess positive psychometric properties of reliability and construct validity. The EMT-TEAMWORK-SF has positive internal consistency properties, with a mean Cronbach's alpha coefficient ≥0.70 across all nine factors (mean = 0.84; minimum = 0.78, maximum = 0.94). The mean Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the EMT-TEAMWORK-LF was 0.87 (minimum = 0.79, maximum = 0.94). There was wide variation in weighted scores across all nine factors and the global score for the SF and LF. Mean scores were lowest for the Team Orientation factor (48.1, standard deviation [SD] 21.5, SF; 49.3, SD 19.8, LF) and highest (more positive) for the Interpersonal Conflict factor (87.7, SD 18.1, for both SF and LF). We developed a reliable and valid survey to evaluate teamwork between EMT partners.
Weaver, A Charlotta; Callaghan, Mary; Cooper, Abby L; Brandman, James; O'Leary, Kevin J
Teamwork is important to providing safe and effective care for hospitalized patients with cancer; however, few studies have evaluated teamwork in this setting. We surveyed all nurses, residents, hospitalists, and oncology physicians in oncology units at a large urban teaching hospital from September to November 2012. Respondents rated teamwork using a validated instrument (Safety Attitudes Questionnaire; scale, 0 to 100) and rated the quality of collaboration they had experienced with other professionals using a 5-point ordinal response scale (1, very low quality; 5, very high quality). Respondents also rated potential barriers to collaboration using a 4-point ordinal response scale (1, not at all a barrier; 4, major barrier). We compared ratings by professionals using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Overall, 129 (67%) of 193 eligible participants completed the survey. Teamwork scores differed across professional types, with nurses providing the lowest ratings (69.7) and residents providing the highest (81.9; ANOVA P = .01). Ratings of collaboration with nurses were high across all types of professionals. Ratings of collaboration with physicians varied significantly by professional type (P ≤ .02), with nurses giving lower ratings of collaboration with all physician types. Similarly, perceived barriers to collaboration differed by professional type, with nurses perceiving the biggest barrier to be negative attitudes regarding the importance of communication. Oncologists did not perceive any of the listed options as major barriers to collaboration. In inpatient oncology units, discrepancies exist between nurses' and physicians' ratings of teamwork and collaboration. Oncologists seem to be unaware that teamwork is suboptimal in this setting. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
McCulloch, P; Rathbone, J; Catchpole, K
Concern over the frequency of unintended harm to patients has focused attention on the importance of teamwork and communication in avoiding errors. This has led to experiments with teamwork training programmes for clinical staff, mostly based on aviation models. These are widely assumed to be effective in improving patient safety, but the extent to which this assumption is justified by evidence remains unclear. A systematic literature review on the effects of teamwork training for clinical staff was performed. Information was sought on outcomes including staff attitudes, teamwork skills, technical performance, efficiency and clinical outcomes. Of 1036 relevant abstracts identified, 14 articles were analysed in detail: four randomized trials and ten non-randomized studies. Overall study quality was poor, with particular problems over blinding, subjective measures and Hawthorne effects. Few studies reported on every outcome category. Most reported improved staff attitudes, and six of eight reported significantly better teamwork after training. Five of eight studies reported improved technical performance, improved efficiency or reduced errors. Three studies reported evidence of clinical benefit, but this was modest or of borderline significance in each case. Studies with a stronger intervention were more likely to report benefits than those providing less training. None of the randomized trials found evidence of technical or clinical benefit. The evidence for technical or clinical benefit from teamwork training in medicine is weak. There is some evidence of benefit from studies with more intensive training programmes, but better quality research and cost-benefit analysis are needed. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zhang, Jing; Adesso, Gerardo; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
We demonstrate the capability of continuous variable Gaussian states to communicate multipartite quantum information. A quantum teamwork protocol is presented according to which an arbitrary possibly entangled multimode state can be faithfully teleported between two teams each comprising many cooperative users. We prove that N-mode Gaussian weighted graph states exist for arbitrary N that enable unconditional quantum teamwork implementations for any arrangement of the teams. These perfect continuous variable maximally multipartite entangled resources are typical among pure Gaussian states and are unaffected by the entanglement frustration occurring in multiqubit states.
Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Smith, Ashley W.; Block, Rebecca G.; Keyton, Joann
A case of a young adult patient in the days immediately after a cancer diagnosis illustrates the critical importance of three interrelated core coordinating mechanisms—closed-loop communication, shared mental models, and mutual trust—of teamwork in an adolescent and young adult multidisciplinary oncology team. The case illustrates both the opportunities to increase team member coordination and the problems that can occur when coordination breaks down. A model for teamwork is presented, which highlights the relationships among these coordinating mechanisms and demonstrates how balance among them works to optimize team function and patient care. Implications for clinical practice and research suggested by the case are presented. PMID:27624944
Johnson, Rebecca H; Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Smith, Ashley W; Block, Rebecca G; Keyton, Joann
A case of a young adult patient in the days immediately after a cancer diagnosis illustrates the critical importance of three interrelated core coordinating mechanisms-closed-loop communication, shared mental models, and mutual trust-of teamwork in an adolescent and young adult multidisciplinary oncology team. The case illustrates both the opportunities to increase team member coordination and the problems that can occur when coordination breaks down. A model for teamwork is presented, which highlights the relationships among these coordinating mechanisms and demonstrates how balance among them works to optimize team function and patient care. Implications for clinical practice and research suggested by the case are presented.
Zäske, Romi; Awwad Shiekh Hasan, Bashar; Belin, Pascal
Listeners can recognize newly learned voices from previously unheard utterances, suggesting the acquisition of high-level speech-invariant voice representations during learning. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we investigated the anatomical basis underlying the acquisition of voice representations for unfamiliar speakers independent of speech, and their subsequent recognition among novel voices. Specifically, listeners studied voices of unfamiliar speakers uttering short sentences and subsequently classified studied and novel voices as "old" or "new" in a recognition test. To investigate "pure" voice learning, i.e., independent of sentence meaning, we presented German sentence stimuli to non-German speaking listeners. To disentangle stimulus-invariant and stimulus-dependent learning, during the test phase we contrasted a "same sentence" condition in which listeners heard speakers repeating the sentences from the preceding study phase, with a "different sentence" condition. Voice recognition performance was above chance in both conditions although, as expected, performance was higher for same than for different sentences. During study phases activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was related to subsequent voice recognition performance and same versus different sentence condition, suggesting an involvement of the left IFG in the interactive processing of speaker and speech information during learning. Importantly, at test reduced activation for voices correctly classified as "old" compared to "new" emerged in a network of brain areas including temporal voice areas (TVAs) of the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), as well as the right inferior/middle frontal gyrus (IFG/MFG), the right medial frontal gyrus, and the left caudate. This effect of voice novelty did not interact with sentence condition, suggesting a role of temporal voice-selective areas and extra-temporal areas in the explicit recognition of learned voice identity
Gittell, Jody Hoffer; Beswick, Joanne; Goldmann, Don; Wallack, Stanley S
To deliver greater value in the accountable care context, the Institute of Medicine argues for a culture of teamwork at multiple levels--across professional and organizational siloes and with patients and their families and communities. The logic of performance improvement is that data are needed to target interventions and to assess their impact. We argue that efforts to build teamwork will benefit from teamwork measures that provide diagnostic information regarding the current state and teamwork interventions that can respond to the opportunities identified in the current state. We identify teamwork measures and teamwork interventions that are validated and that can work across multiple levels of teamwork. We propose specific ways to combine them for optimal effectiveness. We review measures of teamwork documented by Valentine, Nembhard, and Edmondson and select those that they identified as satisfying the four criteria for psychometric validation and as being unbounded and therefore able to measure teamwork across multiple levels. We then consider teamwork interventions that are widely used in the U.S. health care context, are well validated based on their association with outcomes, and are capable of working at multiple levels of teamwork. We select the top candidate in each category and propose ways to combine them for optimal effectiveness. We find relational coordination is a validated multilevel teamwork measure and TeamSTEPPS® is a validated multilevel teamwork intervention and propose specific ways for the relational coordination measure to enhance the TeamSTEPPS intervention. Health care systems and change agents seeking to respond to the challenges of accountable care can use TeamSTEPPS as a validated multilevel teamwork intervention methodology, enhanced by relational coordination as a validated multilevel teamwork measure with diagnostic capacity to pinpoint opportunities for improving teamwork along specific dimensions (e.g., shared knowledge
Ross, Jordan M; Fletcher, Max L
Associative fear learning produces fear toward the conditioned stimulus (CS) and often generalization, the expansion of fear from the CS to similar, unlearned stimuli. However, how fear learning affects early sensory processing of learned and unlearned stimuli in relation to behavioral fear responses to these stimuli remains unclear. We subjected male and female mice expressing the fluorescent calcium indicator GCaMP3 in olfactory bulb mitral and tufted cells to a classical olfactory fear conditioning paradigm. We then used awake, in vivo calcium imaging to quantify learning-induced changes in glomerular odor responses, which constitute the first site of olfactory processing in the brain. The results demonstrate that odor-shock pairing non-specifically enhances glomerular odor representations in a learning-dependent manner and increases representational similarity between the CS and non-conditioned odors, potentially priming the system towards generalization of learned fear. Additionally, CS-specific glomerular enhancements remain even when associative learning is blocked, suggesting two separate mechanisms lead to enhanced glomerular responses following odor-shock pairings. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In the olfactory bulb (OB), odors are uniquely coded in a spatial map that represents odor identity, making the OB a unique model system for investigating how learned fear alters sensory processing. Classical fear conditioning causes fear of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and of neutral stimuli, known as generalization. Combining fear conditioning with fluorescent calcium imaging of OB glomeruli, we found enhanced glomerular responses of the CS as well as neutral stimuli in awake mice, which mirrors fear generalization. We report that CS and neutral stimuli enhancements are, respectively, learning- independent and learning-dependent. Together, these results reveal distinct mechanisms leading to enhanced OB processing of fear-inducing stimuli and provide important
Hansen, Line Skov; Hansen, Ole
. The project uses a ?capacity building strategy where new practice and skills are built through pedagogical interventions mostly designed as courses based on blended learning with a dialogue oriented and practice related team-work as an important part. Through this work the team learns how to use a specific...
Beddoes, Kacey; Panther, Grace
Teamwork is increasingly seen as an important component of engineering education programmes. Yet, prior research has shown that there are numerous ways in which teamwork is gendered, and can lead to negative experiences for women students. This article presents the first interview findings on professors' perspectives on gender and teamwork.…
Background: Medical errors caused by breakdowns in teamwork and interprofessional communication contribute to many deaths in the United States each year. Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS®) is an evidence-based teamwork system developed to improve communication and teamwork skills among health care…
Vogelsmeier, Amy; Scott-Cawiezell, Jill
Leadership, communication, and teamwork are essential elements of organizational capacity and are linked to organizational performance. How those organizations actually achieve improved performance, however, is not clearly understood. In this comparative case study, nursing leadership who facilitated open communication and teamwork achieved improvement while nursing leadership who impeded open communication and teamwork did not.
Valentine, Melissa A; Nembhard, Ingrid M; Edmondson, Amy C
Teamwork in health care settings is widely recognized as an important factor in providing high-quality patient care. However, the behaviors that comprise effective teamwork, the organizational factors that support teamwork, and the relationship between teamwork and patient outcomes remain empirical questions in need of rigorous study. To identify and review survey instruments used to assess dimensions of teamwork so as to facilitate high-quality research on this topic. We conducted a systematic review of articles published before September 2012 to identify survey instruments used to measure teamwork and to assess their conceptual content, psychometric validity, and relationships to outcomes of interest. We searched the ISI Web of Knowledge database, and identified relevant articles using the search terms team, teamwork, or collaboration in combination with survey, scale, measure, or questionnaire. We found 39 surveys that measured teamwork. Surveys assessed different dimensions of teamwork. The most commonly assessed dimensions were communication, coordination, and respect. Of the 39 surveys, 10 met all of the criteria for psychometric validity, and 14 showed significant relationships to nonself-report outcomes. Evidence of psychometric validity is lacking for many teamwork survey instruments. However, several psychometrically valid instruments are available. Researchers aiming to advance research on teamwork in health care should consider using or adapting one of these instruments before creating a new one. Because instruments vary considerably in the behavioral processes and emergent states of teamwork that they capture, researchers must carefully evaluate the conceptual consistency between instrument, research question, and context.
Bravo, Rafael; Lucia-Palacios, Laura; Martin, Maria J.
The presence of student teamwork is increasing in most university degrees. However, there is still a gap in the literature regarding the connection between teamwork processes and their outcomes. In this paper, the authors analyze these processes and how they relate to teamwork outcomes from the students' perspective. Data was gathered from 129…
Souza,Geisa Colebrusco de; Peduzzi,Marina; Silva,Jaqueline Alcântara Marcelino da; Carvalho,Brígida Gimenez
Abstract OBJECTIVE To understand the nursing professionals' conceptions of teamwork and their elements. METHOD A qualitative study conducted in an oncological hospital using a semi-structured interview with 21 nursing professionals. RESULTS Two conceptions emerged from the accounts: teamwork restricted to nursing professionals and teamwork with interprofessional collaboration with particular importance for interactive dimensions: communication, trust and professional bonds, mutual respect ...
Dolan, Brigid M; O'Brien, Celia Laird; Cameron, Kenzie A; Green, Marianne M
Construct: Students entering the health professions require competency in teamwork. Although many teamwork curricula and assessments exist, studies have not demonstrated robust longitudinal assessment of preclerkship students' teamwork skills and attitudes. Assessment portfolios may serve to fill this gap, but it is unknown how narrative comments within portfolios describe student teamwork behaviors. We performed a qualitative analysis of narrative data in 15 assessment portfolios. Student portfolios were randomly selected from 3 groups stratified by quantitative ratings of teamwork performance gathered from small-group and clinical preceptor assessment forms. Narrative data included peer and faculty feedback from these same forms. Data were coded for teamwork-related behaviors using a constant comparative approach combined with an identification of the valence of the coded statements as either "positive observation" or "suggestion for improvement." Eight codes related to teamwork emerged: attitude and demeanor, information facilitation, leadership, preparation and dependability, professionalism, team orientation, values team member contributions, and nonspecific teamwork comments. The frequency of codes and valence varied across the 3 performance groups, with students in the low-performing group receiving more suggestions for improvement across all teamwork codes. Narrative data from assessment portfolios included specific descriptions of teamwork behavior, with important contributions provided by both faculty and peers. A variety of teamwork domains were represented. Such feedback as collected in an assessment portfolio can be used for longitudinal assessment of preclerkship student teamwork skills and attitudes.
Shen, Yide; Li, Lei; Zheng, Guangzhi; Guo, Rong
Collaboration technologies play an increasingly important role in student teamwork in universities. With the proliferation of collaboration systems on the market and the wide range of features they offer, choosing an appropriate system can be an overwhelming task for college students. In this paper, the authors present an empirical study that…
Rochon, Andrea; Heale, Roberta; Hunt, Elena; Parent, Michele
The literature suggests that effective teamwork among patient care teams can positively impact work environment, job satisfaction and quality of patient care. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived level of nursing teamwork by registered nurses, registered practical nurses, personal support workers and unit clerks working on patient care teams in one acute care hospital in northern Ontario, Canada, and to determine if a relationship exists between the staff scores on the Nursing Teamwork Survey (NTS) and participant perception of adequate staffing. Using a descriptive cross-sectional research design, 600 staff members were invited to complete the NTS and a 33% response rate was achieved (N=200). The participants from the critical care unit reported the highest scores on the NTS, whereas participants from the inpatient surgical (IPS) unit reported the lowest scores. Participants from the IPS unit also reported having less experience, being younger, having less satisfaction in their current position and having a higher intention to leave. A high rate of intention to leave in the next year was found among all participants. No statistically significant correlation was found between overall scores on the NTS and the perception of adequate staffing. Strategies to increase teamwork, such as staff education, among patient care teams may positively influence job satisfaction and patient care on patient care units. Copyright © 2015 Longwoods Publishing.
Many organisations and nations today are turning to teams to manage their operations and help them reach their goals and objectives in a competitively charged business environment as is experienced in the present global arena. However, as much as teamwork is fancied in the workplace today, team processing is not ...
Mujumdar, Sandhya; Santos, Diana
Teamwork and communication failures are leading causes of patient safety incidents in health care. Though health care providers must work in teams, they are not well-trained in teamwork and communication skills. Health care faces the problems of differences in communication styles, communication failures and poor teamwork. There is enough evidence in the literature to show that communication failure is detrimental to patient safety. It is estimated that 80% of serious medical errors worldwide take place because of miscommunication between medical providers. NUH recognizes that effective communication and teamwork are essential in the delivery of high quality safe patient care, especially in a complex organization. NUH is a good example, where there is a rich mix of nationalities and races, in staff and in patients, and there is a rapidly expanding care environment. NUH had to overcome these challenges by adopting a multi-pronged approach. The trials and tribulations of NUH in this journey were worthwhile as the patient safety climate survey scores improved over the years.
Onwochei, Desire N; Halpern, Stephen; Balki, Mrinalini
Team-based training and simulation can improve patient safety, by improving communication, decision making, and performance of team members. Currently, there is no general consensus on whether or not a specific assessment tool is better adapted to evaluate teamwork in obstetric emergencies. The purpose of this qualitative systematic review was to find the tools available to assess team effectiveness in obstetric emergencies. We searched Embase, Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Google Scholar for prospective studies that evaluated nontechnical skills in multidisciplinary teams involving obstetric emergencies. The search included studies from 1944 until January 11, 2016. Data on reliability and validity measures were collected and used for interpretation. A descriptive analysis was performed on the data. Thirteen studies were included in the final qualitative synthesis. All the studies assessed teams in the context of obstetric simulation scenarios, but only six included anesthetists in the simulations. One study evaluated their teamwork tool using just validity measures, five using just reliability measures, and one used both. The most reliable tools identified were the Clinical Teamwork Scale, the Global Assessment of Obstetric Team Performance, and the Global Rating Scale of performance. However, they were still lacking in terms of quality and validity. More work needs to be conducted to establish the validity of teamwork tools for nontechnical skills, and the development of an ideal tool is warranted. Further studies are required to assess how outcomes, such as performance and patient safety, are influenced when using these tools.
Planas-Lladó, Anna; Feliu, Lidia; Castro, Francesc; Fraguell, Rosa Maria; Arbat, Gerard; Pujol, Joan; Suñol, Joan Josep; Daunis-i-Estadella, Pepus
This article analyses the use of peer evaluation as a tool for evaluating teamwork and students' perceptions of this type of evaluation. A study was conducted of six subjects included on five degree courses at the University of Girona. In all of these subjects, students carried out a team activity, evaluated the performance of the team and the…
Griffin, M.A.; Patterson, M.G.; West, M.A.
The link between teamwork and job satisfaction was investigated in a sample of 48 manufacturing companies comprising 4708 employees. Two separate research questions were addressed. First, it was proposed that supervisor support would be a weaker source of job satisfaction in companies with higher
Malone, D. Michael; Gallagher, Peggy A.
One hundred and eighty-four special education teachers serving school-based intervention teams completed the "Attitudes About Teamwork Survey", the "Team Characteristics Survey", and the "Team Process Perception Survey". Respondents' regard for the team process in planning and implementing supports for children with disabilities was generally…
Meehan, Barry; Thomas, Ian
Numerous reports over recent years emphasise the importance of teamwork training in undergraduate programs in environment education at tertiary level. This paper describes a project undertaken by a team of final year undergraduate environment students from four faculties at RMIT University in Australia working on a multi-disciplinary environment…
Christensen, Dana; Antle, Becky; Johnson, Lisa
This article summarizes the importance of and challenges to addressing couple teamwork issues in the child welfare population. Although there is substantial evidence to support the importance of healthy adult relationships for child well-being and the prevention of child maltreatment, there are a number of barriers to addressing these couple…
Yu, Han; Shen, Zhiqi; Miao, Chunyan; Leung, Cyril; Chen, Yiqiang; Fauvel, Simon; Lin, Jun; Cui, Lizhen; Pan, Zhengxiang; Yang, Qiang
Today, most endeavours require teamwork by people with diverse skills and characteristics. In managing teamwork, decisions are often made under uncertainty and resource constraints. The strategies and the effectiveness of the strategies different people adopt to manage teamwork under different situations have not yet been fully explored, partially due to a lack of detailed large-scale data. In this paper, we describe a multi-faceted large-scale dataset to bridge this gap. It is derived from a game simulating complex project management processes. It presents the participants with different conditions in terms of team members' capabilities and task characteristics for them to exhibit their decision-making strategies. The dataset contains detailed data reflecting the decision situations, decision strategies, decision outcomes, and the emotional responses of 1,144 participants from diverse backgrounds. To our knowledge, this is the first dataset simultaneously covering these four facets of decision-making. With repeated measurements, the dataset may help establish baseline variability of decision-making in teamwork management, leading to more realistic decision theoretic models and more effective decision support approaches.
Fisher, David M
Planning in teams represents a critical process that lays the groundwork for effective team functioning. The current investigation examined whether emergent team planning can be meaningfully characterized in terms of a distinction between planning that focuses on taskwork and planning that focuses on teamwork. In Study 1, items written to reflect commonly identified indicators of team planning were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis. In Study 2, slightly modified items were provided to a separate sample, and a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. In Study 3, the relationships between the different forms of planning and other team processes (i.e., coordination, interpersonal processes) were examined in order to determine whether there are unique relationships for task-focused and team-focused planning. Results from the first 2 studies provided support for a 2-factor structure of team planning, whereas Study 3 found independent relationships for taskwork and teamwork planning with subsequent team processes. Both forms of planning also exhibited indirect relationships with team performance via the mediating role of subsequent team processes. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Hewitt, Gillian; Sims, Sarah; Harris, Ruth
Realist synthesis offers a novel and innovative way to interrogate the large literature on interprofessional teamwork in health and social care teams. This article introduces realist synthesis and its approach to identifying and testing the underpinning processes (or "mechanisms") that make an intervention work, the contexts that trigger those mechanisms and their subsequent outcomes. A realist synthesis of the evidence on interprofessional teamwork is described. Thirteen mechanisms were identified in the synthesis and findings for one mechanism, called "Support and value" are presented in this paper. The evidence for the other twelve mechanisms ("collaboration and coordination", "pooling of resources", "individual learning", "role blurring", "efficient, open and equitable communication", "tactical communication", "shared responsibility and influence", "team behavioural norms", "shared responsibility and influence", "critically reviewing performance and decisions", "generating and implementing new ideas" and "leadership") are reported in a further three papers in this series. The "support and value" mechanism referred to the ways in which team members supported one another, respected other's skills and abilities and valued each other's contributions. "Support and value" was present in some, but far from all, teams and a number of contexts that explained this variation were identified. The article concludes with a discussion of the challenges and benefits of undertaking this realist synthesis.
Borges, Tatiane Angélica Phelipini; Vannuchi, Marli Terezinha Oliveira; Grosseman, Suely; González, Alberto Durán
ABSTRACT Objective: to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation of DocCom online module 38, which deals with teamwork communication into Portuguese for the Brazilian contexto. Method: the transcultural translation and adaptation were accomplished through initial translations, synthesis of the translations, evaluation and synthesis by a committee of experts, analysis by translators and back translation, pre-test with nurses and undergraduate students in Nursing, and analysis of the translators to obtain the final material. Results: in evaluation and synthesis of the translated version with the original version by the expert committee, the items obtained higher than 80% agreement. Few modifications were suggested according to the analysis by pretest participants. The final version was adequate to the proposed context and its purpose. Conclusion: it is believed that by making this new teaching-learning strategy of communication skills and competencies for teamwork available, it can be used systematically in undergraduate and postgraduate courses in the health area in Brazil in order to contribute to training professionals, and also towards making advances in this field.
Tatiane Angélica Phelipini Borges
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation of DocCom online module 38, which deals with teamwork communication into Portuguese for the Brazilian contexto. Method: the transcultural translation and adaptation were accomplished through initial translations, synthesis of the translations, evaluation and synthesis by a committee of experts, analysis by translators and back translation, pre-test with nurses and undergraduate students in Nursing, and analysis of the translators to obtain the final material. Results: in evaluation and synthesis of the translated version with the original version by the expert committee, the items obtained higher than 80% agreement. Few modifications were suggested according to the analysis by pretest participants. The final version was adequate to the proposed context and its purpose. Conclusion: it is believed that by making this new teaching-learning strategy of communication skills and competencies for teamwork available, it can be used systematically in undergraduate and postgraduate courses in the health area in Brazil in order to contribute to training professionals, and also towards making advances in this field.
Leonard, M; Graham, S; Bonacum, D
Effective communication and teamwork is essential for the delivery of high quality, safe patient care. Communication failures are an extremely common cause of inadvertent patient harm. The complexity of medical care, coupled with the inherent limitations of human performance, make it critically important that clinicians have standardised communication tools, create an environment in which individuals can speak up and express concerns, and share common "critical language" to alert team members to unsafe situations. All too frequently, effective communication is situation or personality dependent. Other high reliability domains, such as commercial aviation, have shown that the adoption of standardised tools and behaviours is a very effective strategy in enhancing teamwork and reducing risk. We describe our ongoing patient safety implementation using this approach within Kaiser Permanente, a non-profit American healthcare system providing care for 8.3 million patients. We describe specific clinical experience in the application of surgical briefings, properties of high reliability perinatal care, the value of critical event training and simulation, and benefits of a standardised communication process in the care of patients transferred from hospitals to skilled nursing facilities. Additionally, lessons learned as to effective techniques in achieving cultural change, evidence of improving the quality of the work environment, practice transfer strategies, critical success factors, and the evolving methods of demonstrating the benefit of such work are described.
Eileen Adel Herge
Full Text Available The Eastern Pennsylvania Delaware Geriatric Education Center developed an Interprofessional Clinical Skills Scenario (CSS to facilitate development of teamwork skills, specifically decision making, communication and collaboration, in health professions students in medicine, nursing, pharmacy, occupational and physical therapy programs. The case scenario provides students with the opportunity to practice communication and collaboration with a team and standardized patient and caregiver in a simulated clinical setting. The CSS was integrated into an existing occupational therapy course in 2011. Students were recruited by faculty from various schools (health professions, pharmacy, nursing, medicine throughout the university to participate in the CSS. The program evaluation included demographic assessment, process, and outcome measures. 166 students have participated in the CSS. Pre- and post-tests measured students' attitude toward healthcare teams. A Team Observation Tool was used by faculty and standardized patients/caregivers to evaluate student teams on communication, information sharing, and team interaction. A satisfaction survey was completed by the learners at the end of the CSS. This simulated Clinical Skills Scenario is a practical, interactive exercise that allows teams of interprofessional students to practice teamwork skills and patient-centered care with standardized patients and caregivers. Following a review of the learning activity and evaluation tools, the authors reflect on the effectiveness of the evaluation process for this CSS.
Al-Araidah, Omar; Al Theeb, Nader; Bader, Mariam; Mandahawi, Nabeel
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present the deficiencies in teamwork skills at Jordan hospitals as seen by team members. The study aims to identify training needs to improve teamwork-related soft skills of caregivers to enhance staff satisfaction and improve quality of care. Moreover, the paper provides a methodology to identify the training needs in any healthcare workplace by repeating the same questionnaire. Design/methodology/approach A self-administrated questionnaire was designed to study deficiencies in teamwork and team leadership at Jordan hospitals as seen by team members. Surveyed care providers included physicians, nursing and anesthesiologists operating in emergency departments, surgical operating rooms and intensive care units from various hospitals. Findings With a response rate of 78.8 percent, statistical analysis of collected data of opposing staff members revealed low levels of satisfaction (40.7-48 percent opposing), lack of awareness on the impact of teamwork on quality of care (15.6-22.1 percent opposing), low levels of involvement of top management (27.1-57.3 percent opposing), lack of training (52.5-69.8 percent opposing), lack of leadership skills (29.8-60 percent opposing), lack of communication (22.3-62.1 percent opposing), lack of employee involvement (37.6-50.8 percent opposing) and lack of collaboration among team members (28.6-50 percent opposing). Among the many, results illustrate the need for improving leadership skills of team leaders, improving communication and involving team members in decision making. Originality/value Several studies investigated relationships between teamwork skills and quality of care in many countries. To the authors' knowledge, no local study investigated the deficiencies of teamwork skills among Jordan caregivers and its impact on quality of care. The study provides the ground for management at Jordan hospitals and to healthcare academic departments to tailor training courses to improve teamwork
Patterson, P. Daniel; Weaver, Matthew D.; Weaver, Sallie J.; Rosen, Michael A.; Todorova, Gergana; Weingart, Laurie R.; Krackhardt, David; Lave, Judith R.; Arnold, Robert M.; Yealy, Donald M.; Salas, Eduardo
Objective We sought to develop a reliable and valid tool for measuring teamwork among Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) partnerships. Methods We adapted existing scales and developed new items to measure components of teamwork. After recruiting a convenience sample of 39 agencies, we tested a 122-item draft survey tool. We performed a series of Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to test reliability and construct validity, describing variation in domain and global scores using descriptive statistics. Results We received 687 completed surveys. The EFA analyses identified a 9-factor solution. We labeled these factors  Team Orientation,  Team Structure & Leadership,  Partner Communication, Team Support, & Monitoring,  Partner Trust and Shared Mental Models,  Partner Adaptability & Back-Up Behavior,  Process Conflict,  Strong Task Conflict,  Mild Task Conflict, and  Interpersonal Conflict. We tested a short form (30-item SF) and long form (45-item LF) version. The CFA analyses determined that both the SF and LF versions possess positive psychometric properties of reliability and construct validity. The EMT-TEAMWORK-SF has positive internal consistency properties with a mean Cronbach’s alpha coefficient ≥0.70 across all 9-factors (mean=0.84; min=0.78, max=0.94). The mean Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the EMT-TEAMWORK-LF version was 0.87 (min=0.79, max=0.94). There was wide variation in weighted scores across all 9 factors and the global score for the SF and LF versions. Mean scores were lowest for the Team Orientation factor (48.1, SD 21.5 SF; 49.3 SD 19.8 LF) and highest (more positive) for the Interpersonal Conflict factor (87.7 SD 18.1 for both SF and LF). Conclusions We developed a reliable and valid survey to evaluate teamwork between EMT partners. PMID:22128909
Bleakley, Alan; Allard, Jon; Hobbs, Adrian
Changing teamwork climate in healthcare through a collective shift in attitudes and values may be a necessary precursor to establishing a positive teamwork culture, where innovations can be more readily embedded and sustained. A complex educational intervention was initiated across an entire UK Trust's surgical provision, and then sustained. Attitudes towards teamwork were measured longitudinally to examine if the intervention produced sustainable results. The research aimed to test whether sustaining a complex education intervention to improve teamwork would result in an incremental, longitudinal improvement in attitudes and values towards teamwork. The intervention's larger aim is to progress the historical default position of multi-professional work to authentic inter-professional teamwork, as a positive values climate translates in time into behavioural change defining a safety culture. Attitudes were measured at three points across all surgical team personnel over a period of 4 years, using a validated Safety Attitudes Questionnaire with a focus on the 'teamwork climate' domain. Pre- and post-intervention 'teamwork climate' scores were compared to give a longitudinal measure as a test of sustainability. Mean 'teamwork climate' scores improved incrementally and significantly following the series of educational interventions, showing that practitioners' valuing of teamwork activity can be improved and sustained. Longitudinal positive change in attitudes and values towards teamwork can be sustained, suggesting that a deliberate, designed complex intervention can shape a safety climate as a necessary prerequisite for the establishment of a sustainable safety culture.
Savelsbergh, Chantal M.J.H.; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Poell, Rob F.
The importance of teamwork to organizational success in today’s economy has been emphasized in literature for well over a decade. Effective teamwork can only be sustained, however, if it is supported by a process of team learning. Following Edmondson, the authors regard team learning as a group
Welp, Annalena; Meier, Laurenz L; Manser, Tanja
Effectively managing patient safety and clinicians' emotional exhaustion are important goals of healthcare organizations. Previous cross-sectional studies showed that teamwork is associated with both. However, causal relationships between all three constructs have not yet been investigated. Moreover, the role of different dimensions of teamwork in relation to emotional exhaustion and patient safety is unclear. The current study focused on the long-term development of teamwork, emotional exhaustion, and patient safety in interprofessional intensive care teams by exploring causal relationships between these constructs. A secondary objective was to disentangle the effects of interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral teamwork. We employed a longitudinal study design. Participants were 2100 nurses and physicians working in 55 intensive care units. They answered an online questionnaire on interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral aspects of teamwork, emotional exhaustion, and patient safety at three time points with a 3-month lag. Data were analyzed with cross-lagged structural equation modeling. We controlled for professional role. Analyses showed that emotional exhaustion had a lagged effect on interpersonal teamwork. Furthermore, interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral teamwork mutually influenced each other. Finally, cognitive-behavioral teamwork predicted clinician-rated patient safety. The current study shows that the interrelations between teamwork, clinician burnout, and clinician-rated patient safety unfold over time. Interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral teamwork play specific roles in a process leading from clinician emotional exhaustion to decreased clinician-rated patient safety. Emotionally exhausted clinicians are less able to engage in positive interpersonal teamwork, which might set in motion a vicious cycle: negative interpersonal team interactions negatively affect cognitive-behavioral teamwork and vice versa. Ultimately, ineffective cognitive
Wardono; Waluya, B.; Kartono; Mulyono; Mariani, S.
This research is very urgent in relation to the national issue of human development and the nation's competitiveness because of the ability of Indonesian Junior High School students' mathematics literacy results of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) by OECD field of Mathematics is still very low compared to other countries. Curriculum 2013 launched one of them reflect the results of PISA which is still far from the expectations of the Indonesian nation and to produce a better quality of education, PISA ratings that reflect the nation's better competitiveness need to be developed innovative, interactive learning models such as innovative interactive learning Problem Based Learning (PBL) based on the approach of Indonesian Realistic Mathematics Education (PMRI) and the Scientific approach using Information and Communication Technology (ICT).The research was designed using Research and Development (R&D), research that followed up the development and dissemination of a product/model. The result of the research shows the innovative interactive learning PBL model based on PMRI-Scientific using ICT that developed valid, practical and effective and can improve the ability of mathematics literacy and independence-character of junior high school students. While the quality of innovative interactive learning PBL model based on PMRI-Scientific using ICT meet the good category.
Lundén, M; Lundgren, S M; Morrison-Helme, M; Lepp, M
The rapid development within Interventional Radiology presents new challenges. Hybrid operating rooms consist of interventional radiology, open surgery, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and other techniques. This means that several disciplines and professionals need to work in new constellations creating a multidisciplinary team around the patient. In accordance with this development, higher professional education must provide new pedagogic strategies to successfully address the knowledge expected in today's complex working life. To explore the use of Applied Drama as a learning medium, focusing on the use of Forum Theatre, to foster team work and collaboration in the field of radiography and learning. A qualitative approach, closely related to Ethnography, was utilized. The Drama Workshop utilising Forum Theatre created a dynamic learning environment and enabled the participants from three professions to understand each other's priorities better. The use of drama within health care education allows the students to take different roles in order to find the best way to co-operate. Forum Theatre is a useful learning medium in order to promote teamwork and collaboration in the radiological intervention field. By choosing a personal working experience, Forum Theatre seem to engage the participants at a deeper level and to experience various communication strategies and how the outcome changed depending on the approach. This can lead to improved teamwork and collaboration. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. All rights reserved.
Henkin, Stanislav; Chon, Tony Y; Christopherson, Marie L; Halvorsen, Andrew J; Worden, Lindsey M; Ratelle, John T
Teamwork between physicians and nurses has a positive association with patient satisfaction and outcomes, but perceptions of physician-nurse teamwork are often suboptimal. To improve nurse-physician teamwork in a general medicine inpatient teaching unit by increasing face-to-face communication through interprofessional bedside rounds. From July 2013 through October 2013, physicians (attendings and residents) and nurses from four general medicine teams in a single nursing unit participated in bedside rounding, which involved the inclusion of nurses in morning rounds with the medicine teams at the patients' bedside. Based on stakeholder analysis and feedback, a checklist for key patient care issues was created and utilized during bedside rounds. To assess the effect of bedside rounding on nurse-physician teamwork, a survey of selected items from the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) was administered to participants before and after the implementation of bedside rounds. The number of pages to the general medicine teams was also measured as a marker of physician-nurse communication. Participation rate in bedside rounds across the four medicine teams was 58%. SAQ response rates for attendings, residents, and nurses were 36/36 (100%), 73/73 (100%), and 32/73 (44%) prior to implementation of bedside rounding and 36 attendings (100%), 72 residents (100%), and 14 (19%) nurses after the implementation of bedside rounding, respectively. Prior to bedside rounding, nurses provided lower teamwork ratings (percent agree) than residents and attendings on all SAQ items; but after the intervention, the difference remained significant only on SAQ item 2 ("In this clinical area, it is not difficult to speak up if I perceive a problem with patient care", 64% for nurses vs 79% for residents vs 94% for attendings, P=0.02). Also, resident responses improved on SAQ item 1 ("Nurse input is well received in this area", 62% vs 82%, P=0.01). Increasing face-to-face communication through
Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki
Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)
Pisa, Carlos Cabañero; López, Enric Serradell
Teamwork is considered one of the most important professional skills in today's business environment. More specifically, the collaborative work between professionals and information technology managers from various functional areas is a strategic key in competitive business. Several university-level programs are focusing on developing these skills. This article presents the case of the course Computer Science Applied to Management (hereafter CSAM) that has been designed with the objective to develop the ability to work cooperatively in interdisciplinary teams. For their design and development have been addressed to the key elements of efficiency that appear in the literature, most notably the establishment of shared objectives and a feedback system, the management of the harmony of the team, their level of autonomy, independence, diversity and level of supervision. The final result is a subject in which, through a working virtual platform, interdisciplinary teams solve a problem raised by a case study.
Upitis, Rena; Brook, Julia
Even though there are demonstrated benefits of using online tools to support student musicians, there is a persistent challenge of providing sufficient and effective professional development for independent music teachers to use such tools successfully. This paper describes several methods for helping teachers use an online tool called iSCORE,…
Grant, LaVerne F.; Kelley, Jane H.; Northington, LaDonna; Barlow, Delores
Junior and senior nursing students participated in collaborative learning projects developed using total quality management/continuous quality improvement processes. Seniors mentored and evaluated juniors. Feedback from 37 seniors and 53 juniors was predominantly positive; dissatisfaction centered on time issues and misunderstanding of project…
Darabi, Aubteen; Arrastia-Lloyd, Meagan C.; Nelson, David W.; Liang, Xinya; Farrell, Jennifer
In order to develop an expert-like mental model of complex systems, causal reasoning is essential. This study examines the differences between forward and backward instructional strategies in terms of efficiency, students' learning and progression of their mental models of the electronic transport chain in an undergraduate metabolism course…
Kern, Robert S; Zarate, Roberto; Glynn, Shirley M; Turner, Luana R; Smith, Kellie M; Mitchell, Sharon S; Sugar, Catherine A; Bell, Morris D; Liberman, Robert P; Kopelowicz, Alex; Green, Michael F
Heterogeneity in work outcomes is common among individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). In 2 studies, we sought to examine the efficacy of adding errorless learning, a behavioral training intervention, to evidence-based supported employment to improve SMI work outcomes. Work behavior problems were targeted for intervention. We also explored associations between early work behavior and job tenure. For both studies (VA: n = 71; community mental health center: n = 91), randomization occurred at the time of job obtainment with participants randomized (1:1) to either errorless learning plus ongoing supported employment or ongoing supported employment alone and then followed for 12 months. Dependent variables included job tenure, work behavior, and hours worked and wages earned per week. For the primary intent-to-treat analyses, data were combined across studies. Findings revealed that participants in the errorless learning plus supported employment group stayed on their jobs significantly longer than those in the supported employment alone group (32.8 vs 25.6 wk). In addition, differential treatment effects favoring errorless learning were found on targeted work behavior problems (50.5% vs 27.4% improvement from baseline to follow-up assessment). There were no other differential treatment effects. For the prediction analyses involving work behavior, social skills explained an additional 18.3% of the variance in job tenure beyond levels of cognition, symptom severity, and past work history. These data support errorless learning as an adjunctive intervention to enhance supported employment outcomes and implicate the relevance of workplace social difficulties as a key impediment to prolonged job tenure. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center 2017.
Full Text Available One of the major issues occurring in every contemporary organization is the issue of the efficiency of work and obtaining maximum results from work done. Most often when the issue of increasing the efficiency of work is laid the question of teams and teamwork in various projectя of the company comes to the foreground and frequently no proper differentiation is made between a “group of people” and a “team” and this brings to a large number of misunderstandings of managers and employees with regard to the designation and benefits of team organization of work. There are clear traceable differences between the perception of the concept of “team” and the implementation of teamwork by European and Bulgarian companies and it is good to make the differentiation between them with a view to the HR management.
McCallin, Antoinette; Bamford, Anita
The purpose of this study is to discuss how emotional intelligence affects interdisciplinary team effectiveness. Some findings from a larger study on interdisciplinary teamworking are discussed. Teams are often evaluated for complementary skill mix and expertise that are integrated for specialist service delivery. Interactional skills and emotional intelligence also affect team behaviour and performance. An effective team needs both emotional intelligence and expertise, including technical, clinical, social and interactional skills, so that teamwork becomes greater or lesser than the whole, depending on how well individuals work together. Team diversity, individuality and personality differences, and interprofessional safety are analysed to raise awareness for nurse managers of the complexity of interdisciplinary working relationships. If nursing input into interdisciplinary work is to be maximized, nurse managers might consider the role of emotional intelligence in influencing team effectiveness, the quality of client care, staff retention and job satisfaction.
Vermeulen, B; Carron, P-N
The study of dynamics in relation to performing in small groups has increased pedagogic knowledge about teamwork. The successful management of patients with life-threatening pathologies depends highly from a succession of teams with a specific mission as: the call centre 144, Paramedics, the ED, the Operating Theatre and the Intensive care. To enable each team to operate successfully, it is essential to coordinate their qualifications and synergism. This can be efficiently attained by simulating real situations and by following protocols dedicated to teamwork. Emergency Medicine, which is on the brink of acquiring its proper curriculum, must adopt this concept to integrate knowledge and know-how, and the art of being and doing. At this stage, the Emergency Physician will have the competence which will enable him to be a real "team leader".
Full Text Available Ad hoc teamwork refers to the challenge of designing agents that can influence the behavior of a team, without prior coordination with its teammates. This paper considers influencing a flock of simple robotic agents to adopt a desired behavior within the context of ad hoc teamwork. Specifically, we examine how the ad hoc agents should behave in order to orient a flock towards a target heading as quickly as possible when given knowledge of, but no direct control over, the behavior of the flock. We introduce three algorithms which the ad hoc agents can use to influence the flock, and we examine the relative importance of coordinating the ad hoc agents versus planning farther ahead when given fixed computational resources. We present detailed experimental results for each of these algorithms, concluding that in this setting, inter-agent coordination and deeper lookahead planning are no more beneficial than short-term lookahead planning.
Karlshøj, Jan; Dederichs, Anne
focus on teamwork did not lead to a improvement of the team work in contrary. The team-structure was generally flat and decisions were mostly made in consensus. It is worthwhile to offer a multidisciplinary course and give engineering students experience in collaboration methods....... during the design phase; as well as a need of new work methods within the process. This calls for employees who are experienced in collaborating in interdisciplinary teams. To fulfill this demand a multidisciplinary course in “Advanced building design” has been developed at the Technical University...... of Denmark. The goal of the course is to provide training in teamwork at the final stage of the engineering education. The course has been carried out twice. It was held by a multidisciplinary team of professors in periods 2008/09, 2009/10 and 20010/2011. Teams of students were subject of a questionnaire...
Fernandez, Rosemarie; Kozlowski, Steve W J; Shapiro, Marc J; Salas, Eduardo
The patient safety literature from the past decade emphasizes the importance of teamwork skills and human factors in preventing medical errors. Simulation has been used within aviation, the military, and now health care domains to effectively teach and assess teamwork skills. However, attempts to expand and generalize research and training principles have been limited due to a lack of a well-defined, well-researched taxonomy. As part of the 2008 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference on "The Science of Simulation in Healthcare," a subset of the group expertise and group assessment breakout sections identified evidence-based recommendations for an emergency medicine (EM) team taxonomy and performance model. This material was disseminated within the morning session and was discussed both during breakout sessions and via online messaging. Below we present a well-defined, well-described taxonomy that will help guide design, implementation, and assessment of simulation-based team training programs.
Piers, Ruth D; Versluys, Karen J J; Devoghel, Johan; Lambrecht, Sophie; Vyt, André; Van Den Noortgate, Nele J
To explore the quality of interprofessional teamwork in acute geriatric care and to build a model of team types. Cross-sectional multicenter study. Acute geriatric units in Belgium. Team members of different professional backgrounds. Perceptions of interprofessional teamwork among team members of 55 acute geriatric units in Belgium were measured using a survey covering collaborative practice and experience, managerial coaching and open team culture, shared reflection and decision-making, patient files facilitating teamwork, members' belief in the power of teamwork, and members' comfort in reporting incidents. Cluster analysis was used to determine types of interprofessional teamwork. Professions and clusters were compared using analysis of variance. The overall response rate was 60%. Of the 890 respondents, 71% were nursing professionals, 20% other allied health professionals, 5% physicians, and 4% logistic and administrative staff. More than 70% of respondents scored highly on interprofessional teamwork competencies, consultation, experiences, meetings, management, and results. Fewer than 55% scored highly on items about shared reflection and decision-making, reporting incidents from a colleague, and patient files facilitating interprofessional teamwork. Nurses in this study rated shared reflection and decision-making lower than physicians on the same acute geriatric units (P teamwork in acute geriatric units is satisfactory, but shared reflection and decision-making needs improvement. Four types of interprofessional teamwork are identified and can be used to benchmark the teamwork of individual teams. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.
Schwarz, Betje; Neuderth, Silke; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Bethge, Matthias
Systematic reviews indicate the effectiveness of multimodal rehabilitation. In Germany this has been shown, in particular, for work-related medical rehabilitation. A recently published guideline on work-related medical rehabilitation supports the dissemination of these programmes. The feasibility of this guideline was examined in a multicentre study. This paper presents findings on the relevance of multiprofessional teamwork for the implementation of successful work-related medical rehabilitation. Focus groups were conducted with 7 inpatient orthopaedic rehabilitation teams and examined using qualitative content analysis. Multiprofessional teamwork emerged inductively as a meaningful theme. All teams described multiprofessional teamwork as a work-related medical rehabilitation success factor, referring to its relevance for holistic treatment of multifactorially impaired patients. Although similar indicators of successful multiprofessional teamwork were named, the teams realized multiprofessional teamwork differently. We found 3 team types, corresponding to multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary team models. These types and models constitute a continuum of collaborative practice, which seems to be affected by context-related factors. The significance of multiprofessional teamwork for successful multimodal rehabilitation was underlined. Indicators of ideal multiprofessional teamwork and contextual facilitators were specified. The contingency approach to teamwork, as well as the assumption of multiprofessional teamwork as a continuum of collaborative practice, is supported. Stronger consideration of multiprofessional teamwork in the work-related medical rehabilitation guideline is indicated.
Laufer, Alexander (Editor)
The following "Sweet 16" rules included in this paper derive from a longer paper by APPL Director Dr. Edward Hoffman and myself entitled " 99 Rules for Managing Faster, Better, Cheaper Projects." Our sources consisted mainly of "war stories" told by master project managers in my book Simultaneous Management: Managing Projects in a Dynamic Environment (AMACOM, The American Management Association, 1996). The Simultaneous Management model was a result of 10 years of intensive research and testing conducted with the active participation of master project managers from leading private organizations such as AT&T, DuPont, Exxon, General Motors, IBM, Motorola and Procter & Gamble. In a more recent study, led by Dr. Hoffman, we learned that master project managers in leading public organizations employ most of these rules as well. Both studies, in private and public organizations, found that a dynamic environment calls for dynamic management, and that is especially clear in how successful project managers think about their teams.
Burke, M D; Cirino, J C
Mr. Burke and Mr. Cirino explain how a teamwork relationship between radiology and materiel management can serve both well--radiology can continually strive to provide high quality diagnostic data and superior patient care, while materiel management can provide a continuous flow of supplies and services, keep inventory investment low, and develop a competent supplier base. Effective communication is the necessary element that will allow each to achieve its respective goals.
Draper, Kevin; Gourevitch, Rebecca; Cross, Dori A.; Scholle, Sarah Hudson
Objective Consensus that enhanced teamwork is necessary for efficient and effective primary care delivery is growing. We sought to identify how electronic health records (EHRs) facilitate and pose challenges to primary care teams as well as how practices are overcoming these challenges. Methods Practices in this qualitative study were selected from those recognized as patient-centered medical homes via the National Committee for Quality Assurance 2011 tool, which included a section on practice teamwork. We interviewed 63 respondents, ranging from physicians to front-desk staff, from 27 primary care practices ranging in size, type, geography, and population size. Results EHRs were found to facilitate communication and task delegation in primary care teams through instant messaging, task management software, and the ability to create evidence-based templates for symptom-specific data collection from patients by medical assistants and nurses (which can offload work from physicians). Areas where respondents felt that electronic medical record EHR functionalities were weakest and posed challenges to teamwork included the lack of integrated care manager software and care plans in EHRs, poor practice registry functionality and interoperability, and inadequate ease of tracking patient data in the EHR over time. Discussion Practices developed solutions for some of the challenges they faced when attempting to use EHRs to support teamwork but wanted more permanent vendor and policy solutions for other challenges. Conclusions EHR vendors in the United States need to work alongside practicing primary care teams to create more clinically useful EHRs that support dynamic care plans, integrated care management software, more functional and interoperable practice registries, and greater ease of data tracking over time. PMID:25627278
O'Malley, Ann S; Draper, Kevin; Gourevitch, Rebecca; Cross, Dori A; Scholle, Sarah Hudson
Consensus that enhanced teamwork is necessary for efficient and effective primary care delivery is growing. We sought to identify how electronic health records (EHRs) facilitate and pose challenges to primary care teams as well as how practices are overcoming these challenges. Practices in this qualitative study were selected from those recognized as patient-centered medical homes via the National Committee for Quality Assurance 2011 tool, which included a section on practice teamwork. We interviewed 63 respondents, ranging from physicians to front-desk staff, from 27 primary care practices ranging in size, type, geography, and population size. EHRs were found to facilitate communication and task delegation in primary care teams through instant messaging, task management software, and the ability to create evidence-based templates for symptom-specific data collection from patients by medical assistants and nurses (which can offload work from physicians). Areas where respondents felt that electronic medical record EHR functionalities were weakest and posed challenges to teamwork included the lack of integrated care manager software and care plans in EHRs, poor practice registry functionality and interoperability, and inadequate ease of tracking patient data in the EHR over time. Practices developed solutions for some of the challenges they faced when attempting to use EHRs to support teamwork but wanted more permanent vendor and policy solutions for other challenges. EHR vendors in the United States need to work alongside practicing primary care teams to create more clinically useful EHRs that support dynamic care plans, integrated care management software, more functional and interoperable practice registries, and greater ease of data tracking over time. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.
The petroleum industry faces many challenges moving toward the next century. How effectively these challenges are addressed and managed will determine whether or not the exploration and production business grows and prospers in the future. This presentation relates to success factors for growth creation. Themes discussed here are succeeding in a global energy market, evolution of relationships between oil and gas companies and service companies, the power of technology, and effectively combining teamwork and technology
Approximately 70 to 80% of healthcare errors are due to poor team communication and understanding. High-risk environments such as the trauma setting (which covers a broad spectrum of departments in acute services) are where the majority of these errors occur. Despite the emphasis on interprofessional collaborative practice and patient safety, interprofessional teamworking in the trauma setting has received little attention. This paper presents the findings of a scoping review designed to identify the extent and nature of this literature in this setting. The MEDLINE (via OVID, using keywords and MeSH in OVID), and PubMed (via NCBI using MeSH), and CINAHL databases were searched from January 2000 to April 2013 for results of interprofessional teamworking in the trauma setting. A hand search was conducted by reviewing the reference lists of relevant articles. In total, 24 published articles were identified for inclusion in the review. Studies could be categorized into three main areas, and within each area were a number of themes: 1) descriptions of the organization of trauma teams (themes included interaction between team members, and leadership); 2) descriptions of team composition and structure (themes included maintaining team stability and core team members); and 3) evaluation of team work interventions (themes included activities in practice and activities in the classroom setting). Descriptive studies highlighted the fluid nature of team processes, the shared mental models, and the need for teamwork and communication. Evaluative studies placed a greater emphasis on specialized roles and individual tasks and activities. This reflects a multiprofessional as opposed to an interprofessional model of teamwork. Some of the characteristics of high-performing interprofessional teams described in this review are also evident in effective teams in the community rehabilitation and intermediate care setting. These characteristics may well be pertinent to other settings
McEwan, Desmond; Ruissen, Geralyn R; Eys, Mark A; Zumbo, Bruno D; Beauchamp, Mark R
The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of teamwork interventions that were carried out with the purpose of improving teamwork and team performance, using controlled experimental designs. A literature search returned 16,849 unique articles. The meta-analysis was ultimately conducted on 51 articles, comprising 72 (k) unique interventions, 194 effect sizes, and 8439 participants, using a random effects model. Positive and significant medium-sized effects were found for teamwork interventions on both teamwork and team performance. Moderator analyses were also conducted, which generally revealed positive and significant effects with respect to several sample, intervention, and measurement characteristics. Implications for effective teamwork interventions as well as considerations for future research are discussed.
McEwan, Desmond; Ruissen, Geralyn R.; Eys, Mark A.; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Beauchamp, Mark R.
The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of teamwork interventions that were carried out with the purpose of improving teamwork and team performance, using controlled experimental designs. A literature search returned 16,849 unique articles. The meta-analysis was ultimately conducted on 51 articles, comprising 72 (k) unique interventions, 194 effect sizes, and 8439 participants, using a random effects model. Positive and significant medium-sized effects were found for teamwork interventions on both teamwork and team performance. Moderator analyses were also conducted, which generally revealed positive and significant effects with respect to several sample, intervention, and measurement characteristics. Implications for effective teamwork interventions as well as considerations for future research are discussed. PMID:28085922
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of teamwork interventions that were carried out with the purpose of improving teamwork and team performance, using controlled experimental designs. A literature search returned 16,849 unique articles. The meta-analysis was ultimately conducted on 51 articles, comprising 72 (k unique interventions, 194 effect sizes, and 8439 participants, using a random effects model. Positive and significant medium-sized effects were found for teamwork interventions on both teamwork and team performance. Moderator analyses were also conducted, which generally revealed positive and significant effects with respect to several sample, intervention, and measurement characteristics. Implications for effective teamwork interventions as well as considerations for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available The contemporary management of the intellectual capital of an organization, as a major determinant for efficient and effective operation of the organization has access to the teamwork. Teamwork means quality leadership which is necessary for a successful team management. In the theory and the practice are given a number of models for teamwork and team leadership, however, in this case the subject of this paperwork will be the analyzing of the model of team leadership according to Hill. According to this model there are two functions of team leading established: leading functions in the team and leading functions out of the team. In the first part, which refers to the functions of leadership in the team, are set two major categories: team leader’s tasks and the built relationships and atmosphere in the team. In terms of the functions of the leader out of the team, the model focuses on two categories, namely: the functions of leadership out of the team, but within the organization and leading functions of the team outside the organization.
Jeffrey C. Joe; John O' Hara; Heather D. Medema; Johanna H. Oxstrand
Previous studies have shown that poorly designed human-automation collaboration, such as poorly designed communication protocols, often leads to problems for the human operators, such as: lack of vigilance, complacency, and loss of skills. These problems often lead to suboptimal system performance. To address this situation, a considerable amount of research has been conducted to improve human-automation collaboration and to make automation function better as a “team player.” Much of this research is based on an understanding of what it means to be a good team player from the perspective of a human team. However, the research is often based on a simplified view of human teams and teamwork. In this study, we sought to better understand the capabilities and limitations of automation from the standpoint of human teams. We first examined human teams to identify the principles for effective teamwork. We next reviewed the research on integrating automation agents and human agents into mixed agent teams to identify the limitations of automation agents to conform to teamwork principles. This research resulted in insights that can lead to more effective human-automation collaboration by enabling a more realistic set of requirements to be developed based on the strengths and limitations of all agents.
Bethania Ferreira Goulart
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify, within a multidisciplinary team, the facilitating and hindering aspects for teamwork in a coronary care unit. METHOD A descriptive study, with qualitative and quantitative data, was carried out in the coronary care unit of a public hospital. The study population consisted of professionals working in the unit for at least one year. Those who were on leave or who were not located were excluded. The critical incident technique was used for data collection, by means of semi-structured interviews. For data analysis, content analysis and the critical incident technique were applied. RESULTS Participants were 45 professionals: 29 nursing professionals; 11 physicians; 4 physical therapists; and 1 psychologist. A total of 49 situations (77.6% with negative references; 385 behaviors (54.2% with positive references; and 182 consequences emerged (71.9% with negative references. Positive references facilitate teamwork, whereas negative references hinder it. A collaborative/communicative interprofessional relationship was evidenced as a facilitator; whereas poor collaboration among agents/inadequate management was a hindering aspect. CONCLUSION Despite the prevalence of negative situations and consequences, the emphasis on positive behaviors reveals the efforts the agents make in order to overcome obstacles and carry out teamwork.
Darabi, Aubteen; Arrastia-Lloyd, Meagan C; Nelson, David W; Liang, Xinya; Farrell, Jennifer
In order to develop an expert-like mental model of complex systems, causal reasoning is essential. This study examines the differences between forward and backward instructional strategies' in terms of efficiency, students' learning and progression of their mental models of the electronic transport chain in an undergraduate metabolism course (n = 151). Additionally, the participants' cognitive flexibility, prior knowledge, and mental effort in the learning process are also investigated. The data were analyzed using a series of general linear models to compare the strategies. Although the two strategies did not differ significantly in terms of mental model progression and learning outcomes, both groups' mental models progressed significantly. Mental effort and prior knowledge were identified as significant predictors of mental model progression. An interaction between instructional strategy and cognitive flexibility revealed that the backward instruction was more efficient than the conventional (forward) strategy for students with lower cognitive flexibility, whereas the conventional instruction was more efficient for students with higher cognitive flexibility. The results are discussed and suggestions for future research on the possible moderating role of cognitive flexibility in the area of health education are presented.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse different views on interpersonal relations and team composition among managers and medical professionals with respect to the transition of professional roles in healthcare in Poland. To achieve that goal, a description based on a quantitative and qualitative questionnaire was conducted. Since the questionnaire covered various areas of health care, only its small fraction was used for the analysis. The main result is that most of the medical professionals and medical managers consider technology to be the single most important external factor influencing the team work efficiency and team composition in health care, and the managers consider skillset as the crucial factor determining whether a person would be a good team member. Based on the literature on professional roles in health care and their evolution in recent years, one can assume that constant development and lifelong learning would play a significant role in the healthcare systems reform. The findings are an important contribution to the discussion of the healthcare reform and its possible directions in future years as well a reference point for policy makers.
Dickinson, Terry L.
The recent reorganization and shift to managing total quality at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has placed an increasing emphasis on teams and teamwork in accomplishing day-to-day work activities and long-term projects. The purpose of this research was to review the nature of teams and teamwork at LaRC. Models of team performance and teamwork guided the gathering of information. Current and former team members served as participants; their collective experience reflected membership in over 200 teams at LaRC. The participants responded to a survey of open-ended questions which assessed various aspects of teams and teamwork. The participants also met in a workshop to clarify and elaborate on their responses. The work accomplished by the teams ranged from high-level managerial decision making (e.g., developing plans for LaRC reorganization) to creating scientific proposals (e.g., describing spaceflight projects to be designed, sold, and built). Teams typically had nine members who remained together for six months. Member turnover was around 20 percent; this turnover was attributed to heavy loads of other work assignments and little formal recognition and reward for team membership. Team members usually shared a common and valued goal, but there was not a clear standard (except delivery of a document) for knowing when the goal was achieved. However, members viewed their teams as successful. A major factor in team success was the setting of explicit a priori rules for communication. Task interdependencies between members were not complex (e.g., sharing of meeting notes and ideas about issues), except between members of scientific teams (i.e., reliance on the expertise of others). Thus, coordination of activities usually involved scheduling and attendance of team meetings. The team leader was designated by the team's sponsor. This leader usually shared power and responsibilities with other members, such that team members established their own operating
Skjerve, Ann Britt; Strand, Stine; Skraaning, Gyrd Jr.
Nuclear power plant (NPP) operation is in essence a teamwork task. The central control-room (CCR) operators are required to co-operate to achieve the operational goals, and they further depend on the assistance of the field operators and, at least in modern plants, on the assistance of the high-level automatic system. Future NPPs (e.g., advanced reactors) are foreseen to contain substantially higher automation levels, reduced staffing, and redefined roles of the remaining staff, as compared to the present situation. This paper suggests that in future plants, in which the autonomy and authority of the automatic system and of the field operators are increased, the transactions between the CCR operators and automatic system/field operators might most efficiently be conceptualized within the framework of co-operation, and thus teamwork. This framework has typically been restricted to conceptualizations of the transactions between the CCR operators, but in future settings, co-ordination, communication and mutual support between the CCR operators and the field operators/automatic system may be of increased importance for sustaining plant safety, as compared to the present situation. The paper further argues that human-system interfaces in future NPPs should be designed to support the activities of the extended team consisting of the CCR operators, the field operators, and the automatic system. The paper outlines an exploratory study aimed at generating ideas on how extended teamwork quality may be promoted. The study is currently foreseen to comprise two exemplary design solutions: a state-of-the art screen-based control-room (baseline condition) and a possible future control-room in which the activities of the field operators and the automatic system are explicitly represented on the human-system interface, where the authority and autonomy of these are increased, and the staffing level reduced, as compared to the baseline condition. The study will explore extended
Skjerve, Ann Britt; Strand, Stine; Skraaning, Gyrd Jr.
Nuclear power plant (NPP) operation is in essence a teamwork task. The central control-room (CCR) operators are required to co-operate to achieve the operational goals, and they further depend on the assistance of the field operators and, at least in modern plants, on the assistance of the high-level automatic system. Future NPPs (e.g., advanced reactors) are foreseen to contain substantially higher automation levels, reduced staffing, and redefined roles of the remaining staff, as compared to the present situation. This paper suggests that in future plants, in which the autonomy and authority of the automatic system and of the field operators are increased, the transactions between the CCR operators and automatic system/field operators might most efficiently be conceptualized within the framework of co-operation, and thus teamwork. This framework has typically been restricted to conceptualizations of the transactions between the CCR operators, but in future settings, co-ordination, communication and mutual support between the CCR operators and the field operators/automatic system may be of increased importance for sustaining plant safety, as compared to the present situation. The paper further argues that human-system interfaces in future NPPs should be designed to support the activities of the extended team consisting of the CCR operators, the field operators, and the automatic system. The paper outlines an exploratory study aimed at generating ideas on how extended teamwork quality may be promoted. The study is currently foreseen to comprise two exemplary design solutions: a state-of-the art screen-based control-room (baseline condition) and a possible future control-room in which the activities of the field operators and the automatic system are explicitly represented on the human-system interface, where the authority and autonomy of these are increased, and the staffing level reduced, as compared to the baseline condition. The study will explore extended
Dahlke, Sherry; Stahlke, Sarah; Coatsworth-Puspoky, Robin
The aim of the current study was to examine the nature of teamwork in care facilities and its impact on the effectiveness of care delivery to older adults and job satisfaction among health care workers. A focused ethnography was conducted at two care facilities where older adults reside. Analysis of interviews with 22 participants revealed perceptions of teamwork and understandings about facilitators of and barriers to effective teamwork. Participants indicated that team relationships impacted care provided and job satisfaction. Participants also identified trust and reciprocity, communication, and sharing a common goal as critical factors in effective teamwork. In addition, participants identified the role of management as important in setting the tone for teamwork. Future research is needed to understand the complexity of supporting teamwork in residential settings given the challenges of culture, diversity, and individuals working multiple jobs. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 44(4), 37-44.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Katz, Philip M.
Independent colleges and universities are cautious adopters of online education for undergraduate students. These institutions seek to balance a tradition of student-focused pedagogy in face-to-face settings and faculty wariness of online courses against the promise of lower instructional costs, changing student expectations, and the potential for…
This guide provides assistance in the development, implementation, and improvement of training on teamwork and diagnostics. DOE and contractor representatives identified the need for teamwork and diagnostics training guidance. This need was based on the increasing emphasis of properly applying knowledge and skills to complete assigned tasks. Teamwork and diagnostic skills have become a focal point because of the impact they have on effective facility operation and safety.
Increasingly, contemporary pedagogical approaches are based on teamwork. We speak of teamwork when a group is focused on a particular aim and the members of the group work together with a purpose of achieving the aim. In pedagogy, this means that at least two pedagogical workers at the same time are focused on the same students. In social pedagogy, teamwork is essential as well since social pedagogues can find employment in different areas, e.g. residential groups, educational institutions, s...
Godskesen, Mirjam Irene
The Belbin method has been applied at the education in Arctic Technology in Greenland as a way of improving the student s teamwork abilities. The feedback from the students is that Belbin is a meaningful and relevant tool and they are very engaged during the teamwork exercises. They get a theoretical approach to teamwork and a language in which they can talk about their own and each others strengths and weaknesses. There are indications that it has positive effect on their subsequ...
Charles J. Hobson; David Strupeck; Andrea Griffin; Jana Szostek; Rajan Selladurai; Anna S. Rominger
Given the ubiquitous utilization of teams in U.S. workplaces, collegiate schools of business have responded by placing great emphasis on the assessment and development of teamwork skills. Employing a methodology first proposed by Hobson and Kesic (2002) for use in managerial training, this study involved the behavioral assessment of teamwork skills in a sample of 247 undergraduate business students. The evaluation tool consisted of 15 positive and 10 negative teamwork behaviors. A leaderless ...
Adams, V.; Gupta, D.C.; Smegal, J.S.
This paper describes the lessons learned from a series of independent technical reviews (ITRs) of waste management operations conducted at existing and proposed low-level radioactive waste landfills/disposal facilities at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The evaluated waste disposal programs include those at Hanford, Idaho, Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge, Portsmouth, Paducah, and the Nevada Test Site. Based on these evaluations, cost-effective lessons learned were identified to improve reliability and effectiveness of DOE on-site disposal facilities. Key recommendations covered a wide range of issues, including the following: complex-wide applied research effort is needed to evaluate settlement behavior of DOE wastes and how they may affect cover performance; there is a need for unbiased assessment of relevance of liners for different climates and wastes to evaluate where and when liners should be used; there is a need to develop information to demonstrate attenuation capability of modern liner materials and to understand the attenuation capability of liners during performance assessment; a review of historical data on demolition volumes and logistics from past DOE projects can provide valuable insight that can be helpful in planning capacity of future on-site disposal facilities; and operating procedures need to be reviewed and updated on a regular basis so that procedures remain consistent with changes in requirements and take advantage of improvements in technology. The complex-wide independent reviews have assisted DOE sites in considering lessons learned regarding common technical, regulatory, and management issues. Facility management and their operating contractors have begun implementing the applicable recommendations within the context of the DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. (authors)
Valle, M; Witt, L A
By using regression analyses on data from 355 full-time employees of a customer-service organization in the eastern United States, the authors tested the hypothesis that perceptions of organizational politics are more strongly related to job dissatisfaction among individuals who perceive low levels of teamwork importance than among those who perceive high levels of teamwork importance. Hierarchical moderated regression analysis of the data revealed that the moderating effect of teamwork importance was most relevant at average-to-high levels of perceived politics. That finding supports the assertion that one way to address the negative impact of organizational politics is to try to ensure that employees value teamwork.
Aveling, Emma-Louise; Stone, Juliana; Sundt, Thoralf; Wright, Cameron; Gino, Francesca; Singer, Sara
Surgical excellence demands teamwork. Poor team behaviors negatively affect team performance and are associated with adverse events and worse outcomes. Interventions to improve surgical teamwork focusing on frontline team members' nontechnical skills have proliferated but shown mixed results. Literature on teamwork in organizations suggests that team behaviors are also contingent on psycho-social, cultural and organizational factors. This study examines factors influencing surgical team behaviors in order to inform more contextually sensitive and effective approaches to optimizing surgical teamwork. Qualitative study of cardiac surgical teams in a large US teaching hospital included 34 semi-structured interviews. Thematic network analysis was used to examine perceptions of ideal teamwork and factors influencing team behaviors in the OR. Perceptions of ideal teamwork were largely shared, but team members held discrepant views of which team and leadership behaviors enhanced or undermined teamwork. Other factors impacting team behaviors related to: local organizational culture, including management of staff behavior; variable case demands and team members' technical competence; fitness of organizational structures and processes to support teamwork. These factors affected perceptions of what constituted optimal interpersonal and team behaviors in the OR. Team behaviors are contextually contingent and organizationally determined, and beliefs about optimal behaviors are not necessarily shared. Interventions to optimize surgical teamwork requires establishing consensus regarding best practice, ability to adapt as circumstances require, and organizational commitment to addressing contextual factors that impact teams. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
De Hei, Miranda Suzanna Angelique; Strijbos, Jan-Willem; Sjoer, Ellen; Admiraal, Wilfried
Collaborative learning can, if designed and implemented properly, contribute to student learning outcomes and prepare them for teamwork. However, the design and implementation of collaborative learning in practice depend on beliefs of lecturers about teaching and learning in general, and collaborative learning in particular. One hundred and…
Passauer-Baierl, S; Chiapponi, C; Bruns, C J; Weigl, M
The quality of surgical teamwork contributes to performance of the operating theatre team, service quality and patient safety in surgery. Observational tools are a feasible and reliable way to capture and evaluate teamwork in the operating theatre (OT). We introduce the German version of the Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery (OTAS-D) and present the first observational results from German OTs. Quality of surgical teamwork was assessed with observational teamwork assessment for surgery (OTAS-D). It evaluates five dimensions of OT teamwork: communication, coordination, cooperation/backup behaviour, leadership, and team monitoring/situation awareness. Each dimension is evaluated for each profession (surgical, nursing, and anaesthesia team) as well for each phase of the procedure (pre-, intra-, and post-operative). We observed n = 63 procedures, mainly in abdominal/general and orthopaedic surgery. Additionally, all OT team members scored their individual evaluation of the intra-operative teamwork (standardised 1-item questions). The OTAS-D evaluations showed meaningful results and differences for the OT professions as well as across the different phases of the procedures. Overall, a medium to good level of the OT teamwork was observed. There were no differences in regard to type of surgery (minimally invasive vs. open) or surgical specialties. With an increased coordination of the surgical team we observed a significantly increased cooperation of the nursing team (r = 0.36, p = 0.004). Concerning the OT staffs self-reports, the surgical and nursing teams reported higher scores for quality of surgical teamwork during the procedure than their anaesthesia team members. No significant relationships between observed quality of OT teamwork and self-reports were found. The German version of OTAS-D is a psychometrically robust method to capture the quality of teamwork in operating theatres. It enables the analyses of teamwork between the surgical
Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene
The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…
Mager, Diana R; Lange, Jean W; Greiner, Philip A; Saracino, Katherine H
The Expanded Learning and Dedication to Elders in the Region (ELDER) project addressed the needs of under-served older adults by educating health care providers in home health and long-term care facilities. Four agencies in a health professional shortage/medically underserved area participated. Focus groups were held to determine agency-specific educational needs. Curricula from the John A. Hartford Foundation were adapted to design unique curricula for each agency and level of personnel during the first 2 years. The focus of this report is the case-based simulation learning approach used in year 3 to validate application of knowledge and facilitate teamwork and interprofessional communication. Three simulation sessions on varying topics were conducted at each site. Postsimulation surveys and qualitative interviews with hired evaluators showed that participants found simulations helpful to their practice. Tailored on-site education incorporating mid-fidelity simulation was an effective model for translating gerontological knowledge into practice and encouraging communication and teamwork in these settings. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
Marshall, Teresa A; Straub-Morarend, Cheryl L; Handoo, Nidhi; Solow, Catherine M; Cunningham-Ford, Marsha A; Finkelstein, Michael W
Introducing critical thinking and evidence-based dentistry (EBD) content into an established dental curriculum can be a difficult and challenging process. Over the past three years, the University of Iowa College of Dentistry has developed and implemented a progressive four-year integrated critical thinking and EBD curriculum. The objective of this article is to describe the development and implementation process to make it available as a model for other dental schools contemplating introduction of critical thinking and EBD into their curricula. The newly designed curriculum built upon an existing problem-based learning foundation, which introduces critical thinking and the scientific literature in the D1 year, in order to expose students to the rationale and resources for practicing EBD in the D2 and D3 years and provide opportunities to practice critical thinking and apply the EBD five-step process in the D2, D3, and D4 years. All curricular content is online, and D3 and D4 EBD activities are integrated within existing clinical responsibilities. The curricular content, student resources, and student activities are described.
Dederichs, Anne; Karlshøj, Jan
case study is performed within a project-oriented course offered for students within the civil engineering - and architectural engineering programme. The task of the course is to plan a high-rise office building in multidisciplinary student teams. The course was held by a multidisciplinary team...... of teachers for 13 multidisciplinary teams of students. Belbin’s theory on teamwork was introduced and the teams were formed according to the theory, in order to optimize the collaboration. Students were given a standard- and course specific questionnaire including the possibility for making individual notes...
Townsend, J.; Sibilla, L.; Gregovich, J.W.
Nuclear power plants have traditionally used multiple contracting firms to provide temporary staff augmentation personnel primarily because of two perceptions: (1) managers believe they have greater access to a higher quality, readily available pool of applicants. (2) using multiple contractors inherently keeps costs down as a result of several competitors submitting resumes for the same position. This paper provides information, based on the experiences of a leading nuclear power plant, that disproves these perceptions. It explains why consolidating several contracts for professional and technical classifications (excluding craft labor and refueling personnel) and competitively bidding and awarding the contract to a single contracting firm promotes teamwork and reduces costs
Kanki, Barbara G.
Mountaineering expeditions combine a number of factors which make them potentially good analogs to the planetary exploration facet of long-duration space missions. A study of mountain climbing teams was conducted in order to evaluate the usefulness of the environment as a space analog and to specifically identify the factors and issues surrounding teamwork and 'successful' team performance in two mountaineering environments. This paper focuses on social/organizational factors, including team size and structure, leadership styles and authority structure which were found in the sample of 22 climb teams (122 individuals). The second major issue discussed is the construction of a valid performance measure in this high-risk environment.
Qvist, Palle; Rebollar, Rubeén; Lidón, Iván
This paper presents the process used to devise the Teamwork Failure Prevention Questionnaire (TFP Questionnaire), a tool that allows teams with problems in functioning to be detected early. The TFP Questionnaire was formulated in a project management course at the University of Zaragoza (Spain......). In this course, teams of five or six students have to manage a project for a real client. The questionnaire was then tested on students on this course and on a similar one at Aalborg University (Denmark). This article analyses the psychometric characteristics of the TFP Questionnaire and then presents...
Jorm, Christine; Roberts, Chris; Lim, Renee; Roper, Josephine; Skinner, Clare; Robertson, Jeremy; Gentilcore, Stacey; Osomanski, Adam
There is little research on large-scale complex health care simulations designed to facilitate student learning of non-technical skills in a team-working environment. We evaluated the acceptability and effectiveness of a novel natural disaster simulation that enabled medical students to demonstrate their achievement of the non-technical skills of collaboration, negotiation and communication. In a mixed methods approach, survey data were available from 117 students and a thematic analysis undertaken of both student qualitative comments and tutor observer participation data. Ninety three per cent of students found the activity engaging for their learning. Three themes emerged from the qualitative data: the impact of fidelity on student learning, reflexivity on the importance of non-technical skills in clinical care, and opportunities for collaborative teamwork. Physical fidelity was sufficient for good levels of student engagement, as was sociological fidelity. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the simulation in allowing students to reflect upon and evidence their acquisition of skills in collaboration, negotiation and communication, as well as situational awareness and attending to their emotions. Students readily identified emerging learning opportunities though critical reflection. The scenarios challenged students to work together collaboratively to solve clinical problems, using a range of resources including interacting with clinical experts. A large class teaching activity, framed as a simulation of a natural disaster is an acceptable and effective activity for medical students to develop the non-technical skills of collaboration, negotiation and communication, which are essential to team working. The design could be of value in medical schools in disaster prone areas, including within low resource countries, and as a feasible intervention for learning the non-technical skills that are needed for patient safety.
Problem Statement: For this study, a cooperative learning process was designed in which students with different learning styles could help each other in heterogeneous groups to perform teamwork-based activities. One aspect deemed important in this context was whether the instructional environment designed to reach students with different learning…
Kleij, R. van der; Rasker, P.C.; Lijkwan, J.T.E.; Dreu, C.K.W. de
Distributed teamwork is not without its difficulties. The detrimental aspects of geographical dispersion of team members on effective teamwork are often invoked to justify reluctance 'to go virtual', despite the fact that for some tasks, and under some conditions, distributed environments may be as
Gharaveis, Arsalan; Hamilton, D Kirk; Pati, Debajyoti
The purpose of this systematic review is to investigate the current knowledge about the impact of healthcare facility design on teamwork and communication by exploring the relevant literature. Teamwork and communication are behavioral factors that are impacted by physical design. However, the effects of environmental factors on teamwork and communication have not been investigated extensively in healthcare design literature. There are no published systematic reviews on the current topic. Searches were conducted in PubMed and Google Scholar databases in addition to targeted design journals including Health Environmental Research & Design, Environment and Behavior, Environmental Psychology, and Applied Ergonomics. Inclusion criteria were (a) full-text English language articles related to teamwork and communication and (b) involving any healthcare built environment and space design published in peer-reviewed journals between 1984 and 2017. Studies were extracted using defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. In the first phase, 26 of the 195 articles most relevant to teamwork and 19 studies of the 147 were identified and reviewed to understand the impact of communication in healthcare facilities. The literature regarding the impact of built environment on teamwork and communication were reviewed and explored in detail. Eighteen studies were selected and succinctly summarized as the final product of this review. Environmental design, which involves nurses, support staff, and physicians, is one of the critical factors that promotes the efficiency of teamwork and collaborative communication. Layout design, visibility, and accessibility levels are the most cited aspects of design which can affect the level of communication and teamwork in healthcare facilities.
Chujitarom, Wannaporn; Piriyasurawong, Pallop
This study aims to synthesize an Animation Augmented Reality Book Model (AAR Book Model) to enhance teamwork and to assess the AAR Book Model to enhance teamwork. Samples are five specialists that consist of one animation specialist, two communication and information technology specialists, and two teaching model design specialists, selected by…
Barton, Glenn; Bruce, Anne; Schreiber, Rita
Widespread demands for high reliability healthcare teamwork have given rise to many educational initiatives aimed at building team competence. Most effort has focused on interprofessional team training however; Registered Nursing teams comprise the largest human resource delivering direct patient care in hospitals. Nurses also influence many other health team outcomes, yet little is known about the team training curricula they receive, and furthermore what specific factors help translate teamwork competency to nursing practice. The aim of this review is to critically analyse empirical published work reporting on teamwork education interventions in nursing, and identify key educational considerations enabling teamwork competency in this group. CINAHL, Web of Science, Academic Search Complete, and ERIC databases were searched and detailed inclusion-exclusion criteria applied. Studies (n = 19) were selected and evaluated using established qualitative-quantitative appraisal tools and a systematic constant comparative approach. Nursing teamwork knowledge is rooted in High Reliability Teams theory and Crew or Crisis Resource Management sources. Constructivist pedagogy is used to teach, practice, and refine teamwork competency. Nursing teamwork assessment is complex; involving integrated yet individualized determinations of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Future initiatives need consider frontline leadership, supportive followership and skilled communication emphasis. Collective stakeholder support is required to translate teamwork competency into nursing practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Van den Bulcke, Bo; Vyt, Andre; Vanheule, Stijn; Hoste, Eric; Decruyenaere, Johan; Benoit, Dominique
This article describes a study that evaluated the quality of teamwork in a surgical intensive care unit and assessed whether teamwork could be improved significantly through a tailor-made intervention. The quality of teamwork prior to and after the intervention was assessed using the Interprofessional Practice and Education Quality Scales (IPEQS) using the PROSE online diagnostics and documenting system, which assesses three domains of teamwork: organisational factors, care processes, and team members' attitudes and beliefs. Furthermore, team members evaluated strengths and weaknesses of the teamwork through open-ended questions. Information gathered by means of the open questions was used to design a tailor-made 12-week intervention consisting of (1) optimising the existing weekly interdisciplinary meetings with collaborative decision-making and clear communication of goal-oriented actions, including the psychosocial aspects of care; and (2) organising and supporting the effective exchange of information over time between all professions involved. It was found that the intervention had a significant impact on organisational factors and care processes related to interprofessional teamwork for the total group and within all subgroups, despite baseline differences between the subgroups in interprofessional teamwork. In conclusion, teamwork, and more particularly the organisational aspects of interprofessional collaboration and processes of care, can be improved by a tailor-made intervention that takes into account the professional needs of healthcare workers.
Man, J.; Lu, Y.; Brombacher, A.C.; Ying, F.
This paper is designed to study the impact of cultural difference on co-design teamwork. The aim of this study is to explore the impact of supporting and hindering cultural factors on codesign teamwork in distributed bi-national teams from Netherland and China. In order to achieve the research
Higgins, Lindsey M.; Schroeter, Christiane
teaching, teamwork, agribusiness, active learningvalue to course assignments. This research provides a base for discussion regarding the role of teamwork and the composition of the ideal team. This research will fill a gap in the literature on fitting student improvements to differences in the students themselves, which has broad implica-tions for motivating and educating students about food marketing and food distribution.
Radic-Sestic, Marina; Radovanovic, Vesna; Milanovic-Dobrota, Biljana; Slavkovic, Sanela; Langovic-Milicvic, Ana
The general objective of this study was to establish the relation between general and special education teachers within teamwork and to define socio-demographic factors that affect teamwork. The sample encompassed 223 general and special education teacher of both genders, age 25 to 60, who are employed in regular elementary schools in Serbia. The…
Hewitt, Gillian; Sims, Sarah; Greenwood, Nan; Jones, Fiona; Ross, Fiona; Harris, Ruth
Interprofessional teamwork is seen in healthcare policy and practice as a key strategy for providing safe, efficient and holistic healthcare and is an accepted part of evidence-based stroke care. The impact of interprofessional teamwork on patient and carer experience(s) of care is unknown, although some research suggests a relationship might exist. This study aimed to explore patient and carer perceptions of good and poor teamwork and its impact on experiences of care. Critical incident interviews were conducted with 50 patients and 33 carers in acute, inpatient rehabilitation and community phases of care within two UK stroke care pathways. An analytical framework, derived from a realist synthesis of 13 'mechanisms' (processes) of interprofessional teamwork, was used to identify positive and negative 'indicators' of teamwork. Participants identified several mechanisms of teamwork, but it was not a subject most talked about readily. This suggests that interprofessional teamwork is not a concept that is particularly important to stroke patients and carers; they do not readily perceive any impacts of teamwork on their experiences. These findings are a salient reminder that what might be expected by healthcare professionals to be important influences on experience may not be perceived to be so by patients and carers.
Riebe, Linda; Girardi, Antonia; Whitsed, Craig
Australian employers continue to indicate that the development of teamwork skills in graduates is as important as mastering technical skills required for a particular career. In Australia, the reporting on the teaching of teamwork skills has emanated across a range of disciplines including health and engineering, with less of a focus on business…
Today, great emphasis is being placed on the capability of control room crews to respond as a team when faced with abnormal and emergency situations. Some utilities are spending thousands of dollars on training programs aimed at improving the teamwork of their crews. While this is commendable, many of these companies may be disappointed in the long-term results of their efforts, particularly if they have a difficult time dealing with question No. 2. If teamwork is not a part of the pant or corporate culture, it is unlikely teamwork will be a part of the control room culture now or in the future. Plant teamwork is often a mirror of the teamwork at the top. The purpose of this paper is to address the role that culture and teamwork play in overall plant performance and to discuss what nuclear utilities can do to assess their present cultural strengths, which support plantwide teamwork, as well as their cultural weaknesses, which are barriers to teamwork
Sonoda, Yukio; Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito
To evaluate operating room nurses' perception of teamwork performance and their level of mental stress and to identify related factors. Little is known about the factors affecting teamwork and the mental stress of surgical nurses, although the performance of the surgical team is essential for patient safety. The questionnaire survey for operation room nurses consisted of simple questions about teamwork performance and mental stress. Multivariate analyses were used to identify factors causing a sense of teamwork performance or mental stress. A large number of surgical nurses had a sense of teamwork performance, but 30-40% of operation room nurses were mentally stressed during surgery. Neither the patient nor the operation factors were related to the sense of teamwork performance in both types of nurses. Among scrub nurses, endoscopic and abdominal surgery, body mass index, blood loss and the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class were related to their mental stress. Conversely, circulating nurses were stressed about teamwork performance. The factors related to teamwork performance and mental stress during surgery differed between scrub and circulating nurses. Increased support for operation room nurses is necessary. The increased support leads to safer surgical procedures and better patient outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kristensen, S.; Hammer, A.; Bartels, P.; Sunol, R.; Groene, O.; Thompson, C.A.; Arah, O.A.; Kutaj-Wasikowska, H.; Michel, P.; Wagner, C.
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the associations of quality management systems with teamwork and safety climate, and to describe and compare differences in perceptions of teamwork climate and safety climate among clinical leaders and frontline clinicians. Method: We used a multi-method,
Focuses on the importance of teamwork and describes Pennsylvania State University football coach Joe Paterno's cooperative teamwork methods. The five basic tenants of cooperation discussed include positive interdependence, face-to-face interaction, individual accountability, social skills, and group processing. (SAH)
Martinez-Fernandez, J. Reinaldo; Corcelles, Mariona; Cerrato-Lara, Maria
In this study, we present the conceptions about teamwork questionnaire designed to evaluate the conceptions that secondary students have about teamwork. Participants were 309 students aged 15-16 from eight secondary schools, seven from Barcelona and one from Girona (Spain). The original 27-item questionnaire was reduced according to expert…
Mercedes Valdés Pedroso
Full Text Available Comprehensive and contextualized training at the level of the development levels of contemporary diversity, calls for a continuous revolution in the training of university professors, responsible for such a complex process. With this research we try to respond to the need of teachers to improve educational strategies and their professional performance. The objective of the same was to determine the level of development of teamwork in the professional performance of teachers of the University of Physical Culture and Sport Sciences (UCCFD "Manuel Fajardo". It began with a psycho pedagogical diagnosis of the teachers; surveys were applied to 15 teachers of the UCCFD of the subject of the exercise of the profession and 111 students of the first year of the career, using also the technique of IADOV to know the satisfaction of the teachers with respect to the work in team besides the triangulation by method. As a result, the need to search for strategies for the assimilation of teamwork skills was corroborated.
Birgit FernUniversität Hagen
Full Text Available Megatrends affect all individuals and organizations in our society. Mobility and flexibility are examples of megatrends that influence our everyday lives and also intensely alter the ways we work. The deployment of virtual teams meets the new chances emerging with these trends. Employees aspire to work virtually due to benefits, such as flexibility regarding the locations and hours for working. Organizations deploy virtual teams to remain competitive regarding new technological opportunities, employee retention and cost efficiency in an increasingly digital environment. Organizations can guide their change towards virtuality by building on the knowledge of practice as well as scientific insights regarding the deployment of virtual teams. In order to provide a holistic view on the structures and processes affected by such a change and thus provide guidance, a framework for analyzing and planning organizational change is adapted to virtual teamwork and presented in this paper. The framework shows that the deployment of virtual teams affects the whole organization. This comprehensive view on the implementation of virtual teamwork allows an integration of virtual teams and focusses on their performance. The adapted framework furthermore provides links for further in-depth research in this field.
Full Text Available Large-scale multiagent teamwork has been popular in various domains. Similar to human society infrastructure, agents only coordinate with some of the others, with a peer-to-peer complex network structure. Their organization has been proven as a key factor to influence their performance. To expedite team performance, we have analyzed that there are three key factors. First, complex network effects may be able to promote team performance. Second, coordination interactions coming from their sources are always trying to be routed to capable agents. Although they could be transferred across the network via different paths, their sources and sinks depend on the intrinsic nature of the team which is irrelevant to the network connections. In addition, the agents involved in the same plan often form a subteam and communicate with each other more frequently. Therefore, if the interactions between agents can be statistically recorded, we are able to set up an integrated network adjustment algorithm by combining the three key factors. Based on our abstracted teamwork simulations and the coordination statistics, we implemented the adaptive reorganization algorithm. The experimental results briefly support our design that the reorganized network is more capable of coordinating heterogeneous agents.
Farley, M J
Teams are an essential part of perioperative nursing practice. Nurses who have a knowledge of teamwork and experience in working on teams have a greater understanding of the processes and problems involved as teams develop from new, immature teams to those that are mature and effective. This understanding will assist nurses in helping their teams achieve a higher level of productivity, and members will be more satisfied with team efforts. Team development progresses through several stages. Each stage has certain characteristics and desired outcomes. At each stage, team members and leaders have certain responsibilities. Team growth does not take place automatically and inevitably, but as a consequence of conscious and unconscious efforts of its leader and members to solve problems and satisfy needs. Building and maintaining a team is certainly work, but work that brings a great deal of satisfaction and feelings of pride in accomplishment. According to I Tenzer, RN, MS, teamwork "is not a panacea; it is a viable approach to developing a hospital's most valuable resource--people."
Brunault, Paul; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Colombat, Philippe; Gillet, Nicolas; El-Hage, Wissam; Camus, Vincent; Gaillard, Philippe
Improvement in nurses' quality of work life (QWL) has become a major issue in health care organizations. We hypothesized that the level of transactive memory (defined as the way groups collectively encode, store, and retrieve knowledge) and participative teamwork (an organizational model of care based on vocational training, a specific service's care project, and regular interdisciplinary staffing) positively affect nurses' QWL. This cross-sectional study enrolled 84 ward-based psychiatric nurses. We assessed transactive memory, participative teamwork, perceived organizational justice, perceived organizational support, and QWL using psychometrically reliable and valid scales. Participative teamwork and transactive memory were positively associated with nurses' QWL. Perceived organizational support and organizational justice fully mediated the relationship between participative teamwork and QWL, but not between transactive memory and QWL. Improved transactive memory could directly improve nurses' QWL. Improved participative teamwork could improve nurses' QWL through better perceived organizational support and perceived organizational justice.
Nurok, Michael; Sundt, Thoralf M; Frankel, Allan
The literature defining and addressing teamwork and communication is abundant; however, few studies have analyzed the relationship between measures of teamwork and communication and quantifiable outcomes. The objectives of this review are: (1) to identify studies addressing teamwork and communication in the operating room in relation to discrete measures of outcome, (2) to create a classification of studies of the relationship between teamwork and communication and outcomes, (3) to assess the implications of these studies, (4) to explore the methodological challenges of teamwork and communication studies in the perioperative setting, and (5) to suggest future research directions.studies in the perioperative setting, and (5) to suggest future research directions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Geisa Colebrusco de Souza
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To understand the nursing professionals' conceptions of teamwork and their elements. METHOD A qualitative study conducted in an oncological hospital using a semi-structured interview with 21 nursing professionals. RESULTS Two conceptions emerged from the accounts: teamwork restricted to nursing professionals and teamwork with interprofessional collaboration with particular importance for interactive dimensions: communication, trust and professional bonds, mutual respect and recognition of the other's work, collaboration, and conflict, with this last subcategory considered as an obstacle to teamwork. CONCLUSION Nursing conceives teamwork as an interprofessional practice, which is a result of the quality of interaction among professionals from different areas and involves the recognition and handling of conflicts.
McComb, Sara A; Lemaster, Matthew; Henneman, Elizabeth A; Hinchey, Kevin T
This study examines nurse-physician teamwork and collaboration, a critical component in the delivery of safe patient care, on general medical units. To that end, we assess shared mental models and mutual trust, 2 coordinating mechanisms that help facilitate teamwork, among nurses and physicians working on general medical units. Data were collected from 37 nurses and 42 physicians at an urban teaching medical center in the Northeastern United States. Shared mental model questionnaire items were iteratively developed with experts' input to ensure content validity. Mutual trust items were adapted from an existing scale; items were reliable. Data were analyzed using χ and independent 2-tailed t tests. Physicians and nurses reported significant differences in their perceptions of the professional responsible for a variety of roles (e.g., advocating for the patient [P = 0.0007], identifying a near miss/error [P = 0.003]). Medication reconciliation is only role for which nurses perceive less responsibility than physicians perceive nurses have. Regarding mutual trust, both groups reported significantly more trust within their own professions; both groups reported similar levels of trust in physicians, with physicians reporting significantly less trust in their nursing colleagues than nurses perceive (P work is needed. To that end, we propose increasing knowledge about their respective roles, providing opportunities for nurse and physician collaboration through rounding or committee work and enhancing the preparedness and professionalism of interactions.
Codruta Dana Duda Daianu
Full Text Available The team leader is the author of vision, mentor, guide, motivator, source of encouragement and supportive team. The leader helps team members to focus on the big picture of the project, to give the best of them, to follow the right path and stay united. Leader qualities must necessarily include its ability to work together, to be folded on the processes that describe functional and structural developments in embedded team. The issue of the leader development includes the necessity to concurrently form the skills of tem working. The working paper underlines that these two formative desiderate are compatible, correlative and complementary. So, in the study that we undertake we proposed to determine the degree of compatibility between the two demands of education, as follows: the training of leader capable to exercise also the specific activities of teamwork
Robins, K.B.; Roberts, J.D.M.
The contract strategies developed by the two major E and P companies operating in the North Sea emphasize teamwork between operator and contractors to achieve the common goal of maximizing project value. These strategies have had significant repercussions across the whole industry. This paper compares these strategies and concludes that although they are structurally different, they have the same fundamental objectives. It describes the evolution of what these operators consider to be their core business, with the resultant changing roles for both operator and contractor staff. Several examples of results achieved through implementing these changes are described, highlighting the need for a structured performance measurement system to quantify the success of these initiatives. Finally, the potential for even greater efficiency improvements through further industry-wide cooperation is emphasized
Nygard, F.I.; Dedon, J.M.; Fuld, R.B.
The importance of teamwork and communications in the control room of a nuclear power plant has been the subject of significant attention during the 10 yr since the Three Mile Island accident. The ability to conduct effective problem solving, especially under unexpected conditions, requires that the control room crew be well trained in techniques that produce synergism and avoid ambiguous or conflicting interactions. This paper describes the foundations of a training program developed and conducted by Combustion Engineering to produce a winning team in the control room. The complete licensed operations staffs of three utilities, Florida Power ampersand Light, Louisiana Power ampersand Light, and Omaha Public Power District, have completed this program. Thus, the results of the experience of ∼150 licensed operators is reported
Dederichs, Anne; Karlshøj, Jan; Hertz, Kristian Dahl
Collaboration within the building process has always been difficult. Additionally the new demands on functionality such as energy and cost efficiency change the roles within the teams of engineers and architects, engaged in building design and generate a need of new work methods within the process...... and teamwork at the final stage of the engineering education. The course was held by a multidisciplinary team of teachers for 9 multidisciplinary teams of students. The team of teachers and the student teams had similar working conditions. These teams were subject of investigation on collaboration...... and transprofessionalism. 32 students and 7 teachers answered a questionnaire leading to the following findings. Collaboration was improving during the course. Other than in traditional building teams we could see that the students placed the role as a designer only in a few cases were perceived the team leader...
A review of the evolution of the control room team is necessary to understand team training needs. As control room responsibilities have increased and members have been added to the operating crews, teamwork and strong leadership has become crucial to the efficiency of these operating crews. In order to conduct effective team training in a simulated control room, it is essential that the fundamental principles of role definition and common team values are fully developed. The diagnostics model used to develop problem-solving skills must be adaptable to the dynamic environment of the control room. Once the fundamental principles of team building and a good diagnostics model are mastered, many training techniques using a simulator are available to perfect the development of team building and diagnostic skills
Training to ensure compliance with the myriad of laws and regulations imposed by federal, state, and local governments is a trend that will continue well into the 1990s. The cost of this training increasingly takes away from the bottom line of many companies and adds additional costs to the products and services being developed and sold. This cost is passed on to the consumer. When the government or one of its contractors incurs additional costs, they are passed on to the taxpayer. As budgets shrink and requirements go up it makes sense to find a way to maintain high quality and cut costs. The Quality Training and Resource Center was established at Hanford by the US Department of Energy to do just that; cut costs and maintain quality. This paper will explore the methodology used to establish a model based on contractor cooperation, teamwork, and resource sharing to improve training while Towering costs
Hollingsworth, John M; Funk, Russell J; Garrison, Spencer A; Owen-Smith, Jason; Kaufman, Samuel A; Pagani, Francis D; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K
Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) must often see multiple providers dispersed across many care locations. To test whether teamwork (assessed with the bipartite clustering coefficient) among these physicians is a determinant of surgical outcomes, we examined national Medicare data from patients undergoing CABG. Among Medicare beneficiaries who underwent CABG between 2008 and 2011, we mapped relationships between all physicians who treated them during their surgical episodes, including both surgeons and nonsurgeons. After aggregating across CABG episodes in a year to construct the physician social networks serving each health system, we then assessed the level of physician teamwork in these networks with the bipartite clustering coefficient. Finally, we fit a series of multivariable regression models to evaluate associations between a health system's teamwork level and its 60-day surgical outcomes. We observed substantial variation in the level of teamwork between health systems performing CABG (SD for the bipartite clustering coefficient was 0.09). Although health systems with high and low teamwork levels treated beneficiaries with comparable comorbidity scores, these health systems differed over several sociocultural and healthcare capacity factors (eg, physician staff size and surgical caseload). After controlling for these differences, health systems with higher teamwork levels had significantly lower 60-day rates of emergency department visit, readmission, and mortality. Health systems with physicians who tend to work together in tightly-knit groups during CABG episodes realize better surgical outcomes. As such, delivery system reforms focused on building teamwork may have positive effects on surgical care. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
McLaughlin, Nancy; Carrau, Ricardo L; Kelly, Daniel F; Prevedello, Daniel M; Kassam, Amin B
During the past several decades, numerous centers have acquired significant expertise in the treatment of skull base pathologies. Favorable outcomes are not only due to meticulous surgical planning and execution, but they are also related to the collaborative efforts of multiple disciplines. We review the impact of teamwork on patient care, elaborate on the key processes for successful teamwork, and discuss its challenges. Pubmed and Medline databases were searched for publications from 1970 to 2012 using the following keywords: "teamwork", "multidisciplinary", "interdisciplinary", "surgery", "skull base", "neurosurgery", "tumor", and "outcome". Current literature testifies to the complexity of establishing and maintaining teamwork. To date, few reports on the impact of teamwork in the management of skull base pathologies have been published. This lack of literature is somewhat surprising given that most patients with skull base pathology receive care from multiple specialists. Common factors for success include a cohesive and well-integrated team structure with well-defined procedural organization. Although a multidisciplinary work force has clear advantages for improving today's quality of care and propelling research efforts for tomorrow's cure, teamwork is not intuitive and requires training, guidance, and executive support. Teamwork is recommended to improve quality over the full cycle of care and consequently patient outcomes. Increased recognition of the value of an integrated team approach for skull base pathologies will hopefully encourage centers, physicians, allied health caregivers, and scientists devoted to treating these patients and advancing the field of knowledge to invest the time, effort, and resources to optimize and organize their collective expertise.
Shrader, Sarah; Kern, Donna; Zoller, James; Blue, Amy
Teaching interprofessional (IP) teamwork skills is a goal of interprofessional education. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between IP teamwork skills, attitudes and clinical outcomes in a simulated clinical setting. One hundred-twenty health professions students (medicine, pharmacy, physician assistant) worked in interprofessional teams to manage a "patient" in a health care simulation setting. Students completed the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) attitudinal survey instrument. Students' responses were averaged by team to create an IEPS attitudes score. Teamwork skills for each team were rated by trained observers using a checklist to calculate a teamwork score (TWS). Clinical outcome scores (COS) were determined by summation of completed clinical tasks performed by the team based on an expert developed checklist. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship of IEPS and TWS with COS. IEPS score was not a significant predictor of COS (p=0.054), but TWS was a significant predictor (pstudents' interprofessional teamwork skills are significant predictors of positive clinical outcomes. Interprofessional curricular models that produce effective teamwork skills can improve student performance in clinical environments and likely improve teamwork practice to positively affect patient care outcomes.
Grover, Elise; Porter, Joanne E; Morphet, Julia
Teamwork may assist with increased levels of efficiency and safety of patient care in the emergency department (ED), with emergency nurses playing an indispensable role in this process. A descriptive, exploratory approach was used, drawing on principles from phenomenology and symbolic interactionism. Convenience, purposive sampling was used in a major metropolitan ED. Semi structured interviews were conducted, audio recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Three major themes emerged from the data. The first theme 'when teamwork works' supported the notion that emergency nurses perceived teamwork as a positive and effective construct in four key areas; resuscitation, simulation training, patient outcomes and staff satisfaction. The second theme 'team support' revealed that back up behaviour and leadership were critical elements of team effectiveness within the study setting. The third theme 'no time for teamwork' centred around periods when teamwork practices failed due to various contributing factors including inadequate resources and skill mix. Outcomes of effective teamwork were valued by emergency nurses. Teamwork is about performance, and requires a certain skill set not necessarily naturally possessed among emergency nurses. Building a resilient team inclusive of strong leadership and communication skills is essential to being able to withstand the challenging demands of the ED. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maynard, M Travis; Marshall, David; Dean, Matthew D
In an attempt to enhance patient safety, health care facilities are increasingly turning to crew resource management (CRM) and other teamwork training interventions. However, there is still quite a bit about such training interventions that remain unclear. Accordingly, our primary intent herein is to provide some clarity by providing a review of the literature, in hopes of highlighting the current state of the literature as well as identifying the areas that should be addressed by researchers in this field going forward. We searched various electronic databases and utilized numerous relevant search terms to maximize the likelihood of identifying all empirical research related to the use of CRM training within health care. Additionally, we conducted a manual search of the most relevant journals and also conducted a legacy search to identify even more articles. Furthermore, given that as a research team we have experience with CRM initiatives, we also integrate the lessons learned through this experience. Based on our review of the literature, CRM and teamwork training programs generally appear beneficial to individual employees, the groups and teams within such settings, and overall health care organizations. In addition to reviewing the literature that addressed CRM and teamwork training, we also highlight some of the more critical aspects of CRM training programs in order for such initiatives to be as successful as possible. Additionally, we detail various factors that appear essential to sustaining any benefits of CRM over the long haul.
McLaughlin, Thomas; Hennecke, Peter; Garraway, Naisan Robert; Evans, David C; Hameed, Morad; Simons, Richard K; Doucet, Jay; Hansen, Daniel; Annand, Siobhan; Bell, Nathaniel; Brown, D Ross
The 10-day Intensive Trauma Team Training Course (ITTTC) was developed by the Canadian Forces (CFs) to teach teamwork and clinical trauma skills to military healthcare personnel before deploying to Afghanistan. This article attempts to validate the impact of the ITTTC by surveying participants postdeployment. A survey consisting of Likert-type multiple-choice questions was created and sent to all previous ITTTC participants. The survey asked respondents to rate their confidence in applying teamwork skills and clinical skills learned in the ITTTC. It explored the relevancy of objectives and participants' prior familiarity with the objectives. The impact of different training modalities was also surveyed. The survey showed that on average 84.29% of participants were "confident" or "very confident" in applying teamwork skills to their subsequent clinical experience and 52.10% were "confident" or "very confident" in applying clinical knowledge and skills. On average 43.74% of participants were "familiar" or "very familiar" with the clinical topics before the course, indicating the importance of training these skills. Participants found that clinical shadowing was significantly less valuable in training clinical skills than either animal laboratory experience or experience in human patient simulators; 68.57% respondents thought that ITTTC was "important" or "very important" in their training. The ITTTC created lasting self-reported confidence in CFs healthcare personnel surveyed upon return from Afghanistan. This validates the importance of the course for the training of CFs healthcare personnel and supports the value of team training in other areas of trauma and medicine.
Everson, Jordan; Funk, Russell J; Kaufman, Samuel R; Owen-Smith, Jason; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Pagani, Francis D; Hollingsworth, John M
To determine whether observed patterns of physician interaction around shared patients are associated with higher levels of teamwork as perceived by physicians. Michigan Medicare beneficiaries who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedures at 24 hospitals in the state between 2008 and 2011. We assessed hospital teamwork using the teamwork climate scale in the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. After aggregating across CABG discharges at these hospitals, we mapped the physician referral networks (including both surgeons and nonsurgeons) that served them and measured three network properties: (1) reinforcement, (2) clustering, and (3) density. We then used multilevel regression models to identify associations between network properties and teamwork at the hospitals on which the networks were anchored. In hospitals where physicians repeatedly cared for patients with the same colleagues, physicians perceived better teamwork (β-reinforcement = 3.28, p = .003). When physicians who worked together also had other colleagues in common, the reported teamwork was stronger (β clustering = 1.71, p = .001). Reported teamwork did not change when physicians worked with a higher proportion of other physicians at the hospital (β density = -0.58, p = .64). In networks with higher levels of reinforcement and clustering, physicians perceive stronger teamwork, perhaps because the strong ties between them create a shared understanding; however, sharing patients with more physicians overall (i.e., density) did not lead to stronger teamwork. Clinical and organizational leaders may consider designing the structure of clinical teams to increase interactions with known colleagues and repeated interactions between providers. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Kristensen, Solvejg; Hammer, Antje; Bartels, Paul; Suñol, Rosa; Groene, Oliver; Thompson, Caroline A; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Kutaj-Wasikowska, Halina; Michel, Philippe; Wagner, Cordula
This study aimed to investigate the associations of quality management systems with teamwork and safety climate, and to describe and compare differences in perceptions of teamwork climate and safety climate among clinical leaders and frontline clinicians. We used a multi-method, cross-sectional approach to collect survey data of quality management systems and perceived teamwork and safety climate. Our data analyses included descriptive and multilevel regression methods. Data on implementation of quality management system from seven European countries were evaluated including patient safety culture surveys from 3622 clinical leaders and 4903 frontline clinicians. Perceived teamwork and safety climate. Teamwork climate was reported as positive by 67% of clinical leaders and 43% of frontline clinicians. Safety climate was perceived as positive by 54% of clinical leaders and 32% of frontline clinicians. We found positive associations between implementation of quality management systems and teamwork and safety climate. Our findings, which should be placed in a broader clinical quality improvement context, point to the importance of quality management systems as a supportive structural feature for promoting teamwork and safety climate. To gain a deeper understanding of this association, further qualitative and quantitative studies using longitudinally collected data are recommended. The study also confirms that more clinical leaders than frontline clinicians have a positive perception of teamwork and safety climate. Such differences should be accounted for in daily clinical practice and when tailoring initiatives to improve teamwork and safety climate. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.
Singer, Sara J; Molina, George; Li, Zhonghe; Jiang, Wei; Nurudeen, Suliat; Kite, Julia G; Edmondson, Lizabeth; Foster, Richard; Haynes, Alex B; Berry, William R
Studies show that using surgical safety checklists (SSCs) reduces complications. Many believe SSCs accomplish this by enhancing teamwork, but evidence is limited. Our study sought to relate teamwork to checklist performance, understand how they relate, and determine conditions that affect this relationship. Using 2 validated tools for observing and coaching operating room teams, we evaluated the association between checklist performance with surgeon buy-in and 4 domains of surgical teamwork: clinical leadership, communication, coordination, and respect. Hospital staff in 10 South Carolina hospitals observed 207 procedures between April 2011 and January 2013. We calculated levels of checklist performance, buy-in, and measures of teamwork, and evaluated their relationship, controlling for patient and case characteristics. Few teams completed most or all SSC items. Teams more often completed items considered procedural "checks" than conversation "prompts." Surgeon buy-in, clinical leadership, communication, a summary measure of teamwork overall, and observers' teamwork ratings positively related to overall checklist completion (multivariable model estimates from 0.04, p < 0.05 for communication to 0.17, p < 0.01 for surgeon buy-in). All measures of teamwork and surgeon buy-in related positively to completing more conversation prompts; none related significantly to procedural checks (estimates from 0.10, p < 0.01 for communication to 0.27, p < 0.001 for surgeon buy-in). Patient age was significantly associated with completing the checklist and prompts (p < 0.05); only case duration was positively associated with performing more checks (p < 0.10). Surgeon buy-in and surgical teamwork characterized by shared clinical leadership, open communication, active coordination, and mutual respect were critical in prompting case-related conversations, but not in completing procedural checks. Findings highlight the importance of surgeon engagement and high-quality, consistent
Johansen, May-Lill; Ervik, Bente
care. When planning high-quality teamwork in primary care, organizational barriers to cooperation and different cultures for learning need consideration.