In the EFL, ESL, ESP and in the ELT classes, students are taught their courses with different kinds of methods and approaches. Cognitive learning styles are the most essential styles in foreign language education. In this paper, the positive effects of cognitive learning styles will be handled. The benefits of these styles will be highlighted. Games on cognitive learning styles will be explained. Sample classroom activities will be shared. Useful books, videos and websites on cognitive learni...
In the EFL, ESL, ESP and in the ELT classes, students are taught their courses with different kinds of methods and approaches. Cognitive learning styles are the most essential styles in foreign language education. In this paper, the positive effects of cognitive learning styles will be handled. The benefits of these styles will be highlighted.…
Pretz, Jean E.; Totz, Kathryn Sentman; Kaufman, Scott Barry
In an experiment with 109 undergraduates, we examined the effect of mood, cognitive style, and cognitive ability on implicit learning in the Artificial Grammar (AG) and Serial Reaction Time (SRT) tasks. Negative mood facilitated AG learning, but had no significant effect on SRT learning. Rational cognitive style predicted greater learning on both…
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of cooperative learning on achievement in mathematics and native language and to analyze students' achievement in cooperative learning according to their gender, abilities and cognitive style. Three hundred and seventy three (170 in the experimental and 203 in the control group fifth grade students from nine different primary schools participated in the study. In experimental group, cooperative learning was introduced in one quarter of the hours dedicated to mathematics and Slovene language during the school year. Control group received the traditional way of teaching in both courses. The results were analyzed with ANOVA. Positive effects of cooperative learning were found in both courses. Results in cooperative learning group were further analyzed according to students' gender, abilities and cognitive style. No significant interaction between students' achievement and their gender or abilities were found. Statistically significant interactions between students' cognitive style and achievement were found in both courses. Field-dependent students benefited most from cooperative learning.
Missouri Univ., Columbia. Coll. of Education.
Information is provided regarding major learning styles and other factors important to student learning. Several typically asked questions are presented regarding different learning styles (visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic, and multisensory learning), associated considerations, determining individuals' learning styles, and appropriate…
Students of Open University are strongly required to be able to study independently. They rely heavily on the cognitive learning styles that they have in attempt to get maximum scores in every final exam. The participants of this research were students in the Physics Education program taking Thermodynamic subject course. The research analysis…
Lo, Jia-Jiunn; Chan, Ya-Chen; Yeh, Shiou-Wen
This study developed an adaptive web-based learning system focusing on students' cognitive styles. The system is composed of a student model and an adaptation model. It collected students' browsing behaviors to update the student model for unobtrusively identifying student cognitive styles through a multi-layer feed-forward neural network (MLFF).…
Cuevas, Joshua; Dawson, Bryan L.
This study tested two cognitive models, learning styles and dual coding, which make contradictory predictions about how learners process and retain visual and auditory information. Learning styles-based instructional practices are common in educational environments despite a questionable research base, while the use of dual coding is less…
Smith, A Russell; Cavanaugh, Catherine; Jones, Joyce; Venn, John; Wilson, William
Learning outcomes may improve in graduate healthcare students when attention is given to individual learning styles. Interactive multimedia is one tool shown to increase success in meeting the needs of diverse learners. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of learning style and type of instruction on physical therapy students' cognitive and psychomotor performance. Participants were obtained by a sample of convenience with students recruited from two physical therapy programs. Twenty-seven students volunteered to participate from Program 1. Twenty-three students volunteered to participate from Program 2. Gregorc learning styles were identified through completion of the Gregorc Style Delineator. Students were randomly assigned to one of two instructional strategies: 1) instructional CD or 2) live demonstration. Differences in cognitive or psychomotor performance following instructional multimedia based on learning style were not demonstrated in this study. Written examination scores improved with both instructional strategies demonstrating no differences between the strategies. Practical examination ankle scores were significantly higher in participants receiving CD instruction than in participants receiving live presentation. Learning style did not significantly affect this improvement. Program 2 performed significantly better on written knee and practical knee and ankle examinations. Learning style had no significant effect on student performance following instruction in clinical skills via interactive multimedia. Future research may include additional measurement instruments assessing other models of learning styles and possible interaction of learning style and instructional strategy on students over longer periods of time, such as a semester or an entire curriculum.
Kablan, Zeynel; Kaya, Sibel
Problem Statement: The interest in raising levels of achievement in math and science has led to a focus on investigating the factors that shape achievement in these subjects. Understanding how different learning styles might influence science achievement may guide educators in their efforts to raise achievement. This study is an attempt to examine…
Milovanović, Miloš; Minović, Miroslav; Kovačević, Ivana; Minović, Jelena; Starčević, Dušan
Today students have grown up using devices like computers, mobile phones, and video consoles for almost any activity; from studies and work to entertainment or communication. Motivating them with traditional teaching methods such as lectures and written materials becomes more difficult daily. That is why digital games are becoming more and more considered to have a promising role in education process. We decided to conduct a study among university students. Purpose of that study was to try to find some empirical evidence to support the claim that educational games can be used as an effective form of teaching. We also invested an effort to measure effects of different teaching approaches with the respect of individual differences in cognitive styles. Initial results provide a good argument for use of educational games in teaching. In addition, we reported some influence of cognitive style on effectiveness of using educational games.
Liu, Yuliang; Ginther, Dean
Considers how to adapt the design of distance education to students' cognitive styles. Discusses cognitive styles, including field dependence versus independence, holistic-analytic, sensory preference, hemispheric preferences, and Kolb's Learning Style Model; and the characteristics of distance education, including technology. (Contains 92…
Khuzzan, Sharifah Mazlina Syed; Goulding, Jack Steven
Education and training is widely acknowledged as being one of the key factors for leveraging organisational success. However, it is equally acknowledged that skills development and the acquisition of learning through managed cognitive approaches has yet to provide a "perfect" match. Whilst it is argued that an ideal learning scenario…
Hames, E.; Baker, M.
Learning preferences have been indirectly linked to student success in engineering programmes, without a significant body of research to connect learning preferences with cognitive abilities. A better understanding of the relationship between learning styles and cognitive abilities will allow educators to optimise the classroom experience for students. The goal of this study was to determine whether relationships exist between student learning styles, as determined by the Felder-Soloman Inventory of Learning Styles (FSILS), and their cognitive performance. Three tests were used to assess student's cognitive abilities: a matrix reasoning task, a Tower of London task, and a mental rotation task. Statistical t-tests and correlation coefficients were used to quantify the results. Results indicated that the global-sequential, active-referential, and visual-verbal FSILS learning styles scales are related to performance on cognitive tasks. Most of these relationships were found in response times, not accuracy. Differences in task performance between gender groups (male and female) were more notable than differences between learning styles groups.
Keefe, James W., Ed.
The purpose of the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) Learning Style Profile is to provide educators with a well-validated and easy-to-use instrument for diagnosing the cognitive styles, perceptual response tendencies, and study/instructional preferences of middle level and senior high school students. The Learning Style…
Valencia-Vallejo, Nilson; López-Vargas, Omar; Sanabria-Rodríguez, Luis
The present research studies the effects of motivational scaffolding that favor self-efficacy and improve learning achievement in students with different cognitive styles in the Field Dependence/Independence (FDI) dimension, when they interact in an e-learning environment on mathematics. The research has an experimental design with two groups and…
Stoyanov, Slavi; Kirschner, Paul A.
Stoyanov, S., & Kirschner, P. (2007). Effect of problem solving support and cognitive style on idea generation: Implications for Technology-Enhanced-Learning. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 40(1), 49-63.
Saracho, Olivia N.
A literature review describes several dimensions of cognitive styles in an effort to illustrate individual stylistic differences. Discusses the field dependence-independence dimension, taking into account age, sex, and cultural differences. Suggests that cognitive style theory needs to be structured in a broader theoretical framework. (NH)
A'yun, Kurroti; Suyono, Poedjiastoeti, Sri; Bin-Tahir, Saidna Zulfiqar
The most crucial issue in education is a misconception that is caused by the misconception of the students themselves. Therefore, this study provided the solution to improve the quality of teaching chemistry in the schools through the remediation of misconceptions to the chemistry teacher candidates. This study employed a mixed method approach using concurrent embedded designs where it tended more to the qualitative research, but it still relied on the quantitative research in the assessment of the learning impact. The results of this study were the students with higher levels of cognitive conflict still have high loads of misconceptions (MC), it possibly due to the type of students' learning styles that is the sequential-global balanced. To facilitate the cognitive conflict character and the learning style of sequential-global balanced, the researchers created an integrated worksheet conceptual change with peer learning (WCCPL). The peer learning undertaken in the last stages of conceptual change of WCCPL can increase the resistance of students' concept in a category of knowing the concept significantly, but it should be examined in an in-depth study related to the long-term memory.
Full Text Available Field independence (FI has been found to correlate with a wide range of cognitive processes requiring cognitive restructuring. Cognitive restructuring, that is going beyond the information given by the setting, is pivotal in creating stable mental representations of the environment, the so-called “cognitive maps,” and it affects visuo-spatial abilities underpinning environmental navigation. Here we evaluated whether FI, by fostering cognitive restructuring of environmental cues on the basis of an internal frame of reference, affects the learning and retrieval of a novel environment. Fifty-four participants were submitted to the Embedded Figure Test (EFT for assessing their Cognitive Style (CS and to the Perspective Taking/Spatial Orientation Test (PTSOT and the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale (SBSOD for assessing their spatial perspective taking and orientation skills. They were also required to learn a path in a novel, real environment (route learning, RL, to recognize landmarks of this path among distracters (landmark recognition, LR, to order them (landmark ordering, LO and to draw the learned path on a map (map drawing, MD. Retrieval tasks were performed both immediately after learning (immediate-retrieval and the day after (24 h-retrieval. Performances on EFT significantly correlated with the time needed to learn the path, with MD (both in the immediate- and in the 24 h- retrievals, results on LR (in 24-retrieval and performances on PTSOT. Interestingly, we found that gender interacted with CS on RL (time of learning and MD. Females performed significantly worse than males only if they were classified as FD, but did not differ from males if they were classified as FI. These results suggest that CS affects learning and retrieval of navigational environment, especially when a map-like representation is required. We propose that CS may be pivotal in forming the cognitive map of the environment, likely due to the higher ability of FI
Jena, Ananta Kumar; Deka, Monisha; Barman, Munmi
The study aimed to find out the relationship between cognitive styles, YouTube learning and Skype learning performance of secondary school students. For that purpose, the researchers randomly selected 20 students from two 9th standards of two English medium secondary schools of Silchar Town, Assam, India to conduct the experiment. Quasi…
Cook, David A; Gelula, Mark H; Dupras, Denise M; Schwartz, Alan
Adapting web-based (WB) instruction to learners' individual differences may enhance learning. Objectives This study aimed to investigate aptitude-treatment interactions between learning and cognitive styles and WB instructional methods. We carried out a factorial, randomised, controlled, crossover, post-test-only trial involving 89 internal medicine residents, family practice residents and medical students at 2 US medical schools. Parallel versions of a WB course in complementary medicine used either active or reflective questions and different end-of-module review activities ('create and study a summary table' or 'study an instructor-created table'). Participants were matched or mismatched to question type based on active or reflective learning style. Participants used each review activity for 1 course module (crossover design). Outcome measurements included the Index of Learning Styles, the Cognitive Styles Analysis test, knowledge post-test, course rating and preference. Post-test scores were similar for matched (mean +/- standard error of the mean 77.4 +/- 1.7) and mismatched (76.9 +/- 1.7) learners (95% confidence interval [CI] for difference - 4.3 to 5.2l, P = 0.84), as were course ratings (P = 0.16). Post-test scores did not differ between active-type questions (77.1 +/- 2.1) and reflective-type questions (77.2 +/- 1.4; P = 0.97). Post-test scores correlated with course ratings (r = 0.45). There was no difference in post-test subscores for modules completed using the 'construct table' format (78.1 +/- 1.4) or the 'table provided' format (76.1 +/- 1.4; CI - 1.1 to 5.0, P = 0.21), and wholist and analytic styles had no interaction (P = 0.75) or main effect (P = 0.18). There was no association between activity preference and wholist or analytic scores (P = 0.37). Cognitive and learning styles had no apparent influence on learning outcomes. There were no differences in outcome between these instructional methods.
Atehortúa Atehortúa José Nicolás
Full Text Available El siguiente artículo resume los resultados de una investigación descriptivo-cualitativa sobre estilos cognitivos o de pensamiento, llevado a cabo con miembros del programa de extensión académica en la UPB, con el objetivo de describir los estilos de pensamiento de los estudiantes que les permitan reconocer y utilizar estrategias meta cognitivas para desarrollar un nivel consciente de responsabilidad y autonomía en el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera. El marco teórico de este estudio se basa en conceptos tales como estilos cognitivos, estrategias meta cognitivas, aptitud, así como la autonomía y la responsabilidad en el aprendizaje. Los instrumentos diseñados para la recopilación de datos fueron un test sobre estilos cognitivos, en segundo lugar, un cuestionario semiestructurado con los siguientes ítems: proceso de toma de decisiones, la auto descripción como aprendices, las percepciones del estudiante sobre el papel del profesor, incluido el uso de estrategias meta cognitivas, tercero , una entrevista abierta con el objetivo de medir el impacto que tiene el concebir un proceso de aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera desde la perspectiva de los estilos de pensamiento. Los resultados mostraron la expectativa de los estudiantes para reconocer las capacidades humanas, la necesidad de adquirir la competencia estratégica, la necesidad real de participar abiertamente en la planificación de metas y objetivos, y en la auto-evaluación formativa del proceso de aprendizaje, así como el deseo de pasar de un proceso centrado en tareas, a un proceso centrado en la autonomía. The following article sums up the findings of a descriptive-qualitative research on cognitive styles carried out with members of the Academic Extension program at the UPB, aiming at describing the cognitive styles of students that enable them to recognize and use metacognitive strategies in order to develop a conscious level of autonomy and responsibility in learning
Cook, David A
In a previous systematic review, the author proposed that adaptation to learners' cognitive and learning styles (CLSs) could improve the efficiency of computer-assisted instruction (CAI). In the present article, he questions that proposition, arguing that CLSs do not make a substantive difference in CAI. To support this argument, the author performed an updated systematic literature search, pooled new findings with those from the previous review, and reinterpreted this evidence with a focus on aptitude-treatment interactions. (An aptitude-treatment interaction occurs when a student with attribute 1 learns better with instructional approach A than with approach B, whereas a student with attribute 2 learns better with instructional approach B).Of 65 analyses reported in 48 studies, only 9 analyses (14%) showed significant interactions between CLS and instructional approach. It seems that aptitude-treatment interactions with CLSs are at best infrequent and small in magnitude. There are several possible explanations for this lack of effect. First, the influence of strong instructional methods likely dominates the impact of CLSs. Second, current methods for assessing CLSs lack validity evidence and are inadequate to accurately characterize the individual learner. Third, theories are vague, and empiric evidence is virtually nonexistent to guide the planning of style-targeted instructional designs. Adaptation to learners' CLSs thus seems unlikely to enhance CAI. The author recommends that educators focus on employing strong instructional methods. Educators might also consider assessing and adapting to learners' prior knowledge or allowing learners to select among alternate instructional approaches.
Full Text Available In this research we applied classification models for prediction of studentsarsquo; performance, and cluster models for grouping students based on their cognitive styles in e-learning environment. Classification models described in this paper should help: teachers, students and business people, for early engaging with students who are likely to become excellent on a selected topic. Clustering students based on cognitive styles and their overall performance should enable better adaption of the learning materials with respect to their learning styles. The approach is tested using well-established data mining algorithms, and evaluated by several evaluation measures. Model building process included data preprocessing, parameter optimization and attribute selection steps, which enhanced the overall performance. Additionally we propose a Moodle module that allows automatic extraction of data needed for educational data mining analysis and deploys models developed in this study.
Keefe, James W., Ed.
In 1986, the National Association of Secondary School Principals, with the assistance of a national task force, published the NASSP Learning Style Profile (LSP) for diagnosis of the cognitive styles, perceptual response tendencies, and instructional preferences of middle level and senior high school students. This monograph offers a short course…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of variations in text density levels and the cognitive style of field dependence on learning from a CBI tutorial, based on the dependent measures of achievement, reading comprehension, and reading rate, and of lesson completion time. Eighty college undergraduate students were randomly…
@@ People learn and process new information in different ways. For decades researchers have been studying and comparing the personality traits any cognitive learning styles of students to discover any distinguishing trait patterns(i. e. more characteristic of academically successful students than other learners) . Moreover, many believe that if the classroom environment and even the teachers' teaching style can be tailored to meet the students' learning styles, learning as well as the students' self-concept as a learner will increase (Corzza, Gustin and Edelkind, 1995). This article will offer a brief overview of differences in style and strategies and discuss the implications for teaching.
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore the relation between decision-making styles which are measured by the General decision-making style (GDMS test and information processing styles which are often termed cognitive styles and are, in this study, measured by Cognitive Style Inventory. The authors directed a survey research on 162 Iranian students. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to measure the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles. The authors found that cognitive styles have a positive impact on decision-making styles. In spite of the abundant research on factors that affect decision-making styles, few researches have tested the relationship between cognitive styles and decision-making styles. This study examines the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles in Iran. This study, like most research paper studies, cannot easily be generalized. Furthermore, the results of this study could be affected by economic conditions.
This study examined learning styles in 137 high ability fourth-grade students. All students were administered two learning styles inventories. Characteristics of students with the following learning styles are summarized: auditory language, visual language, auditory numerical, visual numerical, tactile concrete, individual learning, group…
Cranston, Charles M.
Describes a study that examined whether statistically significant differences existed among performance levels of college students in a beginning media writing class when compared according to cognitive style and learning style subgroups. Results are reported for five mass media formats--broadcast news, television copywriting, documentary,…
Wright, John C.
A study is presented which concentrates on the development of a cognitive style assessment instrument for 3- to 8-year-olds and on a series of studies designed to evaluate the role of stylistic and attentional processes in the development of various competencies in young children. This report incorporates a manual for users, a technical report on…
Baukal, Charles Edward, Jr.
A literature search revealed very little information on how to teach working engineers, which became the motivation for this research. Effective training is important for many reasons such as preventing accidents, maximizing fuel efficiency, minimizing pollution emissions, and reducing equipment downtime. The conceptual framework for this study included the development of a new instructional design framework called the Multimedia Cone of Abstraction (MCoA). This was developed by combining Dale's Cone of Experience and Mayer's Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. An anonymous survey of 118 engineers from a single Midwestern manufacturer was conducted to determine their demographics, learning strategy preferences, verbal-visual cognitive styles, and multimedia preferences. The learning strategy preference profile and verbal-visual cognitive styles of the sample were statistically significantly different than the general population. The working engineers included more Problem Solvers and were much more visually-oriented than the general population. To study multimedia preferences, five of the seven levels in the MCoA were used. Eight types of multimedia were compared in four categories (types in parantheses): text (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), non-interactive dynamic graphics (animation and video), and interactive dynamic graphics (simulated virtual reality and real virtual reality). The first phase of the study examined multimedia preferences within a category. Participants compared multimedia types in pairs on dual screens using relative preference, rating, and ranking. Surprisingly, the more abstract multimedia (text, drawing, animation, and simulated virtual reality) were preferred in every category to the more concrete multimedia (narration, photograph, video, and real virtual reality), despite the fact that most participants had relatively little prior subject knowledge. However, the more abstract graphics were only slightly
Mery Luz Vega-Vaca
Full Text Available This study is expected to determine the impact of a program based on the cooperative learning methodology. This, in comparison to a traditional learning situation in both mathematics and language achievement. The study was carried out on a group of fourth grade students of primary school. In addition, it tried to find the differential impact according to the cognitive style in the field dependence-independence dimension. This work was carried out with 76 students of the Colegio José Martí I.E.D. (Bogotá-Colombia ranging from 8-12 years of age. The control group received a traditional teaching methodology and the experimental group received the cooperative learning program, composed of 35 sessions (from July to November 2009. All the participants were tested in mathematics and language performance, before and after the intervention. All of them were tested in cognitive style as well. The results suggested that the cooperative learning methodology benefited importantly the academic achievement of the students in mathematics in contrast to the competitive and individualist situations. The results also suggested that the three cognitive style groups were positively affected from the cooperative learning situation. These results were not found in the language area.
Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Beckstead, Jason W; Elqayam, Shira; Reljic, Tea; Hozo, Iztok; Kumar, Ambuj; Cannon-Bowers, Janis; Taylor, Stephanie; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Turner, Brandon; Paidas, Charles
Patient outcomes critically depend on accuracy of physicians' judgment, yet little is known about individual differences in cognitive styles that underlie physicians' judgments. The objective of this study was to assess physicians' individual differences in cognitive styles relative to age, experience, and degree and type of training. Physicians at different levels of training and career completed a web-based survey of 6 scales measuring individual differences in cognitive styles (maximizing v. satisficing, analytical v. intuitive reasoning, need for cognition, intolerance toward ambiguity, objectivism, and cognitive reflection). We measured psychometric properties (Cronbach's α) of scales; relationship of age, experience, degree, and type of training; responses to scales; and accuracy on conditional inference task. The study included 165 trainees and 56 attending physicians (median age 31 years; range 25-69 years). All 6 constructs showed acceptable psychometric properties. Surprisingly, we found significant negative correlation between age and satisficing (r = -0.239; P = 0.017). Maximizing (willingness to engage in alternative search strategy) also decreased with age (r = -0.220; P = 0.047). Number of incorrect inferences negatively correlated with satisficing (r = -0.246; P = 0.014). Disposition to suppress intuitive responses was associated with correct responses on 3 of 4 inferential tasks. Trainees showed a tendency to engage in analytical thinking (r = 0.265; P = 0.025), while attendings displayed inclination toward intuitive-experiential thinking (r = 0.427; P = 0.046). However, trainees performed worse on conditional inference task. Physicians capable of suppressing an immediate intuitive response to questions and those scoring higher on rational thinking made fewer inferential mistakes. We found a negative correlation between age and maximizing: Physicians who were more advanced in their careers were less willing to spend time and effort in an
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Learning style is the processing of information and comprehension. If teachers present contents in a style that matches a student’s preferred learning style, academic performance and success will improve. If content retention improves it will result in an increase in thetest scores. It is also important to determine if students, as a group, fit into a particular style or a particular cycle as they move through an educational program.Methods: The study is a descriptive analytical research. Nursing Students at Isfahan Medical Sciences University completed a questionnaire formulated to assess learning styles. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the possible relationship between learning cycle and student’s grades in the curriculum (i.e. freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior. Cross tabulation was used to test for a relationship between learning style and student academic year of study in the curriculum.Results: 294 students received the Kolb LSI questionnaire. The data demonstrated that juniors preferred a converger learning style and the senior students were in the abstract conceptualization cycle of learning. There were no relationships demonstrated between other groups in the study.Conclusion: The junior and senior students appear to prefer the stage of learning involving thinking and problem analysis. When a group of students demonstrate a preference for particular learning style teachers can develop their curriculum along their learning styleKey words: LEARNING STYLES, NURSING STUDENTS, FRESHMAN, SOPHOMORE, JUNIOR, SENIOR
Varela, David A Diaz Voss; Malik, Mohammad U; Laeeq, Kulsoom; Pandian, Vinciya; Brown, David J; Weatherly, Robert A; Cummings, Charles W; Bhatti, Nasir I
Previous studies have identified a predominant learning style in trainees from different specialties, more recently in otolaryngology residents. The purpose of our study was to determine a predominant learning style within otolaryngology fellowships and to identify any differences between otolaryngology fellows and residents. We conducted a survey of otolaryngology fellows at 25 otolaryngology fellowship programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. We emailed Kolb's Learning Style Index version 3.1 to 16 pediatric otolaryngology (PO) and 24 otology/neurotology (ON) fellows. This index is a widely used 12-item questionnaire. The participants answered each item in the questionnaire as it applied to their preferred learning style: accommodating, converging, diverging, or assimilating. Results were then analyzed and compared between each subspecialty and the previously reported preferred styles of otolaryngology residents. Ten PO and 20 ON fellows completed the survey, with an overall response rate of 75%. PO and ON fellows (60% of each group) preferred a learning style that was "balanced" across all four styles. For ON fellows, 35% preferred converging and 5% preferred accommodating styles. For PO fellows, converging and accommodating styles accounted for 20% each. It was previously reported that 74.4% of otolaryngology residents prefer either converging or accommodating styles. We believe that the fellowship training environment calls for fellows to use more than one learning style to become proficient physicians, hence the trend toward potentially developing a balanced style when at this level. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
Natalia N. Volkova
Full Text Available The paper presents an analytical review of cognitive styles research, considering the problems of its theory, methodology, measurement and practical applications. Issues concerning the prospects, as well as theoretical and practical relevance of cognitive styles research, are discussed. We examine the main causes leading to researchers’ declining interest to study of cognitive styles, related to theory, methodology, measurement and practical applications. The main problems discussed relate to lack of clear definition and common theoretical framework. Moreover, the number of empirical studies prevails over the one aimed at theoretical generalization of empirical results and findings, and therefore the primacy of empirics appears. We analyze the possible ways of advancing the field, suggested research programs and potential perspectives for future research. We pose questions of the relationship between cognitive styles and other psychological constructs, such as abilities and cognitive strategies. We emphasize the need to develop integrative models of cognitive styles in order to systematize and organize a large number of existing cognitive styles dimensions. The main controversial issues concerning cognitive styles’ stability and value are considered. We suggest that cognitive style is a psychological mean of cognitive tasks solving, based on both situation circumstances and subject’s current cognitive resources. Issues concerning cognitive styles may answer the question on the nature of individual differences and clarify psychological mechanisms of personality-situation interaction. Furthermore, it may serve as a basis for integrated studies at the areas of personality and cognitive psychology.
Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji hasil belajar kemampuan siswa pada aspek berpikir kreatif dengan model CORE menggunakan pendekatan konstruktivisme dapat mencapai ketuntasan klasikal; mengetahui rata-rata hasil belajar kemampuan siswa pada aspek berpikir kreatif dengan model CORE menggunakan pendekatan konstruktivisme lebih dari 75; mendeskripsikan gaya kognitif siswa dalam menjawab masalah dan kemampuan siswa pada aspek berpikir kreatif dalam pembelajaran matematika. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kombinasi (mixed methods. Populasi penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas X SMAN 6 Semarang. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan: (1 hasil belajar kemampuan siswa pada aspek berpikir kreatif dengan model CORE pendekatan konstruktivisme mencapai ketuntasan klasikal; (2 rata-rata hasil belajar kemampuan siswa pada aspek berpikir kreatif dengan model CORE pendekatan konstruktivisme lebih dari 75; (3 catatan waktu karakterikstik gaya kognitif reflektif terlambat namun frekuensi menjawab paling sedikit, sedangkan catatan waktu karakterikstik gaya kognitif implusif tercepat namun frekuensi menjawab paling banyak; (4 Kelompok siswa gaya kognitif reflektif memenuhi komponen berpikir kreatif yaitu fleksibilitas dan kebaruan serta kelompok siswa gaya kognitif implusif memenuhi komponen berpikir kreatif fleksibel dalam menjawab masalah. The purpose of this research is to determine learning outcomes in the aspect of creative thinking abilities with CORE model use a constructivist approach achieve mastery of classical, determine the mean result of learning on aspect of creative thinking abilities with CORE learning model use a constructivist approach is more than 75, to describe the characteristics of the cognitive styles of students in answering problems, and describe the creative thinking abilities based on cognitive style. This research is combined (mixed methods. The study population was class X SMAN 6 Semarang. The result of this research showed
Lee, Li-Ang; Chao, Yi-Ping; Huang, Chung-Guei; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Wang, Shu-Ling; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Kang, Chung-Jan; Hsin, Li-Jen; Lin, Wan-Ni; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Li, Hsueh-Yu
Electronic learning (e-learning) through mobile technology represents a novel way to teach emergent otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgery (ORL-HNS) disorders to undergraduate medical students. Whether a cognitive style of education combined with learning modules can impact learning outcomes and satisfaction in millennial medical students is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of cognitive styles and learning modules using mobile e-learning on knowledge gain, competence gain, and satisfaction for emergent ORL-HNS disorders. This randomized controlled trial included 60 undergraduate medical students who were novices in ORL-HNS at an academic teaching hospital. The cognitive style of the participants was assessed using the group embedded figures test. The students were randomly assigned (1:1) to a novel interactive multimedia (IM) group and conventional Microsoft PowerPoint show (PPS) group matched by age, sex, and cognitive style. The content for the gamified IM module was derived from and corresponded to the textbook-based learning material of the PPS module (video lectures). The participants were unblinded and used fully automated courseware containing the IM or PPS module on a 7-inch tablet for 100 min. Knowledge and competence were assessed using multiple-choice questions and multimedia situation tests, respectively. Each participant also rated their global satisfaction. All of the participants (median age 23 years, range 22-26 years; 36 males and 24 females) received the intended intervention after randomization. Overall, the participants had significant gains in knowledge (median 50%, interquartile range [IQR]=17%-80%, Plearning modules (IM or PPS) had significant effects on both knowledge gain (both adjusted Plearning is an effective modality to improve knowledge of emergent ORL-HNS in millennial undergraduate medical students. Our findings suggest the necessity of developing various modules for undergraduate medical students with
The idea of a personal style in learning has grown during the past decade to dominate teacher discourse in the UK. The theory supporting this idea is work in understanding cognitive and learning style. A recent review of learning styles for the Learning and Skills Development Agency in the UK has been widely publicised and is deeply critical of…
In this paper we examine how (courseware) can accommodate differences in preferred learning style. A review of the literature on learning styles is followed by a discussion of the implications of being able to accurately classify learners, and key issues that must be addressed are raised. We then present two courseware design solutions that take into account individual learning‐style preference: the first follows on from traditional research in this area and assumes that learners can be class...
This study investigates how individuals with different cognitive styles respond to choices involving framing effects. The results suggest that cognitive style as defined by Kirton (1976) is far more complex than previous studies indicate. Kirton characterises "Innovators" as rule breakers and "Adaptors" as conformists. The most…
Learning styles have lately attracted considerable attention as a measure which elucidates the influence of individuality on learning. In this article, the concept of learning styles are defined, and earlier literatures concerning learning styles are surveyed, based mainly on Reid's (1995) classification. They are categorized as 3 types; sensory learning style, affective learning style, and cognitive learning style. After that, the learning styles of Korean learners are reviewed. The studies ...
Abstract Decision making is one of the most important and frequent tasks among managers and employees in an organization. Knowledge about more stable cognitive characteristics underlying decision making styles has been requested. This study aimed to examine the relationship between rational decision making style, cognitive style, self efficacy and locus of control. Possible interaction effects in relation to gender were also analyzed. 186 employees at the Ministry of Defence were surveyed...
Chao, Yi-Ping; Huang, Chung-Guei; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Wang, Shu-Ling; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Kang, Chung-Jan; Hsin, Li-Jen; Lin, Wan-Ni; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Li, Hsueh-Yu
Background Electronic learning (e-learning) through mobile technology represents a novel way to teach emergent otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgery (ORL-HNS) disorders to undergraduate medical students. Whether a cognitive style of education combined with learning modules can impact learning outcomes and satisfaction in millennial medical students is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the impact of cognitive styles and learning modules using mobile e-learning on knowledge gain, competence gain, and satisfaction for emergent ORL-HNS disorders. Methods This randomized controlled trial included 60 undergraduate medical students who were novices in ORL-HNS at an academic teaching hospital. The cognitive style of the participants was assessed using the group embedded figures test. The students were randomly assigned (1:1) to a novel interactive multimedia (IM) group and conventional Microsoft PowerPoint show (PPS) group matched by age, sex, and cognitive style. The content for the gamified IM module was derived from and corresponded to the textbook-based learning material of the PPS module (video lectures). The participants were unblinded and used fully automated courseware containing the IM or PPS module on a 7-inch tablet for 100 min. Knowledge and competence were assessed using multiple-choice questions and multimedia situation tests, respectively. Each participant also rated their global satisfaction. Results All of the participants (median age 23 years, range 22-26 years; 36 males and 24 females) received the intended intervention after randomization. Overall, the participants had significant gains in knowledge (median 50%, interquartile range [IQR]=17%-80%, P<.001) and competence (median 13%, IQR=0%-33%, P=.006). There were no significant differences in knowledge gain (40%, IQR=13%-76% vs 60%, IQR=20%-100%, P=.42) and competence gain (0%, IQR= −21% to 38% vs 25%, IQR=0%-33%, P=.16) between the IM and PPS groups. However, the IM group had
This study designed a chatbot system, Confucius, as a MSN virtual learning companion to examine how specific application design variables within educational software affect the learning process of subjects as defined by the cognitive continuum of field-dependent and field-independent learners. 104 college students participated in a 12 week…
Packiam Alloway, Tracy; Banner, Gloria E.; Smith, Patrick
Background: Working memory, the ability to store and process information, is strongly related to learning outcomes. Aims: The aim of the present study is to extend previous research on early learning and investigate the relationship between working memory, cognitive styles, and attainment in adolescents using both national curriculum tests and…
White, Garry L.
This research investigated the impact learning a visual programming language, Visual Basic, has on hemispheric cognitive style, as measured by the Hemispheric Mode Indicator (HMI). The question to be answered is: will a computer programming course help students improve their cognitive abilities in order to perform well? The cognitive styles for…
Sitar, Aleša Saša; Cerne, Matej; Aleksic, Darija; Mihelic, Katarina Katja
Business schools are in need of developing creative graduates. This article explores how creativity among business students can be stimulated. Because a considerable amount of knowledge is required for creative ideas to emerge, the learning process has a significant impact on creativity. This, in turn, indicates that learning style is important…
Berings, Marjolein G. M. C.; Poell, Rob F.; Simons, P. Robert-Jan
The broad aims of this study are to gain insight into employees' on-the-job learning activities to help them improve their on-the-job learning. The authors define on-the-job learning styles and operationalize the concept to include both mental and overt learning styles and both interpersonal and intrapersonal learning styles. Organizations and…
Globerson, Tamar; And Others
Tested whether or not cognitive development (as measured by mental capacity) and cognitive style (as measured by field-dependence/independence) are different dimensions. Results are discussed with regard to Pascual-Leone's model of cognitive development, relevance to stylistic dimension of reflection/impulsivity, and educational implications.…
Pegah OMIDVAR,, Putra University, MALAYSIA
Full Text Available The need for cross-cultural understanding of the relationship between culture and learning style is becoming increasingly important because of the changing cultural mix of classrooms and society at large. The research done regarding the two variables is mostly quantitative. This review summarizes results of the existing research on cultural variations in learning styles. Limitations of the existing studies are discussed and some suggestion for future research is proposed.
mind, (ii) forms of mental self-government, and (iii) stylistic preferences. Importantly, Sternberg does not think that cognitive style...summarizes a study examining suitable cognitive and learning styles for intelligent tutoring technologies to improve the Canadian Forces (CF) distance...are the appropriate tool to address CF learning needs, as e-learning systems: • Cater to all individuals in the CF regardless of their cognitive or
Among all the various learning style models, the Dunn & Dunn Learning Style Model (DDLSM) in particular has become a widely used method transforming teaching practice. Dunn & Dunn research literature is scarce when it comes to how the model is used by teachers in general. This is an issue since...... the model is a research-based prescriptive model of teaching. Employing observations and interviews to collect data, the present study investigates teachers’ use of the model. Findings indicate that the DDLSM is used for a number of purposes, some of which are in contradiction to the model prescriptions....
Ozdemir, Ali; Alaybeyoglu, Aysegul; Mulayim, Naciye; Uysal, Muhammed
In this study, an intelligent system which determines learning style of the students is developed to increase success in effective and easy learning. The importance of the proposed software system is to determine convenience degree of the student's learning style. Personal information form and Dunn Learning Style Preference Survey are used to…
Wolfe, Kara; Bates, Derald; Manikowske, Linda; Amundsen, Rebecca
Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory describes how learners see and interpret information. Past studies have analyzed learning styles of certain professions and majors. This study evaluated whether student learning styles differ by major. The Marshall and Merritt Learning Style Inventory was completed by 531 students. Differences were found in…
Grimes, Sue K.
A diagnostic, prescriptive model was utilized (n=394) in identification of learning styles and learning-study strategies of diverse student groups and in the analysis of prescriptive methods to address their specific needs. High-risk groups demonstrated auditory, tactile concrete, and group learning style preferences and were weaker on cognitive,…
Manolis, Chris; Burns, David J.; Assudani, Rashmi; Chinta, Ravi
To understand experiential learning, many have reiterated the need to be able to identify students' learning styles. Kolb's Learning Style Model is the most widely accepted learning style model and has received a substantial amount of empirical support. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI), although one of the most widely utilized instruments to…
Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A
Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.
Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.
Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…
Examines the perceptual learning style preferences of sixth- and seventh-grade students in the Philippines. Finds that the visual modality was the most preferred and the auditory modality was the least preferred. Offers suggestions for accommodating visual, tactile, and kinesthetic preferences. (RS)
Casakin, Hernan; Gigi, Ariela
Cognitive style has a strong predictive power in academic and professional success. This study investigated the cognitive profile of candidates studying architecture. Specifically, it explored the relation between visual and verbal cognitive styles, and the performance of candidates in admission procedures. The cognitive styles of candidates who…
Jones, Cheryl; Reichard, Carla; Mokhtari, Kouider
This study examines the extent to which community college students' learning style preferences vary as a function of discipline. Reports significant differences in students' learning style preferences across disciplines, but not by gender. Adds that student learning style preferences varied by academic performance as measured by gender. Discusses…
A teacher reports on helpful advice she received from a colleague when she started teaching: to teach students in the cognitive mode in which they learn best (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, or tactile). (TE)
Mei Ph’ng Lee
Full Text Available Learner diversity that exists in the classroom plays a role in influencing the teaching and learning process in the classroom. It should be acknowledged in order for the teaching and learning process to be a meaningful and effective process. Thus, this study examined the learning styles preference of engineering students and the teaching styles preferences of their Technical Communication lecturers. The study also looked at whether the students’ learning styles preferences were influenced by their field of study, gender and ethnic backgrounds. Felder and Solomon’s Index of Learning Styles was administered to 588 engineering students while Grasha and Riechmann-Hruska’s Teaching Style Survey was administered to 10 Technical Communication lecturers. The findings revealed that the students have a marked preference for the visual learning style but balanced preferences for the other learning styles dimensions. The students’ field of study, gender and ethnic backgrounds did not seem to influence the students’ learning styles preferences. As for their Technical Communication lecturers, they seem to favour the student-centered teaching approach. All the data support the notion of adopting a balanced teaching approach in the Technical Communication classroom.
environmental situation. Demographic Characteristics Age Gender Rank/Command Level 5 Personality Characteristics Decision making style Cognitive style Learning...individuals with diverse decision making patterns to use a standard approach will adversely affect their decision making abilities. Further, the findings...Minneapolis MN: University of Minnesota, Cognitive, Science Research Group. Karp, S.A. (1963). Field dependence and overcoming embeddedness . J. Consult
Rostampour, Mohammad; Niroomand, Seyyedeh Mitra
Cognitive styles influence the performance of language learners and can predict their success in the process of language learning. Considering field dependence/independence cognitive styles, this study aims at determining if they are significant in English vocabulary knowledge. A number of EFL university students took part in the study. The…
Design engineering educations often struggle to accommodate a highly diverse group of students as it combines an equally diverse range of topics in one education. This paper investigates how a specific course, Mathematics and Form, integrates two distinct areas into one course with the aim of fac...... shapes and form, whereas other types of students do not. The results thereby underpin that learning is typically based on individual preferences and that cross-disciplinary educational programmes have to accommodate this....... of facilitating learning across this diverse group of students. The paper is based on a survey with 99 former participants of the course as respondents. The results of the survey imply that certain types of students benefit from the combination of mathematical theory and practical exercises related to basic...
Ferrer, Lourdes M.
In recent years there have been many studies on learners developing conceptions of natural phenomena. However, so far there have been few attempts to investigate how the characteristics of the learners and their environment influence such conceptions. This study began with an attempt to use an instrument developed by McCarthy (1981) to describe learners in Malaysian primary schools. This proved inappropriate as Asian primary classrooms do not provide the same kind of environment as US classrooms. It was decided to develop a learning style checklist to suit the local context and which could be used to describe differences between learners which teachers could appreciate and use. The checklist included four dimensions — perceptual, process, self-confidence and motivation. The validated instrument was used to determine the learning style preferences of primary four pupils in Penang, Malaysia. Later, an analysis was made regarding the influence of learning environment and learning styles on conceptual understanding in the topics of food, respiration and excretion. This study was replicated in the Philippines with the purpose of investigating the relationship between learning styles and achievement in science, where the topics of food, respiration and excretion have been taken up. A number of significant relationships were observed in these two studies.
This study investigated the effects of cognitive style and gender on student's academic achievement in social studies. It was designed to obtain empirical evidence of effects of cognitive style and gender as well as the interaction effects of cognitive style on student's academic achievement in social studies. The subjects of the ...
Full Text Available This article is primarily bidirectional in that it is concerned with two fields of cognitive styles of field-dependency/independency on one hand and breadth of vocabulary knowledge on the other hand. In other word, this research is primarily intended to investigate the nature of the students' vocabulary knowledge in the field of passive and active knowledge of L2 words as a whole with regard to their preferred cognitive style of field dependency/independency. A group of 60 undergraduate students majoring in the field of English Language Teaching was selected. They were then divided into two groups based on the basis of their preferred cognitive styles of field-dependency / independency. Four types of tests, the 1000 frequency word-level test, the passive version of vocabulary Levels Test, the Productive Version of the Vocabulary Levels Test, and the Group Imbedded Figures Test were administered to the participants. The conclusion drawn after the analysis of the data was that the fieldindependent group outperformed their field-dependent counterparts in dealing with both passive and productive vocabulary levels. Finally, the findings of this research could be interpreted as being supportive of the idea that the field-dependent/independent cognitive style could be considered as an effective factor influencing the learners' vocabulary learning in the field of second language acquisition.
Ayfer SU BERGİL
Full Text Available Contrary to learning styles seem the same as what abilities refer, they are related to them in the sense that they decipher how individuals desire to use their capabilities. There have been diverse learning styles theories intent to explain the individual differences on account of the acceleration and the amount of absorbed knowledge. Learning styles have been defined under the notions of cognitive, affective and physiological attributes that serve as nearly strong indicators of how learners distinguish, combine, and reciprocate to the learning phenomena which gains importance and provide basis for language education process as well. Thus, this study aims to determine the learning styles of English language teaching (ELT students studying at Amasya University, Faculty of Education in 2017-2018 academic year. The participants of the study consist of totally 109 out of 122 from 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th grade students of English Language Teaching Department. The data collection instrument was Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory including four sets of work labeled as Concrete Experience, Reflective Observation, Abstract Conceptualization, and Active Experimentation and the students were expected to rank order the 12 items listed for each category via assigning a 4 to the word which best characterizes their learning style, a 3 to the next best, a 2 to the next, and a 1 to the least characteristic word. By this way, ELT students’ dominant learning styles which refer to their learning profiles has been specified descriptively. Furthermore, the learning styles of ELT students has been interconnected with the content of the courses they need to take during their teacher education process and suggestions for the members of ELT departments has been provided based on the findings of these learning styles.
Full Text Available A study was conducted in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu state to understand the learning styles of students. The term learning style refers to the way or method or approach by which a student learns. The study explored the possible learning style variations among agricultural, horticultural, engineering and arts & science students and their association with academic achievement. One hundred and twelve students were randomly selected from the four streams and their learning styles were analyzed. In the agricultural and horticultural streams, a majority of the students were auditory learners. They were also found to be predominantly unimodal learners. Overall, it was found that majority of the students were visual learners followed by auditory and kinesthetic style. The highest percentage of kinesthetic learners was found among engineering students. Trimodal learners scored the highest mean percentage of marks. The influence of learning styles on the academic achievements of the students did not show a significant relationship.
Brix, Jacob; Lauridsen, Karen M.
Issues of innovation and knowledge management are often treated from an organisational learning perspective. As a complement to this, there is a vast potential in the strategic enhancement of individual learning by implementing learning styles profiles and creating personal learning strategies...... for management and employees in a knowledge based organisation. Based on an action-research case study, we offer an example of how learning styles affects individual learning and thus personal knowledge creation in practice. The paper argues that innovation and knowledge management is enhanced and facilitated...... in practice by working with the learning styles of individuals and groups/teams....
Full Text Available Learning is the basic human need to know something, whether packed formally or not. There is not one method that is appropriate and certainly appropriate with all students. Students have their own learning styles between one another can’t be equated. Real memorable learning comes from the will of the heart, not coercion. The uniqueness of each individual is what makes the variety of learning styles should be understood so that each student can overcome difficulties learning. In the implementation of learning many teachers doesn’t understand the learning style, so as to force students to always pay attention to the speech and explanation of teachers. The learning process will be effective if the method of learning used can accommodate students. Research on the most appropriate teaching methods turns out to be a failure, because each teaching method depends on the way or style of the student in learning. This research was conducted in the school as a place of observation (field research by using a quantitative approach. Data were collected by questionnaires, observations, interviews, and document studies which were then processed and analytically analyzed descriptively. The results of research showed that a class can not be equally aligned using and applying a single learning method only. Because in the class there are several learning styles of students. The student's learning style visually dominates the class, followed by the auditorial style, and the kinesthetic style. This research also provides advice to educators / teachers to understand the diversity of student learning styles. so that with the basic teachers are required to be more creative and innovative in applying the method of learning so that all learning styles of students can be accommodated, so that with this understanding of learning achievement can be improved.
Park, Clara C.
Investigated the perceptual learning style preferences (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, and tactile) and preferences for group and individual learning of Southeast Asian students compared to white students. Surveys indicated significant differences in learning style preferences between Southeast Asian and white students and between the diverse…
Chen, Chwen Jen; Toh, Seong Chong; Ismail, Wan Mohd Fauzy Wan
This study aims to investigate the effects of a virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners with different learning styles. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the VR (guided exploration) mode, irrespective of their learning styles. This shows that the VR-based…
Willingham, Daniel T.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Dobolyi, David G.
Theories of learning styles suggest that individuals think and learn best in different ways. These are not differences of ability but rather preferences for processing certain types of information or for processing information in certain types of way. If accurate, learning styles theories could have important implications for instruction because…
Van Voorhees, Curtis; And Others
The Gregorc Style Delineator--Word Matrix was administered to 2,060 physicians in order to gain a better understanding of their participation in continuing medical education. The study showed that 63 percent preferred the concrete sequential learning style. Different style preferences may account for some of the apparent disparity between…
Hilliard, Asa G., III
Argues that unique behavioral styles can be identified among African-American populations and that behavioral style may help explain differences in test performance for white and African-American students. Implications for all students of providing stylistic diversity in the schools and student ability to use multiple learning styles are…
Kolloffel, Bas Jan
A student might find a certain representational format (e.g., diagram, text) more attractive than other formats for learning. Computer technology offers opportunities to adjust the formats used in learning environments to the preferences of individual learners. The question addressed in the current
Background. Undergraduate students at universities have different learning styles. To perform optimally, both they and their educators should be made aware of their preferred learning styles and problem-solving abilities. Students have different backgrounds, strengths, weaknesses, interests, ambitions, levels of motivation ...
Ernst, Jeremy V.; Clark, Aaron C.
The objective of this study was to identify changes in dominant preferred learning styles of students based on instructional presentation of course content. This study evaluates dominant preferred learning styles of two groups of university students. The first group of students was enrolled in a course that introduces graphical representation in…
Lomberg, Carina; Kollmann, Tobias; Stockmann, Christoph
Researchers are engaged in finding the precursors for innovation. Drawing on Kirton's Adaption-Innovation (KAI) Inventory, we explicitly test Kirton's central premise that cognitive styles differentiate between preferences for producing ideas in a certain way. We argue that the generation of either a magnitude or original ideas is governed by different underlying cognitive styles. In a study with 191 individuals, we find that the cognitive style originality associates with ideational fluency ...
Guven, Bulent; Ozbek, Ozge
In the process of education, instead of classifying students according to their insufficiency, teachers should try to get to know them and determine their cognitive, sensorial, and kinetic characteristics. This study on improving learning style inventory, which aims to help classroom teachers determine students' attributes in individualized…
Wieder, Charles G.
Looks at individuality, in the sense of a personal expressive idiom or style, in children's art production. Shows that early stylistic differences manifest in children's art making correspond to basic cognitive/affective learning processes. Outlines implications for ideas about child development. (DSK)
Bennet, Nancy L.; Fox, Robert D.
Synthesizes literature on cognitive style and considers issues about its role in continuing medical education research, including whether it should be used as a dependent or independent variable and how it may be used in causal models. (SK)
Lomberg, Carina; Kollmann, Tobias; Stockmann, Christoph
Researchers are engaged in finding the precursors for innovation. Drawing on Kirton's Adaption-Innovation (KAI) Inventory, we explicitly test Kirton's central premise that cognitive styles differentiate between preferences for producing ideas in a certain way. We argue that the generation of either...... a magnitude or original ideas is governed by different underlying cognitive styles. In a study with 191 individuals, we find that the cognitive style originality associates with ideational fluency whereas the rule governance style associates with the generation of original ideas. By providing a cognitive...
Full Text Available In the context of rapid technology development, it comes as no surprise that technology continues to impact the educational domain, challenging traditional teaching and learning styles. This study focuses on how students with different learning styles use instructional technology, and in particular, the tablet PC, to enhance their learning experience. The VARK model was chosen as our theoretical framework as we analyzed responses of an online survey, both from a quantitative and qualitative standpoint. Results indicate that if used correctly, the tablet PC can be used across different learning styles to enrich the educational experience.
Moul, Caroline; Dadds, Mark R
In accordance with a recently proposed account of amygdala function in psychopathy, it is hypothesized that people with high levels of psychopathic personality traits have a bias in learning style to encode the general valence, and neglect the specific-features, of an outcome. We present a novel learning task designed to operationalize these biases in learning style. The results from pilot samples of healthy adults and children and from a clinical sample of children with conduct problems provide support for the validity of the learning task as a measure of learning style and demonstrate a significant relationship between general-valence style learning and psychopathic personality traits. It is suggested that this relationship may be important for the aetiology of the social-cognitive deficits exhibited by psychopaths. These preliminary results suggest that this measure of learning style has the potential to be utilized as a research tool and may assist with the early identification, and treatment, of children with conduct problems and high levels of callous-unemotional traits.
Full Text Available Team diversity scholars have called for examining cognitive variables (van Knippenberg & Schippers, 2007, such as cognitive style, in team dissimilarity research. However, due to the dearth of research on cognitive style diversity in teams, heeding these calls requires new theory. Therefore, we extended recent theoretical developments that suggested indirect relationships between diversity and performance by orienting cognitive style within the team diversity literature and by proposing cognitive style diversity’s effects on team processes in decision making teams. We also integrated the moderating role of team member perspective taking into the framework. We presented arguments and propositions for the combined effects of cognitive style diversity and perspective taking on task conflict, affective conflict, and the development of schema congruence. We offer suggestions for testing the proposed relationships in future research regarding variable measurement and multi-level data. Implications for and contributions to practice are also addressed.
This study explores the relationship between (perceptual and cognitive) learning styles and the use of hypermedia annotations by intermediate EFL learners while reading a hypermedia text. The participants were 44 EFL adult learners studying English for academic purposes. Data were collected through a software tracking tool, a learning styles survey and interviews. Results did not indicate a significant relationship, suggesting that learners with different learning styles had similar patterns ...
Darren C. WU
Full Text Available Although complex, controversial, and contradicting, learning styles is highly influential. Distance education (DE has experienced tremendous growth in the last few decades. The popularity of learning styles and DE necessitates research. This correlational research study was conducted to determine if there is any evidence to incorporate learning styles in DE. The following is the research question for this study. Are students’ learning styles based on the visual, auditory, tactile model correlated to satisfaction of course format in an online undergraduate course? The participants of this study were students enrolled in three sections of the Contemporary Worldviews course at a private higher education institution (HEI. Learning styles were determined by a variant of the visual, auditory, read/write, and kinesthetic (VARK framework. Satisfaction of course format was determined from one composite question with responses based on a Likert scale. The response rate was 53.5%. Statistical analysis determined that learning styles was not correlated to satisfaction of course format in this current study. There are implications from this study that curriculum can be designed for a single course that leaves students highly satisfied. Educators should saturate DE courses with as much variance as feasible given technology and cost limitations to account for possible learning style differences.
Pennycook, Gordon; Cheyne, James Allan; Seli, Paul; Koehler, Derek J; Fugelsang, Jonathan A
An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting (i.e., unbelieving) supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined associations of God beliefs, religious engagement (attendance at religious services, praying, etc.), conventional religious beliefs (heaven, miracles, etc.) and paranormal beliefs (extrasensory perception, levitation, etc.) with performance measures of cognitive ability and analytic cognitive style. An analytic cognitive style negatively predicted both religious and paranormal beliefs when controlling for cognitive ability as well as religious engagement, sex, age, political ideology, and education. Participants more willing to engage in analytic reasoning were less likely to endorse supernatural beliefs. Further, an association between analytic cognitive style and religious engagement was mediated by religious beliefs, suggesting that an analytic cognitive style negatively affects religious engagement via lower acceptance of conventional religious beliefs. Results for types of God belief indicate that the association between an analytic cognitive style and God beliefs is more nuanced than mere acceptance and rejection, but also includes adopting less conventional God beliefs, such as Pantheism or Deism. Our data are consistent with the idea that two people who share the same cognitive ability, education, political ideology, sex, age and level of religious engagement can acquire very different sets of beliefs about the world if they differ in their propensity to think analytically. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pennycook, Gordon; Cheyne, James Allan; Seli, Paul; Koehler, Derek J.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.
An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting (i.e., unbelieving) supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined…
Osipow, Samuel H.
Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and other instruments administered to 365 students, both undecided and in various interest fields, revealed several differences in cognitive style. No differences regarding cognitive style variations and VPI high-point codes or ease of vocational selection were observed. (Author/CJ)
Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy
The learning style preferences of general surgery residents have been previously reported; there is evidence that residents who prefer read/write learning styles perform better on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE). However, little is known regarding the learning style preferences of applicants to general surgery residency and their impact on educational outcomes. In this study, the preferred learning styles of surgical residency applicants were determined. We hypothesized that applicant rank data are associated with specific learning style preferences. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was offered to all general surgery residency applicants that were interviewed at a university hospital-based program. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), kinesthetic (K), or multimodal (MM). Responses on the inventory were scored to determine the preferred learning style for each applicant. Applicant data, including United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores, class rank, interview score, and overall final applicant ranking, were examined for association with preferred learning styles. Sixty-seven applicants were interviewed. Five applicants were excluded due to not completing the VARK inventory or having incomplete applicant data. The remaining 62 applicants (92%) were included for analysis. Most applicants (57%) had a multimodal preference. Sixty-nine percent of all applicants had some degree of preference for kinesthetic learning. There were statistically significant differences between applicants of different learning styles in terms of USMLE step 1 scores (P = 0.001) and USMLE step 2 clinical knowledge scores (P = 0.01), but not for class ranks (P = 0.27), interview scores (P = 0.20), or final ranks (P = 0.14). Multiple comparison analysis demonstrated that applicants with aural preferences had higher USMLE 1 scores (233.2) than those with kinesthetic (211.8, P = 0.005) or multimodal
Outlines a new personality typology that provides a coherent system for construing and conducting research on learning styles. Discusses analytic, holistic, objective, and subjective styles as the affect versatility. Presents implications for educational goals, such as determining which students can benefit from stylistic versatility and which…
ALQahtani, Dalal A; Al-Gahtani, Sara M
Experiential learning theory (ELT), a theory developed by David Kolb that considers experience to be very important for learning, classifies learners into four categories: Divergers, Assimilators, Convergers, and Accommodators. Kolb used his Learning Style Inventory (LSI) to validate ELT. Knowing the learning styles of students facilitates their understanding of themselves and thereby increases teaching efficiency. Few studies have been conducted that investigate learning preferences of students in the field of dentistry. This study was designed to distinguish learning styles among Saudi dental students and interns utilizing Kolb's LSI. The survey had a response rate of 62 percent (424 of 685 dental students), but surveys with incomplete answers or errors were excluded, resulting in 291 usable surveys (42 percent of the student population). The independent variables of this study were gender, clinical experience level, academic achievement as measured by grade point average (GPA), and specialty interest. The Diverging learning style was the dominant style among those in the sample. While the students preferred the Assimilating style during their early preclinical years, they preferred the Diverging style during their later clinical years. No associations were found between students' learning style and their gender, GPA, or specialty interest. Further research is needed to support these findings and demonstrate the impact of learning styles on dental students' learning.
David M Greenberg
Full Text Available Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891 indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320 indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz. Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353 replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'. Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres compared to type S (bias towards systemizing who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock. Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes, negative valence (depressing and sad, and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful, while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling, and aspects of positive valence (animated and cerebral depth (complexity. The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S are discussed.
Greenberg, David M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J.; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J.
Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., ‘brain types’). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed. PMID:26200656
Greenberg, David M; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J
Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed.
Vasilyeva, E.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Gavrilova, T.; Puuronen, S.; Spector, J.M.; Sampson, D.G.; Okamoto, T.; Cerri, S.A.; Ueno, M.; Kashihara, A.
Feedback provided to a user is an important part of learning and interaction in e-learning systems. In this paper we present the results of our pilot experiment aimed to study interrelation between several types of immediate feedback presentation and learning styles (LSs) of users. In the experiment
Data from nine introductory microeconomics classes was used to test the effect of student learning style on academic performance. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory was used to assess individual student learning styles. The results indicate that student learning style has no significant effect on performance, undermining the claims of those who…
Bhatnagar, Tushar; Sinha, Vinita
Every individual is characterized by a learning style which an individual develops over a course of time. The learning style may be shaped by different cultural environment. This study aims to find and compare the learning style of Indian and German business students by examining the learning styles of 81 students from India and Germany. The study…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study are to discover the learning styles, and the language learning strategies most preferred, correlation among the variables exists, and the degree of influence each independent variable exerts on the dependent variables. For data collection, the Barsch Learning Styles Inventory and the Strategy Inventory of Language Learning were distributed to 156 students of English at the University of Sriwijaya, Palembang. The results showed that: (1 visual is the most preferred learning style, whereas metacognitive ang effective are the most preferred language learning strategies; (2 certain independent variables have a significant correlation with certain dependent variables, for example, visual with memory, auditory with cognitive, tactile with affective, and semester with compensation; (3 females use a greater variety of language learning strategies than males; and (4 semester has a significant correlation with compensation but not with other strategies
Gr ver Aukrust, Vibeke, Ed.
This collection of 58 articles from the recently-published third edition of the International Encyclopedia of Education focuses on learning, memory, attention, problem solving, concept formation, and language. Learning and cognition is the foundation of cognitive psychology and encompasses many topics including attention, memory, categorization,…
In terms of prediction by Epstein’s integrative theory of personality, cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST), those people with experiential-intuitive cognitive style are more inclined to induce errors than the other people with analytical-rational cognitive style in the conjunction fallacy (two events that can occur together are seen as more likely than at least one of the two events). We tested this prediction in a revised Linda problem. The results revealed that rational and experienti...
Brumpton, Kay; Kitchener, Scott; Sweet, Linda
With vertical integration, registrars and medical students attend the same educational workshops. It is not known whether these learners have similar or different learning styles related to their level of education within the medical training schema. This study aims to collect information about learning styles with a view to changing teaching strategies. If a significant difference is demonstrated this will impact on required approaches to teaching. The VARK learning inventory questionnaire was administered to 36 general practice registrars and 20 medical students. The learning styles were compared as individuals and then related to their level of education within the medical training schema. Students had a greater preference for multimodal learning compared with registrars (62.5 per cent versus 33.3 per cent, respectively). More than half of the registrars preferred uni or bimodal learning modalities, compared with one-third of the medical students. The present workshop format based on visual and aural material will not match the learning needs of most learners. This small study has shown that the majority of medical students and registrars could have their learning preferences better met by the addition of written material to the workshop series. Surprisingly, a significantly larger number of medical students than registrars appeared to be broadly multimodal in their learning style, and this warrants further research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fredette, Jenna; O'Brien, Corinne; Poole, Christy; Nomura, Jason
Experiential learning theory and the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (Kolb LSI) have influenced educators worldwide for decades. Knowledge of learning styles can create efficient learning environments, increase information retention, and improve learner satisfaction. Learning styles have been examined in medicine previously, but not specifically with Emergency Medicine (EM) residents and attendings. Using the Kolb LSI, the learning styles of Emergency Medicine residents and attendings were assessed. The findings showed that the majority of EM residents and attendings shared the accommodating learning style. This result was different than prior studies that found the majority of medical professionals had a converging learning style and other studies that found attendings often have different learning styles than residents. The issue of learning styles among emergency medical residents and attendings is important because learning style knowledge may have an impact on how a residency program structures curriculum and how EM residents are successfully, efficiently, and creatively educated.
Art students have different learning styles. Some are visual learners who need to see the information. Some are auditory learners who need to hear the information. Others are tactile/kinesthetic learners who need to move, do, or touch in order to learn. Looking over her curriculum and lesson plans, the author realized almost every art lesson…
Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between Art and Science students’ learning styles and their ESP reading strategies in academic settings. Learning styles are defined as general orientations learners take toward their learning experiences. This notion has recently obtained attention in the area of language learning. Strategies are also defined as specific behaviours or techniques learners employ towards leaning in order to achieve their learning goals. The strategies chosen are often linked to the individual's learning style. The purpose of this study was to identify Art and Science students’ major learning style preferences and their strategies they employ to tackle their reading materials in ESP courses at Tabriz Islamic Art University. To this end, 313 Art and Science students at Tabriz Islamic Art University answered two self-report questionnaires (PLSPQ and SORS to identify their major and minor learning styles as well as their reading strategies in ESP reading. In order to find any relationship between the students’ preferred learning style (s and their reading strategies in ESP, Pearson Product Moment Coefficient r was used to analyze the participants’ answers to the questionnaires. The results showed that Art students favored Kinesthetic, Auditory, Visual and Tactile learning styles as their major learning styles while Science students showed preference to only Kinesthetic Learning style as their major learning style and other learning styles as their minor ones. It was also found that the most dominant reading strategies both Art and Science students apply in reading their ESP texts was cognitive strategies. Correlational analyses of their major learning styles and their reading strategies are discussed.
Yaman, Hakan; Dündar, Sefa; Ayvaz, Ülkü
The aim of this study is to reveal whether there is relation between achievement motivations of teacher candidates according to their cognitive styles and motivation styles or not. This study was designed as a quantitative study due to collecting quantitative data and running statistical analyses. Both comparative and correlational survey methods…
Anthycamurty, Rr C. C.; Mardiyana; Saputro, D. R. S.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the problem solving based on the type of cognitive style. Subjects used in this study are students of class X SMK located in Purworejo. The method used in this research is qualitative descriptive. Data collection techniques used in this research is a problem-solving test to determine student problem solving and GEFT to determine the type of cognitive style possessed by students. The result of this research is to determine the mastery of each type in cognitive style, that is Field Independent type and Field Dependent type on problem solving indicator. The impact of this research is the teacher can know the mastery of student problem solving on each type of cognitive style so that teacher can determine the proper way of delivering to student at next meeting.
Pennycook, Gordon; Cheyne, James Allan; Seli, Paul; Koehler, Derek J.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.
An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting (i.e., unbelieving) supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined associations of God beliefs, religious engagement (attendance at religious services, praying, etc.), conventional religious beliefs (heaven, miracle...
Awang, H.; Samad, N. Abd; Faiz, N. S. Mohd; Roddin, R.; Kankia, J. D.
The individual learning differences that have been much explored relate to differences in personality, learning styles, strategies and conceptual of learning. This article studies the learning style profile exhibited by students towards the academic achievement in Malaysian Polytechnic. The relationship between learning styles of Polytechnic students and their academic achievement based on VARK learning styles model. The target population was international business students of Malaysian Polytechnic. By means of randomly sampling method, 103 students were selected as sample of research. By descriptive - survey research method and a questionnaire adapted from VARK Learning Style Index, required data were collected. According to the results, no significantly difference between learning style and academic achievement of students. Students academic achievement was quite similar to their individual learning styles. These facts reveal that each learning style has its own strengths and weaknesses.
Cao, Jianxia; Nishihara, Akinori
More and more videos are now being used in e-learning context. For improving learning effect, to understand how students view the online video is important. In this research, we investigate how students deploy their attention when they learn through interactive slide video in the aim of better understanding observers' learning style. Felder and…
Nastanski, Michael; Slick, Thomas
This paper discusses the importance of student learning styles within a Distance Learning (DL) classroom. The study examines the learning style preferences of online business students as measured by the Kolb Learning Style Inventory and determines if a significant difference in course grades and course completion rates exist between students when…
Tsai, Kuan Chen
In the field of education, creativity has been viewed as an important ability for children's development. The recognition of different learning styles is also important for both teachers and learners. Although a handful of studies have examined the relationship between creativity and personality, or between creativity and cognitive style, few have…
Zanecchia, M D
One of the many problems facing the nursing profession today is the lack of preparedness of its leaders. Nursing educators, collaborating with nursing service, can teach baccalaureate students leadership skills and to develop leadership styles. Experiential real-world management tasks selected by faculty and head nurses can serve as learning opportunities. Students can learn leadership ability and change style. Utilizing t-test, the before and after course mean scores on the standardized Leadership Ability Evaluation instrument were statistically analyzed. Significant differences and style changes were identified. Students in the total class became more effective leaders as did the students in both the traditional and experiential groups. Traditional students (lecture only) became less autocratic-submissive and more democratic. The experiential group significantly became less autocratic-aggressive, less laissez-faire and more democratic.
Glasgow, Jacqueline N.
Describes a developmental writing course taught in prison. Describes how the teaching styles took into account the presumed learning preferences of the African Americans in this group of inmates and resulted in a boost of both their self-confidence and the level of their writing. (SR)
Christodoulou, Eleni; Kalokairinou, Athina
Numerous surveys have confirmed that emerging technologies and Web 2.0 tools have been a defining feature in the lives of current students, estimating that there is a fundamental shift in the way young people communicate, socialize and learn. Nursing students in higher education are characterized as digital literate with distinct traits which influence their learning styles. Millennials exhibit distinct learning preferences such as teamwork, experiential activities, structure, instant feedback and technology integration. Higher education institutions should be aware of the implications of the Net Generation coming to university and be prepared to meet their expectations and learning needs.
Reza Vaseghi; Hamed Barjesteh; Sedigheh Shakib
The current study examined the learning style preferences of 75 Iranian students at Marefat high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 41 are females and 34 are males. As there are very few researches in which the learning style preferences of Iranian high school students investigated, this study attempts to fulfil this gap. To this end, in order to identify the students’ preferred learning styles (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Tactile, Group, and Individual) Reid’s Perceptual Learning Style Pref...
Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya
Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate. The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between different dimensions of creativity (artistic and scientific) and dimensions of visualization abilities and styles (object and spatial). In addition, we compared the contributions of object and spatial visualization abilities versus corresponding styles to scientific and artistic dimensions of creativity. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females) were recruited for the first study, and 75 additional participants (36 females) were recruited for an additional experiment. Participants were administered a number of object and spatial visualization abilities and style assessments as well as a number of artistic and scientific creativity tests. The results show that object visualization relates to artistic creativity and spatial visualization relates to scientific creativity, while both are distinct from verbal creativity. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that style predicts corresponding dimension of creativity even after removing shared variance between style and visualization ability. The results suggest that styles might be a more ecologically valid construct in predicting real-life creative behaviour, such as performance in different professional domains. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Ramirez-Arellano, Aldo; Bory-Reyes, Juan; Hernández-Simón, Luis Manuel
The main goal of this article is to develop a Management System for Merging Learning Objects (msMLO), which offers an approach that retrieves learning objects (LOs) based on students' learning styles and term-based queries, which produces a new outcome with a better score. The msMLO faces the task of retrieving LOs via two steps: The first step…
Juárez-Muñoz, Irina Elizabeth; Gómez-Negrete, Alonso; Varela-Ruiz, Margarita; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Mercado-Arellano, José Agustín; Sciandra-Rico, Martha Minerva; Matute-González, Mario Manuel
Background: the learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and psychological characteristics, which function as relatively stable indicators of how teachers and students perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. Knowing students' styles allows teachers to have tools to improve medical education. Our objective was to identify learning styles in pediatric residents and professors from a pediatric hospital. Methods: a learning styles questionnaire was applied to residents and theirs professors; data was analyzed in SPSS 12 software. Results: the dominant learning style in pediatric residents was reflexive and for professors was theoretical. There wasn't any difference between sexes or between medical or surgical specialities. There was more correlation between professors and residents when there was an increase in training time. Conclusions: the learning styles between professors and residents are different, especially at the beginning of the medical specialty courses; that's why it is necessary to realize a confrontation between the students' learning styles and teaching methods used by professors to improve significant learning. To know learning styles gives residents an important alternative to find a better study strategy.
This paper is intended to review the affect of personality on learning styles. Costa and McCrae's Five-Factor Model of Personality (The Big 5) is explored against Kolb Learning Styles. The Big 5 factors are extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness, whereas Kolb Learning Styles are divergers, assimilators,…
Tan, Lin Mei; Laswad, Fawzi
This study examines the impact of learning styles on academic performance using major assessment methods (examinations and assignments including multiple-choice and constructed response questions (CRQs)) in an introductory accounting course. Students' learning styles were assessed using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory Version 3.1. The results…
Ward, L. Patrice
The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the common learning styles of radiography students during clinical practice. Quantitative, descriptive research methodology identified the learning styles of radiography students. A single self-report questionnaire, developed to assess learning styles in clinical practice, was administered…
In terms of prediction by Epstein's integrative theory of personality, cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST), those people with experiential-intuitive cognitive style are more inclined to induce errors than the other people with analytical-rational cognitive style in the conjunction fallacy (two events that can occur together are seen as more likely than at least one of the two events). We tested this prediction in a revised Linda problem. The results revealed that rational and experiential cognitive styles do not statistically influence the propensity for committing the conjunction fallacy, which is contrary to the CEST's predictions. Based on the assumption that the rational vs. experiential processing is a personality trait with comparatively stabile specialities, these findings preliminarily indicate that those people who are characterized by "rational thinking" are not more inclined to use Bayes' deduction than the other people who are labeled by "intuitive thinking" or by "poor thinking."
Vinales, James Jude
The learning environment provides crucial exposure for the pre-registration nursing student. It is during this time that the student nurse develops his or her repertoire of skills, knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in order to meet competencies and gain registration with the Nursing and Midwifery Council. The role of the mentor is vital within the learning environment for aspiring nurses. The learning environment is a fundamental platform for student learning, with mentors key to identifying what is conducive to learning. This article will consider the learning environment and learning styles, and how these two essential elements guide the mentor in making sure they are conducive to learning.
Outlines three basic learning modalities--auditory, visual, and tactile--and notes that technology can help incorporate multiple modalities within each lesson, to meet the needs of most students. Discusses the importance in multiple modality teaching of effectively assessing students. Presents visual, auditory and tactile activity suggestions.…
Garn, Alex; Byra, Mark
Describes how the Spectrum Teaching Styles can help physical educators develop an instructional environment that allows learners to meet the national content standards for physical education while providing learners with a quality educational experience. The paper discusses the development and use of the Spectrum and the development of…
Resty Noriwita, Indah Resty Noriwita Indah; Nasir, Muhammad Nasir Muhammad; Ma’aruf, Zuhdi Ma’aruf Zuhdi
This study aims to produce a learning documents physicsbased learning styles of students in the matter of temperature and heat of class subjectS X SMA valid. The subjects were learning documents that consists of a lesson plan (RPP), worksheets (LKS), medium of learning and achievement test of cognitive, affective, process, and psychomotor. Data collection instrument in this study is an instrument validity device physics-based learning students' learning styles in the matter of temperature and...
Lida Rincón C.
Full Text Available Esta investigación examina el efecto diferencial de dos metodologías distintas para la enseñanza de la escritura (método silábico y método global en el proceso de aprendizaje de niños con estilo cognitivo diferente, según la dimensión de dependencia-independencia de campo. La investigación se desarrolló en una institución educativa pública con niños entre los cinco y siete años de edad, que se encontraban cursando preescolar y primer grado. Gracias a los datos obtenidos se encontró, primero, que el método silábico tiende a favorecer el proceso de aprendizaje de los sujetos con tendencia a la independencia de campo y, segundo, que el método global tiende a ser más equitativo que el silábico, en tanto parece no favorecer más a un estilo cognitivo sobre otro.This research examines the differential effects of two distinct methodologies for writing teaching (syllabic method and global method in children learning process, according with the cognitive style, in field dependence-independence dimension. The research took place at a public school with children between five and seven years old, students from kinder and first grade. Thanks to the obtained data we find, firstly, that syllabic method tends to favor the learning process in subjects who tend to be field independents and, secondly, that global method tends to be more equitable than syllabic, because it doesn’t seeming to favor any cognitive style.
The term "learning style" refers to the fact that each person has a different way of accumulating knowledge. While some prefer listening to learn better, others need to write or they only need to read the text or see a picture to later remember. According to Fleming and Mills the learning styles can be classified in Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic. There is no evidence that teaching according to the learning style can help a person, yet this cannot be ignored. In this study, a number of 230 medical students were questioned in order to determine their learning style. We determined that 73% of the students prefer one learning style, 22% prefer to learn using equally two learning style, while the rest prefer three learning styles. According to this study the distribution of the learning styles is as following: 33% visual, 26% auditory, 14% kinesthetic, 12% visual and auditory styles equally, 6% visual and kinesthetic, 4% auditory and kinesthetic and 5% all three styles. 32 % of the students that participated at this study are from UMF Craiova, 32% from UMF Carol Davila, 11% University of Medicine T Popa, Iasi, 9% UMF Cluj Iulius Hatieganu. The way medical students learn is different from the general population. This is why it is important when teaching to considerate how the students learn in order to facilitate the learning.
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of instructional method s and students’ cognitive styles toward speaking skill. It was an experimental research using a two -factor ANOVA at 0.05 and 0.01 significance level. Because an interaction between the variables involved was found, the analysis was then continued by Tuckey Test. The data was collected using oral test rating cale and a cognitive style questionnaire. The findings showed the following points: (1 the speaking skill of the students taught by CLL (Cooperative Language Learning was higher than the students taught by TBL(Task-Based Language Learning; (2 the speaking skill of FD (Field Dependent students was higher than FI (Field Independent students; (3 there was an interaction between instructional methods and cognitive style to speaking skill; (4 the speaking skill of the students taught by CLL was higher than the students taught by TBL in the group of FD students; (5 there was no significant difference of the speaking skill of the students taught by CLL and the students taught by TBL in the group of FI students. The findings above led to a conclusion that generally CLL was more effective than TBL in teaching speaking skill. Moreover, besides instructional methods, cognitive style also gives a significant effect to students’ speaking skill
Fitriyani, H.; Khasanah, U.
The purpose of this research was to determine the rigorous mathematical thinking (RMT) of mathematics education students in solving math problems in terms of reflective and impulsive cognitive styles. The research used descriptive qualitative approach. Subjects in this research were 4 students of the reflective and impulsive cognitive style which was each consisting male and female subjects. Data collection techniques used problem-solving test and interview. Analysis of research data used Miles and Huberman model that was reduction of data, presentation of data, and conclusion. The results showed that impulsive male subjects used three levels of the cognitive function required for RMT that were qualitative thinking, quantitative thinking with precision, and relational thinking completely while the other three subjects were only able to use cognitive function at qualitative thinking level of RMT. Therefore the subject of impulsive male has a better RMT ability than the other three research subjects.
Griffiths, Carol; Inceçay, Görsev
Although the learning style construct has aroused much interest over the years, questions remain regarding basic issues such as definition, the validity and/or reliability of various measurement instruments, and the relationship between learning style and successful learning. Furthermore, although maintaining stylistic flexibility is recommended…
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of personality traits, learning styles and metacognition in predicting critical thinking. Instrument & Methods: In this descriptive correlative study, 240 students (130 girls and 110 boys of Ahvaz Shahid Chamran University were selected by multi-stage random sampling method. The instruments for collecting data were NEO Five-Factor Inventory, learning style inventory of Kolb (LSI, metacognitive assessment inventory (MAI of Schraw & Dennison (1994 and California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, stepwise regression analysis and Canonical correlation analysis. Findings: Openness to experiment (b=0.41, conscientiousness (b=0.28, abstract conceptualization (b=0.39, active experimentation (b=0.22, reflective observation (b=0.12, knowledge of cognition (b=0.47 and regulation of cognition (b=0.29 were effective in predicting critical thinking. Openness to experiment and conscientiousness (r2=0.25, active experimentation, abstract conceptualization and reflective observation learning styles (r2=0.21 and knowledge and regulation of cognition metacognitions (r2=0.3 had an important role in explaining critical thinking. The linear combination of critical thinking skills (evaluation, analysis, inference was predictable by a linear combination of dispositional-cognitive factors (openness, conscientiousness, abstract conceptualization, active experimentation, knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. Conclusion: Personality traits, learning styles and metacognition, as dispositional-cognitive factors, play a significant role in students' critical thinking.
Huang, Juan; Prochner, Larry
Self-regulated learning is an important aspect of student learning and academic achievement. Certain parenting styles help children develop self-regulated learning and encourage them to exert control over their own learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Chinese parenting style and children's involvement in…
The study investigated the influence of gender and cognitive styles on students' achievement in biology in senior secondary schools in Anambra State. One research question and one null hypothesis tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. A causal comparative research design and a population of 12,000 (SSII) ...
Full Text Available Background: Child development is a very important phase, which children learn various skills as future generations in the future. Disorders that can impede child development process of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Children with ADHD have problems with cognitive abilities, of which about 20-60% of them have learning disorders. The efforts to support cognitive development in ADHD children is to approach the child's environment through parenting parents. Objective: This study aimed to determine the correlation of parenting style with cognitive development in the children with ADHD in SLB Negeri 1 Denpasar. Methods: This study used correlational design with cross sectional approach. The sample size of 30 respondents were taken by purposive sampling technique. Data were collected using parenting style questionnaire (PSQ and the average value of odd semester report of 2016/2017 academic year. Results: The result of this research was found that most parents with democratic parenting type were 19 people (63.3%, authoritarian parenting type were 7 people (23.3% and permissive parenting were 4 people (13.3%. The result of contingency coefficient test with p-value = 0.039 (p <0.05 and correlation value of 0.501, which mean there was high correlation between parenting style with cognitive development in children with ADHD. Conclusion: It is suggested for parents with ADHD children to be able to provide good parenting for the child's development, especially for the child's cognitive development.
Full Text Available The current study examined the learning style preferences of 75 Iranian students at Marefat high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 41 are females and 34 are males. As there are very few researches in which the learning style preferences of Iranian high school students investigated, this study attempts to fulfil this gap. To this end, in order to identify the students’ preferred learning styles (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Tactile, Group, and Individual Reid’s Perceptual Learning Style Preferences Questionnaire was used. Results indicated that the six learning style preferences considered in the questionnaire were positively preferred. Overall, kinesthetic and tactile learning were major learning styles. Auditory, group, visual, and individual were minor.
Varela, Paula; Antúnez, Lucía; Berget, Ingunn; Oliveira, Denize; Christensen, Kasper; Vidal, Leticia; Naes, Tormod; Ares, Gastón
Projective mapping (PM), one of the most holistic product profiling methods in approach, is increasingly being used to uncover consumers' perception of products and packages. Assessors rely on a process of synthesis for evaluating product information, which would determine the relative importance of the perceived characteristics they use for mapping them. Individual differences are expected, as participants are not instructed on the characteristics to consider for evaluating the degree of difference among samples, generating different perceptual spaces. Individual differences in cognitive style can affect synthesis processes and thus their perception of similarities and differences among samples. In this study, the influence of the cognitive style in the results of PM was explored. Two consumer studies were performed, one aimed at describing intrinsic sensory characteristics of chocolate flavoured milk and the other one looking into extrinsic (package only) of blueberry yogurts. Consumers completed the wholistic-analytic module of the extended Verbal Imagery Cognitive Styles Test & Extended Cognitive Style Analysis-Wholistic Analytic Test, to characterize their cognitive style. Differences between wholistic and analytic consumers in how they evaluated samples using projective mapping were found in both studies. Analytics separated the samples more in the PM perceptual space than wholistic consumers, showing more discriminating abilities. This may come from a deeper analysis of the samples, both from intrinsic and extrinsic point of views. From a sensory perspective (intrinsic), analytic consumers relied on more sensory characteristics, while wholistic mainly discriminated samples according to sweetness and bitterness/chocolate flavour. In the extrinsic study however, even if analytic consumers discriminated more between packs, they described the products using similar words in the descriptive step. One important recommendation coming from this study is the need to
Shanks, David R
Since the very earliest experimental investigations of learning, tension has existed between association-based and cognitive theories. Associationism accounts for the phenomena of both conditioning and "higher" forms of learning via concepts such as excitation, inhibition, and reinforcement, whereas cognitive theories assume that learning depends on hypothesis testing, cognitive models, and propositional reasoning. Cognitive theories have received considerable impetus in regard to both human and animal learning from recent research suggesting that the key illustration of cue selection in learning, blocking, often arises from inferential reasoning. At the same time, a dichotomous view that separates noncognitive, unconscious (implicit) learning from cognitive, conscious (explicit) learning has gained favor. This review selectively describes key findings from this research, evaluates evidence for and against associative and cognitive explanatory constructs, and critically examines both the dichotomous view of learning as well as the claim that learning can occur unconsciously.
Full Text Available Multimedia learning objects are an essential component of high quality, technology-mediated instruction. Learning objects allow the student to use the content learned in a particular part of a course and; 1. demonstrate mastery of the content, 2. apply that knowledge to solving a problem, and 3. use the content in a critical thinking exercise that both demonstrates mastery and allows the student to place the content within the context of the larger topic of the course. The difficulty associated with the use of learning objects on a broad scale is that they require programming skills most professors and instructors do not possess. Learning objects also tend to be custom productions and are defined in terms of the programming and code terminology, further limiting the professor's ability to understand how they are created. Learning objects defined in terms of styles of learning and teaching allow professors and instructors to develop a deeper understanding of the learning objects and the design process. A set of learning objects has been created that are designed for some of the important styles of learning and teaching. They include; visual learning, writing skills, critical thinking, time-revealed scenarios, case studies and empirical observation. The learning objects are designed and described in terms that the average instructor can readily understand , redesign and incorporate into their own courses. They are also designed in such a way that they can readily be repurposed for new applications in other courses and subject areas, with little or no additional programming.
There are both psychological and biological reasons to expect that certain areas of learning will present young children with Down syndrome with significant problems. Knowledge of the neurological underpinnings of these specific difficulties can often allow compensatory teaching strategies to be put in place, however, and some of these have proved highly effective. The impact of the psychological environment on the progress of development in children with Down syndrome is less well understood. Experience of how others respond to their attempts at understanding the physical and social world and the balance of successes and failures they experience in their early learning are both likely to influence the approach to learning adopted when faced with mastering new skills. Findings from inter-linking studies of cognitive and socio-cognitive development which have explored learning behaviours at different ages and at different developmental stages illustrate how a learning style can sometimes evolve over time in which less than efficient use is made of current levels of cognitive ability. Social ploys are sometimes used to avoid engagement in learning, with the net effect that opportunities to learn new skills are not fully exploited and old skills are sometimes inadequately consolidated. Findings of a misuse of social skills in cognitive contexts do not necessarily provide support for the widely-held view that social understanding is an area of strength in children with Down syndrome and less vulnerable to disruption than cognitive development. Data from a recent study of face-processing abilities suggest that there may in fact be a specific weakness in a fundamental skill normally underpinning the development of social understanding: the ability to recognise differences in emotional expressions. The children with Down syndrome in this study had few problems in correctly identifying individual faces but evidenced difficulties in reliably interpreting the emotional
Griffiths, Carol; İnceçay, Görsev
Although the learning style construct has aroused much interest over the years, questions remain regarding basic issues such as definition, the validity and/or reliability of various measurement instruments, and the relationship between learning style and successful learning. Furthermore, although maintaining stylistic flexibility is recommended by many authors, few studies have attempted to relate the style-stretching concept to successful learning. This study therefore attempted to address these questions. According to results, conducted among 106 Turkish university students, using an original instrument constructed using elements from established questionnaires, a small group of styles was significantly correlated with exam results, accounting for about a quarter of the variance (considered a large effect size in social science). In addition, higher-scoring students reported a more eclectic range of styles, suggesting more willingness to style-stretch, while lower-scoring students reported a more limited range. Pedagogical implications as well as areas for ongoing research are suggested.
Qian, Ning; Lipkin, Richard M.
Understanding autism's ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup table (LUT) learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT) learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities) from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low- and high-dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name–number association in a phonebook). However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response). The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm), restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity), impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn regularities
Full Text Available Understanding autism’s ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically-developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup-table (LUT learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low and high dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name-number association in a phonebook. However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response. The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm, restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity, impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn
Isaksen, Scott G; Babij, Barbara J; Lauer, Kenneth J
This study investigated the relationship between two measures used to assist change and transformation efforts, the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory which assesses style or manner of cognition and problem-solving, not level or capability, and the Leadership Practices Inventory which measures the extent to which leaders exhibit certain leadership behaviors associated with accomplishing extraordinary results. These two measures of level and style should be conceptually distinct and show no or only modest correlation. Analysis yielded statistically significant and meaningful relationships between scores on the Kirton inventory and two scales of the Leadership Practices Inventory. Implications and challenges for research and practice were outlined.
Li, Haishan; He, Qingshun
Ambiguity tolerance and perceptual learning styles are the two influential elements showing individual differences in EFL learning. This research is intended to explore the relationship between Chinese EFL learners' ambiguity tolerance and their preferred perceptual learning styles. The findings include (1) the learners are sensitive to English…
Sener, Sabriye; Çokçaliskan, Ayten
Exploring learning style and multiple intelligence type of learners can enable the students to identify their strengths and weaknesses and learn from them. It is also very important for teachers to understand their learners' learning styles and multiple intelligences since they can carefully identify their goals and design activities that can…
Park, Clara C.
Learning styles were investigated for 857 English-learners of Armenian, Hmong, Korean, Mexican, and Vietnamese origin in 20 California high schools. All ethnic groups indicated major or minor preferences for kinesthetic/tactile and visual learning styles. Groups differed in preferences for group versus individual learning. Some preferences were…
Lethaby, Carol; Harries, Patricia
Recent research suggests that brain-based teaching, as exhibited in the idea of teaching to address perceptual learning styles, has no basis in what scientists are learning about the brain and how it works. This article questions whether training teachers to assess and accommodate learning styles is harmless or potentially poor educational…
Adaptation to customer needs is a key component of competitiveness in any service industry. In online HE (higher education), which is increasingly worldwide, this adaptation must include consideration of learning styles. Most research shows that learning style has little impact on learning outcomes in online education. Nevertheless, students with…
Gurpinar, Erol; Bati, Hilal; Tetik, Cihat
The aim of the present study was to investigate if any changes exist in the learning styles of medical students over time and in relation to different curriculum models with these learning styles. This prospective cohort study was conducted in three different medical faculties, which implement problem-based learning (PBL), hybrid, and integrated…
Amran, Ali; Desiani, Anita; Hasibuan, MS
Learning style is different for every learner especially for out of school children or OSC. They are not like formal students, they are learners but they don’t have a teacher as a guide for learning. E-learning is one of the solutions to help OSC to get education. E-learning should have preferred learning styles of learners. Data for identifying the learning style in this study were collected with a VARK questionnaire from 25 OSC in junior high school level from 5 municipalities in Palembang. The validity of the questionnaire was considered on basis of experts’ views and its reliability was calculated by using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients (α=0.68). Overall, 55% preferred to use a single learning style (Uni-modal). Of these, 27,76% preferred Aural, 20,57% preferred Reading Writing, 33,33% preferred Kinaesthetic and 23,13% preferred Visual. 45% of OSC preferred more than one style, 30% chose two-modes (bimodal), and 15% chose three-modes (tri-modal). The Most preferred Learning style of OSC is kinaesthetic learning. Kinaesthetic learning requires body movements, interactivities, and direct contacts with learning materials, these things can be difficult to implement in eLearning, but E-learning should be able to adopt any learning styles which are flexible in terms of time, period, curriculum, pedagogy, location, and language.
Schmidt, B. June
Discusses a study which indicated that relationships exist between students' learning styles and their attitudes toward individualized, competency-based typewriting instruction, particularly for beginning students. (JOW)
Skeen, Thomas; Zafonte, Maria
Students struggle with learning correct documentation style as found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association and teachers are often at a loss for how to best instruct students in correct usage of APA style. As such, the first part of this paper discusses the current research on teaching documentation styles as well as…
Peterson, Kay; DeCato, Lisa; Kolb, David A.
This article introduces ways in which movement can enhance one's understanding of how to learn using Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) concepts of the Learning Cycle, Learning Styles, and Learning Flexibility. The theoretical correspondence between the dialectic dimensions of the Learning Cycle and the dimensions of the Laban Movement Analysis…
Aye Aye Mon
Full Text Available Generally, different students employ different learning styles dur-ing their studies and medical students are exposed to diverse methods of teaching. Therefore, understanding students’ learning style preference is an important consideration for a high quality and effective teaching and learning process.The aim of the study was to study the variation of learning styles among pre-clinical medical students of SEGi University, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was performed by using VARK (Visual, Audio, Reading and Kinaesthetic questionnaire version 7.2 to assess the learning style preference of 98 (n=98 pre-clinical medical students in SEGi University. The questionnaire consists of 16 items which identify four different learning styles: visual, aural, reading/writing and kin-esthetic. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the learning styles of students. 61 students preferred multimodal as their learning style, out of which 43 (70% of them were female stu-dents and 18 (30% were male students. 37 students preferred unimodal as their learning style out of which 22 (59% of them were female students and 15 (41% were male students. In addi-tion, female students had more diverse preferences than male students by having 10 out of the other 11 possible combinations in multimodal learning style of preference, whereas the male stu-dents only had 5 out of the 11 combinations. In this study, there was no significant gender difference in the percentages of males and female students who preferred unimodal and multimodal styles of information presentation (P= 0.263; α=0.05. To con-clude, the majority of students of both genders had chosen quad-modal as their learning style preference. The results of this study can provide useful information for improving the quality of the teaching and learning experiences of students.
Landry, John M.
This quantitative study utilized the VARK learning style preference assessment instrument to examine how full-time sworn law enforcement officers learn and attempted to identify a predominant learning style preference among the participants. The primary question was: Which is the dominant learning style preference of full-time sworn law…
This study investigated the effects of different styles of social interaction on the learning of advanced biological knowledge. Recent research has increasingly acknowledged the importance of social interaction for promoting learning and cognitive development. However, there has been a controversy about the optimal style of interaction. Some studies have showed the beneficial effects of symmetrical interactions such as an argument between peers, whereas other studies have found the superiority of asymmetrical interactions in which a novice learn with the guidance of an expert. The reason for the contradictory results may be that different styles of interaction enhance different kinds of learning. The present study focused on the three styles of interaction; (1) Conflicting style, in which two novice students with scientifically wrong but conflicting views argue with one another, (2) Guiding style, in which a novice student is led by a more expert student to an understanding of scientifically appropriate knowledge, (3) Mutual Constructive style, in which an expert student and a novice student jointly solve a scientific problem on an equal footing. Sixty college students with non-biology-majors and 30 students with a biology major participated in this experiment to discuss an evolutionary problem in these three styles of interaction, with the former serving as novices and the latter as experts. Analyses of the Pre- and the Posttest performance and discussion processes in the Interaction session revealed the following. First, the Guiding style and the Mutual Constructive style enhanced the acquisition of the scientific evolutionary conceptual framework more effectively than the Conflicting style. However, some students in the Conflicting style also grasped the scientific evolutionary framework, and many students reconstructed their theories of evolution through discussion, even if the frameworks remained scientifically inappropriate. Second, the students who discussed
Jackson, Dontae L.
In the world of aviation, air traffic controllers are an integral part in the overall level of safety that is provided. With a number of controllers reaching retirement age, the Air Traffic Collegiate Training Initiative (AT-CTI) was created to provide a stronger candidate pool. However, AT-CTI Instructors have found that a number of AT-CTI students are unable to memorize types of aircraft effectively. This study focused on the basic learning styles (auditory, visual, and kinesthetic) of students and created a teaching method to try to increase memorization in AT-CTI students. The participants were asked to take a questionnaire to determine their learning style. Upon knowing their learning styles, participants attended two classroom sessions. The participants were given a presentation in the first class, and divided into a control and experimental group for the second class. The control group was given the same presentation from the first classroom session while the experimental group had a group discussion and utilized Middle Tennessee State University's Air Traffic Control simulator to learn the aircraft types. Participants took a quiz and filled out a survey, which tested the new teaching method. An appropriate statistical analysis was applied to determine if there was a significant difference between the control and experimental groups. The results showed that even though the participants felt that the method increased their learning, there was no significant difference between the two groups.
Tasc?n, Laura; Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Cimadevilla, Jos? M.
Field independence refers to the ability to perceive details from the surrounding context as a whole and to represent the environment by relying on an internal reference frame. Conversely, field dependence individuals tend to focus their attention on single environmental features analysing them individually. This cognitive style affects several visuo-spatial abilities including spatial memory. This study assesses both the effect of field independence and field dependence on performance displa...
Full Text Available Abstract The current study aimed to investigate whether, and to what extent, there is a relationship between field independence / dependence cognitive styles and Iranian EFL learners' listening comprehension ability. For this purpose, a sample population of 131 Subjects was randomly selected. A battery of tests including: a the Group Embedded Figures Test (1971, b the TOFEL listening test (1995, c the listening task preference questionnaire, and d the Michigan ECPE test (1996 were administered. The data analysis showed that the correlation between the TOFEL and the GEFT scores for FD learners (both males and females was significant(r =0.70, and higher scores on the GEFT led to an increase in the FD learners TOFEL scores. Conducting one-way and two-way ANOVAs, it was suggested that while there was a relationship between cognitive style and listening comprehension (F= 18.02 and also no relationship between sex and listening comprehension (F=0.267, the interactional effect was significant (f = 7.03. Therefore, sex can be regarded as a source of performance difference in listening comprehension but not by itself and it seems that the interaction of sex and cognitive style can have a stronger effect on this skill. Regarding the learners’ preference toward the different parts of the TOEFL listening section, most learners favored the short conversations, informal assessment, and one item/one conversation, however, the FI ones did better on the longer conversations of the second and the third parts of the TOEFL listening test. Keywords: Cognitive style, Field dependence, Field independence, Listening comprehension.
Von Wittich, D.; Antonakis, J.
Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI) is a widely-used measure of "cognitive style." Surprisingly, there is very little research investigating the discriminant and incremental validity of the KAI. In two studies (n = 213), we examined whether (a) we could predict KAI scores with the "big five" personality dimensions and (b) the KAI scores predicted leadership behavior when controlling for personality and ability. Correcting for measurement error, we found that KAI scores were predicted...
Paolini, D; Leonardi, C; Visani, E; Rodofili, G
In this study we present data from a research carried out on a population of people with gambling disorder (GD). This research investigated the representation of family styles for subjects with gambling disorder, using the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES-IV), their cognitive distortions through Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS-I), and the relation between these two dimensions. People with GD represent families with emotional detachment, while in the area of management of relational rules and roles, they reveal a perception of disorganization. Concerning their cognitive bias, GD people show the illusion of being able to control and predict the winnings and the perception of being unable to quit playing. Overall, these data provide specific directions for both the prevention and the therapeutic treatment of GD, highlighting the importance of a family therapeutic approach for the prevention of cognitive distortions.
Maseleno, Andino; Hardaker, Glenn; Sabani, Noraisikin; Suhaili, Nabilah
This article contains data related to multicultural education and diagnostic information profiling preliminary findings. It includes the responses of 253 students. The data consists of six sections, i) culture: race, ethnicity, language and identity; ii) learning preferences: physiological and perceptual; iii) cognitive learning styles: physical, emotional and mental; iv) creativity skills and problem solving skills; v) motivation; and vi) students' background knowledge. The data may be used as part of data analytics for specific personalized e-learning platform.
Full Text Available This article contains data related to multicultural education and diagnostic information profiling preliminary findings. It includes the responses of 253 students. The data consists of six sections, i culture: race, ethnicity, language and identity; ii learning preferences: physiological and perceptual; iii cognitive learning styles: physical, emotional and mental; iv creativity skills and problem solving skills; v motivation; and vi students’ background knowledge. The data may be used as part of data analytics for specific personalized e-learning platform.
Hanifah, U.; Juniati, D.; Siswono, T. Y. E.
This study aims at describing the students’ spatial abilities based on cognitive styles and sex differences. Spatial abilities in this study include 5 components, namely spatial perception, spatial visualization, mental rotation, spatial relations, and spatial orientation. This research is descriptive research with qualitative approach. The subjects in this research were 4 students of junior high school, there were 1 male FI, 1 male FD, 1 female FI, and 1 female FI. The results showed that there are differences in spatial abilities of the four subjects that are on the components of spatial visualization, mental rotation, and spatial relations. The differences in spatial abilities were found in methods / strategies used by each subject to solve each component problem. The differences in cognitive styles and sex suggested different choice of strategies used to solve problems. The male students imagined the figures but female students needed the media to solve the problem. Besides sex, the cognitive style differences also have an effect on solving a problem. In addition, FI students were not affected by distracting information but FD students could be affected by distracting information. This research was expected to contribute knowledge and insight to the readers, especially for math teachers in terms of the spatial ability of the students so that they can optimize their students’ spatial ability.
Tuan Q. Tran; Karen M. Feigh; Amy R. Pritchett
According to theories of cognitive processing style or cognitive control mode, human performance is more effective when an individual's cognitive state (e.g., intuition/scramble vs. deliberate/strategic) matches his/her ecological constraints or context (e.g., utilize intuition to strive for a 'good-enough' response instead of deliberating for the 'best' response under high time pressure). Ill-mapping between cognitive state and ecological constraints are believed to lead to degraded task performance. Consequently, incorporating support systems which are designed to specifically address multiple cognitive and functional states e.g., high workload, stress, boredom, and initiate appropriate mitigation strategies (e.g., reduce information load) is essential to reduce plant risk. Utilizing the concept of Cognitive Control Models, this paper will discuss the importance of tailoring support systems to match an operator's cognitive state, and will further discuss the importance of these ecological constraints in selecting and implementing mitigation strategies for safe and effective system performance. An example from the nuclear power plant industry illustrating how a support system might be tailored to support different cognitive states is included
Strean, William Ben
Learning styles has captivated a great deal of attention in yoga teacher training. The triad of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles has been particularly popular; yet as Sharp et al . asserted, such an approach trivializes the complexity of learning and compromises scholarship at all levels of the education community. This paper addresses that although there is great merit in recognizing yoga students' differences and preferences, many uses of learning styles in yoga teacher training are superficial and promote self-handicapping. A somatic perspective (from soma, the body in its wholeness) offers a framework to reconsider the depth of effective learning.
Turkel, Yesim Deniz; Tezer, Esin
This study investigated the differences among 834 high school students regarding learned resourcefulness in terms of perceived parenting style and gender. The data were gathered by administering the Parenting Style Inventory (PSI) and Rosenbaum's Self-Control Schedule (SCS). The results of ANOVA pertaining to the scores of learned resourcefulness…
Gonyea, Nathan E.
The present study investigated the impact of acculturation on the learning styles of 151 Hispanic students enrolled in a Hispanic Serving Institution in South Texas, controlling for age, gender, and country of origin. Acculturation did not significantly predict learning style when controlling for these three variables. These results may be because…
Learning to relate with people in their own style is important in helping to understand why they react the way they do. The purpose of this study therefore was to determine the differences in the receptive learning styles of introverts, ambiverts and extroverts in Senior High Schools (SHS) in the Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis, ...
People have different learning styles that are reflected in different academic strengths, weaknesses, skills, and interests. Given the almost unlimited variety of job descriptions within food science and engineering, it is safe to say that students with every possible learning style have the potential to succeed as food scientists and engineers.…
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between social studies pre-service teachers' (SSPTs) learning style, test anxiety and academic achievement. A total of 315 SSPTs participated in the study. Data were collected using Turkish versions of Grasha-Reichmann learning style scale (GRLSS) and test anxiety scale (TAS) by Spielberger.…
A study investigated the correlation between students' learning styles and their academic achievement on report cards and standardized tests. Subjects were 58 fifth-grade students in a suburban middle school. The "Learning Style Inventory" by Brown and Cooper was administered to this population, and students' academic averages and…
Seiver, Daniel Alan; Haddad, Kamal; Do, Andrew
Many academic disciplines have examined the role that variation in Jungian personality types plays in the academic performance of college students. Different personality types tend to have different learning styles, which in turn influence student performance in a variety of college courses. To measure the impact of learning styles on student…
McLawhon, Ryan; Cutright, Marc
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between instructor learning style/preference and online faculty job satisfaction. Learning style was assessed using the Readiness for Education At a Distance Indicator (READI) now called Smarter Measure. Online faculty job satisfaction was assessed using the National Study of…
Knoll, Abby R; Otani, Hajime; Skeel, Reid L; Van Horn, K Roger
The concept of learning style is immensely popular despite the lack of evidence showing that learning style influences performance. This study tested the hypothesis that the popularity of learning style is maintained because it is associated with subjective aspects of learning, such as judgements of learning (JOLs). Preference for verbal and visual information was assessed using the revised Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (VVQ). Then, participants studied a list of word pairs and a list of picture pairs, making JOLs (immediate, delayed, and global) while studying each list. Learning was tested by cued recall. The results showed that higher VVQ verbalizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for words, and higher VVQ visualizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for pictures. There was no association between VVQ scores and recall or JOL accuracy. As predicted, learning style was associated with subjective aspects of learning but not objective aspects of learning. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Hulme, JA; Allcock, SJ
Differentiation of teaching is encouraged to accommodate student diversity. This study investigated whether using learning styles as a basis for differentiation improved A-level student performance, compared to differentiation on the basis of academic ability. Matched classes of A-level psychology students participated. In one class, learning activities were differentiated by academic ability; in the other class, learning activities were differentiated by learning style for nine weeks, follow...
Cavallera, Guido M.; Gatto, Massimo; Boari, Giuseppe
Background Yoga is a psychophysical, spiritual science of holistic living, aiming towards body and mind development; it can influence well-being, cognitive processes, personality (Gunas), psychophysiological parameters, and human health. Since it has been observed that Morningness-Eveningness disposition is associated with personality, and that personality can characterize people practicing Yoga, in this exploratory study we posited that Morningness-Eveningness might be associated with personality in Yoga trainees. Since Yoga can have influences over cognitive perspectives, and since it has been observed that Morningness-Eveningness disposition can associate with cognitive processes, we investigated a sample of Yoga trainees with reference to relationship with styles of learning and thinking (relevant aspects of cognitive functioning) and also with Morningness-Eveningness disposition. Material/Method We tested 184 Yoga trainees using the following questionnaires: Styles of Learning and Thinking (Torrance), Big Five Questionnaire (Caprara, Barbaranelli, Borgogni), and reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (Natale). Results We found that Morning types score significantly higher than Evening types on Conscientiousness, Friendliness, Scrupulousness, Openness to Culture, emotional Stability, emotion Control, they score higher than intermediate types on Conscientiousness, Friendliness, Scrupulousness. Moreover, data showed that the high majority of subjects, also with reference to Morningness-Eveningness disposition, have right-sided styles of learning and thinking, pointing out a tendency towards right-sided cognitive precessing in the whole sample. Personality traits of the Yoga trainees were also investigated. Conclusions Data are discussed with reference to existing literature, psychological and neuroscientific perspectives are suggested, previous studies about Yoga published on Medical Science Monitor are also considered. PMID:24531385
Kageyama, Tetsuya; Sugiura, Motoaki
Higher-level managers are said to have a more intuitive cognitive style. To verify this hypothesis, we must consider three factors that have often been left out of account. Previous studies, related to managerial cognitive style and job level, used a unidimensional model of cognitive style, did not consider age, and have mainly been conducted in the UK. Our study replicated previous studies on a population of 1,533 Japanese fulltime workers, using a questionnaire based on a two-dimensional model of cognitive style and setting a frame by age for each job level. Our results showed that higher job levels are associated with more rational cognitive styles. There were significant main effects of the interaction of job level and job level by age in rational thinking style. There was no correlation between intuition and job level. Our findings are the first demonstration that the relationship between job level and cognitive style likely depends on culture.
Full Text Available Higher-level managers are said to have a more intuitive cognitive style. To verify this hypothesis, we must consider three factors that have often been left out of account. Previous studies, related to managerial cognitive style and job level, used a unidimensional model of cognitive style, did not consider age, and have mainly been conducted in the UK. Our study replicated previous studies on a population of 1,533 Japanese fulltime workers, using a questionnaire based on a two-dimensional model of cognitive style and setting a frame by age for each job level. Our results showed that higher job levels are associated with more rational cognitive styles. There were significant main effects of the interaction of job level and job level by age in rational thinking style. There was no correlation between intuition and job level. Our findings are the first demonstration that the relationship between job level and cognitive style likely depends on culture.
Cheng, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Shu-Qiang
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how high school students' cognitive tendencies in holistic/analytic style relate to their active or passive behavioral patterns observed in the classroom. It was speculated that academic intrinsic motivation might play the role as a moderator and learning approach (the structure-oriented…
This study investigated the reformulated theory of learned helplessness, centering around attributional style in the cause of cognitive and emotional deficits. Subjects (N=58) were undergraduate and graduate psychology students at the University of Alabama at Huntsville. Subjects were divided into an experimental group (N=30) who received…
Tawil, Norngainy Mohd; Ismail, Nur Arzilah; Asshaari, Izamarlina; Othman, Haliza; Zaharim, Azami; Bahaludin, Hafizah
Nowadays, traditional learning styles are assisted with e-learning components to ensure the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process, especially for the students. This approach is known as blended learning. Objective of this paper is to investigate and clarify the students' preferences in learning style, either traditional or e-learning.…
Rivera-Flores, Gladys Wilma
Introduction: Children with attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an impulsive, rigid and field-dependent cognitive style. This study examines whether self-instructional cognitive training reduces impulsive cognitive style in children diagnosed with this disorder. Method: The subjects were 10 children between the ages of 6 and…
Chen, Clement; Jones, Keith T.; Xu, Shawn
Differences in styles of learning have become important considerations at all levels of education over the last several years. Examining college students' preferred style of learning is useful for course design and effective instructional methods. Using the Felder-Silverman Index of Learning Styles (ILS), we investigate how students' styles of…
Nielsen, Kirsten; Helms, Niels Henrik; Pedersen, Birthe D.
ePortfolio & learning styles in Nursing Education Background Examination of the literature shows both advantages and disadvantages in implementing ePortfolio and learning styles in Nursing Education. The students reflect on nursing practice as well as on their strengths and weaknesses...... priority than learning the practical craft of nursing in clinical settings. Insight into preferred learning style can be an advantage to both students and preceptors in attempt to promote students´ learning potential, but there are quite many different theoretical approaches and definitions of the concept...... of Nursing, VIA University College, DK wanted to intensify the differentiated guidance of students, and developed an ePortfolio which aim to facilitate four learning styles as described by Honey and Mumford. It was tested in a pilot project and now, a qualitative study of how learning is mediated in clinical...
Shukr, Irfan; Zainab, Roop; Rana, Mowadat H
To compare learning styles of undergraduate and postgraduate medical students. Observational, comparative study. Department of Medical Education, Army Medical College, NUST, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, during February and March 2012. A total of 170 students were divided into two equal groups of undergraduate students of Army Medical College, and postgraduate students of Armed Forces Post Graduate Medical Institute, Rawalpindi. Learning Style Questionnaire (LSQ) was used to assess and categorize the participants into Honey and Mumford classification of learning styles. The responses of each student ranging from 'very strong,' 'strong', 'moderate', and 'low' preference towards activist, theorist, reflector and pragmatist learning styles were compiled. The two groups were compared using SPSS version 17, using Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test. A p-value of $lt; 0.05 was considered significant. Preferences for all four learning styles were present in both groups. The results reveal an overall statistically significant difference in the 'very strong' preference in learning styles between the two study groups (p=0.002). Among the undergraduate students, 45% had a very strong preference for being an activist, whereas in postgraduate students, 38% had very strong preference for reflector, and 35% for theorist. This was statistically significant for activist, and reflector, and attained a p-value of learning style was pragmatist in both undergraduate and postgraduate students. Diversity of learning styles at undergraduate and postgraduate level of medical education calls for multiplicity of instructional and assessment modalities to match them. The learning styles amongst the undergraduate medical students are different from the postgraduates. The postgraduates commonly have the reflector learning style while the undergraduates are predominantly activists and theorists.
Seyedeh Shohreh Alavi
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Presently, the method of medical teaching has shifted from lecture-based to computer-based. The learning style may play a key role in the attitude toward learning computer. The goal of this study was to study the relationship between the learning style and attitude toward computer among Iranian medical students.Methods: This cross-sectional study included 400 medical students. Barsch learning style inventory and a questionnaire on the attitude toward computer was sent to each student. The enthusiasm, anxiety, and overall attitude toward computer were compared among the different learning styles.Results: The response rate to the questionnaire was 91.8%. The distribution of learning styles in the students was 181 (49.3% visual, 106 (28.9% auditory, 27 (7.4% tactual, and 53 (14.4% overall. Visual learners were less anxious for computer use and showed more positive attitude toward computer. Sex, age, and academic grade were not associated with students’ attitude toward computer.Conclusions: The learning style is an important factor in the students’ attitude toward computer among medical students, which should be considered in planning computer-based learning programs.Keywords: LEARNING STYLE, ATTITUDE, COMPUTER, MEDICAL STUDENT, ANXIETY, ENTHUSIASM
Zoghi, Maryam; Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; Roller, Louis; Jaberzadeh, Shapour; Palermo, Claire; McKenna, Lisa; Wright, Caroline; Baird, Marilyn; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Hewitt, Lesley; Sim, Jenny; Holt, Tangerine-Ann
It has been identified that health science student groups may have distinctive learning needs. By university educators' and professional fieldwork supervisors' being aware of the unique learning style preferences of health science students, they have the capacity to adjust their teaching approaches to best fit with their students' learning preferences. The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning style preferences of a group of Australian health science students enrolled in 10 different disciplines. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory was distributed to 2,885 students enrolled in dietetics and nutrition, midwifery, nursing, occupational therapy, paramedics, pharmacy, physiotherapy, radiation therapy, radiography, and social work at one Australian university. A total of 752 usable survey forms were returned (response rate 26%). The results indicated the converger learning style to be most frequently preferred by health science students and that the diverger and accommodator learning styles were the least preferred. It is recommended that educators take learning style preferences of health science students into consideration when planning, implementing, and evaluating teaching activities, such as including more problem-solving activities that fit within the converger learning style.
Vega, Mery Luz; Hederich M., Christian
This study is expected to determine the impact of a program based on the cooperative learning methodology. This, in comparison to a traditional learning situation in both mathematics and language achievement. The study was carried out on a group of fourth grade students of primary school. In addition, it tried to find the differential impact…
Leontidis, Makis; Halatsis, Constantin
The aim of this paper is to present a model in order to integrate the learning style and the personality traits of a learner into an enhanced Affective Style which is stored in the learner’s model. This model which can deal with the cognitive abilities as well as the affective preferences of the learner is called Learner Affective Model (LAM). The LAM is used to retain learner’s knowledge and activities during his interaction with a Web-based learning environment and also to provide him with the appropriate pedagogical guidance. The proposed model makes use of an ontological approach in combination with the Bayesian Network model and contributes to the efficient management of the LAM in an Affective Module.
Fyle, Clifford Omodele
The purpose of this study was to examine whether field-dependent/independent style awareness affects learning outcomes and learning strategies used in a hypermedia instructional module. Field-dependent/independent style was measured using the Global Embedded Figures Test. Style awareness meant that students were provided with information and explanations about their individual cognitive styles and the learning strategies that accommodate those styles. The study entailed examining students' achievement in a multiple-choice test and performance in a design task, and also their navigation patterns as they studied a science-oriented Webquest. The sample consisted of 149 eighth-grade students in 10 sections of a science class taught by two teachers in a public middle school. A two-group posttest-only design on one factor (style awareness) was used. Sixty-eight students in five sections of the class were assigned to the treatment group (field dependent/independent style awareness) while the other 81 students in five sections were assigned to the control group (no field dependent/independent style awareness). The study took place over a period of 6 days. On the first day, students in the treatment group were first tested and debriefed on their individual styles. Next, all students in both the treatment and control groups studied the hypermedia instructional module (Webquest) over a period of two days. On the fourth and fifth days students worked on the performance tasks, and on the sixth day students took the multiple-choice test and students in the control group were tested and debriefed on their individual styles. The findings indicate that style awareness significantly influenced the learning strategies of field-dependent students as they studied and carried out learning tasks in the Webquest. Field-dependent students with style awareness used hypertext links and navigated the menu sequentially a greater number of times than their counterparts with no style awareness
Reed, Stephen K.
This article provides a tutorial overview of cognitive architectures that can form a theoretical foundation for designing multimedia instruction. Cognitive architectures include a description of memory stores, memory codes, and cognitive operations. Architectures that are relevant to multimedia learning include Paivio's dual coding theory,…
Xie, Ying; Ke, Fengfeng; Sharma, Priya
Deep cognitive thinking refers to a learner's purposeful and conscious manipulation of ideas toward meaningful learning. Strategies such as journaling/blogging and peer feedback have been found to promote deep thinking. This article reports a research study about the effects of two different blog leader styles on students' deep thinking as…
Kalaca, S; Gulpinar, M
A good understanding of the learning styles of students is necessary for optimizing the quality of the learning process. There are few studies in Turkey on the subject of the learning characteristics of medical students. The aim of this study was to define the learning patterns of Turkish medical students based on the Turkish version of Vermunts Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS). The Turkish version of the ILS was developed and administered to 532 medical students. Learning patterns were investigated using factor analysis. Internal consistencies of scales ranged from 0.43 to 0.80. The Turkish version of the ILS identified four learning styles among medical students. In comparing the pre-clinical and clinical phases of medical students related to mental models of learning, statistically significant differences (p learning characteristics: lack of regulation; certificate; self-test and ambivalent orientation; intake of knowledge; and use of knowledge. The Turkish version of the ILS can be used to identify learning styles of medical students. Our findings indicate an intermediate position for our students on a teacher-regulated to student-regulated learning continuum. A variety of teaching methods and learning activities should be provided in medical schools in order to address the range of learning styles.
Kindt, K.C.M.; Kleinjan, M.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.
Previous research has established that cognitive theory-based depression prevention programs aiming change in negative cognitive style in early adolescents do not have strong effects in universal settings. Although theories suggest that a negative cognitive style precedes depressive symptoms,
This study aims to examine how learning styles relate to employees' confidence through a view of Kolb's experiential learning theory. For this aim, an empirical investigation was conducted using the sample of 201 Japanese employees who work for a Japanese multinational corporation. Results illustrated that the learning style group of acting orientation described a significantly higher level of job confidence than that of reflecting orientation, whereas the two groups of feeling and thinking o...
Drissi, Samia; Amirat, Abdelkrim
Personalized e-learning implementation is recognized as one of the most interesting research areas in the distance web-based education. Since the learning style of each learner is different one must fit e-learning with the different needs of learners. This paper presents an approach to integrate learning styles into adaptive e-learning hypermedia.…
de Boer, Jelle; Kommers, Piet A. M.; de Brock, Bert
Improving the effectiveness of learning when students observe video lectures becomes urgent with the rising advent of (web-based) video materials. Vital questions are how students differ in their learning preferences and what patterns in viewing video can be detected in log files. Our experiments
Meeuwsen, Harry J; King, George A; Pederson, Rockie
A growing body of research supports cooperative learning as an effective teaching strategy. A specific cooperative learning strategy, Team-based Learning, was applied to a convenience sample of four undergraduate sophomore-level motor behavior courses over four semesters from Fall 2002 to Spring 2004 to examine whether this strategy would affect students' learning styles. The data from the Grasha-Reichmann Student Learning Style Scales indicated that this teaching strategy was associated with a significant decrease in the negative Avoidant and Dependent learning styles and an improvement in the positive Participant learning style.
Márquez U, Carolina; Fasce H, Eduardo; Pérez V, Cristhian; Ortega B, Javiera; Parra P, Paula; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus B, Olga; Ibáñez G, Pilar
Self-directed learning (SDL) skills are particularly important in medical education, considering that physicians should be able to regulate their own learning experiences. To evaluate the relationship between learning styles and strategies and self-directed learning in medical students. One hundred ninety nine first year medical students (120 males) participated in the study. Preparation for Independent Learning (EPAI) scale was used to assess self-direction. Schmeck learning strategies scale and Honey and Alonso (CHAEA) scales were used to evaluate learning styles and strategies. Theoretical learning style and deep processing learning strategy had positive correlations with self-direct learning. Medical students with theoretical styles and low retention of facts are those with greater ability to self-direct their learning. Further studies are required to determine the relationship between learning styles and strategies with SDL in medical students. The acquired knowledge will allow the adjustment of teaching strategies to encourage SDL.
Altan-Atalay, Ayşe; Ayvaşık, Halise Belgin
Looming Cognitive Style, which was proposed as cognitive vulnerability model specific for anxiety disorders, suggests that anxiety-prone individuals have a tendency to perceive threats and dangers as getting closer, becoming larger, and more agonizing every passing minute. Yet, very few studies focused on the family-related variables that are associated with development of Looming Cognitive Style. This study aims to investigate the relationship of Looming Cognitive Style with measures perceived parenting and attachment. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 389 university students aged between 18 and 35 as participants. The participants were assessed through Looming Cognitive Style, perceived parenting, attachment anxiety, and avoidance. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated Looming Cognitive Style to be significantly predicted by maternal overprotection and anxiety dimension of attachment. The results are important in understanding how parenting-related variables are related to development of cognitive vulnerabilities specific to anxiety disorders.
The relationship between thinking and learning constitutes one of the fundamental problems of cognitive psychology. Though there is an obvious overlap between the domains of thinking and learning, it seems more productive to consider learning as being predominantly acquisition while considering thinking as the application of the existent concepts…
Turney, Mary Ann
With an increasing number of women becoming members of flight crews, the leadership styles of men and women are at issue. A study explored three basic questions: (1) How do male and female learning and leadership styles differ? (2) What barriers to gender integration and crew teamwork are perceived by pilot crew members? and (3) What…
Lida Johana Rincón Camacho
Full Text Available Resumen Se examinaron los efectos comparados de dos métodos para la enseñanza de la escritura en el nivel inicial: global y silábico y su interacción con el estilo cognitivo en la dimensión de dependencia-independencia de campo (DIC, en 31 niños de dos grupos escolares de primer grado de primaria, de dos instituciones diferentes, en donde cada uno de los métodos de venían implementando. Se aplicaron la prueba CEFT para la determinación del estilo cognitivo y la prueba de escritura ''ejercicio de creación de texto'' al inicio del año escolar del primer grado y cuatro meses después. Los resultados finales fueron examinados a través de análisis de covarianza en los que se controlaron, como covariables, los logros registrados cuatro meses antes. Los datos muestran evidentes ventajas del método global sobre el método silábico en términos generales, y muy específicamente para los niños de estilo dependiente de campo o intermedio en seis de los ocho los indicadores examinados. Estos resultados son explicados a partir de características distintivas del estilo cognitivo en esta dimensión.Abstract Comparative effects of two methods used for teaching writing at the initial level were examined: the global and syllabic approaches and their interaction with cognitive style in the field dependence-independence dimension (FDI, in 31 first-grade children from two school groups and from two different institutions, where each one of the methods were implemented. CEFT test was applied to determine the cognitive style, and a writing test called "text-building exercise" was also used at the beginning of the academic year and four months later. The final results were esamined through covariance analysis, in which the achievements recorded four months earlier were controlled as covariates. In general, data show clear advantages of the global method over the syllabic method, specifically for field-dependent and intermediate style children in six
... of Teaching and Learning Styles in Practical Motor Vehicle Mechanics Work At ... Board should organize workshop for its teachers in technical colleges on the ... students to participate actively in any activities when teaching practical skills.
Marianela Noriega Biggio
Full Text Available This paper discusses the results of research on factors affecting academic performance and attrition in a sample of 1,500 freshman students majoring in architecture, design and urbanism at the Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina [University of Buenos Aires, Argentina] who were enrolled in a drafting course. The hypotheses we tested concern the mediating role of learning styles on the relationship between spatial competence and academic performance, learning-style differences by gender and cohort, and the relationship between attrition, spatial competence level and learning style. Statistical analysis of the data was performed and spatial competence enhanced by motivational profile was found to predict final achievement. Educational implications are identified, highlighting the need to promote in students those academic behaviors that characterize a self-regulated learning style and encourage the use of specific intellectual abilities.
Türkel, Yeşim Deniz; Tezer, Esin
This study investigated the differences among 834 high school students regarding learned resourcefulness in terms of perceived parenting style and gender. The data were gathered by administering the Parenting Style Inventory (PSI) and Rosenbaum's Self-Control Schedule (SCS). The results of ANOVA pertaining to the scores of learned resourcefulness yielded a significant main effect for parenting style groups. Neither the main effect for gender nor the gender and parenting style interaction effect was significant. The findings suggest that those who perceived their parents as authoritative had a relatively high level of learned resourcefulness as compared to those who perceived their parents as neglectful and authoritarian. Findings also indicated that those who perceived their parents as indulgent had a higher level of learned resourcefulness than those who perceived their parents as neglectful and authoritarian.
From the assumption that matching a student's learning style with the learning method best suited for the student, it follows that developing courses that correlate learning method with learning style would be more successful for students. Albuquerque Technical Vocational Institute (TVI) in New Mexico has attempted to provide students with more…
Schulz, Lisa C.
Telecommuting learning style preferences were examined in an effort to determine the impact of learning transfer and if employees could benefit from blended training methodologies (i.e., online, face-to-face). Learning style preferences were examined in an effort to promote learning transfer and retention in the workplace. Employees in higher…
Graf, Sabine; Kinshuk; Liu, Tzu-Chien
In learning management systems (LMSs), teachers have more difficulties to notice and know how individual students behave and learn in a course, compared to face-to-face education. Enabling teachers to know their students' learning styles and making students aware of their own learning styles increases teachers' and students' understanding about…
Reading is a basic life skill. Unfortunately, in 2007, only 29% of all eighth graders were able to comprehend at or above a proficient reading comprehension level. Sensory learning styles (kinesthetic, tactile, auditory, and visual) affect the way that students prefer to learn and the areas in which they will have difficulty learning. This study…
Mehigan, Tracey J.; Pitt, Ian
Adaptive learning systems tailor content delivery to meet specific needs of the individual for improved learning-outcomes. Learning-styles and personalities are usually determined through the completion of questionnaires. There are a number of models available for this purpose including the Myer-Briggs Model (MBTI), the Big Five Model, and the…
The aims of this research were to determine the effect of cooperative learning model and learning styles on learning result. This quasi-experimental study employed a 2x2 treatment by level, involved independent variables, i.e. cooperative learning model and learning styles, and learning result as the dependent variable. Findings signify that: (1)…
Muhtarom; Sugiyanti; Utami, R. E.; Indriana, K.
This study revealed the metacognitive activity of male students in impulsive cognitive and reflective cognitive style in solving mathematical problems, especially in the material of plane. One student of impulsive cognitive style and one student of reflective cognitive-style were selected to be the subjects of the study. Data were collected by giving written test of problem solving and interview. Data analysis was done through data reduction, data presentation, data interpretation and conclusion. The results showed that male student of reflective cognitive style was meticulous and careful in solving the problem so as to obtain correct answers, while the impulsive cognitive style student had the characteristics of using a short time in solving the problem, but less careful so that the answers tended to be wrong
Purpose: Dental extraction is a routine part of clinical dental practice. For this reason, understanding the way how students’ extraction knowledge and skills development are important. Problem Statement and Objectives: To date, there is no accredited statement about the most effective method for the teaching of exodontia to dental students. Students have different abilities and preferences regarding how they learn and process information. This is defined as learning style. In this study, the effectiveness of active learning in the teaching of preclinical oral surgery was examined. The personality type of the groups involved in this study was determined, and the possible effect of personality type on learning style was investigated. Method: This study was undertaken over five years from 2011 to 2015. The sample consisted of 115 students and eight staff members. Questionnaires were submitted by 68 students and all eight staff members involved. Three measures were used in the study: The Index of Learning Styles (Felder and Soloman, 1991), the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), and the styles of learning typology (Grasha and Hruska-Riechmann). Results and Discussion: Findings indicated that demonstration and minimal clinical exposure give students personal validation. Frequent feedback on their work is strongly indicated to build the cognitive, psychomotor, and interpersonal skills needed from preclinical oral surgery courses. Conclusion: Small group cooperative active learning in the form of demonstration and minimal clinical exposure that gives frequent feedback and students’ personal validation on their work is strongly indicated to build the skills needed for preclinical oral surgery courses. PMID:28357004
Dental extraction is a routine part of clinical dental practice. For this reason, understanding the way how students' extraction knowledge and skills development are important. To date, there is no accredited statement about the most effective method for the teaching of exodontia to dental students. Students have different abilities and preferences regarding how they learn and process information. This is defined as learning style. In this study, the effectiveness of active learning in the teaching of preclinical oral surgery was examined. The personality type of the groups involved in this study was determined, and the possible effect of personality type on learning style was investigated. This study was undertaken over five years from 2011 to 2015. The sample consisted of 115 students and eight staff members. Questionnaires were submitted by 68 students and all eight staff members involved. Three measures were used in the study: The Index of Learning Styles (Felder and Soloman, 1991), the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), and the styles of learning typology (Grasha and Hruska-Riechmann). Findings indicated that demonstration and minimal clinical exposure give students personal validation. Frequent feedback on their work is strongly indicated to build the cognitive, psychomotor, and interpersonal skills needed from preclinical oral surgery courses. Small group cooperative active learning in the form of demonstration and minimal clinical exposure that gives frequent feedback and students' personal validation on their work is strongly indicated to build the skills needed for preclinical oral surgery courses.
Meier, Beat; Rothen, Nicolas
In this study we investigated whether synaesthesia is associated with a particular cognitive style. Cognitive style refers to preferred modes of information processing, such as a verbal style or a visual style. We reasoned that related to the enriched world of experiences created by synaesthesia, its association with enhanced verbal and visual memory, higher imagery and creativity, synaesthetes might show enhanced preference for a verbal as well as for a visual cognitive style compared to non-synaesthetes. In Study 1 we tested a large convenience sample of 1046 participants, who classified themselves as grapheme-color, sound-color, lexical-gustatory, sequence-space, or as non-synaesthetes. To assess cognitive style, we used the revised verbalizer-visualizer questionnaire (VVQ), which involves three independent cognitive style dimensions (verbal style, visual-spatial style, and vivid imagery style). The most important result was that those who reported grapheme-color synaesthesia showed higher ratings on the verbal and vivid imagery style dimensions, but not on the visual-spatial style dimension. In Study 2 we replicated this finding in a laboratory study involving 24 grapheme-color synaesthetes with objectively confirmed synaesthesia and a closely matched control group. Our results indicate that grapheme-color synaesthetes prefer both a verbal and a specific visual cognitive style. We suggest that this enhanced preference, probably together with the greater ease to switch between a verbal and a vivid visual imagery style, may be related to cognitive advantages associated with grapheme color synaesthesia such as enhanced memory performance and creativity. PMID:24065938
Full Text Available In this study we investigated whether synaesthesia is associated with a particular cognitive style. Cognitive style refers to preferred modes of information processing, such as a verbal style or a visual style. We reasoned that related to the enriched world of experiences created by synaesthesia, its association with enhanced verbal and visual memory, higher imagery and creativity, synaesthetes might show enhanced preference for a verbal as well as for a visual cognitive style compared to non-synaesthetes. In Study 1 we tested a large convenience sample of 1046 participants, who classified themselves as grapheme-colour, sound-colour, lexical-gustatory, sequence-space or as non-synaesthetes. To assess cognitive style, we used the revised verbalizer-visualizer questionnaire, which involves three independent cognitive style dimensions (verbal style, visual-spatial style, and vivid imagery style. The most important result was that those who reported grapheme-colour synaesthesia showed higher ratings on the verbal and vivid imagery style dimensions, but not on the visual-spatial style dimension. In Study 2 we replicated this finding in a laboratory study involving 24 grapheme-colour synaesthetes with objectively confirmed synaesthesia and a closely matched control group. Our results indicate that grapheme-colour synaesthetes prefer both a verbal and a specific visual cognitive style. We suggest that this enhanced preference, probably together with the greater ease to switch between a verbal and a vivid visual imagery style, may be related to cognitive advantages associated with grapheme colour synaesthesia such as enhanced memory performance and creativity.
Gul, F; Huang, A; Subramaniam, N
Since prior studies of individuals' perceptions of career-choice factors have not considered the effect of cognitive styles of subjects, this study, using 68 accounting students, investigated the mediating effects of the field dependent-independent cognitive dimension on perceptions of the importance of career-choice factors. The results, in general, show that cognitive style affected individuals' perceptions of career-choice factors, suggesting that future studies of individuals' perceptions should take into account individual cognitive differences.
Hallin, Karin; Häggström, Marie; Bäckström, Britt; Kristiansen, Lisbeth Porskrog
Background: Health care educators account for variables affecting patient safety and are responsible for developing the highly complex process of education planning. Clinical judgement is a multidimensional process, which may be affected by learning styles. The aim was to explore three specific hypotheses to test correlations between nursing students’ team achievements in clinical judgement and emotional, sociological and physiological learning style preferences. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with Swedish university nursing students in 2012-2013. Convenience sampling was used with 60 teams with 173 nursing students in the final semester of a three-year Bachelor of Science in nursing programme. Data collection included questionnaires of personal characteristics, learning style preferences, determined by the Dunn and Dunn Productivity Environmental Preference Survey, and videotaped complex nursing simulation scenarios. Comparison with Lasater Clinical Judgement Rubric and Non-parametric analyses were performed. Results: Three significant correlations were found between the team achievements and the students’ learning style preferences: significant negative correlation with ‘Structure’ and ‘Kinesthetic’ at the individual level, and positive correlation with the ‘Tactile’ variable. No significant correlations with students’ ‘Motivation’, ‘Persistence’, ‘Wish to learn alone’ and ‘Wish for an authoritative person present’ were seen. Discussion and Conclusion: There were multiple complex interactions between the tested learning style preferences and the team achievements of clinical judgement in the simulation room, which provides important information for the becoming nurses. Several factors may have influenced the results that should be acknowledged when designing further research. We suggest conducting mixed methods to determine further relationships between team achievements, learning style preferences
Hallin, Karin; Haggstrom, Marie; Backstrom, Britt; Kristiansen, Lisbeth Porskrog
Health care educators account for variables affecting patient safety and are responsible for developing the highly complex process of education planning. Clinical judgement is a multidimensional process, which may be affected by learning styles. The aim was to explore three specific hypotheses to test correlations between nursing students' team achievements in clinical judgement and emotional, sociological and physiological learning style preferences. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with Swedish university nursing students in 2012-2013. Convenience sampling was used with 60 teams with 173 nursing students in the final semester of a three-year Bachelor of Science in nursing programme. Data collection included questionnaires of personal characteristics, learning style preferences, determined by the Dunn and Dunn Productivity Environmental Preference Survey, and videotaped complex nursing simulation scenarios. Comparison with Lasater Clinical Judgement Rubric and Non-parametric analyses were performed. Three significant correlations were found between the team achievements and the students' learning style preferences: significant negative correlation with 'Structure' and 'Kinesthetic' at the individual level, and positive correlation with the 'Tactile' variable. No significant correlations with students' 'Motivation', 'Persistence', 'Wish to learn alone' and 'Wish for an authoritative person present' were seen. There were multiple complex interactions between the tested learning style preferences and the team achievements of clinical judgement in the simulation room, which provides important information for the becoming nurses. Several factors may have influenced the results that should be acknowledged when designing further research. We suggest conducting mixed methods to determine further relationships between team achievements, learning style preferences, cognitive learning outcomes and group processes.
tion, especially in web environments and proposes to use Fuzzy rules to handle the uncertainty in .... learning in safe and supportive environment ... working of the proposed Fuzzy-logic based learning style prediction in e-learning. Section 4.
Grimley, Michael; Banner, Gloria
This study investigates the interplay of working memory, cognitive style, and behaviour. Year 8 (aged 13 years) students (n = 205) at a UK urban secondary school were tested to ascertain predictors of General Certificate of School Education (GCSE) achievement. Assessment included Riding's cognitive style dimensions, working memory capacity, and a…
Frey, Diane; Simonson, Michael
The purpose of this study was to obtain students' cognitive style profiles and obtain a record of their use of three information modes during the hypermedia lesson, "A Look Backward: An Encounter with Late Victorian Fashion." The study examined relationships among: (1) nine dimensions of cognitive style, as measured by the National…
Friedel, Curtis R.; Rudd, Rick D.
This study was conducted to determine if the dissimilarity of cognitive style between the instructor and the student was related to student engagement in nine undergraduate classes. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was used to measure cognitive style as a preference to a method of solving problems: either more adaptively or more…
Environmental experience can enhance the ideas of design students. Thus, this type of experience may interfere with the influence of design students' cognitive style on creativity. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of environmental experience on the relationship between innovative cognitive style and industrial design students'…
Full Text Available Purpose: Learning-style instruments assist students in developing their own learning strategies and outcomes, in eliminating learning barriers, and in acknowledging peer diversity. Only a few psychometrically validated learning-style instruments are available. This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable learning-style instrument for nursing students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in two nursing schools in two countries. A purposive sample of 156 undergraduate nursing students participated in the study. Face and content validity was obtained from an expert panel. The LSS construct was established using principal axis factoring (PAF with oblimin rotation, a scree plot test, and parallel analysis (PA. The reliability of LSS was tested using Cronbach’s α, corrected item-total correlation, and test-retest. Results: Factor analysis revealed five components, confirmed by PA and a relatively clear curve on the scree plot. Component strength and interpretability were also confirmed. The factors were labeled as perceptive, solitary, analytic, competitive, and imaginative learning styles. Cronbach’s α was > 0.70 for all subscales in both study populations. The corrected item-total correlations were > 0.30 for the items in each component. Conclusion: The LSS is a valid and reliable inventory for evaluating learning style preferences in nursing students in various multicultural environments.
Quillin, Ralph C; Cortez, Alexander R; Pritts, Timothy A; Hanseman, Dennis J; Edwards, Michael J; Davis, Bradley R
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education instituted the 80-h workweek for residency programs in 2003. This presented a unique challenge for surgery residents who must acquire a medical and technical knowledge base during training. Therefore, learning should be delivered in an environment congruent with an individual's learning style. In this study, we evaluated the learning styles of general surgery residents to determine how learning styles changed after the implementation to the 80-h workweek. Kolb learning style inventory was taken by general surgery residents at the University of Cincinnati's Department of Surgery, and results from 1999-2012 were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-squared, logistic regression and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Significance was defined as a P value of learning styles after the institution of the 80-h workweek to converging (43.9%) and accommodating (40.4%, P learning. This change paralleled the transition to a more team-based approach to patient care with the implementation of the 80-h workweek. These findings are important for surgical educators to consider in the development of surgical resident curriculum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani; Ja'afar, Rogayah
Learning-style instruments assist students in developing their own learning strategies and outcomes, in eliminating learning barriers, and in acknowledging peer diversity. Only a few psychometrically validated learning-style instruments are available. This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable learning-style instrument for nursing students. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in two nursing schools in two countries. A purposive sample of 156 undergraduate nursing students participated in the study. Face and content validity was obtained from an expert panel. The LSS construct was established using principal axis factoring (PAF) with oblimin rotation, a scree plot test, and parallel analysis (PA). The reliability of LSS was tested using Cronbach's α, corrected item-total correlation, and test-retest. Factor analysis revealed five components, confirmed by PA and a relatively clear curve on the scree plot. Component strength and interpretability were also confirmed. The factors were labeled as perceptive, solitary, analytic, competitive, and imaginative learning styles. Cronbach's α was >0.70 for all subscales in both study populations. The corrected item-total correlations were >0.30 for the items in each component. The LSS is a valid and reliable inventory for evaluating learning style preferences in nursing students in various multicultural environments.
Associative learning plays a variety of roles in the study of animal cognition from a core theoretical component to a null hypothesis against which the contribution of cognitive processes is assessed. Two developments in contemporary associative learning have enhanced its relevance to animal cognition. The first concerns the role of associatively activated representations, whereas the second is the development of hybrid theories in which learning is determined by prediction errors, both directly and indirectly through associability processes. However, it remains unclear whether these developments allow associative theory to capture the psychological rationality of cognition. I argue that embodying associative processes within specific processing architectures provides mechanisms that can mediate psychological rationality and illustrate such embodiment by discussing the relationship between practical reasoning and the associative-cybernetic model of goal-directed action.
Full Text Available Introduction: The current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity. In addition to critical thinking, learning styles is another key factor which has an essential role in the process of problem solving. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking of students and their academic performance in Alborz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross-correlation study was performed in 2012, on 216 students of Alborz University who were selected randomly by the stratified method. The data was obtained via a three-part questionnaire included demographic data, Kolb standardized questionnaire of learning style and California critical thinking standardized questionnaire. The academic performance of the students was extracted by the school records. The validity of the instruments was determined in terms of content validity, and the reliability was gained through internal consistency methods. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.78 for the California critical thinking questionnaire. The Chi Square test, Independent T-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson Correlation test were used to determine relationship between variables. The Package SPSS14 statistical software was used to analyze data with a significant level of p<0.05. Results: Our findings indicated the significant difference of mean score in four learning style, suggesting university students with convergent learning style have better performance than other groups. Also learning style had a relationship with age, gender, field of study, semester and job. The results about the critical thinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant
Nori, Raffaella; Mercuri, Noemi; Giusberti, Fiorella; Bensi, Luca; Gambetti, Elisa
Research on the relationship between personality and social factors in spatial cognitive style is sparse. The present research was conducted to help fill the gap in this domain. We investigated the influence of specific personality traits (masculine/feminine, spatial and trait anxiety), state anxiety, and sex on spatial cognitive style. One hundred forty-two participants completed a battery of spatial tasks in order to assess their spatial cognitive style and filled in questionnaires about the personality traits under examination. Results showed that state anxiety, spatial anxiety, sex, and masculine/feminine trait of personality are predictors of spatial cognitive style. More specifically, it seems that masculine/feminine trait mediates the relationship between sex and spatial cognitive style. Such findings confirm the importance of personality in determining differences in spatial representation.
Tascón, Laura; Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Cimadevilla, José M
Field independence refers to the ability to perceive details from the surrounding context as a whole and to represent the environment by relying on an internal reference frame. Conversely, field dependence individuals tend to focus their attention on single environmental features analysing them individually. This cognitive style affects several visuo-spatial abilities including spatial memory. This study assesses both the effect of field independence and field dependence on performance displayed on virtual environments of different complexity. Forty young healthy individuals took part in this study. Participants performed the Embedded Figures Test for field independence or dependence assessment and a new spatial memory recognition test. The spatial memory recognition test demanded to memorize a green box location in a virtual room picture. Thereafter, during ten trials participants had to decide if a green box was located in the same position as in the sample picture. Five of the pictures were correct. The information available in the virtual room was manipulated. Hence, two different experimental conditions were tested: a virtual room containing all landmarks and a virtual room with only two cues. Accuracy and reaction time were registered. Analyses demonstrated that higher field independent individuals were related to better spatial memory performance in two landmarks condition and were faster in all landmark condition. In addition, men and women did not differ in their performance. These results suggested that cognitive style affects spatial memory performance and this phenomenon is modulated by environment complexity. This does not affect accuracy but time spent. Moreover, field dependent individuals are unable to organize the navigational field by relying on internal reference frames when few landmarks are available, and this causes them to commit more errors.
Full Text Available Field independence refers to the ability to perceive details from the surrounding context as a whole and to represent the environment by relying on an internal reference frame. Conversely, field dependence individuals tend to focus their attention on single environmental features analysing them individually. This cognitive style affects several visuo-spatial abilities including spatial memory. This study assesses both the effect of field independence and field dependence on performance displayed on virtual environments of different complexity. Forty young healthy individuals took part in this study. Participants performed the Embedded Figures Test for field independence or dependence assessment and a new spatial memory recognition test. The spatial memory recognition test demanded to memorize a green box location in a virtual room picture. Thereafter, during ten trials participants had to decide if a green box was located in the same position as in the sample picture. Five of the pictures were correct. The information available in the virtual room was manipulated. Hence, two different experimental conditions were tested: a virtual room containing all landmarks and a virtual room with only two cues. Accuracy and reaction time were registered. Analyses demonstrated that higher field independent individuals were related to better spatial memory performance in two landmarks condition and were faster in all landmark condition. In addition, men and women did not differ in their performance. These results suggested that cognitive style affects spatial memory performance and this phenomenon is modulated by environment complexity. This does not affect accuracy but time spent. Moreover, field dependent individuals are unable to organize the navigational field by relying on internal reference frames when few landmarks are available, and this causes them to commit more errors.
Mohr, Alexander Toni; Holtbrugge, Dirk; Berg, Nicola
This paper uses data gathered from 953 students to investigate how far individuals' preferences for a particular learning style are associated with the perceived usefulness of e-learning. Our findings reveal the effect of individuals' learning styles as well as their gender and professional experience on the perceived usefulness of different forms…
Lee, Cynthia; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Ip, Tiffany
Computer technology provides spaces and locales for language learning. However, learning style preference and demographic variables may affect the effectiveness of technology use for a desired goal. Adapting Reid's pioneering Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (PLSPQ), this study investigated the relations of university students'…
Boveja, Marsha E.
Examines the relationship between perceived parenting styles and urban adolescents' learning and studying strategies. Results revealed that those adolescents who perceived their parents as being authoritative tended to engage in more effective learning and study strategies. Discusses implications for counselors and teachers using this information…
Tight, Daniel G.
This study explored learning and retention of concrete nouns in second language Spanish by first language English undergraduates (N = 128). Each completed a learning style (visual, auditory, tactile/kinesthetic, mixed) assessment, took a vocabulary pretest, and then studied 12 words each through three conditions (matching, mismatching, mixed…
Rogowsky, Beth A.; Calhoun, Barbara M.; Tallal, Paula
While it is hypothesized that providing instruction based on individuals' preferred learning styles improves learning (i.e., reading for visual learners and listening for auditory learners, also referred to as the "meshing hypothesis"), after a critical review of the literature Pashler, McDaniel, Rohrer, and Bjork (2008) concluded that…
Theis, Saundra L.; Merritt, Sharon L.
The Patient Learning Styles Questionnaire derived from Canfield and administered to 134 elderly coronary artery disease patients revealed the following order of learning preferences: structure, iconics, listening, direct experience, reading, achievement, affiliation, and eminence. Level of education significantly influenced preferred learning…
This research tests the effectiveness of taking learning style variables from the Kolb learning model in designing strategic planning seminars. We observe in our research that the participants in the seminar--school principals--positively judge the effectiveness of the seminar. The research also tests the seminar's effectiveness in terms of the…
Cincotta, Madeline Strong
Outlines the preferred learning styles of students studying second languages, offering suggestions for their application in second-language classrooms. The paper describes the right-brain/left-brain theory and how the two brain hemispheres are involved in learning; presents four classroom strategies (diversification, contextualization,…
McGovern, Enda F.; Luna-Nevarez, Cuauhtemoc; Baruca, Arne
As digital technologies evolve in education, business faculty have increased access to an extensive range of mobile devices and online applications to help them inspire students' passion for learning. Adopting new digital approaches to teaching can also enhance the learning style of students who are immersed in the use of digital devices. How can…
Full Text Available Architecture is a complex process involving the divergent resolution of a multitude of factors- social, ecological, technical, economic, functional, ethical and aesthetic. Despite this diversity all architectural problem solving processes share one common factor- they must be resolved spatially. This paper sets out to explore how best to develop these spatial thinking skills in young architects through addressing their learning styles in education. The primary hypothesis tested is twofold. First using the Solomon & Felder (2007 definition of learning styles and their Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire the average profile of a study group from the freshmen and sophomore architectural student body at the Architectural Engineering Program of the American University in Cairo is mapped and compared to that of a control group from the general population of the university from a cross-section of majors. Secondly, using the Spatial Ability test by Newton & Bristoll (2009, the spatial ability of both the control and study groups are measured and compared. The analysis of these results tests the assumption that the majority of architectural students will be visual, rather than verbal; and active, rather than reflective, learners; as well as exhibiting higher spatial abilities, as compared to the control group. The performance of students in these tests are then correlated against their learning styles profile using the following sets- low spatial ability against both reflective and verbal learning; moderate spatial ability against neutral learning styles; and high spatial ability against both active and visual learning. The results show a particular corroboration between high spatial ability and active learning in the entire group of students- both study, and control- as well as a strong corroboration between high spatial ability and visual learning- with a higher correlation in architecture students, reaching 100% in some classes. It is hoped that by
GHAZIVAKILI, ZOHRE; NOROUZI NIA, ROOHANGIZ; PANAHI, FARIDE; KARIMI, MEHRDAD; GHOLSORKHI, HAYEDE; AHMADI, ZARRIN
Introduction: The Current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity. In addition to critical thinking, learning styles is another key factor which has an essential role in the process of problem solving. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking of students and their academic performance in Alborz University of Medical Science. Methods: This cross-correlation study was performed in 2012, on 216 students of Alborz University who were selected randomly by the stratified random sampling. The data was obtained via a three-part questionnaire included demographic data, Kolb standardized questionnaire of learning style and California critical thinking standardized questionnaire. The academic performance of the students was extracted by the school records. The validity of the instruments was determined in terms of content validity, and the reliability was gained through internal consistency methods. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.78 for the California critical thinking questionnaire. The Chi Square test, Independent t-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used to determine relationship between variables. The Package SPSS14 statistical software was used to analyze data with a significant level of pcritical thinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant relationship between the students’ performance with inferential skill and the total score of critical thinking skills (pcritical thinking had significant difference between different learning styles. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the learning styles, critical thinking and academic performance are significantly associated
Özerem, Aysen; Akkoyunlu, Buket
Problem Statement: While designing a learning environment it is vital to think about learner characteristics (learning styles, approaches, motivation, interests… etc.) in order to promote effective learning. The learning environment and learning process should be designed not to enable students to learn in the same manner and at the same level,…
Fakomogbon, Michael Ayodele; Bolaji, Hameed Olalekan
Collaborative learning is an approach employed by instructors to facilitate learning and improve learner's performance. Mobile learning can accommodate a variety of learning approaches. This study, therefore, investigated the effects of collaborative learning styles on performance of students in a mobile learning environment. The specific purposes…
حسینی فاطمی ، پیشقدم حسینی فاطمی ، پیشقدم
The major aim of this article is to determine the role of culture in perceptual learning style (PLS) preferences of Iranian English learners, in order to minimize teacher-student style conflict in the classroom. To do this, 400 university students from different fields of study were selected from Allameh Tabatabaee University in Tehran, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The subjects were asked to answer Reid’s questionnaire (1987) which was designed to...
Mitchell, Tom; Cahill, Alice M
Students entering (N = 1,134) the U.S. Naval Academy class of 2000 were administered the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory on the first day of Plebe Summer, a 7-wk. nonacademic training program completed by all entering students in the summer prior to the freshman year. The mean score on Innovation cognitive style for this sample of plebes was approximately a standard deviation lower than those of five other undergraduate student samples from nonmilitary universities. Furthermore, the 98 plebes who voluntarily withdrew before completing the program scored higher on the average on Innovation than those who remained. Findings suggest that, in terms of Person-Organization fit, plebes with a more innovative cognitive style may, perhaps, be less compatible with the regimentation-style climate of the Academy than those with an Adaptive cognitive style. Further research, however, is needed to specify the relationship between Academy students' cognitive style and other important organizational outcomes.
Nelson Torres García
Full Text Available Much has been done and researched to find out learning strategies and styles in the last two decades. Dunn and Dunn ( 1975 focu sed on identifying relevant stimulus which could influence on the learning process and on the school environment ; approximately at the same time; Joseph Renzulli (1994 recommended a variety of learning strategies . The authors of this work intend to approa ch the didactic importance ascribed to the strategies and styles of learning in the educational learning process of medical students, as well as to show some of the strategies that these students adopt to facilitate the learning of contents among which Eng lish for Specific Purpose s is included.
Problem Statement: For this study, a cooperative learning process was designed in which students with different learning styles could help each other in heterogeneous groups to perform teamwork-based activities. One aspect deemed important in this context was whether the instructional environment designed to reach students with different learning…
Nielsen, Kirsten; Pedersen, Birthe D.; Helms, Niels Henrik
This study reports the use of electronic portfolio in clinical nursing education. The study is part of a larger study investigating learning mediated by ePortfolio. The method takes a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. The setting was a ten-week clinical course in basic nursing. The participa...... only in one way, lack of supervision about how to learn. The study showed some but not unambiguous connection between preferred learning styles and ePortfolio use....
Kaminski, Charles William
The purpose of this research was to investigate the formative use of Select and Fill-In (SAFI) maps in online instruction and the cognitive, metacognitive, and affective responses of students to their use. In particular, the implications of their use with students of different learning styles was considered. The research question investigated in this qualitative study was: How do students of different learning styles respond to online instruction in which SAFI maps are utilized? This question was explored by using an emergent, collective case study. Each case consisted of community college students who shared a dominant learning style and were enrolled in an online course in environmental studies. Cases in the study were determined using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI). Seven forms of data were collected during the study. During the first phase of data collection, dominant learning style and background information on student experience with concept mapping and online instruction was determined. In the second phase of data collection, participants completed SAFI maps and quiz items that corresponded to the content of the maps. Achievement data on the map activities and quiz and student responses to a post-SAFI survey and questionnaire were recorded to identify learner cognitive, metacognitive, and affective responses to the tasks. Upon completion of data collection, cases were constructed and compared across learning styles. Cases are presented using the trends, across participants sharing the same dominant learning style, in achievement, behaviors and attitudes as seen in the evidence present in the data. Triangulation of multiple data sources increased reliability and validity, through cross-case analyses, and produced a thick description of the relationship between the cases for each learning style. Evidence suggesting a cognitive response to the SAFI tasks was inconsistent across cases. However, learners with an affinity towards reflective learning
Ghazivakili, Zohre; Norouzi Nia, Roohangiz; Panahi, Faride; Karimi, Mehrdad; Gholsorkhi, Hayede; Ahmadi, Zarrin
The Current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity. In addition to critical thinking, learning styles is another key factor which has an essential role in the process of problem solving. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking of students and their academic performance in Alborz University of Medical Science. This cross-correlation study was performed in 2012, on 216 students of Alborz University who were selected randomly by the stratified random sampling. The data was obtained via a three-part questionnaire included demographic data, Kolb standardized questionnaire of learning style and California critical thinking standardized questionnaire. The academic performance of the students was extracted by the school records. The validity of the instruments was determined in terms of content validity, and the reliability was gained through internal consistency methods. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.78 for the California critical thinking questionnaire. The Chi Square test, Independent t-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used to determine relationship between variables. The Package SPSS14 statistical software was used to analyze data with a significant level of pstudents with convergent learning style have better performance than other groups. Also learning style had a relationship with age, gender, field of study, semester and job. The results about the critical thinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant relationship between the students' performance with inferential skill and the total score of critical thinking skills (pskills and deductive reasoning had significant
Ankad, Roopa B; Shashikala, G V; Herur, Anita; Manjula, R; Chinagudi, Surekharani; Patil, Shailaja
PowerPoint presentations (PPTs) have become routine in medical colleges because of their flexible and varied presentation capabilities. Research indicates that students prefer PPTs over the chalk-and-talk method, and there is a lot of debate over advantages and disadvantages of PPTs. However, there is no clear evidence that PPTs improve student learning/performance. Furthermore, there are a variety of learning styles with sex differences in classrooms. It is the responsibility of teacher/facilitator and student to be aware of learning style preferences to improve learning. The present study asked the following research question: do PPTs equally affect the learning of students with different learning styles in a mixed sex classroom? After we assessed students' predominant learning style according to the sensory modality that one most prefers to use when learning, a test was conducted before and after a PPT to assess student performance. The results were analyzed using Student's t-test and ANOVA with a Bonferroni post hoc test. A z-test showed no sex differences in preferred learning styles. There was significant increase in posttest performance compared with that of the pretest in all types of learners of both sexes. There was also a nonsignificant relationship among sex, learning style, and performance after the PPT. A PPT is equally effective for students with different learning style preferences and supports mixed sex classrooms. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.
Kanske, Craig A.
Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was used to identify the predominant learning styles of pilots currently qualified in United States Air Force aircraft. The results indicate that these pilots show a significant preference for facts and things over people and feelings. By understanding the preferred learning styles of the target population, course material can be developed that take advantage of the strengths of these learning styles. This information can be especially useful in the future design of cockpit resource management training. The training program can be developed to demonstrate both that there are different learning styles and that it is possible to take advantage of the relative strengths of each of these learning styles.
Nielsen, Kirsten; Helms, Niels Henrik; Pedersen, Birthe D.
Background Examination of the literature shows both advantages and disadvantages in implementing ePortfolio and learning styles in Nursing Education. The students reflect on nursing practice as well as on their strengths and weaknesses, and reflecting in the portfolio increases self-awareness, pe......Background Examination of the literature shows both advantages and disadvantages in implementing ePortfolio and learning styles in Nursing Education. The students reflect on nursing practice as well as on their strengths and weaknesses, and reflecting in the portfolio increases self...... in clinical settings. Insight into preferred learning style can be an advantage to both students and preceptors in attempt to promote students´ learning potential, but there are quite many different theoretical approaches and definitions of the concept, and reviewers call attention to the risk that teachers...... to intensify the differentiated guidance of students, and developed an ePortfolio which aim to facilitate four learning styles as described by Honey and Mumford. It was tested in a pilot project and now, a qualitative study of how learning is mediated in clinical education through this ePortfolio is passing...
Newton, Philip M.
The existence of ‘Learning Styles’ is a common ‘neuromyth’, and their use in all forms of education has been thoroughly and repeatedly discredited in the research literature. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that their use remains widespread. This perspective article is an attempt to understand if and why the myth of Learning Styles persists. I have done this by analyzing the current research literature to capture the picture that an educator would encounter were they to search for “Learning Styles” with the intent of determining whether the research evidence supported their use. The overwhelming majority (89%) of recent research papers, listed in the ERIC and PubMed research databases, implicitly or directly endorse the use of Learning Styles in Higher Education. These papers are dominated by the VAK and Kolb Learning Styles inventories. These presence of these papers in the pedagogical literature demonstrates that an educator, attempting to take an evidence-based approach to education, would be presented with a strong yet misleading message that the use of Learning Styles is endorsed by the current research literature. This has potentially negative consequences for students and for the field of education research. PMID:26696947
Stackhouse, Omega N.
The problem addressed in this study was that little was known about the impact on student academic achievement, when grouped by learning style, in a multiple intelligence based science curriculum. The larger problem was that many students were frequently unengaged and, consequently, low achieving in their science courses. This quantitative study used an ex post facto research design to better understand the impact of student learning style on the academic success of students in a Multiple Intelligence Theory based course room. Gardner's work on Multiple Intelligence served as the conceptual framework for this study. The research question for this study asked if academic instruction that employs multiple intelligence theories has a relationship with students' academic achievement differently according to their learning style group (auditory, visual, and kinesthetic). Existing data from 85 students were placed into 1 of 3 groups: (a) Auditory, (b) Visual, or (c) Kinesthetic Learning Style) using existing data from a student inventory instrument. The independent variable was existing data from student inventories of learning style and the dependent variable was existing student scores from the Physical Science End of Course Test. Existing data were taken from students that were all taught with the same strategies in similar classroom environments. The Physical Science End of Course Test was developed with stringent measures to protect validity by the developer, McGraw-Hill. Cronbach's Alpha was conducted to determine the internal reliability coefficient of the student inventory. The impact for social change is that adding to the body of knowledge regarding student learning style and science curriculum provides valuable information for teachers, administrators, and school policy makers. This will allow teachers to better prepare to engage their students' and to prepare them for their place in society.
Ryan, Gregory P; Baerwald, Jeffrey P; McGlone, Gerard
This study was designed to examine hypothesized differences between sex offending and nonoffending Roman Catholic clergy on cognitive mediation abilities as measured by the Rorschach Inkblot Test (H. Rorschach, 1921/1942). This study compared 78 priest pedophiles and 77 priest ephebophiles with 80 nonoffending priest controls on the Inkblot test using J. E. Exner's (2003) Comprehensive System. The three groups were compared on seven variables that constitute Exner's Cognitive Mediation cluster. Additionally, the groups' coping styles were compared to examine the interaction of coping style and cognitive mediational abilities. We found interactions between coping style and offending status across most of the cognitive variables indicating impairment in the mild to pathological ranges. Moreover, significantly higher unusual thinking styles (Xu%) and significantly lower conventional thinking styles (X+%) in offenders compared to nonoffenders. Those with an Extratensive style (n=31) showed significantly higher distorted thinking when compared to the Introversive (n=81), Ambitent (n=73), and Avoidant (n=50) coping styles. This study suggests that offenders display significantly higher distorted thinking styles than do nonoffenders. Possible reasons for these discrepancies and the role of coping styles in abusive behaviors were discussed. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kablan, Zeynel; Kaya, Sibel
This study examined the relationship between pre-service teachers' constructivist teaching and their learning styles based on Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory. The Learning Styles Inventory-3 was administered at the beginning of the semester to determine preferred learning style. The Constructivist Teaching Evaluation Form was filled out by…
Kovalenko Natalia A.
Full Text Available This article examines key styles of learning English as the second language, particularly for students from Asian-Pacific countries. It deals with the methods of improving their learning skills and abilities. The most traditional and popular ways of learning styles are pointed out. The authors also discuss teaching approaches for matching and interaction of learning styles in different cultures. The authors also discuss teaching approaches to matching and interaction of learning styles in different cultures.
Cegielski, Casey G.; Hazen, Benjamin T.; Rainer, R. Kelly
The rich, interdisciplinary tradition of learning styles is markedly absent in information systems-related research. The current study applies the framework of learning styles to a common educational component of many of today's information systems curricula--object-oriented systems development--in an effort to answer the question as to whether…
Huang, Fang; Hoi, Cathy Ka Weng; Teo, Timothy
Learning style is one of the main factors that determines how students learn English and has a significant influence on students' learning strategy selection, which further affects their learning outcomes (Ehrman and Oxford in Mod Lang J 74(3):311-327, 1990; Oxford in Language learning styles and strategies: an overview, 2003. http://web.ntpu.edu.tw/~language/workshop/read2.pdf ). This study examines the learning style preferences of Chinese university students and whether those preferences influence their English achievements. Four hundred undergraduates from one university in eastern mainland China participated in this study. Data from 329 valid questionnaires were analysed. The results revealed that the Chinese university students preferred the visual learning style the most, followed by the auditory and kinaesthetic styles. However, no learning style preference was found to influence the students' English proficiency. Cultural reasons are discussed to explain the findings, which contradict those of previous studies of learning style theories and practices. This study recommends that Chinese scholars consider issues of English teaching and learning in China and to adopt appropriate teaching methods to effectively improve English teaching.
Kim, Daesang; Kim, Dong-Joong; Whang, Woo-Hyung
The main focus of our study was to investigate multimedia effects that had different results from the findings of existing multimedia learning studies. First, we describe and summarize three experimental studies we conducted from 2006 to 2010. Then we analyze our findings to explore learner characteristics that may impact the cognitive processes…
Sergio Di Carlo
Full Text Available Over time, definitions and taxonomies of language learning strategies have been critically examined. This article defines and classifies cognitive language learning strategies on a more grounded basis. Language learning is a macro-process for which the general hypotheses of information processing are valid. Cognitive strategies are represented by the pillars underlying the encoding, storage and retrieval of information. In order to understand the processes taking place on these three dimensions, a functional model was elaborated from multiple theoretical contributions and previous models: the Smart Processing Model. This model operates with linguistic inputs as well as with any other kind of information. It helps to illustrate the stages, relations, modules and processes that occur during the flow of information. This theoretical advance is a core element to classify cognitive strategies. Contributions from cognitive neuroscience have also been considered to establish the proposed classification which consists of five categories. Each of these categories has a different predominant function: classification, preparation, association, elaboration and transfer-practice. This better founded taxonomy opens the doors to potential studies that would allow a better understanding of the interdisciplinary complexity of language learning. Pedagogical and methodological implications are also discussed.
Burger, Pascal H; Scholz, Michael
Theories on learning styles and types have been integral to discussions on the basics of teaching for nearly 40 years. The learning style typology of Kolb divides learners into four groups (Diverger, Assimilator, Converger and Accomodator), which differ both in terms of their learning behaviour as well as personality and preferences. We studied the sense of coherence and burnout symptoms in medical students of the preclinical semesters (1(st) to 4(th) semester) at the Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen within the context of the observed learning styles. A total of 530 students were interviewed in winter semester 2012/13 using standardized psychometric questionnaires. Our students showed a significant correlation between the respective learning styles and expression of a sense of coherence, as well as cognitive and emotional burnout symptoms. The learning styles of the students differed significantly within these same parameters. We also demonstrated that learning styles and types not only influence study performance, but that there are also relationships to sense of coherence and psychological ailments. A more forward-looking integration of the theory of learning types in the medical education curriculum could positively influence both the performance and psychological well-being of the students.
Sharifah Mazlina Syed Khuzzan
Full Text Available With the progressive globalisation trend within the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC industry, transdisciplinary education and training is widely acknowledged as being one of the key factors for leveraging AEC organisational success. Conventional education and training delivery approaches within AEC therefore need a paradigm shift in order to be able to address the emerging challenges of global practices. This study focuses on the use of Personalised Learning Environments (PLEs to specifically address learners’ needs and preferences (learning styles within managed Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs. This research posits that learners can learn better (and be more readily engaged in managed learning environments with a bespoke PLE, in which the deployment of teaching and learning material is augmented towards their individual needs. In this respect, there is an exigent need for the Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs to envelop these new approaches into their organisational learning strategy. However, part of this process requires decision-makers to fully understand the core nuances and interdependencies of functions and processes within the organisation, along with Critical Success Factors (CSFs and barriers. This paper presents findings from the development of a holistic conceptual Diagnostic Learning Styles Questionnaire (DLSQ Framework, comprised of six interrelated dependencies (i.e. Business Strategy, Pedagogy, Process, Resources, Systems Development, and Evaluation. These dependencies influence pedagogical effectiveness. These finding contribute additional understanding to the intrinsic nature of pedagogy in leveraging transdisciplinary AEC training within organisations (to improve learner effectiveness. This framework can help organisations augment and align their strategic priorities to learner-specific traits.
Chen, Chih-Ming; Sun, Ying-Chun
Multimedia materials are now increasingly used in curricula. However, individual preferences for multimedia materials based on visual and verbal cognitive styles may affect learners' emotions and performance. Therefore, in-depth studies that investigate how different multimedia materials affect learning performance and the emotions of learners…
Lee, Y. C
... networks suitable for practical real world applications, and the realization, by researchers in artificial intelligent systems, of the need to incorporate automatic learning capability into knowledge-based systems in order to deal with the inherent imprecise, incomplete, and ever-changing nature of the real world knowledge base. The publication of this ...
Quinn, Meghan E; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K
When exposed to stressful life events, a significant number of adolescents will experience depressive symptoms. One model of depression suggests that individuals with a negative cognitive style are most vulnerable to depression following life stress. Alternatively, altered activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may explain vulnerability to depression following life stress. Each of these models plausibly explains the emergence of depressive symptoms during adolescence and have been investigated largely independently. The current study recruited a sample of urban adolescents (N = 179) to evaluate whether cortisol response to a laboratory stress induction and negative cognitive style are related and whether they independently interact with exposure to stressful life events to predict symptoms of depression. Negative cognitive style was not associated with cortisol response to the laboratory stressor. Rather, negative cognitive style and cortisol recovery independently interacted with stressful life events to predict current symptoms of depression. Results support a heterogeneous etiology of depression.
Frey, Diane; Simonson, Michael
Cognitive style of 70 students in fashion merchandising or education was compared to their choice of media in a hypermedia lesson on costume using HyperCard. Students used hypermedia effectively to accommodate preferred style; 56% chose visual, 30% text, and 14% auditory. (SK)
Savvas, Michael; El-Kot, Ghada; Sadler-Smith, Eugene
Cognitive Style Inventory scores for business undergraduates in Greece (n=48), Egypt (n=45), and the United Kingdom (n=42) and postgraduates/managers in Egypt (n=20), Hong Kong (n=38) and the United Kingdom (n=21) indicated that, among undergraduates of different cultures, there were no significant style differences. Some differences in the…
Full Text Available Design curricula and all core design studio courses are prepared for performance attainment by giving theoretical and professional training. However students’ performance may be affected by both the constraints set on a design problem, and their learning styles. This study explores the performance of interior architectural students in relation to their learning styles (as proposed by Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory, and different types of constraints set on design problems. Design performance, measured as conceptual development, form and spatial configuration, structural innovation and ergonomics, and craftsmanship, was found to change throughout the two bipolar continuum of the learning cycle with regard to two design conditions characterized by different types of constraint use.
Generation Y students (born after 1982) have developed a different set of attitudes and aptitudes as a result of growing up in an IT and media-rich environment. This article has two objectives: firstly to discuss the learning styles preferred by generation Y students in order to identify the effect of these preferences on tertiary ...
The research investigated the effects of learning styles on career preferences of senior secondary school students in Jigawa State, Nigeria. A total of six hundred students, three hundred and sixty male, and two hundred and forty female were randomly selected from ten senior secondary schools across the state for the study ...
Rip Van Winkle would not recognize Corsicana (Texas) High School since its curriculum coordinator began implementing learning styles techniques in various pilot programs. Lecturing to rows of bored students has been replaced by students' active involvement in group activities, listening centers, and tactile/kinesthetic exercises on the floor or at…
Kandil Ingec, Sebnem
This study aims to determine the dominant learning styles of pre-service physics teachers and to examine them in terms of variables such as gender, information and communication technologies skills, academic achievement and type of motivation. Survey model was used. The sample composed of 50 pre-service physics teachers. The data were collected…
Allcock, Sarah J.; Hulme, Julie A.
Differentiation of teaching is encouraged to accommodate student diversity. This study investigated whether using learning styles as a basis for differentiation improved A-level student performance, compared to differentiation on the basis of academic ability. Matched classes of A-level psychology students participated. In one class, learning…
Van Note Chism, Nancy; Weerakoon, Shrinika
Inspired by Perkins' Theories of Difficulty concept, this exploratory study examined the learning patterns of graduate students as they grappled with using the style sheet of the American Psychological Association (APA). The researchers employed task performance analysis of three APA formatting tasks, interviews, and observation during a "think…
Full Text Available When faced with various challenges, modern organizations must be able to function effectively. These challenges include globalization, technological advancements, necessity to operate in the state of permanent flux, and finally, generation of intellectual capital, which delivers the competitive edge. As a consequence, the management of a modern organization and its diverse staff, which enables the company to operate effectively without generating losses or conflicts, becomes critical. Nowadays, organizations have to constantly look for innovative ways of conducting business. The conclusion drawn from observing successes of such organizations proves that taking a closer look at the issue of Human Resources (HR diversity’s role is worthwhile. Especially the analysis of managerial skills and learning styles in the context of companies’ innovation seems of particular relevance. The managerial skills and their development are the basis for successful management processes in a modern company. The aim of this study was to identify and assess skills and learning styles of innovative companies’ employees. The empirical material was collected in 2016 on the basis of a research conducted among employees of innovative companies established in Poland. The results of the present research allowed to analyze the impact of the respondents’ independent variables on their skills and learning styles. As a result of the study, recommendations for managers and Human Resources Management (HRM specialists were formulated on how to successfully manage employees’ various skills and learning styles.
Gencel, Ilke Evin
Global changes in educational discourse have an impact on educational systems, so teacher education programs need to be transformed to better train teachers and to contribute to their professional development. In this process learning styles and problem solving skills should be considered as individual differences which have an impact in…
de Diana, I.P.F.; van der Heiden, G.
Attention has been drawn to the concepts of Electronic Books and Electronic Study Books. Several publications have discussed some main ideas (paradigms) for both concepts. For the Electronic Study Book as a learning environment, it is essential to consider individual modes of learning, usually
Bontchev, Boyan; Vassileva, Dessislava; Aleksieva-Petrova, Adelina; Petrov, Milen
In recent years, many researchers have reported positive outcomes and effects from applying computer games to the educational process. The main preconditions for an effective game-based learning process include the presence of high learning interest and the desire to study hard. Therefore,
The present dissertation offers a theoretical integration of the orientation to studying tradition (e.g. Entwistle, 1988, Ramsden, 1988) and theories of reading cognition (Kintsch, 1994, Sadoski & Paivio, 2001) and describes two studies based on this integrative conceptualization of the
Stoyanov, Slavi; Jablokow, Kathryn; Rosas, Scott R; Wopereis, Iwan G J H; Kirschner, Paul A
This paper investigates the effects of cognitive style for decision making on the behaviour of participants in different phases of the group concept mapping process (GCM). It is argued that cognitive style should be included directly in the coordination of the GCM process and not simply considered as yet another demographic variable. The cognitive styles were identified using the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory, which locates each person's style on a continuum ranging from very adaptive to very innovative. Cognitive style could explain diversity in the participants' behaviour in different phases of the GCM process. At the same time, the concept map as a group's common cognitive construct can consolidate individual differences and serves as a tool for managing diversity in groups of participants. Some of the results were that: (a) the more adaptive participants generated ideas that fit to a particular, well-established and consensually agreed paradigm, frame of reference, theory or practice; (b) the more innovative participants produced ideas that were more general in scope and required changing a settled structure (paradigm, frame of reference, theory or practice); and (c) the empirical comparison of the map configurations through Procrustes analysis indicated a strong dissimilarity between cognitive styles. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rahmawati; Rustaman, Nuryani Y.; Hamidah, Ida; Rusdiana, Dadi
The aim of this study was to explore the use of assessment strategy which can measure problem solving skills of pre-service teachers based on their cognitive style in basic physics course. The sample consisted of 95 persons (male = 15, female = 75). This study used an exploratory research with observation techniques by interview, questionnaire, and test. The results indicated that the lecturer only used paper-pencil test assessment strategy to measure pre-service teachers’ achievement and also used conventional learning strategy. It means that the lecturer did not measure pre-services’ thinking process in learning, like problem solving skills. One of the factors which can influence student problem solving skills is cognitive style as an internal factor. Field Dependent (FD) and Field Independent (FI) are two cognitive styles which were measured with using Group Embedded Figure Test (GEFT) test. The result showed that 82% of pre-service teachers were FD cognitive style and only 18% of pre-service teachers had FI cognitive style. Furthermore, these findings became the fundamental design to develop a problem solving assessment model to measure pre-service teachers’ problem solving skills and process in basic physics course.
Caldwell, Adonna B.
The purpose of this study was to investigate if there were relationships between college students' talent themes as defined by the Clifton StrengthsFinder(TM) Instrument and their learning style as defined by Kolb Learning Styles Inventory. Logistical regression methodology was utilized to assess the relationship between learning styles and talent…
Yusop, Farrah Dina; Sumari, Melati
The main purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate pre-service teachers' learning styles and their preferences with respect to 15 technology-based instructional activities and collaborative work tasks. Felder and Silverman's online Index of Learning Style (ILS) and a questionnaire were used to measure students' learning styles and…
Syukriani, Andi; Juniati, Dwi; Siswono, Tatag Yuli Eko
The purpose of this study was to explore the strategic competence of senior secondary school students in solving mathematics problems. Terdapat dua subjek, satu bergaya kognitif field-independent dan satu bergaya kognitif field-dependent tetapi keduanya memiliki tingkat prestasi belajar matematika yang setara. There were two subjects, one field-independent cognitive style and one field-dependent cognitive style. They had an equivalent high level of mathematics achievement. Keduanya dipilih berdasarkan hasil tes kompetensi matematika dan GEFT (Group Embedded Figures Test). Subjects were selected based on the test results of mathematics competence and GEFT (Group Embedded Figures Test). Kompetensi strategis dapat merangsang perkembangan otonomi dan fleksibilitas dalam diri siswa karena merupakan keterampilan yang sangat dibutuhkan di sepanjang abad 21. Gaya kognitif merupakan kecenderungan siswa dalam mengolah informasi sangat mempengaruhi performance dalam menyelesaikan masalah matematika. Strategic competence can stimulate the development of autonomy and flexibility of students and they are skills which are needed in the 21st century. Cognitive style is the tendency of students in processing informations and it greatly affects the performance in solving mathematics problems. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa subjek FI cenderung analitis baik pada pembentukan bayangannya maupun pada gambar yang dibuatnya untuk memproses informasi berdasarkan dengan struktur pengetahuannya sendiri (Internally directed). The research result showed that subject FI tended to be analytical both in forming the mental imagination and the picture to process information in accordance with his own knowledge structure (internally directed). Subjek FD kurang analitis dan tidak dapat mengenal bentuk sederhana (konsep matematika) dari bentuk yang kompleks (Exeternally directed) sehingga menerima ide sebagaimana yang disajikan. Subject FD was less analytical and unable to recognize simple form
Rinaldi, Romina; Radian, Viorica; Rossignol, Mandy; Kandana Arachchige, Kendra G; Lefebvre, Laurent
Alexithymia is described as a disturbance in the cognitive and affective processing of emotions. Little is known about the cognitive styles associated with this personality trait. In this article, we examine to what extent alexithymia is linked with poorer rational cognitive style. A total of 685 participants from a nonclinical sample completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 along with self-reported and behavioral measures of cognitive styles. Results suggest that people with a high level of self-reported alexithymia show lower rational abilities. The findings of this study extend previous work on cognitive processes underlying emotional self-regulation impairments in alexithymia, suggesting that these difficulties may be linked to a poorer use of rational process.
HIDAYAH, ULFA NURUL
Learning styles are the important factors to help students to learn a second or foreign language. A learning habit of every individual is needed to support the student's learning to be more effective, for example by taking an English course. Learning styles can be classified into: visual, auditory, kinesthetic, tactile, group, and individual. This study is conducted to examine the language learning styles applied by the students of Basic English Course (BEC) in Pare, Kediri. This study applie...
Shaghaghy, Farhad; Saffarinia, Majid; Iranpoor, Mohadeseh; Soltanynejad, Ali
Addiction is considered as one of the major problems in family and community in the world. According to cognitive view, organizing the experiences determines how to behave. Due to their importance in interpretation of special situations, cognitive schemas and attributional styles have a significant role in cognitive theories. The aim of this study was to compare early maladaptive schemas and attributional styles in addicts and non-addicts to recognize their role in addiction. In this causal-comparative study, 200 addicted and non-addicted men were randomly selected. Young early maladaptive schema and attributional styles questionnaires were used. Data analysis was performed by independent t-test, Pearson correlation and regression. The study population included 81 addicted and 90 non-addicted men. There were significant differences between early maladaptive schemas and attributional styles in the two groups of addicted and non-addicted men (P learned helplessness. A direct relationship was found between learned helplessness and frequency of addiction treatments (r ═ 0.234, P learned helplessness were less successful in addiction treatment and more likely to use drugs again after treatment. These issues show that addiction institutions and therapists have to pay attention to cognitive factors for addiction prevention.
Although problem-based learning (PBL) has been popularized in many colleges, few studies have analyzed the relationship between individual differences and PBL. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between learning style and the perception on the effects of PBL. Grasha-Riechmann Student Learning Style Scales was used to assess the learning styles of 38 students at Ajou University School of Medicine who were enrolled in a respiratory system course in 2011. The data were analyzed by regression analysis and Spearman correlation analysis. By regression analysis, dependent beta=0.478) and avoidant styles (beta=-0.815) influenced the learner's satisfaction with PBL. By Spearman correlation analysis, there was significant link between independent, dependent, and avoidant styles and the perception of the effect of PBL. There are few significant relationships between learning style and the perception of the effects of PBL. We must determine how to teach students with different learning styles and the factors that influence PBL.
Vanessa Matos dos Santos
Full Text Available Dropout and retention have been configured today as one of the greatest challenges for Higher Education, not only in Brazil, but worldwide. In this sense, this article presents the results obtained using the learning styles methodology in the development of educational audiovisuals based on the four different styles proposed by Alonso, Gallego and Honey (2007, which are: active, reflexive, theoretical and pragmatic. It is reported in this text the course developed by the group that worked on the project, which surpassed the goals initially outlined in qualitative and quantitative terms, and revealed important and innovative nuances regarding the educational process based on the students’ engagement. It is mainly highlighted here the fact that styles are not labels for student cataloging but rather a teaching methodology that implies a specific didactics.
Full Text Available
style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family: 新細明體; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;" lang="EN-US">Educators nation-wide are experimenting with the use of technology to enhance undergraduates' academic success. Brooklyn College, part of the City University of New York (CUNY, has developed a sequence of general education courses that join one-half class time with one-half Web-based instruction--a fresh, inventive model that gives students the best aspects of both the traditional and the online educational experience. As a result, Brooklyn's core curriculum has become more inviting, effective, and activity-based. The grant that supported this project was written by Dr. Barbra Buckner Higginbotham, Chief Librarian and Executive Director of Academic Information Technologies, and this major faculty training and development effort is occurring under the aegis of the Library.
Kirschner, Paul A.
We all differ from each other in a multitude of ways, and as such we also prefer many different things whether it is music, food or learning. Because of this, many students, parents, teachers, administrators and even researchers feel that it is intuitively correct to say that since different
McCrow, Judy; Yevchak, Andrea; Lewis, Peter
This paper reports on the preferred learning styles of Registered Nurses practicing in acute care environments and relationships between gender, age, post-graduate experience and the identified preferred learning styles. A prospective cohort study design was used. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and the Felder-Silverman Index of Learning Styles (ILS) questionnaire to determine preferred learning styles. Most of the Registered Nurse participants were balanced across the Active-Reflective (n = 77, 54%), and Sequential-Global (n = 96, 68%) scales. Across the other scales, sensing (n = 97, 68%) and visual (n = 76, 53%) were the most common preferred learning style. There were only a small proportion who had a preferred learning style of reflective (n = 21, 15%), intuitive (n = 5, 4%), verbal (n = 11, 8%) or global learning (n = 15, 11%). Results indicated that gender, age and years since undergraduate education were not related to the identified preferred learning styles. The identification of Registered Nurses' learning style provides information that nurse educators and others can use to make informed choices about modification, development and strengthening of professional hospital-based educational programs. The use of the Index of Learning Styles questionnaire and its ability to identify 'balanced' learning style preferences may potentially yield additional preferred learning style information for other health-related disciplines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miceli, Silvana; de Palo, Valeria; Monacis, Lucia; Cardaci, Maurizio; Sinatra, Maria
The Cognitive Style Indicator (CoSI) includes 3 cognitive dimensions: creating (flexible, open-ended and inventive), knowing (emphasizing facts, details, objectivity, and rationality), and planning (guided by preferences for certainty and well-structured information). The first aim of this research was to validate the 3-factor structure of the…
From an anthropologist's (Maddock, 1981) point of view, "science and science education are cultural enterprises which form a part of the wider cultural matrix of society and educational considerations concerning science must be made in the light of this wider perspective" (p.10). In addition, Spindler (1987) states that teaching science is considered cultural transmission while, Wolcott (1991) focuses on learning science as culture acquisition. In these statements, culture is defined as "an ordered system of meaning and symbols, in terms of which social interaction takes place" (Geertz, 1973). Thus, learning and culture are a partnership. Jones and Fennimore (1990) state: "Every culture brings habits of thought, resources, and context, which have built into them vehicles that promote learning and inquiry. Accordingly, children of any culture can and should have curriculum and instructional practices that draw from that culture." (p.16). Unfortunately, even though this statement is probably accurate, most schools still use the same curriculum, instructional methods, and assessment strategies for all students regardless of their differences in learning styles. The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between students' learning styles and their culture. This is a correlational study. Does culture limit or expand the learning of individuals? For this study Turkish students who graduated from a Turkish high school and undertook undergraduate education in the United States or finished their undergraduate education in Turkey and pursued graduate education in the United States were identified. These Turkish subjects were compared to American college students through learning styles data and anxiety levels as cultural markers. To identify individuals' learning styles we used the Building Excellence (BE) instrument, which is an adult version of The Learning Style Inventory by Dunn, and Rundle (1996.1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000). BE assesses twenty four
Dagez, Hanan Ettaher; Ambarka, Ali Elghali
In recent years we have witnessed an increasingly heightened awareness of the potential benefits of adaptively in e-learning. This has been mainly driven by the realization that the ideal of individualized learning (i.e., learning tailored to the specific requirements and preferences of the individual) cannot be achieved, especially at a “massive” scale, using traditional approaches. In e-learning when the learning style of the student is not compatible with the teaching style of the teacher...
OJEH, NKEMCHO; SOBERS-GRANNUM, NATASHA; GAUR, UMA; UDUPA, ALAYA; MAJUMDER, MD.ANWARUL AZIM
Introduction: Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students’ learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R) and kinesthetic (K)] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compar...
Barry S. Bailey
Full Text Available This study was designed to describe Georgia Young Farmer Program participants’ learning style preferences. Using survey research methods, a questionnaire was designed to collect data related to the purpose of the study. The population for this study included active members in the program. Study findings showed that participants had a preference for kinesthetic learning over visual and auditory learning. While participants indicated a preference for kinesthetic learning, all three learning styles were deemed effective. Preferences for learning styles and perception of effectiveness did not differ by personal characteristics. Recommendations include taking learning style preferences into account when designing and delivering programming, training for teachers, and continuing to assess learners’ preferences.
Avelino G. Ignacio Jr.
Full Text Available This research work is an exploration of causality connection of learning styles to mathematics achievement goals. The objectives of the study are as follows: (1 to identify the mathematics achievement goal of students when grouped according to preferred learning style (2 to identify the learning style of students when grouped according to preferred mathematics achievement goal and (3 to determine if there is a significant difference in each mathematics achievement goal when grouped according to learning style. The researcher used explanatory cross-sectional design. The Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire and Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory 3.1 were utilized to collect data. Results show that respondents hold mastery-approach achievement goals regardless of learning styles. Also, students with approach type of mathematics achievement goals hold assimilative learning style which operates on reflective observation and abstract conceptualization; and students with avoidance type of mathematics achievement goals hold accommodative learning style which operates on active experimentation and concrete experimentation. Furthermore, findings show that there is no significant difference in the mathematics achievement goals based on learning style. Exploratory research is recommended to understand why students with approach type of mathematics achievement goals hold assimilative learning style and why students with avoidance type of mathematics achievement goals hold accommodative learning style.
This study is focused on the relationships among learning styles, participation types, and learning performance for programming language learning supported by an online forum. Kolb's learning style inventory was used in this study to determine a learner's learning type: "Diverger", "Assimilator", "Converger", and "Accommodator". Social Learning…
Kindt, Karlijn C M; Kleinjan, Marloes; Janssens, Jan M A M; Scholte, Ron H J
Previous research has established that cognitive theory-based depression prevention programs aiming change in negative cognitive style in early adolescents do not have strong effects in universal settings. Although theories suggest that a negative cognitive style precedes depressive symptoms, empirical findings are mixed. We hypothesized that negative cognitive style may not predict depressive symptoms in adolescents with normative depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, negative cognitive style and dependent negative life events were assessed in young adolescents (N = 1343; mean age = 13.4 years, SD = 0.77; 52.3 % girls) at four time points over an 18-month period. Using a cross-lagged panel design, results revealed that depressive symptoms predicted a negative cognitive style but not vice versa. However, when including dependent negative life events as a variable, depressive symptoms did not prospect a negative cognitive style consistently. When dependent negative life events were used as a time-varying covariate, depressive symptoms and a negative cognitive style were not related. We concluded that negative cognitive style is not predictive of depressive symptoms in a community sample of young adolescents. Moreover, the findings suggest that longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and a negative cognitive style are not meaningful when dependent negative life events are not considered.
Zhang, Huan; Lambert, Vickie
Although considerable information exists regarding the learning styles and critical thinking dispositions of nursing students from Western countries, limited comparable information exists within China. The purposes of this study were to assess the learning styles and critical thinking dispositions of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students and to identify the relationships among the learning styles, critical thinking dispositions, and demographics. The sample consisted of 100 Chinese baccalaureate nursing students enrolled at two universities. The data were obtained through a Demographic Data Questionnaire, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and the Index of Learning Styles. The primary learning style dimensions were found to be reflective, sensing, visual, and global, while the critically thinking abilities was found to be weak. A number of positive and negative correlations were found among the demographics, learning styles, and critical thinking dispositions. These findings suggest further examination on how to increase nursing students' critical thinking skills based upon their preferred learning styles.
Kappe, F.R.; Boekholt, L.; den Rooyen, C.; van der Flier, H.
Multiple and specific learning criteria were used to examine the predictive validity of the Learning Style Questionnaire (LSQ). Ninety-nine students in a college of higher learning in The Netherlands participated in a naturally occurring field study. The students were categorized into one of four
Afsaneh Effatdokht Ramezani
Full Text Available This study explored the learning style preferences of 40 Iranian students at Marefat Iranian high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 20 are females and 20 are males. To this end, this study used structured interview to elicit in-depth information from the students. The results of the study showed that learning style preferences of Iranian students were different according to their gender. Female students preferred auditory learning as their major learning style, while male students preferred kinesthetic more. Moreover, the findings revealed that Kinesthetic learning was the least preferred learning style of the most female students, whereas the least preferred learning style of male students was tactile learning. Keywords: Learning Style Preferences, High School Students, Gender, EFL
van Rooyen, Melinda; Naude, Luzelle; Nel, Lindi; Esterhuyse, Karel
Although stress is a common phenomenon in all phases of life, it can be said that adolescence is a particularly stressful life stage. In South Africa, black adolescents are faced with many stressors and challenges which are placing demands on their emotional and cognitive resources. The aim of this study was to determine whether black South African adolescents with different cognitive styles (i.e. rational or experiential) differ in their levels of stress and coping. Furthermore, the common stressors that black adolescents experience and the coping styles predominantly used by black adolescents could be determined. One hundred and eighty-seven participants (88 males and 99 females) completed the Rational Experiential, the Coping Reponses and the Adolescent Stress Inventory. Adolescents operating from an experiential cognitive style experienced more stress regarding school performance, school attendance, financial pressure and emerging adult responsibility than adolescents operating from a rational cognitive style. Adolescents employing a rational style sought more alternative rewards as a coping strategy, whereas adolescents employing an experiential style relied more on emotional discharge. The findings of this study concur with previous research, but provide a unique perspective on adolescents' stress and coping in this South African context.
Barron, Paul; Watson, Sandra
Hospitality and tourism education at degree level is increasing in popularity for both home and international students and it has been argued that the student body is becoming more diverse. One consequence of the increased popularity of such programmes is the increasing cultural mix in the contemporary classroom in western countries. Consequently, academic staff are increasingly faced with teaching multicultural classes that comprise students with a range of preferred learning styles. Within ...
DEWI, KHARISMA YUNITA DEANDRA
Recently, English is the first foreign language taught as a compulsorysubject in Indonesia. We mostly deal with the challenge of learning and using aforeign language, whether at school, at work or in our day-to-day life. This mightbe difficult for Indonesian EFL students to learn. The learners will get thedifficulties when they do not have appropriate learning style in their learningprocess. Therefore, in order to handle the difficulty in their learning, thosestudents must have the learning s...
Márquez U, Carolina; Fasce H, Eduardo; Pérez V, Cristhian; Ortega B, Javiera; Parra P, Paula; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus B, Olga; Ibáñez G, Pilar
Background: Self-directed learning (SDL) skills are particularly important in medical education, considering that physicians should be able to regulate their own learning experiences. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between learning styles and strategies and self-directed learning in medical students. Material and Methods: One hundred ninety nine first year medical students (120 males) participated in the study. Preparation for Independent Learning (EPAI) scale was used to assess self-direc...
Andreou, Christos; Papastavrou, Evridiki; Merkouris, Anastasios
Critical thinking is a desirable competency for contemporary nurses although there are growing concerns supporting a disturbing paucity in its achievement. Learning styles reflect habitual behaviors which determine distinct preferences within learning situations. Evidence suggests that critical thinking could evolve through learning processes. Variances in critical thinking achievement by nursing students might therefore be influenced by individual learning preferences. The concepts "learning styles" and "critical thinking" have been independently examined in the nursing literature. No reviews were found however exploring their association in nursing education. To identify the potential relationships between learning styles and critical thinking in baccalaureate nursing students. Systematic review. Eleven electronic databases were utilized without geographical and time publishing filters. Hand-searching journals and scanning references from retrieved studies were also performed. Databases were searched for descriptive correlational studies which considered the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking in baccalaureate nursing students. The authors independently progressed three stage screening. Retrieved articles were reviewed at title, abstract and full text levels according to predetermined criteria. All included studies were quality appraised using a rating tool for descriptive studies. Six studies were finally included. Findings were grouped under four key themes: predominant learning styles, critical thinking scoring, critical thinking evolution across academic progress and learning styles-critical thinking correlations. Learning styles' diversities, weak critical thinking and inconsistent evolution through academic progress were revealed across studies. Critical thinking differed significantly between learning styles. Commonly accepted models in nursing education were lacking in both learning styles and critical thinking. Within studies
Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of novices’ learning style and gender consciousness on learning of programming concepts from game-based learning activities. Four classes of eighth graders with 59 males and 63 females participated in this study. Participants were identified as the diverger group and the converger group based on their stronger learning styles. Game-play activities were implemented to support participants’ learning of programming concepts. The results revealed that (a for the programming comprehension performance, the convergers outperformed the divergers; (b participants’ learning style and gender consciousness significantly affected their project performance; (c for the high gender consciousness learners, the convergers performed better at abstract conceptualization and active experimentation than the divergers did; (d for the divergers, the low gender consciousness learners possessed lower stereotype and were willing to challenge and performed better than the high gender consciousness learners; and (e all the participants revealed positive intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
Indraswari, N. F.; Budayasa, I. K.; Ekawati, R.
This study aimed to describe algebraic reasoning of secondary school’s pupils with different learning styles in solving mathematical problem. This study begins by giving the questionnaire to find out the learning styles and followed by mathematical ability test to get three subjects of 8th-grade whereas the learning styles of each pupil is visual, auditory, kinesthetic and had similar mathematical abilities. Then it continued with given algebraic problems and interviews. The data is validated using triangulation of time. The result showed that in the pattern of seeking indicator, subjects identified the things that were known and asked based on them observations. The visual and kinesthetic learners represented the known information in a chart, whereas the auditory learner in a table. In addition, they found the elements which makes the pattern and made a relationship between two quantities. In the pattern recognition indicator, they created conjectures on the relationship between two quantities and proved it. In the generalization indicator, they were determining the general rule of pattern found on each element of pattern using algebraic symbols and created a mathematical model. Visual and kinesthetic learners determined the general rule of equations which was used to solve problems using algebraic symbols, but auditory learner in a sentence.
Bohn, D. M.; Rasmussen, C. N.; Schmidt, S. J.
Learning styles vary among individuals, and understanding which instructional tools certain learning styles prefer can be utilized to enhance student learning. Students in the introductory Food Science and Human Nutrition course (FSHN 101), taught at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, were asked to complete Gregorc's Learning Style…
Pyryt, Michael C.; Sandals, Lauran H.; Begoray, John
Compared learning-style preferences of intellectually gifted, average-ability, and special-needs students on the Learning Style Inventory. Also examined the general differences among ability level and gender. Analyses indicated that gifted students preferred learning alone, being self-motivated, and using tactile learning approaches, and that…
Wilkinson, Tracey; Boohan, Mairead; Stevenson, Michael
Educational research on learning styles has been conducted for some time, initially within the field of psychology. Recent research has widened to include more diverse disciplines, with greater emphasis on application. Although there are numerous instruments available to measure several different dimensions of learning style, it is generally accepted that styles differ, although the qualities of more than one style may be inherent in any one learner. But do these learning styles have a direct effect on student performance in examinations, specifically in different forms of assessment? For this study, hypotheses were formulated suggesting that academic performance is influenced by learning style. Using the Honey and Mumford Learning Style Questionnaire, learning styles of a cohort of first year medical and dental students at Queen's University Belfast were assessed. Pearson correlation was performed between the score for each of the four learning styles and the student examination results in a variety of subject areas (including anatomy) and in different types of assessments - single best answer, short answer questions and Objective Structured Clinical Examinations. In most of the analyses, there was no correlation between learning style and result and in the few cases where the correlations were statistically significant, they generally appeared to be weak. It seems therefore from this study that although the learning styles of students vary, they have little effect on academic performance, including in specific forms of assessment. © 2013 Anatomical Society.
El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Abusaad, Fawzia El Sayed
Self-directed learning has become a focus for nursing education in the past few decades due to the complexity and changes in nursing profession development. On the other hand, the Kolb's learning style could identify student's preference for perceiving and processing information. This study was performed to determine Saudi nursing students' readiness for self-directed learning; to identify their learning styles and to find out the relation between these two concepts. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Nursing department of faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Al-Jouf University, Saudi Arabia. Two hundred and seventy-five undergraduate Saudi nursing students. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaires covering the demographic features of students, Fisher's self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) scale, and the Kolb's learning styles inventory. The mean scores of self-management, desire for learning, self-control and the overall SDLR were 51.3 ± 5.9, 48.4 ± 5.5, 59.9 ± 6.7, and 159.6 ± 13.8; respectively. About 77% (211) of students have high level of SDLR. The percentages of converger, diverger, assimilator and accommodator learning styles are 35.6%, 25.8%, 25.55% and 13.1%; respectively. The mean score of self-management, desire for learning, self-control and overall SDLR scale did not vary with any of the studied variables. There is no association between the level of SDLR and the learning styles. The high level of SDLR and the dominant converger learning style among undergraduate nursing students will have a positive implication for their education and post-employment continuing nursing education. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nasvytienė, Dalia; Trakimavičiūtė, Rasa
The aim of research was to investigate the learning style of adolescents with the features of hyperactivity. The participants were selected as quite common group in the educational practice exceeding by number the pure clinical disorder group of hyperactive children. Their learning style is still under discussion in regard to the efficiency and dynamics of learning process. Learning style questionnaire was created for this purpose. The participants came from a consecutive sample of 30 adolesc...
Afsaneh Effatdokht Ramezani; Meysam Dehgahi; Hanie Hashemi
This study explored the learning style preferences of 40 Iranian students at Marefat Iranian high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 20 are females and 20 are males. To this end, this study used structured interview to elicit in-depth information from the students. The results of the study showed that learning style preferences of Iranian students were different according to their gender. Female students preferred auditory learning as their major learning style, while male students preferred ki...
de Lima, Alberto Alves; Bettati, María Ines; Baratta, Sergio; Falconi, Mariano; Sokn, Fernando; Galli, Amanda; Barrero, Carlos; Cagide, Arturo; Iglesias, Ricardo
To identify the learning styles of a group of cardiology residents (R) undergoing a training program at the University of Buenos Aires and to identify correlations of these styles. Statistical data were obtained through a 120-question survey developed by Vermunt and colleagues, which identified four different learning styles: construction-directed; reproduction-directed; application-directed; and undirected. Four variables were identified [gender, previous experience as a teaching assistant (TA) in medical school, university final average (FA) and the public or private institution/centre of origin] in order to analyse level of correlation with learning styles (LS). Between April 2001 and April 2002, 149 residents (R) completed the survey. Average age was 29 (+/-2.7) years old; with 63% being men. The predominant LS were oriented toward knowledge application. In terms of variables, no differences regarding gender were detected; the R with TA showed undirected LS characteristics; those with a low FA registered a tendency towards reproduction-directed LS; and those residents at public/state medical centres indicated construction-directed LS tendencies. An application-directed learning style predominates in this group of residents. Information regarding learning styles can provide foundations upon which arguments can be made for changes in education that are traditionally not evidence-based.
Ford, James H; Robinson, James M; Wise, Meg E
NIATx200, a quality improvement collaborative, involved 201 substance abuse clinics. Each clinic was randomized to one of four implementation strategies: (a) interest circle calls, (b) learning sessions, (c) coach only or (d) a combination of all three. Each strategy was led by NIATx200 coaches who provided direct coaching or facilitated the interest circle and learning session interventions. Eligibility was limited to NIATx200 coaches (N = 18), and the executive sponsor/change leader of participating clinics (N = 389). Participants were invited to complete a modified Grasha Riechmann Student Learning Style Survey and Teaching Style Inventory. Principal components analysis determined participants' preferred learning and teaching styles. Responses were received from 17 (94.4 %) of the coaches. Seventy-two individuals were excluded from the initial sample of change leaders and executive sponsors (N = 389). Responses were received from 80 persons (25.2 %) of the contactable individuals. Six learning profiles for the executive sponsors and change leaders were identified: Collaborative/Competitive (N = 28, 36.4 %); Collaborative/Participatory (N = 19, 24.7 %); Collaborative only (N = 17, 22.1 %); Collaborative/Dependent (N = 6, 7.8 %); Independent (N = 3, 5.2 %); and Avoidant/Dependent (N = 3, 3.9 %). NIATx200 coaches relied primarily on one of four coaching profiles: Facilitator (N = 7, 41.2 %), Facilitator/Delegator (N = 6, 35.3 %), Facilitator/Personal Model (N = 3, 17.6 %) and Delegator (N = 1, 5.9 %). Coaches also supported their primary coaching profiles with one of eight different secondary coaching profiles. The study is one of the first to assess teaching and learning styles within a QIC. Results indicate that individual learners (change leaders and executive sponsors) and coaches utilize multiple approaches in the teaching and practice-based learning of quality improvement (QI) processes
Full Text Available A multi-agent model is proposed in which learning styles and a word analysis technique to create a learning object recommendation system are used. On the basis of a learning style-based design, a concept map combination model is proposed to filter out unsuitable learning concepts from a given course. Our learner model classifies learners into eight styles and implements compatible computational methods consisting of three recommendations: i non-personalised, ii preferred feature-based, and iii neighbour-based collaborative filtering. The analysis of preference error (PE was performed by comparing the actual preferred learning object with the predicted one. In our experiments, the feature-based recommendation algorithm has the fewest PE.
Full Text Available We present a psychological study of the relationship of cognitive styles with the development of delusional formations, overvalued ideas and simulative products in order to develop criteria of delirium differential diagnosis. We examined 118 men, ordered at forensic psychological and psychiatric examination, among them delusional symptoms were found in 68 people, and overvalued ideas in 26 people, 24 people simulated delirium. As a method of research, we used pathopsychological experiment and projective techniques and methods that identify particular cognitive style (TAT, Rorschach, Torrance. We found that delusional patients, unlike those simulating a mental disorder, show field independence cognitive style combined with the rigidity that is characteristic also for patients with endogenous overvalued ideas. In personality disorders, we found combination of field independence with the flexibility or with rigidity.
Kristoffer Carl Aberg
Full Text Available Learning how to gain rewards (approach learning and avoid punishments (avoidance learning is fundamental for everyday life. While individual differences in approach and avoidance learning styles have been related to genetics and aging, the contribution of personality factors, such as traits, remains undetermined. Moreover, little is known about the computational mechanisms mediating differences in learning styles. Here, we used a probabilistic selection task with positive and negative feedbacks, in combination with computational modelling, to show that individuals displaying better approach (vs. avoidance learning scored higher on measures of approach (vs. avoidance trait motivation, but, paradoxically, also displayed reduced learning speed following positive (vs. negative outcomes. These data suggest that learning different types of information depend on associated reward values and internal motivational drives, possibly determined by personality traits.
Carl Aberg, Kristoffer; Doell, Kimberly C.; Schwartz, Sophie
Learning how to gain rewards (approach learning) and avoid punishments (avoidance learning) is fundamental for everyday life. While individual differences in approach and avoidance learning styles have been related to genetics and aging, the contribution of personality factors, such as traits, remains undetermined. Moreover, little is known about the computational mechanisms mediating differences in learning styles. Here, we used a probabilistic selection task with positive and negative feedbacks, in combination with computational modelling, to show that individuals displaying better approach (vs. avoidance) learning scored higher on measures of approach (vs. avoidance) trait motivation, but, paradoxically, also displayed reduced learning speed following positive (vs. negative) outcomes. These data suggest that learning different types of information depend on associated reward values and internal motivational drives, possibly determined by personality traits. PMID:27851807
Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo explorar las relaciones entre el estilo cognitivo, el aprendizaje autorregulado y el logro académico, en diferentes niveles del proceso de aprendizaje. La revisión de la literatura especializada indica que existe una estrecha relación entre el estilo cognitivo del estudiante y la capacidad de regulación de su aprendizaje con el desempeño académico en general.Este artigo explora as relações entre estilo cognitivo, aprendizagem auto-regulada e rendimento escolar com diferentes níveis de aprendizagem. A revisão da literatura mostra uma relação estreita entre o estilo cognitivo do aluno e a capacidade de regular a sua aprendizagem com o desempenho acadêmico.The aim of this article is to explore the relationships that exist between cognitive style, self-regulated learning and academic achievement at different levels in the learning process. The review of specialized literature suggests there is a close relationship between academic performance in general and a student's cognitive style and ability to regulate learning.
M Behnam Moghadam
Full Text Available Background & aim: learning style(s is one of the factors effective learning. Information about students learning styles can aid the presentation of teaching appropriate to their individual style. The purpose of this study was to determine the learning styles of Yasuj nursing and midwifery students based on the VARK model in 2013. Methods: The present research was a descriptive- analytical study which was conducted on 140 students from nursing and midwifery faculty of Yasuj university of Medical Sciences in the academic year of 2013. Sampling was done using census method, and data were collected using demographic information questionnaire followed by questionnaire of learning styles. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 18, and descriptive- inferential statistics. Results: The mean age of the students was 20.68±1.34. Of the total of 140 students, 98 (70% just selected only one type of the learning styles, whereas, 42 students preferred combination of different styles. Reading-writing style was the prevailing style among single learning style which selected by 43 students but the most frequent style among multi style was double style which was selected only by 15% of the participants. Conclusion: Most of the students had an individual learning style. Identifying the dominant learning style(s of the students and adjusting them to the teaching methods of lecturers and also developing lesson plans based on learning styles could improve educational objectives.
Full Text Available Young drivers are over-represented in crash and fatality statistics. One way of dealing with this problem is to achieve primary prevention through driver education and training. Factors of traffic accidents related to gender, age, driving experience, and self-assessments of safety and their relationship to perceptual learning styles (LS preferences have been analyzed in this study. The results show that auditory is the most prominent LS. Drivers in general, as well as drivers without traffic accidents favour visual and tactile LS. Both inexperienced and highly experienced drivers show relatively high preference of kinaesthetic style. Yet, taking into account driving experience we could see that the role of kinaesthetic LS is reduced, since individual LS has become more important. Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that a multivariate and multistage approach to driver education, taking into account differences in LS preferences, would be highly beneficial for traffic safety.
Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk
The present study investigated the object-spatial visualization and verbal cognitive styles among high school students and related differences in spatial ability, verbal-logical reasoning ability, and mathematical performance of those students. Data were collected from 348 students enrolled in Advanced Placement calculus courses at six high…
Auerbach, Randy P.; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo
The goal of the study is to examine whether family conflict generates peer-related stress and subsequent depressive symptoms among adolescents. In addition, in the context of the proposed mediation model, we examine whether negative cognitive styles about the self, cause, and consequences moderate the mediational pathway between peer stress and…
Newton, Philip M; Miah, Mahallad
The basic idea behind the use of 'Learning Styles' is that learners can be categorized into one or more 'styles' (e.g., Visual, Auditory, Converger) and that teaching students according to their style will result in improved learning. This idea has been repeatedly tested and there is currently no evidence to support it. Despite this, belief in the use of Learning Styles appears to be widespread amongst schoolteachers and persists in the research literature. This mismatch between evidence and practice has provoked controversy, and some have labeled Learning Styles a 'myth.' In this study, we used a survey of academics in UK Higher Education ( n = 114) to try and go beyond the controversy by quantifying belief and, crucially, actual use of Learning Styles. We also attempted to understand how academics view the potential harms associated with the use of Learning Styles. We found that general belief in the use of Learning Styles was high (58%), but lower than in similar previous studies, continuing an overall downward trend in recent years. Critically the percentage of respondents who reported actually using Learning Styles (33%) was much lower than those who reported believing in their use. Far more reported using a number of techniques that are demonstrably evidence-based. Academics agreed with all the posited weaknesses and harms of Learning Styles theory, agreeing most strongly that the basic theory of Learning Styles is conceptually flawed. However, a substantial number of participants (32%) stated that they would continue to use Learning Styles despite being presented with the lack of an evidence base to support them, suggesting that 'debunking' Learning Styles may not be effective. We argue that the interests of all may be better served by promoting evidence-based approaches to Higher Education.
Kumar, Latha Rajendra; Chacko, Thomas Vengail
In India, as in some other neighboring Asian countries, students and teachers are generally unaware of the differences in the learning styles among learners, which can handicap students with learning styles alien to the common teaching/learning modality within the institution. This study aims to find out whether making students aware of their learning styles and then using the Appreciative Inquiry approach to help them discover learning strategies that worked for them and others with similar learning styles within the institution made them perceive that this experience improved their learning and performance in exams. The visual, auditory, read-write, and kinesthetic (VARK) inventory of learning styles questionnaire was administered to all 100 first-year medical students of the Father Muller's Medical College in Mangalore India to make them aware of their individual learning styles. An Appreciate Inquiry intervention was administered to 62 student volunteers who were counseled about the different learning styles and their adaptive strategies. Pre and post intervention change in student's perception about usefulness of knowing learning styles on their learning, learning behavior, and performance in examinations was collected from the students using a prevalidated questionnaire. Post intervention mean scores showed a significant change (P learning style and discovering strategies that worked within the institutional environment. There was agreement among students that the intervention helped them become more confident in learning (84%), facilitating learning in general (100%), and in understanding concepts (100%). However, only 29% of the students agreed that the intervention has brought about their capability improvement in application of learning and 31% felt it improved their performance in exams. Appreciate Inquiry was perceived as useful in helping students discover learning strategies that work for different individual learning styles and sharing them within
Frost, Mary E; Derby, Dustin C; Haan, Andrea G
Objective : Changes in small business and insurance present challenges for newly graduated chiropractors. Technology that reaches identified, diverse learning styles may assist the chiropractic student in business classes to meet course outcomes better. Thus, the purpose of our study is to determine if the use of technology-based instructional aids enhance students' mastery of course learning outcomes. Methods : Using convenience sampling, 86 students completed a survey assessing course learning outcomes, learning style, and the helpfulness of lecture and computer-assisted learning related to content mastery. Quantitative analyses occurred. Results : Although respondents reported not finding the computer-assisted learning as helpful as the lecture, significant relationships were found between pre- and post-assisted learning measures of the learning outcomes 1 and 2 for the visual and kinesthetic groups. Surprisingly, however, all learning style groups exhibited significant pre- and post-assisted learning appraisal relationships with learning outcomes 3 and 4. Conclusion : While evidence exists within the current study of a relationship between students' learning of the course content corollary to the use of technologic instructional aids, the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear.
Full Text Available Learning styles and types of intelligence are essential features of effective learning. Discovering and creative approach could be more appropriate form of learning to the current conditions of society.
Collins, C Scott; Nanda, Sanjeev; Palmer, Brian A; Mohabbat, Arya B; Schleck, Cathy D; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Mahapatra, Saswati; Beckman, Thomas J; Wittich, Christopher M
Experiential learning has been suggested as a framework for planning continuing medical education (CME). We aimed to (1) determine participants' learning styles at traditional CME courses and (2) explore associations between learning styles and participant characteristics. Cross-sectional study of all participants (n = 393) at two Mayo Clinic CME courses who completed the Kolb Learning Style Inventory and provided demographic data. A total of 393 participants returned 241 surveys (response rate, 61.3%). Among the 143 participants (36.4%) who supplied complete demographic and Kolb data, Kolb learning styles included diverging (45; 31.5%), assimilating (56; 39.2%), converging (8; 5.6%), and accommodating (34; 23.8%). Associations existed between learning style and gender (p = 0.02). For most men, learning styles were diverging (23 of 63; 36.5%) and assimilating (30 of 63; 47.6%); for most women, diverging (22 of 80; 27.5%), assimilating (26 of 80; 32.5%), and accommodating (26 of 80; 32.5%). Internal medicine and psychiatry CME participants had diverse learning styles. Female participants had more variation in their learning styles than men. Teaching techniques must vary to appeal to all learners. The experiential learning theory sequentially moves a learner from Why? to What? to How? to If? to accommodate learning styles.
The aim of the research is to explore the possibilities and methodological solutions of using kinaesthetic teaching style in the teaching/learning process in basic school and its impact on pupil involvement in learning activities and attainment of goals. Qualitative and quantitative methods - experienced teacher’s survey and student-trainee survey after observation and analysys of lessons at school are used during the study. It is concluded that: 1)the kinesthetic style of learning involve...
Kratzig, Gregory P.; Arbuthnott, Katherine D.
Given the potential importance of using modality preference with instruction, the authors tested whether learning style preference correlated with memory performance in each of 3 sensory modalities: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. In Study 1, participants completed objective measures of pictorial, auditory, and tactile learning and learning…
Sahragard, Rahman; Khajavi, Yaser; Abbasian, Reza
The present study aimed to investigate the possible relationships between field of study, learning style preferences, and language learning strategies among university students majoring in the fields of arts and humanities, science, engineering, social sciences, and English as a foreign language. To this end, 376 university students completed the…
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the language learning strategies of freshman students and their learning styles. This study is a descriptive research and employs a relational screening model. Participants of the study were 328 freshman students majoring in different fields at Necmettin Erbakan University Ahmet…
Nielsen, Kirsten; Pedersen, Birthe D.; Helms, Niels Henrik
Purpose of the study Research from UK and USA indicates that an e-portfolio facilitates a stronger connection between theoretical and clinical studies in Nursing Education. It helps students reflect over practice and their own skills. Yet other results show that an e-portfolio is a time consumer....... Thus, the aim of this project is to examine the effects of an e-portfolio on nursing students learning of patients with chronic illness during their clinical practice, and to investigate if it makes any difference in facilitating four learning styles: the activist, the reflector, the theorist...... through observations in clinical settings, narrative interviews, and print-outs from the students e-portfolio. Findings So far a pilot project with a questionnaire shows that 84% of the students and nurses reported that the e-portfolio has a positive effect on students learning in clinical settings...
Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi
Full Text Available Introduction: The major part of peoples knowledge, skills and abilities are achieved during the complex process called learning. Learning is not simply the product of mere intelligence and capabilities of individual; it also depends on other factors such as personality traits, personal interests, and t ype of duty and di fferent methods and st yles. The understanding of each individual fits with his/her learning style. The aim of this study was to determine the learning st yles of Health Care Management students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: Learning styles of 55 Health Services Management students in Tabriz Health and Nutrition Faculty were evaluated in 2009 using a twelve-question Kolb questionnaire in a descriptive study. The data was anal yzed using SPSS. And the frequency of students learning styles was identified by their ages and averages. Results: In this study, 69% of the students were female and the dominant learning method was Assimilator (42%. Other styles with a regard to their frequency were Diverge (24%, Coverage (22%and Accommodator (12%. In the present study,no statistically significant relationship was found in learning styles between the gender (p= 0.644and average (p = 0.676of the students. Conclusion: Assimilator and Diverge methods were the most common ones among the management students. Hence, to improve the quality of learning in this group of students, it is proposed that the teachers use interactive and creative teaching methods such as small and la rge group discussion,brain storming, problem solving, debate-based learning, self-learning and lecturing.
A Zeraati; H Hajian; R Shojaian
Background: Students have individual learning style preferences including visual (V; learning from graphs, charts, and flow diagrams), auditory (A; learning from speech), read-write(R; learning from reading and writing), and kinesthetic (K; learning from touch, hearing, smell, taste, and sight).These preferences can be assessed using the VARK questionnaire.Purpose: We aimed to assess different learning styles of medical students in our collage.Methods: This study was conducted to describe lea...
Full Text Available Learning styles have been a particular focus of a number of researchers over the past decades. Findings from various studies researching into how students learn highlight significant relationships between learners’ styles of learning and their language learning processes and achievement. This research focuses on a comparative analysis of the preferences of English learning styles and teaching techniques perceived by students from Thailand and Vietnam, and the teaching styles and techniques practiced by their instructors. The purposes were 1 to investigate the learning styles and teaching techniques students from both countries preferred, 2 to investigate the compatibility of the teaching styles and techniques practiced by instructors and those preferred by the students, 3 to specify the learning styles and teaching techniques students with high level of English proficiency preferred, and 4 to investigate the similarities of Thai and Vietnamese students’ preferences for learning styles and teaching techniques. The sample consisted of two main groups: 1 undergraduate students from King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok (KMUTNB, Thailand and Thai Nguyen University (TNU, Vietnam and 2 English instructors from both institutions. The instruments employed comprised the Students’ Preferred English Learning Style and Teaching Technique Questionnaire and the Teachers’ Practiced English Teaching Style and Technique Questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using arithmetic means and standard deviation. The findings can contribute to the curriculum development and assist teachers to teach outside their comfort level to match the students’ preferred learning styles. In addition, the findings could better promote the courses provided for students. By understanding the learning style make-up of the students enrolled in the courses, faculty can adjust their modes of content delivery to match student preferences and maximize
Nasiri, Zahra; Gharekhani, Samane; Ghasempour, Maryam
Introduction Identifying and employing students’ learning styles could play an important role in selecting appropriate teaching methods in order to improve education. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the students’ final exam scores and the learning style preferences of dental students at Babol University of Medical Sciences. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 88 dental students studying in their fourth, fifth, and sixth years using the visual–aural–reading/writing–kinesthetic (VARK) learning styles’ questionnaire. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS, version 21, using the chi-squared test and the t-test. Results Of the 88 participants who responded to the questionnaire, 87 preferred multimodal learning styles. There was no significant difference between the mean of the final exam scores in students who did and did not prefer the aural learning style (p = 0.86), the reading/writing learning style (p = 0.20), and the kinesthetic learning style (p = 0.32). In addition, there was no significant difference between the scores on the final clinical course among the students who had different preferences for learning style. However, there was a significant difference between the mean of the final exam scores in students with and without visual learning style preference (p = 0.03), with the former having higher mean scores. There was no significant relationship between preferred learning styles and gender (p > 0.05). Conclusion The majority of dental students preferred multimodal learning styles, and there was a significant difference between the mean of the final exam scores for students with and without a preference for the visual learning style. In addition, there were no differences in the preferred learning styles between male and female students. PMID:27382442
Esa, Suraya; Mohamed, Nurul Akmal
This study aims to identify the relationship between students' learning styles and mathematics anxiety amongst Form Four students in Kerian, Perak. The study involves 175 Form Four students as respondents. The instrument which is used to assess the students' learning styles and mathematic anxiety is adapted from the Grasha's Learning Styles Inventory and the Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) respectively. The types of learning styles used are independent, avoidant, collaborative, dependent, competitive and participant. The collected data is processed by SPSS (Statistical Packages for Social Sciences 16.0). The data is analysed by using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics that include t-test and Pearson correlation. The results show that majority of the students adopt collaborative learning style and the students have moderate level of mathematics anxiety. Moreover, it is found that there is significant difference between learning style avoidant, collaborative, dependent and participant based on gender. Amongst all students' learning style, there exists a weak but significant correlation between avoidant, independent and participant learning style and mathematics anxiety. It is very important for the teachers need to be concerned about the effects of learning styles on mathematics anxiety. Therefore, the teachers should understand mathematics anxiety and implement suitable learning strategies in order for the students to overcome their mathematics anxiety.
Putra, Arief Karunia; Budiyono, Slamet, Isnandar
The relevance of this study is the growth of character values for students in Indonesia. Mathematics is a subject that builds the character values for students. It can be seen from the students' confidence in answering mathematics problems, their persistent and resilience in mathematics task. In addition, students have a curiosity in mathematics and appreciate the usefulness of mathematics. In mathematics, it is called a mathematical disposition. One of the factors that can affect students' mathematical disposition is learning style. Each student has a dominant learning style. Three of the most popular ones are visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. The most important uses of learning styles is that it makes it easy for teachers to incorporate them into their teaching. The purpose of this study was to determine which one that gives better mathematical dispositions among students with learning styles of visual, auditory, or kinesthetic. The subjects were 150 students in Sleman regency. Data obtained through questionnaires. Based on data analysis that has been done with benchmark assessment method, it can be concluded that students with visual learning style has a mathematical disposition better than students with auditory and kinesthetic learning styles, while students with kinesthetic learning style has a mathematical disposition better than students with auditory learning style. These results can be used as a reference for students with individual learning styles to improve the mathematical positive disposition in the learning process of mathematics.
Staple, Louis; Carter, Alix; Jensen, Jan L; Walker, Mark
Paramedics participate in continuing medical education (CME) to maintain their skills and knowledge. An understanding of learning styles is important for education to be effective. This study examined the preferred learning styles of ground ambulance paramedics and describes how their preferred learning styles relate to the elective CME activities these paramedics attend. All paramedics (n=1,036) employed in a provincial ground ambulance service were invited to participate in a survey containing three parts: demographics, learning style assessed by the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (LSI), and elective CME activity. 260 paramedics (25%) participated in the survey. Preferred learning styles were: assimilator, 28%; diverger, 25%; converger, 24%; and accommodator, 23%. Advanced life support (ALS) providers had a higher proportion of assimilators (36%), and basic life support (BLS) providers had a higher proportion of divergers (30%). The learning style categories of CME activities attended by paramedics were: assimilators, 25%; divergers, 26%; convergers, 25%; and accommodators, 24%. These results suggest that paramedics are a diverse group of learners, and learning style differs within their demographics. Paramedics attend CME activities that complement all learning styles. Organizations providing education opportunities to paramedics should consider paramedics a diverse learning group when designing their CME programs.
Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri; Chockjamsai, Manoch; Deesomchok, Athavudh; Euathrongchit, Juntima
This study aimed to explore the associations between learning styles and high academic achievement and to ascertain whether the factors associated with high academic achievement differed between preclinical and clinical students. A survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students in Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The Index of Learning Styles questionnaire was used to assess each student's learning style across four domains. High academic achievement was defined as a grade point average of at least 3.0. Of the 1,248 eligible medical students, 1,014 (81.3%) participated. Learning styles differed between the preclinical and clinical students in the active/reflective domain. A sequential learning style was associated with high academic achievement in both preclinical and clinical students. A reflective learning style was only associated with high academic achievement among preclinical students. The association between learning styles and academic achievement may have differed between preclinical and clinical students due to different learning content and teaching methods. Students should be encouraged to be flexible in their own learning styles in order to engage successfully with various and changing teaching methods across the curriculum. Instructors should be also encouraged to provide a variety of teaching materials and resources to suit different learning styles.
Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to explore the associations between learning styles and high academic achievement and to ascertain whether the factors associated with high academic achievement differed between preclinical and clinical students. Methods: A survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students in Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The Index of Learning Styles questionnaire was used to assess each student’s learning style across four domains. High academic achievement was defined as a grade point average of at least 3.0. Results: Of the 1,248 eligible medical students, 1,014 (81.3% participated. Learning styles differed between the preclinical and clinical students in the active/reflective domain. A sequential learning style was associated with high academic achievement in both preclinical and clinical students. A reflective learning style was only associated with high academic achievement among preclinical students. Conclusion: The association between learning styles and academic achievement may have differed between preclinical and clinical students due to different learning content and teaching methods. Students should be encouraged to be flexible in their own learning styles in order to engage successfully with various and changing teaching methods across the curriculum. Instructors should be also encouraged to provide a variety of teaching materials and resources to suit different learning styles.
Awi; Ahmar, A. S.; Rahman, A.; Minggi, I.; Mulbar, U.; Asdar; Ruslan; Upu, H.; Alimuddin; Hamda; Rosidah; Sutamrin; Tiro, M. A.; Rusli
This research aims to reveal the profile about the level of creativity and the ability to propose statistical problem of students at Mathematics Education 2014 Batch in the State University of Makassar in terms of their cognitive style. This research uses explorative qualitative method by giving meta-cognitive scaffolding at the time of research. The hypothesis of research is that students who have field independent (FI) cognitive style in statistics problem posing from the provided information already able to propose the statistical problem that can be solved and create new data and the problem is already been included as a high quality statistical problem, while students who have dependent cognitive field (FD) commonly are still limited in statistics problem posing that can be finished and do not load new data and the problem is included as medium quality statistical problem.
Weeland, M.M.; Nijhof, K.S.; Otten, R.; Vermaes, I.P.R.; Buitelaar, J.K.
Aim: This study tests the validity of Beck’s cognitive theory and Nolen-Hoeksema's response style theory of depression in adolescents with and without MBID. Methods: The relationship between negative cognitive errors (Beck), response styles (Nolen-Hoeksema) and depressive symptoms was examined in
Atang, Christopher I.
The effects of black and white and color illustrations on student achievement were studied to investigate the relationships between cognitive styles and instructional design. Field dependence (FD) and field independence (FI) were chosen as the cognitive style variables. Subjects were 85 freshman students in the Iowa State University Psychology…
Konrath, S.; Bushman, B.J.; Grove, T.
In 4 studies we examine the association between narcissism, self-construal, and cognitive-perceptual style, hypothesizing that high self-focus in combination with low other-focus (i.e., social atomization) is related to an analytic cognitive-perceptual style. Participants completed the Narcissistic
Ross, Robert M; Hartig, Bjoern; McKay, Ryan
It has been proposed that delusional beliefs are attempts to explain anomalous experiences. Why, then, do anomalous experiences induce delusions in some people but not in others? One possibility is that people with delusions have reasoning biases that result in them failing to reject implausible candidate explanations for anomalous experiences. We examine this hypothesis by studying paranormal interpretations of anomalous experiences. We examined whether analytic cognitive style (i.e. the willingness or disposition to critically evaluate outputs from intuitive processing and engage in effortful analytic processing) predicted anomalous experiences and paranormal explanations for these experiences after controlling for demographic variables and cognitive ability. Analytic cognitive style predicted paranormal explanations for anomalous experiences, but not the anomalous experiences themselves. We did not study clinical delusions. Our attempts to control for cognitive ability may have been inadequate. Our sample was predominantly students. Limited analytic cognitive style might contribute to the interpretation of anomalous experiences in terms of delusional beliefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meyer, Thomas D; Gudgeon, Emma; Thomas, Alan J; Collerton, Daniel
Depression is common in older people and its identification and treatment has been highlighted as one of the major challenges in an ageing world. Poor physical and cognitive health, bereavement, and prior depression are important risk factors for depression in elderly people. Attributional or cognitive style has been identified as a risk factor for depression in children, adolescents and younger adults but its relevance for depression and mood in elderly people has not been investigated in the context of other risk factors. Sixty-four older adults from an 'extra care' living scheme (aged 59-97) were recruited for a 6-week prospective study to examine the relationships between cognitive style and depressive symptoms. Regression analyses revealed that, when other risk factors were controlled for, cognitive style and its interaction with stress predicted changes in depressive symptoms, therefore partially replicating prior research. Cognitive-stress-vulnerability models also apply to elderly populations, but may be rather predictive of changes in depression when facing lower levels of stress. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Provitera, Michael J.; Esendal, Esin
Drawing on the learning theory of the Felder-Silverman model (2002), and the work of A.F. Grasha, this paper provides a brief review of teaching and learning styles used in management education. Professors, like students, demonstrate a number of learning styles and a professor has some responsibility to organize and present a course to satisfy…
Avsec, Stanislav; Szewczyk-Zakrzewska, Agnieszka
This paper aims to investigate the predictive validity of learning styles on academic achievement and technological literacy (TL). For this purpose, secondary school students were recruited (n = 150). An empirical research design was followed where the TL test was used with a learning style inventory measuring learning orientation, processing…
Sandman, Thomas E.
The assessment of student learning styles can be of significant value for developing and evaluating an appropriate mix of pedagogical techniques and activities. With this in mind, learning style preferences were collected from over 300 undergraduate business telecommunications students. These set of data show that a breadth of learning style…
Surjono, Herman Dwi
This experimental study investigated the effects of multimedia preferences and learning styles on undergraduate student achievement in an adaptive e-learning system for electronics course at the Yogyakarta State University Indonesia. The findings showed that students in which their multimedia preferences and learning style matched with the way the…
It is widely accepted that the use of learning materials which accommodates students' schemata is much more effective than the ones outside student's present knowledge background. The objectives of this study are to describe the students' learning style distribution and their perception on local oriented and learning style-based English learning…
Slater, Jill A.; Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.
Students have specific learning style preferences, and these preferences may be different between male and female students. Understanding a student's learning style preference is an important consideration when designing classroom instruction. Therefore, we administered the visual, auditory, reading/writing, kinesthetic (VARK) learning preferences…
Gurpinar, Erol; Alimoglu, Mustafa Kemal; Mamakli, Sumer; Aktekin, Mehmet
The curriculum of our medical school has a hybrid structure including both traditional training (lectures) and problem-based learning (PBL) applications. The purpose of this study was to determine the learning styles of our medical students and investigate the relation of learning styles with each of satisfaction with different instruction methods…
Toh Peng Yeow; Mark Kiak Min TAN; Li-Cher LOH; Julia BLITZ
Appreciation of learning styles can be of use tohelp both educators and students to enhance theeffectiveness of an educational experience. It has beennoticed that some students at this College are not verygood at expressing themselves in either written orspoken English. Our study aimed to identify thestudent’s learning styles; assess whether there isany correlation between learning style, baselinedemographic data and self rated proficiency in Englishlanguage; and assess their associations wit...
Laxman Khanal; Sandip Shah; Sarun Koirala
Learning styles is a term used to refer to the methods of gathering, processing, interpreting, organizing and thinking about information. Students have different learning styles, which is the reason for the diversity seen in classrooms in regards to how students acquire information. Claxton and Murrell had divided the learning styles into the following four categories: personality models, information-processing models, social-interaction models, and instructional preferences models. VARK (an ...
Mezulis, Amy H; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Abramson, Lyn Y
Cognitive models of depression have been well supported with adults, but the developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability are not well understood. The authors hypothesized that temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood would contribute to the development of cognitive style, with withdrawal negativity and negative parental feedback moderating the effects of negative life events to predict more depressogenic cognitive styles. These constructs were assessed in 289 children and their parents followed longitudinally from infancy to 5th grade; a subsample (n = 120) also participated in a behavioral task in which maternal feedback to child failure was observed. Results indicated that greater withdrawal negativity in interaction with negative life events was associated with more negative cognitive styles. Self-reported maternal anger expression and observed negative maternal feedback to child's failure significantly interacted with child's negative events to predict greater cognitive vulnerability. There was little evidence of paternal parenting predicting child negative cognitive style.
Alloy, L B; Peterson, C; Abramson, L Y; Seligman, M E
According to the logic of the attribution reformulation of learned helplessness, the interaction of two factors influences whether helplessness experienced in one situation will transfer to a new situation. The model predicts that people who exhibit a style of attributing negative outcomes to global factors will show helplessness deficits in new situations that are either similar or dissimilar to the original situation in which they were helpless. In contrast, people who exhibit a style of attributing negative outcomes to only specific factors will show helplessness deficits in situations that are similar, but not dissimilar, to the original situation in which they were helpless. To test these predictions, we conducted two studies in which undergraduates with either a global or specific attributional style for negative outcomes were given one of three pretreatments in the typical helplessness triadic design: controllable bursts of noise, uncontrollable bursts of noise, or no noise. In Experiment 1, students were tested for helplessness deficits in a test situation similar to the pretreatment setting, whereas in Experiment 2, they were tested in a test situation dissimilar to the pretreatment setting. The findings were consistent with predictions of the reformulated helplessness theory.
Osamah Mohammad Ameen Aldalalah
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of webquest on the jordanian students’ of different cognitive style. The independent variables were the instruction (conventional & webquest. The dependent variables were the students’ achievement and motivation. The instructionrating variable is cognitive style (independent & dependent. The study sample consisted of 72 undergraduate educational technology students, information and communication technology students and graphic design students. Inferential statistics were conducted to analyze the data. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and T-TEST was carried out to examine the main effects of the independent variables on the dependent variables. The findings of this study showed that students using the webquest instruction performed significantly better on achievement and motivation than students using the conventional instruction. Independent cognitive style students performed significantly better on achievement and motivation than dependent cognitive style students. The webquest instruction was found to help students with dependent cognitive style on achievement and motivation
Almeida, Patrícia; Teixeira-Dias, José Joaquim; Martinho, Mariana; Balasooriya, Chinthaka
The purpose of this study is to investigate if the teaching, learning and assessment strategies conceived and implemented in a higher education chemistry course promote the development of conceptual understanding, as intended. Thus, our aim is to analyse the learning styles and the approaches to learning of chemistry undergraduates with better grades. The overall results show that the students with better grades possess the assimilator learning style, that is usually associated to the archetypal chemist. Moreover, the students with the highest grades revealed a conception of learning emphasising understanding. However, these students diverged both in their learning approaches and in their preferences for teaching strategies. The majority of students adopted a deep approach or a combination of a deep and a strategic approach, but half of them revealed their preference for teaching-centred strategies.
Full Text Available Purpose: Learning style preferences vary within the nursing field and there is no consensus on a predominant learning style preference in nursing students. The current study compared the learning style preferences of nursing students at two universities in Iran and Malaysia. Methods: A purposive sampling method was used to collect data from the two study populations. Data were collected using the Learning Style Scale (LSS, which is a valid and reliable inventory. The LSS consists of 22 items with five subscales including perceptive, solitary, analytic, imaginative, and competitive. The questionnaires were distributed at the end of the academic year during regular class time for optimum response. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the learning style preferences between the two study populations. Results: A significant difference was found in perceptive, solitary, and analytic learning styles between two groups of nursing students. However, there was no significant difference in imaginative and competitive learning styles between the two groups. Most of the students were in the middle range of the learning styles. Conclusion: There were similarities and differences in learning style preferences between Zabol Medical Sciences University (ZBMU and University Sains Malaysia (USM nursing students. The USM nursing students were more sociable and analytic learners, whereas the ZBMU nursing students were more solitary and perceptive learners.
Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani; Ja'afar, Rogayah
Learning style preferences vary within the nursing field and there is no consensus on a predominant learning style preference in nursing students. The current study compared the learning style preferences of nursing students at two universities in Iran and Malaysia. A purposive sampling method was used to collect data from the two study populations. Data were collected using the Learning Style Scale (LSS), which is a valid and reliable inventory. The LSS consists of 22 items with five subscales including perceptive, solitary, analytic, imaginative, and competitive. The questionnaires were distributed at the end of the academic year during regular class time for optimum response. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the learning style preferences between the two study populations. A significant difference was found in perceptive, solitary, and analytic learning styles between two groups of nursing students. However, there was no significant difference in imaginative and competitive learning styles between the two groups. Most of the students were in the middle range of the learning styles. There were similarities and differences in learning style preferences between Zabol Medical Sciences University (ZBMU) and University Sains Malaysia (USM) nursing students. The USM nursing students were more sociable and analytic learners, whereas the ZBMU nursing students were more solitary and perceptive learners.
Evans, Carol; Waring, Michael
The enhancement of assessment feedback is an international concern. This study is unique in its exploration of the nature of the relationship between student teachers' assessment feedback preferences, cognitive styles and gender, with a view to informing the development of assessment feedback practices and course design within initial teacher…
Jesky, Romaine R.; Berry, Louis H.
The effect of the interaction between cognitive style differences (field dependence/field independence) and various degrees of visual complexity on pictorial recall memory was explored using three sets of visuals in three different formats--line drawing, black and white, and color. The subjects were 86 undergraduate students enrolled in two core…
Worley, Gary M.; Moore, David M.
Discussion of the use of color for enhancing recognition memory focuses on a study of undergraduates that evaluated images as black and white, full color, or highlight color and the effect these characteristics had on recognition memory and recall for learners classified as field-dependent and field-independent in terms of cognitive style. (LRW)
This paper presents the results of a research study carried out with Mexican college students to analyze the relationship between readers' cognitive styles (field dependent/independent) and their performance at different levels of written discourse processing in Spanish (L1) and English (L2). The sample for the study included 452 undergraduate…
Nyamsuren, Enkhbold; Taatgen, Niels A.
Using results from a controlled experiment and simulations based on cognitive models, we show that visual presentation style can have a significant impact on performance in a complex problem-solving task. We compared subject performances in two isomorphic, but visually different, tasks based on a
Kangas, Brian D.
"The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint: Pitching Out Corrupts Within" by Edward Tufte (2006) condemns the software for failing to help users achieve many of the goals of an effective presentation and instead offers a low resolution platform with a deeply hierarchical single-path structure capable of convening a trivial amount of information even over…
Ankara : The Institute of Economic and Social Sciences Bilkent Univ., 2000. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2000. Includes bibliographical references leaves 54-58 This study investigated the relationship between students’ perceptual learning style preferences, language learning strategies and English language vocabulary size. It is very important for teachers to be aware of students’ preferences in learning to help them be more successful and to avoid conflicts when...
Sudria, Ida Bagus Nyoman; Redhana, I. Wayan; Kirna, I. Made; Aini, Diah
This study aimed to examine the effect of Kolb's learning styles on chemical learning activities and achievement of reaction rate taught by inductive guided inquiry learning. The population was eleventh grade Science students of a senior secondary school having relatively good academic input based on national testing results in Bali, Indonesia.…
Prajapati, Bhavna; Dunne, Mark; Bartlett, Hannah; Cubbidge, Robert
This cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether the academic performance of optometry undergraduates is influenced by enrollment status, learning style or gender. Three hundred and sixty undergraduates in all 3 years of the optometry degree course at Aston University during 2008-2009 were asked for their informed consent to participate in this study. Enrollment status was known from admissions records. An Index of Learning Styles (http://www4.nscu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Learning-Styles.html) determined learning style preference with respect to four different learning style axes; active-reflective, sensing-intuitive, visual-verbal and sequential-global. The influence of these factors on academic performance was investigated. Two hundred and seventy students agreed to take part (75% of the cohort). 63% of the sample was female. There were 213 home non-graduates (entrants from the UK or European Union without a bachelor's degree or higher), 14 home graduates (entrants from the UK or European Union with a bachelor's degree or higher), 28 international non-graduates (entrants from outside the UK or European Union without a bachelor's degree or higher) and 15 international graduates (entrants from outside the UK or European Union with a bachelor's degree or higher). The majority of students were balanced learners (between 48% and 64% across four learning style axes). Any preferences were towards active, sensing, visual and sequential learning styles. Of the factors investigated in this study, learning styles were influenced by gender; females expressed a disproportionate preference for the reflective and visual learning styles. Academic performance was influenced by enrollment status; international graduates (95% confidence limits: 64-72%) outperformed all other student groups (home non graduates, 60-62%; international non graduates, 55-63%) apart from home graduates (57-69%). Our research has shown that the majority of optometry students
Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was to capture the relationship between cognitive and motivational variables and the student learning. 102 students from the Psychology specialization, license cycle, took part in the study. The following tools were used: the Rational-Experiential Inventory (Paccini & Epstein, 1999; the Intellectual development level questionnaire (Paloş, 2009, the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Rao & Sachs, 1999. The results indicated that the motivational and learning strategies used by students are influenced by their intellectual development level and their information processing style. Knowing the cognitive and motivational variables play an important role in devising the educational experiences and in making learning more efficient.
Full Text Available Although there is ample research about Kolb's learning styles, few studies have examined their relationship with motivations to transfer, a concept used to assess whether the content and competencies learned through professional training activities are transferred to the workplace context. Ninety-six students (M = 24.58 years old; 99% males from three vocational training institutes participated in laboratory activities at the Renewable Energy Research Institute of the University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. They completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory; two scales adapted to measure student motivation to transfer their learning from training experiences; and a scale of satisfaction with the activities. A correlation analysis showed positive and moderately strong correlations (r = .708; p < .01 between motivations to transfer and “the relevance of the activities to academic performance”. A discriminant analysis between transfer and learning styles revealed that the “Student training motivation” item resulted in a distinct difference between assimilators and convergers, explaining 97.1% of the model variance (Wilks’ λ = .459; χ2 = 21.028; Sig. = .002 and classifying 56.4% of the cases. A discussion is presented as to the implications of these results for the theory of learning styles and the ways in which the design of the educational activities described in the study can be improved.
Alghasham, Abdullah A
Since problem-based learning (PBL) sessions require a combination of active discussion, group interaction, and inductive and reflective thinking, students with different learning styles can be expected to perform differently in the PBL sessions. Using "Learning Style Inventory Questionnaire," students were divided into separate active and reflective learner groups. Tutors were asked to observe and assess the students' behavioral performance during the PBL sessions for a period of 5 weeks. A questionnaire of 24 items was developed to assess students' behavioral performance in PBL sessions. Active students tended to use multiple activities to obtain the needed information were more adjusted to the group norms and regulation and more skillful in using reasoning and problem-solving skills and in participation in discussion. On the other hand, reflective students used independent study more, listened actively and carefully to others and used previously acquired information in the discussion more frequently. Formative assessment quizzes did not indicate better performance of either group. There were no significant gender differences in PBL behavioral performance or quizzes' scores. Active and reflective learners differ in PBL class behavioral performance but not in the formative assessment. We recommend that students should be informed about their learning style and that they should learn strategies to compensate for any lacks in PBL sessions through self-study. Also, educational planners should ensure an adequate mix of students with different learning styles in the PBL groups to achieve PBL desired objectives.
Full Text Available Enhanced procedural learning has been evidenced in conditions where cognitive control is diminished, including hypnosis, disruption of prefrontal activity and non-optimal time of the day. Another condition depleting the availability of controlled resources is cognitive fatigue. We tested the hypothesis that cognitive fatigue, eventually leading to diminished cognitive control, facilitates procedural sequence learning. In a two-day experiment, twenty-three young healthy adults were administered a serial reaction time task (SRTT following the induction of high or low levels of cognitive fatigue, in a counterbalanced order. Cognitive fatigue was induced using the Time load Dual-back (TloadDback paradigm, a dual working memory task that allows tailoring cognitive load levels to the individual's optimal performance capacity. In line with our hypothesis, reaction times in the SRTT were faster in the high- than in the low-level fatigue condition, and performance improvement showed more of a benefit from the sequential components than from motor. Altogether, our results suggest a paradoxical, facilitating impact of cognitive fatigue on procedural motor sequence learning. We propose that facilitated learning in the high-level fatigue condition stems from a reduction in the cognitive resources devoted to cognitive control processes that normally oppose automatic procedural acquisition mechanisms.
Parviz Ajideh; Mohammad Zohrabi; Kazem Pouralvar
The present study investigated the relationship between Art and Science students’ learning styles and their ESP reading strategies in academic settings. Learning styles are defined as general orientations learners take toward their learning experiences. This notion has recently obtained attention in the area of language learning. Strategies are also defined as specific behaviours or techniques learners employ towards leaning in order to achieve their learning goals. The strategies chosen are ...
Mar 5, 2018 ... motivation to this research is to improve the learner performance and achieve the ... valuable factor for enhancing learning process by adopting an effective .... Video. Reflective Intuitive. Primer Test. Verbal Sequential. Tutorial.
Newton, Philip M.; Miah, Mahallad
The basic idea behind the use of ‘Learning Styles’ is that learners can be categorized into one or more ‘styles’ (e.g., Visual, Auditory, Converger) and that teaching students according to their style will result in improved learning. This idea has been repeatedly tested and there is currently no evidence to support it. Despite this, belief in the use of Learning Styles appears to be widespread amongst schoolteachers and persists in the research literature. This mismatch between evidence and practice has provoked controversy, and some have labeled Learning Styles a ‘myth.’ In this study, we used a survey of academics in UK Higher Education (n = 114) to try and go beyond the controversy by quantifying belief and, crucially, actual use of Learning Styles. We also attempted to understand how academics view the potential harms associated with the use of Learning Styles. We found that general belief in the use of Learning Styles was high (58%), but lower than in similar previous studies, continuing an overall downward trend in recent years. Critically the percentage of respondents who reported actually using Learning Styles (33%) was much lower than those who reported believing in their use. Far more reported using a number of techniques that are demonstrably evidence-based. Academics agreed with all the posited weaknesses and harms of Learning Styles theory, agreeing most strongly that the basic theory of Learning Styles is conceptually flawed. However, a substantial number of participants (32%) stated that they would continue to use Learning Styles despite being presented with the lack of an evidence base to support them, suggesting that ‘debunking’ Learning Styles may not be effective. We argue that the interests of all may be better served by promoting evidence-based approaches to Higher Education. PMID:28396647
Full Text Available Introduction: Understanding the learning styles of students may help educational planning and improve the learning. This study aims to assess learning styles, and relevant determinants, of students who study in various disciplines of medical sciences at Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences (BUMS in 2012. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 180 students from BUMS were selected randomly. Data were collected sing the Kolb learning style questionnaire during April/May 2012. One-way ANOVA, Student t-test, Chi-square or Fisher exact tests were used for analyzing the data. Results: The mean age of participants was 29.3±7.0, majority of them were males. The preferred learning styles were diverger (76.7%, accommodator (12.8%, assimilator (7.8% and converger (2.8% respectively. The results showed that the factors such as age, sex, marriage status, father and mother education, grade point average (GPA and academic degree could be important to determine learning style characteristics of students. The findings also indicate that the preferred learning style among the students with different GPAs or academic degrees are not different considerably. Conclusion: Regarding the most preferred leaning style by the, proper planning to address proper teaching styles according to the preferred learning styles is necessary.
Samarakoon, Lasitha; Fernando, Tharanga; Rodrigo, Chaturaka
The challenge of imparting a large amount of knowledge within a limited time period in a way it is retained, remembered and effectively interpreted by a student is considerable. This has resulted in crucial changes in the field of medical education, with a shift from didactic teacher centered and subject based teaching to the use of interactive, problem based, student centered learning. This study tested the hypothesis that learning styles (visual, auditory, read/write and kinesthetic) and approaches to learning (deep, strategic and superficial) differ among first and final year undergraduate medical students, and postgraduates medical trainees. We used self administered VARK and ASSIST questionnaires to assess the differences in learning styles and approaches to learning among medical undergraduates of the University of Colombo and postgraduate trainees of the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine, Colombo. A total of 147 participated: 73 (49.7%) first year students, 40 (27.2%) final year students and 34(23.1%) postgraduate students. The majority (69.9%) of first year students had multimodal learning styles. Among final year students, the majority (67.5%) had multimodal learning styles, and among postgraduates, the majority were unimodal (52.9%) learners.Among all three groups, the predominant approach to learning was strategic. Postgraduates had significant higher mean scores for deep and strategic approaches than first years or final years (p learning approaches suggest a positive shift towards deep and strategic learning in postgraduate students. However a similar difference was not observed in undergraduate students from first year to final year, suggesting that their curriculum may not have influenced learning methodology over a five year period.
Shenhav, Amitai; Rand, David G.; Greene, Joshua D.
Some have argued that belief in God is intuitive, a natural (by-)product of the human mind given its cognitive structure and social context. If this is true, the extent to which one believes in God may be influenced by one's more general tendency to rely on intuition versus reflection. Three studies support this hypothesis, linking intuitive…
Leung, Siu-Wai; Lee, John; Johnson, Chris; Robertson, David
This article aims to demonstrate computational synthesis of Web-based experiments in undertaking experimentation on relationships among the participants' design preference, rationale, and cognitive test performance. The exemplified experiments were computationally synthesised, including the websites as materials, experiment protocols as methods, and cognitive tests as protocol modules. This work also exemplifies the use of a website synthesiser as an essential instrument enabling the participants to explore different possible designs, which were generated on the fly, before selection of preferred designs. The participants were given interactive tree and table generators so that they could explore some different ways of presenting causality information in tables and trees as the visualisation formats. The participants gave their preference ratings for the available designs, as well as their rationale (criteria) for their design decisions. The participants were also asked to take four cognitive tests, which focus on the aspects of visualisation and analogy-making. The relationships among preference ratings, rationale, and the results of cognitive tests were analysed by conservative non-parametric statistics including Wilcoxon test, Krustal-Wallis test, and Kendall correlation. In the test, 41 of the total 64 participants preferred graphical (tree-form) to tabular presentation. Despite the popular preference for graphical presentation, the given tabular presentation was generally rated to be easier than graphical presentation to interpret, especially by those who were scored lower in the visualization and analogy-making tests. This piece of evidence helps generate a hypothesis that design preferences are related to specific cognitive abilities. Without the use of computational synthesis, the experiment setup and scientific results would be impractical to obtain.
Neel, M L M; Stark, A R; Maitre, N L
We sought to evaluate published evidence in aggregate regarding the impact of parenting style on the cognitive and behavioural outcomes of former preterm infants. We searched 5 databases using germane MeSH terms. Parenting style was defined as any descriptor of parenting using ≥2 dimensions on published parenting axes. We evaluated studies for quality of evidence and strength of recommendations using standardized tools and categorized summative recommendations by parenting axis and child outcome. Twenty-seven articles met our inclusion criteria. Parental responsivity is the only parenting axis strongly associated with both improved child cognition and behaviour. Parental demandingness is associated only with improved child cognition, and parental warmth and rejection are associated only with child behaviour. Parental coercion is not associated with subsequent child outcomes. Parental responsivity may be essential in optimizing neurodevelopment in former preterm infants. More targeted studies are needed to inform this relationship and identify opportunities for intervention. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vizeshfar, Fatemeh; Torabizadeh, Camellia
The recognition of learning styles and teaching based on that recognition will help lecturers use suitable methods of teaching. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of education based on dominant learning styles on the academic achievement of nursing students. The population of this quasi-experimental research consisted of 40 third-semester nursing students. The data were collected by using Kolb's Learning Style questionnaire. To determine the dominant learning style of the students, the researchers had them take a pre-test; then, based on the dominant learning style, the students were taught through group discussion. A formative exam and a summative exam were taken. The most and least preferred learning styles of the participants were the divergent style and the assimilative style respectively. Education based on learning styles, particularly for college students, can not only enhance students' academic achievement and teachers' professional satisfaction, but can help with training professional nurses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rösing, Lilian Munk
Defined as the tropes, figures, and grammar of the text, style is quite concrete, quite analyzable. Pure detection and identification of the tropes and figures of a text is not very interesting to literary studies, though, unless it is combined with interpretation, that is, unless you ask: What i...
that a person is classified as one of 16 possible types: ISTJ, iSFJ, INFJ, INTJ, ISTP, INFP, ISFP, INTP , ESTP, ESFP, ENFP, ENTP, ESTJ, ESFJ, ENFJ , or...development groups and the relationship between these differences and system success or failure. Chapter II will discuss some different theories of cognitive...reasoning termed analytic and hueristic. Analytic individuals reduce problems to a set of underlying relationships . These relationships , frequently
Poradowska-Trzos, Magdalena; Dudek, Dominika; Rogoz, Monika; Zieba, Andrzej
According to Aaron Beck, dysfunctional thinking patterns appear also in euthymic patients, after withdrawal of acute diseases symptoms. Patients have a disordered, negative image of themselves, of their future and the surrounding world. It has been shown that a way a man perceives possessed social support has a basic meaning for him. The purpose of the research was to analyze the relationship between perceived social support and the patient's cognitive style. The study group consisted of euthymic outpatients diagnosed with recurrent depressive disorder (UID) or bipolar affective disorder (BID). Assessment of a cognitive style was made according to the Rosenberg Scale, Hopelessness Scale HS-20 and Automatique Thoughts Questionnaire ATQ 30, assessment of the amount of received support - according to Cohen's ISEL. The presented study revealed that, in both groups of patients, a thinking style is disturbed and that there is a link between a cognitive style and the perception of the level of received support. The link was stronger in the group of patients with unipolar affective disorder. In both groups, correlations concerning emotional support were the highest.
Skulmowski, Alexander; Rey, Günter Daniel
In recent years, research on embodied cognition has inspired a number of studies on multimedia learning and instructional psychology. However, in contrast to traditional research on education and multimedia learning, studies on embodied learning (i.e., focusing on bodily action and perception in the context of education) in some cases pose new problems for the measurement of cognitive load. This review provides an overview over recent studies on embodied learning in which cognitive load was measured using surveys, behavioral data, or physiological measures. The different methods are assessed in terms of their success in finding differences of cognitive load in embodied learning scenarios. At the same time, we highlight the most important challenges for researchers aiming to include these measures into their study designs. The main issues we identified are: (1) Subjective measures must be appropriately phrased to be useful for embodied learning; (2) recent findings indicate potentials as well as problematic aspects of dual-task measures; (3) the use of physiological measures offers great potential, but may require mobile equipment in the context of embodied scenarios; (4) meta-cognitive measures can be useful extensions of cognitive load measurement for embodied learning.
Full Text Available In recent years, research on embodied cognition has inspired a number of studies on multimedia learning and instructional psychology. However, in contrast to traditional research on education and multimedia learning, studies on embodied learning (i.e., focusing on bodily action and perception in the context of education in some cases pose new problems for the measurement of cognitive load. This review provides an overview over recent studies on embodied learning in which cognitive load was measured using surveys, behavioral data, or physiological measures. The different methods are assessed in terms of their success in finding differences of cognitive load in embodied learning scenarios. At the same time, we highlight the most important challenges for researchers aiming to include these measures into their study designs. The main issues we identified are: (1 Subjective measures must be appropriately phrased to be useful for embodied learning; (2 recent findings indicate potentials as well as problematic aspects of dual-task measures; (3 the use of physiological measures offers great potential, but may require mobile equipment in the context of embodied scenarios; (4 meta-cognitive measures can be useful extensions of cognitive load measurement for embodied learning.
Lai, Hung-Yi; Lee, Ching-Yi; Chiu, Angela; Lee, Shih-Tseng
To delineate the learning style that best defines a successful practitioner in the field of neurosurgery by using a validated learning style inventory. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory, a validated assessment tool, was administered to all practicing neurosurgeons, neurosurgical residents, and neurology residents employed at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, an institution that provides primary and tertiary clinical care in 3 locations, Linkou, Kaohsiung, and Chiayi. There were 81 participants who entered the study, and all completed the study. Neurosurgeons preferred the assimilating learning style (52%), followed by the diverging learning style (39%). Neurosurgery residents were slightly more evenly distributed across the learning styles; however, they still favored assimilating (32%) and diverging (41%). Neurology residents had the most clearly defined preferred learning style with assimilating (76%) obtaining the large majority and diverging (12%) being a distant second. The assimilating and diverging learning styles are the preferred learning styles among neurosurgeons, neurosurgery residents, and neurology residents. The assimilating learning style typically is the primary learning style for neurosurgeons and neurology residents. Neurosurgical residents start off with a diverging learning style and progress toward an assimilating learning style as they work toward becoming practicing neurosurgeons. The field of neurosurgery has limited opportunities for active experimentation, which may explain why individuals who prefer reflective observation are more likely to succeed in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ramezani, Afsaneh Effatdokht; Dehgahi, Meysam; Hashemi, Hanie
This study explored the learning style preferences of 40 Iranian students at Marefat Iranian high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 20 are females and 20 are males. To this end, this study used structured interview to elicit in-depth information from the students. The results of the study showed that learning style preferences of Iranian students…
Vaughn, L. M.; Hensley, B.; Baker, R. C.; Dearman, L.
The authors examined the relationship between specific learning styles and stress and coping in a sample of female college students (N = 246). Participants in the study were assessed on the three variables by completing several self-report instruments measuring learning styles, life stress level, and coping skills. There were significant…
Park, Clara C.
Investigates for perceptual learning style preferences (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, and tactile) and preferences for group and individual leaning of Chinese, Filipino, Korean, and Vietnamese secondary education students. Comparison analysis reveals diverse learning style preferences between Anglo and Asian American students and also between…
The importance of learning styles to student retention and career decision guidance is considered. Learning style is the way people process information and solve problems. Research on right and left brain processing, which indicates that the left hemisphere controls thoughts that are predominately rational and the right hemisphere controls…
Djigic, Gordana; Stojiljkovic, Snežana; Markovic, Andrijana
This paper is concerned with the personality dimensions and learning styles of secondary school students, attending grammar and technical vocational school. The aim of the study is to examine differences in personality traits and learning styles between students from these types of schools, as well as to determine the predictive power of…
Yousef, Darwish Abdulrahman
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the use of Honey and Mumford's (1986) learning styles questionnaire (LSQ) in the context of United Arab Emirates (UAE) higher education. In particular, it aims at exploring the learning style preferences of United Arab Emirates University (UAEU) students using LSQ. It also investigates whether there…
Chandrasekera, Tilanka; Yoon, So-Yeon
Research has shown that user characteristics such as preference for using an interface can result in effective use of the interface. Research has also suggested that there is a relationship between learner preference and creativity. This study uses the VARK learning styles inventory to assess students learning style then explores how this learning…
Kyprianidou, Maria; Demetriadis, Stavros; Tsiatsos, Thrasyvoulos; Pombortsis, Andreas
This work explores the impact of teacher-led heterogeneous group formation on students' teamwork, based on students' learning styles. Fifty senior university students participated in a project-based course with two key organizational features: first, a web system (PEGASUS) was developed to help students identify their learning styles and…
Few studies of learning styles among adults with special needs exist worldwide. Even though there are large numbers of adults with special needs, this population in university education has been largely ignored in educational research. Therefore, this study aimed to gather and analyze learning styles of adult special needs students and to provide…
Zwolsman, Sandra E.; van Dijk, Nynke; Verhoeven, Anita A. H.; de Ruijter, Wouter; Wieringa-de Waard, Margreet
Learning styles determine how people manage new information. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) involves the management of information in clinical practice. As a consequence, the way in which a person uses EBM can be related to his or her learning style. In order to tailor EBM education to the individual
Zwolsman, Sandra E.; van Dijk, Nynke; Verhoeven, Anita A. H.; de Ruijter, Wouter; Wieringa-de Waard, Margreet
Background: Learning styles determine how people manage new information. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) involves the management of information in clinical practice. As a consequence, the way in which a person uses EBM can be related to his or her learning style. In order to tailor EBM education to
Anbarasi, M.; Rajkumar, G.; Krishnakumar, S.; Rajendran, P.; Venkatesan, R.; Dinesh, T.; Mohan, J.; Venkidusamy, S.
Students entering medical college generally show vast diversity in their school education. It becomes the responsibility of teachers to motivate students and meet the needs of all diversities. One such measure is teaching students in their own preferred learning style. The present study was aimed to incorporate a learning style-based…
As the number of international students and transnational education agreements continue to rise at an unprecedented rate in many countries, an area of research that continues to lag behind is how far students' learning styles can adapt to different educational contexts. Learning styles research has recently developed from simplistic yet popular…
Young, Mark; Collins, Marianne K.
This paper describes an innovative Principles of Marketing course design and delivery which matches learning and teaching styles, while reducing multi-section variation. Value co-creation is encouraged by instructors and students collaborating in the creation of customized learning experiences which facilitates both teaching style and learning…
Goodridge, Wade H.; Lawanto, Oenardi; Santoso, Harry B.
The implementation of a successful engineering program to a synchronous online curriculum is subject to many impacting factors. One such factor, that has not seen much investigation, concerns learning styles. Student learning styles may have a dramatic influence on the success of a synchronous online deliverable engineering graphics curriculum.…
Overbay, Amy; Patterson, Ashley Seaton; Grable, Lisa
This study examined the relationship between learning style, level of resistance to change, and teacher retention in schools implementing an intensive schoolwide technology and media integration model. Researchers found that teachers with ST (sensing-thinking) and SF (sensing-feeling) learning style preferences, as described by the Myers-Briggs…
Rohrmeier, M.; Rebuschat, P.; Honing, H.; Loui, P.; Wiggins, G.; Pearce, M.T.; Müllensiefen, D.; Taatgen, N.; van Rijn, H.
In recent years, the study of music perception and cognition has witnessed an enormous growth of interest. Music cognition is an intrinsically interdisciplinary subject which combines insights and research methods from many of the cognitive sciences. This trend is clearly reflected, for example, in
Stratman, Erik J; Vogel, Curt A; Reck, Samuel J; Mukesh, Bickol N
There are different teaching styles for delivering competency-based curricula. The education literature suggests that learning is maximized when teaching is delivered in a style preferred by learners. To determine if dermatology residents report learning style preferences aligned with adult learning. Dermatology residents attending an introductory cutaneous biology course completed a learning styles inventory assessing self-reported success in 35 active and passive learning activities. The 35 learning activities were ranked in order of preference by learners. Mean overall ratings for active learning activities were significantly higher than for passive learning activities (P = 0.002). Trends in dermatology resident learning style preferences should be considered during program curriculum development. Programs should integrate a variety of curriculum delivery methods to accommodate various learning styles, with an emphasis on the active learning styles preferred by residents.
Full Text Available While the need to adapt teaching to the needs of a student is generally acknowledged (see Corno and Snow, 1986, for a wide review of the literature, little is known about the impact of individual learner-differences on the quality of learning attained within computer-based learning environments (CBLEs. What evidence there is appears to support the notion that individual differences have implications for the degree of success or failure experienced by students (Ford and Ford, 1992 and by trainee end-users of software packages (Bostrom et al, 1990. The problem is to identify the way in which specific individual characteristics of a student interact with particular features of a CBLE, and how the interaction affects the quality of the resultant learning. Teaching in a CBLE is likely to require a subset of teaching strategies different from that subset appropriate to more traditional environments, and the use of a machine may elicit different behaviours from those normally arising in a classroom context.
Engels, Paul T; de Gara, Chris
Surgical education is evolving under the dual pressures of an enlarging body of knowledge required during residency and mounting work-hour restrictions. Changes in surgical residency training need to be based on available educational models and research to ensure successful training of surgeons. Experiential learning theory, developed by David Kolb, demonstrates the importance of individual learning styles in improving learning. This study helps elucidate the way in which medical students, surgical residents, and surgical faculty learn. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory, which divides individual learning styles into Accommodating, Diverging, Converging, and Assimilating categories, was administered to the second year undergraduate medical students, general surgery resident body, and general surgery faculty at the University of Alberta. A total of 241 faculty, residents, and students were surveyed with an overall response rate of 73%. The predominant learning style of the medical students was assimilating and this was statistically significant (p learning style found in the residents and faculty. The predominant learning styles of the residents and faculty were convergent and accommodative, with no statistically significant differences between the residents and the faculty. We conclude that medical students have a significantly different learning style from general surgical trainees and general surgeons. This has important implications in the education of general surgery residents.
Full Text Available Introduction: Several factors as learning styles can influence the learning process. The aim of thisstudy was to determine learning styles, which are used by nursing and allied health students in SemnanUniversity of Medical Sciences.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 199 nursing and allied healthstudents of Semnan university of medical sciences (2007, Iran. Students were selected using a simplesampling method. The assessment instrument was the last version of Kolb learning style inventory (KLSIV.3.1.Results: Generally, the learning styles of students were divergent (% 27.1, accommodations (% 26.6,convergent (%23.6, and assimilation (%22.6. The preferred learning style in nursing students wasconvergent (%31.9, and in allied health students was divergent (%36.1. There was a significantrelationship between the type of learning styles with academic courses (P=0.006 married status(P=0.004 and average score (P=0.031, but there was no correlation between the type of learning stylesand gender.Conclusion: Considering the predominance of convergent and divergent learning styles in thesestudents, the usage of some educational methods such as problem -based learning, group discussions,brain storming, role playing, computerized simulation and demonstration are recommended in theoretical,clinical and skill laboratory fields, so that; the students in the new and objective situations can apply theirvisualization for more earning knowledge and professional skills.
Hsieh, Chen-Wei; Chen, Sherry Y.
Handheld devices are widely applied to support open and distributed learning, where students are diverse. On the other hand, customization and personalization can be applied to accommodate students' diversities. However, paucity of research compares the effects of customization and personalization in the context of handheld devices. To this end, a…
Topal, Kenan; Sarıkaya, Özlem; Basturk, Ramazan; Buke, Akile
Objectives: The process of development and evaluation of undergraduate medical education programs should include analysis of learners’ characteristics, needs, and perceptions about learning methods. This study aims to evaluate medical students’ perceptions about problem-based learning methods and to compare these results with their individual learning styles.Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted at Marmara University Medical School where problem-based learning was implemented in the...
Weggelaar-Jansen, Anne Marie; van Wijngaarden, Jeroen; Slaghuis, Sarah-Sue
Quality improvement collaboratives are used to improve healthcare by various organizations. Despite their popularity literature shows mixed results on their effectiveness. A quality improvement collaborative can be seen as a temporary learning organization in which knowledge about improvement themes and methods is exchanged. In this research we studied: Does the learning approach of a quality improvement collaborative match the learning styles preferences of the individual participants and how does that affect the learning process of participants? This research used a mixed methods design combining a validated learning style questionnaire with data collected in the tradition of action research methodology to study two Dutch quality improvement collaboratives. The questionnaire is based on the learning style model of Ruijters and Simons, distinguishing five learning style preferences: Acquisition of knowledge, Apperception from others, Discovery of new insights, Exercising in fictitious situations and Participation with others. The most preferred learning styles of the participants were Discovery and Participation. The learning style Acquisition was moderately preferred and Apperception and Exercising were least preferred. The educational components of the quality improvement collaboratives studied (national conferences, half-day learning sessions, faculty site visits and use of an online tool) were predominantly associated with the learning styles Acquisition and Apperception. We observed a decrease in attendance to the learning activities and non-conformance with the standardized set goals and approaches. We conclude that the participants' satisfaction with the offered learning approach changed over time. The lacking match between these learning style preferences and the learning approach in the educational components of the quality improvement collaboratives studied might be the reason why the participants felt they did not gain new insights and therefore ceased
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the performance characteristics and differences between English and Oriya medium school children on various cognitive processing, reading, academic achievement, and teacher perception measures. The sample consists of 243 schoolchildren, 120 from Grade IV and 123 from Grade VII from three different schools of Cuttack city in Orissa, India. The children were individually administered the Figure-Copying, Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Matching Familiar Figure Task, Serial Recall, Digit-Span, Wechsler’s Intelligence Scale for Children, Block Design, Cloze Reading Comprehension, and Oral Reading tasks. Classroom Achievement scores on different subjects and the teachers’ ratings about their students were also taken. Results revealed that children reading in English medium schools outperformed their Oriya medium counterparts in some cognitive measures such as Figure Copying, MFFT, RPM, and Digit-Span tasks irrespective of levels. However, the children studying in Oriya medium schools scored higher in Reading Comprehension task and commit less error compared with their English medium counterparts. However, in case of academic achievement measures at primary level, the Oriya medium children performed better in social science, whereas the English medium students excelled in first language and mathematics. The teachers of Oriya medium schools also rated their children better in general conduct, motivation, and effort in schoolwork, whereas, at the secondary level, there was no difference between these two groups in academic achievement or teacher perception measures.
O'Donnell, Ellen H; Moreau, Melissa; Cardemil, Esteban V; Pollastri, Alisha
Research on the mechanisms by which interparental conflict (IPC) affects child depression suggests that both parenting and children's conflict appraisals play important roles, but few studies have explored the role of general cognitive style or included both parenting and cognitions in the same design. Moreover, the effects of IPC on minority children are not well understood. In this longitudinal study, parenting was examined as a mediator of the relation between increasing IPC and change in depression. General cognitive style was included as a moderator. The combined influence of parenting and cognitions was also explored. A racially and ethnically diverse sample of 88 fifth and sixth graders from two urban schools reported their cognitive style, depressive symptoms, and perceptions of conflict and parenting at two time points separated by one year. Parental warmth/rejection mediated the relation between IPC and depression, and general cognitive style acted as a moderator. Parenting, cognitive style, and IPC did not significantly interact to predict change in depression over time. Findings indicate that both parenting and children's general cognitive style play a role in understanding the impact of increasing IPC on children's well-being.
OJEH, NKEMCHO; SOBERS-GRANNUM, NATASHA; GAUR, UMA; UDUPA, ALAYA; MAJUMDER, MD.ANWARUL AZIM
Introduction: Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students’ learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R) and kinesthetic (K)] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compare the perceived and assessed learning style preferences, assess gender differences in learning style preferences, and determine whether any relationships exists between awareness of learning styles and academic grades, age, gender and learning modality. Methods: The VARK questionnaire was administered to pre-clinical students taking a variety of courses in the first three years of the undergraduate MB BS degree programme at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados in 2014. Results: The majority of the students were multimodal learners with no differences observed between males (59.5%) and females (60.0%), with tetramodal being the most common. Read/write (33.8%) followed by kinesthetic (32.5%) were the most common learning style preferences. The sensory modality preference for females was read/write (34.2%) and for males it was kinesthetic (40.5%). Significant differences were observed between the perceived and assessed learning style preferences with a majority of visual and read/write learners correctly matching their perceived to their actual learning styles. Awareness of learning styles was associated with learning modality but not with academic performance, age or gender. Overall, 60.7% of high achievers used multimodal learning compared to 56.9% low achievers. Conclusion: The findings from this study indicated that the VARK tool was useful in gathering information about different learning styles, and might assist
Ojeh, Nkemcho; Sobers-Grannum, Natasha; Gaur, Uma; Udupa, Alaya; Majumder, Md Anwarul Azim
Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students' learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R) and kinesthetic (K)] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compare the perceived and assessed learning style preferences, assess gender differences in learning style preferences, and determine whether any relationships exists between awareness of learning styles and academic grades, age, gender and learning modality. The VARK questionnaire was administered to pre-clinical students taking a variety of courses in the first three years of the undergraduate MB BS degree programme at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados in 2014. The majority of the students were multimodal learners with no differences observed between males (59.5%) and females (60.0%), with tetramodal being the most common. Read/write (33.8%) followed by kinesthetic (32.5%) were the most common learning style preferences. The sensory modality preference for females was read/write (34.2%) and for males it was kinesthetic (40.5%). Significant differences were observed between the perceived and assessed learning style preferences with a majority of visual and read/write learners correctly matching their perceived to their actual learning styles. Awareness of learning styles was associated with learning modality but not with academic performance, age or gender. Overall, 60.7% of high achievers used multimodal learning compared to 56.9% low achievers. The findings from this study indicated that the VARK tool was useful in gathering information about different learning styles, and might assist educators in designing blended teaching
Full Text Available Introduction: Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students’ learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V, aural (A, read/write (R and kinesthetic (K] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compare the perceived and assessed learning style preferences, assess gender differences in learning style preferences, and determine whether any relationships exists between awareness of learning styles and academic grades, age, gender and learning modality. Methods: The VARK questionnaire was administered to preclinical students taking a variety of courses in the first three years of the undergraduate MB BS degree programme at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados in 2014. Results: The majority of the students were multimodal learners with no differences observed between males (59.5% and females (60.0%, with tetramodal being the most common. Read/write (33.8% followed by kinesthetic (32.5% were the most common learning style preferences. The sensory modality preference for females was read/write (34.2% and for males it was kinesthetic (40.5%. Significant differences were observed between the perceived and assessed learning style preferences with a majority of visual and read/write learners correctly matching their perceived to their actual learning styles. Awareness of learning styles was associated with learning modality but not with academic performance, age or gender. Overall, 60.7% of high achievers used multimodal learning compared to 56.9% low achievers. Conclusion: The findings from this study indicated that the VARK tool was useful in gathering information about different learning styles, and might
Liew, Siaw-Cheok; Sidhu, Jagmohni; Barua, Ankur
Learning styles and approaches of individual undergraduate medical students vary considerably and as a consequence, their learning needs also differ from one student to another. This study was conducted to identify different learning styles and approaches of pre-clinical, undergraduate medical students and also to determine the relationships of learning preferences with performances in the summative examinations. A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 419 pre-clinical, undergraduate medical students of the International Medical University (IMU) in Kuala Lumpur. The number of students from Year 2 was 217 while that from Year 3 was 202. The Visual, Auditory, Read/Write, Kinesthetic (VARK) and the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) questionnaires were used for data collection. This study revealed that 343 students (81.9%) had unimodal learning style, while the remaining 76 (18.1%) used a multimodal learning style. Among the unimodal learners, a majority (30.1%) were of Kinesthetic (K) type. Among the middle and high achievers in summative examinations, a majority had unimodal (Kinaesthetic) learning style (30.5%) and were also strategic/deep learners (79.4%). However, the learning styles and approaches did not contribute significantly towards the learning outcomes in summative examinations. A majority of the students in this study had Unimodal (Kinesthetic) learning style. The learning preferences (styles and approaches) did not contribute significantly to the learning outcomes. Future work to re-assess the viability of these learning preferences (styles and approaches) after the incorporation of teaching-learning instructions tailored specifically to the students will be beneficial to help medical teachers in facilitating students to become more capable learners.
Höglund, Erik; Silva, Patricia Isabel da Mota E.; Vindas, Marco A.
Individual variation in the ability to modify previously learned behavior is an important dimension of trait correlations referred to as coping styles, behavioral syndromes or personality. These trait clusters have been shaped by natural selection, and underlying control mechanisms are often cons...
Myers, J. Paul, Jr.; Munsinger, Brita
This paper investigates the relationship between learning style and programming achievement in two paradigms: imperative and functional. An imperative language achieves its effect by changing the value of variables by means of assignment statements while functional languages rely on evaluation of expressions rather than side-effects. Learning…
Baumard, Nicolas; Hyafil, Alexandre; Boyer, Pascal
The ‘Axial Age’ (500–300 BCE) refers to the period during which most of the main religious and spiritual traditions emerged in Eurasian societies. Although the Axial Age has recently been the focus of increasing interest,1-5 its existence is still very much in dispute. The main reason for questioning the existence of the Axial Age is that its nature, as well as its spatial and temporal boundaries, remain very much unclear. The standard approach to the Axial Age defines it as a change of cognitive style, from a narrative and analogical style to a more analytical and reflective style, probably due to the increasing use of external memory tools. Our recent research suggests an alternative hypothesis, namely a change in reward orientation, from a short-term materialistic orientation to a long-term spiritual one.6 Here, we briefly discuss these 2 alternative definitions of the Axial Age. PMID:27066164
Kolb, Alice Y.; Kolb, David A.
Contemporary research on meta-cognition has reintroduced conscious experience into psychological research on learning and stimulated a fresh look at classical experiential learning scholars who gave experience a central role in the learning process--William James, John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, Carl Rogers, and Paulo Freire. In particular James's…
Zwolsman, Sandra E; van Dijk, Nynke; Verhoeven, Anita A H; de Ruijter, Wouter; Wieringa-de Waard, Margreet
Learning styles determine how people manage new information. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) involves the management of information in clinical practice. As a consequence, the way in which a person uses EBM can be related to his or her learning style. In order to tailor EBM education to the individual learner, this study aims to determine whether there is a relationship between an individual's learning style and EBM competence (knowledge/skills, attitude, behaviour). In 2008, we conducted a survey among 140 novice GP trainees in order to assess their EBM competence and learning styles (Accommodator, Diverger, Assimilator, Converger, or mixed learning style). The trainees' EBM knowledge/skills (scale 0-15; mean 6.8; 95%CI 6.4-7.2) were adequate and their attitudes towards EBM (scale 0-100; mean 63; 95%CI 61.3-64.3) were positive. We found no relationship between their knowledge/skills or attitudes and their learning styles (p = 0.21; p = 0.19). Of the trainees, 40% used guidelines to answer clinical questions and 55% agreed that the use of guidelines is the most appropriate way of applying EBM in general practice. Trainees preferred using evidence from summaries to using evidence from single studies. There were no differences in medical decision-making or in EBM use (p = 0.59) for the various learning styles. However, we did find a link between having an Accommodating or Converging learning style and making greater use of intuition. Moreover, trainees with different learning styles expressed different ideas about the optimal use of EBM in primary care. We found that EBM knowledge/skills and EBM attitudes did not differ with respect to the learning styles of GP trainees. However, we did find differences relating to the use of intuition and the trainees' ideas regarding the use of evidence in decision-making.
de Ruijter Wouter
Full Text Available Abstract Background Learning styles determine how people manage new information. Evidence-based medicine (EBM involves the management of information in clinical practice. As a consequence, the way in which a person uses EBM can be related to his or her learning style. In order to tailor EBM education to the individual learner, this study aims to determine whether there is a relationship between an individual's learning style and EBM competence (knowledge/skills, attitude, behaviour. Methods In 2008, we conducted a survey among 140 novice GP trainees in order to assess their EBM competence and learning styles (Accommodator, Diverger, Assimilator, Converger, or mixed learning style. Results The trainees' EBM knowledge/skills (scale 0-15; mean 6.8; 95%CI 6.4-7.2 were adequate and their attitudes towards EBM (scale 0-100; mean 63; 95%CI 61.3-64.3 were positive. We found no relationship between their knowledge/skills or attitudes and their learning styles (p = 0.21; p = 0.19. Of the trainees, 40% used guidelines to answer clinical questions and 55% agreed that the use of guidelines is the most appropriate way of applying EBM in general practice. Trainees preferred using evidence from summaries to using evidence from single studies. There were no differences in medical decision-making or in EBM use (p = 0.59 for the various learning styles. However, we did find a link between having an Accommodating or Converging learning style and making greater use of intuition. Moreover, trainees with different learning styles expressed different ideas about the optimal use of EBM in primary care. Conclusions We found that EBM knowledge/skills and EBM attitudes did not differ with respect to the learning styles of GP trainees. However, we did find differences relating to the use of intuition and the trainees' ideas regarding the use of evidence in decision-making.
Tuli, Sanjeev Y; Thompson, Lindsay A; Saliba, Heidi; Black, Erik W; Ryan, Kathleen A; Kelly, Maria N; Novak, Maureen; Mellott, Jane; Tuli, Sonal S
Board certification is an important professional qualification and a prerequisite for credentialing, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) assesses board certification rates as a component of residency program effectiveness. To date, research has shown that preresidency measures, including National Board of Medical Examiners scores, Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society membership, or medical school grades poorly predict postresidency board examination scores. However, learning styles and temperament have been identified as factors that 5 affect test-taking performance. The purpose of this study is to characterize the learning styles and temperaments of pediatric residents and to evaluate their relationships to yearly in-service and postresidency board examination scores. This cross-sectional study analyzed the learning styles and temperaments of current and past pediatric residents by administration of 3 validated tools: the Kolb Learning Style Inventory, the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, and the Felder-Silverman Learning Style test. These results were compared with known, normative, general and medical population data and evaluated for correlation to in-service examination and postresidency board examination scores. The predominant learning style for pediatric residents was converging 44% (33 of 75 residents) and the predominant temperament was guardian 61% (34 of 56 residents). The learning style and temperament distribution of the residents was significantly different from published population data (P = .002 and .04, respectively). Learning styles, with one exception, were found to be unrelated to standardized test scores. The predominant learning style and temperament of pediatric residents is significantly different than that of the populations of general and medical trainees. However, learning styles and temperament do not predict outcomes on standardized in-service and board examinations in pediatric residents.
Shankar, P R; Dubey, A K; Binu, V S; Subish, P; Deshpande, V Y
Information on the learning styles of medical students are lacking in medical colleges in Nepal. Learning styles may be associated with student understanding and may predict success in examination. The present study was carried out to obtain information on learning styles and preferences for teaching of fourth semester medical students and note the association, if any, between respondents' personal characteristics and preferences for learning styles and types of teaching. The correlation between preferences for learning styles and types of teaching and performance in the second year university examination was also explored. The study was carried out during October 2003 at the Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal using the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory (ASSIST) instrument. Information on the respondents' personal characteristics was collected. Respondents had to indicate their degree of agreement with a set of statements using a modified Likert-type scale. The statements were grouped into three main learning styles and two types of teaching. The median scores among different subgroups of respondents were compared using appropriate non-parametric tests (peducated in English medium schools. The median scores for deep and surface learning styles were 64 and 49 respectively (maximum score=80). The scores for strategic learning was 75.5 (maximum score=100). There was no clear preference for any particular type of teaching. Indian students used more surface apathetic learning strategies compared to others. There was a negative correlation between surface learning and marks obtained in the final examination. The students mainly used deep and strategic learning styles. Differences in preference for learning styles and types of teaching were noted according the respondents' personal characteristics. This was a preliminary study and further studies are required.
Dewan, Swati; Agarwal, Shubham; Singh, Navjyoti
In this paper, we address the problem of dance style classification to classify Indian dance or any dance in general. We propose a 3-step deep learning pipeline. First, we extract 14 essential joint locations of the dancer from each video frame, this helps us to derive any body region location within the frame, we use this in the second step which forms the main part of our pipeline. Here, we divide the dancer into regions of important motion in each video frame. We then extract patches centered at these regions. Main discriminative motion is captured in these patches. We stack the features from all such patches of a frame into a single vector and form our hierarchical dance pose descriptor. Finally, in the third step, we build a high level representation of the dance video using the hierarchical descriptors and train it using a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) for classification. Our novelty also lies in the way we use multiple representations for a single video. This helps us to: (1) Overcome the RNN limitation of learning small sequences over big sequences such as dance; (2) Extract more data from the available dataset for effective deep learning by training multiple representations. Our contributions in this paper are three-folds: (1) We provide a deep learning pipeline for classification of any form of dance; (2) We prove that a segmented representation of a dance video works well with sequence learning techniques for recognition purposes; (3) We extend and refine the ICD dataset and provide a new dataset for evaluation of dance. Our model performs comparable or better in some cases than the state-of-the-art on action recognition benchmarks.
Liew, Siaw-Cheok; Sidhu, Jagmohni; Barua, Ankur
Background Learning styles and approaches of individual undergraduate medical students vary considerably and as a consequence, their learning needs also differ from one student to another. This study was conducted to identify different learning styles and approaches of pre-clinical, undergraduate medical students and also to determine the relationships of learning preferences with performances in the summative examinations. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected...
Lean Keng, Soon; AlQudah, Hani Nawaf Ibrahim
To raise awareness of critical care nurses' cognitive bias in decision-making, its relationship with leadership styles and its impact on care delivery. The relationship between critical care nurses' decision-making and leadership styles in hospitals has been widely studied, but the influence of cognitive bias on decision-making and leadership styles in critical care environments remains poorly understood, particularly in Jordan. Two-phase mixed methods sequential explanatory design and grounded theory. critical care unit, Prince Hamza Hospital, Jordan. Participant sampling: convenience sampling Phase 1 (quantitative, n = 96), purposive sampling Phase 2 (qualitative, n = 20). Pilot tested quantitative survey of 96 critical care nurses in 2012. Qualitative in-depth interviews, informed by quantitative results, with 20 critical care nurses in 2013. Descriptive and simple linear regression quantitative data analyses. Thematic (constant comparative) qualitative data analysis. Quantitative - correlations found between rationality and cognitive bias, rationality and task-oriented leadership styles, cognitive bias and democratic communication styles and cognitive bias and task-oriented leadership styles. Qualitative - 'being competent', 'organizational structures', 'feeling self-confident' and 'being supported' in the work environment identified as key factors influencing critical care nurses' cognitive bias in decision-making and leadership styles. Two-way impact (strengthening and weakening) of cognitive bias in decision-making and leadership styles on critical care nurses' practice performance. There is a need to heighten critical care nurses' consciousness of cognitive bias in decision-making and leadership styles and its impact and to develop organization-level strategies to increase non-biased decision-making. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hertzog, Christopher; Smith, R Marit; Ariel, Robert
Background/Study Context: This study evaluated adult age differences in the original three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19, 25-42) and an expanded seven-item version of that test (Toplak et al., 2013, Thinking and Reasoning, 20, 147-168). The CRT is a numerical problem-solving test thought to capture a disposition towards either rapid, intuition-based problem solving (Type I reasoning) or a more thoughtful, analytical problem-solving approach (Type II reasoning). Test items are designed to induce heuristically guided errors that can be avoided if using an appropriate numerical representation of the test problems. We evaluated differences between young adults and old adults in CRT performance and correlates of CRT performance. Older adults (ages 60 to 80) were paid volunteers who participated in experiments assessing age differences in self-regulated learning. Young adults (ages 17 to 35) were students participating for pay as part of a project assessing measures of critical thinking skills or as a young comparison group in the self-regulated learning study. There were age differences in the number of CRT correct responses in two independent samples. Results with the original three-item CRT found older adults to have a greater relative proportion of errors based on providing the intuitive lure. However, younger adults actually had a greater proportion of intuitive errors on the long version of the CRT, relative to older adults. Item analysis indicated a much lower internal consistency of CRT items for older adults. These outcomes do not offer full support for the argument that older adults are higher in the use of a "Type I" cognitive style. The evidence was also consistent with an alternative hypothesis that age differences were due to lower levels of numeracy in the older samples. Alternative process-oriented evaluations of how older adults solve CRT items will probably be needed to determine
Hammer, R E; Hoffer, N; King, W L
Many researchers have found that more college-age adults than would be expected fail Piaget's water-level task, with women failing more frequently than men. It has been hypothesized that differences in cognitive style may account for performance differences on the water-level task. In the present study, 27 male and 27 female architectural students and 27 male and 27 female liberal-arts students were assessed for their performance on both Piaget's Water-level Task and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test. No difference was found in performance of male and female architectural students on either task, but male liberal-arts students scored significantly higher than female liberal-arts students on both measures. A disembedding cognitive style predicted success on the water-level task for the architectural students but not for the liberal arts students.
Nyamsuren, Enkhbold; Taatgen, Niels A
Using results from a controlled experiment and simulations based on cognitive models, we show that visual presentation style can have a significant impact on performance in a complex problem-solving task. We compared subject performances in two isomorphic, but visually different, tasks based on a card game of SET. Although subjects used the same strategy in both tasks, the difference in presentation style resulted in radically different reaction times and significant deviations in scanpath patterns in the two tasks. Results from our study indicate that low-level subconscious visual processes, such as differential acuity in peripheral vision and low-level iconic memory, can have indirect, but significant effects on decision making during a problem-solving task. We have developed two ACT-R models that employ the same basic strategy but deal with different presentations styles. Our ACT-R models confirm that changes in low-level visual processes triggered by changes in presentation style can propagate to higher-level cognitive processes. Such a domino effect can significantly affect reaction times and eye movements, without affecting the overall strategy of problem solving.
Nyamsuren, Enkhbold; Taatgen, Niels A.
Using results from a controlled experiment and simulations based on cognitive models, we show that visual presentation style can have a significant impact on performance in a complex problem-solving task. We compared subject performances in two isomorphic, but visually different, tasks based on a card game of SET. Although subjects used the same strategy in both tasks, the difference in presentation style resulted in radically different reaction times and significant deviations in scanpath patterns in the two tasks. Results from our study indicate that low-level subconscious visual processes, such as differential acuity in peripheral vision and low-level iconic memory, can have indirect, but significant effects on decision making during a problem-solving task. We have developed two ACT-R models that employ the same basic strategy but deal with different presentations styles. Our ACT-R models confirm that changes in low-level visual processes triggered by changes in presentation style can propagate to higher-level cognitive processes. Such a domino effect can significantly affect reaction times and eye movements, without affecting the overall strategy of problem solving. PMID:24260415
Full Text Available Using results from a controlled experiment and simulations based on cognitive models, we show that visual presentation style can have a significant impact on performance in a complex problem-solving task. We compared subject performances in two isomorphic, but visually different, tasks based on a card game of SET. Although subjects used the same strategy in both tasks, the difference in presentation style resulted in radically different reaction times and significant deviations in scanpath patterns in the two tasks. Results from our study indicate that low-level subconscious visual processes, such as differential acuity in peripheral vision and low-level iconic memory, can have indirect, but significant effects on decision making during a problem-solving task. We have developed two ACT-R models that employ the same basic strategy but deal with different presentations styles. Our ACT-R models confirm that changes in low-level visual processes triggered by changes in presentation style can propagate to higher-level cognitive processes. Such a domino effect can significantly affect reaction times and eye movements, without affecting the overall strategy of problem solving.
Ponton, Michael K.; Rhea, Nancy E.
The current perspective of autonomous learning defines it as the agentive exhibition of resourcefulness, initiative, and persistence in self-directed learning. As a form of human agency, it has been argued in the literature that this perspective should be consistent with Bandura's (1986) Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The purpose of this article…
Rodriguez, Christina M
According to Social Information Processing theory, parents' cognitive processes influence their decisions to engage in physical maltreatment, although cognitions occur in the context of other aspects of the parents' life. The present study investigated whether cognitive processes (external locus of control, inappropriate developmental expectations) predicted child abuse potential and overreactive disciplinary style beyond personal contextual factors characteristic of the parent (hostility, stress, and coping). 363 parents were recruited online. Results highlight the relative importance of the contextual characteristics (particularly stress, avoidant coping, and irritability) relative to cognitive processes in predicting abuse potential and overreactive discipline strategies, although an external locus of control also significantly contributed. Findings do not support that parents' developmental expectations uniquely predict elevated abuse risk. Results indicate stressed parents who utilize avoidance coping strategies are more likely to use overreactive discipline and report increased abuse potential. Findings are discussed with regard to implications for prevention/intervention efforts.
Ramon Cabada Zatarain Cabada, M. L. Barron Estrada, L. Zepeda Sanchez, Guillermo Sandoval, J.M. Osorio Velazquez, J.E. Urias Barrientos
Full Text Available The identification of the best learning style in an Intelligent Tutoring System must be considered essential as part of thesuccess in the teaching process. In many implementations of automatic classifiers finding the right student learning styler e p r e s e n t s t h e h a r d e s t a s s i g n m e n t . T h e r e a s o n i s t h a t m o s t o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s w o r k u s i n g e x p e r t g r o u p s o r a s e t o fquestionnaires which define how the learning styles are assigned to students. This paper presents a novel approach forautomatic learning styles classification using a Kohonen network. The approach is used by an author tool for buildingIntelligent Tutoring Systems running under a Web 2.0 collaborative learning platform. The tutoring systems together withthe neural network can also be exported to mobile devices. We present different results to the approach working under theauthor tool.
Yousef, Darwish Abdulrahman
Purpose: Although there are many studies addressing the learning styles of business students as well as students of other disciplines, there are few studies which address the learning style preferences of statistics students. The purpose of this study is to explore the learning style preferences of statistics students at a United Arab Emirates…
This study aimed to examine the direct and significant affect of leadership style to learning organization, leadership style to employee's satisfaction, learning organization to firm's performance, employee's satisfaction to firm's performance, leadership style to firm's performance, and learning organization to employee's satisfaction on manufacturing companies in Surabaya. This study used quantitative approach and the data were obtained through the distribution of questionnaire to manufactu...
Lakes, Kimberley D.; Marvin, Shesha; Rowley, Jessica; Nicolas, Malia San; Arastoo, Sara; Viray, Leo; Orozco, Amanda; Jurnak, Fran
Objective To study dancers’ perceptions of the physical, cognitive, affective, and social benefits of partnered dancing. Method 225 dancers (71% female) were recruited through a community ballroom dance center and completed an online survey designed to measure their perceptions of the physical, cognitive, affective, and social benefits of modern, partnered dance styles (swing, Lindy Hop, and ballroom dancing). Subgroups were formed for analyses. For one set of analyses, groups based on length of dance participation were formed: experienced (dancing for more than 2 years) or novice (dancing for less than a year) dancers. For another set of analyses, groups based on frequency of dance practice were formed: committed (dancing at least one or more times per week) or occasional (dancing two or fewer times per month). Results The majority of participants reported perceived benefits in physical fitness, cognition, affect, and social functioning. Experienced dancers reported significantly greater self-perceived physical, social, and cognitive benefits than novice dancers. Committed dancers were more likely than occasional dancers to report improvements in physical fitness, U = 6,942, z = 2.38, r = .16, p dance participation significantly predicted perceived physical benefits [X2 (1,6) = 35.463, p dance styles is associated with perceived improvements in physical fitness, cognitive functioning, social functioning, mood, and self-confidence, and that perceived benefits may increase as individuals dance more frequently and over longer periods of time. PMID:27261991
Quentin J M Huys
Full Text Available The Cognitive Style Questionnaire is a valuable tool for the assessment of hopeless cognitive styles in depression research, with predictive power in longitudinal studies. However, it is very burdensome to administer. Even the short form is still long, and neither this nor the original version exist in validated German translations.The questionnaire was translated from English to German, back-translated and commented on by clinicians. The reliability, factor structure and external validity of an online form of the questionnaire were examined on 214 participants. External validity was measured on a subset of 90 subjects.The resulting CSQ-SF-D had good to excellent reliability, both across items and subscales, and similar external validity to the original English version. The internality subscale appeared less robust than other subscales. A detailed analysis of individual item performance suggests that stable results could be achieved with a very short form (CSQ-VSF-D including only 27 of the 72 items.The CSQ-SF-D is a validated and freely distributed translation of the CSQ-SF into German. This should make efficient assessment of cognitive style in German samples more accessible to researchers.
Bobick, Sandra Burin
This study investigated the influence of learning style on concept acquisition within a sample of community college students in a general biology course. There are two subproblems within the larger problem: (1) the influence of demographic variables (age, gender, number of college credits, prior exposure to scientific information) on learning style, and (2) the correlations between prior scientific knowledge, learning style and student understanding of the concept of the gene. The sample included all students enrolled in an introductory general biology course during two consecutive semesters at an urban community college. Initial data was gathered during the first week of the semester, at which time students filled in a short questionnaire (age, gender, number of college credits, prior exposure to science information either through reading/visual sources or a prior biology course). Subjects were then given the Inventory of Learning Processes-Revised (ILP-R) which measures general preferences in five learning styles; Deep Learning; Elaborative Learning, Agentic Learning, Methodical Learning and Literal Memorization. Subjects were then given the Gene Conceptual Knowledge pretest: a 15 question objective section and an essay section. Subjects were exposed to specific concepts during lecture and laboratory exercises. At the last lab, students were given the Genetics Conceptual Knowledge Posttest. Pretest/posttest gains were correlated with demographic variables and learning styles were analyzed for significant correlations. Learning styles, as the independent variable in a simultaneous multiple regression, were significant predictors of results on the gene assessment tests, including pretest, posttest and gain. Of the learning styles, Deep Learning accounted for the greatest positive predictive value of pretest essay and pretest objective results. Literal Memorization was a significant negative predictor for posttest essay, essay gain and objective gain. Simultaneous
Fitri Genisti; Ni Komang Sukra Andini; Ni Luh Gede Puspita Yanti
Background: Child development is a very important phase, which children learn various skills as future generations in the future. Disorders that can impede child development process of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Children with ADHD have problems with cognitive abilities, of which about 20-60% of them have learning disorders. The efforts to support cognitive development in ADHD children is to approach the child's environment through parenting parents. Objective: This s...
In everyday life, we interact with cognitive artifacts to receive and/or manipulate information so as to alter our thinking processes. CHEM/TEAC 869Q is a distance course that includes extensive explicit instruction in the use of a cognitive artifact. This study investigates issues related to the design of that online artifact. In order to understand design implications and how cognitive artifacts contribute to students' thinking and learning, a qualitative research methodology was engaged that utilized think aloud sessions. Participants' described constrained and structured cognitive models while using the artifact. The study also was informed by interviews and researcher's field notes. A purposeful sampling method led to the selection of participants, four males and two females, who had no prior history of using a course from the 869 series but who had experienced the scientific content covered by the CHEM869Q course. Analysis of the results showed both that a cognitive artifact may lead users' minds in decision making, and that problem solving processes were affected by cognitive artifact's design. When there is no design flaw, users generally thought that the cognitive artifact was helpful by simplifying steps, overcoming other limitations, and reducing errors in a reliable, effective, and easy to use way. Moreover, results showed that successful implementation of cognitive artifacts into teaching --learning practices depended on user willingness to transfer a task to the artifact. While users may like the idea of benefiting from a cognitive artifact, nevertheless, they may tend to limit their usage. They sometimes think that delegating a task to a cognitive artifact makes them dependent, and that they may not learn how to perform the tasks by themselves. They appear more willing to use a cognitive artifact after they have done the task by themselves.
Gurpinar, Erol; Alimoglu, Mustafa Kemal; Mamakli, Sumer; Aktekin, Mehmet
The curriculum of our medical school has a hybrid structure including both traditional training (lectures) and problem-based learning (PBL) applications. The purpose of this study was to determine the learning styles of our medical students and investigate the relation of learning styles with each of satisfaction with different instruction methods and academic achievement in them. This study was carried out with the participation of 170 first-year medical students (the participation rate was 91.4%). The researchers prepared sociodemographic and satisfaction questionnaires to determine the characteristics of the participants and their satisfaction levels with traditional training and PBL. The Kolb learning styles inventory was used to explore the learning styles of the study group. The participants completed all forms at the end of the first year of medical education. Indicators of academic achievement were scores of five theoretical block exams and five PBL exams performed throughout the academic year of 2008-2009. The majority of the participants took part in the "diverging" (n = 84, 47.7%) and "assimilating" (n = 73, 41.5%) groups. Numbers of students in the "converging" and "accommodating" groups were 11 (6.3%) and 8 (4.5%), respectively. In all learning style groups, PBL satisfaction scores were significantly higher than those of traditional training. Exam scores for "PBL and traditional training" did not differ among the four learning styles. In logistic regression analysis, learning style (assimilating) predicted student satisfaction with traditional training and success in theoretical block exams. Nothing predicted PBL satisfaction and success. This is the first study conducted among medical students evaluating the relation of learning style with student satisfaction and academic achievement. More research with larger groups is needed to generalize our results. Some learning styles may relate to satisfaction with and achievement in some instruction methods.
Afshar, Hassan Soodmand; Tofighi, Somayyeh; Hamazavi, Raouf
The idea that language learning is facilitated or inhibited by a multitude of factors has prompted scholars in the field to investigate variables considered to be crucial in the process of second or foreign language learning. This study investigated relationships between emotional intelligence, learning style, language learning strategy use, and…
Eudoxie, Gaius D.
Learning styles represent an integral component of the learning environment, which has been shown to differ across institutions and disciplines. To identify learner preferences within a discipline would aid in evaluating instructional resources geared toward active learning. The learning profiles of second-year soil science students (n = 62) were…
Poletti, Michele; Carretta, Elisa; Bonvicini, Laura; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo
The heterogeneity among children with learning disabilities still represents a barrier and a challenge in their conceptualization. Although a dimensional approach has been gaining support, the categorical approach is still the most adopted, as in the recent fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The introduction of the single overarching diagnostic category of specific learning disorder (SLD) could underemphasize interindividual clinical differences regarding intracategory cognitive functioning and learning proficiency, according to current models of multiple cognitive deficits at the basis of neurodevelopmental disorders. The characterization of specific cognitive profiles associated with an already manifest SLD could help identify possible early cognitive markers of SLD risk and distinct trajectories of atypical cognitive development leading to SLD. In this perspective, we applied a cluster analysis to identify groups of children with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-based diagnosis of SLD with similar cognitive profiles and to describe the association between clusters and SLD subtypes. A sample of 205 children with a diagnosis of SLD were enrolled. Cluster analyses (agglomerative hierarchical and nonhierarchical iterative clustering technique) were used successively on 10 core subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition. The 4-cluster solution was adopted, and external validation found differences in terms of SLD subtype frequencies and learning proficiency among clusters. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed, tracing directions for further studies.
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Learning styles are effective factors in the learning. Learning is a relatively permanent change in the behavior or attitude of a person over time. Whereas improvement of existing conditions is pivotal in educational activities; therefore, the aim of this study was the assessment of stages and learning styles based on the Kolb theory among students of Qom University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 279 students of the QomUniversity of Medical Sciences, Iran in October 2015. The participants were selected using a stratified sampling method. The assessment instrument was the Kolb learning style inventory (KLSI V.3.1. Data analysis was performed by SPSS using descriptive statistics and Chi square test. Results: The mean age of students was 22.23±4.38 years, and the average grade was 16.85±1.65. Generally, the learning styles of students were convergent (% 38.9, assimilative (% 37.5, divergent (%13.2 and accommodative (%10.4. There was a significant relationship between learning styles with gender (P=0.01. Conclusion: Considering the predominance of convergent and assimilative learning styles in these students, it is recommended that faculty members use visual methods such as diagrams, self learning, individualized instruction and emphasize on practical methods in teaching.
Halbert, Caitlin; Kriebel, Richard; Cuzzolino, Robert; Coughlin, Patrick; Fresa-Dillon, Kerin
The benefit of online learning materials in medical education is not well defined. The study correlated certain self-identified learning styles with the use of self-selected online learning materials. First-year osteopathic medical students were given access to review and/or summary materials via an online course management system (CMS) while enrolled in a pre-clinical course. At the end of the course, students completed a self-assessment of learning style based on the Index of Learning Styles and a brief survey regarding their usage and perceived advantage of the online learning materials. Students who accessed the online materials earned equivalent grades to those who did not. However, the study found that students who described their learning styles as active, intuitive, global, and/or visual were more likely to use online educational resources than those who identified their learning style as reflective, sensing, sequential, and/or verbal. Identification of a student's learning style can help medical educators direct students to learning resources that best suit their individual needs.
Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of the current study was to identify associations between the learning style of nursing students and their cultural values and demographic characteristics. Methods: A non-probability purposive sampling method was used to gather data from two populations. All 156 participants were female, Muslim, and full-time degree students. Data were collected from April to June 2010 using two reliable and validated questionnaires: the Learning Style Scales and the Values Survey Module 2008 (VSM 08. A simple linear regression was run for each predictor before conducting multiple linear regression analysis. The forward selection method was used for variable selection. P-values ≤0.05 and ≤0.1 were considered to indicate significance and marginal significance, respectively. Moreover, multi-group confirmatory factor analysis was performed to determine the invariance of the Farsi and English versions of the VSM 08. Results: The perceptive learning style was found to have a significant negative relationship with the power distance and monumentalism indices of the VSM 08. Moreover, a significant negative association was observed between the solitary learning style and the power distance index. However, no significant association was found between the analytic, competitive, and imaginative learning styles and cultural values (P>0.05. Likewise, no significant associations were observed between learning style, including the perceptive, solitary, analytic, competitive, and imaginative learning styles, and year of study or age (P>0.05. Conclusion: Students who reported low values on the power distance and monumentalism indices are more likely to prefer perceptive and solitary learning styles. Within each group of students in our study sample from the same school the year of study and age did not show any significant associations with learning style.
Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani; Ja'afar, Rogayah
The goal of the current study was to identify associations between the learning style of nursing students and their cultural values and demographic characteristics. A non-probability purposive sampling method was used to gather data from two populations. All 156 participants were female, Muslim, and full-time degree students. Data were collected from April to June 2010 using two reliable and validated questionnaires: the Learning Style Scales and the Values Survey Module 2008 (VSM 08). A simple linear regression was run for each predictor before conducting multiple linear regression analysis. The forward selection method was used for variable selection. P-values ≤0.05 and ≤0.1 were considered to indicate significance and marginal significance, respectively. Moreover, multi-group confirmatory factor analysis was performed to determine the invariance of the Farsi and English versions of the VSM 08. The perceptive learning style was found to have a significant negative relationship with the power distance and monumentalism indices of the VSM 08. Moreover, a significant negative association was observed between the solitary learning style and the power distance index. However, no significant association was found between the analytic, competitive, and imaginative learning styles and cultural values (P>0.05). Likewise, no significant associations were observed between learning style, including the perceptive, solitary, analytic, competitive, and imaginative learning styles, and year of study or age (P>0.05). Students who reported low values on the power distance and monumentalism indices are more likely to prefer perceptive and solitary learning styles. Within each group of students in our study sample from the same school the year of study and age did not show any significant associations with learning style.
Elanda Laksinta Putri
Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to describe the mathematical communication skills and the confidence of grade X SMK students on Van Hiele model geometry learning based on their cognitive styles. It was a qualitative descriptive research. The subjects were 2 impulsive students and 2 reflective students which were selected with MFFT instrument. The data collection techniques were mathematical communication skills tests (written and orally, interviews, documentation, attitude scale and activity observation sheets. The results showed that both written and orally, reflective students were able to meet 5 indicators of mathematical communication skills, and less meet another indicators. While, impulsive students less meet all of the mathematical communication skills indictors. The impulsive students confidence was in the medium category. In contrary, the reflective students confidence was in the high category.
Wanapu, Supachanun; Fung, Chun Che; Kerdprasop, Nittaya; Chamnongsri, Nisachol; Niwattanakul, Suphakit
The issues of accessibility, management, storage and organization of Learning Objects (LOs) in education systems are a high priority of the Thai Government. Incorporating personalized learning or learning styles in a learning object management system to improve the accessibility of LOs has been addressed continuously in the Thai education system.…
Matthews, P. S. C.
Theories of teaching and learning, including those associated with constructivism, often make no overt reference to an underlying assumption that they make; that is, human cognition depends on domain-free, general-purpose processing by the brain. This assumption is shown to be incompatible with evidence from studies of children's early learning. Rather, cognition is modular in nature, and often domain-specific. Recognition of modularity requires a re-evaluation of some aspects of current accounts of learning science. Especially, children's ideas in science are sometimes triggered rather than learned. It is in the nature of triggered conceptual structures that they are not necessarily expressible in language, and that they may not be susceptible to change by later learning.
Asci, Halil; Kulac, Esin; Sezik, Mekin; Cankara, F Nihan; Cicek, Ekrem
To evaluate the effect of learning styles and study behaviors on preclinical medical students' pharmacology exam scores in a non-Western setting. Grasha-Reichmann Student Learning Study Scale and a modified Study Behavior Inventory were used to assess learning styles and study behaviors of preclinical medical students (n = 87). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the independent effect of gender, age, learning style, and study behavior on pharmacology success. Collaborative (40%) and competitive (27%) dominant learning styles were frequent in the cohort. The most common study behavior subcategories were study reading (40%) and general study habits (38%). Adequate listening and note-taking skills were associated with pharmacology success, whereas students with adequate writing skills had lower exam scores. These effects were independent of gender. Preclinical medical students' study behaviors are independent predictive factors for short-term pharmacology success.
Kim, Seung L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.
This paper reports on an exploratory study that investigates the relationship between participants' learning style preferences and their perceptions of a professional workshop on collaboration and technology to support collaboration. The Learning Preference Scale-Students (LPSS) (Owens & Barnes...... style, and Group 2 showed a strong preference for competitive and cooperative learning styles. Group 1 rated the workshop more positively than Group 2. However, Group 2 reported a larger increase in self-efficacy compared to those in Group 1 (18.9% vs. 6.0%). Both groups provided different suggestions...... regarding the content of the workshop. Group 1 suggested adding more discussions and group exercises, whereas Group 2 suggested adding explicit theory or rules to govern behavior. These findings indicate that learning styles should be considered as a potential variable that influences learning outcomes...
Full Text Available The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for one week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants’ momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the Attachment Style Interview and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.
Easton, Charles E.; Watson, J. Allen
Tested the Watson and Busch model of how children learn LOGO programing. Investigated second- and fifth-grade students' stage of cognitive development, stylistic preferences, and strategy usage. Field-independent children showed a marginal advantage over field-dependent children in learning to program in LOGO. (MM)
Rinaningsih; Kadarohman, A.; Firman, H.; Sutoyo
Individual-based independent curriculum as one of target of national education of Indonesia in XXI century can be achieved with the implementation of Sorogan-Bandongan model. This kind of learning model highly facilitates students in understanding various concepts with their own, respective learning styles. This research aims to perceive the effectiveness of Sorogan-Bandongan in increasing the mastery of concept in various learning styles. The samples of this research are students majoring in chemistry amounted to 31 students. Using pre-test and post-test instrument, data are analyzed in descriptive-qualitative method. Based on the result of the data analysis, it is found that 16% of students have mathematical/logical learning style, 22.6% naturalist, 9.7% visual/spatial, 13% kinesthetic, 6% linguistic, 13% intrapersonal, 9.7% interpersonal, and 10% musical. After the implementation of Sorogan-Bandongan model in the Organic Chemistry lectures, improvement of classical learning outcomes as 11,07 is obtained. Six out of eight learning styles of students experienced increase in mastery of concept, where 7 students have the naturalist learning style, 4 students experienced decrease in mastery of concept while 1 student is stagnant (0); meanwhile, 2 out of 4 students that have the interpersonal learning style experienced decrease in mastery of concept.
Blasczyk-Schiep, Sybilla; Sokoła, Kaja; Fila-Witecka, Karolina; Kazén, Miguel
We investigated dysfunctional cognitions about eating and body image in relation to personality styles in a group of professional models. Dysfunctional cognitions in professional models (n = 43) and a control group (n = 43) were assessed with the 'Eating Disorder Cognition Questionnaire' (EDCQ), eating attitudes with the 'Eating Attitudes Test' (EAT), and personality with the 'Personality Styles and Disorders Inventory' (PSDI-S). Models had higher scores than controls on the EDCQ and EAT and on nine scales of the PSDI-S. Moderation analyses showed significant interactions between groups and personality styles in predicting EDCQ scales: The ambitious/narcissistic style was related to "negative body and self-esteem", the conscientious/compulsive style to "dietary restraint", and the spontaneous/borderline style to "loss of control in eating". The results indicate that not all models are susceptible to dysfunctional cognitions about eating and body image. Models are at a higher risk of developing negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional assumptions relating to body size, shape and weight, especially if they have high scores on the above personality styles.
Full Text Available Frequently, college students have issues to learn academic contents included in the subjects of their courses. Such low quality learning is reflected in failures and academic dropout, therefore being matters of concern for teachers and governments. Learning processes in college depend, in part, on the coincidence between teaching methods and students’ learning styles. They are defined as the preference of students when they have to deal with information, particularly the way to perceive it and process it. Learning styles can be trained by the repeated use of specific learning strategies. In such cases, when learning styles coincide with the learning context in order to facilitate the acquisition of new knowledge and its integration with previous information, academic success can be achieved more naturally. To get this match it is required from teachers to adapt their styles and strategies to their students’ learning preferences. Other alternative rests on the design of actions to train students in the use of the appropriate learning styles able to enhance learning. Focused on the second option, the present study aims at: 1 the description of the influence of different learning strategies on each learning style, and 2 the analysis of the way each style explains students’ academic achievement. A transversal, non-experimental, explicative design was employed. 763 college students from Buenos Aires with ages ranging from 17 to 36 years were included in the sample. Locally adapted versions of the Honey-Alonso Questionnaire of Learning Styles -CHAEA as its Spanish acronym-, and Learning and Study Strategies Inventory –LASSI- were used for data gathering. Results showed that the Accommodating style is explained positively and significantly by the Collaborative Learning, Resources for Learning and Information 2.0 Management Competence strategies. Besides, it is observed that the strategies Collaborative Learning, Resources for Learning and
Razak, Nur Afifah Binti Abdul; Jaafar, Siti Norain Bt; Hamidon, Nur Izeanty Binti; Zakaria, Normah Binti
Leadership style is a way of using the power of a leader held as a tool to influence the students and to achieve the objectives in the classroom and affect the election approaches in teaching and learning process. The purpose of this research is to study the style of lecturer's leadership in UTHM Technical and Vocational (TVeT). The study focuses…
Terregrossa, Ralph; Englander, Fred; Englander, Valerie
This study investigates how a natural experiment occurring in the teaching of principles of microeconomics allows a test of the Dunn and Dunn learning styles model (Dunn & Griggs, 2000). The material for the first exam, based on essential definitions and theoretical foundations, was taught in a conventional, inductive style, more compatible with…
Stewart, Jeffrey E.
Leadership in information technology (IT) firms remains a topic for study. Understanding how IT professionals react to leadership styles creates an opportunity for IT leaders to better lead by matching expectation to leadership style. Previous research has linked transformation leadership to the learning organization in the pharmaceutical sector,…
Dursun, Ozcan Ozgur; Akbulut, Yavuz
This study aimed to describe the characteristics of undergraduate students in a hybrid learning environment with regard to their communicator styles and cyberbullying behaviors. Moreover, relationships between cyberbullying victimization and learners' perceived communicator styles were investigated. Cyberbullying victimization was measured through…
Caudek, Corrado; Monni, Alessandra
We studied the effects of negative cognitive style, sad mood, and facial affect on the self-face advantage in a sample of 66 healthy individuals (mean age 26.5 years, range 19-47 years). The sample was subdivided into four groups according to inferential style and responsivity to sad mood induction. Following a sad mood induction, we examined the effect on working memory of an incidental association between facial affect, facial identity, and head-pose orientation. Overall, head-pose recognition was more accurate for the self-face than for nonself face (self-face advantage, SFA). However, participants high in negative cognitive style who experienced higher levels of sadness displayed a stronger SFA for sad expressions than happy expressions. The remaining participants displayed an opposite bias (a stronger SFA for happy expressions than sad expressions), or no bias. These findings highlight the importance of trait-vulnerability status in the working memory biases related to emotional facial expressions.
Calado, Filipa; Alexandre, Joana; Griffiths, Mark D
Background and aims Recent research suggests that youth problem gambling is associated with several factors, but little is known how these factors might influence or interact each other in predicting this behavior. Consequently, this is the first study to examine the mediation effect of coping styles in the relationship between attachment to parental figures and problem gambling. Methods A total of 988 adolescents and emerging adults were recruited to participate. The first set of analyses tested the adequacy of a model comprising biological, cognitive, and family variables in predicting youth problem gambling. The second set of analyses explored the relationship between family and individual variables in problem gambling behavior. Results The results of the first set of analyses demonstrated that the individual factors of gender, cognitive distortions, and coping styles showed a significant predictive effect on youth problematic gambling, and the family factors of attachment and family structure did not reveal a significant influence on this behavior. The results of the second set of analyses demonstrated that the attachment dimension of angry distress exerted a more indirect influence on problematic gambling, through emotion-focused coping style. Discussion This study revealed that some family variables can have a more indirect effect on youth gambling behavior and provided some insights in how some factors interact in predicting problem gambling. Conclusion These findings suggest that youth gambling is a multifaceted phenomenon, and that the indirect effects of family variables are important in estimating the complex social forces that might inﬂuence adolescent decisions to gamble.
Andrias Tri Susanto
Full Text Available This research article reports a qualitative study which was conducted to investigate ways successful EFL learners learned English grammar. The subjects of this research were eight successful EFL learners from six different countries in Asia: China, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data was collected by interviewing each subject in person individually at an agreed time and place. The result showed that all the grammar learning processes described by the subjects were closely linked to the framework of Associative Cognitive CREED. There were also some contributing factors that could be integrally combined salient to the overall grammar learning process. However, interestingly, each subject emphasized different aspects of learning.
Doyle, Nancy Wolcott; Jacobs, Karen
Occupational therapy's online education must be research-based and inclusive. One way to provide a more inclusive online learning experience is to attend to individual learning styles and preferences. This study uses the best available evidence on learning styles and online education to develop, implement, and study occupational therapy students' experiences with an online learning module and related assignment. Eight students consented to take an online survey after completing a learning module and related assignment in an online post-professional graduate course in occupational therapy. The survey explored their learning experience and its applicability to clinical work. Data gathered from multiple-choice, Likert-scale, and open-ended questions were descriptively analyzed. Results from this study suggest that students find the study of learning styles and preferences enjoyable and applicable to their clinical work, but are often motivated by factors such as time and technology when selecting the format of a course assignment.
Full Text Available This study investigated the complex relationship among learning styles, gender, perceived satisfaction, and academic performance across four programming courses supported by an e-learning platform. A total of 219 undergraduate students from a public Iraqi university who recently experienced e-learning voluntarily took place in the study. The integrated courses adopted a blended learning mode and all learners were provided the same learning content and pathway irrespective of their individual styles. Data were gathered using the Index of Learning Styles (ILS, three closed-ended questions, and the academic record. Traditional statistics and partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM were performed to examine the proposed hypotheses. The findings of this research suggested that, overall, learning style dimensions are uncorrelated with either academic performance or perceived satisfaction, except for the processing dimension (active/reflective that has a significant effect on the latter. Furthermore, gender is unassociated with any of the proposed model’s constructs. Finally, there is no significant correlation between academic performance and perceived satisfaction. These results led to the conclusion that even though Arabic engineering students prefer active, sensing, visual, and sequential learning as do other engineering students from different backgrounds, they can adapt to a learning context even if their preferences are not met. The research contributes empirically to the existing debate regarding the potential implications of learning styles and for the Arabic context in particular, since respective research remains rare.
Hernández-Torrano, Daniel; Ali, Syed; Chan, Chee-Kai
Students commencing their medical training arrive with different educational backgrounds and a diverse range of learning experiences. Consequently, students would have developed preferred approaches to acquiring and processing information or learning style preferences. Understanding first-year students' learning style preferences is important to success in learning. However, little is understood about how learning styles impact learning and performance across different subjects within the medical curriculum. Greater understanding of the relationship between students' learning style preferences and academic performance in specific medical subjects would be valuable. This cross-sectional study examined the learning style preferences of first-year medical students and how they differ across gender. This research also analyzed the effect of learning styles on academic performance across different subjects within a medical education program in a Central Asian university. A total of 52 students (57.7% females) from two batches of first-year medical school completed the Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire, which measures four dimensions of learning styles: sensing-intuitive; visual-verbal; active-reflective; sequential-global. First-year medical students reported preferences for visual (80.8%) and sequential (60.5%) learning styles, suggesting that these students preferred to learn through demonstrations and diagrams and in a linear and sequential way. Our results indicate that male medical students have higher preference for visual learning style over verbal, while females seemed to have a higher preference for sequential learning style over global. Significant associations were found between sensing-intuitive learning styles and performance in Genetics [β = -0.46, B = -0.44, p styles and performance in Genetics [β = 0.36, B = 0.43, p learning techniques. Instructors can also benefit by modifying and adapting more appropriate teaching approaches in these
Full Text Available Background : Cognitive emotion regulation plays an immense role to control mental disorders. The aim of this research was to study the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation styles and impulsivity and students, borderline personality disorders. Materials and Methods: Statistical samples of this study included 200 students of Pyam-e-Noor university. Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ, Barrat Impulsivity Scale (BIS and Borderline Personality Scale (STB have been used for data collection. The data was analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Results: Between variable of borderline personality disorder, and styles self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing and blaming others there was a positive correlation, but a negative relationship with acceptance, positive refocusing and positive reappraisal styles was observed (p>0.05. There was a positive relationship between variable of impulsivity with styles of self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing and blaming others, but had a negative relationship with acceptance, positive refocusing and positive reappraisal styles (p>0.05. The results of multi-variable correlation coefficient with Enter method indicated that cognitive emotion regulation styles play a role in explaining borderline personality disorder (R2= 0.646 and impulsivity (R2= 0.645. Conclusion: Training the effective strategies of cognitive emotion regulation should be considered as a part of the intervention in the treatment of impulsivity and borderline personality disorder.
Ekwue, Eleazer U.
The practical nature of physics and its reliance on mathematical presentations and problem solving pose a challenge toward presentation of the course in an online environment for effective learning experience. Most first-time introductory college physics students fail to grasp the basic concepts of the course and the problem solving skills if the instructional strategy used to deliver the course is not compatible with the learners' preferred learning styles. This study investigates the effect of four instructional strategies based on four learning styles (listening, reading, iconic, and direct-experience) to improve learning for introductory college physics in an online environment. Learning styles of 146 participants were determined with Canfield Learning Style inventory. Of the 85 learners who completed the study, research results showed a statistically significant increase in learning performance following the online instruction in all four learning style groups. No statistically significant differences in learning were found among the four groups. However, greater significant academic improvement was found among learners with iconic and direct-experience modes of learning. Learners in all four groups expressed that the design of the unit presentation to match their individual learning styles contributed most to their learning experience. They were satisfied with learning a new physics concept online that, in their opinion, is either comparable or better than an instructor-led classroom experience. Findings from this study suggest that learners' performance and satisfaction in an online introductory physics course could be improved by using instructional designs that are tailored to learners' preferred ways of learning. It could contribute toward the challenge of providing viable online physics instruction in colleges and universities.
Yang, Xiaohu; Jiang, Meng; Zhao, Yong
This study was intended to determine whether the effects of noise on English listening comprehension would vary among Chinese college students with different learning styles. A total of 89 participants with different learning styles measured using Kolb's (1985) Learning Style Inventory finished English listening comprehension tests in quiet and in white noise, Chinese two-talker babble, and English two-talker babble respectively. The results showed that the participants in general had significantly poorer performance in the two babble conditions than in quiet and white noise. However, the participants with assimilative and divergent learning styles performed relatively better in Chinese babble, and exhibited stable performance across the three noisy conditions, while the participants with convergent and accommodative learning styles had more impaired performance in both Chinese babble and English babble than in white noise. Moreover, of Kolb's four learning modes, reflective observation had a facilitative effect on listening performance in Chinese babble and English babble. These findings suggest that differences in learning style might lead to differential performance in foreign language listening comprehension in noise.
Yang, Xiaohu; Jiang, Meng; Zhao, Yong
This study was intended to determine whether the effects of noise on English listening comprehension would vary among Chinese college students with different learning styles. A total of 89 participants with different learning styles measured using Kolb’s (1985) Learning Style Inventory finished English listening comprehension tests in quiet and in white noise, Chinese two-talker babble, and English two-talker babble respectively. The results showed that the participants in general had significantly poorer performance in the two babble conditions than in quiet and white noise. However, the participants with assimilative and divergent learning styles performed relatively better in Chinese babble, and exhibited stable performance across the three noisy conditions, while the participants with convergent and accommodative learning styles had more impaired performance in both Chinese babble and English babble than in white noise. Moreover, of Kolb’s four learning modes, reflective observation had a facilitative effect on listening performance in Chinese babble and English babble. These findings suggest that differences in learning style might lead to differential performance in foreign language listening comprehension in noise. PMID:29085317
Husmann, Polly R; O'Loughlin, Valerie Dean
The concept and existence of learning styles has been fraught with controversy, and recent studies have thrown their existence into doubt. Yet, many students still hold to the conventional wisdom that learning styles are legitimate, and may adapt their outside of class study strategies to match these learning styles. Thus, this study aims to assess if undergraduate anatomy students are more likely to utilize study strategies that align with their hypothetical learning styles (using the VARK analysis from Fleming and Mills, , Improve Acad. 11:137-155) and, if so, does this alignment correlate with their outcome in an anatomy course. Relatedly, this study examines whether students' VARK learning styles are correlated with course outcomes regardless of the students' study strategies, and whether any study strategies are correlated with course outcomes, regardless of student-specific VARK results. A total of 426 anatomy students from the 2015 and 2016 Fall semesters completed a study strategies survey and an online VARK questionnaire. Results demonstrated that most students did not report study strategies that correlated with their VARK assessment, and that student performance in anatomy was not correlated with their score in any VARK categories. Rather, some specific study strategies (irrespective of VARK results), such as use of the virtual microscope, were found to be positively correlated with final class grade. However, the alignment of these study strategies with VARK results had no correlation with anatomy course outcomes. Thus, this research provides further evidence that the conventional wisdom about learning styles should be rejected by educators and students alike. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.