Sample records for learning standard concepts

  1. Family Concepts in Early Learning and Development Standards (United States)

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Sanchez, Claudia; Lee, Angela M.; Casillas, Nicole; Hansen, Caitlynn


    This exploratory study investigated the use of concepts related to families, parents, and the home in 51 state-level early learning and development standards documents. Guidelines from six national family involvement, engagement, and school-partnership models were used to create the Family Involvement Models Analysis Chart (FIMAC), which served as…

  2. E-Learning Content Design Standards Based on Interactive Digital Concepts Maps in the Light of Meaningful and Constructivist Learning Theory (United States)

    Afify, Mohammed Kamal


    The present study aims to identify standards of interactive digital concepts maps design and their measurement indicators as a tool to develop, organize and administer e-learning content in the light of Meaningful Learning Theory and Constructivist Learning Theory. To achieve the objective of the research, the author prepared a list of E-learning…

  3. Instant standard concept for data standards development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert; Kulcsor, Istvan Zsolt; Roes, Jasper


    This paper presents the current results of an ongoing research about a new data standards development concept. The concept is called Instant Standard referring to the pressure that is generated by shrinking the length of the standardization process. Based on this concept it is estimated that the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г О Дуйсеева


    Full Text Available This article deals with the definition and the description of mobile learning. Ten years’ experience of the latest mobile technologies use and devices in educational process abroad is analyzed. Prospects and the possibilities of application of these technologies are considered. The basic concepts and development of mobile learning which proposed by scientists for the last years have been given.

  5. Phonological Concept Learning. (United States)

    Moreton, Elliott; Pater, Joe; Pertsova, Katya


    Linguistic and non-linguistic pattern learning have been studied separately, but we argue for a comparative approach. Analogous inductive problems arise in phonological and visual pattern learning. Evidence from three experiments shows that human learners can solve them in analogous ways, and that human performance in both cases can be captured by the same models. We test GMECCS (Gradual Maximum Entropy with a Conjunctive Constraint Schema), an implementation of the Configural Cue Model (Gluck & Bower, ) in a Maximum Entropy phonotactic-learning framework (Goldwater & Johnson, ; Hayes & Wilson, ) with a single free parameter, against the alternative hypothesis that learners seek featurally simple algebraic rules ("rule-seeking"). We study the full typology of patterns introduced by Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins () ("SHJ"), instantiated as both phonotactic patterns and visual analogs, using unsupervised training. Unlike SHJ, Experiments 1 and 2 found that both phonotactic and visual patterns that depended on fewer features could be more difficult than those that depended on more features, as predicted by GMECCS but not by rule-seeking. GMECCS also correctly predicted performance differences between stimulus subclasses within each pattern. A third experiment tried supervised training (which can facilitate rule-seeking in visual learning) to elicit simple rule-seeking phonotactic learning, but cue-based behavior persisted. We conclude that similar cue-based cognitive processes are available for phonological and visual concept learning, and hence that studying either kind of learning can lead to significant insights about the other. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. The reinterpretation of standard deviation concept


    Ye, Xiaoming


    Existing mathematical theory interprets the concept of standard deviation as the dispersion degree. Therefore, in measurement theory, both uncertainty concept and precision concept, which are expressed with standard deviation or times standard deviation, are also defined as the dispersion of measurement result, so that the concept logic is tangled. Through comparative analysis of the standard deviation concept and re-interpreting the measurement error evaluation principle, this paper points o...

  7. Intentional learning: A concept analysis. (United States)

    Mollman, Sarah; Candela, Lori


    To use a concept analysis to determine a clear definition of the term "intentional learning" for use in nursing. The term intentional learning has been used for years in educational, business, and even nursing literature. It has been used to denote processes leading to higher order thinking and the ability to use knowledge in new situations; both of which are important skills to develop in nursing students. But the lack of a common, accepted definition of the term makes it difficult for nurse educators to base instruction and learning experiences on or to evaluate its overall effectiveness in educating students for diverse, fast-paced clinical practices. A concept analysis following the eight-step method developed by Walker and Avant (2011). Empirical and descriptive literature.  Five defining attributes were identified: (1) self-efficacy for learning, (2) active, effortful, and engaged learning, (3) mastery of goals where learning is the goal, (4) self-directed learning, and (5) self-regulation of learning. Through this concept analysis, nursing will have a clear definition of intentional learning. This will enable nurse educators to generate, evaluate, and test learning experiences that promote further development of intentional learning in nursing students. Nurses in practice will also be able to evaluate if the stated benefits are demonstrated and how this impacts patient care and outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Learning concepts of cinenurducation: an integrative review. (United States)

    Oh, Jina; Kang, Jeongae; De Gagne, Jennie C


    Cinenurducation is the use of films in both didactic and clinical nursing education. Although films are already used as instructional aids in nursing education, few studies have been made that demonstrate the learning concepts that can be attributed to this particular teaching strategy. The purpose of this paper is to describe the learning concepts of cinenurducation and its conceptual metaphor based on a review of literature. The databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, ERIC, EBSCO, ProQuest Library Journal, and Scopus databases were searched for articles. Fifteen peer-reviewed articles were selected through title and abstract screening from "films in nursing" related articles found in internationally published articles in English from the past 20 years. Four common concepts emerged that relate to cinenurducation: (a) student-centered, (b) experiential, (c) reflective, and (d) problem-solving learning. Current literature corroborates cinenurducation as an effective teaching strategy with its learning activities in nursing education. Future studies may include instructional guides of sample films that could be practically used in various domains to teach nursing competencies, as well as in the development of evaluation criteria and standards to assess students' learning outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. General formulation of standard model the standard model is in need of new concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodjaev, L.Sh.


    The phenomenological basis for formulation of the Standard Model has been reviewed. The Standard Model based on the fundamental postulates has been formulated. The concept of the fundamental symmetries has been introduced: To look for not fundamental particles but fundamental symmetries. By searching of more general theory it is natural to search first of all global symmetries and than to learn consequence connected with the localisation of this global symmetries like wise of the standard Model

  10. Common Core Science Standards: Implications for Students with Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Scruggs, Thomas E.; Brigham, Frederick J.; Mastropieri, Margo A.


    The Common Core Science Standards represent a new effort to increase science learning for all students. These standards include a focus on English and language arts aspects of science learning, and three dimensions of science standards, including practices of science, crosscutting concepts of science, and disciplinary core ideas in the various…



    岡, 直樹; 今永, 久美子


    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of concept map completion tasks on concept learning in the primary schoolchildren. The participants were to insert some of the suitable concepts (concept group) or link labeles (link label group) or both of them (concept/link label group) into the blanks to make up the map wholly. It was revealed that the results of the concept group and the concept/link label group were better than the link label group. These results were discussed in te...

  12. Object recognition and concept learning with Confucius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B; Sammut, C


    A learning program produces, as its output, a Boolean function which describes a concept. The function returns true if and only if the argument is an object which satisfies the logical expression in the body of the function. The learning program's input is a set of objects which are instances of the concept to be learnt. The paper describes an algorithm devised to learn concept descriptions in this form. 15 references.

  13. Group Concept Mapping on Learning Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Drachsler, Hendrik


    Stoyanov, S., & Drachsler, H. (2013, 5 July). Group Concept Mapping on Learning Analytics. Presentation given at Learning Analytics Summer School Institute (LASI) to kickoff the national GCM study on LA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

  14. Concept for a primary Romanian radon standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, M.; Stanga, D.; Waetjen, A.C.; Luca, A.; Toro, L.; Varlam, C.; Cassette, P.


    The paper presents the concept of a complex system, aimed to assure the traceability of 222 Rn measurements, from the absolute (primary) standardization to the preparation and delivery of secondary standards, gas vials. The system will contain a solid 226 Ra source, a gas radon circuit, connections with a liquid scintillator vial and with glass vials. The absolute standardization of the 222 Rn, in equilibrium with all the short half life daughters, will be performed by the method of the Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). The system, and method, will allow our laboratory to take part in future international 222 Rn comparisons. The transfer of activity unit from the primary to the secondary standardization will be performed by the preparation of vials with 222 Rn gas, comparative measurements by LSC and a GeHP gamma-ray spectrometry system, or a well type NaI(Tl) crystal, and their link. The secondary standards will be used for the calibration of measurement instruments, for assurance of controlled radon atmosphere in 'radon chambers', and for the validation of some calculation models for various detectors efficiency. The range of activities for secondary standards is in agreement with the national measurement necessities. (author)

  15. Using the Typewriter for Learning: Concepts (United States)

    Clayton, Dean


    Research studies conducted with typewriting students have consistently shown that concepts can be learned in typewriting classes with no appreciable loss of typewriting skill by students. This article discusses three stages of typewriting instruction and how concept learning can be incorporated into each stage. (HD)

  16. A Bayesian concept learning approach to crowdsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viappiani, P.; Zilles, S.; Hamilton, H.J.


    techniques, inference methods, and query selection strategies to assist a user charged with choosing a configuration that satisfies some (partially known) concept. Our model is able to simultaneously learn the concept definition and the types of the experts. We evaluate our model with simulations, showing......We develop a Bayesian approach to concept learning for crowdsourcing applications. A probabilistic belief over possible concept definitions is maintained and updated according to (noisy) observations from experts, whose behaviors are modeled using discrete types. We propose recommendation...

  17. Teaching’s concept of learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Ane; Keiding, Tina Bering

    This paper discusses and exemplifies how teaching’s concept of learning can be understood. The theoretical framework for the construction and discussion of teaching’s concept of learning is found insecond-order systems theory as described by the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann (Luhmann, 1995...... both produce and are products of the curricula, and for describing the taught curriculum as an emerging and contingent form in its own right (Keiding & Qvortrup, 2014)....

  18. Implementation of standards within eLearning information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Malo


    Full Text Available Nowadays, eLearning standards' support within eLearning systems is much discussed problem. In this problem domain especially the reference model SCORM must be considered. This de-facto standard is a package of common standards and specifications used for the standardization of eLearning activities as eLearning content preparation, using e-course, communication etc. Implementation of standards itself is a process with great difficulty and time requests. Interesting and considerable approach to this problem is dividing all the process into several standalone and isolated steps focused on the individual segments of standards. This concept, in the paper described as 4-tier model of eLearning standards’ implementation, principally based upon the SCORM model enables sequential implementation of support for standards of eLearning metadata, eLearning content and also communication and navigation in e-courses. This possibility leads to portability and independence of result e-content. Discuss concept is a framework for standardization within eLearning subsystem of University Information System at Mendel University in Brno.

  19. How Do Korsakoff Patients Learn New Concepts? (United States)

    Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Helene; Guillery-Girard, Berengere; Witkowski, Thomas; de la Sayette, Vincent; Viader, Fausto; Desgranges, Beatrice; Eustache, Francis


    The goal of the present investigation was to assess semantic learning in Korsakoff patients (KS), compared with uncomplicated alcoholics (AL) and control subjects (CS), taking the nature of the information to-be-learned and the episodic memory profiles of the three groups into account. Ten new complex concepts, each illustrated by a photo and…

  20. Aerosol exposure: Concepts, criteria, standards and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, James H


    This paper places Inhaled Particles X in the context of the whole sequence of such symposia, going back to the first one in 1961. It draws together some of the essential principles that have been learned since that earlier meeting about the nature of exposure and exposure assessment and thus provides a framework by which to integrate the new knowledge presented at this latest one. In the process, the importance of understanding the formal definition of aerosol exposure is stressed, including the distinction between exposure intensity and exposure history, and how that relates to some measure of cumulative dose which, in turn, may be linked with knowledge about intrinsic toxicity, etc. This then leads to a definition of exposure standards, and the important ingredients of criteria, sampling and limit values. A summary is provided of the current set of particle size-selective criteria that have been widely agreed in the international occupational and environmental health community. Some ideas are presented about how this set might be expanded for certain applications, the important case of ultrafine aerosols being one of them.

  1. A Machine Learning Concept for DTN Routing (United States)

    Dudukovich, Rachel; Hylton, Alan; Papachristou, Christos


    This paper discusses the concept and architecture of a machine learning based router for delay tolerant space networks. The techniques of reinforcement learning and Bayesian learning are used to supplement the routing decisions of the popular Contact Graph Routing algorithm. An introduction to the concepts of Contact Graph Routing, Q-routing and Naive Bayes classification are given. The development of an architecture for a cross-layer feedback framework for DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) protocols is discussed. Finally, initial simulation setup and results are given.

  2. Students’ Conceptions of Constructivist Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.M. Loyens (Sofie)


    textabstractConstructivism is currently an influential view on learning. It advocates a student-centred perspective: Students are active learners who construct their own understanding (e.g., Slavin, 2006). Different types of constructivism can be distinguished (e.g., Phillips, 1995) that all

  3. Towards an agential realist concept of learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Helle


    Drawing on agential realism, this article explores how learning can be understood. An agential realist way of thinking about learning is sensitive to the complexity that characterises learning as a phenomenon. Thus, learning is seen as a dynamic and emergent phenomenon, constantly undergoing...... processes of becoming and expanding the range of components involved in such constitutive processes. With inspiration from Barad’s theorisation of spatiality, temporality and the interdependence of discourse and materiality, this article focuses on timespacemattering and material-discursivity. Concepts...

  4. Investigating alternative conceptions in learning disabled students (United States)

    Cole, Terry Stokes

    Science teachers have long noticed the fact that their students come to school with their own concepts, produced from daily experiences and interactions with the world around them. Sometimes these ideas are in agreement with accepted scientific theories, but often they are not. These "incorrect" ideas, or "misconceptions" have been the focus of many studies, which can be helpful to teachers when planning their lessons. However, there is a dearth of information that is geared specifically to students with learning disabilities. These students generally have deficits in areas of perception and learning that could conceivably influence the way they formulate concepts. The purpose of this study was to examine the concepts held by students with learning disabilities on the causes of the day/night cycle, the phases of the moon, and the seasons. An interview format was judged to be the best method of ensuring that the students' ideas were clearly documented. The subjects were five, sixth-grade students in a city school, who had been determined to have a learning disability. In examining the results, there did not seem to be any direct link between the type of misconception formed and the learning deficit of the child. It seemed more likely that students formed their concepts the way students usually do, but the various disabilities they exhibited interfered with their learning of more appropriate conceptions. The results of this study will be helpful to science teachers, curriculum planners, or anyone who works with students who have learning disabilities. It is hoped that this will begin to fill a void in the area of learning disabilities research.

  5. Concept mapping as learning tool in problem-oriented learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fürstenau, B.; Kneppers, L.; Sánchez, J.; Cañas, A.J.; Novak, J.D.


    In two studies we investigated whether concept mapping or summary writing is more effective in supporting students’ learning from authentic problems in the field of business. We interpret concept mapping and summary writing as elaboration tools aiming at helping students to understand new

  6. A Concept Transformation Learning Model for Architectural Design Learning Process (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua; Young, Li-Ming


    Generally, in the foundation course of architectural design, much emphasis is placed on teaching of the basic design skills without focusing on teaching students to apply the basic design concepts in their architectural designs or promoting students' own creativity. Therefore, this study aims to propose a concept transformation learning model to…

  7. Active learning: a step towards automating medical concept extraction. (United States)

    Kholghi, Mahnoosh; Sitbon, Laurianne; Zuccon, Guido; Nguyen, Anthony


    This paper presents an automatic, active learning-based system for the extraction of medical concepts from clinical free-text reports. Specifically, (1) the contribution of active learning in reducing the annotation effort and (2) the robustness of incremental active learning framework across different selection criteria and data sets are determined. The comparative performance of an active learning framework and a fully supervised approach were investigated to study how active learning reduces the annotation effort while achieving the same effectiveness as a supervised approach. Conditional random fields as the supervised method, and least confidence and information density as 2 selection criteria for active learning framework were used. The effect of incremental learning vs standard learning on the robustness of the models within the active learning framework with different selection criteria was also investigated. The following 2 clinical data sets were used for evaluation: the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside/Veteran Affairs (i2b2/VA) 2010 natural language processing challenge and the Shared Annotated Resources/Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum (ShARe/CLEF) 2013 eHealth Evaluation Lab. The annotation effort saved by active learning to achieve the same effectiveness as supervised learning is up to 77%, 57%, and 46% of the total number of sequences, tokens, and concepts, respectively. Compared with the random sampling baseline, the saving is at least doubled. Incremental active learning is a promising approach for building effective and robust medical concept extraction models while significantly reducing the burden of manual annotation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  8. Exploring Students' Conceptions of the Standard Deviation (United States)

    delMas, Robert; Liu, Yan


    This study investigated introductory statistics students' conceptual understanding of the standard deviation. A computer environment was designed to promote students' ability to coordinate characteristics of variation of values about the mean with the size of the standard deviation as a measure of that variation. Twelve students participated in an…

  9. E-Learning Concepts in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard; Mathiasen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Christian

    The main aim of the symposium is to investigate, at both a theoretical and practical level, the quality and sustainability of a variety of models and key concepts of how communication and collaborative e-learning communities may be successfully developed, implemented and supported in higher educa...... education contexts....

  10. Learning drifting concepts with neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biehl, Michael; Schwarze, Holm


    The learning of time-dependent concepts with a neural network is studied analytically and numerically. The linearly separable target rule is represented by an N-vector, whose time dependence is modelled by a random or deterministic drift process. A single-layer network is trained online using

  11. Lifelong learning: Established concepts and evolving values. (United States)

    Talati, Jamsheer Jehangir


    To summarise the concepts critical for understanding the content and value of lifelong learning (LL). Ideas generated by personal experience were combined with those of philosophers, social scientists, educational institutions, governments and UNESCO, to facilitate an understanding of the importance of the basic concepts of LL. Autopoietic, continuous, self-determined, informal, vicarious, biographical, lifelong reflexive learning, from and for society, when supported by self-chosen formal courses, can build capacities and portable skills that allow useful responses to challenges and society's new structures of governance. The need for LL is driven by challenges. LL flows continuously in pursuit of one agenda, which could either be citizenship, as is conventional, or as this article proposes, health. LL cannot be wholly centred on vocation. Continuous medical education and continuous professional development, important in their own right, cannot supply all that is needed. LL aids society with its learning, and it requires an awareness of the environment and structures of society. It is heavily vicarious, draws on formal learning and relies for effectiveness on reflection, self-assessment and personal shaping of views of the world from different perspectives. Health is critical to rational thought and peace, and determines society's capacity to govern itself, and improve its health. LL should be reshaped to focus on health not citizenship. Therefore, embedding learning in society and environment is critical. Each urologist must develop an understanding of the numerous concepts in LL, of which 'biographicisation' is the seed that will promote innovative strategies.

  12. Learning of Alignment Rules between Concept Hierarchies (United States)

    Ichise, Ryutaro; Takeda, Hideaki; Honiden, Shinichi

    With the rapid advances of information technology, we are acquiring much information than ever before. As a result, we need tools for organizing this data. Concept hierarchies such as ontologies and information categorizations are powerful and convenient methods for accomplishing this goal, which have gained wide spread acceptance. Although each concept hierarchy is useful, it is difficult to employ multiple concept hierarchies at the same time because it is hard to align their conceptual structures. This paper proposes a rule learning method that inputs information from a source concept hierarchy and finds suitable location for them in a target hierarchy. The key idea is to find the most similar categories in each hierarchy, where similarity is measured by the κ(kappa) statistic that counts instances belonging to both categories. In order to evaluate our method, we conducted experiments using two internet directories: Yahoo! and LYCOS. We map information instances from the source directory into the target directory, and show that our learned rules agree with a human-generated assignment 76% of the time.

  13. Concept formation knowledge and experience in unsupervised learning

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Douglas H; Langley, Pat


    Concept Formation: Knowledge and Experience in Unsupervised Learning presents the interdisciplinary interaction between machine learning and cognitive psychology on unsupervised incremental methods. This book focuses on measures of similarity, strategies for robust incremental learning, and the psychological consistency of various approaches.Organized into three parts encompassing 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of inductive concept learning in machine learning and psychology, with emphasis on issues that distinguish concept formation from more prevalent supervised methods and f

  14. Concept Maps for Evaluating Learning of Sustainable Development (United States)

    Shallcross, David C.


    Concept maps are used to assess student and cohort learning of sustainable development. The concept maps of 732 first-year engineering students were individually analyzed to detect patterns of learning and areas that were not well understood. Students were given 20 minutes each to prepare a concept map of at least 20 concepts using paper and pen.…

  15. Concept mapping enhances learning of biochemistry. (United States)

    Surapaneni, Krishna M; Tekian, Ara


    Teaching basic science courses is challenging in undergraduate medical education because of the ubiquitous use of didactic lectures and reward for recall of factual information during examinations. The purpose of this study is to introduce concept maps with clinical cases (the innovative program) to improve learning of biochemistry course content. Participants were first year medical students (n=150) from Saveetha Medical College and Hospital (India); they were randomly divided into two groups of 75, one group attending the traditional program, the other the innovative program. Student performance was measured using three written knowledge tests (each with a maximum score of 20). The students also evaluated the relevance of the learning process using a 12-item questionnaire. Students in the innovative program using concept mapping outperformed those in the traditional didactic program (means of 7.13-8.28 vs. 12.33-13.93, pbiochemistry to clinical practice, and to enhance their reasoning and learning skills, as well as their deeper understanding for biochemistry.

  16. Concept mapping enhances learning of biochemistry. (United States)

    Surapaneni, KrishnaM; Tekian, Ara


    Teaching basic science courses is challenging in undergraduate medical education because of the ubiquitous use of didactic lectures and reward for recall of factual information during examinations. The purpose of this study is to introduce concept maps with clinical cases (the innovative program) to improve learning of biochemistry course content. Participants were first year medical students (n=150) from Saveetha Medical College and Hospital (India); they were randomly divided into two groups of 75, one group attending the traditional program, the other the innovative program. Student performance was measured using three written knowledge tests (each with a maximum score of 20). The students also evaluated the relevance of the learning process using a 12-item questionnaire. Students in the innovative program using concept mapping outperformed those in the traditional didactic program (means of 7.13-8.28 vs. 12.33-13.93, pbiochemistry to clinical practice, and to enhance their reasoning and learning skills, as well as their deeper understanding for biochemistry.

  17. Astrobiology Learning Progressions: Linking Astrobiology Concepts with the 3D Learning Paradigm of NGSS (United States)

    Scalice, D.; Davis, H. B.; Leach, D.; Chambers, N.


    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) introduce a Framework for teaching and learning with three interconnected "dimensions:" Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCI's), Cross-cutting Concepts (CCC's), and Science and Engineering Practices (SEP's). This "3D" Framework outlines progressions of learning from K-12 based on the DCI's, detailing which parts of a concept should be taught at each grade band. We used these discipline-based progressions to synthesize interdisciplinary progressions for core concepts in astrobiology, such as the origins of life, what makes a world habitable, biosignatures, and searching for life on other worlds. The final product is an organizing tool for lesson plans, learning media, and other educational materials in astrobiology, as well as a fundamental resource in astrobiology education that serves both educators and scientists as they plan and carry out their programs for learners.

  18. How Effective Is Example Generation for Learning Declarative Concepts? (United States)

    Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John


    Declarative concepts (i.e., key terms and corresponding definitions for abstract concepts) represent foundational knowledge that students learn in many content domains. Thus, investigating techniques to enhance concept learning is of critical importance. Various theoretical accounts support the expectation that example generation will serve this…

  19. Conception of Learning Outcomes in the Bloom's Taxonomy Affective Domain (United States)

    Savickiene, Izabela


    The article raises a problematic issue regarding an insufficient base of the conception of learning outcomes in the Bloom's taxonomy affective domain. The search for solutions introduces the conception of teaching and learning in the affective domain as well as presents validity criteria of learning outcomes in the affective domain. The…

  20. Width, Length, and Height Conceptions of Students with Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Güven, N. Dilsad; Argün, Ziya


    Teaching responsive to the needs of students with learning disabilities (LD) can be provided through understanding students' conceptions and their ways of learning. The current research, as a case study based on qualitative design, aimed to investigate the conceptions of students with learning disabilities with regard to the different…

  1. Design of Learning Objects for Concept Learning: Effects of Multimedia Learning Principles and an Instructional Approach (United States)

    Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel


    Literature suggests using multimedia learning principles in the design of instructional material. However, these principles may not be sufficient for the design of learning objects for concept learning in mathematics. This paper reports on an experimental study that investigated the effects of an instructional approach, which includes two teaching…

  2. Concept Mapping Using Cmap Tools to Enhance Meaningful Learning (United States)

    Cañas, Alberto J.; Novak, Joseph D.

    Concept maps are graphical tools that have been used in all facets of education and training for organizing and representing knowledge. When learners build concept maps, meaningful learning is facilitated. Computer-based concept mapping software such as CmapTools have further extended the use of concept mapping and greatly enhanced the potential of the tool, facilitating the implementation of a concept map-centered learning environment. In this chapter, we briefly present concept mapping and its theoretical foundation, and illustrate how it can lead to an improved learning environment when it is combined with CmapTools and the Internet. We present the nationwide “Proyecto Conéctate al Conocimiento” in Panama as an example of how concept mapping, together with technology, can be adopted by hundreds of schools as a means to enhance meaningful learning.

  3. Standardized quality in MOOC based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiorescu Irina


    Full Text Available Quality in the field of e-learning and, particularly, in the field of MOOC( Massive Open Online Courses, is a topic of growing importance in both academic institutions and in the private sector as it has generally been proved that quality management can contribute to improving the performance of organizations, regardless of their object of activity. Despite the fact that there are standards relating to quality management in a general manner, professionals, academic staff, specialists and bodies felt the need for having a standardized approach of the quality in the sector of e-learning. Therefore, in the last years, in different countries quality guidelines have been developed and used for e-Learning or distance education (for example the ASTD criteria for e- Learning, the BLA Quality Mark, Quality Platform Learning by D-ELAN etc.. The current paper aims to give insights to this new form of online education provided by MOOC platforms using the specific quality standard approach.

  4. Learning Situations in Nursing Education: A Concept Analysis. (United States)

    Shahsavari, Hooman; Zare, Zahra; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh; Griffiths, Pauline; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba


    The nursing student requires opportunities to learn within authentic contexts so as to enable safe and competent practice. One strategy to facilitate such learning is the creation of learning situations. A lack of studies on the learning situation in nursing and other health care fields has resulted in insufficient knowledge of the characteristics of the learning situation, its antecedents, and consequences. Nurse educators need to have comprehensive and practical knowledge of the definition and characteristics of the learning situation so as to enable their students to achieve enhanced learning outcomes. The aim of this study was to clarify the concept of the learning situation as it relates to the education of nurses and improve understanding of its characteristics, antecedents, and consequences. The Bonis method of concept analysis, as derived from the Rodgers' evolutionary method, provided the framework for analysis. Data collection and analysis were undertaken in two phases: "interdisciplinary" and "intra-disciplinary." The data source was a search of the literature, encompassing nursing and allied health care professions, published from 1975 to 2016. No agreement on the conceptual phenomenon was discovered in the international literature. The concept of a learning situation was used generally in two ways and thus classified into the themes of: "formal/informal learning situation" and "biologic/nonbiologic learning situation." Antecedents to the creation of a learning situation included personal and environmental factors. The characteristics of a learning situation were described in terms of being complex, dynamic, and offering potential and effective learning opportunities. Consequences of the learning situation included enhancement of the students' learning, professionalization, and socialization into the professional role. The nurse educator, when considering the application of the concept of a learning situation in their educational planning, must

  5. Teaching and Learning the Concept of Chemical Bonding (United States)

    Levy Nahum, Tami; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Taber, Keith S.


    Chemical bonding is one of the key and basic concepts in chemistry. The learning of many of the concepts taught in chemistry, in both secondary schools as well as in the colleges, is dependent upon understanding fundamental ideas related to chemical bonding. Nevertheless, the concept is perceived by teachers, as well as by learners, as difficult,…

  6. Standard setting in medical education: fundamental concepts and emerging challenges. (United States)

    Mortaz Hejri, Sara; Jalili, Mohammad


    The process of determining the minimum pass level to separate the competent students from those who do not perform well enough is called standard setting. A large number of methods are widely used to set cut-scores for both written and clinical examinations. There are some challenging issues pertaining to any standard setting procedure. Ignoring these concerns would result in a large dispute regarding the credibility and defensibility of the method. The goal of this review is to provide a basic understanding of the key concepts and challenges in standard setting and to suggest some recommendations to overcome the challenging issues for educators and policymakers who are dealing with decision-making in this field.

  7. Analysis of Learning Conceptions Based on Three Modules. (United States)

    Haygood, E. Langston; Iran-Nejad, Asghar

    Three learning modules are described and investigated as they reflect different students' conceptions of and approaches to learning. The Schoolwork Module (SWM) focuses on task performance and involves a passive, incremental, piecemeal, and rote memory method of learning, parallel to what might be implied by the Information Processing model of…

  8. Concept mapping learning strategy to enhance students' mathematical connection ability (United States)

    Hafiz, M.; Kadir, Fatra, Maifalinda


    The concept mapping learning strategy in teaching and learning mathematics has been investigated by numerous researchers. However, there are still less researchers who have scrutinized about the roles of map concept which is connected to the mathematical connection ability. Being well understood on map concept, it may help students to have ability to correlate one concept to other concept in order that the student can solve mathematical problems faced. The objective of this research was to describe the student's mathematical connection ability and to analyze the effect of using concept mapping learning strategy to the students' mathematical connection ability. This research was conducted at senior high school in Jakarta. The method used a quasi-experimental with randomized control group design with the total number was 72 students as the sample. Data obtained through using test in the post-test after giving the treatment. The results of the research are: 1) Students' mathematical connection ability has reached the good enough level category; 2) Students' mathematical connection ability who had taught with concept mapping learning strategy is higher than who had taught with conventional learning strategy. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that concept mapping learning strategycould enhance the students' mathematical connection ability, especially in trigonometry.

  9. Statistical Learning Theory: Models, Concepts, and Results


    von Luxburg, Ulrike; Schoelkopf, Bernhard


    Statistical learning theory provides the theoretical basis for many of today's machine learning algorithms. In this article we attempt to give a gentle, non-technical overview over the key ideas and insights of statistical learning theory. We target at a broad audience, not necessarily machine learning researchers. This paper can serve as a starting point for people who want to get an overview on the field before diving into technical details.

  10. Nuclear station safety standardization from a risk concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veksler, L.M.


    This paper presents a method of standardizing safety-system reliability on an entirely new basis: all hypothetical accidents are approximated as groups, for each of which one proposes permissible frequencies on the basis of the risk concept. In this risk concept, the ''average person'' is a person living near a nuclear station or working in it, who is of average age, average state of health, and so on. Therefore, the risk can be found by summing the estimated individual risks for a particular group in the population followed by division by the number of people in that group. Basic assumptions in deriving permissible safety-system reliability are presented. Estimated permissible failure probabilities are given to illustrate the proposed method and to refine the initial data. The probabilities may also be used to lay down the reliability requirements for safety systems in particular nuclear stations on the risk basis

  11. Deep Learning through Concept-Based Inquiry (United States)

    Donham, Jean


    Learning in the library should present opportunities to enrich student learning activities to address concerns of interest and cognitive complexity, but these must be tasks that call for in-depth analysis--not merely gathering facts. Library learning experiences need to demand enough of students to keep them interested and also need to be…

  12. Implementation of standards within eLearning information systems


    Roman Malo


    Nowadays, eLearning standards' support within eLearning systems is much discussed problem. In this problem domain especially the reference model SCORM must be considered. This de-facto standard is a package of common standards and specifications used for the standardization of eLearning activities as eLearning content preparation, using e-course, communication etc. Implementation of standards itself is a process with great difficulty and time requests. Interesting and considerable approach to...

  13. Standards of Ombudsman Assessment: A New Normative Concept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Remac


    Full Text Available Today, an ombudsman is a traditional component of democratic legal systems. Generally, reports of the ombudsman are not legally binding. Due to this fact, the ombudsman can rely only on his own persuasiveness, on his acceptance by individuals and state institutions, on the understanding of the administration and on the accessibility and transparency of rules that underpin his reports. During investigations, ombudsmen assess whether the administration has acted in accordance with certain legal or extra-legal standards. Depending on the legal system, ombudsmen can investigate whether there is an instance of maladministration in the activities of administrative bodies, whether the administration has acted ‘properly’, whether it has acted in accordance with the law, whether administrative actions have breached the human rights of complainants or whether the actions of the administration were in accordance with anti-corruption rules etc. Regardless of the legislative standard of an ombudsman’s control, the ombudsman should consider and assess the situation described in complaints against certain criteria or against certain normative standards. A distinct set of standards which ombudsmen use during their investigation, or at least a clear statement of their assessment criteria, can increase the transparency of their procedures and the persuasiveness of their reports. Are the normative standards used by different ombudsmen the same? Do they possibly create a new normative concept? And can it possibly lead to a higher acceptance of their reports by the administration?

  14. The clinical learning environment in nursing education: a concept analysis. (United States)

    Flott, Elizabeth A; Linden, Lois


    The aim of this study was to report an analysis of the clinical learning environment concept. Nursing students are evaluated in clinical learning environments where skills and knowledge are applied to patient care. These environments affect achievement of learning outcomes, and have an impact on preparation for practice and student satisfaction with the nursing profession. Providing clarity of this concept for nursing education will assist in identifying antecedents, attributes and consequences affecting student transition to practice. The clinical learning environment was investigated using Walker and Avant's concept analysis method. A literature search was conducted using WorldCat, MEDLINE and CINAHL databases using the keywords clinical learning environment, clinical environment and clinical education. Articles reviewed were written in English and published in peer-reviewed journals between 1995-2014. All data were analysed for recurring themes and terms to determine possible antecedents, attributes and consequences of this concept. The clinical learning environment contains four attribute characteristics affecting student learning experiences. These include: (1) the physical space; (2) psychosocial and interaction factors; (3) the organizational culture and (4) teaching and learning components. These attributes often determine achievement of learning outcomes and student self-confidence. With better understanding of attributes comprising the clinical learning environment, nursing education programmes and healthcare agencies can collaborate to create meaningful clinical experiences and enhance student preparation for the professional nurse role. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rosepda Sebayang


    Full Text Available This study aims: 1 to determine whether the student learning outcomes using discovery learning is better than conventional learning 2 To determine whether the learning outcomes of students who have a high initial concept understanding better then of low initial concept understanding, and 3 to determine the effect of interaction discovery learning and understanding of the initial concept of the learning outcomes of students. The samples in this study was taken by cluster random sampling two classes where class X PIA 3 as a class experiment with applying discovery learning and class X PIA 2 as a control class by applying conventional learning. The instrument used in this study is a test of learning outcomes in the form of multiple-choice comprehension test initial concept description form. The results of research are: 1 learning outcomes of students who were taught with discovery learning is better than the learning outcomes of students who are taught by conventional learning, 2 student learning outcomes with high initial conceptual understanding better than the learning outcomes of students with low initial conceptual understanding, and 3 there was no interaction between discovery learning and understanding of initial concepts for the student learning outcomes.

  16. Difficulties of learning probability concepts, the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned and suggestions for solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Sezgin MEMNUN


    Full Text Available Probability holds the first place among the subjects that both teachers and students have difficulty in handling. Although probability has an important role in many professions and a great many decisions we make for our daily lives, the understanding of the probability concepts is not an easy ability to gain for many students. Most of the students develop perception about lots of probability concepts and they have difficulty finding a reason for probability events. Thus, in the present study, the difficulties faced while learning probability concepts and the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned well are investigated, these reasons are tried to be put forward, and some suggestions for solutions regarding these concepts are presented. In this study, cross-hatching model was used. National and international studies on the subject of probability are investigated, the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned were categorized in the light of findings obtained, and the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned and taught are tried to be discovered. The categorization was displayed with Ishikawa diagram. In the diagram, the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned were noted as six categories. These categories were age, the insufficiency of advanced information, the deficiency of argumentation ability, teacher, error in concept, and students’ negative attitudes.

  17. Introducing Machine Learning Concepts with WEKA. (United States)

    Smith, Tony C; Frank, Eibe


    This chapter presents an introduction to data mining with machine learning. It gives an overview of various types of machine learning, along with some examples. It explains how to download, install, and run the WEKA data mining toolkit on a simple data set, then proceeds to explain how one might approach a bioinformatics problem. Finally, it includes a brief summary of machine learning algorithms for other types of data mining problems, and provides suggestions about where to find additional information.

  18. Evaluation of Standard Concepts Design of Library Interior Physical Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debri Harindya Putri


    Full Text Available Currently the function of a room is not only used as a shelter, the function of the room itself to be increased as a refreshing or relaxation area for users to follow the development of creativity and technology in the field of design. The comfortable factor becomes the main factor that indicates a successful process of creating a space. No exception library. The nature of library seemed stiff because of its function as a place to read, now can be developed and made into more dynamic with the special design concepts or color patterns used. Libraries can be created a special concept that suits the characteristics of the users themselves. Most users of the library, especially in college libraries are teenagers. Naturally, teenagers like to gather with their friends and we have to facilitate this activity in our library design concept. In addition we can also determine the needs of users through research by questionnaire method. The answers of users can be mapped and drawn conclusions. To explore the research, the author reviewed some literature about library interior design and observed the library of Ma Chung University as a case study. The combined results of the method can be concluded and the discovery of ideal standards of physical environment. So, the library can be made as a comfortable reading environment so as to increased interest in reading behavior and the frequent visits of students in the library

  19. Variation in Students' Conceptions of Self-Assessment and Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Kiat Kelvin Tan


    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a phenomenographic study on the different ways that secondary students understood and utilized student self-assessment and how various ego types could affect the accuracy of self-assessment. The study sought to contribute to the growing literature which recognizes the critical role that students play in assessment processes, and in particular the different roles that they assume in student self-assessment. The results of the study provide insights into how different students experience self-assessment by articulating the variation in the perception and purposes of assessing one's own learning. This variation is depicted as a hierarchy of logically related students' conceptions of self-assessment.

  20. Developing user-centered concepts for language learning video games


    Poels, Yorick; Annema, Jan Henk; Zaman, Bieke; Cornillie, Frederik


    This paper will report on an ongoing project which aims to develop video games for language learning through a user-centered and evidence-based approach. Therefore, codesign sessions were held with adolescents between 14 and 16 years old, in order to gain insight into their preferences for educational games for language learning. During these sessions, 11 concepts for video games were developed. We noticed a divide between the concepts for games that were oriented towa...

  1. New Standards Put the Spotlight on Professional Learning (United States)

    Mizell, Hayes; Hord, Shirley; Killion, Joellen; Hirsh, Stephanie


    Learning Forward introduces new Standards for Professional Learning. This is the third iteration of standards outlining the characteristics of professional learning that lead to effective teaching practices, supportive leadership, and improved student results. The standards are not a prescription for how education leaders and public officials…

  2. Lifelong Learning: Concept, Policy, Instruments and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin TOPRAK


    Full Text Available European Union has started an education & training initiative under the umbrella of lifelong learning to achieve the 2020 Agenda targets. Th is initiative has nearly half of a century time horizon, and all designed policies and measures have been consolidated under this initiative. Turkish Education authorities have been monitoring this European eff ort closely and made important legal and institutional regulations in recent couple of years. Th is study examines the primary aspects of lifelong learning in detail: conceptual and philosophical background; recognition strategies; the place of formal, non-formal and informal learning in the lifelong learning approach; financing and measurement ways of lifelong learning; and variety of perspectives of international institutions. In addition, education and training strategy of the Europe’s 2020 vision of lifelong learning is also evaluated in detail. Th e human resources vision of the Europe considers education, occupation and economic activities together to allow authorities to plan the future of the European societies. Th e updating mechanisms of this approach are designed both domestically at national and internationally at European levels. It is concluded, in this study, that the lifelong learning policy and implementation of the Europe should be taken as benchmark.

  3. Factors Related to Students' Learning of Biomechanics Concepts (United States)

    Hsieh, ChengTu; Smith, Jeremy D.; Bohne, Michael; Knudson, Duane


    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand a previous study to identify the factors that affect students' learning of biomechanical concepts. Students were recruited from three universities (N = 149) located in the central and western regions of the United States. Data from 142 students completing the Biomechanics Concept Inventory…

  4. Using enriched skeleton concept mapping to support meaningful learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maree, A.J.; Bruggen, van J.M.; Jochems, W.M.G.; Cañas, A.J.; Novak, J.D.; Vanhear, J.


    Abstract. There has been significant interest among researchers in the instructional use of concept maps and collaboration scripts. Some studies focus on students' collaboration on concept mapping tasks; others focus on scripts to structure learning tasks and guide interactions. Little is known

  5. Students' conceptions of learning: using the ASSIST instrument ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of the study has been on students' conceptions of learning in three South African Technikons amidst the changing circumstances of teaching and learning from subject-based to outcomes-based education. First-year students face a particular measure of unpreparedness as they graduate from a conventional high ...

  6. Learning of science concepts within a traditional socio-cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The learning of science concepts within a traditional socio-cultural environment were investigated by looking at: 1) the nature of \\"cognitive border crossing\\" exhibited by the students from the traditional to the scientific worldview, and 2) whether or not three learning theories / hypotheses: border crossing, collaterality, and ...

  7. Learning Essential Terms and Concepts in Statistics and Accounting (United States)

    Peters, Pam; Smith, Adam; Middledorp, Jenny; Karpin, Anne; Sin, Samantha; Kilgore, Alan


    This paper describes a terminological approach to the teaching and learning of fundamental concepts in foundation tertiary units in Statistics and Accounting, using an online dictionary-style resource (TermFinder) with customised "termbanks" for each discipline. Designed for independent learning, the termbanks support inquiring students…

  8. Competencies in Organizational E-Learning: Concepts and Tools (United States)

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel, Ed.


    "Competencies in Organizational E-Learning: Concepts and Tools" provides a comprehensive view of the way competencies can be used to drive organizational e-learning, including the main conceptual elements, competency gap analysis, advanced related computing topics, the application of semantic Web technologies, and the integration of competencies…

  9. Applying Andragogical Concepts in Creating a Sustainable Lifelong Learning Society (United States)

    Charungkaittikul, Suwithida; Henschke, John A.


    Today, the world is changing, re-establishing the role of education to have a developed society. This article aims to explore the practical application of Andragogy as a key element for creating a sustainable lifelong learning society, to propose strategies for developing a lifelong learning society using andragogical concepts, to enhance…

  10. Testing a Conception of How School Leadership Influences Student Learning (United States)

    Leithwood, Kenneth; Patten, Sarah; Jantzi, Doris


    Purpose: This article describes and reports the results of testing a new conception of how leadership influences student learning ("The Four Paths"). Framework: Leadership influence is conceptualized as flowing along four paths (Rational, Emotions, Organizational, and Family) toward student learning. Each path is populated by multiple…

  11. Insights from Classifying Visual Concepts with Multiple Kernel Learning (United States)

    Binder, Alexander; Nakajima, Shinichi; Kloft, Marius; Müller, Christina; Samek, Wojciech; Brefeld, Ulf; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Kawanabe, Motoaki


    Combining information from various image features has become a standard technique in concept recognition tasks. However, the optimal way of fusing the resulting kernel functions is usually unknown in practical applications. Multiple kernel learning (MKL) techniques allow to determine an optimal linear combination of such similarity matrices. Classical approaches to MKL promote sparse mixtures. Unfortunately, 1-norm regularized MKL variants are often observed to be outperformed by an unweighted sum kernel. The main contributions of this paper are the following: we apply a recently developed non-sparse MKL variant to state-of-the-art concept recognition tasks from the application domain of computer vision. We provide insights on benefits and limits of non-sparse MKL and compare it against its direct competitors, the sum-kernel SVM and sparse MKL. We report empirical results for the PASCAL VOC 2009 Classification and ImageCLEF2010 Photo Annotation challenge data sets. Data sets (kernel matrices) as well as further information are available at 2012 Jun 25). PMID:22936970

  12. Empirical evidence of the effectiveness of concept mapping as a learning intervention for nuclear medicine technology students in a distance learning radiation protection and biology course. (United States)

    Passmore, Gregory G; Owen, Mary Anne; Prabakaran, Krishnan


    Metacognitive learning strategies are based on instructional learning theory, which promotes deep, meaningful learning. Educators in a baccalaureate-level nuclear medicine technology program demonstrated that students enrolled in an online, distance learning section of an introductory radiation protection and radiobiology course performed better when traditional instruction was supplemented with nontraditional metacognitive learning strategies. The metacognitive learning strategy that was used is best known as concept mapping. The concept map, in addition to the standard homework problem assignment and opportunity for question-answer sessions, became the template for misconception identification and remediation interactions between the instructor and the student. The control group relied on traditional homework problems and question-answer sessions alone. Because students in both the "treatment" groups (i.e., students who used concept mapping) and the control group were distance learning students, all personal communications were conducted via e-mail or telephone. The final examination of the course was used to facilitate a quantitative comparison of the performance of students who used concept mapping and the performance of students who did not use concept mapping. The results demonstrated a significantly higher median final examination score for the concept mapping group than for the non-concept mapping group (z = -2.0381, P = 0.0415), with an appropriately large effect size (2.65). Concept mapping is a cognitive learning intervention that effectively enables meaningful learning and is suitable for use in the independent learner-oriented distance learning environments used by some nuclear medicine technology programs.

  13. Grounded understanding of abstract concepts: The case of STEM learning. (United States)

    Hayes, Justin C; Kraemer, David J M


    Characterizing the neural implementation of abstract conceptual representations has long been a contentious topic in cognitive science. At the heart of the debate is whether the "sensorimotor" machinery of the brain plays a central role in representing concepts, or whether the involvement of these perceptual and motor regions is merely peripheral or epiphenomenal. The domain of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning provides an important proving ground for sensorimotor (or grounded) theories of cognition, as concepts in science and engineering courses are often taught through laboratory-based and other hands-on methodologies. In this review of the literature, we examine evidence suggesting that sensorimotor processes strengthen learning associated with the abstract concepts central to STEM pedagogy. After considering how contemporary theories have defined abstraction in the context of semantic knowledge, we propose our own explanation for how body-centered information, as computed in sensorimotor brain regions and visuomotor association cortex, can form a useful foundation upon which to build an understanding of abstract scientific concepts, such as mechanical force. Drawing from theories in cognitive neuroscience, we then explore models elucidating the neural mechanisms involved in grounding intangible concepts, including Hebbian learning, predictive coding, and neuronal recycling. Empirical data on STEM learning through hands-on instruction are considered in light of these neural models. We conclude the review by proposing three distinct ways in which the field of cognitive neuroscience can contribute to STEM learning by bolstering our understanding of how the brain instantiates abstract concepts in an embodied fashion.

  14. A Study of the Benefits of Math Manipulatives versus Standard Curriculum in the Comprehension of Mathematical Concepts. (United States)

    Rust, Amanda L.

    This study attempted to determine which teaching method, mainly manipulatives or the standard curriculum, best allowed the students to learn first grade math concepts. The manipulatives consisted of objects such as unifix cubes, personal chalkboards, work mats, and various other articles, which allowed the students to see the math that they were…

  15. Learning concept mappings from instance similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, S.; Englebienne, G.; Schlobach, S.


    Finding mappings between compatible ontologies is an important but difficult open problem. Instance-based methods for solving this problem have the advantage of focusing on the most active parts of the ontologies and reflect concept semantics as they are actually being used. However such methods

  16. Integrating collaborative concept mapping in case based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tifi


    Full Text Available Different significance of collaborative concept mapping and collaborative argumentation in Case Based Learning are discussed and compared in the different perspectives of answering focus questions, of fostering reflective thinking skills and in managing uncertainty in problem solving in a scaffolded environment. Marked differences are pointed out between the way concepts are used in constructing concept maps and the way meanings are adopted in case based learning through guided argumentation activities. Shared concept maps should be given different scopes, as for example a as an advance organizer in preparing a background system of concepts that will undergo transformation while accompanying the inquiry activities on case studies or problems; b together with narratives, to enhance awareness of the situated epistemologies that are being entailed in choosing certain concepts during more complex case studies, and c after-learning construction of a holistic vision of the whole domain by means of the most inclusive concepts, while scaffoldedcollaborative writing of narratives and arguments in describing-treating cases could better serve as a source of situated-inspired tools to create-refine meanings for particular concepts.

  17. Joint Concept Correlation and Feature-Concept Relevance Learning for Multilabel Classification. (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Ma, Zhigang; Li, Zhi; Li, Zhihui


    In recent years, multilabel classification has attracted significant attention in multimedia annotation. However, most of the multilabel classification methods focus only on the inherent correlations existing among multiple labels and concepts and ignore the relevance between features and the target concepts. To obtain more robust multilabel classification results, we propose a new multilabel classification method aiming to capture the correlations among multiple concepts by leveraging hypergraph that is proved to be beneficial for relational learning. Moreover, we consider mining feature-concept relevance, which is often overlooked by many multilabel learning algorithms. To better show the feature-concept relevance, we impose a sparsity constraint on the proposed method. We compare the proposed method with several other multilabel classification methods and evaluate the classification performance by mean average precision on several data sets. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  18. Incremental learning of concept drift in nonstationary environments. (United States)

    Elwell, Ryan; Polikar, Robi


    We introduce an ensemble of classifiers-based approach for incremental learning of concept drift, characterized by nonstationary environments (NSEs), where the underlying data distributions change over time. The proposed algorithm, named Learn(++). NSE, learns from consecutive batches of data without making any assumptions on the nature or rate of drift; it can learn from such environments that experience constant or variable rate of drift, addition or deletion of concept classes, as well as cyclical drift. The algorithm learns incrementally, as other members of the Learn(++) family of algorithms, that is, without requiring access to previously seen data. Learn(++). NSE trains one new classifier for each batch of data it receives, and combines these classifiers using a dynamically weighted majority voting. The novelty of the approach is in determining the voting weights, based on each classifier's time-adjusted accuracy on current and past environments. This approach allows the algorithm to recognize, and act accordingly, to the changes in underlying data distributions, as well as to a possible reoccurrence of an earlier distribution. We evaluate the algorithm on several synthetic datasets designed to simulate a variety of nonstationary environments, as well as a real-world weather prediction dataset. Comparisons with several other approaches are also included. Results indicate that Learn(++). NSE can track the changing environments very closely, regardless of the type of concept drift. To allow future use, comparison and benchmarking by interested researchers, we also release our data used in this paper. © 2011 IEEE


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoiru Rakhman Abidin


    Full Text Available The aims of the study are (1 the concepts of language learning in behaviorism perspective, (2 the relation between language and learning in behaviorism perspective, (3 the influence of behaviorism in language learning. This is a descriptive qualitative study. The results showed that (1 behaviorism theories of languages also give good contribution in language learning process that describes a child can learn language from their environments, (2 behaviorism perspective defines as change of behavior through experience, it means human learn something from their environments, (3 human uses language for communication in the world and he also spreads his culture with his language so  human gets  knowledge of language through learning.

  20. Active learning reduces annotation time for clinical concept extraction. (United States)

    Kholghi, Mahnoosh; Sitbon, Laurianne; Zuccon, Guido; Nguyen, Anthony


    To investigate: (1) the annotation time savings by various active learning query strategies compared to supervised learning and a random sampling baseline, and (2) the benefits of active learning-assisted pre-annotations in accelerating the manual annotation process compared to de novo annotation. There are 73 and 120 discharge summary reports provided by Beth Israel institute in the train and test sets of the concept extraction task in the i2b2/VA 2010 challenge, respectively. The 73 reports were used in user study experiments for manual annotation. First, all sequences within the 73 reports were manually annotated from scratch. Next, active learning models were built to generate pre-annotations for the sequences selected by a query strategy. The annotation/reviewing time per sequence was recorded. The 120 test reports were used to measure the effectiveness of the active learning models. When annotating from scratch, active learning reduced the annotation time up to 35% and 28% compared to a fully supervised approach and a random sampling baseline, respectively. Reviewing active learning-assisted pre-annotations resulted in 20% further reduction of the annotation time when compared to de novo annotation. The number of concepts that require manual annotation is a good indicator of the annotation time for various active learning approaches as demonstrated by high correlation between time rate and concept annotation rate. Active learning has a key role in reducing the time required to manually annotate domain concepts from clinical free text, either when annotating from scratch or reviewing active learning-assisted pre-annotations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A dynamic learning concept in early years’ education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig


    -historical activity (play) theory, the author deduces four generally accepted play criteria that form the basis for the construction of a dynamic and play-based learning concept that has the three following cornerstones as focal points: (1) learning happens in activities where the child is an active participant...... and interacts and communicates with other people; (2) meaningful activities pave the way for children’s learning; these are activities where the child’s motive aligns with the goal of the activity; and (3) learning is seen as a productive and creative activity characterised by imagination....

  2. Review of the Commission program for standardization of nuclear power plants and recommendations to improve standardization concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This is a report of a staff study describing the need and utility of specific changes to the Commission's standardization program. The various matters considered in the study include: (1) A discussion of industry use to date of the standardization program. (2) A discussion of the experience to date with each of the standardization concepts. (3) A review of public comments on the standardization program and the staff response to each principal comment. (4) A review of the need for standardization considering the likely number of license applications to be submitted in the coming years. (5) A discussion of the reference system concept, including review of applicable experience and recommended changes to the concept. (6) A discussion of the duplicate plant concept, including review of applicable experience and recommended changes to the concept. (7) A discussion of the manufacturing license concept, including review of applicable experience and recommended changes to the concept. (8) A discussion of the replicate plant concept, including review of applicable experience and recommended changes to the concept. (9) A discussion of the effective periods for approved designs under all four standardization concepts. (10) A description of continuing staff activities related to the standardization program

  3. The Analysis of High School Students' Conceptions of Learning in Different Domains (United States)

    Sadi, Özlem


    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether or not conceptions of learning diverge in different science domains by identifying high school students' conceptions of learning in physics, chemistry and biology. The Conceptions of Learning Science (COLS) questionnaire was adapted for physics (Conceptions of Learning Physics, COLP), chemistry…

  4. Concept-Based Learning in Clinical Experiences: Bringing Theory to Clinical Education for Deep Learning. (United States)

    Nielsen, Ann


    Concept-based learning is used increasingly in nursing education to support the organization, transfer, and retention of knowledge. Concept-based learning activities (CBLAs) have been used in clinical education to explore key aspects of the patient situation and principles of nursing care, without responsibility for total patient care. The nature of best practices in teaching and the resultant learning are not well understood. The purpose of this multiple-case study research was to explore and describe concept-based learning in the context of clinical education in inpatient settings. Four clinical groups (each a case) were observed while they used CBLAs in the clinical setting. Major findings include that concept-based learning fosters deep learning, connection of theory with practice, and clinical judgment. Strategies used to support learning, major teaching-learning foci, and preconditions for concept-based teaching and learning will be described. Concept-based learning is promising to support integration of theory with practice and clinical judgment through application experiences with patients. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(7):365-371.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Pre-Service Physics Teachers’ Concept Mastery and the Challenges of Game Development on Physics Learning (United States)

    Saprudin, S.; Liliasari, L.; Prihatmanto, A. S.


    This study is a survey that aims to describe pre-service physics teachers’ concept mastery at a university in Ternate. Data were collected through test standard instrument for physics which used in the teacher certification program. Data were analyzed by using quantitative descriptive technique. Based on the results of data analysis, it was concluded that generally pre-service physics teachers’ concept mastery can be categorized on low category (25.4%). The map of concept mastery will be used as a reference to developing game design in the physics learning context for pre-service physics teachers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba Cárdenas Ramos


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the need to formulate and implement a proposal for opportunity-to-learn standards (OTL in the field of language learning and teaching in Colombia, with the aim of ensuring the necessary conditions for the implementation and achievement of the performance standards, issued by the Ministry of Education as part of the National Bilingual Program in this area. First, it reviews the concept, origins, composition and models of OTL standards, and then it examines the Colombian situation to make a case for OTL in this country.

  7. Freed to Learn: Five Fundamental Concepts of Democratic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo J. FAHEY


    Full Text Available Children are natural learners each with distinct interests, abilities and rates of cognitive, emotional and social growth. Democratic Education institutionalizes five key concepts to free these natural instincts and individual differences to drive community self-governance and individual self-directed learning within a formal schooling environment. This paper summarizes the five concepts fundamental to Democratic Education and suggests how they can be applied within a school setting.

  8. Investigating Students’ Development of Learning Integer Concept and Integer Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenden Octavarulia Shanty


    Full Text Available This research aimed at investigating students’ development of learning integer concept and integer addition. The investigation was based on analyzing students’ works in solving the given mathematical problems in each instructional activity designed based on Realistic Mathematics Education (RME levels. Design research was chosen to achieve and to contribute in developing a local instruction theory for teaching and learning of integer concept and integer addition. In design research, the Hypothetical Learning Trajectory (HLT plays important role as a design and research instrument. It was designed in the phase of preliminary design and tested to three students of grade six OASIS International School, Ankara – Turkey. The result of the experiments showed that temperature in the thermometer context could stimulate students’ informal knowledge of integer concept. Furthermore, strategies and tools used by the students in comparing and relating two temperatures were gradually be developed into a more formal mathematics. The representation of line inside thermometer which then called the number line could bring the students to the last activity levels, namely rules for adding integer, and became the model for more formal reasoning. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that students’ learning integer concept and integer addition developed through RME levels.Keywords: integer concept, integer addition, Realistic Mathematics Education DOI:

  9. Towards Concept Understanding relying on Conceptualisation in Constructivist Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad


    and understandings over their mental structures in the framework of constructivism, and I will clarify my logical [and semantic] conceptions of humans’ concept understandings. This research focuses on philosophy of education and on logics of human learning. It connects with the topics ‘Cognition in Education......, through this constructivism to a pedagogical theory of learning. I will mainly focus on conceptual and epistemological analysis of humans’ conceptualisations based on their own mental objects (schemata). Subsequently, I will propose an analytical specification of humans’ conceptualisations...

  10. Rethinking Game Based Learning: applying pedagogical standards to educational games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Birgit; Kelle, Sebastian


    Schmitz, B., & Kelle, S. (2010, 1-6 February). Rethinking Game Based Learning: applying pedagogical standards to educational games. Presentation at JTEL Winter School 2010 on Advanced Learning Technologies, Innsbruck, Austria.

  11. Undergraduate Students' Earth Science Learning: Relationships among Conceptions, Approaches, and Learning Self-Efficacy in Taiwan (United States)

    Shen, Kuan-Ming; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen


    In the area of science education research, studies have attempted to investigate conceptions of learning, approaches to learning, and self-efficacy, mainly focusing on science in general or on specific subjects such as biology, physics, and chemistry. However, few empirical studies have probed students' earth science learning. This study aimed to…

  12. Non-Formal Learning: Clarification of the Concept and Its Application in Music Learning (United States)

    Mok, On Nei Annie


    The concept of non-formal learning, which falls outside the categories of informal and formal learning, has not been as widely discussed, especially in the music education literature. In order to bridge this gap and to provide supplementary framework to the discussion of informal and formal learning, therefore, this paper will first summarize…

  13. On the Concepts of Usability and Reusability of Learning Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel-Angel Sicilia


    Full Text Available “Reusable learning objects” oriented towards increasing their potential reusability are required to satisfy concerns about their granularity and their independence of concrete contexts of use. Such requirements also entail that the definition of learning object “usability,” and the techniques required to carry out their “usability evaluation” must be substantially different from those commonly used to characterize and evaluate the usability of conventional educational applications. In this article, a specific characterization of the concept of learning object usability is discussed, which places emphasis on “reusability,” the key property of learning objects residing in repositories. The concept of learning object reusability is described as the possibility and adequacy for the object to be usable in prospective educational settings, so that usability and reusability are considered two interrelated – and in many cases conflicting – properties of learning objects. Following the proposed characterization of two characteristics or properties of learning objects, a method to evaluate usability of specific learning objects will be presented.

  14. Per-Sample Multiple Kernel Approach for Visual Concept Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yu Duan


    Full Text Available Learning visual concepts from images is an important yet challenging problem in computer vision and multimedia research areas. Multiple kernel learning (MKL methods have shown great advantages in visual concept learning. As a visual concept often exhibits great appearance variance, a canonical MKL approach may not generate satisfactory results when a uniform kernel combination is applied over the input space. In this paper, we propose a per-sample multiple kernel learning (PS-MKL approach to take into account intraclass diversity for improving discrimination. PS-MKL determines sample-wise kernel weights according to kernel functions and training samples. Kernel weights as well as kernel-based classifiers are jointly learned. For efficient learning, PS-MKL employs a sample selection strategy. Extensive experiments are carried out over three benchmarking datasets of different characteristics including Caltech101, WikipediaMM, and Pascal VOC'07. PS-MKL has achieved encouraging performance, comparable to the state of the art, which has outperformed a canonical MKL.

  15. Per-Sample Multiple Kernel Approach for Visual Concept Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yonghong


    Full Text Available Abstract Learning visual concepts from images is an important yet challenging problem in computer vision and multimedia research areas. Multiple kernel learning (MKL methods have shown great advantages in visual concept learning. As a visual concept often exhibits great appearance variance, a canonical MKL approach may not generate satisfactory results when a uniform kernel combination is applied over the input space. In this paper, we propose a per-sample multiple kernel learning (PS-MKL approach to take into account intraclass diversity for improving discrimination. PS-MKL determines sample-wise kernel weights according to kernel functions and training samples. Kernel weights as well as kernel-based classifiers are jointly learned. For efficient learning, PS-MKL employs a sample selection strategy. Extensive experiments are carried out over three benchmarking datasets of different characteristics including Caltech101, WikipediaMM, and Pascal VOC'07. PS-MKL has achieved encouraging performance, comparable to the state of the art, which has outperformed a canonical MKL.

  16. Conception of comics dedicated to optics learning (United States)

    Machemy, Jacques; Bousquet, Bruno


    Optics' teaching is commonly based on the use of lessons including several mathematical tools. For example, ray tracing can be described through matrix algebra, and interference and polarization can be supported by the use of complex numbers. Thus, the numerous mathematical descriptions included in the optics' lessons represent a real difficulty for students having insufficient skills in mathematics. Moreover, despite of very impressive optical effects one can observe in real life, e.g. rainbows, their description in optics' courses is often considered as too academic and boring, and finally not really exciting. In this context, we have invented a new type of comics dedicated to optics' learning. Based on a dialogue between two imaginary characters, one considered as the young student and the other one as the old teacher, we have chosen to reduce the role of mathematics and to mix realistic and unrealistic elements in the drawing to complete the explanations faster. Starting from reflection and refraction, the Snell's laws then allow for describing natural phenomena such as mirage and rainbow as well as technical points such as light propagation into an optical fiber and the measurement of the refraction index. The first volume presented here will be evaluated during the fall semester 2015 in different high schools and at university through a linked survey and the students will also get access to an online version while the following parts are in preparation.

  17. Evaluating and integrating corporate social responsibility standards: Implications for CSR concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Stiglbauer


    Full Text Available Standards play a major role when concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR ought to be implemented and corporate social performance (CSP ought to be assessed. Ethical reasoning and stakeholders’ expectations help to measure companies’ intentions to implement CSR standards and to measure their efficiency. With different standards of CSR (company standards, industry standards, multi-stakeholder standards and independent standards companies may implement we categorize and еvaluate those standards and give advice which opportunities but also threats may arise for companies when implementing such codes within firm-specific CSR concepts. We suggest a combination of different standards and replenish them with firm-specific codes of conduct.

  18. Using Cognitive Tutor Software in Learning Linear Algebra Word Concept (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Ju


    This paper reports on a study of twelve 10th grade students using Cognitive Tutor, a math software program, to learn linear algebra word concept. The study's purpose was to examine whether students' mathematics performance as it is related to using Cognitive Tutor provided evidence to support Koedlinger's (2002) four instructional principles used…

  19. Postgraduate Conception of Research Methodology: Implications for Learning and Teaching (United States)

    Daniel, Ben; Kumar, Vijay; Omar, Noritah


    This qualitative inquiry investigates postgraduate students' conceptions of research methodology and how it contributes to their learning. It explores factors likely to motivate student choice of research methodology and challenges in understanding research methods. The research was carried out at research-intensive universities in New Zealand and…

  20. Anxiety and Self-Concept of Learning Disabled Children. (United States)

    Margalit, Malka; Zak, Itai


    One hundred learning disabled (LD) and 118 nondisabled children (six-13 years old) participated in the study which demonstrated significantly higher anxiety and lower self-concept in the first group. The differences emphasized the self-dissatisfaction of the LD group and their pawning related anxiety. (Author/CL)

  1. Cueing and Anxiety in a Visual Concept Learning Task. (United States)

    Turner, Philip M.

    This study investigated the relationship of two anxiety measures (the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Form and the S-R Inventory of Anxiousness-Exam Form) to performance on a visual concept-learning task with embedded criterial information. The effect on anxiety reduction of cueing criterial information was also examined, and two levels of…

  2. Relational Analysis of High School Students' Cognitive Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Conceptions of Learning Biology (United States)

    Sadi, Özlem


    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between students' cognitive learning strategies and conceptions of learning biology. The two scales, "Cognitive Learning Strategies" and "Conceptions of Learning Biology", were revised and adapted to biology in order to measure the students' learning strategies and…

  3. Evaluating learning and teaching using the Force Concept Inventory (United States)

    Zitzewitz, Paul


    Teaching methods used in the calculus-based mechanics course for engineers and scientists (P150) at the University of Michigan-Dearborn were markedly changed in September, 1996. Lectures emphasize active learning with Mazur's ConcepTests, Sokoloff's Interactive Demonstrations, and Van Heuvelen's ALPS Kit worksheets. Students solve context-rich problems using Van Heuvelen's multiple representation format in cooperative groups in discussion sections. Labs were changed to use MBL emphasizing concepts and Experiment Problems to learn lab-based problem solving. Pre- and post-testing of 400 students with the Force Concept Inventory has demonstrated considerable success. The average increase in score has been 35-45methods as defined by Hake. The methods and results will be discussed. Detailed analyses of the FCI results will look at success in teaching specific concepts and the effect of student preparation in mathematics and high school physics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana G. Lytvynova


    Full Text Available The article deals with the basic concepts and characteristics of cloud oriented learning environment (COLE of secondary school. It is examined the concept of "cloud oriented learning environment", "mobility training", the requirements for COLE, the goal of creating, the structural components, model deployment, maintenance. Four cloud storages are compared; the subjects and objects of COLE are described; the meaning of spatial and semantic, content and methodical, communication and organizational components are clarified; the benefits and features of cloud computing are defined. It is found that COLE creates conditions for active cooperation, provides mobility of learning process participants, and objects’ virtualization. It is available anywhere and at any time, ensures the development of creativity and innovation, critical thinking, ability to solve problems, to develop communicative, cooperative, life and career skills, to work with data, media, to develop ICT competence either of students and teachers.

  5. Virtual learning object and environment: a concept analysis. (United States)

    Salvador, Pétala Tuani Candido de Oliveira; Bezerril, Manacés Dos Santos; Mariz, Camila Maria Santos; Fernandes, Maria Isabel Domingues; Martins, José Carlos Amado; Santos, Viviane Euzébia Pereira


    To analyze the concept of virtual learning object and environment according to Rodgers' evolutionary perspective. Descriptive study with a mixed approach, based on the stages proposed by Rodgers in his concept analysis method. Data collection occurred in August 2015 with the search of dissertations and theses in the Bank of Theses of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel. Quantitative data were analyzed based on simple descriptive statistics and the concepts through lexicographic analysis with support of the IRAMUTEQ software. The sample was made up of 161 studies. The concept of "virtual learning environment" was presented in 99 (61.5%) studies, whereas the concept of "virtual learning object" was presented in only 15 (9.3%) studies. A virtual learning environment includes several and different types of virtual learning objects in a common pedagogical context. Analisar o conceito de objeto e de ambiente virtual de aprendizagem na perspectiva evolucionária de Rodgers. Estudo descritivo, de abordagem mista, realizado a partir das etapas propostas por Rodgers em seu modelo de análise conceitual. A coleta de dados ocorreu em agosto de 2015 com a busca de dissertações e teses no Banco de Teses e Dissertações da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior. Os dados quantitativos foram analisados a partir de estatística descritiva simples e os conceitos pela análise lexicográfica com suporte do IRAMUTEQ. A amostra é constituída de 161 estudos. O conceito de "ambiente virtual de aprendizagem" foi apresentado em 99 (61,5%) estudos, enquanto o de "objeto virtual de aprendizagem" em apenas 15 (9,3%). Concluiu-se que um ambiente virtual de aprendizagem reúne vários e diferentes tipos de objetos virtuais de aprendizagem em um contexto pedagógico comum.

  6. Historical survey of new concepts of lifelong learning during aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parlić-Božović Jasna Lj.


    Full Text Available Learning and education gradually occupy an important place in human life. Therefore, continuing socio-political and economic changes, rapid scientific and technological development, the expansion of knowledge, formed the phenomenon of the learning society. Its theoretical basis can be found in the concept of learning in the course of a lifetime, example: permanent learning and education in the aging process. On the other hand, the rapid changes taking place in the world, seeking to know the day is increasing. In the center of a thriving economy and a developed society are knowledge and ability, and education and learning become the instrument that. key socio-economic progress. Nevertheless, shorter working hours and longer life expectancy retirement also increases the amount of time available for other activities. In all areas, there are more opportunities for learning outside the school, and qualifications, in the traditional sense of getting out in front of new trends competence and adaptability. Adults who are constantly in the process of aging, the process of continuing education and learning are significantly different quality in relation to children, therefore it is necessary and a different approach to the children, and a different approach to teaching adults in the era of change, due to life and work experience, educational level, psychological and physical characteristics but also because of their social status. This paper will be an attempt, which will show the theoretical analysis of many aspects of learning, types, shapes, possibilities and limits of learning, the basic needs of adults in the aging process, as well as provide answers to the question why a grown man in the aging process learns who the person in the learning process and learning how to function in a process of aging.

  7. Concept maps and the meaningful learning of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio C. S. Valadares


    Full Text Available The foundations of the Meaningful Learning Theory (MLT were laid by David Ausubel. The MLT was highly valued by the contributions of Joseph Novak and D. B. Gowin. Unlike other learning theories, the MLT has an operational component, since there are some instruments based on it and with the meaningful learning facilitation as aim. These tools were designated graphic organizers by John Trowbridge and James Wandersee (2000, pp. 100-129. One of them is the concept map created by Novak to extract meanings from an amalgam of information, having currently many applications. The other one is the Vee diagram or knowledge Vee, also called epistemological Vee or heuristic Vee. It was created by Gowin, and is an excellent organizer, for example to unpack and make transparent the unclear information from an information source. Both instruments help us in processing and becoming conceptually transparent the information, to facilitate the cognitive process of new meanings construction. In this work, after a brief introduction, it will be developed the epistemological and psychological grounds of MLT, followed by a reference to constructivist learning environments facilitators of the meaningful learning, the characterization of concept maps and exemplification of its use in various applications that have proved to be very effective from the standpoint of meaningful learning.

  8. The MTO concept and organisational learning at Forsmark NPP, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Olle; Rollenhagen, Carl


    The term 'MTO' (Man-Technology-Organisation) has been widely used by Swedish utilities and regulators to describe knowledge and analytical techniques that focus on human and organisational factors and their relationship with nuclear safety. MTO was introduced in Sweden after the TMI accident as a concept similar to the 'Human Factors' (HF) concept developed in the USA. It was the intent that the explicit mention of the three interrelated elements in the concept - Man, Technology and Organisation - would stimulate a comprehensive 'system view' on nuclear safety. This view should go beyond a strict technological perspective to recognise and highlight human and organisational factors as important moderators of risk. In retrospect, the MTO concept has been successful in stimulating a socio-technological view of nuclear safety in Sweden - a general trend supported by international developments. A further step along this path has been taken with the LearnSafe project. (author)

  9. Theoretical concepts about "Intelligence" - practices and standards in democratic societies


    Mr.Sc. Bahri Gashi


    My thesis consists of theoretical analysis on the need for recognition of academic concepts to shape and design research field intelligence community activity, careful analysis of the terms and concepts that are strongly linked to intelligence work methodology, theoretical aspects description given practice best to regulate this specific area in our academic studies, has made the study to take proper shape with bold shades of comparative empirical analysis. My study aims to summarize, to ...

  10. Learning Disabilities and Achieving High-Quality Education Standards (United States)

    Gartland, Debi; Strosnider, Roberta


    This is an official document of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD), of which Council for Learning Disabilities is a long-standing, active member. With this position paper, NJCLD advocates for the implementation of high-quality education standards (HQES) for students with learning disabilities (LD) and outlines the…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Suss


    Full Text Available Distributed Icarning environments and content often lack a common basis for the cxchange of learning materials. This delays, or even hinders, both innovation and delivery of learning tecnology. Standards for platforms and authoring may provide a way to improve interoperability and cooperative development. This article provides an XML-based approach to this problem creaied by the IMS Global Learning Consortium.

  12. Improving the Virtual Learning Development Processes Using XML Standards. (United States)

    Suss, Kurt; Oberhofer, Thomas


    Suggests that distributed learning environments and content often lack a common basis for the exchange of learning materials, which can hinder or even delay innovation and delivery of learning technology. Standards for platforms and authoring may provide a way to improve interoperability and cooperative development. Provides an XML-based approach…

  13. Construction of concept maps as tool for Biochemistry learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lopes de Menezes


    Full Text Available The use of concept maps on the teaching of sciences has been object of worldwide research with different purposes: to detect the previous knowledge of the students on certain topics or to evaluate learning, among others. Based on Ausubel´s cognitive psychology, concept maps assume that the learning is accomplished by assimilation of new concepts and propositions to the students´ cognitive structure, contributing to establish links between the previous and new knowledge. It is especially interesting on the approach of interdisciplinary issues, as many studied in Biochemistry.The relevance of the use of concept maps on biochemistry learning was evaluated on a thirty-hour undergraduation optional course, with interdisciplinary topics, which are not usually included on introductory Biochemistry courses. The course Biochemistry of Animal Venoms was structured in seven module where the biochemical action mechanisms of the venoms of Crotalus sp (south american rattlesnake, Bothrops sp (jararaca, Loxosceles sp (brown spider, Tityus sp (yellow scorpion, Phoneutria sp (armed spider, Apis mellifera (honey bee and Latrodectus sp (black widowwere discussed. The students worked in small groups and, at each module, there were (1 an oriented study, guided by questions, texts and schemes, supervised by the teachers, (2 the construction of individual concept maps, where the local and systemic effects of the venoms should be predicted by their biochemical composition and (3 the construction of a new map by the group, incorporating the information of the individual maps. The difficulty level of these tasks was gradually increased throughout the course, with lesser time to carry out the tasks, lesser assistance during the oriented study and even lesser information on the venom effects.The course assessment was given by the number, quality and correction of the concepts relationship present in the concept maps, through a questionnaire and by the

  14. Theoretical concepts about "Intelligence" - practices and standards in democratic societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Bahri Gashi


    Full Text Available My thesis consists of theoretical analysis on the need for recognition of academic concepts to shape and design research field intelligence community activity, careful analysis of the terms and concepts that are strongly linked to intelligence work methodology, theoretical aspects description given practice best to regulate this specific area in our academic studies, has made the study to take proper shape with bold shades of comparative empirical analysis. My study aims to summarize, to analyze existing approaches and break the "taboo theories," floats mysteriously present new knowledge, summed up in this multidisciplinary field study, now theories only considering the nature of scientific thought for recognition theoretical concepts and legal regulation best practice intelligence services in democratic societies. emocratic societies. Treatment of this complex matter such as "intelligent services submission principle" of democracy is very difficult. Is between the concept of democracy is to be open and transparent, and intelligent service logic in the concept is to be closed and secret. Generally in "strategic studies and Peace” security for the creation of "security system" argued by the authors Buzan and Herring. Concept Intelligent based on the theory: "The essence of intelligence is the adequate response to a stimulus." Is the essence of this analysis?

  15. Enhancing Collaborative and Meaningful Language Learning Through Concept Mapping (United States)

    Marriott, Rita De Cássia Veiga; Torres, Patrícia Lupion

    This chapter aims to investigate new ways of foreign-language teaching/learning via a study of how concept mapping can help develop a student's reading, writing and oral skills as part of a blended methodology for language teaching known as LAPLI (Laboratorio de Aprendizagem de LInguas: The Language Learning Lab). LAPLI is a student-centred and collaborative methodology which encourages students to challenge their limitations and expand their current knowledge whilst developing their linguistic and interpersonal skills. We explore the theories that underpin LAPLI and detail the 12 activities comprising its programme with specify reference to the use of "concept mapping". An innovative table enabling a formative and summative assessment of the concept maps is formulated. Also presented are some of the qualitative and quantitative results achieved when this methodology was first implemented with a group of pre-service students studying for a degree in English and Portuguese languages at the Catholic University of Parana (PUCPR) in Brazil. The contribution of concept mapping and LAPLI to an under standing of language learning along with a consideration of the difficulties encountered in its implementation with student groups is discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  16. The Nemesis E-Learning 4-Sectors-Model - A Concept to Enhance the Reusability of E-Learning Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Hendricks


    Full Text Available The 4-Sectors-Model has been developed by the TU Berlin and is intended to facilitate providing customized e-learning products to different target learner groups, while keeping the same basic content. This is made possible by the independent development of user interface and content. The different components are assembled at the end to produce the final e-learning product. Software development is based on the Generative Learning Objects concept (UCeL. Further improvements based on results of the ongoing test phase will make the 4-Sectors-Model better adapted to fit user needs. Finally, this project is dedicated to establishing a high standard of didactic quality for the future development of e-learning software at the TU Berlin.

  17. Concept mapping and text writing as learning tools in problem-oriented learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fürstenau, B.; Kneppers, L.; Dekker, R.; Cañas, A.J.; Novak, J.D.; Vanhaer, J.


    In two studies we investigated whether concept mapping or summary writing better support students while learning from authentic problems in the field of business. We interpret concept mapping and summary writing as elaboration tools aiming at helping students to understand new information, and to

  18. Business transactions and standards. Towards a system of concepts and a method for early problem identification in standard implementation projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rukanova, B.D.


    To summarize, with respect to research question one we constructed a system of concepts, while in answer to research question two we proposed a method of how to apply this system of concepts in practice in order to identify potential problems in early stages of standard implementation projects.

  19. Millennial Students' Preferred Methods for Learning Concepts in Psychiatric Nursing. (United States)

    Garwood, Janet K


    The current longitudinal, descriptive, and correlational study explored which traditional teaching strategies can engage Millennial students and adequately prepare them for the ultimate test of nursing competence: the National Council Licensure Examination. The study comprised a convenience sample of 40 baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in a psychiatric nursing course. The students were exposed to a variety of traditional (e.g., PowerPoint(®)-guided lectures) and nontraditional (e.g., concept maps, group activities) teaching and learning strategies, and rated their effectiveness. The students' scores on the final examination demonstrated that student learning outcomes met or exceeded national benchmarks. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Learning Illustrated: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Drawing Analysis of Students' Conceptions of Learning (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Min; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    Using the draw-a-picture technique, the authors explored the learning conceptions held by students across grade levels. A total of 1,067 Taiwanese students in Grades 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 participated in this study. Participants were asked to use drawing to illustrate how they conceptualize learning. A coding checklist was developed to analyze…

  1. Finding faults: analogical comparison supports spatial concept learning in geoscience. (United States)

    Jee, Benjamin D; Uttal, David H; Gentner, Dedre; Manduca, Cathy; Shipley, Thomas F; Sageman, Bradley


    A central issue in education is how to support the spatial thinking involved in learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated whether and how the cognitive process of analogical comparison supports learning of a basic spatial concept in geoscience, fault. Because of the high variability in the appearance of faults, it may be difficult for students to learn the category-relevant spatial structure. There is abundant evidence that comparing analogous examples can help students gain insight into important category-defining features (Gentner in Cogn Sci 34(5):752-775, 2010). Further, comparing high-similarity pairs can be especially effective at revealing key differences (Sagi et al. 2012). Across three experiments, we tested whether comparison of visually similar contrasting examples would help students learn the fault concept. Our main findings were that participants performed better at identifying faults when they (1) compared contrasting (fault/no fault) cases versus viewing each case separately (Experiment 1), (2) compared similar as opposed to dissimilar contrasting cases early in learning (Experiment 2), and (3) viewed a contrasting pair of schematic block diagrams as opposed to a single block diagram of a fault as part of an instructional text (Experiment 3). These results suggest that comparison of visually similar contrasting cases helped distinguish category-relevant from category-irrelevant features for participants. When such comparisons occurred early in learning, participants were more likely to form an accurate conceptual representation. Thus, analogical comparison of images may provide one powerful way to enhance spatial learning in geoscience and other STEM disciplines.

  2. Public Conceptions of Algorithms and Representations in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (United States)

    Nanna, Robert J.


    Algorithms and representations have been an important aspect of the work of mathematics, especially for understanding concepts and communicating ideas about concepts and mathematical relationships. They have played a key role in various mathematics standards documents, including the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. However, there have…

  3. Council for the Advancement of Standards Learning and Developmental Outcomes (United States)

    Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education, 2008


    The Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) promotes standards to enhance opportunities for student learning and development from higher education programs and services. Responding to the increased shift in attention being paid by educators and their stakeholders from higher education inputs (i.e., standards and…

  4. Changing University Students’ Alternative Conceptions of Optics by Active Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalkida Hadžibegović


    Full Text Available Active learning is individual and group participation in effective activities such as in-class observing, writing, experimenting, discussion, solving problems, and talking about to-be-learned topics. Some instructors believe that active learning is impossible, or at least extremely difficult to achieve in large lecture sessions. Nevertheless, the truly impressive implementation results of theSCALE-UP learning environment suggest that such beliefs are false (Beichner et al., 2000. In this study, we present a design of an active learning environment with positive effect on students. The design is based on the following elements: (1 helping students to learn from interactive lecture experiment; (2 guiding students to use justified explanation and prediction after observing and exploring a phenomenon; (3 developing a conceptual question sequencedesigned for use in an interactive lecture with students answering questions in worksheets by writing and drawing; (4 evaluating students’ conceptual change and gains by questions related to light reflection, refraction, and image formation in an exam held a week after the active learning session. Data were collected from 95 science freshmen with different secondary school backgrounds. They participated in geometrical optics classes organized for collecting research results during and after only one active learning session.The results have showed that around 60% of the students changed their initial alternative conceptions of vision and of image formation. It was also found that a large group of university students is likely to be engaged in active learning, shifting from a passive role they usually play during teacher’s lectures.

  5. Virtual language learning environments: the standardization of evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Romero Forteza


    Full Text Available Nowadays there are many approaches aimed at helping learners acquire knowledge through the Internet. Virtual Learning Environments (VLE facilitate the acquisition and practice of skills, but some of these learning platforms are not evaluated or do not follow a standard that guarantees the quality of the tasks involved. In this paper, we set out a proposal for the standardization of the evaluation of VLEs available on the World Wide Web. Thus, the main objective of this study is to establish an evaluation template with which to test whether a VLE is appropriate for computer-assisted language learning (CALL. In the methodology section, a learning platform is analysed and tested to establish the characteristics learning platforms must have. Having established the design of the template for language learning environments, we concluded that a VLE must be versatile enough for application with different language learning and teaching approaches.

  6. Learning circumference concepts from the didactical situations theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir de Sousa Cavalcanti


    Full Text Available The circumference study, as its importance, it is one of the most relevant contents in the Analytical Geometry curriculum. However, the complexity of related concepts to this theme linked to the content fragmentation, it difficulties the students thinking of transforming geometrical problems into equations solution, systems or inequations. Within, in this article we present a partial report of a master research work, of qualitative mode, which aimed to develop and to evaluate an alternative methodology by using musical parody composition to the teaching of Mathematics in trying to contribute to the circumference concepts learning process. For that, we carried out a case study with 36 third year high school students of a public school from the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba. The research work was based and discussed on Brousseau Didactical Situation Theory. It was chosen triangulation technique for the data analyses, collected from interviews, questionnaires and a list of mathematical exercises. We concluded that the parody composition resource allowed the students better understand the concepts of center, ratio, cord and the definition of the general circumference equation, as they were capable to identify the relative positions which a circumference assumes in relation to an equation of a straight line and between two circumferences in the various concepts that differentiated them. Thus, we can state that the musical parody composition as a didactical resource can contribute to the learning of mathematical contents.

  7. Understanding students' concepts through guided inquiry learning and free modified inquiry on static fluid material


    Sularso Sularso; Widha Sunarno; Sarwanto Sarwanto


    This study provides information on understanding students' concepts in guided inquiry learning groups and in free modified inquiry learning groups. Understanding of student concept is reviewed on the concept of static fluid case. The number of samples tested were 67 students. The sample is divided into 2 groups of students: the group is given guided inquiry learning and the group given the modified free inquiry learning. Understanding the concept of students is measured through 23 tests of it...

  8. A Theoretical Model for Meaning Construction through Constructivist Concept Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    The central focus of this Ph.D. research is on ‘Logic and Cognition’ and, more specifically, this research covers the quintuple (Logic and Logical Philosophy, Philosophy of Education, Educational Psychology, Cognitive Science, Computer Science). The most significant contributions of this Ph.D. di...... of ‘learning’, ‘mentoring’, and ‘knowledge’ within learning and knowledge acquisition systems. Constructivism as an epistemology and as a model of knowing and, respectively as a theoretical model of learning builds up the central framework of this research........D. dissertation are conceptual, logical, terminological, and semantic analysis of Constructivist Concept Learning (specifically, in the context of humans’ interactions with their environment and with other agents). This dissertation is concerned with the specification of the conceptualisation of the phenomena...

  9. The Effects of a Concept Map-Based Support Tool on Simulation-Based Inquiry Learning (United States)

    Hagemans, Mieke G.; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Ton


    Students often need support to optimize their learning in inquiry learning environments. In 2 studies, we investigated the effects of adding concept-map-based support to a simulation-based inquiry environment on kinematics. The concept map displayed the main domain concepts and their relations, while dynamic color coding of the concepts displayed…

  10. Standard 'Principle guides of radioprotection': introduced concepts and future forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagnino, R.


    The main topics introduced by the new CNEN standard NE 3.01 - Basic Directrix of Radioprotection directly associated to the field work in industrial radiography are presented. It's showed a practical example which evidences the need of information exchange among the industrial security, radiological safety and quality control staffs for the continuity of works in this area. (author)

  11. The comparative effect of individually-generated vs. collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on science concept learning (United States)

    Kwon, So Young

    Using a quasi-experimental design, the researcher investigated the comparative effects of individually-generated and collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on middle school science concept learning. Qualitative data were analyzed to explain quantitative findings. One hundred sixty-one students (74 boys and 87 girls) in eight, seventh grade science classes at a middle school in Southeast Texas completed the entire study. Using prior science performance scores to assure equivalence of student achievement across groups, the researcher assigned the teacher's classes to one of the three experimental groups. The independent variable, group, consisted of three levels: 40 students in a control group, 59 students trained to individually generate concept maps on computers, and 62 students trained to collaboratively generate concept maps on computers. The dependent variables were science concept learning as demonstrated by comprehension test scores, and quality of concept maps created by students in experimental groups as demonstrated by rubric scores. Students in the experimental groups received concept mapping training and used their newly acquired concept mapping skills to individually or collaboratively construct computer-based concept maps during study time. The control group, the individually-generated concept mapping group, and the collaboratively-generated concept mapping group had equivalent learning experiences for 50 minutes during five days, excepting that students in a control group worked independently without concept mapping activities, students in the individual group worked individually to construct concept maps, and students in the collaborative group worked collaboratively to construct concept maps during their study time. Both collaboratively and individually generated computer-based concept mapping had a positive effect on seventh grade middle school science concept learning but neither strategy was more effective than the other. However

  12. Self-regulated learning and conceptions of students in Cooperative Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calixto Gutiérrez Braojos


    Full Text Available The aim of this exploratory study was to analyze the relationship between conceptions and self-regulation learning in the cooperative learning. The participants were 71 students enrolled in higher education. We used a survey method and transversal design to analyze the relationship between the study variables. We use two questionnaires: a questionnaire about self-regulation learning in group cooperative learning; b questionnaire about interdependence social conceptions. Thus, we have followed classic validation procedures accepted by the scientific community (expert point of view and stadistical tests. The results showed on one hand a relationship between conceptions, self-regulation learning, and other hand, two type of student´s profiles respect to conceptions: a cooperative learners and individualist learners. Solely, cooperative learners obtained benefits of the didactic strategy to facilitate cooperative learning. Thus, results were significantly higher in the cooperative students than individualist students respect to use of selfregulation strategies and communicative skills to generate shared knowledge.

  13. Integrating Concept Mapping into Information Systems Education for Meaningful Learning and Assessment (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Yue, Kwok-Bun


    Concept map (CM) is a theoretically sound yet easy to learn tool and can be effectively used to represent knowledge. Even though many disciplines have adopted CM as a teaching and learning tool to improve learning effectiveness, its application in IS curriculum is sparse. Meaningful learning happens when one iteratively integrates new concepts and…

  14. Conceptions, Self-Regulation, and Strategies of Learning Science among Chinese High School Students (United States)

    Li, Mang; Zheng, Chunping; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Zhang, Yun; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    This study explored the structural relationships among secondary school students' conceptions, self-regulation, and strategies of learning science in mainland China. Three questionnaires, namely conceptions of learning science (COLS), self-regulation of learning science (SROLS), and strategies of learning science (SLS) were developed for…

  15. Radiofrequency protection guidelines and standards: basic concepts and principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerski, P.


    Over the past quarter of a century, radiofrequency radiation protection guidelines and standards evolved gradually and are continuously revised and refined. The scientific rationales presented for proposed exposure limits are achieving a considerable scientific sophistication. With increasing scientific validity of the presented arguments, the values of exposure limits are converging and one may hope that they will become convincing and acceptable to all schools of thought. Still more research is needed to refine the available exposure limits. This is recognized by ANSI who revise their recommendations periodically and are now engaged in the preparation of the next revision. INIRC/IRPA is also reconsidering their interim guideline. The Australian Standards Association also stressed the temporary nature of their exposure limits

  16. Results and Implications of a 12-Year Longitudinal Study of Science Concept Learning (United States)

    Novak, Joseph D.


    This paper describes the methods and outcomes of a 12-year longitudinal study into the effects of an early intervention program, while reflecting back on changes that have occurred in approaches to research, learning and instruction since the preliminary inception stages of the study in the mid 1960s. We began the study to challenge the prevailing consensus at the time that primary school children were either preoperational or concrete operational in their cognitive development and they could not learn abstract concepts. Our early research, based on Ausubelian theory, suggested otherwise. The paper describes the development and implementation of a Grade 1-2 audio tutorial science instructional sequence, and the subsequent tracing over 12 years, of the children's conceptual understandings in science compared to a matched control group. During the study the concept map was developed as a new tool to trace children's conceptual development. We found that students in the instruction group far outperformed their non-instructed counterparts, and this difference increased as they progressed through middle and high school. The data clearly support the earlier introduction of science instruction on basic science concepts, such as the particulate nature of matter, energy and energy transformations. The data suggest that national curriculum standards for science grossly underestimate the learning capabilities of primary-grade children. The study has helped to lay a foundation for guided instruction using computers and concept mapping that may help both teachers and students become more proficient in understanding science.

  17. Brain-Based Learning and Standards-Based Elementary Science. (United States)

    Konecki, Loretta R.; Schiller, Ellen

    This paper explains how brain-based learning has become an area of interest to elementary school science teachers, focusing on the possible relationships between, and implications of, research on brain-based learning to the teaching of science education standards. After describing research on the brain, the paper looks at three implications from…

  18. The Learning Behaviors Scale: National Standardization in Trinidad and Tobago (United States)

    Chao, Jessica L.; McDermott, Paul A.; Watkins, Marley W.; Drogalis, Anna Rhoad; Worrell, Frank C.; Hall, Tracey E.


    This study reports on the national standardization and validation of the Learning Behaviors Scale (LBS) for use in Trinidad and Tobago. The LBS is a teacher rating scale centering on observable behaviors relevant to identifying childhood approaches to classroom learning. Teachers observed a stratified sample of 900 students across the islands'…

  19. Why First Language Learning Is Not Second Language Learning--Wittgenstein's Rejection of St. Augustine's Conception of Learning. (United States)

    Erneling, Christina


    Paper shows that Wittgenstein, in discussing ostensive definition, understanding, and the private language argument, attacks Saint Augustine's notion of learning. Recently, the Augustinian conception has been resurrected in cognitive theories postulating an innate language of thought, making Wittgenstein's claims that this conception of learning…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Based on three key psychological concepts: learning, culture and meaning, the present essay proposes a conceptualbase frame, oriented toward the understanding of development in organizations into current milieu ofcompetitiveness and temporality, of the relationships among people working into them. The organizations whichare typically embedded in a context of values, needs and symbols that made up their cultures, must evolve in orderto face the demands for new developments and change, to which they are forced to. The concept of “meaning of theculture”, is presented as the base over which is build and rooted the organizational learning - in a technical and socialsense. The different types of learning are the ways in which the organizations satisfy the requirements coming fromtheir environments, in front of which must generate knowledge and consequently, new products and services,based on the people that form such organizations. The people that belong and constitutes the organization, incircumstances of temporal cohesion and within temporary working networks, must achieve results and to beadjusted to these new working and organizational facts, developing self-management and autonomy, in order tosignify and get adapted into the cultural tissue.

  1. Mikhail Geraskov (1874-1957 Methodological Concepts of Learning Physics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariyana Ilieva


    Full Text Available Mikhail Geraskov is a distinguished Bulgarian educator from the first half of the twentieth century, who developed the scientific foundations of didactics and methodology of training. His work contributed a lot to the development of the Bulgarian pedagogy. The subject of scientific research is didactical conceptions and methodological conceptions of learning. The aim of the research paper is to presents his ideas about particular methods of teaching Physics for high school. Geraskov assumes direct correlation between didactics and methodology. This paper focuses on his ideas about design, technology and methodological requirements for lessons of Physics. He believes that the appropriate methods are determined by the curriculum, set of educational goals and age characteristics, and capabilities of adolescents. In his methodical recommendations he focuses on teaching methods and forms that provoke students’ activity. Comparative analysis with publications on the issues set for development of the Bulgarian pedagogic science and the actuality in the modern education system.

  2. Learning Achievement and the Efficiency of Learning the Concept of Vector Addition at Three Different Grade Levels (United States)

    Gubrud, Allan R.; Novak, Joseph D.


    Empirical data relate to Bruner's and Ausubel's theories of learning concepts at different age levels. The concept of vector addition was taught to eighth, ninth, and tenth grade students. The concept was learned and retained by high ability ninth and all tenth grade students. (PS)

  3. Rethinking Early Learning and Development Standards in the Ugandan Context (United States)

    Ejuu, Godfrey


    Concerns that the African child is being tailored to be a "global child," alongside other homogenizing and dominating projections, such as early learning and development standards (ELDS), have increased. African communities need to be assured that global standards and global indicators will not further homogenize nations and thereby risk…

  4. Explorers of the Universe: Metacognitive Tools for Learning Science Concepts (United States)

    Alvarez, Marino C.


    Much of school learning consists of rote memorization of facts with little emphasis on meaningful interpretations. Knowledge construction is reduced to factual knowledge production with little regard for critical thinking, problem solving, or clarifying misconceptions. An important role of a middle and secondary teacher when teaching science is to aid students' ability to reflect upon what they know about a given topic and make available strategies that will enhance their understanding of text and science experiments. Developing metacognition, the ability to monitor one's own knowledge about a topic of study and to activate appropriate strategies, enhances students' learning when faced with reading, writing and problem solving situations. Two instructional strategies that can involve students in developing metacognitive awareness are hierarchical concept mapping, and Vee diagrams. Concept maps enable students to organize their ideas and reveal visually these ideas to others. A Vee diagram is a structured visual means of relating the methodological aspects of an activity to its underlying conceptual aspect in ways that aid learners in meaningful understanding of scientific investigations.

  5. Correlation of Students' Brain Types to Their Conceptions of Learning Science and Approaches to Learning Science (United States)

    Park, Jiyeon; Jeon, Dongryul


    The systemizing and empathizing brain type represent two contrasted students' characteristics. The present study investigated differences in the conceptions and approaches to learning science between the systemizing and empathizing brain type students. The instruments are questionnaires on the systematizing and empathizing, questionnaires on the…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr A. Shcherbyna


    Full Text Available For information technology in education there is always an issue of re-usage of electronic educational resources, their transferring possibility from one virtual learning environment to another. Previously, standardized sets of files were used to serve this purpose, for example, SCORM-packages. In this article the new standard Learning Tools Interoperability (LTI is reviewed, which allows users from one environment to access resources from another environment. This makes it possible to integrate them into a single distributed learning environment that is created and shared. The article gives examples of the practical use of standard LTI in Moodle learning management system using External tool and LTI provider plugins.

  7. Transformative Learning and Concepts of the Self: Insights from Immigrant and Intercultural Journeys (United States)

    Lange, Elizabeth


    This article examines Canadian immigrant and intercultural learning as an insightful context for examining transformative learning. Theories of intercultural communication are explored, particularly the concept of transculturality and Bhabha's concept of "Third Space". Various concepts of the self are also compared, particularly two…

  8. The effects of a concept map-based support tool on simulation-based inquiry learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagemans, M.G.; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.


    Students often need support to optimize their learning in inquiry learning environments. In 2 studies, we investigated the effects of adding concept-map-based support to a simulation-based inquiry environment on kinematics. The concept map displayed the main domain concepts and their relations,

  9. Learning Outcomes as a Key Concept in Policy Documents throughout Policy Changes (United States)

    Prøitz, Tine Sophie


    Learning outcomes can be considered to be a key concept in a changing education policy landscape, enhancing aspects such as benchmarking and competition. Issues relating to concepts of performance have a long history of debate within the field of education. Today, the concept of learning outcomes has become central in education policy development,…

  10. Learning the Attachment Theory with the CM-ED Concept Map Editor (United States)

    Rueda, U.; Arruarte, A.; Elorriaga, J. A.; Herran, E.


    This paper presents a study carried out at the University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU with the aim of evaluating the CM-ED (concept map editor) with social education students. Concept mapping is a widely accepted technique that promotes meaningful learning. Graphically representing concepts of the learning domain and relationships between them…

  11. Academic self-concept, learning motivation, and test anxiety of the underestimated student. (United States)

    Urhahne, Detlef; Chao, Sheng-Han; Florineth, Maria Luise; Luttenberger, Silke; Paechter, Manuela


    BACKGROUND. Teachers' judgments of student performance on a standardized achievement test often result in an overestimation of students' abilities. In the majority of cases, a larger group of overestimated students and a smaller group of underestimated students are formed by these judgments. AIMS. In this research study, the consequences of the underestimation of students' mathematical performance potential were examined. SAMPLE. Two hundred and thirty-five fourth grade students and their fourteen mathematics teachers took part in the investigation. METHOD. Students worked on a standardized mathematics achievement test and completed a self-description questionnaire about motivation and affect. Teachers estimated each individual student's potential with regard to mathematics test performance as well as students' expectancy for success, level of aspiration, academic self-concept, learning motivation, and test anxiety. The differences between teachers' judgments on students' test performance and students' actual performance were used to build groups of underestimated and overestimated students. RESULTS. Underestimated students displayed equal levels of test performance, learning motivation, and level of aspiration in comparison with overestimated students, but had lower expectancy for success, lower academic self-concept, and experienced more test anxiety. Teachers expected that underestimated students would receive lower grades on the next mathematics test, believed that students were satisfied with lower grades, and assumed that the students have weaker learning motivation than their overestimated classmates. CONCLUSION. Teachers' judgment error was not confined to test performance but generalized to motivational and affective traits of the students. © 2010 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Solar cost reduction through technical improvements: the concepts of learning and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Flaim, T.


    The concepts of learning and experience are reviewed and their usefulness for predicting the future costs of solar technologies are evaluated. The literature review indicated that the cost estimates for solar energy technologies are typically made assuming a fixed production process, characterized by standard capacity factors, overhead, and labor costs. The learning curve is suggested as a generalization of the costs of potential solar energy systems. The concept of experience is too ambiguous to be useful for cost estimation. There is no logical reason to believe that costs will decline purely as a function of cumulative production, and experience curves do not allow the analyst to identify logical sources of cost reduction directly. The procedures for using learning and aggregated cost curves to estimate the costs of solar technologies are outlined. It is recommended that production histories of analogous products and processes are analyzed and the learning and cost curves for these surrogates are estimated. These curves, if judged applicable, can be used to predict the cost reductions in manufacturing solar energy technologies.

  13. Effects of basic character design and animation concepts using the flipped learning and project-based learning approach on learning achievement and creative thinking of higher education students (United States)

    Autapao, Kanyarat; Minwong, Panthul


    Creative thinking was an important learning skill in the 21st Century via learning and innovation to promote students' creative thinking and working with others and to construct innovation. This is one of the important skills that determine the readiness of the participants to step into the complex society. The purposes of this research were 1) to compare the learning achievement of students after using basic character design and animation concepts using the flipped learning and project-based learning and 2) to make a comparison students' creative thinking between pretest and posttest. The populations were 29 students in Multimedia Technology program at Thepsatri Rajabhat University in the 2nd semester of the academic year 2016. The experimental instruments were lesson plans of basic character design and animation concepts using the flipped learning and project based learning. The data collecting instrument was creative thinking test. The data were analyzed by the arithmetic mean, standard deviation and The Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed-Ranks Test. The results of this research were 1) the learning achievement of students were statistically significance of .01 level and 2) the mean score of student's creativity assessment were statistically significance of .05 level. When considering all of 11 KPIs, showed that respondents' post-test mean scores higher than pre-test. And 5 KPIs were statistically significance of .05 level, consist of Originality, Fluency, Elaboration, Resistance to Premature Closure, and Intrinsic Motivation. It's were statistically significance of .042, .004, .049, .024 and .015 respectively. And 6 KPIs were non-statistically significant, include of Flexibility, Tolerance of Ambiguity, Divergent Thinking, Convergent Thinking, Risk Taking, and Extrinsic Motivation. The findings revealed that the flipped learning and project based learning provided students the freedom to simply learn on their own aptitude. When working together with project

  14. Unsupervised/supervised learning concept for 24-hour load forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M [Electrical Engineering Inst. ' Nikola Tesla' , Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Babic, B [Electrical Power Industry of Serbia, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Sobajic, D J; Pao, Y -H [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science


    An application of artificial neural networks in short-term load forecasting is described. An algorithm using an unsupervised/supervised learning concept and historical relationship between the load and temperature for a given season, day type and hour of the day to forecast hourly electric load with a lead time of 24 hours is proposed. An additional approach using functional link net, temperature variables, average load and last one-hour load of previous day is introduced and compared with the ANN model with one hidden layer load forecast. In spite of limited available weather variables (maximum, minimum and average temperature for the day) quite acceptable results have been achieved. The 24-hour-ahead forecast errors (absolute average) ranged from 2.78% for Saturdays and 3.12% for working days to 3.54% for Sundays. (Author)

  15. Concept Mapping as a Learning Tool for the Employment Relations Degree (United States)

    Martinez-Canas, Ricardo; Ruiz-Palomino, Pablo


    Concept mapping is a technique to represent relationships between concepts that can help students to improve their meaningful learning. Using the cognitive theories proposed by Ausubel (1968), concept maps can help instructors and students to enhance their logical thinking and study skills by revealing connections among concepts that can simplify…

  16. On Logical Characterisation of Human Concept Learning based on Terminological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad


    The central focus of this article is the epistemological assumption that knowledge could be generated based on human beings' experiences and over their conceptions of the world. Logical characterisation of human inductive learning over their produced conceptions within terminological systems and ...... and analysis of actual human inductive reasoning (and learning). This research connects with the topics 'logic & learning', 'cognitive modelling' and 'terminological knowledge representation'.......The central focus of this article is the epistemological assumption that knowledge could be generated based on human beings' experiences and over their conceptions of the world. Logical characterisation of human inductive learning over their produced conceptions within terminological systems...

  17. Text conception(s in context of semi-present Distance Learning (DL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Komesu


    Full Text Available By following the example proposed by Corrêa (2011 in the investigation of texts produced by undergraduate and pre-undergraduate students in two different assessment, this work aims to approach “hidden” aspects in the teaching of writing at the university (Street, 2009, to reflections produced in the language field, in particular the ones referred as “socially assumed”, proposed by Voloshinov/Bakhtin (s/d: 1926. It is particularly important to investigate the conception of text in digital context, by means of the study of updated semiotic resources in the production of undergraduate students using a computer with internet access in the process of semi-present Distance Learning (DL. The collected material comprises 29 (twenty nine texts which were produced by students of the semi-present Pedagogy Course from Univesp (Universidade Virtual do Estado de São Paulo – Virtual University from the state of São Paulo, who were studying “Education and Language”, in 2010. This qualitative analysis aims to show that regarding the institution there is a prevalence of structural and procedural aspects for the accomplishment of the proposed activity and, regarding the undergraduate student it is noticed that the production is characterized by a traditional conception of text, mainly recognized by written verbal text, although the proposal prioritized the relation between verbal and non verbal language. Regarding discursive-linguistic studies, it is important to reflect about a text conception that privileges the integration of multiple semiosis by taking into account the socio-historical interlocution character established within utterances of others.

  18. Recommender System for E-Learning Based on Semantic Relatedness of Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Ye


    Full Text Available Digital publishing resources contain a lot of useful and authoritative knowledge. It may be necessary to reorganize the resources by concepts and recommend the related concepts for e-learning. A recommender system is presented in this paper based on the semantic relatedness of concepts computed by texts from digital publishing resources. Firstly, concepts are extracted from encyclopedias. Information in digital publishing resources is then reorganized by concepts. Secondly, concept vectors are generated by skip-gram model and semantic relatedness between concepts is measured according to the concept vectors. As a result, the related concepts and associated information can be recommended to users by the semantic relatedness for learning or reading. History data or users’ preferences data are not needed for recommendation in a specific domain. The technique may not be language-specific. The method shows potential usability for e-learning in a specific domain.

  19. Improving Student Understanding of Lipids Concepts in a Biochemistry Course Using Test-Enhanced Learning (United States)

    Horn, Savannah; Hernick, Marcy


    Test-enhanced learning has successfully been used as a means to enhance learning and promote knowledge retention in students. We have examined whether this approach could be used in a biochemistry course to enhance student learning about lipids-related concepts. Students were provided access to two optional learning modules with questions related…

  20. The Impact of the Flipped Classroom on Mathematics Concept Learning in High School (United States)

    Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Chang, Chun-Yen


    The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the flipped classroom learning environment on learner's learning achievement and motivation, as well as to investigate the effects of flipped classrooms on learners with different achievement levels in learning mathematics concepts. The learning achievement and motivation were measured by the…

  1. Lessons Learned from Becoming an Independent Standards Board. (United States)

    Board, John C.

    This paper discusses lessons learned from becoming an independent standards board. It begins by explaining that teachers lacked adequate academic preparation during the two World Wars and shortly thereafter. At the end of World War II, public education had to deal with poor pay, little job security, inadequate pensions, and inadequate and…

  2. Fine Arts Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools (United States)

    Virginia Department of Education, 2006


    The Fine Arts Standards of Learning in this publication represent a major development in public education in Virginia, emphasizing the importance of instruction in the fine arts (dance arts, music, theatre arts, and visual arts) as an important part of Virginia's efforts to provide challenging educational programs in the public schools. Knowledge…

  3. Unified programs nationally? Strengths and weaknesses of the learning standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Polo Martínez


    Full Text Available The inclusion of measurable learning standards as an element of the curriculum has definitely opened the door to the connection between the curriculum and external assessments. Since its origin, the potential impact of that element in improving our educational system has been defended and criticized. The truth is that in our country, though all regions are based on the same Royal Decree of core curriculum, and therefore the same reference for the evaluation, curriculum that ultimately applies to students ( teaching-learning- assessment from the different regions can have significant differences . This article proposes, from the analysis of various research , training programs, the plan of action for inspection and the author's own experience in processes of curriculum specifications , assess the potential strengths and weaknesses of the learning standards.

  4. Mining Concept Maps to Understand University Students' Learning (United States)

    Yoo, Jin Soung; Cho, Moon-Heum


    Concept maps, visual representations of knowledge, are used in an educational context as a way to represent students' knowledge, and identify mental models of students; however there is a limitation of using concept mapping due to its difficulty to evaluate the concept maps. A concept map has a complex structure which is composed of concepts and…

  5. Learning and coping strategies versus standard education in cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayyari Dehbarez, Nasrin; Lynggaard, Vibeke; May, Ole


    Background Learning and coping education strategies (LC) was implemented to enhance patient attendance in the cardiac rehabilitation programme. This study assessed the cost-utility of LC compared to standard education (standard) as part of a rehabilitation programme for patients with ischemic heart...... disease and heart failure. Methods The study was conducted alongside a randomised controlled trial with 825 patients who were allocated to LC or standard rehabilitation and followed for 5 months. The LC approach was identical to the standard approach in terms of physical training and education...... to estimate the net benefit of the LC and to illustrate cost effectiveness acceptability curves. The statistical analysis was based on means and bootstrapped standard errors. Results An additional cost of DKK 6,043 (95 % CI −5,697; 17,783) and a QALY gain of 0.005 (95 % CI −0.001; 0.012) was estimated for LC...

  6. Learning Quantum Chemical Model with Learning Media Concept Map and Power Point Viewed from Memory and Creativity Skills Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wahidi


    Full Text Available This research is experimental, using first class learning a quantum model of learning with concept maps media and the second media using real environments by power point presentation. The population is all class XI Science, number 2 grade. The sampling technique is done by purposive random sampling. Data collection techniques to test for cognitive performance and memory capabilities, with a questionnaire for creativity. Hypothesis testing using three-way ANOVA different cells with the help of software Minitab 15.Based on the results of data processing, concluded: (1 there is no influence of the quantum model of learning with media learning concept maps and real environments for learning achievement chemistry, (2 there is a high impact memory ability and low on student achievement, (3 there is no the effect of high and low creativity in student performance, (4 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments with memory ability on student achievement, (5 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments with creativity of student achievement, (6 there is no interaction memory skills and creativity of student achievement, (7 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments, memory skills, and creativity on student achievement.

  7. Early Learning Foundations. Indiana's Early Learning Development Framework Aligned to the Indiana Academic Standards, 2014 (United States)

    Indiana Department of Education, 2015


    The "Foundations" (English/language arts, mathematics, social emotional skills, approaches to play and learning, science, social studies, creative arts, and physical health and growth) are Indiana's early learning development framework and are aligned to the 2014 Indiana Academic Standards. This framework provides core elements that…

  8. Accomplishing PETE Learning Standards and Program Accreditation through Teacher Candidates' Technology-Based Service Learning Projects (United States)

    Gibbone, Anne; Mercier, Kevin


    Teacher candidates' use of technology is a component of physical education teacher education (PETE) program learning goals and accreditation standards. The methods presented in this article can help teacher candidates to learn about and apply technology as an instructional tool prior to and during field or clinical experiences. The goal in…

  9. Disability, technology and e-learning: challenging conceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Seale


    Full Text Available In considering the role that technology and e-learning can play in helping students access higher education and an effective learning experience, a large amount of the current research and practice literature focuses almost exclusively on accessibility legislation, guidelines and standards, and the rules contained within them (Abascal et al., 2004; Chisholm & Brewer, 2005; Gunderson & May, 2005; Paolucci, 2004; Reed et al., 2004; Slatin, 2005. One of the major problems of such an approach is that it has drawn higher education practitioners into thinking that their objective is to comply with rules. I argue that it is not (Seale, 2006. The objective should be to address the needs of students. The danger of only focusing on rules is that it can constrain thinking and therefore practice. We need to expand our thinking beyond that of how to comply with rules, towards how to meet the needs of students with disabilities, within the local contexts that students and practitioners are working. In thinking about how to meet the needs of students with disabilities, practitioners will need to develop their own tools. These tools might be user case studies, evaluation methodologies or conceptualizations:

  10. High School Students' Approaches to Learning Physics with Relationship to Epistemic Views on Physics and Conceptions of Learning Physics (United States)

    Chiou, Guo-Li; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    Background and purpose: Knowing how students learn physics is a central goal of physics education. The major purpose of this study is to examine the strength of the predictive power of students' epistemic views and conceptions of learning in terms of their approaches to learning in physics. Sample, design and method: A total of 279 Taiwanese high…

  11. Teaching strategies to promote concept learning by design challenges (United States)

    Van Breukelen, Dave; Van Meel, Adrianus; De Vries, Marc


    Background: This study is the second study of a design-based research, organised around four studies, that aims to improve student learning, teaching skills and teacher training concerning the design-based learning approach called Learning by Design (LBD).

  12. Concept mapping as an empowering method to promote learning, thinking, teaching and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Kalervo Åhlberg


    Full Text Available Results and underpinning of over twenty years of research and development program of concept mapping is presented. Different graphical knowledge presentation tools, especially concept mapping and mind mapping, are compared. There are two main dimensions that differentiate graphical knowledge presentation methods: The first dimension is conceptual explicitness: from mere concepts to flexibly named links and clear propositions in concept maps. The second dimension in the classification system I am suggesting is whether there are pictures or not. Åhlbergʼs and his research groupʼs applications and developments of Novakian concept maps are compared to traditional Novakian concept maps. The main innovations include always using arrowheads to show direction of reading the concept map. Centrality of each concept is estimated from number of links to other concepts. In our empirical research over two decades, number of relevant concepts, and number of relevant propositions in studentsʼ concept maps, have been found to be the best indicators and predictors of meaningful learning. This is used in assessment of learning. Improved concept mapping is presented as a tool to analyze texts. The main innovation is numbering the links to show order of reading the concept map and to make it possible to transform concept map back to the original prose text as closely as possible. In Åhlberg and his research groupʼs research, concept mapping has been tested in all main phases of research, teaching and learning.

  13. Relational Analysis of College Chemistry-Major Students' Conceptions of and Approaches to Learning Chemistry (United States)

    Li, Wei-Ting; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between conceptions of learning and approaches to learning in chemistry. Two questionnaires, conceptions of learning chemistry (COLC) and approaches to learning chemistry (ALC), were developed to identify 369 college chemistry-major students' (220 males and 149 females) conceptions of…

  14. Conceptions and Practices in teaching and learning: implications for the evaluation of teaching quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerihun, Z.; Beishuizen, J.J.; van Os, W


    This study was conducted in two public universities in Ethiopia to assess the impact of conceptions of teaching and learning on the evaluation of teaching quality. Students' and teachers' approaches to teaching and learning and their conceptions of the meaning of teaching have been examined. Results

  15. Joining the Pieces: Using Concept Maps for Integrated Learning and Assessment in an Introductory Management Course (United States)

    Connolly, Heather; Spiller, Dorothy


    This paper reports on and evaluates the use of concept mapping as a learning tool in a large first year Management course. The goal was to help students make personal sense of course learning and to build their understanding of links and relationships between key course ideas. Concept mapping was used for three summative assessment pieces,…

  16. Improving Self-Concept and Learning Skills of Marginal Black Students: A Seminar Approach. (United States)

    Parker, Woodroe M.; And Others


    Presents an eight-session seminar designed to increase participants' study skills and to redefine participants' self-concepts from those characterized by feelings of inadequacy and frustration to concepts of selves as competent and capable. Learning strategies, two-way communication, learning styles, note making, test taking, vocational planning,…

  17. Five teacher profiles in student-centred curricula based on their conceptions of learning and teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.C.; Luijk, S.J. van; Galindo-Garre, F.; Muijtjens, A.M.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Croiset, G.; Scheele, F.


    BACKGROUND: Teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching are partly unconscious. However, they are critical for the delivery of education and affect students' learning outcomes. Lasting changes in teaching behaviour can only be realized if conceptions of teachers have been changed accordingly.

  18. Five teacher profiles in student-centred curricula based on their conceptions of learning and teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.C.G.; van Luijk, S.J.; Galindo Garre, F.; Muijtjens, A.M.M.; van der Vleuten, C.P.M.; Croiset, G.; Scheele, F.


    Background: Teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching are partly unconscious. However, they are critical for the delivery of education and affect students' learning outcomes. Lasting changes in teaching behaviour can only be realized if conceptions of teachers have been changed accordingly.

  19. Investigating the Interrelationships among Conceptions of, Approaches to, and Self-Efficacy in Learning Science (United States)

    Zheng, Lanqin; Dong, Yan; Huang, Ronghuai; Chang, Chun-Yen; Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between primary school students' conceptions of, approaches to, and self-efficacy in learning science in Mainland China. A total of 1049 primary school students from Mainland China participated in this study. Three instruments were adapted to measure students' conceptions of learning science,…

  20. Concept Development in Learning Physics: The Case of Electric Current and Voltage Revisited (United States)

    Koponen, Ismo T.; Huttunen, Laura


    In learning conceptual knowledge in physics, a common problem is the development and differentiation of concepts in the learning process. An important part of this development process is the re-organisation or re-structuring process in which students' conceptual knowledge and concepts change. This study proposes a new view of concept…

  1. Developing iPad-Based Physics Simulations That Can Help People Learn Newtonian Physics Concepts (United States)

    Lee, Young-Jin


    The aims of this study are: (1) to develop iPad-based computer simulations called iSimPhysics that can help people learn Newtonian physics concepts; and (2) to assess its educational benefits and pedagogical usefulness. To facilitate learning, iSimPhysics visualizes abstract physics concepts, and allows for conducting a series of computer…

  2. A Study on Contingency Learning in Introductory Physics Concepts (United States)

    Scaife, Thomas M.

    Instructors of physics often use examples to illustrate new or complex physical concepts to students. For any particular concept, there are an infinite number of examples, thus presenting instructors with a difficult question whenever they wish to use one in their teaching: which example will most effectively illustrate the concept so that student learning is maximized? The choice is typically made by an intuitive assumption about which exact example will result in the most lucid illustration and the greatest student improvement. By questioning 583 students in four experiments, I examined a more principled approach to example selection. By controlling the manner in which physical dimensions vary, the parameter space of each concept can be divided into a discrete number of example categories. The effects of training with members of each of category was explored in two different physical contexts: projectile motion and torque. In the first context, students were shown two trajectories and asked to determine which represented the longer time of flight. Height, range, and time of flight were the physical dimensions that were used to categorize the examples. In the second context, students were shown a balance-scale with loads of differing masses placed at differing positions along either side of the balance-arm. Mass, lever-arm length, and torque were the physical dimensions used to categorize these examples. For both contexts, examples were chosen so that one or two independent dimensions were varied. After receiving training with examples from specific categories, students were tested with questions from all question categories. Successful training or instruction can be measured either as producing correct, expert-like behavior (as observed through answers to the questions) or as explicitly instilling an understanding of the underlying rule that governs a physical phenomenon. A student's behavior might not be consistent with their explicit rule, so following the

  3. Using concept mapping to measure changes in interdisciplinary learning during high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Reiska


    Full Text Available How, when and what kind of learning takes place are key questions in all educational environments. School graduates are expected to have reached a development level whereby they have, among many fundamental skills, the ability to think critically, to plan their studies and their future, and to integrate knowledge across disciplines. However, it is challenging to develop these skills in schools. Following existing curricula, disciplines are often taught separately and by different teachers, making it difficult for students to connect knowledge studied and learned from one discipline to that of another discipline. The Next Generation Science Standards on teaching and learning natural science in the United States point out important crosscutting concepts in science education (NGSS, 2013. In Estonia, similar trends are leading to an emphasis on the need to further develop scientific literacy skills and interdisciplinary learning in students. The changing environment around us must be reflected in changes in our school system. In this paper, we report on research that intends to answer the questions: (a “How much do Estonian students develop an interdisciplinary understanding of science throughout their high school education?”, and (b “Is their thinking more interdisciplinary after two years of studies in an Estonian high school?” Additionally, we analyzed the results based on the type of school the students attended, and we examined the use concept mapping to assess interdisciplinary learning. This research is part of an overall study that involved students from 44 Estonian high schools taking a science test similar to the three-dimensional Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA test (hereafter called PISA-like multidimensional test as well as constructing concept maps, while in 10th and 12th grade. In this paper, we report on the analysis of the results for 182 of the students, concentrating on the analysis of the concept maps


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyntia Vilasboas Calixto


    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the concept of learning in the internationalization studies. Considering the relationship between learning and internationalization had its groundwork at the Uppsala University, we believe its relevant outlining the path from the main publications regarding the Uppsala School as well as the internationalization process model developed by them in order to comprehend the evolution of the concept of learning from this perspective. In addition, owing to the extension of the relationship between learning and internationalization, this paper analyzes some relevant organizational learning studies and their contributions in order to construe the internationalization process development. Therefore, the contribution of this study is the critical review on the concept of learning from the Uppsala School and also indicating contributions of this concept from the latest developments of this idea.

  5. Teaching Strategies to Promote Concept Learning by Design Challenges (United States)

    Van Breukelen, Dave; Van Meel, Adrianus; De Vries, Marc


    Background: This study is the second study of a design-based research, organised around four studies, that aims to improve student learning, teaching skills and teacher training concerning the design-based learning approach called Learning by Design (LBD). Purpose: LBD uses the context of design challenges to learn, among other things, science.…

  6. Development of the Exam of GeoloGy Standards, EGGS, to Measure Students' Conceptual Understanding of Geology Concepts (United States)

    Guffey, S. K.; Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.


    Discipline-based geoscience education researchers have considerable need for criterion-referenced, easy-to-administer and easy-to-score, conceptual diagnostic surveys for undergraduates taking introductory science survey courses in order for faculty to better be able to monitor the learning impacts of various interactive teaching approaches. To support ongoing discipline-based science education research to improve teaching and learning across the geosciences, this study establishes the reliability and validity of a 28-item, multiple-choice, pre- and post- Exam of GeoloGy Standards, hereafter simply called EGGS. The content knowledge EGGS addresses is based on 11 consensus concepts derived from a systematic, thematic analysis of the overlapping ideas presented in national science education reform documents including the Next Generation Science Standards, the AAAS Benchmarks for Science Literacy, the Earth Science Literacy Principles, and the NRC National Science Education Standards. Using community agreed upon best-practices for creating, field-testing, and iteratively revising modern multiple-choice test items using classical item analysis techniques, EGGS emphasizes natural student language over technical scientific vocabulary, leverages illustrations over students' reading ability, specifically targets students' misconceptions identified in the scholarly literature, and covers the range of topics most geology educators expect general education students to know at the end of their formal science learning experiences. The current version of EGGS is judged to be valid and reliable with college-level, introductory science survey students based on both standard quantitative and qualitative measures, including extensive clinical interviews with targeted students and systematic expert review.

  7. Which Technique Is Most Effective for Learning Declarative Concepts--Provided Examples, Generated Examples, or Both? (United States)

    Zamary, Amanda; Rawson, Katherine A.


    Students in many courses are commonly expected to learn declarative concepts, which are abstract concepts denoted by key terms with short definitions that can be applied to a variety of scenarios as reported by Rawson et al. ("Educational Psychology Review" 27:483-504, 2015). Given that declarative concepts are common and foundational in…

  8. Effects of Concept Mapping Strategy on Learning Performance in Business and Economics Statistics (United States)

    Chiou, Chei-Chang


    A concept map (CM) is a hierarchically arranged, graphic representation of the relationships among concepts. Concept mapping (CMING) is the process of constructing a CM. This paper examines whether a CMING strategy can be useful in helping students to improve their learning performance in a business and economics statistics course. A single…

  9. Non-Technical Skills Bingo-a game to facilitate the learning of complex concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Gerhard Peter; Glavin, Ronnie; Jepsen, Rikke Malene Hartvigsen Grønholm


    Acquiring the concepts of non-technical skills (NTS) beyond a superficial level is a challenge for healthcare professionals and simulation faculty. Current simulation-based approaches to teach NTS are challenged when learners have to master NTS concepts, clinically challenging situations, and sim....... NTS Bingo is based on theoretical considerations on concept learning, which we describe to support the rationale for its conduct....

  10. Providing pervasive Learning eXperiences by Combining Internet of Things and e-Learning standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Nowadays, learning is more and more taking place anywhere and anytime. This implies that e-learning environments are expanded from only virtual learning environments to both virtual and physical ones. Thanks to the evolution of Internet, ICT (Information and Communication Technology and Internet of Things, new learning scenarios could be experienced by learners either individually or collaboratively. These learning scenarios are Pervasive in such a way that they allow to mix virtual and physical learning environments as well. They are therefore characterized by possible interactions of the learner with the physical environment, the Learner's contextual data detection as well as the adaptation of pedagogical strategies and services according to this context. This paper aims to take advantage of this trend and keep up also with existing e-Learning standards such as IMS LD and LOM. The solution proposed is therefore to extend these standards models with that of Internet of Things and to provide an adaptation approach of learning activities based on learner's context and her/his track using the eXperience API. In this context and in order to allow both reasoning capabilities and interoperability between the proposed models Ontological representations and implementation are therefore proposed. Moreover a technical architecture highlighting the required software components and their interactions is provided. And finally, a relevant pervasive learning scenario is implemented and experimented.

  11. Acquiring concepts and features of novel words by two types of learning: direct mapping and inference. (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yufang


    This study examined the semantic representation of novel words learnt in two conditions: directly mapping a novel word to a concept (Direct mapping: DM) and inferring the concept from provided features (Inferred learning: IF). A condition where no definite concept could be inferred (No basic-level meaning: NM) served as a baseline. The semantic representation of the novel word was assessed via a semantic-relatedness judgment task. In this task, the learned novel word served as a prime, while the corresponding concept, an unlearned feature of the concept, and an unrelated word served as targets. ERP responses to the targets, primed by the novel words in the three learning conditions, were compared. For the corresponding concept, smaller N400s were elicited in the DM and IF conditions than in the NM condition, indicating that the concept could be obtained in both learning conditions. However, for the unlearned feature, the targets in the IF condition produced an N400 effect while in the DM condition elicited an LPC effect relative to the NM learning condition. No ERP difference was observed among the three learning conditions for the unrelated words. The results indicate that conditions of learning affect the semantic representation of novel word, and that the unlearned feature was only activated by the novel word in the IF learning condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Why Do Athletes Drink Sports Drinks? A Learning Cycle to Explore the Concept of Osmosis (United States)

    Carlsen, Brook; Marek, Edmund A.


    Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a particular concept. In this article, students learn about "osmosis," or the moving of water into…

  13. The Use of Engineering Design Concept for Computer Programming Course: A Model of Blended Learning Environment (United States)

    Tritrakan, Kasame; Kidrakarn, Pachoen; Asanok, Manit


    The aim of this research is to develop a learning model which blends factors from learning environment and engineering design concept for learning in computer programming course. The usage of the model was also analyzed. This study presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of the model. The research methodology is divided into three…

  14. A Case Study in Master Planning the Learning Landscape Hub Concepts for the University at Buffalo (United States)

    Dugdale, Shirley; Torino, Roger; Felix, Elliot


    This case study describes concepts for three types of learning spaces that grew out of a Learning Landscape planning process. The process was part of a master plan study for the three campuses of the University at Buffalo. It involved research into user needs and aspirations about future pedagogy, development of learning space strategy,…

  15. Students' Understanding of Genetics Concepts: The Effect of Reasoning Ability and Learning Approaches (United States)

    Kiliç, Didem; Saglam, Necdet


    Students tend to learn genetics by rote and may not realise the interrelationships in daily life. Because reasoning abilities are necessary to construct relationships between concepts and rote learning impedes the students' sound understanding, it was predicted that having high level of formal reasoning and adopting meaningful learning orientation…

  16. The Effectiveness of Concept Maps in Teaching Physics Concepts Applied to Engineering Education: Experimental Comparison of the Amount of Learning Achieved With and Without Concept Maps (United States)

    Martínez, Guadalupe; Pérez, Ángel Luis; Suero, María Isabel; Pardo, Pedro J.


    A study was conducted to quantify the effectiveness of concept maps in learning physics in engineering degrees. The following research question was posed: What was the difference in learning results from the use of concept maps to study a particular topic in an engineering course? The study design was quasi-experimental and used a post-test as a measuring instrument. The sample included 114 university students from the School of Industrial Engineering who were divided into two equivalent homogeneous groups of 57 students each. The amount of learning attained by the students in each group was compared, with the independent variable being the teaching method; the experimental group (E.G.) used concept maps, while the control group (C.G.) did not. We performed a crossover study with the two groups of students, with one group acting as the E.G. for the topic of optical fibers and as the C.G. for the topic of the fundamental particles of matter and vice versa for the other group. For each of the two topics studied, the evaluation instrument was a test of 100 dichotomous items. The resulting data were subjected to a comparative statistical analysis, which revealed a significant difference in the amount of learning attained by the E.G. students as compared with the C.G. students. The results allow us to state that for the use of concept maps, the average increment in the E.G. students' learning was greater than 19 percentage points.

  17. Content accessibility of Web documents: Overview of concepts and needed standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, A.


    The concept of Web accessibility refers to a combined set of measures, namely, how easily and how efficiently different types of users may make use of a given service. While some recommendations for accessibility are focusing on people with variousspecific disabilities, this document seeks...... to broaden the scope to any type of user and any type of use case. The document provides an introduction to some required concepts and technical standards for designing accessible Web sites. A brief review of thelegal requirements in a few countries for Web accessibility complements the recommendations...

  18. Learning energy literacy concepts from energy-efficient homes (United States)

    Paige, Frederick Eugene

    The purpose of this study is to understand ways that occupants' and visitors' interaction with energy efficient home design affects Energy Literacy. Using a case study approach including interviews, surveys, and observations, I examined the potential for affordable energy efficient homes in the Greenville South Carolina area to "teach" concepts from an Energy Literacy framework developed by dozens of educational partners and federal agencies that comprise the U.S. Global Change Research Program Partners. I paid particular attention to concepts from the framework that are transferable to energy decisions beyond a home's walls. My research reveals ways that interaction with high efficiency homes can effect understanding of the following Energy Literacy concepts: human use of energy is subject to limits and constraints, conservation is one way to manage energy resources, electricity is generated in multiple ways, social and technological innovations effect the amount of energy used by society, and energy use can be calculated and monitored. Examples from my case studies show how the at-home examples can make lessons on energy more personally relevant, easy to understand, and applicable. Specifically, I found that: • Home occupants learn the limits of energy in relation to the concrete and constricting costs associated with their consumption. • Heating and cooling techniques showcase the limits and constraints on different sources of energy. • Relatable systems make it easier to understand energy's limits and constraints. • Indistinct and distant power utilities allow consumers to overlook the root of electricity sources. • Visible examples of electricity generation systems make it clear that electricity is generated in multiple ways. • Small and interactive may mean inefficient electricity generation, but efficient energy education. • Perceptions of expense and complexity create a disconnect between residential energy consumers and renewable electricity

  19. A multilingual gold-standard corpus for biomedical concept recognition: the Mantra GSC. (United States)

    Kors, Jan A; Clematide, Simon; Akhondi, Saber A; van Mulligen, Erik M; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich


    To create a multilingual gold-standard corpus for biomedical concept recognition. We selected text units from different parallel corpora (Medline abstract titles, drug labels, biomedical patent claims) in English, French, German, Spanish, and Dutch. Three annotators per language independently annotated the biomedical concepts, based on a subset of the Unified Medical Language System and covering a wide range of semantic groups. To reduce the annotation workload, automatically generated preannotations were provided. Individual annotations were automatically harmonized and then adjudicated, and cross-language consistency checks were carried out to arrive at the final annotations. The number of final annotations was 5530. Inter-annotator agreement scores indicate good agreement (median F-score 0.79), and are similar to those between individual annotators and the gold standard. The automatically generated harmonized annotation set for each language performed equally well as the best annotator for that language. The use of automatic preannotations, harmonized annotations, and parallel corpora helped to keep the manual annotation efforts manageable. The inter-annotator agreement scores provide a reference standard for gauging the performance of automatic annotation techniques. To our knowledge, this is the first gold-standard corpus for biomedical concept recognition in languages other than English. Other distinguishing features are the wide variety of semantic groups that are being covered, and the diversity of text genres that were annotated. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  20. The Relationship Between the Learning Style Perceptual Preferences of Urban Fourth Grade Children and the Acquisition of Selected Physical Science Concepts Through Learning Cycle Instructional Methodology. (United States)

    Adams, Kenneth Mark

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the learning style perceptual preferences of fourth grade urban students and the attainment of selected physical science concepts for three simple machines as taught using learning cycle methodology. The sample included all fourth grade children from one urban elementary school (N = 91). The research design followed a quasi-experimental format with a single group, equivalent teacher demonstration and student investigation materials, and identical learning cycle instructional treatment. All subjects completed the Understanding Simple Machines Test (USMT) prior to instructional treatment, and at the conclusion of treatment to measure student concept attainment related to the pendulum, the lever and fulcrum, and the inclined plane. USMT pre and post-test scores, California Achievement Test (CAT-5) percentile scores, and Learning Style Inventory (LSI) standard scores for four perceptual elements for each subject were held in a double blind until completion of the USMT post-test. The hypothesis tested in this study was: Learning style perceptual preferences of fourth grade students as measured by the Dunn, Dunn, and Price Learning Style Inventory (LSI) are significant predictors of success in the acquisition of physical science concepts taught through use of the learning cycle. Analysis of pre and post USMT scores, 18.18 and 30.20 respectively, yielded a significant mean gain of +12.02. A controlled stepwise regression was employed to identify significant predictors of success on the USMT post-test from among USMT pre-test, four CAT-5 percentile scores, and four LSI perceptual standard scores. The CAT -5 Total Math and Total Reading accounted for 64.06% of the variance in the USMT post-test score. The only perceptual element to act as a significant predictor was the Kinesthetic standard score, accounting for 1.72% of the variance. The study revealed that learning cycle instruction does not appear

  1. System 80+{trademark} standard design incorporates radiation protection lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crom, T.D.; Naugle, C.L. [Duke Engineering & Services, Inc., Charlotte, NC (United States); Turk, R.S. [ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power, Windsor, CT (United States)


    Many lessons have been learned from the current generation of nuclear plants in the area of radiation protection. The following paper will outline how the lessons learned have been incorporated into the design and operational philosophy of the System 80+{trademark} Standard Design currently under development by ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) with support from Duke Engineering and Services, Inc. and Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation in the Balance-of-Plant design. The System 80+{trademark} Standard Design is a complete nuclear power plant for national and international markets, designed in direct response to utility needs for the 1990`s, and scheduled for Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Design Certification under the new standardization rule (10 CFR Part 52). System 80+{trademark} is a natural extension of System 80{sup R} technology, an evolutionary change based on proven Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde in Arizona and under construction at Yonggwang in the Republic of Korea. The System 80+{trademark} Containment and much of the Balance of Plant design is based upon Duke Power Company`s Cherokee Plant, which was partially constructed in the late 1970`s, but, was later canceled (due to rapid declined in electrical load growth). The System 80+{trademark} Standard Design meets the requirements given in the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Requirements Document. One of these requirements is to limit the occupational exposure to 100 person-rem/yr. This paper illustrates how this goal can be achieved through the incorporation of lessons learned, innovative design, and the implementation of a common sense approach to operation and maintenances practices.

  2. Changing University Students' Alternative Conceptions of Optics by Active Learning (United States)

    Hadžibegovic, Zalkida; Sliško, Josip


    Active learning is individual and group participation in effective activities such as in-class observing, writing, experimenting, discussion, solving problems, and talking about to-be-learned topics. Some instructors believe that active learning is impossible, or at least extremely difficult to achieve in large lecture sessions. Nevertheless, the…

  3. Independent Auditor's Approach to the Concept of Fraud in Accounting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Bulca


    Full Text Available Control in the field of standards, quality and safety can be increased fraud and error reduction is envisaged. In parallel with these changes, the conditions in the Official Gazette dated 14 March 2014 to companies that provide audit is mandatory. With the implementation of auditing standards and corporate companies will become more transparent. Information users more secure thanks to the information reaching these standards will be able to make healthy decisions. The study also has redefined the concept of independent auditors and the audit process should follow an independent auditor, is also indicated. The focus of the study of the risk of fraud and cheating, Independent Auditing Standards Number 240 constitutes in terms of views.

  4. Lessons learned in streamlining the preparation of SNM standard solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.P.; Johnson, S.R.


    Improved safeguard measurements have produced a demand for greater quantities of reliable SNM solution standards. At the Savannah River Plant (SRP), the demand for these standards has been met by several innovations to improve the productivity and reliability of standards preparations. With the use of computer controlled balance, large batches of SNM stock solutions are prepared on a gravimetric basis. Accurately dispensed quantities of the stock solution are weighed and stored in bottles. When needed, they are quantitatively transferred to tared containers, matrix adjusted to target concentrations, weighed, and measured for density at 25 0 C. Concentrations of SNM are calculated both gravimetrically and volumetrically. Calculated values are confirmed analytically before the standards are used in measurement control program (MCP) activities. The lessons learned include: MCP goals include error identification and management. Strategy modifications are required to improve error management. Administrative controls can minimize certain types of errors. Automation can eliminate redundancy and streamline preparations. Prudence and simplicity enhance automation success. The effort expended to increase productivity has increased the reliability of standards and provided better documentation for quality assurance

  5. A Systemic View of the Learning and Differentiation of Scientific Concepts: The Case of Electric Current and Voltage Revisited (United States)

    Koponen, Ismo T.; Kokkonen, Tommi


    In learning conceptual knowledge in physics, a common problem is the incompleteness of a learning process, where students' personal, often undifferentiated concepts take on more scientific and differentiated form. With regard to such concept learning and differentiation, this study proposes a systemic view in which concepts are considered as…

  6. Ontology-based concept map learning path reasoning system using SWRL rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, K.-K.; Lee, C.-I. [National Univ. of Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Computer Science and Information Learning Technology


    Concept maps are graphical representations of knowledge. Concept mapping may reduce students' cognitive load and extend simple memory function. The purpose of this study was on the diagnosis of students' concept map learning abilities and the provision of personally constructive advice dependant on their learning path and progress. Ontology is a useful method with which to represent and store concept map information. Semantic web rule language (SWRL) rules are easy to understand and to use as specific reasoning services. This paper discussed the selection of grade 7 lakes and rivers curriculum for which to devise a concept map learning path reasoning service. The paper defined a concept map e-learning ontology and two SWRL semantic rules, and collected users' concept map learning path data to infer implicit knowledge and to recommend the next learning path for users. It was concluded that the designs devised in this study were feasible and advanced and the ontology kept the domain knowledge preserved. SWRL rules identified an abstraction model for inferred properties. Since they were separate systems, they did not interfere with each other, while ontology or SWRL rules were maintained, ensuring persistent system extensibility and robustness. 15 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  7. Naïve Conceptions About Multimedia Learning:A Study on Primary School Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eColombo


    Full Text Available An interview study, based on specific pictures taken from textbooks used in primary schools, was carried out to investigate illustrators’, teachers’, students’, and common people’s beliefs about the role that illustrations play in facilitating learning. Participants’ responses were internally coherent, indicating a systematic nature of the underlying naïve conceptions. Findings disprove Mayer’s pessimistic claim that laypersons’ conceptions of multimedia learning fail to match experimentally supported principles and theories. On the contrary, interviewees spontaneously came very close to the multimedia learning theory, which states that students learn better from pictures, which fit specific cognitive principles. Implications for school instruction are highlighted.

  8. Predicting Turkish Preservice Elementary Teachers' Orientations to Teaching Science with Epistemological Beliefs, Learning Conceptions, and Learning Approaches in Science (United States)

    Sahin, Elif Adibelli; Deniz, Hasan; Topçu, Mustafa Sami


    The present study investigated to what extent Turkish preservice elementary teachers' orientations to teaching science could be explained by their epistemological beliefs, conceptions of learning, and approaches to learning science. The sample included 157 Turkish preservice elementary teachers. The four instruments used in the study were School…

  9. Blended Learning in Vocational Education: Teachers' Conceptions of Blended Learning and Their Approaches to Teaching and Design (United States)

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Casey, Grant; Bachfischer, Agnieszka; Goodyear, Peter; Ellis, Robert A.


    This paper presents research exploring teachers' experiences of using blended learning in vocational education. Teachers involved in designing and teaching using blended learning from a major Australian vocational education provider participated in the study. They received open-ended questionnaires asking to describe their conceptions of blended…

  10. The effect of multiple intelligence-based learning towards students’ concept mastery and interest in learning matter (United States)

    Pratiwi, W. N.; Rochintaniawati, D.; Agustin, R. R.


    This research was focused on investigating the effect of multiple intelligence -based learning as a learning approach towards students’ concept mastery and interest in learning matter. The one-group pre-test - post-test design was used in this research towards a sample which was according to the suitable situation of the research sample, n = 13 students of the 7th grade in a private school in Bandar Seri Begawan. The students’ concept mastery was measured using achievement test and given at the pre-test and post-test, meanwhile the students’ interest level was measured using a Likert Scale for interest. Based on the analysis of the data, the result shows that the normalized gain was .61, which was considered as a medium improvement. in other words, students’ concept mastery in matter increased after being taught using multiple intelligence-based learning. The Likert scale of interest shows that most students have a high interest in learning matter after being taught by multiple intelligence-based learning. Therefore, it is concluded that multiple intelligence – based learning helped in improving students’ concept mastery and gain students’ interest in learning matter.

  11. Self-Regulated Learning Strategies of Engineering College Students While Learning Electric Circuit Concepts with Enhanced Guided Notes (United States)

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Santoso, Harry


    The current study evaluated engineering college students' self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies while learning electric circuit concepts using enhanced guided notes (EGN). Our goal was to describe how students exercise SRL strategies and how their grade performance changes after using EGN. Two research questions guided the study: (1) To what…

  12. The concept of learning in cultural-historical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth


    their implications for understanding learning. Brief comments are made about the notions of internalization and zone of proximal development. Subsequent theoretical developments are mentioned, with a special focus on the idea of learning activity and developmental teaching. The chapter concludes with three issues......A cultural-historical perspective on learning is presented. The key idea is to conceptualise learning as self-mastery of action, using existing psychological functions. The main part of the chapter provides an overview of Vygotsky’s theory of higher psychological functions, and discusses...

  13. Weight, Mass, and Gravity: Threshold Concepts in Learning Science (United States)

    Bar, Varda; Brosh, Yaffa; Sneider, Cary


    Threshold concepts are essential ideas about the natural world that present either a barrier or a gateway to a deep understanding of science. Weight, mass, and gravity are threshold concepts that underpin students' abilities to understand important ideas in all fields of science, embodied in the performance expectations in the Next Generation…

  14. Learning mathematics concepts in a traditional socio-culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper argues that each culture has its unique applications of mathematical concepts. It presents this argument by showing how the Great Zimbabwe Monument that was built between the 12th and 14th century applied some geometrical concepts that some secondary school students in Zimbabwe find difficult ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Kristiyani


    Full Text Available Montessori Education is widely spread in almost all countries in the world. Even though this school is meant for all kinds of learners including “normal” learners, the Montessori education concepts used in Montessori schools will be very supportive education for children with special needs. Therefore, the schools which adopt Montessori education concepts can facilitate inclusion, especially with the concepts of ‘I can do it myself.’ Inclusive education needs to be carefully prepared and implemented by schools. The movement brings about some challenges for teachers. This paper explores the environment and materials based on Montessori education concepts. The environment and materials are suitable for all types of learners and thus can be an option to be implemented in the inclusive education setting. Teaching materials rooted in Montessori education concepts indeed cater all ages and embrace the needs of all students.

  16. Recommendations for Implementing the New Illinois Early Learning and Development Standards to Affect Classroom Practices for Social and Emotional Learning (United States)

    Zinsser, Katherine M.; Dusenbury, Linda


    The state of Illinois in the central United States has long been a trendsetter both in the development of learning standards and in addressing social and emotional learning in education settings. With a recent revision to the state's early learning standards, published in 2013, the Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE) fully aligned its…

  17. Comparative Analysis of Norwegian Passive House Criteria and of Criteria related to the Concept of International Passive House Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anton, Karin; Vestergaard, Inge


    The analysis shows differences in definition of apssive house criterias. It also communicates issues os the passive house concept that are nor completely transferred by the Norwegian passive house standard.......The analysis shows differences in definition of apssive house criterias. It also communicates issues os the passive house concept that are nor completely transferred by the Norwegian passive house standard....

  18. “Pick-up Lines”: A Fun Way to Facilitate Learning Microbiological Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz


    Full Text Available Learning microbiology can be made fun by writing funny lines related to microbiology. Students were tasked to create their own pick-up lines and explain these based on their understanding of the basic concepts in microbiology.

  19. Comparability of Self-Concept among Learning Disabled, Normal, and Gifted Students. (United States)

    Winne, Phillip H.; And Others


    Using 60 fourth- to seventh-grade learning disabled (LD), normal, and gifted students, the comparability of representations of self-concept across groups was analyzed for the Sears and Coopersmith inventories. (Author/SW)

  20. Experimentation of cooperative learning model Numbered Heads Together (NHT) type by concept maps and Teams Games Tournament (TGT) by concept maps in terms of students logical mathematics intellegences (United States)

    Irawan, Adi; Mardiyana; Retno Sari Saputro, Dewi


    This research is aimed to find out the effect of learning model towards learning achievement in terms of students’ logical mathematics intelligences. The learning models that were compared were NHT by Concept Maps, TGT by Concept Maps, and Direct Learning model. This research was pseudo experimental by factorial design 3×3. The population of this research was all of the students of class XI Natural Sciences of Senior High School in all regency of Karanganyar in academic year 2016/2017. The conclusions of this research were: 1) the students’ achievements with NHT learning model by Concept Maps were better than students’ achievements with TGT model by Concept Maps and Direct Learning model. The students’ achievements with TGT model by Concept Maps were better than the students’ achievements with Direct Learning model. 2) The students’ achievements that exposed high logical mathematics intelligences were better than students’ medium and low logical mathematics intelligences. The students’ achievements that exposed medium logical mathematics intelligences were better than the students’ low logical mathematics intelligences. 3) Each of student logical mathematics intelligences with NHT learning model by Concept Maps has better achievement than students with TGT learning model by Concept Maps, students with NHT learning model by Concept Maps have better achievement than students with the direct learning model, and the students with TGT by Concept Maps learning model have better achievement than students with Direct Learning model. 4) Each of learning model, students who have logical mathematics intelligences have better achievement then students who have medium logical mathematics intelligences, and students who have medium logical mathematics intelligences have better achievement than students who have low logical mathematics intelligences.

  1. An Educational Data Mining Approach to Concept Map Construction for Web based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anal ACHARYA


    Full Text Available This aim of this article is to study the use of Educational Data Mining (EDM techniques in constructing concept maps for organizing knowledge in web based learning systems whereby studying their synergistic effects in enhancing learning. This article first provides a tutorial based introduction to EDM. The applicability of web based learning systems in enhancing the efficiency of EDM techniques in real time environment is investigated. Web based learning systems often use a tool for organizing knowledge. This article explores the use of one such tool called concept map for this purpose. The pioneering works by various researchers who proposed web based learning systems in personalized and collaborative environment in this arena are next presented. A set of parameters are proposed based on which personalized and collaborative learning applications may be generalized and their performances compared. It is found that personalized learning environment uses EDM techniques more exhaustively compared to collaborative learning for concept map construction in web based environment. This article can be used as a starting point for freshers who would like to use EDM techniques for concept map construction for web based learning purposes.

  2. Designing learning apparatus to promote twelfth grade students’ understanding of digital technology concept: A preliminary studies (United States)

    Marlius; Kaniawati, I.; Feranie, S.


    A preliminary learning design using relay to promote twelfth grade student’s understanding of logic gates concept is implemented to see how well it’s to adopted by six high school students, three male students and three female students of twelfth grade. This learning design is considered for next learning of digital technology concept i.e. data digital transmition and analog. This work is a preliminary study to design the learning for large class. So far just a few researches designing learning design related to digital technology with relay. It may due to this concept inserted in Indonesian twelfth grade curriculum recently. This analysis is focus on student difficulties trough video analysis to learn the concept. Based on our analysis, the recommended thing for redesigning learning is: students understand first about symbols and electrical circuits; the Student Worksheet is made in more detail on the assembly steps to the project board; mark with symbols at points in certain places in the circuit for easy assembly; assembly using relays by students is enough until is the NOT’s logic gates and the others that have been assembled so that effective time. The design of learning using relays can make the relay a liaison between the abstract on the digital with the real thing of it, especially in the circuit of symbols and real circuits. Besides it is expected to also enrich the ability of teachers in classroom learning about digital technology.

  3. The Learning Journal Bridge: From Classroom Concepts to Leadership Practices (United States)

    Maellaro, Rosemary


    The value of reflective writing assignments as learning tools for business students has been well-established. While the management education literature includes numerous examples of such assignments that are based on Kolb's (1984) experiential learning model, many of them engage only the first two phases of the model. When students do not move…

  4. Concept learning by direct current design challenges in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Breukelen, D.H.J.; De Vries, M.J.; Schure, F.A.


    This paper presents a mixed methods study in which 77 students and 3 teachers took part, that investigated the practice of Learning by Design (LBD). The study is part of a series of studies, funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, that aims to improve student learning,

  5. Concept learning by direct current design challenges in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEd Dave van Breukelen; Prof. Dr. Marc de Vries; MEd Frank Schure


    This paper presents a mixed methods study in which 77 students and 3 teachers took part, that investigated the practice of Learning by Design (LBD). The study is part of a series of studies, funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), that aims to improve student learning,

  6. Concept learning by direct current design challenges in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breukelen, D.H.J.; de Vries, M.J.; Schure, Frank A.


    This paper presents a mixed methods study in which 77 students and 3 teachers took part, that investigated the practice of Learning by Design (LBD). The study is part of a series of studies, funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, that aims to improve student learning,

  7. Mobile English Vocabulary Learning Based on Concept-Mapping Strategy (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Lin


    Numerous researchers in education recognize that vocabulary is essential in foreign language learning. However, students often encounter vocabulary that is difficult to remember. Providing effective vocabulary learning strategies is therefore more valuable than teaching students a large amount of vocabulary. The purpose of this study was to…

  8. Naïve Conceptions About Multimedia Learning:A Study on Primary School Textbooks


    Barbara eColombo; Alessandro eAntonietti


    An interview study, based on specific pictures taken from textbooks used in primary schools, was carried out to investigate illustrators’, teachers’, students’, and common people’s beliefs about the role that illustrations play in facilitating learning. Participants’ responses were internally coherent, indicating a systematic nature of the underlying naïve conceptions. Findings disprove Mayer’s pessimistic claim that laypersons’ conceptions of multimedia learning fail to match experiment...



    Ibrahim Rajab Abbas Ibrahim


    The purpose of this study was to identify the effectiveness of cooperative learning in improving mathematical concepts among students with mild intellectual disability (SMID). The sample of the study consisted of 8 SMID at Najran in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The sample of the study was divided randomly into two equal groups control and experimental. The students in the experimental group have studied the mathematical concepts by using cooperative learning; however the students in the contr...

  10. Generation of silver standard concept annotations from biomedical texts with special relevance to phenotypes. (United States)

    Oellrich, Anika; Collier, Nigel; Smedley, Damian; Groza, Tudor


    Electronic health records and scientific articles possess differing linguistic characteristics that may impact the performance of natural language processing tools developed for one or the other. In this paper, we investigate the performance of four extant concept recognition tools: the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System (cTAKES), the National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO) Annotator, the Biomedical Concept Annotation System (BeCAS) and MetaMap. Each of the four concept recognition systems is applied to four different corpora: the i2b2 corpus of clinical documents, a PubMed corpus of Medline abstracts, a clinical trails corpus and the ShARe/CLEF corpus. In addition, we assess the individual system performances with respect to one gold standard annotation set, available for the ShARe/CLEF corpus. Furthermore, we built a silver standard annotation set from the individual systems' output and assess the quality as well as the contribution of individual systems to the quality of the silver standard. Our results demonstrate that mainly the NCBO annotator and cTAKES contribute to the silver standard corpora (F1-measures in the range of 21% to 74%) and their quality (best F1-measure of 33%), independent from the type of text investigated. While BeCAS and MetaMap can contribute to the precision of silver standard annotations (precision of up to 42%), the F1-measure drops when combined with NCBO Annotator and cTAKES due to a low recall. In conclusion, the performances of individual systems need to be improved independently from the text types, and the leveraging strategies to best take advantage of individual systems' annotations need to be revised. The textual content of the PubMed corpus, accession numbers for the clinical trials corpus, and assigned annotations of the four concept recognition systems as well as the generated silver standard annotation sets are available from The textual content of the Sh

  11. Generation of silver standard concept annotations from biomedical texts with special relevance to phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Oellrich

    Full Text Available Electronic health records and scientific articles possess differing linguistic characteristics that may impact the performance of natural language processing tools developed for one or the other. In this paper, we investigate the performance of four extant concept recognition tools: the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System (cTAKES, the National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO Annotator, the Biomedical Concept Annotation System (BeCAS and MetaMap. Each of the four concept recognition systems is applied to four different corpora: the i2b2 corpus of clinical documents, a PubMed corpus of Medline abstracts, a clinical trails corpus and the ShARe/CLEF corpus. In addition, we assess the individual system performances with respect to one gold standard annotation set, available for the ShARe/CLEF corpus. Furthermore, we built a silver standard annotation set from the individual systems' output and assess the quality as well as the contribution of individual systems to the quality of the silver standard. Our results demonstrate that mainly the NCBO annotator and cTAKES contribute to the silver standard corpora (F1-measures in the range of 21% to 74% and their quality (best F1-measure of 33%, independent from the type of text investigated. While BeCAS and MetaMap can contribute to the precision of silver standard annotations (precision of up to 42%, the F1-measure drops when combined with NCBO Annotator and cTAKES due to a low recall. In conclusion, the performances of individual systems need to be improved independently from the text types, and the leveraging strategies to best take advantage of individual systems' annotations need to be revised. The textual content of the PubMed corpus, accession numbers for the clinical trials corpus, and assigned annotations of the four concept recognition systems as well as the generated silver standard annotation sets are available from The textual content

  12. A concept to standardize raw biosignal transmission for brain-computer interfaces. (United States)

    Breitwieser, Christian; Neuper, Christa; Müller-Putz, Gernot R


    With this concept we introduced the attempt of a standardized interface called TiA to transmit raw biosignals. TiA is able to deal with multirate and block-oriented data transmission. Data is distinguished by different signal types (e.g., EEG, EOG, NIRS, …), whereby those signals can be acquired at the same time from different acquisition devices. TiA is built as a client-server model. Multiple clients can connect to one server. Information is exchanged via a control- and a separated data connection. Control commands and meta information are transmitted over the control connection. Raw biosignal data is delivered using the data connection in a unidirectional way. For this purpose a standardized handshaking protocol and raw data packet have been developed. Thus, an abstraction layer between hardware devices and data processing was evolved facilitating standardization.

  13. Mammogram retrieval through machine learning within BI-RADS standards. (United States)

    Wei, Chia-Hung; Li, Yue; Huang, Pai Jung


    A content-based mammogram retrieval system can support usual comparisons made on images by physicians, answering similarity queries over images stored in the database. The importance of searching for similar mammograms lies in the fact that physicians usually try to recall similar cases by seeking images that are pathologically similar to a given image. This paper presents a content-based mammogram retrieval system, which employs a query example to search for similar mammograms in the database. In this system the mammographic lesions are interpreted based on their medical characteristics specified in the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) standards. A hierarchical similarity measurement scheme based on a distance weighting function is proposed to model user's perception and maximizes the effectiveness of each feature in a mammographic descriptor. A machine learning approach based on support vector machines and user's relevance feedback is also proposed to analyze the user's information need in order to retrieve target images more accurately. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed machine learning approach with Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel function achieves the best performance among all tested ones. Furthermore, the results also show that the proposed learning approach can improve retrieval performance when applied to retrieve mammograms with similar mass and calcification lesions, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-Concept in Student Learning and Motivation Truant : Descriptive-Correlational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlina Harahap


    Full Text Available This research is aimed describ the learning motivation and self-concept of students who truant. This study used a descriptive quantitative method. The research conducted by the students of SMAN 5 Padangsidimpuan in the period of 2015/2016 with the total of the population was 420 students. Amount of research sample was 36 students and had been chosen by using purposive sampling technique. An instrument employed in this study was a Likert-scaled questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using percentage technique and the relationship between the two variables was analyzed by using nonparametric statistic, that is Spearman’s Coefficient of Rank Correlation. Results of this research are just like the following: 1 participants’ level of achievement on self-concept of students who truant is about 69,8%, 2 participants’ level of achievement on learning motivation of students who truant is about 69,2%, and 3 correlation coefficient of self-concept and learning motivation of students who truant is about 0,581. Therefore, it can be concluded that students who truancy have very low self-concept and learning motivation, and there is a significant relationship between self-concept and learning motivation. The implication in guidance counseling services is to create a service program which can increase self-concept and be learning motivation of students who truant

  15. Building the Concept of Acceleration - A Proposal for Promoting the Meaningful Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Ledur


    Full Text Available This work aims to present a sequence of activities to help the students concept of acceleration. It was developed with a group of eighth grade elementary school sutdents in a state school of Bom Princípio, RS. The physical quantities of kinematics are presents on the day-a-day but in classroom is perceived that students, in general, have difficulties in developing and understanding of concepts related to that topic. Previous experiences that the student experiences in their daily lives led him to build their own conceptions to explain the phenomena observed, and in school, are faced with the scientifically accepted concepts. These preconceptions are strongly rooted in the cognitive structure of the learner, are not easily replaced and added to the lack of contextualization of content taught, unattractive learning resources and teaching that emphasizes rote learning are factors that contribute to failure of learning. The activities are based on the principles of meaningful learning and focused on active student participation. A pre test for identifying knowledge and preconceptions was applied as well as the post-test assessment of knowledge building. Figures with strobe photographs and video were used as prerequisites for the development of the new concept organizers. Later, the students elaborated and executed projects using resources of shooting and sequential shots to apply the concepts involved in this study. The results observed during the didatical sequence indicate that the occurrence of learning of the concepts of kinematics.

  16. eLearning in the USA: The Standard? The Benchmark?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Schulmeister


    Full Text Available More than 3 million enrolments in online courses in the USA are reported by American sources. The essay investigates the role of online studies within the American educational system and tries to find out more about the exact meaning of these extremely high figures. The research discovers astonishing facts and relations: Public schools offer more online courses (82% than private schools, and 52% of all online courses are offered by 2-year colleges for the associate degrees (and only 8% for the bachelor. A majority of online courses fulfill the role as "remedial courses" that serve for "credit recovery" (U.S. department of Education.The quality of these courses is not very high. This applies to the use of media as well as to the didactic concept. The teaching staff mainly consists of hired part-time lecturers who are still at the very entrance level to an academic career.The essay wants to initiate a discussion about the question if the European study system is in danger to imitate the shortcomings and consequences of the American educational system, because the European system is approximating the American due to recent political decisions. Can we still pursue the aims that we proclaimed when starting with eLearning, if in future eLearning will have to be used to repair the consequences of the bachelor?

  17. Students' Conceptions on White Light and Implications for Teaching and Learning about Colour (United States)

    Haagen-Schützenhöfer, Claudia


    The quality of learning processes is mainly determined by the extent to which students' conceptions are addressed and thus conceptual change is triggered. Colour phenomena are a topic within initial instruction of optics which is challenging. A physically adequate concept of white light is crucial for being able to grasp the processes underlying…

  18. The Motivational Effects of Types of Computer Feedback on Children's Learning and Retention of Relational Concepts. (United States)

    Armour-Thomas, Eleanor; And Others

    The effects of different types of feedback in computer assisted instruction (CAI) on relational concept learning by young children were compared in this study. Subjects were 89 kindergarten students whose primary language was English, and whose performance on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts was within the average range chosen from classes in a…

  19. A Teaching Sequence for Learning the Concept of Chemical Equilibrium in Secondary School Education (United States)

    Ghirardi, Marco; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Regis, Alberto; Roletto, Ezio


    A novel didactic sequence is proposed for the teaching of chemical equilibrium. This teaching sequence takes into account the historical and epistemological evolution of the concept, the alternative conceptions and learning difficulties highlighted by teaching science and research in education, and the need to focus on both the students'…

  20. Conceptions of Memorizing and Understanding in Learning, and Self-Efficacy Held by University Biology Majors (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    This study aims to explore Taiwanese university students' conceptions of learning biology as memorizing or as understanding, and their self-efficacy. To this end, two questionnaires were utilized to survey 293 Taiwanese university students with biology-related majors. A questionnaire for measuring students' conceptions of memorizing and…

  1. Best Practices for Learning Video Concept Detectors from Social Media Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordumova, S.; Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.


    Learning video concept detectors from social media sources, such as Flickr images and YouTube videos, has the potential to address a wide variety of concept queries for video search. While the potential has been recognized by many, and progress on the topic has been impressive, we argue that key

  2. Incorporating Learning Motivation and Self-Concept in Mathematical Communicative Ability (United States)

    Rajagukguk, Waminton


    This research is trying to determine of the mathematical concepts, instead by integrating the learning motivation (X[subscript 1]) and self-concept (X[subscript 2]) can contribute to the mathematical communicative ability (Y). The test instruments showed the following results: (1) simple regressive equation Y on X[subscript 1] was Y = 32.891 +…

  3. Concept Mapping in the Humanities to Facilitate Reflection: Externalizing the Relationship between Public and Personal Learning (United States)

    Kandiko, Camille; Hay, David; Weller, Saranne


    This article discusses how mapping techniques were used in university teaching in a humanities subject. The use of concept mapping was expanded as a pedagogical tool, with a focus on reflective learning processes. Data were collected through a longitudinal study of concept mapping in a university-level Classics course. This was used to explore how…

  4. Teachers' Self-Concept and Valuing of Learning: Relations with Teaching Approaches and Beliefs about Students (United States)

    Yeung, Alexander S.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Kaur, Gurvinder


    One's self-concept and value perceptions can significantly influence one's behaviours and beliefs. Australian teachers from urban and rural areas of the state of New South Wales were asked to respond to survey items on two predictors (teacher self-concept, valuing of learning) and three outcomes. Confirmatory factor analysis established the five…

  5. Fostering Self-Concept and Interest for Statistics through Specific Learning Environments (United States)

    Sproesser, Ute; Engel, Joachim; Kuntze, Sebastian


    Supporting motivational variables such as self-concept or interest is an important goal of schooling as they relate to learning and achievement. In this study, we investigated whether specific interest and self-concept related to the domains of statistics and mathematics can be fostered through a four-lesson intervention focusing on statistics.…

  6. Study on Correlation of English Pronunciation Self-Concept to English Learning (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Zhang, Shengqi; Li, Yucong; Zhao, Miqiang


    English pronunciation self-concept is formed in the process of pronunciation learning, which refers to the learners' self-conception and assessment of one's English pronunciation proficiency and pronunciation (Gimson, A. C. 1980). This paper reports an investigation on 237 non-English major college students into the relationship between English…

  7. Joined up Thinking? Evaluating the Use of Concept-Mapping to Develop Complex System Learning (United States)

    Stewart, Martyn


    In the physical and natural sciences, the complexity of natural systems and their interactions is becoming better understood. With increased emphasis on learning about complex systems, students will be encountering concepts that are dynamic, ill-structured and interconnected. Concept-mapping is a method considered particularly valuable for…

  8. Conceptions of learning and approaches to studying among White and ethnic minority students in distance education. (United States)

    Richardson, John T E


    The attainment of White students at UK institutions of higher education tends to be higher than that of students from other ethnic groups, but the causes of this are unclear. This study compared White students and students from other ethnic groups in their conceptions of learning, their approaches to studying, and their academic attainment. A stratified sample of 1,146 White students and 1,146 students from other ethnic groups taking courses by distance learning with the UK Open University. The Mental Models section of the Inventory of Learning Styles and the Revised Approaches to Studying Inventory were administered in a postal survey. The students' questionnaire scores were contaminated by response bias, which varied across different ethnic groups. When adjusted to control for response bias, the scores on the two questionnaires shared 37.2% of their variance and made a significant contribution to predicting the students' attainment. White students were more likely to exhibit a meaning-directed learning pattern, whereas Asian and Black students were more likely to exhibit a reproduction-directed learning pattern. However, the variation in attainment across different ethnic groups remained significant when their questionnaire scores and prior qualifications were taken into account. There is a strong relationship between students' conceptions of learning and their approaches to studying, and variations in conceptions of learning in different ethnic groups give rise to variations in approaches to studying. However, factors other than prior qualifications and conceptions of learning are responsible for variation in attainment across different ethnic groups.

  9. The effect of a pretest in an interactive, multimodal pretraining system for learning science concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Floor/Floris; Terlouw, C.; Pilot, Albert


    In line with the cognitive theory of multimedia learning by Moreno and Mayer (2007), an interactive, multimodal learning environment was designed for the pretraining of science concepts in the joint area of physics, chemistry, biology, applied mathematics, and computer sciences. In the experimental

  10. An Innovative Improvement of Engineering Learning System Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Concept (United States)

    Hung, T. C.; Wang, S. K.; Tai, S. W.; Hung, C. T.


    An innovative concept of an electronic learning system has been established in an attempt to achieve a technology that provides engineering students with an instructive and affordable framework for learning engineering-related courses. This system utilizes an existing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package, Active Server Pages programming,…

  11. Learning sequential control in a Neural Blackboard Architecture for in situ concept reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, Frank; Besold, Tarek R.; Lamb, Luis; Serafini, Luciano; Tabor, Whitney


    Simulations are presented and discussed of learning sequential control in a Neural Blackboard Architecture (NBA) for in situ concept-based reasoning. Sequential control is learned in a reservoir network, consisting of columns with neural circuits. This allows the reservoir to control the dynamics of

  12. Exploring the Self-concept of Adults with Mild Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Pestana, Claudio


    This qualitative study aimed to add to the research on the self-concept of adults with mild learning disabilities and to generate a deeper understanding of their self-perceptions rather than draw generalised quantitative conclusions. Eight adults diagnosed with mild learning disabilities receiving support from a supported living project were…

  13. Structuring Cooperative Learning for Motivation and Conceptual Change in the Concepts of Mixtures (United States)

    Belge Can, Hatice; Boz, Yezdan


    This study investigates the effect of structuring cooperative learning based on conceptual change approach on grade 9 students' understanding the concepts of mixtures and their motivation, compared with traditional instruction. Among six classes of a high school, two of them were randomly assigned to cooperative learning group where students were…

  14. Lifelong Learning as a Chameleonic Concept and Versatile Practice: Y2K Perspectives and Trends (United States)

    Grace, Andre P.


    This essay focuses on contemporary lifelong-learning discourse as it was reflected in deliberations during three events held in Australia, Canada and the UK during 2000-01. Through the dialogical lenses of these Y2K events that brought together an array of international participants, it examines lifelong learning as a chameleonic concept and…

  15. Test-Enhanced Learning of Natural Concepts: Effects on Recognition Memory, Classification, and Metacognition (United States)

    Jacoby, Larry L.; Wahlheim, Christopher N.; Coane, Jennifer H.


    Three experiments examined testing effects on learning of natural concepts and metacognitive assessments of such learning. Results revealed that testing enhanced recognition memory and classification accuracy for studied and novel exemplars of bird families on immediate and delayed tests. These effects depended on the balance of study and test…

  16. The Role of Flipped Learning in Managing the Cognitive Load of a Threshold Concept in Physiology (United States)

    Akkaraju, Shylaja


    To help students master challenging, threshold concepts in physiology, I used the flipped learning model in a human anatomy and physiology course with very encouraging results in terms of student motivation, preparedness, engagement, and performance. The flipped learning model was enhanced by pre-training and formative assessments that provided…

  17. Exploring Students' Conceptions of Science Learning via Drawing: A Cross-Sectional Analysis (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Min; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    This cross-sectional study explored students' conceptions of science learning via drawing analysis. A total of 906 Taiwanese students in 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th grade were asked to use drawing to illustrate how they conceptualise science learning. Students' drawings were analysed using a coding checklist to determine the presence or absence…

  18. The Learning Disabled Adolescent: Eriksonian Psychosocial Development, Self-Concept, and Delinquent Behavior. (United States)

    Pickar, Daniel B.; Tori, Christopher D.


    Using a developmental perspective, this study contrasted learning and nonlearning disabled adolescents on three variables: Erikson's stages of psychosocial development; self-concept; and delinquent behavior. The results indicated that the learning disabled subjects, due to years of failing, were unable to develop a sense of industry and…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kruglyk


    Full Text Available A concept of software support of learning programming language and technologies is regarded in the article. Present systems of independent study of subjects, related to programming, are examined. Necessary components of a system of support learning programming languages and technologies, which is oriented on independent study, are considered.

  20. Conceptual Understanding of Acids and Bases Concepts and Motivation to Learn Chemistry (United States)

    Cetin-Dindar, Ayla; Geban, Omer


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 5E learning cycle model oriented instruction (LCMI) on 11th-grade students' conceptual understanding of acids and bases concepts and student motivation to learn chemistry. The study, which lasted for 7 weeks, involved two groups: An experimental group (LCMI) and a control group (the…

  1. A Phenomenographic Study of Students' Conceptions of Quality in Learning in Higher Education in Rwanda (United States)

    Mbabazi Bamwesiga, Penelope; Fejes, Andreas; Dahlgren, Lars-Owe


    The aim of this study is to understand the different ways that university students conceptualise quality in learning by drawing on a phenomenographic approach. A total of 20 students in higher education in Rwanda were interviewed and analysis of the interviews generated an outcome space of conceptions of quality in learning as transformation,…

  2. Naïve conceptions about multimedia learning: a study on primary school textbooks. (United States)

    Colombo, Barbara; Antonietti, Alessandro


    HIGHLIGHTSThis interview study explores beliefs about the instructional role of illustrationsWe compared illustrators', teachers', students' and common people's ideasParticipants' responses were internally coherent and close to multimedia learning theoryWe propose and discuss an integrated multimedia learning model An interview study, based on specific pictures taken from textbooks used in primary schools, was carried out to investigate illustrators', teachers', students', and common people's beliefs about the role that illustrations play in facilitating learning. Participants' responses were internally coherent, indicating a systematic nature of the underlying naïve conceptions. Findings disprove Mayer's pessimistic claim that laypersons' conceptions of multimedia learning fail to match experimentally supported principles and theories. On the contrary, interviewees spontaneously came very close to the multimedia learning theory, which states that students learn better from pictures, which fit specific cognitive principles. Implications for school instruction are highlighted.

  3. Machine learning concepts in coherent optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Schäffer, Christian G.


    Powerful statistical signal processing methods, used by the machine learning community, are addressed and linked to current problems in coherent optical communication. Bayesian filtering methods are presented and applied for nonlinear dynamic state tracking. © 2014 OSA.......Powerful statistical signal processing methods, used by the machine learning community, are addressed and linked to current problems in coherent optical communication. Bayesian filtering methods are presented and applied for nonlinear dynamic state tracking. © 2014 OSA....

  4. Comparison between project-based learning and discovery learning toward students' metacognitive strategies on global warming concept (United States)

    Tumewu, Widya Anjelia; Wulan, Ana Ratna; Sanjaya, Yayan


    The purpose of this study was to know comparing the effectiveness of learning using Project-based learning (PjBL) and Discovery Learning (DL) toward students metacognitive strategies on global warming concept. A quasi-experimental research design with a The Matching-Only Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design was used in this study. The subjects were students of two classes 7th grade of one of junior high school in Bandung City, West Java of 2015/2016 academic year. The study was conducted on two experimental class, that were project-based learning treatment on the experimental class I and discovery learning treatment was done on the experimental class II. The data was collected through questionnaire to know students metacognitive strategies. The statistical analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences in students metacognitive strategies between project-based learning and discovery learning.

  5. Are we ready to apply the de minimis concept to standard setting: a historical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannard, J.N.


    The pros and cons of the de minimis concept is discussed from a historical point of view. The purpose is first to indicate how long ago many common occupational hazards were recognized and second to conclude that there had to be exposure levels that were essentially trivial, i.e., de minimis. Some aspects of the history of radiation protection are presented. The topics of discussion include: empiricism; the tolerance dose; the maximum permissible exposure dose; as low as possible dose (ALAP) and as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA); and the challenge of the '80s. In the '80s with the strong movement to use risk as a basis for both radiation and chemical standards, the need for adding the concept of a trivial risk has taken hold. Some examples of possible de minimis levels, as well as some of the problems and current activities, are presented

  6. The Effect of Using Concept Maps in Elementary Linear Algebra Course on Students’ Learning (United States)

    Syarifuddin, H.


    This paper presents the results of a classroom action research that was done in Elementary Linear Algebra course at Universitas Negeri Padang. The focus of the research want to see the effect of using concept maps in the course on students’ learning. Data in this study were collected through classroom observation, students’ reflective journal and concept maps that were created by students. The result of the study was the using of concept maps in Elementary Linera Algebra course gave positive effect on students’ learning.

  7. Motivating Students' Learning Using Word Association Test and Concept Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kostova


    Full Text Available The paper presents the effect of a free word association test, content analysis and concept mapping on students’ achievements in human biology. The free word association test was used for revealing the scientific conceptual structures of 8th grade and 12th grade students, around a stimulus word – human being – and for motivating them to study human biology. The stimulus word retrieved a cluster of associations most of which were based on science education and experience. Associations with the stimulus word were analyzed and classified according to predetermined criteria and structured by means of a concept map. The stimulus word ‘human being’ was quantitatively assessed in order to find out the balance between the associations with its different aspects. On the basis of the results some connections between biology and other sciences studying the human being, were worked out. Each new topic in human biology was studied by using content analysis of the textbook and concept mapping as study tools and thus maintaining students’ motivation. Achievements of students were assessed by means of tests, observation and concept maps evaluation. The obtained data was also valuable in clarifying the complex nature of the human being, and confirming the statement that biology cannot answer all questions, concerning human nature. Inferences were made about the word association test combined with content analysis and concept map construction as an educational strategy.

  8. Development and Study the Usage of Blended Learning Environment Model Using Engineering Design Concept Learning Activities to Computer Programming Courses for Undergraduate Students of Rajabhat Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasame Tritrakan


    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study and Synthesise the components, to develop, and to study the usage of blended learning environment model using engineering design concept learning activities to computer programming courses for undergraduate students of Rajabhat universities. The research methodology was divided into 3 phases. Phase I: surveying presents, needs and problems in teaching computer programming of 52 lecturers by using in-depth interview from 5 experienced lecturers. The model’s elements were evaluated by 5 experts. The tools were questionnaire, interview form, and model’s elements assessment form. Phase II: developing the model of blended learning environment and learning activities based on engineering design processes and confirming model by 8 experts. The tools were the draft of learning environment, courseware, and assessment forms. Phase III evaluating the effects of using the implemented environment. The samples were students which formed into 2 groups, 25 people in the experiment group and 27 people in the control group by cluster random sampling. The tools were learning environment, courseware, and assessment tools. The statistics used in this research were means, standard deviation, t-test dependent, and one-way MANOVA. The results found that: 1 Lecturers quite agreed with the physical, mental, social, and information learning environment, learning processes, and assessments. There were all needs in high level. However there were physical environment problems in high level yet quite low in other aspects. 2 The developed learning environment had 4 components which were a 4 types of environments b the inputs included blended learning environment, learning motivation factors, and computer programming content c the processes were analysis of state objectives, design learning environment and activities, developing learning environment and testing materials, implement, ation evaluation and evaluate, 4 the outputs

  9. Inter-utility operating data exchange concepts, standards and implementation considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virmani, S.; Leichner, G.H.


    Operating a modern interconnected electric utility in a secure and reliable manner requires a knowledge of the state of critical elements of the outside or external network. As noted in reference 1: In this paper, the authors focus on considerations in the implementation of communication processors which can be used as front ends to an EMS in order to accomplish data exchange in a multiple EMS vendor, multiple computer environment. Before discussing the implementation aspects, the paper also discusses the basic data exchange concepts in terms of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) seven layer model and the standards that are in existence or are emerging for inter-utility data exchange

  10. Grade Level Differences in High School Students' Conceptions of and Motives for Learning Science (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    Students' conceptions of learning science and their relations with motive for learning may vary as the education level increases. This study aimed to compare the quantitative patterns in students' conceptions of learning science (COLS) and motives for learning science (MLS) across grade levels by adopting two survey instruments. A total of 768 high school students were surveyed in Taiwan, including 204 eighth graders, 262 tenth graders, and 302 12th graders. In the current research, memorizing, testing, and calculating and practicing were categorized as reproductive conceptions of learning science, while increase of knowledge, applying, understanding and seeing-in-a-new-way were regarded as constructivist conceptions. The results of multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) revealed that conceptions of learning science are more constructivist as education level increases. Both tenth graders and 12th graders endorsed understanding, seeing-in-a-new-way, and the constructivist COLS composite more strongly than the eighth graders did. In addition, the results of multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis indicated that the positive relations between testing and reproductive COLS were stronger as the grade level increased, while the negative relations between reproductive COLS and deep motive were tighter with the increase in grade level.

  11. Collaborative and Multilingual Approach to Learn Database Topics Using Concept Maps (United States)

    Calvo, Iñaki


    Authors report on a study using the concept mapping technique in computer engineering education for learning theoretical introductory database topics. In addition, the learning of multilingual technical terminology by means of the collaborative drawing of a concept map is also pursued in this experiment. The main characteristics of a study carried out in the database subject at the University of the Basque Country during the 2011/2012 course are described. This study contributes to the field of concept mapping as these kinds of cognitive tools have proved to be valid to support learning in computer engineering education. It contributes to the field of computer engineering education, providing a technique that can be incorporated with several educational purposes within the discipline. Results reveal the potential that a collaborative concept map editor offers to fulfil the above mentioned objectives. PMID:25538957

  12. From the school health education study to the national health education standards: concepts endure. (United States)

    Nobiling, Brandye D; Lyde, Adrian R


    The landmark School Health Education Study (SHES) project influenced by the conceptual approach to teaching and learning provides perspective on modern school health instruction. Conceptual education, the cornerstone of the SHES curriculum framework (CF), Health Education: A Conceptual Approach to Curriculum Design, fosters a student's understanding of information that develops with experience. Data were collected through content analysis of the SHES CF and the National Health Education Standards: Achieving Excellence (NHES), 2nd edition. Similarity of essential framework elements was established. Inter-rater reliability was established. Alignment of the SHES components with the NHES reveals parallel conceptual structures around which to develop curriculum. The conceptual approach to curriculum planning has enduring value. It provides a foundation for teaching and learning that is adaptable, flexible, and can maintain permanence in conjunction with emerging scientific evidence and cultural and political influences on health behavior. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  13. A Semantic Representation Of Adult Learners' Developing Conceptions Of Self Realisation Through Learning Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad


    based on educational informatics. I shall draw your attention to the fact that in information sciences an ontology is described as an explicit (and formal) specification of a shared conceptualisation on the domain of interest. Ontologies of a thing/phenomenon support different researchers in providing......Learning is the reflective activity that enables the learner to draw upon her/his previous experiences and background knowledge to conceptualise, realise, understand and evaluate the present, so as to shape her/his future actions and to construct and develop new knowledge for her(him)self. Learning....... This research will conceptually focus on multiple categories through the adult learners’ developing conceptions of learning. The focus will be on different categories from the basic conceptions to excellent ones. I will take an appropriate model of students’ developing conceptions of learning into my...

  14. Alignment of Custom Standards by Machine Learning Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Sirbu


    Full Text Available Building an efficient model for automatic alignment of terminologies would bring a significant improvement to the information retrieval process. We have developed and compared two machine learning based algorithms whose aim is to align 2 custom standards built on a 3 level taxonomy, using kNN and SVM classifiers that work on a vector representation consisting of several similarity measures. The weights utilized by the kNN were optimized with an evolutionary algorithm, while the SVM classifier's hyper-parameters were optimized with a grid search algorithm. The database used for train was semi automatically obtained by using the Coma++ tool. The performance of our aligners is shown by the results obtained on the test set.

  15. Learning and retention of quantum concepts with different teaching methods (United States)

    Deslauriers, Louis; Wieman, Carl


    We measured mastery and retention of conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics in a modern physics course. This was studied for two equivalent cohorts of students taught with different pedagogical approaches using the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey. We measured the impact of pedagogical approach both on the original conceptual learning and on long-term retention. The cohort of students who had a very highly rated traditional lecturer scored 19% lower than the equivalent cohort that was taught using interactive engagement methods. However, the amount of retention was very high for both cohorts, showing only a few percent decrease in scores when retested 6 and 18 months after completion of the course and with no exposure to the material in the interim period. This high level of retention is in striking contrast to the retention measured for more factual learning from university courses and argues for the value of emphasizing conceptual learning.

  16. The Cognitive Science of Learning: Concepts and Strategies for the Educator and Learner. (United States)

    Weidman, Joseph; Baker, Keith


    Education is the fundamental process used to develop and maintain the professional skills of physicians. Medical students, residents, and fellows are expected to learn considerable amounts of information as they progress toward board certification. Established practitioners must continue to learn in an effort to remain up-to-date in their clinical realm. Those responsible for educating these populations endeavor to teach in a manner that is effective, efficient, and durable. The study of learning and performance is a subdivision of the field of cognitive science that focuses on how people interpret and process information and how they eventually develop mastery. A deeper understanding of how individuals learn can empower both educators and learners to be more effective in their endeavors. In this article, we review a number of concepts found in the literature on learning and performance. We address both the theoretical principles and the practical applications of each concept. Cognitive load theory, constructivism, and analogical transfer are concepts particularly beneficial to educators. An understanding of goal orientation, metacognition, retrieval, spaced learning, and deliberate practice will primarily benefit the learner. When these concepts are understood and incorporated into education and study, the effectiveness of learning is significantly improved.

  17. Future Time Orientation and Learning Conceptions: Effects on Metacognitive Strategies, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Study Effort and Academic Achievement (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Braojos, Calixto


    During the past decade, research on the constructive learning process has been conducted mainly from two perspectives: student approaches to learning (SAL) and self-regulated learning (SRL). The SAL perspective has highlighted the role of learning conceptions with respect to other topics involved in constructive learning processes, whereas…

  18. Learning to Play: A "Hedgehog Concept" for Physical Education (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler


    What is physical education and why does it exist? Despite its relatively long and storied history, consensus about the main purpose of physical education remains minimal. This article explores three questions, developed by Jim Collins in his best-selling book Good to Great, to help organizations identify a hedgehog concept, or primary reason for…

  19. Concept Learning versus Problem Solving: Is There a Difference? (United States)

    Nurrenbern, Susan C.; Pickering, Miles


    Reports on a study into the relationship between a student's ability to solve problems in chemistry and his/her understanding of molecular concepts. Argues that teaching students to solve problems about chemistry is not equivalent to teaching about the nature of matter. (TW)

  20. Mikhail Geraskov (1874-1957): Methodological Concepts of Learning Physics (United States)

    Ilieva, Mariyana


    Mikhail Geraskov is a distinguished Bulgarian educator from the first half of the twentieth century, who developed the scientific foundations of didactics and methodology of training. His work contributed a lot to the development of the Bulgarian pedagogy. The subject of scientific research is didactical conceptions and methodological conceptions…

  1. Incremental concept learning with few training examples and hierarchical classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Eendebak, P.T.; Schutte, K.; Azzopardi, G.; Burghouts, G.J.


    Object recognition and localization are important to automatically interpret video and allow better querying on its content. We propose a method for object localization that learns incrementally and addresses four key aspects. Firstly, we show that for certain applications, recognition is feasible

  2. Stories, Proverbs, and Anecdotes as Scaffolds for Learning Science Concepts (United States)

    Mutonyi, Harriet


    Few research studies in science education have looked at how stories, proverbs, and anecdotes can be used as scaffolds for learning. Stories, proverbs, and anecdotes are cultural tools used in indigenous communities to teach children about their environment. The study draws on Bruner's work and the theory of border crossing to argue that stories,…

  3. Engineering students' conceptions of entrepreneurial learning as part of their education (United States)

    Täks, Marge; Tynjälä, Päivi; Kukemelk, Hasso


    The purpose of this study was to examine what kinds of conceptions of entrepreneurial learning engineering students expressed in an entrepreneurship course integrated in their study programme. The data were collected during an entrepreneurship course in Estonia that was organised for fourth-year engineering students, using video-recorded group interviews (N = 48) and individual in-depth interviews (N = 16). As a result of the phenomenographic analysis, four qualitatively distinctive conceptions of entrepreneurial learning were discerned. Entrepreneurial learning was seen to involve (1) applying entrepreneurial ideas to engineering, (2) understanding entrepreneurial issues in a new way, (3) action-oriented personal development, and (4) self-realising through collective effort. These qualitatively distinct categories differed from each other in four dimensions of variation: nature of learning, response to pedagogy, relation to teamwork, and learning outcomes.

  4. Distributing learning over time: the spacing effect in children's acquisition and generalization of science concepts. (United States)

    Vlach, Haley A; Sandhofer, Catherine M


    The spacing effect describes the robust finding that long-term learning is promoted when learning events are spaced out in time rather than presented in immediate succession. Studies of the spacing effect have focused on memory processes rather than for other types of learning, such as the acquisition and generalization of new concepts. In this study, early elementary school children (5- to 7-year-olds; N = 36) were presented with science lessons on 1 of 3 schedules: massed, clumped, and spaced. The results revealed that spacing lessons out in time resulted in higher generalization performance for both simple and complex concepts. Spaced learning schedules promote several types of learning, strengthening the implications of the spacing effect for educational practices and curriculum. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  5. Development of Problem-Based Learning Oriented Teaching Learning Materials to Facilitate Students’ Mastery of Concept and Critical Thinking Skill (United States)

    Reza, M.; Ibrahim, M.; Rahayu, Y. S.


    This research aims to develop problem-based learning oriented teaching materials to improve students’ mastery of concept and critical thinking skill. Its procedure was divided into two phases; developmental phase and experimental phase. This developmental research used Four-D Model. However, within this research, the process of development would not involve the last stages, which is disseminate. The teaching learning materials which were developed consist of lesson plan, student handbook, student worksheet, achievement test and critical thinking skill test. The experimental phase employs a research design called one group pretest-posttest design. Results show that the validity of the teaching materials which were developed was good and revealed the enhancement of students’ activities with positive response to the teaching learning process. Furthermore, the learning materials improve the students’ mastery of concept and critical thinking skill.

  6. [Learning from errors: applying aviation safety concepts to medicine]. (United States)

    Sommer, K-J


    Health care safety levels range below other complex industries. Civil aviation has throughout its history developed methods and concepts that have made the airplane into one of the safest means of mass transport. Key elements are accident investigations that focus on cause instead of blame, human-centered design of machinery and processes, continuous training of all personnel and a shared safety culture. These methods and concepts can basically be applied to medicine which has successfully been achieved in certain areas, however, a comprehensive implementation remains to be completed. This applies particularly to including the topic of safety into relevant curricula. Physicians are obliged by the oath"primum nil nocere" to act, but economic as well as political pressure will eventually confine professional freedom if initiative is not taken soon.

  7. The Context-Specific Conceptions of Learning in Case-Based Accounting Assignments, Students' Characteristics and Performance (United States)

    Moilanen, Sinikka


    The present study contributes to accounting education literature by describing context-specific conceptions of learning related to case assignments, and by exploring the associations between the conceptions of learning, students' characteristics and performance. The data analysed consist of 1320 learning diaries of 336 students, connected with…

  8. The Conceptions of Learning Science by Laboratory among University Science-Major Students: Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Li; Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    Background: The sophistication of students' conceptions of science learning has been found to be positively related to their approaches to and outcomes for science learning. Little research has been conducted to particularly investigate students' conceptions of science learning by laboratory. Purpose: The purpose of this research, consisting of…

  9. Conceptual basis for prescriptive growth standards from conception to early childhood: present and future. (United States)

    Uauy, R; Casanello, P; Krause, B; Kuzanovic, J P; Corvalan, C


    Healthy growth in utero and after birth is fundamental for lifelong health and wellbeing. The World Health Organization (WHO) recently published standards for healthy growth from birth to 6 years of age; analogous standards for healthy fetal growth are not currently available. Current fetal growth charts in use are not true standards, since they are based on cross-sectional measurements of attained size under conditions that do not accurately reflect normal growth. In most cases, the pregnant populations and environments studied are far from ideal; thus the data are unlikely to reflect optimal fetal growth. A true standard should reflect how fetuses and newborns 'should' grow under ideal environmental conditions. The development of prescriptive intrauterine and newborn growth standards derived from the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project provides the data that will allow us for the first time to establish what is 'normal' fetal growth. The INTERGROWTH-21(st) study centres provide the data set obtained under pre-established standardised criteria, and details of the methods used are also published. Multicentre study with sites in all major geographical regions of the world using a standard evaluation protocol. These standards will assess risk of abnormal size at birth and serve to evaluate potentially effective interventions to promote optimal growth beyond securing survival. The new normative standards have the potential to impact perinatal and neonatal survival and beyond, particularly in developing countries where fetal growth restriction is most prevalent. They will help us identify intrauterine growth restriction at earlier stages of development, when preventive or corrective strategies might be more effective than at present. These growth standards will take us one step closer to effective action in preventing and potentially reversing abnormal intrauterine growth. Achieving 'optimal' fetal growth requires that we act not only during pregnancy but that we optimize the

  10. The use of concept maps as an indicator of significant learning in Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naíma Soltau Ferrão


    Full Text Available This paper contains reflections and results of a research that aimed to apply and analyze the use of concept maps in Higher Education as an indicator of significant learning concerning derivative as mathematical object with students that finished Differential and Integral Calculus. This is a qualitative approach, situated in the area of mathematics education, based on Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Learning and on technique of Novak's Concept Mapping. As data acquisition instruments, use of classroom observations, questionnaire, brainstorming and digital conceptual mapping, made by an undergraduate physics course. To analyze we defined four aspects to be observed in the maps constructed by students: (i validity of propositions formed with concepts, (ii hierarchization, (iii cross-links between the propositions, and (vi the presence of applications. The identification of these elements, taken as reference to analyze the maps, allowed the collection of information about how each student has structured and correlated the set of concepts learned on the derivative of a function along their course. Based on the results, we have identified in the digital conceptual maps effective tools to evaluate the students in terms of meaningful learning about specific contents of Differential and Integral Calculus by the hierarchy of concepts, progressive differentiation and integrative reconciliation as defined in the Theory of Meaningful Learning.

  11. High School Students' Epistemological Beliefs, Conceptions of Learning, and Self-Efficacy for Learning Biology: A Study of Their Structural Models (United States)

    Sadi, Özlem; Dagyar, Miray


    The current work reveals the data of the study which examines the relationships among epistemological beliefs, conceptions of learning, and self-efficacy for biology learning with the help of the Structural Equation Modeling. Three questionnaires, the Epistemological Beliefs, the Conceptions of Learning Biology and the Self-efficacy for Learning…

  12. Conceptions of How a Learning or Teaching Curriculum, Workplace Culture and Agency of Individuals Shape Medical Student Learning and Supervisory Practices in the Clinical Workplace (United States)

    Strand, Pia; Edgren, Gudrun; Borna, Petter; Lindgren, Stefan; Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte; Stalmeijer, Renée E.


    The role of workplace supervisors in the clinical education of medical students is currently under debate. However, few studies have addressed how supervisors conceptualize workplace learning and how conceptions relate to current sociocultural workplace learning theory. We explored physician conceptions of: (a) medical student learning in the…

  13. Effects of MicroCAD on Learning Fundamental Engineering Graphical Concepts: A Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Leach, James A.; Gull, Randall L.


    Students' reactions and performances were examined when taught engineering geometry concepts using a standard microcomputer-aided drafting software package. Two sample groups were compared based on their computer experience. Included are the methodology, data analysis, and conclusions. (KR)

  14. A New Concept Map Model for E-Learning Environments (United States)

    Dattolo, Antonina; Luccio, Flaminia L.

    Web-based education enables learners and teachers to access a wide quantity of continuously updated educational sources. In order to support the learning process, a system has to provide some fundamental features, such as simple mechanisms for the identification of the collection of “interesting” documents, adequate structures for storing, organizing and visualizing these documents, and appropriate mechanisms for creating personalized adaptive paths and views for learners.

  15. Learning style and concept acquisition of community college students in introductory biology (United States)

    Bobick, Sandra Burin

    This study investigated the influence of learning style on concept acquisition within a sample of community college students in a general biology course. There are two subproblems within the larger problem: (1) the influence of demographic variables (age, gender, number of college credits, prior exposure to scientific information) on learning style, and (2) the correlations between prior scientific knowledge, learning style and student understanding of the concept of the gene. The sample included all students enrolled in an introductory general biology course during two consecutive semesters at an urban community college. Initial data was gathered during the first week of the semester, at which time students filled in a short questionnaire (age, gender, number of college credits, prior exposure to science information either through reading/visual sources or a prior biology course). Subjects were then given the Inventory of Learning Processes-Revised (ILP-R) which measures general preferences in five learning styles; Deep Learning; Elaborative Learning, Agentic Learning, Methodical Learning and Literal Memorization. Subjects were then given the Gene Conceptual Knowledge pretest: a 15 question objective section and an essay section. Subjects were exposed to specific concepts during lecture and laboratory exercises. At the last lab, students were given the Genetics Conceptual Knowledge Posttest. Pretest/posttest gains were correlated with demographic variables and learning styles were analyzed for significant correlations. Learning styles, as the independent variable in a simultaneous multiple regression, were significant predictors of results on the gene assessment tests, including pretest, posttest and gain. Of the learning styles, Deep Learning accounted for the greatest positive predictive value of pretest essay and pretest objective results. Literal Memorization was a significant negative predictor for posttest essay, essay gain and objective gain. Simultaneous

  16. Students' Conception of Learning Environment and Their Approach to Learning and Its Implication on Quality Education (United States)

    Belaineh, Matheas Shemelis


    Quality of education in higher institutions can be affected by different factors. It partly rests on the learning environment created by teachers and the learning approach students are employing during their learning. The main purpose of this study is to examine the learning environment at Mizan Tepi University from students' perspective and their…

  17. The impact of project-based learning on improving student learning outcomes of sustainability concepts in transportation engineering courses (United States)

    Fini, Elham H.; Awadallah, Faisal; Parast, Mahour M.; Abu-Lebdeh, Taher


    This paper describes an intervention to enhance students' learning by involving students in brainstorming activities about sustainability concepts and their implications in transportation engineering. The paper discusses the process of incorporating the intervention into a transportation course, as well as the impact of this intervention on students' learning outcomes. To evaluate and compare students' learning as a result of the intervention, the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education survey instrument was used. The survey instrument includes five constructs: higher-order cognitive skills, self-efficacy, ease of learning subject matter, teamwork, and communication skills. Pre- and post-intervention surveys of student learning outcomes were conducted to determine the effectiveness of the intervention on enhancing students' learning outcomes. The results show that the implementation of the intervention significantly improved higher-order cognitive skills, self-efficacy, teamwork, and communication skills. Involving students in brainstorming activities related to sustainability concepts and their implications in transportation proved to be an effective teaching and learning strategy.

  18. Design e-learning with flipped learning model to improve layout understanding the concepts basic of the loop control structure (United States)

    Handayani, D. P.; Sutarno, H.; Wihardi, Y.


    This study aimed in design and build e-learning with classroom flipped model to improve the concept of understanding of SMK students on the basic programming subject. Research and development obtained research data from survey questionnaire given to students of SMK class X RPL in SMK Negeri 2 Bandung and interviews to RPL productive teacher. Data also obtained from questionnaire of expert validation and students' assessment from e-learning with flipped classroom models. Data also obtained from multiple-choice test to measure improvements in conceptual understanding. The results of this research are: 1) Developed e- learning with flipped classroom model considered good and worthy of use by the average value of the percentage of 86,3% by media experts, and 85,5% by subjects matter experts, then students gave judgment is very good on e-learning either flipped classroom model with a percentage of 79,15% votes. 2) e-learning with classroom flipped models show an increase in the average value of pre-test before using e-learning 26.67 compared to the average value post-test after using e- learning at 63.37 and strengthened by the calculation of the index gains seen Increased understanding of students 'concepts by 50% with moderate criteria indicating that students' understanding is improving.

  19. Communities of Practice and Social Learning Systems: the Career of a Concept (United States)

    Wenger, Etienne

    The concept of community of practice was not born in the systems theory tradition. It has its roots in attempts to develop accounts of the social nature of human learning inspired by anthropology and social theory (Lave, 1988; Bourdieu, 1977; Giddens, 1984; Foucault, 1980; Vygotsky, 1978). But the concept of community of practice is well aligned with the perspective of systems traditions. A community of practice itself can be viewed as a simple social system. And a complex social system can be viewed as constituted by interrelated communities of practice. In this essay I first explore the systemic nature of the concept at these two levels. Then I use this foundation to look at the applications of the concept, some of its main critiques, and its potential for developing a social discipline of learning.

  20. The Impact of Project-Based Learning on Improving Student Learning Outcomes of Sustainability Concepts in Transportation Engineering Courses (United States)

    Fini, Elham H.; Awadallah, Faisal; Parast, Mahour M.; Abu-Lebdeh, Taher


    This paper describes an intervention to enhance students' learning by involving students in brainstorming activities about sustainability concepts and their implications in transportation engineering. The paper discusses the process of incorporating the intervention into a transportation course, as well as the impact of this intervention on…

  1. Learning, Action and Solutions in Action Learning: Investigation of Facilitation Practice Using the Concept of Living Theories (United States)

    Sanyal, Chandana


    This paper explores the practice of action learning (AL) facilitation in supporting AL set members to address their 'messy' problems through a self-reflexive approach using the concept of 'living theory' [Whitehead, J., and J. McNiff. 2006. "Action Research Living Theory." London: Sage]. The facilitation practice is investigated through…

  2. Conceptions of E-Learning and Professional Development for E-Learning Held by Tertiary Educators in New Zealand (United States)

    Stein, Sarah J.; Shephard, Kerry; Harris, Irene


    The conceptions an individual holds about a phenomenon can influence and determine associated behaviours and perspectives. Consequently, they have a bearing upon how learning about a phenomenon is undertaken and how that phenomenon is experienced and applied in context. A phenomenographic research approach was used to gather the expressed…

  3. Use of concept maps to promote electrocardiogram diagnosis learning in undergraduate medical students (United States)

    Dong, Ruimin; Yang, Xiaoyan; Xing, Bangrong; Zou, Zihao; Zheng, Zhenda; Xie, Xujing; Zhu, Jieming; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Hanjian


    Concept mapping is an effective method in teaching and learning, however this strategy has not been evaluated among electrocardiogram (ECG) diagnosis learning. This study explored the use of concept maps to assist ECG study, and sought to analyze whether this method could improve undergraduate students’ ECG interpretation skills. There were 126 undergraduate medical students who were randomly selected and assigned to two groups, group A (n = 63) and group B (n = 63). Group A was taught to use concept maps to learn ECG diagnosis, while group B was taught by traditional methods. After the course, all of the students were assessed by having an ECG diagnostic test. Quantitative data which comprised test score and ECG features completion index was compared by using the unpaired Student’s t-test between the two groups. Further, a feedback questionnaire on concept maps used was also completed by group A, comments were evaluated by a five-point Likert scale. The test scores of ECGs interpretation was 7.36 ± 1.23 in Group A and 6.12 ± 1.39 in Group B. A significant advantage (P = 0.018) of concept maps was observed in ECG interpretation accuracy. No difference in the average ECG features completion index was observed between Group A (66.75 ± 15.35%) and Group B (62.93 ± 13.17%). According qualitative analysis, majority of students accepted concept maps as a helpful tool. Difficult to learn at the beginning and time consuming are the two problems in using this method, nevertheless most of the students indicated to continue using it. Concept maps could be a useful pedagogical tool in enhancing undergraduate medical students’ ECG interpretation skills. Furthermore, students indicated a positive attitude to it, and perceived it as a resource for learning. PMID:26221331

  4. Open Integrated Personal Learning Environment: Towards a New Conception of the ICT-Based Learning Processes (United States)

    Conde, Miguel Ángel; García-Peñalvo, Francisco José; Casany, Marià José; Alier Forment, Marc

    Learning processes are changing related to technological and sociological evolution, taking this in to account, a new learning strategy must be considered. Specifically what is needed is to give an effective step towards the eLearning 2.0 environments consolidation. This must imply the fusion of the advantages of the traditional LMS (Learning Management System) - more formative program control and planning oriented - with the social learning and the flexibility of the web 2.0 educative applications.

  5. Possible Major Influences of Children Learning Social Studies on Academic Self Concept and Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Kaluge


    Full Text Available This study was aimed at finding the best model to explain pupil academic attainment in learning social studies. The data came from pupils learning Social Studies at grade 3 and 4 of primary schools. The structural equation model contained 2 exogenous constructs–attitudes toward school and locus of control–and 2 endogenous constructs–self-concept and academic achievement. It was confirmed that the academic self-concept and achievement related to each other and both were influenced by attitudes toward school and internal locus of control. The model was fitting differently for different grade.

  6. A Conceptual Framework over Contextual Analysis of Concept Learning within Human-Machine Interplays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad


    This research provides a contextual description concerning existential and structural analysis of ‘Relations’ between human beings and machines. Subsequently, it will focus on conceptual and epistemological analysis of (i) my own semantics-based framework [for human meaning construction] and of (ii......) a well-structured machine concept learning framework. Accordingly, I will, semantically and epistemologically, focus on linking those two frameworks for logical analysis of concept learning in the context of human-machine interrelationships. It will be demonstrated that the proposed framework provides...

  7. Concepts in particle physics a concise introduction to the standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, V Parameswaran


    The 2013 discovery of the Higgs boson posed a challenge to both physics undergraduates and their instructors. Since particle physics is seldom taught at the undergraduate level, the question "what is the Higgs and why does its discovery matter?" is a common question among undergraduates. Equally, answering this question is a problem for physics instructors. This book is an attempt to put the key concepts of particle physics together in an appealing way, and yet give enough extra tidbits for students seriously considering graduate studies in particle physics. It starts with some recapitulation of relativity and quantum mechanics, and then builds on it to give both conceptual ideas regarding the Standard Model of particle physics as well as technical details. It is presented in an informal lecture style, and includes "remarks" sections where extra material, history, or technical details are presented for the interested student. The last lecture presents an assessment of the open questions, and where the future...

  8. Mapping of Students’ Learning Progression Based on Mental Model in Magnetic Induction Concepts (United States)

    Hamid, R.; Pabunga, D. B.


    The progress of student learning in a learning process has not been fully optimally observed by the teacher. The concept being taught is judged only at the end of learning as a product of thinking, and does not assess the mental processes that occur in students’ thinking. Facilitating students’ thinking through new phenomena can reveal students’ variation in thinking as a mental model of a concept, so that students who are assimilative and or accommodative can be identified in achieving their equilibrium of thought as well as an indicator of progressiveness in the students’ thinking stages. This research data is obtained from the written documents and interviews of students who were learned about the concept of magnetic induction through Constructivist Teaching Sequences (CTS) models. The results of this study indicate that facilitating the students’ thinking processes on the concept of magnetic induction contributes to increasing the number of students thinking within the "progressive change" category, and it can be said that the progress of student learning is more progressive after their mental models were facilitated through a new phenomena by teacher.

  9. Concept of risk analysis developed in the Standard AR 3.1.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, O.; Perl, H.


    The individual risk concept developed in the norm AR 3.1.3 (Criterion of acceptance for nuclear power plants) has been based on the following idea: probability of death for a person having been exposed to a determined radiation dose. Mathematically it is expressed as follows r = P(E Λ F) , where r is the individual risk, E the event 'exposure' and F the event 'death as a result of the exposure'. In principle this probability is a conditional probability, making it feasible to apply the Bayes theorem. According to this we have then: P(EΛ F) = P(E) x P(F|E) , what constitutes the first hypothesis of the probabilistic model used in the aforementioned standard. This standard AR 3.1.3 defines risk in mathematical form to estimate quantitatively (probability) the risk. All the theoretical development is based on the validity of the application of Bayes' theorem to events which are not simultaneous, as it is the case in the occurrence of suffer health consequences after having been exposured to radiation. Applying Bayes' theorem to conditional probability for events that are not simultaneous is neither direct nor trivial. In this paper we analyze the two probabilistic hypothesis to apply the Bayes' theorem to not simultaneous conditioned events, the advantages and disadvantages of both probabilistic concepts and the validity of applying them under certain conditions. The fact of applying Bayes to not simultaneous events brings additional hypothesis, which will be exposed and shown in this paper (author)

  10. Army Learning Concept 2015: These Are Not the Droids You Are Looking For (United States)


    Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974. 4 programs, which value andragogy , rather than pedagogy and technology, must...accommodate several fundamental aspects in order to be effective. According to Malcolm Knowles, andragogy identifies adult learning principles as: (1...the topic and this is done by showing Soldiers how they can apply learning. ALC 2015 provides a reference to Malcolm Knowles concept of andragogy

  11. Training in robotics: The learning curve and contemporary concepts in training. (United States)

    Bach, Christian; Miernik, Arkadiusz; Schönthaler, Martin


    To define the learning curve of robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery for prostatectomy (RALP) and upper tract procedures, and show the differences between the classical approach to training and the new concept of parallel learning. This mini-review is based on the results of a Medline search using the keywords 'da Vinci', 'robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery', 'training', 'teaching' and 'learning curve'. For RALP and robot-assisted upper tract surgery, a learning curve of 8-150 procedures is quoted, with most articles proposing that 30-40 cases are needed to carry out the procedure safely. There is no consensus about which endpoints should be measured. In the traditional proctored training model, the surgeon learns the procedure linearly, following the sequential order of the surgical steps. A more recent approach is to specify the relative difficulty of each step and to train the surgeon simultaneously in several steps of equal difficulty. The entire procedure is only performed after all the steps are mastered in a timely manner. Recently, a 'warm-up' before robotic surgery has been shown to be beneficial for successful surgery in the operating room. There is no clear definition of the duration of the effective learning curve for RALP and robotic upper tract surgery. The concept of stepwise, parallel learning has the potential to accelerate the learning process and to make sure that initial cases are not too long. It can also be assumed that a preoperative 'warm up' could help significantly to improve the progress of the trainee.

  12. Students’ conceptions on white light and implications for teaching and learning about colour (United States)

    Haagen-Schützenhöfer, Claudia


    The quality of learning processes is mainly determined by the extent to which students’ conceptions are addressed and thus conceptual change is triggered. Colour phenomena are a topic within initial instruction of optics which is challenging. A physically adequate concept of white light is crucial for being able to grasp the processes underlying colour formation. Our previous research suggests that misconceptions on white light may influence the conceptual understanding of colour phenomena. For the design of a learning environment on light and colours, the literature was reviewed. Then an explorative interview study with participants (N  =  32), with and without instruction in introductory optics, was carried out. In addition, the representations used for white light in Austrian physics schoolbooks were analysed. Based on the results of the literature review, the interview study and the schoolbook analysis, a learning environment was designed and tested in teaching experiments. The results indicate that learners often lack an adequate concept of white light even after instruction in introductory optics. This seems to cause learning difficulties concerning colour phenomena. On the other hand, the evaluation of our learning environment showed that students are able to gain a good conceptual understanding of colour phenomena if instruction takes these content specific learning difficulties into account.

  13. Implementation of Simulation Based-Concept Attainment Method to Increase Interest Learning of Engineering Mechanics Topic (United States)

    Sultan, A. Z.; Hamzah, N.; Rusdi, M.


    The implementation of concept attainment method based on simulation was used to increase student’s interest in the subjects Engineering of Mechanics in second semester of academic year 2016/2017 in Manufacturing Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical PNUP. The result of the implementation of this learning method shows that there is an increase in the students’ learning interest towards the lecture material which is summarized in the form of interactive simulation CDs and teaching materials in the form of printed books and electronic books. From the implementation of achievement method of this simulation based concept, it is noted that the increase of student participation in the presentation and discussion as well as the deposit of individual assignment of significant student. With the implementation of this method of learning the average student participation reached 89%, which before the application of this learning method only reaches an average of 76%. And also with previous learning method, for exam achievement of A-grade under 5% and D-grade above 8%. After the implementation of the new learning method (simulation based-concept attainment method) the achievement of Agrade has reached more than 30% and D-grade below 1%.

  14. Conceptions of how a learning or teaching curriculum, workplace culture and agency of individuals shape medical student learning and supervisory practices in the clinical workplace. (United States)

    Strand, Pia; Edgren, Gudrun; Borna, Petter; Lindgren, Stefan; Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte; Stalmeijer, Renée E


    The role of workplace supervisors in the clinical education of medical students is currently under debate. However, few studies have addressed how supervisors conceptualize workplace learning and how conceptions relate to current sociocultural workplace learning theory. We explored physician conceptions of: (a) medical student learning in the clinical workplace and (b) how they contribute to student learning. The methodology included a combination of a qualitative, inductive (conventional) and deductive (directed) content analysis approach. The study triangulated two types of interview data from 4 focus group interviews and 34 individual interviews. A total of 55 physicians participated. Three overarching themes emerged from the data: learning as membership, learning as partnership and learning as ownership. The themes described how physician conceptions of learning and supervision were guided by the notions of learning-as-participation and learning-as-acquisition. The clinical workplace was either conceptualized as a context in which student learning is based on a learning curriculum, continuity of participation and partnerships with supervisors, or as a temporary source of knowledge within a teaching curriculum. The process of learning was shaped through the reciprocity between different factors in the workplace context and the agency of students and supervising physicians. A systems-thinking approach merged with the "co-participation" conceptual framework advocated by Billet proved to be useful for analyzing variations in conceptions. The findings suggest that mapping workplace supervisor conceptions of learning can be a valuable starting point for medical schools and educational developers working with changes in clinical educational and faculty development practices.

  15. Autoconceito e dificuldades de aprendizagem na escrita Self-concept and learning disabilities of writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermino Fernandes Sisto


    Full Text Available O autoconceito vem sendo considerado na literatura como um constructo multidimensional e um dos aspectos afetivo-emocionais relacionados às dificuldades de aprendizagem. Considerando a importância desse constructo, o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se haveria diferenças significativas entre níveis de dificuldade de aprendizagem na escrita e o autoconceito geral, escolar, social, familiar e pessoal de crianças do ensino fundamental. Utilizou-se uma escala para avaliar a dificuldade de aprendizagem na escrita e outra para avaliação do autoconceito. A amostra foi composta por 277 estudantes, de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 9 e 10 anos, da 3ª série do ensino fundamental. Os resultados evidenciaram que a dificuldade de aprendizagem na escrita está significativamente relacionada com o autoconceito geral e com o escolar, verificando-se que conforme aumenta o nível de dificuldade de aprendizagem na escrita diminui o autoconceito.The self-concept as the individual's perception of himself has been considered in the literature as a multidimensional construct and as one of the most influential emotional aspect in learning disabilities. So, the aim of this study was to verify if there were significant differences between the levels of learning disabilities related to writing and general, school, social, family and personal self-concepts. Two scales were used, the first assessing the level of learning disabilities of writing and the other assessing self-concept. The sample was composed by 277 9-10 years old students, of both genders, from the third grade of elementary school. The results showed that the learning disabilities of writing are significantly related with general self-concept and with school self-concept, suggesting that the increase of learning disabilities levels means decrease of general and school self-concepts.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamalia Mahmud


    Full Text Available Students’ understanding of probability concepts have been investigated from various different perspectives. This study was set out to investigate perceived understanding of probability concepts of forty-four students from the STAT131 Understanding Uncertainty and Variation course at the University of Wollongong, NSW. Rasch measurement which is based on a probabilistic model was used to identify concepts that students find easy, moderate and difficult to understand.  Data were captured from the e-learning Moodle platform where students provided their responses through an on-line quiz. As illustrated in the Rasch map, 96% of the students could understand about sample space, simple events, mutually exclusive events and tree diagram while 67% of the students found concepts of conditional and independent events rather easy to understand.Keywords: Perceived Understanding, Probability Concepts, Rasch Measurement Model DOI:

  17. Studies on the Needs of Seismic Base Isolation Concept and its Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min-Seok; Kim, Jong-Hae


    In the late 1970s, seismic resistance design was introduced as a new design concept through the construction of nuclear power plants. Before this, lateral forces other than wind loads, such as seismic forces, were not taken into consideration in the structural design process. However, in response to the building of increasingly large and heavy structures such as nuclear power plants, a consensus began to form in society regarding the importance of seismic resistance design to avoid a largescale calamity. Since then, Korea has reinforced the relevant regulations, and there has been some progress. At the same time, the seismic base isolation concept was introduced to encourage active research activities related to building safety issues. It has lately been applied for the purpose of reducing construction costs. In 1980s, seismic base isolation design was applied for 'Cruas' plant in France and 'Koeberg' plant in South Africa. Those two are the few cases in which the seismic base isolation design was applied; for the rest, seismic resistance design was applied in most nuclear power plants that are in operation and in construction in the world. Rather than welcoming innovative technology on a trial basis, nuclear power plant design makes use only of proven technologies, which explains the application of seismic resistance design. As seismic base isolation design has become more accepted for use in the building of domestic general bridges, which has, thereby, confirmed its safety, it has been accepted for nuclear power plant design and has even been actively applied. So far, most structures of nuclear facility have been constructed with seismic resistance design and engineering methods. However, seismic force prediction is not perfect in reality; nor is it financially beneficial to apply the system for gradually increasing seismic resistance design loads. Therefore, it is necessary to apply a seismic base isolation system as a way to help secure the

  18. Studies on the Needs of Seismic Base Isolation Concept and its Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min-Seok; Kim, Jong-Hae [Korea Electric Association, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In the late 1970s, seismic resistance design was introduced as a new design concept through the construction of nuclear power plants. Before this, lateral forces other than wind loads, such as seismic forces, were not taken into consideration in the structural design process. However, in response to the building of increasingly large and heavy structures such as nuclear power plants, a consensus began to form in society regarding the importance of seismic resistance design to avoid a largescale calamity. Since then, Korea has reinforced the relevant regulations, and there has been some progress. At the same time, the seismic base isolation concept was introduced to encourage active research activities related to building safety issues. It has lately been applied for the purpose of reducing construction costs. In 1980s, seismic base isolation design was applied for 'Cruas' plant in France and 'Koeberg' plant in South Africa. Those two are the few cases in which the seismic base isolation design was applied; for the rest, seismic resistance design was applied in most nuclear power plants that are in operation and in construction in the world. Rather than welcoming innovative technology on a trial basis, nuclear power plant design makes use only of proven technologies, which explains the application of seismic resistance design. As seismic base isolation design has become more accepted for use in the building of domestic general bridges, which has, thereby, confirmed its safety, it has been accepted for nuclear power plant design and has even been actively applied. So far, most structures of nuclear facility have been constructed with seismic resistance design and engineering methods. However, seismic force prediction is not perfect in reality; nor is it financially beneficial to apply the system for gradually increasing seismic resistance design loads. Therefore, it is necessary to apply a seismic base isolation system as a way to help secure the

  19. An updated review of the concept of eLearning. Tenth anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José GARCÍA-PEÑALVO


    Full Text Available The continuous advances in technology cause innovation-acceptation-consolidationobsolescence flows regarding the knowledge and technology management strategies, both ad hoc and planned, of the corporations and also, in a different scale, of the individuals. Teaching and learning processes are not obviously unaware of this situation. The irruption of Information and Communication Technologies as educational tools mean both a conceptual and a methodological turning point in the way that institutions, educational or not, face training processes and learning management, especially with regard to the concept of distance education, which evolves, in a more or less significant way, when it adopts Internet as media; that is how the eLearning concept rises. However, from the first eLearning experiences, too much settled on the concept of platform or Learning Management System, up to the present times, there have been significant changes, again in both technological and methodological levels. It is important to underline, among others, the influence of social media in the daily habits of users. This way, an increased demand of learning personalization it is shown, as so as a complete connectivity with other peers, an unlimited access to resources and information sources, a complete flexibility in the way, place and time they access, and a natural and necessary coexistence of both formal and informal learning flows. Thus, the “traditional” eLearning platforms, despite their large penetration and consolidation, need to evolve and open themselves to support this rich fan of possibilities demanded by the users, ceasing to be the centre technological attention to become another component into a complex digital ecosystem oriented to the learning and knowledge management, both at institutional and personal levels. It is therefore necessary to make an updated review of the eLearning concept and its definitions that have been provided from the experience and

  20. Development of Learning Models Based on Problem Solving and Meaningful Learning Standards by Expert Validity for Animal Development Course (United States)

    Lufri, L.; Fitri, R.; Yogica, R.


    The purpose of this study is to produce a learning model based on problem solving and meaningful learning standards by expert assessment or validation for the course of Animal Development. This research is a development research that produce the product in the form of learning model, which consist of sub product, namely: the syntax of learning model and student worksheets. All of these products are standardized through expert validation. The research data is the level of validity of all sub products obtained using questionnaire, filled by validators from various field of expertise (field of study, learning strategy, Bahasa). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The result of the research shows that the problem solving and meaningful learning model has been produced. Sub products declared appropriate by expert include the syntax of learning model and student worksheet.

  1. Learning physics concepts as a function of colloquial language usage (United States)

    Maier, Steven J.

    Data from two sections of college introductory, algebra-based physics courses (n1 = 139, n2 = 91) were collected using three separate instruments to investigate the relationships between reasoning ability, conceptual gain and colloquial language usage. To obtain a measure of reasoning ability, Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning Ability (TSR) was administered once near mid-term for each sample. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was administered at the beginning and at the end of the term for pre- and post-test measures. Pre- and post-test data from the Mechanics Language Usage instrument were also collected in conjunction with FCI data collection at the beginning and end of the term. The MLU was developed specifically for this study prior to data collection, and results of a pilot test to establish validity and reliability are reported. T-tests were performed on the data collected to compare the means from each sample. In addition, correlations among the measures were investigated between the samples separately and combined. Results from these investigations served as justification for combining the samples into a single sample of 230 for performing further statistical analyses. The primary objective of this study was to determine if scientific reasoning ability (a function of developmental stage) and conceptual gains in Newtonian mechanics predict students' usages of "force" as measured by the MLU. Regression analyses were performed to evaluate these mediated relationships among TSR and FCI performance as a predictor of MLU performance. Statistically significant correlations and relationships existed among several of the measures, which are discussed at length in the body of the narrative. The findings of this research are that although there exists a discernable relationship between reasoning ability and conceptual change, more work needs to be done to establish improved quantitative measures of the role language usage has in developing understandings

  2. VA State Profile. Virginia: Standards of Learning (SOL) End-of-Course Exams (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010


    This paper provides information about Virginia's Standards of Learning (SOL) End-of-Course Exams. The purpose of the end-of-course assessments is to measure the achievement of students on the Standards of Learning adopted by the Virginia Board of Education for specific high school courses, and to ensure that students graduating from Virginia…

  3. Assessing MBA Student Teamwork under the AACSB Assurance of Learning Standards (United States)

    Procino, Matthew C.


    Since the 2003 release of the AACSB's Assurance of Learning standards, outcomes assessment has been a required practice for business schools wishing to receive their endorsement. While most accredited institutions had been dabbling with the measurement of student learning, the new standards raised the bar considerably. It is now necessary to…

  4. Issues of E-Learning Standards and Identity Management for Mobility and Collaboration in Higher Education (United States)

    Alves, Paulo; Uhomoibhi, James


    Purpose: This paper seeks to investigate and report on the status of identity management systems and e-learning standards across Europe for promoting mobility, collaboration and the sharing of contents and services in higher education institutions. Design/methodology/approach: The present research work examines existing e-learning standards and…

  5. Engineering Students' Conceptions of Entrepreneurial Learning as Part of Their Education (United States)

    Täks, Marge; Tynjälä, Päivi; Kukemelk, Hasso


    The purpose of this study was to examine what kinds of conceptions of entrepreneurial learning engineering students expressed in an entrepreneurship course integrated in their study programme. The data were collected during an entrepreneurship course in Estonia that was organised for fourth-year engineering students, using video-recorded group…

  6. Teachers' Conceptions and Their Approaches to Teaching in Virtual Reality and Simulation-Based Learning Environments (United States)

    Keskitalo, Tuulikki


    This research article focuses on virtual reality (VR) and simulation-based training, with a special focus on the pedagogical use of the Virtual Centre of Wellness Campus known as ENVI (Rovaniemi, Finland). In order to clearly understand how teachers perceive teaching and learning in such environments, this research examines the concepts of…

  7. Between Product Development and Mass Production: Tensions as Triggers for Concept-Level Learning (United States)

    Jalonen, Meri; Ristimäki, Päivi; Toiviainen, Hanna; Pulkkis, Anneli; Lohtander, Mika


    Purpose: This paper aims to analyze learning in organizational transformations by focusing on concept-level tensions faced in two young companies, which were searching for a reorientation of activity with a production network between innovative product development and efficient mass production. Design/methodology/approach: An intervention-based…

  8. Psychological Correlates of School Bullying Victimization: Academic Self-Concept, Learning Motivation and Test Anxiety (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea


    The paper aims at detecting the association between students' bullying victimization at school and some psychological dimensions, referred to academic self-concept (for both Mathematics and Reading), learning motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, commitment to study) and test anxiety. A questionnaire including these measures was…

  9. The Concept of Magnitude and What It Tells Us about How Struggling Students Learn Fractions (United States)

    Woodward, John


    This commentary summarizes emerging research into fractions instruction for students who are at risk for failure. Each of the three articles emphasizes a measure conception of fractions. Teaching fractions as measurement helps students learn the magnitude of rational numbers. However, measurement is only part of the way that students should…

  10. The Effectiveness of Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning to Reduce Alternative Conceptions in Secondary Chemistry (United States)

    Barthlow, Michelle J.; Watson, Scott B.


    A nonequivalent, control group design was used to investigate student achievement in secondary chemistry. This study investigated the effect of process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) in high school chemistry to reduce alternate conceptions related to the particulate nature of matter versus traditional lecture pedagogy. Data were…

  11. Effects of Advance Organizer Instruction on Preschool Children's Learning of Musical Concepts. (United States)

    Lawton, Joseph T.; Johnson, Ann


    Presents results of a study of the effects of advance organizer instruction on preschool children's learning of the musical concepts of dynamics, pitch, tempo, and rhythm. Reports that three modes and three methods of presentation were evaluated. Concludes that, although results did vary with mode, the method of presentation had no significant…

  12. Online testable concept maps: benefits for learning about the pathogenesis of disease. (United States)

    Ho, Veronica; Kumar, Rakesh K; Velan, Gary


    Concept maps have been used to promote meaningful learning and critical thinking. Although these are crucially important in all disciplines, evidence for the benefits of concept mapping for learning in medicine is limited. We performed a randomised crossover study to assess the benefits of online testable concept maps for learning in pathology by volunteer junior medical students. Participants (n = 65) were randomly allocated to either of two groups with equivalent mean prior academic performance, in which they were given access to either online maps or existing online resources for a 2-week block on renal disease. Groups then crossed over for a 2-week block on hepatic disease. Outcomes were assessed using timed online quizzes, which included questions unrelated to topics in the pathogenesis maps as an internal control. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate students' acceptance of the maps. In both blocks, the group with access to pathogenesis maps achieved significantly higher average scores than the control group on quiz questions related to topics covered by the maps (Block 1: p online testable pathogenesis maps are well accepted and can improve learning of concepts in pathology by medical students. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Collaboration of Cooperative Learning and Conceptual Change: Enhancing the Students' Understanding of Chemical Bonding Concepts (United States)

    Eymur, Gülüzar; Geban, Ömer


    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cooperative learning based on conceptual change approach instruction on ninth-grade students' understanding in chemical bonding concepts compared to traditional instruction. Seventy-two ninth-grade students from two intact chemistry classes taught by the same teacher in a public high…

  14. Improving Operations Management Concept Recollection via the Zarco Experiential Learning Activity (United States)

    Polito, Tony; Kros, John; Watson, Kevin


    In this study, the authors investigated the effect of Zarco, an operations management "mock factory" experiential learning activity, on student recollection of operations management concepts. Using a number of single-factor and multiple-factor analyses of variance, the authors compared the recollection of students treated with the Zarco activity…

  15. Teachers' Conceptions of Student Engagement in Learning: The Case of Three Urban Schools (United States)

    Barkaoui, Khaled; Barrett, Sarah Elizabeth; Samaroo, Julia; Dahya, Negin; Alidina, Shahnaaz; James, Carl


    Although student engagement plays a central role in the education process, defining it is challenging. This study examines teachers' conceptions of the social and cultural dimensions of student engagement in learning at three low-achieving schools located in a low socioeconomic status (SES) urban area. Sixteen teachers and administrators from the…

  16. Online Video Tutorials Increase Learning of Difficult Concepts in an Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Course (United States)

    He, Yi; Swenson, Sandra; Lents, Nathan


    Educational technology has enhanced, even revolutionized, pedagogy in many areas of higher education. This study examines the incorporation of video tutorials as a supplement to learning in an undergraduate analytical chemistry course. The concepts and problems in which students faced difficulty were first identified by assessing students'…

  17. Teaching-Learning Conceptions and Academic Achievement: The Mediating Role of Test Anxiety (United States)

    Bas, Gökhan


    The current research aimed at examining the mediating role of test anxiety in the relationship between teaching-learning conceptions and academic achievement. The correlation investigation model was adopted in this research. The participants of the research were volunteering teachers (n = 108) and students (n = 526) from five different high…

  18. Connecting Knowledge Domains : An Approach to Concept Learning in Primary Science and Technology Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koski, M.


    In order to understand our dependency on technology and the possible loss of control that comes with it, it is necessary for people to understand the nature of technology as well as its roots in science. Learning basic science and technology concepts should be a part of primary education since it

  19. Semantic Features, Perceptual Expectations, and Frequency as Factors in the Learning of Polar Spatial Adjective Concepts. (United States)

    Dunckley, Candida J. Lutes; Radtke, Robert C.

    Two semantic theories of word learning, a perceptual complexity hypothesis (H. Clark, 1970) and a quantitative complexity hypothesis (E. Clark, 1972) were tested by teaching 24 preschoolers and 16 college students CVC labels for five polar spatial adjective concepts having single word representations in English, and for three having no direct…

  20. A Phenomenographic Study of Lecturers' Conceptions of Using Learning Technology in a Pakistani Context (United States)

    Hodgson, Vivien; Shah, Uzair


    While there are many studies exploring the phenomenon of lecturers' use of learning technology within teaching practices in western higher education contexts, currently we know little about this phenomenon within less developed countries. In the paper, we discuss the findings from a phenomenographic study of lecturers' conceptions of using…

  1. Inculcating Positive Thinking in the Self-Concept of Children with Learning Difficulties (United States)

    Abed, Mohaned Ghazi


    Inculcating positive thinking can act as a valuable tool in enhancing the overall self-concept of children with learning disabilities. The value of positive psychology is recognized as the basis for recent research conducted in the field of strength development. Positive psychology is centered on the view that individual lives can be improved by…

  2. A Video Lecture and Lab-Based Approach for Learning of Image Processing Concepts (United States)

    Chiu, Chiung-Fang; Lee, Greg C.


    The current practice of traditional in-class lecture for learning computer science (CS) in the high schools of Taiwan is in need of revamping. Teachers instruct on the use of commercial software instead of teaching CS concepts to students. The lack of more suitable teaching materials and limited classroom time are the main reasons for the…

  3. Student Perceptions of and Confidence in Self-Care Course Concepts Using Team-based Learning. (United States)

    Frame, Tracy R; Gryka, Rebecca; Kiersma, Mary E; Todt, Abby L; Cailor, Stephanie M; Chen, Aleda M H


    Objective. To evaluate changes in student perceptions of and confidence in self-care concepts after completing a team-based learning (TBL) self-care course. Methods. Team-based learning was used at two universities in first professional year, semester-long self-care courses. Two instruments were created and administered before and after the semester. The instruments were designed to assess changes in student perceptions of self-care using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) domains and confidence in learning self-care concepts using Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to evaluate pre/post changes, and Mann Whitney U tests were used to evaluate university differences. Results. Fifty-three Cedarville University and 58 Manchester University students completed both instruments (100% and 92% response rates, respectively). Student self-care perceptions with TPB decreased significantly on nine of 13 items for Cedarville and decreased for one of 13 items for Manchester. Student confidence in self-care concepts improved significantly on all questions for both universities. Conclusion. Data indicate TBL self-care courses were effective in improving student confidence about self-care concepts. Establishing students' skill sets prior to entering the profession is beneficial because pharmacists will use self-directed learning to expand their knowledge and adapt to problem-solving situations.

  4. Academic Self-Concept and Learning Strategies: Direction of Effect on Student Academic Achievement (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lam, Amy Kwok Hap


    This study examined the prediction of academic self-concept (English and Mathematics) and learning strategies (deep and surface), and their direction of effect, on academic achievement (English and Mathematics) of 8,354 students from 16 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Two competing models were tested to ascertain the direction of effect: Model A…

  5. Effects of Computer Graphics Types and Epistemological Beliefs on Students' Learning of Mathematical Concepts. (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Hui


    Describes a study that determined the implications of computer graphics types and epistemological beliefs with regard to the design of computer-based mathematical concept learning with elementary school students in Taiwan. Discusses the factor structure of the epistemological belief questionnaire, student performance, and students' attitudes…

  6. Building Accessible Educational Web Sites: The Law, Standards, Guidelines, Tools, and Lessons Learned (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Palmer, Bart; Recker, Mimi


    Professional education is increasingly facing accessibility challenges with the emergence of webbased learning. This paper summarizes related U.S. legislation, standards, guidelines, and validation tools to make web-based learning accessible for all potential learners. We also present lessons learned during the implementation of web accessibility…

  7. Learning Abstract Physical Concepts from Experience: Design and Use of an RC Circuit (United States)

    Parra, Alfredo; Ordenes, Jorge; de la Fuente, Milton


    Science learning for undergraduate students requires grasping a great number of theoretical concepts in a rather short time. In our experience, this is especially difficult when students are required to simultaneously use abstract concepts, mathematical reasoning, and graphical analysis, such as occurs when learning about RC circuits. We present a simple experimental model in this work that allows students to easily design, build, and analyze RC circuits, thus providing an opportunity to test personal ideas, build graphical descriptions, and explore the meaning of the respective mathematical models, ultimately gaining a better grasp of the concepts involved. The result suggests that the simple setup indeed helps untrained students to visualize the essential points of this kind of circuit.

  8. Applying Active Learning to Assertion Classification of Concepts in Clinical Text (United States)

    Chen, Yukun; Mani, Subramani; Xu, Hua


    Supervised machine learning methods for clinical natural language processing (NLP) research require a large number of annotated samples, which are very expensive to build because of the involvement of physicians. Active learning, an approach that actively samples from a large pool, provides an alternative solution. Its major goal in classification is to reduce the annotation effort while maintaining the quality of the predictive model. However, few studies have investigated its uses in clinical NLP. This paper reports an application of active learning to a clinical text classification task: to determine the assertion status of clinical concepts. The annotated corpus for the assertion classification task in the 2010 i2b2/VA Clinical NLP Challenge was used in this study. We implemented several existing and newly developed active learning algorithms and assessed their uses. The outcome is reported in the global ALC score, based on the Area under the average Learning Curve of the AUC (Area Under the Curve) score. Results showed that when the same number of annotated samples was used, active learning strategies could generate better classification models (best ALC – 0.7715) than the passive learning method (random sampling) (ALC – 0.7411). Moreover, to achieve the same classification performance, active learning strategies required fewer samples than the random sampling method. For example, to achieve an AUC of 0.79, the random sampling method used 32 samples, while our best active learning algorithm required only 12 samples, a reduction of 62.5% in manual annotation effort. PMID:22127105

  9. The influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning: children's understanding of sheet music. (United States)

    López-Íñiguez, Guadalupe; Pozo, Juan Ignacio


    Despite increasing interest in teachers' and students' conceptions of learning and teaching, and how they influence their practice, there are few studies testing the influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning. This study tests how teaching conception (TC; with a distinction between direct and constructive) influences students' representations regarding sheet music. Sixty students (8-12 years old) from music conservatories: 30 of them took lessons with teachers with a constructive TC and another 30 with teachers shown to have a direct TC. Children were given a musical comprehension task in which they were asked to select and rank the contents they needed to learn. These contents had different levels of processing and complexity: symbolic, analytical, and referential. Three factorial ANOVAs, two-one-way ANOVAs, and four 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to analyse the effects of and the interaction between the independent variables TC and class, both for/on total cards selected, their ranking, and each sub-category (the three processing levels). ANOVAs on the selection and ranking of these contents showed that teachers' conceptions seem to mediate significantly in the way the students understand the music. Students from constructive teachers have more complex and deep understanding of music. They select more elements for learning scores than those from traditional teachers. Teaching conception also influences the way in which children rank those elements. No difference exists between the way 8- and 12-year-olds learn scores. Children's understanding of the scores is more complex than assumed in other studies. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  10. [Case-based interactive PACS learning: introduction of a new concept for radiological education of students]. (United States)

    Scherer, A; Kröpil, P; Heusch, P; Buchbender, C; Sewerin, P; Blondin, D; Lanzman, R S; Miese, F; Ostendorf, B; Bölke, E; Mödder, U; Antoch, G


    Medical curricula are currently being reformed in order to establish superordinated learning objectives, including, e.g., diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive competences. This requires a shifting from traditional teaching methods towards interactive and case-based teaching concepts. Conceptions, initial experiences and student evaluations of a novel radiological course Co-operative Learning In Clinical Radiology (CLICR) are presented in this article. A novel radiological teaching course (CLICR course), which combines different innovative teaching elements, was established and integrated into the medical curriculum. Radiological case vignettes were created for three clinical teaching modules. By using a PC with PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) access, web-based databases and the CASUS platform, a problem-oriented, case-based and independent way of learning was supported as an adjunct to the well established radiological courses and lectures. Student evaluations of the novel CLICR course and the radiological block course were compared. Student evaluations of the novel CLICR course were significantly better compared to the conventional radiological block course. Of the participating students 52% gave the highest rating for the novel CLICR course concerning the endpoint overall satisfaction as compared to 3% of students for the conventional block course. The innovative interactive concept of the course and the opportunity to use a web-based database were favorably accepted by the students. Of the students 95% rated the novel course concept as a substantial gain for the medical curriculum and 95% also commented that interactive working with the PACS and a web-based database (82%) promoted learning and understanding. Interactive, case-based teaching concepts such as the presented CLICR course are considered by both students and teachers as useful extensions to the radiological course program. These concepts fit well into competence-oriented curricula.

  11. Using whiteboards to support college students' learning of complex physiological concepts. (United States)

    Inouye, Caron Y; Bae, Christine L; Hayes, Kathryn N


    Research underscores the importance of retrieval-based practice and application of knowledge for meaningful learning. However, the didactic lecture format continues to persist in traditional university physiology courses. A strategy called whiteboarding, where students use handheld dry erase boards and work in small groups to actively retrieve, discuss, and apply concepts presented in the lecture, has the potential to address challenges associated with actively engaging students in science courses for greater learning. The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the potential benefits of whiteboarding for increasing students' understanding of animal physiology concepts. Student performance on physiology questions assessing concepts taught using lecture only vs. concepts taught using lecture and whiteboarding were compared within the term that whiteboarding was used, as well as across whiteboard and lecture-only terms taught by the same instructor. Results showed that when whiteboarding was incorporated in the course, student performance on items that assessed concepts corresponding to the whiteboarding activities were significantly higher compared with performance on items that assessed concepts taught through lecture only. These patterns in student performance were found within and across terms. Taken together, findings point to whiteboarding as an effective tool that can be integrated in traditional lecture courses to promote students' understanding of physiology. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. The Effect of Visual Variability on the Learning of Academic Concepts. (United States)

    Bourgoyne, Ashley; Alt, Mary


    The purpose of this study was to identify effects of variability of visual input on development of conceptual representations of academic concepts for college-age students with normal language (NL) and those with language-learning disabilities (LLD). Students with NL (n = 11) and LLD (n = 11) participated in a computer-based training for introductory biology course concepts. Participants were trained on half the concepts under a low-variability condition and half under a high-variability condition. Participants completed a posttest in which they were asked to identify and rate the accuracy of novel and trained visual representations of the concepts. We performed separate repeated measures analyses of variance to examine the accuracy of identification and ratings. Participants were equally accurate on trained and novel items in the high-variability condition, but were less accurate on novel items only in the low-variability condition. The LLD group showed the same pattern as the NL group; they were just less accurate. Results indicated that high-variability visual input may facilitate the acquisition of academic concepts in college students with NL and LLD. High-variability visual input may be especially beneficial for generalization to novel representations of concepts. Implicit learning methods may be harnessed by college courses to provide students with basic conceptual knowledge when they are entering courses or beginning new units.

  13. Validating Proposed Learning Progressions on Force and Motion Using the Force Concept Inventory: Findings from Singapore Secondary Schools (United States)

    Fulmer, Gavin W.


    This study examines the validity of 2 proposed learning progressions on the force concept when tested using items from the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). This is the first study to compare students' performance with respect to learning progressions both for force and motion and for Newton's third law in parallel. It is also among the first studies…

  14. Effectiveness of Demonstration and Lecture Methods in Learning Concept in Economics among Secondary School Students in Borno State, Nigeria (United States)

    Muhammad, Amin Umar; Bala, Dauda; Ladu, Kolomi Mutah


    This study investigated the Effectiveness of Demonstration and Lecture Methods in Learning concepts in Economics among Secondary School Students in Borno state, Nigeria. Five objectives: to determine the effectiveness of demonstration method in learning economics concepts among secondary school students in Borno state, determine the effectiveness…

  15. Effects of a Computer-Assisted Concept Mapping Learning Strategy on EFL College Students' English Reading Comprehension (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Lin; Chen, Chiu-Jung; Chang, Yu-Ju


    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of a computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on EFL college learners' English reading comprehension. The research questions were: (1) what was the influence of the computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on different learners' English reading comprehension? (2) did…

  16. Concept Maps for Assessing Change in Learning: A Study of Undergraduate Business Students in First-Year Marketing in China (United States)

    von der Heidt, Tania


    This paper explains the application of concept mapping to help foster a learning-centred approach. It investigates how concept maps are used to measure the change in learning following a two-week intensive undergraduate Marketing Principles course delivered to 162 Chinese students undertaking a Bachelor of Business Administration programme in…

  17. Concept Maps as Instructional Tools for Improving Learning of Phase Transitions in Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (United States)

    Shin, Shin-Shing


    Students attending object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) courses typically encounter difficulties transitioning from requirements analysis to logical design and then to physical design. Concept maps have been widely used in studies of user learning. The study reported here, based on the relationship of concept maps to learning theory and…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamalia Mahmud


    Full Text Available Students’ understanding of probability concepts have been investigated from various different perspectives. This study was set out to investigate perceived understanding of probability concepts of forty-four students from the STAT131 Understanding Uncertainty and Variation course at the University of Wollongong, NSW. Rasch measurement which is based on a probabilistic model was used to identify concepts that students find easy, moderate and difficult to understand. Data were captured from the e-learning Moodle platform where students provided their responses through an on-line quiz. As illustrated in the Rasch map, 96% of the students could understand about sample space, simple events, mutually exclusive events and tree diagram while 67% of the students found concepts of conditional and independent events rather easy to understand

  19. Using Rasch Analysis To Explore What Students Learn About Probability Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamalia Mahmud


    Full Text Available Students’ understanding of probability concepts have been investigated from various different perspectives. This study was set out to investigate perceived understanding of probability concepts of forty-four students from the STAT131 Understanding Uncertainty and Variation course at the University of Wollongong, NSW. Rasch measurement which is based on a probabilistic model was used to identify concepts that students find easy, moderate and difficult to understand. Data were captured from the e-learning Moodle platform where students provided their responses through an on-line quiz. As illustrated in the Rasch map, 96% of the students could understand about sample space, simple events, mutually exclusive events and tree diagram while 67% of the students found concepts of conditional and independent events rather easy to understand.

  20. · Concept Learning in the Undergraduate Classroom: A Case Study in Religious Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Jones


    Full Text Available Popularized by the work of Jerome Bruner in the mid-1990’s, the “Concept Attainment Model” is a process of structured inquiry that requires students to make generalizations and draw conclusions from examples (and non-examples of a particular concept toward developing new insights, hypotheses, and associations regarding what they have previously learned (Bruner, 1977. In order to broaden some of the typical assumptions about the manners and conditions in which it can be effectively employed in the undergraduate classroom, this qualitative research study offers an example of the Concept Attainment Model in action in the teaching of traditional just war theory in an undergraduate religion class. Data was collected and analysed according to Spradley’s qualitative research methodologies (Spradley, 1980. Among the most important findings of this study is that in a religion or similar humanities course, the Concept Attainment Model is most likely to find success when highly scaffolded by the instructor.

  1. Collaborative Game-based Learning - Automatized Adaptation Mechanics for Game-based Collaborative Learning using Game Mastering Concepts


    Wendel, Viktor Matthias


    Learning and playing represent two core aspects of the information and communication society nowadays. Both issues are subsumed in Digital Education Games, one major field of Serious Games. Serious Games combine concepts of gaming with a broad range of application fields: among others, educational sectors and training or health and sports, but also marketing, advertisement, political education, and other societally relevant areas such as climate, energy, and safety. This work focuses on colla...

  2. The concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance as used in the interagency basic safety standards and related IAEA documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webbl, G.A.M.


    Mechanisms are needed to remove from regulatory control those exposures or radiation sources that do not warrant concern. In this paper three such conceptual mechanisms are examined from their historical development to their current usage in the Interagency Basic Safety Standards. These concepts are exclusion, applied to exposures that are not amenable to control, exemption applied in advance on the basis of low risks to prevent practices or sources from entering the regulatory control system, and clearance, a similar concept but used to remove sources from the regulatory control system. The application of and interrelationships between these concepts, is described. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Kataev


    Full Text Available Introduction. Implementing new educational standards and a multistage system of training of specialists at the higher school meant, inter alia, reconsideration of approaches to assessment of students’ learning quality. Nevertheless, development of organizational-methodical tools and content of control procedures in most higher education institutions is still focused on a traditional formative (spot, local knowledge assessment. It is obvious that changed economic, social and educational conditions of professionalization (mastering a certain profession and self-realization in it require a search for more adequate new means and measurement methods of education results got by students. According to the authors of the present article, development of a digital information system of control is necessary. Such a digital information system of control has to take intoaccount the features of educational process of concrete higher education institution; then, continuous accumulation and analysis of all types and forms of personal certification and assessment of educational activity of each student.The aim of the publication is the development of an automated software system for quality education assessments, taking into account the use of Avatar technology.Methodology and research methods. The methods involve: analytical review of scientific-methodological literature and documentation on the organization of assessment of quality education assessments in higher education institutions; analysis and synthesis of experience of application of the techniques developed on the basis of the balanced system estimated indicators (BSC, ISO standards, the EFQM Excellence Model, CIPP evaluation model, international quality standards ESG ENQA, TQM, CATS, etc. System and activity approaches were adopted as methodological base when creating automated program system.Results and scientific novelty. A block diagram of the learning process is presented; it demonstrates

  4. Learning against the Clock: Examining Learning and Development Concepts in "The Curious Case of Benjamin Button" (United States)

    Koenig, Allison L.; Smith, Amber R.


    Media and popular culture reach broad audiences and have the potential to be an invaluable teaching resource in terms of promoting adult education and learning. Human resource development instructors can use media artifacts (e.g., films, television, novels, and cartoons) as useful methods to demonstrate learning theory and adult development…

  5. The Influence of Music Learning Cultures on the Construction of Teaching-Learning Conceptions (United States)

    Casas-Mas, Amalia; Pozo, Juan Ignacio; Montero, Ignacio


    Current research in music education tends to put the emphasis on learning processes outside formal academic contexts, both to rethink and to renew academic educational formats. Our aim is to observe and describe three music learning cultures simultaneously, including formal, non-formal and informal settings: Classical, Jazz and Flamenco,…

  6. Professional Learning in Initial Teacher Education: Vision in the Constructivist Conception of Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Tang, Sylvia Y. F.; Wong, Angel K. Y.; Cheng, May M. H.


    With the constructivist view of learning as a conceptual lens, this paper examines student teachers' professional learning in initial teacher education (ITE). A mixed-method study was conducted with student teachers of a Bachelor of Education Programme in Hong Kong. The quantitative element of the study reveals that student teachers held a…

  7. On the learning difficulty of visual and auditory modal concepts: Evidence for a single processing system. (United States)

    Vigo, Ronaldo; Doan, Karina-Mikayla C; Doan, Charles A; Pinegar, Shannon


    The logic operators (e.g., "and," "or," "if, then") play a fundamental role in concept formation, syntactic construction, semantic expression, and deductive reasoning. In spite of this very general and basic role, there are relatively few studies in the literature that focus on their conceptual nature. In the current investigation, we examine, for the first time, the learning difficulty experienced by observers in classifying members belonging to these primitive "modal concepts" instantiated with sets of acoustic and visual stimuli. We report results from two categorization experiments that suggest the acquisition of acoustic and visual modal concepts is achieved by the same general cognitive mechanism. Additionally, we attempt to account for these results with two models of concept learning difficulty: the generalized invariance structure theory model (Vigo in Cognition 129(1):138-162, 2013, Mathematical principles of human conceptual behavior, Routledge, New York, 2014) and the generalized context model (Nosofsky in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 10(1):104-114, 1984, J Exp Psychol 115(1):39-57, 1986).

  8. The Concept of L2 User and the goals of Second Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Juanggo


    Full Text Available It is generally considered that knowing one language is not enough in this era. People need to learn a second language in addition to their mother tongue to meet the demand of today’s life as many of them are becoming a part of multilingual society as well as to face the globalisation. This paper aims to demonstrate the reasons of people learning a second by looking at the several goals they want to achieve in current situation and link it to the second language learning in education context. Subsequently, it also provides some criticism against the majority of English language teachings that set native speaker’s competence as the ultimate goal and highlights the concept of L2 user as a new paradigm and its implication to second language learning.

  9. Making clinical case-based learning in veterinary medicine visible: analysis of collaborative concept-mapping processes and reflections. (United States)

    Khosa, Deep K; Volet, Simone E; Bolton, John R


    The value of collaborative concept mapping in assisting students to develop an understanding of complex concepts across a broad range of basic and applied science subjects is well documented. Less is known about students' learning processes that occur during the construction of a concept map, especially in the context of clinical cases in veterinary medicine. This study investigated the unfolding collaborative learning processes that took place in real-time concept mapping of a clinical case by veterinary medical students and explored students' and their teacher's reflections on the value of this activity. This study had two parts. The first part investigated the cognitive and metacognitive learning processes of two groups of students who displayed divergent learning outcomes in a concept mapping task. Meaningful group differences were found in their level of learning engagement in terms of the extent to which they spent time understanding and co-constructing knowledge along with completing the task at hand. The second part explored students' and their teacher's views on the value of concept mapping as a learning and teaching tool. The students' and their teacher's perceptions revealed congruent and contrasting notions about the usefulness of concept mapping. The relevance of concept mapping to clinical case-based learning in veterinary medicine is discussed, along with directions for future research.

  10. Analysis of chemistry textbook content and national science education standards in terms of air quality-related learning goals (United States)

    Naughton, Wendy

    In this study's Phase One, representatives of nine municipal agencies involved in air quality education were interviewed and interview transcripts were analyzed for themes related to what citizens need to know or be able to do regarding air quality concerns. Based on these themes, eight air quality Learning Goal Sets were generated and validated via peer and member checks. In Phase Two, six college-level, liberal-arts chemistry textbooks and the National Science Education Standards (NSES) were analyzed for congruence with Phase One learning goals. Major categories of desired citizen understandings highlighted in agency interviews concerned air pollution sources, impact, detection, and transport. Identified cognitive skills focused on information-gathering and -evaluating skills, enabling informed decision-making. A content match was found between textbooks and air quality learning goals, but most textbooks fail to address learning goals that remediate citizen misconceptions and inabilities---particularly those with a "personal experience" focus. A partial match between NSES and air quality learning goals was attributed to differing foci: Researcher-derived learning goals deal specifically with air quality, while NSES focus is on "fundamental science concepts," not "many science topics." Analysis of findings within a situated cognition framework suggests implications for instruction and NSES revision.

  11. The Effect of Contextual Teaching and Learning Combined with Peer Tutoring towards Learning Achievement on Human Digestive System Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhah Abadiyah


    Full Text Available This research aims to know the influence of contextual teaching and learning (CTL combined with peer tutoring toward learning achievement on human digestive system concept. This research was conducted at one of State Senior High School in South Tangerang in the academic year of 2016/2017. The research method was quasi experiment with nonequivalent pretest-postest control group design. The sample was taken by simple random sampling. The total of the sampels were 86 students which consisted of 44 students as a controlled group and 42 students as an experimental group. The research instrument was objective test which consisted of 25 multiple choice items of each pretest and posttest. The research also used observation sheets for teacher and students activity. The result of data analysis using t-test on the two groups show that the value of tcount was 2.40 and ttable was 1.99 on significant level α = 0,05, so that tcount > ttable.. This result indicated that there was influence of contextual teaching and learning (CTL combined with peer tutoring toward learning achievement on human digestive system concept.

  12. Scoping literature review on the Learning Organisation concept as applied to the health system. (United States)

    Akhnif, E; Macq, J; Idrissi Fakhreddine, M O; Meessen, B


    ᅟ: There is growing interest in the use of the management concept of a 'learning organisation'. The objective of this review is to explore work undertaken towards the application of this concept to the health sector in general and to reach the goal of universal health coverage in particular. Of interest are the exploration of evaluation frameworks and their application in health. We used a scoping literature review based on the York methodology. We conducted an online search using selected keywords on some of the main databases on health science, selected websites and main reference books on learning organisations. We restricted the focus of our search on sources in the English language only. Inclusive and exclusive criteria were applied to arrive at a final list of articles, from which information was extracted and then selected and inserted in a chart. We identified 263 articles and other documents from our search. From these, 50 articles were selected for a full analysis and 27 articles were used for the summary. The majority of the articles concerned hospital settings (15 articles, 55%). Seven articles (25%) were related to the application of the concept to the health centre setting. Four articles discussed the application of the concept to the health system (14%). Most of the applications involved high-income countries (21 articles, 78%), with only one article being related to a low-income country. We found 13 different frameworks that were applied to different health organisations. The scoping review allowed us to assess applications of the learning organisation concept to the health sector to date. Such applications are still rare, but are increasingly being used. There is no uniform framework thus far, but convergence as for the dimensions that matter is increasing. Many methodological questions remain unanswered. We also identified a gap in terms of the use of this concept in low- and middle-income countries and to the health system as a whole.

  13. Blended learning concept for the support of know-how transfer in a nuclear company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenberger, Nina


    AREVA is the largest growing nuclear company. Development and construction of new power plants, sustainment and maintenance of existing installations require many professionally trained personnel, more than 800 new appointments per year trigger the in-plant training and education. The AREVA NP Training Center is in charge of the education and training of the personnel. The contribution deals with the applied blended learning concept and the know-how transfer within AREVA NP. Web-based training and the virtual class room are part of the concept.

  14. Pilot Study of Flow and Meaningfulness as Psychological Learning Concepts in Patient Education: A Short Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicic, Sara; Nørby, Karina; Bruun Johansen, Clea


    of this study was to investigate the applicability of these concepts of positive psychological theory in a patient education setting. Methods: This pilot study combines participating observation of group based patient education and 8 qualitative interviews with 4 patients with type 2 diabetes. Meaning......Abstract Background: The aim of this pilot study was to explore patient experiences of meaningfulness and flow related to group based patient education in type 2 diabetes. Meaningfulness and flow are underexposed as psychological learning concepts in patient education, and the ambition...

  15. Concept Mapping as an Innovative Tool for the Assessment of Learning: An Experimental Experience among Business Management Degree Students (United States)

    Ruiz-Palomino, Pablo; Martinez-Canas, Ricardo


    In the search to improve the quality of education at the university level, the use of concept mapping is becoming an important instructional technique for enhancing the teaching-learning process. This educational tool is based on cognitive theories by making a distinction between learning by rote (memorizing) and learning by meaning, where…

  16. Using concept similarity in cross ontology for adaptive e-Learning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Saleena


    Full Text Available e-Learning is one of the most preferred media of learning by the learners. The learners search the web to gather knowledge about a particular topic from the information in the repositories. Retrieval of relevant materials from a domain can be easily implemented if the information is organized and related in some way. Ontologies are a key concept that helps us to relate information for providing the more relevant lessons to the learner. This paper proposes an adaptive e-Learning system, which generates a user specific e-Learning content by comparing the concepts with more than one system using similarity measures. A cross ontology measure is defined, which consists of fuzzy domain ontology as the primary ontology and the domain expert’s ontology as the secondary ontology, for the comparison process. A personalized document is provided to the user with a user profile, which includes the data obtained from the processing of the proposed method under a User score, which is obtained through the user evaluation. The results of the proposed e-Learning system under the designed cross ontology similarity measure show a significant increase in performance and accuracy under different conditions. The assessment of the comparative analysis, showed the difference in performance of our proposed method over other methods. Based on the assessment results it is proved that the proposed approach is effective over other methods.

  17. Innovative learning model for improving students’ argumentation skill and concept understanding on science (United States)

    Nafsiati Astuti, Rini


    Argumentation skill is the ability to compose and maintain arguments consisting of claims, supports for evidence, and strengthened-reasons. Argumentation is an important skill student needs to face the challenges of globalization in the 21st century. It is not an ability that can be developed by itself along with the physical development of human, but it must be developed under nerve like process, giving stimulus so as to require a person to be able to argue. Therefore, teachers should develop students’ skill of arguing in science learning in the classroom. The purpose of this study is to obtain an innovative learning model that are valid in terms of content and construct in improving the skills of argumentation and concept understanding of junior high school students. The assessment of content validity and construct validity was done through Focus Group Discussion (FGD), using the content and construct validation sheet, book model, learning video, and a set of learning aids for one meeting. Assessment results from 3 (three) experts showed that the learning model developed in the category was valid. The validity itself shows that the developed learning model has met the content requirement, the student needs, state of the art, strong theoretical and empirical foundation and construct validity, which has a connection of syntax stages and components of learning model so that it can be applied in the classroom activities

  18. Embracing Change: Adapting and Evolving Your Distance Learning Library Services to Meet the New ACRL Distance Learning Library Services Standards (United States)

    Marcum, Brad


    This article examines the update and revision of the current Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Distance Learning Standards that has been proposed and submitted to the ACRL Standards Committee. An in-depth analysis of the update is included, along with some comparisons between the old and new. Practical advice detailing…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Starichenko


    Full Text Available The research objective is the classification and conventional interpretations of the concepts of «e-learning», «distance learning» and «blended learning»; its interconnection and correlation of the didactic system of modern education. The authors note that the deficiency of general data theories in pedagogical literature, - on the one hand, and active development of learning types essentially complicate framing and contents of modern education didactic system. Methods. The authors give the key feature of the generic difference betweenthe traditional and e-learning on the basis of the analysis and correlation made by various researchers’ viewpoints; the key feature - the information resources’ usage in educational process (i.e. devices for data processing, storage, transmission, and the information is presented in digital format. The authors single out that blended learning means implementation of traditional types and methods of specific educational tasks including the e-learning elements. Distance learning is proposed to be electronic itself; it’s supposed to be the final variation of e-learning.Scientific novelty and practical significance. The presented approach based on the digital resources’ level application permits to determine all-existing higher education learning types; to establish connection and show differences between them. The authors draw the conclusion that recommended approach can be usedfor further methodology development of modeling the specialists’ training variants in higher school. It is specially noted that this very training is considered as the collaboration of teachers and students focused on knowledge acquisition, work methods and communication features that correspond the future profession requirements. A mention should be made that it is necessary to use educational information material supplement and needed electronic devices or equipment.

  20. On the SLq(2) extension of the standard model and the concept of charge (United States)

    Finkelstein, Robert J.


    Our SLq(2) extension of the standard model is constructed by replacing the elementary field operators, Ψ(x), of the standard model by Ψ̂mm‧j(x)D mm‧j where Dmm‧j is an element of the (2j + 1)-dimensional representation of the SLq(2) algebra, which is also the knot algebra. The allowed quantum states (j,m,m‧) are restricted by the topological conditions (j,m,m‧) = 1 2(N,w,r + o) postulated between the states of the quantum knot (j,m,m‧) and the corresponding classical knot (N,w,r + o) where the (N,w,r) are (the number of crossings, the writhe, the rotation) of the 2d projection of the corresponding oriented classical knot. Here, o is an odd number that is required by the difference in parity between w and r. There is also the empirical restriction on the allowed states (j,m,m‧) = 3(t,-t 3,-t0)L that holds at the j = 3 2 level, connecting quantum trefoils 3 2,m,m‧ with leptons and quarks 1 2,-t3,-t0L. The so-constructed knotted leptons and quarks turn out to be composed of three j = 1 2 particles which unexpectedly agree with the preon models of Harrari and Shupe. The j = 0 particles, being electroweak neutral, are dark and plausibly greatly outnumber the quarks and leptons. The SLq(2) or (j,m,m‧) measure of charge has a direct physical interpretation since 2j is the total number of preonic charges while 2m and 2m‧ are the numbers of writhe and rotation sources of preonic charge. The total SLq(2) charge of a particle, measured by writhe and rotation and composed of preons, sums the signs of the counterclockwise turns (+1) and clockwise turns (-1) that any energy-momentum current makes in going once around the knot. In this way, the handedness of the knot reduces charge to a geometric concept similar to the way that curvature of space-time encodes mass and energy. According to this model, the leptons and quarks are j = 3 2 particles, the preons are j = 1 2 particles, and the j = 0 particles are candidates for dark matter. It is possible to

  1. Chaotic trajectories in the standard map. The concept of anti-integrability (United States)

    Aubry, Serge; Abramovici, Gilles


    A rigorous proof is given in the standard map (associated with a Frenkel-Kontorowa model) for the existence of chaotic trajectories with unbounded momenta for large enough coupling constant k > k0. These chaotic trajectories (with finite entropy per site) are coded by integer sequences { mi} such that the sequence bi = |m i+1 + m i-1-2m i| be bounded by some integer b. The bound k0 in k depends on b and can be lowered for coding sequences { mi} fulfilling more restrictive conditions. The obtained chaotic trajectories correspond to stationary configurations of the Frenkel-Kontorowa model with a finite (non-zero) photon gap (called gap parameter in dimensionless units). This property implies that the trajectory (or the configuration { ui}) can be uniquely continued as a uniformly continuous function of the model parameter k in some neighborhood of the initial configuration. A non-zero gap parameter implies that the Lyapunov coefficient is strictly positive (when it is defined). In addition, the existence of dilating and contracting manifolds is proven for these chaotic trajectories. “Exotic” trajectories such as ballistic trajectories are also proven to exist as a consequence of these theorems. The concept of anti-integrability emerges from these theorems. In the anti-integrable limit which can be only defined for a discrete time dynamical system, the coordinates of the trajectory at time i do not depend on the coordinates at time i - 1. Thus, at this singular limit, the existence of chaotic trajectories is trivial and the dynamical system reduces to a Bernoulli shift. It is well known that the KAM tori of symplectic dynamical originates by continuity from the invariant tori which exists in the integrible limit (under certain conditions). In a similar way, it appears that the chaotic trajectories of dynamical systems originate by continuity from those which exists at the anti-integrable limits (also under certain conditions).

  2. South Ural State University Campus: Architectural Development Concept in Accordance with International Standards (United States)

    Shabiev, S. G.


    The article deals with the vital problem of the implementation of the Program to enhance the competitiveness of the South Ural State University (SUSU) among other scientific and educational centers, which defines the main objective - to form a world-class university. According to the set objective, the most important task is to build a landscaped campus, which can be efficiently solved by the architectural means. The solution of this task is based on the scientific methods of the territorial and architectural improvement of the main university building complex development in the northern academic area and the architectural and aesthetic improvement of the space structural arrangement of the buildings. The author analyzes the global practice of modern campuses in Russia and abroad based on the Internet resources. The author carried out some additional on-site surveys of foreign campuses in Australia, Canada and China. The essence of the architectural concept of the first university campus development stage lies in the science-based achievement of a harmonious architectural and space unity of solid and plane elements of the site development, landscape arrangement of the main building’s courtyard and the adjacent territories with an efficient use of the relief, water areas and planting, allotment of additional spaces for landscaped areas due to a split-level arrangement, including a landscaped platform, increase of the underground space utilization share with the arrangement of an underground car parking and an underground walkway considering the environmental requirements. Further, it is planned to use the author’s methodological approach for the southern academic and the northern residential university areas, which will allow to create a duly completed landscaped SUSU campus with a developed infrastructure according to the international standards.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosliana Siregar


    Full Text Available Abstract. This study aims to determine the effect of self-concepts on mathematics learning achievement of students of class X at State Senior High School 14 Medan. The population in this study is all students of class X State Senior High School 14 Medan which amounted to 304 students. Technique of sampling using technique of Proportionate Stratified Random Sampling counted 40 student for research sample. Data collection using questionnaire method and documentation method. Data analysis technique used is regression analysis, correlation analysis and t test with significance level of 5%. Testing data in this study using the help of SPSS 15 for Windows program for each test result. The results showed that there is a significant influence between self-concept and mathematics learning achievement obtained from the t count (3,572> t table (1.68, with a probability significance of 0.01 <0.05. The magnitude of the determination coefficient of 25.1%

  4. Surface blemish detection from passive imagery using learned fuzzy set concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbuz, S.; Carver, A.; Schalkoff, R.


    An image analysis method for real-time surface blemish detection using passive imagery and fuzzy set concepts is described. The method develops an internal knowledge representation for surface blemish characteristics on the basis of experience, thus facilitating autonomous learning based upon positive and negative exemplars. The method incorporates fuzzy set concepts in the learning subsystem and image segmentation algorithms, thereby mimicking human visual perception. This enables a generic solution for color image segmentation. This method has been applied in the development of ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), designed to inspect DOE warehouse waste storage drums for rust. In this project, the ARIES vision system is used to acquire drum surface images under controlled conditions and subsequently perform visual inspection leading to the classification of the drum as acceptable or suspect

  5. Sociocultural context as a facilitator of student learning of function concepts in mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina Díaz Obando


    Full Text Available In Costa Rica, many secondary students have serious difficulties to establish relationships between mathematics and real-life contexts. They question the utilitarian role of the school mathematics. This fact motivated the research object of this report which evidences the need to overcome methodologies unrelated to students’ reality, toward new didactical options that help students to value mathematics, reasoning and its  applications, connecting it with their socio-cultural context. The research used a case study as a qualitative methodology and the social constructivism as an educational paradigm in which the knowledge is built by the student; as a product of his social interactions. A collection of learning situations was designed, validated, and implemented. It allowed establishing relationships between mathematical concepts and the socio-cultural context of participants. It analyzed the impact of students’socio-cultural context in their mathematics learning of basic concepts of real variable functions, consistent with the Ministry of Education (MEP Official Program.  Among the results, it was found that using students’sociocultural context improved their motivational processes, mathematics sense making, and promoted cooperative social interactions. It was evidenced that contextualized learning situations favored concepts comprehension that allow students to see mathematics as a discipline closely related with their every-day life.

  6. Temporal Dynamics of Task Switching and Abstract-Concept Learning in Pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Alexander Daniel


    Full Text Available The current study examined whether pigeons could learn to use abstract concepts as the basis for conditionally switching behavior as a function of time. Using a mid-session reversal task, experienced pigeons were trained to switch from matching-to-sample (MTS to non-matching-to-sample (NMTS conditional discriminations within a session. One group had prior training with MTS, while the other had prior training with NMTS. Over training, stimulus set size was progressively doubled from 3 to 6 to 12 stimuli to promote abstract concept development. Prior experience had an effect on the initial learning at each of the set sizes but by the end of training there were no group differences, as both groups showed similar within-session linear matching functions. After acquiring the 12-item set, abstract-concept learning was tested by placing novel stimuli at the beginning and end of a test session. Prior matching and non-matching experience affected transfer behavior. The matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both the matching and non-matching portion of the sessions using a matching rule. The non-matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both portions of the session using a non-matching rule. The representations used as the basis for mid-session reversal of the conditional discrimination behaviors and subsequent transfer behavior appears to have different temporal sources. The implications for the flexibility and organization of complex behaviors are considered.

  7. Testing complex animal cognition: Concept learning, proactive interference, and list memory. (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A


    This article describes an approach for assessing and comparing complex cognition in rhesus monkeys and pigeons by training them in a sequence of synergistic tasks, each yielding a whole function for enhanced comparisons. These species were trained in similar same/different tasks with expanding training sets (8, 16, 32, 64, 128 … 1024 pictures) followed by novel-stimulus transfer eventually resulting in full abstract-concept learning. Concept-learning functions revealed better rhesus transfer throughout and full concept learning at the 128 set, versus pigeons at the 256 set. They were then tested in delayed same/different tasks for proactive interference by inserting occasional tests within trial-unique sessions where the test stimulus matched a previous sample stimulus (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 trials prior). Proactive-interference functions revealed time-based interference for pigeons (1, 10 s delays), but event-based interference for rhesus (no effect of 1, 10, 20 s delays). They were then tested in list-memory tasks by expanding the sample to four samples in trial-unique sessions (minimizing proactive interference). The four-item, list-memory functions revealed strong recency memory at short delays, gradually changing to strong primacy memory at long delays over 30 s for rhesus, and 10 s for pigeons. Other species comparisons and future directions are discussed. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  8. Intertextual learning strategy with guided inquiry on solubility equilibrium concept to improve the student’s scientific processing skills (United States)

    Wardani, K. U.; Mulyani, S.; Wiji


    The aim of this study was to develop intertextual learning strategy with guided inquiry on solubility equilibrium concept to enhance student’s scientific processing skills. This study was conducted with consideration of some various studies which found that lack of student’s process skills in learning chemistry was caused by learning chemistry is just a concept. The method used in this study is a Research and Development to generate the intertextual learning strategy with guided inquiry. The instruments used in the form of sheets validation are used to determine the congruence of learning activities by step guided inquiry learning and scientific processing skills with aspects of learning activities. Validation results obtained that the learning activities conducted in line with aspects of indicators of the scientific processing skills.

  9. Surveying Geology Concepts in Education Standards for a Rapidly Changing Global Context (United States)

    Guffey, Sarah K.; Slater, Stephanie J.; Schleigh, Sharon P.; Slater, Timothy F.; Heyer, Inge


    Internationally much attention is being paid to which of a seemingly endless list of scientific concepts should be taught to schoolchildren to enable them to best participate in the global economy of the 21st Century. In regards to science education, the concepts framing the subject of geology holds exalted status as core scientific principles in…

  10. Comparing cognition by integrating concept learning, proactive interference, and list memory. (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A; Kelly, Debbie M; Katz, Jeffrey S


    This article describes an approach for training a variety of species to learn the abstract concept of same/different, which in turn forms the basis for testing proactive interference and list memory. The stimulus set for concept-learning training was progressively doubled from 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 . . . to 1,024 different pictures with novel-stimulus transfer following learning. All species fully learned the same/different abstract concept: capuchin and rhesus monkeys learned more readily than pigeons; nutcrackers and magpies were at least equivalent to monkeys and transferred somewhat better following initial training sets. A similar task using the 1,024-picture set plus delays was used to test proactive interference on occasional trials. Pigeons revealed greater interference with 10-s than with 1-s delays, whereas delay time had no effect on rhesus monkeys, suggesting that the monkeys' interference was event based. This same single-item same/different task was expanded to a 4-item list memory task to test animal list memory. Humans were tested similarly with lists of kaleidoscope pictures. Delays between the list and test were manipulated, resulting in strong initial recency effects (i.e., strong 4th-item memory) at short delays and changing to a strong primacy effect (i.e., strong 1st-item memory) at long delays (pigeons 0-s to 10-s delays; monkeys 0-s to 30-s delays; humans 0-s to 100-s delays). Results and findings are discussed in terms of these species' cognition and memory comparisons, evolutionary implications, and future directions for testing other species in these synergistically related tasks.

  11. Comparing deep learning and concept extraction based methods for patient phenotyping from clinical narratives. (United States)

    Gehrmann, Sebastian; Dernoncourt, Franck; Li, Yeran; Carlson, Eric T; Wu, Joy T; Welt, Jonathan; Foote, John; Moseley, Edward T; Grant, David W; Tyler, Patrick D; Celi, Leo A


    In secondary analysis of electronic health records, a crucial task consists in correctly identifying the patient cohort under investigation. In many cases, the most valuable and relevant information for an accurate classification of medical conditions exist only in clinical narratives. Therefore, it is necessary to use natural language processing (NLP) techniques to extract and evaluate these narratives. The most commonly used approach to this problem relies on extracting a number of clinician-defined medical concepts from text and using machine learning techniques to identify whether a particular patient has a certain condition. However, recent advances in deep learning and NLP enable models to learn a rich representation of (medical) language. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) for text classification can augment the existing techniques by leveraging the representation of language to learn which phrases in a text are relevant for a given medical condition. In this work, we compare concept extraction based methods with CNNs and other commonly used models in NLP in ten phenotyping tasks using 1,610 discharge summaries from the MIMIC-III database. We show that CNNs outperform concept extraction based methods in almost all of the tasks, with an improvement in F1-score of up to 26 and up to 7 percentage points in area under the ROC curve (AUC). We additionally assess the interpretability of both approaches by presenting and evaluating methods that calculate and extract the most salient phrases for a prediction. The results indicate that CNNs are a valid alternative to existing approaches in patient phenotyping and cohort identification, and should be further investigated. Moreover, the deep learning approach presented in this paper can be used to assist clinicians during chart review or support the extraction of billing codes from text by identifying and highlighting relevant phrases for various medical conditions.

  12. Standardization, diversity, and learning: A model for the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, P.A.; Rothwell, G.S.


    The lack of standardization, frequently mentioned as a burden borne by the U.S. nuclear industry, is discussed. A simple model of learning and standardization is presented. It is shown that when the effects of learning through diversity are strong, the present value of long-run costs can be minimized with either complete standardization or with complete experimentation where no two reactors are similar in the early stages of the industry. The conclusion discusses the relevance of these and other analytical results to the present U.S. nuclear industry regarding standardization policies. 8 refs

  13. The effectiveness of concept mapping and retrieval practice as learning strategies in an undergraduate physiology course. (United States)

    Burdo, Joseph; O'Dwyer, Laura


    Concept mapping and retrieval practice are both educational methods that have separately been reported to provide significant benefits for learning in diverse settings. Concept mapping involves diagramming a hierarchical representation of relationships between distinct pieces of information, whereas retrieval practice involves retrieving information that was previously coded into memory. The relative benefits of these two methods have never been tested against each other in a classroom setting. Our study was designed to investigate whether or not concept mapping or retrieval practice produced a significant learning benefit in an undergraduate physiology course as measured by exam performance and, if so, was the benefit of one method significantly greater than the other. We found that there was a trend toward increased exam scores for the retrieval practice group compared with both the control group and concept mapping group, and that trend achieved statistical significance for one of the four module exams in the course. We also found that women performed statistically better than men on the module exam that contained a substantial amount of material relating to female reproductive physiology. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  14. Learning and Processing Abstract Words and Concepts: Insights From Typical and Atypical Development. (United States)

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Ponari, Marta; Norbury, Courtenay


    The paper describes two plausible hypotheses concerning the learning of abstract words and concepts. According to a first hypothesis, children would learn abstract words by extracting co-occurrences among words in linguistic input, using, for example, mechanisms as described by models of Distributional Semantics. According to a second hypothesis, children would exploit the fact that abstract words tend to have more emotional associations than concrete words to infer that they refer to internal/mental states. Each hypothesis makes specific predictions with regards to when and which abstract words are more likely to be learned; also they make different predictions concerning the impact of developmental disorders. We start by providing a review of work characterizing how abstract words and concepts are learned in development, especially between the ages of 6 and 12. Second, we review some work from our group that tests the two hypotheses above. This work investigates typically developing (TD) children and children with atypical development (developmental language disorders [DLD] and autism spectrum disorder [ASD] with and without language deficits). We conclude that the use of strategies based on emotional information, or on co-occurrences in language, may play a role at different developmental stages. © 2018 Cognitive Science Society Inc.

  15. Bootstrapping in a language of thought: a formal model of numerical concept learning. (United States)

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Goodman, Noah D


    In acquiring number words, children exhibit a qualitative leap in which they transition from understanding a few number words, to possessing a rich system of interrelated numerical concepts. We present a computational framework for understanding this inductive leap as the consequence of statistical inference over a sufficiently powerful representational system. We provide an implemented model that is powerful enough to learn number word meanings and other related conceptual systems from naturalistic data. The model shows that bootstrapping can be made computationally and philosophically well-founded as a theory of number learning. Our approach demonstrates how learners may combine core cognitive operations to build sophisticated representations during the course of development, and how this process explains observed developmental patterns in number word learning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Concept Maps as a Didactic Resource Tool of Meaningful Learning in Astronomy Themes (United States)

    Silveira, Felipa Pacífico Ribeiro de Assis; Mendonça, Conceição Aparecida Soares


    This article presents the results of an investigation that sought to understand the performance of the conceptual map (MC) as a teaching resource facilitator of meaningful learning of scientific concepts on astronomical themes, developed with elementary school students. The methodology employed to obtain and process the data was based on a quantitative and qualitative approach. On the quantitative level we designed a quasi-experimental research with a control group that did not use the MC and an experimental group that used the MC, both being evaluated in the beginning and end of the process. In this case, the performance of both groups is displayed in a descriptive and analytical study. In the qualitative approach, the MCs were interpreted using the structuring and assigned meanings shared by the student during his/her presentation. The results demonstrated through the improvement of qualifications that the MC made a difference in conceptual learning and in certain skills revealed by learning indicators.

  17. Student Collaboration and Standards-Based Music Learning: A Literature Review (United States)

    Cangro, Richard


    This article is a review of relevant literature on collaborative, standards-based music learning. The review is organized as follows: (a) historical perspective, (b) collaborative music learning, (c) collaboration and creating, (d) collaboration and performing, (e) collaboration and responding, and (f) conclusions. In an effort to bridge the gap…

  18. Can Pre-Service Physical Education Majors Identify Learning Standards during Authentic Teaching Episodes? (United States)

    Kniffin, Mike; Foley, John; MacDonald, Lynn Couturier; Howarth, Kath


    Only a handful of research studies have been conducted to determine whether or not physical educators or pre-service physical education teachers are utilizing learning standards in their teaching. While pre-service teachers are typically required to align lesson objectives and content, their extent of their understanding of how learning standards…

  19. SURF: Taking Sustainable Remediation from Concept to Standard Operating Procedure (Invited) (United States)

    Smith, L. M.; Wice, R. B.; Torrens, J.


    Over the last decade, many sectors of industrialized society have been rethinking behavior and re-engineering practices to reduce consumption of energy and natural resources. During this time, green and sustainable remediation (GSR) has evolved from conceptual discussions to standard operating procedure for many environmental remediation practitioners. Government agencies and private sector entities have incorporated GSR metrics into their performance criteria and contracting documents. One of the early think tanks for the development of GSR was the Sustainable Remediation Forum (SURF). SURF brings together representatives of government, industry, consultancy, and academia to parse the means and ends of incorporating societal and economic considerations into environmental cleanup projects. Faced with decades-old treatment programs with high energy outputs and no endpoints in sight, a small group of individuals published the institutional knowledge gathered in two years of ad hoc meetings into a 2009 White Paper on sustainable remediation drivers, practices, objectives, and case studies. Since then, SURF has expanded on those introductory topics, publishing its Framework for Integrating Sustainability into Remediation Projects, Guidance for Performing Footprint Analyses and Life-Cycle Assessments for the Remediation Industry, a compendium of metrics, and a call to improve the integration of land remediation and reuse. SURF's research and members have also been instrumental in the development of additional guidance through ASTM International and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council. SURF's current efforts focus on water reuse, the international perspective on GSR (continuing the conversations that were the basis of SURF's December 2012 meeting at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC), and ways to capture and evaluate the societal benefits of site remediation. SURF also promotes and supports student chapters at universities across the US

  20. Reducing Content Variance and Improving Student Learning Outcomes: The Value of Standardization in a Multisection Course (United States)

    Meuter, Matthew L.; Chapman, Kenneth J.; Toy, Daniel; Wright, Lauren K.; McGowan, William


    This article describes a standardization process for an introductory marketing course with multiple sections. The authors first outline the process used to develop a standardized set of marketing concepts to be used in all introductory marketing classes. They then discuss the benefits to both students and faculty that occur as a result of…

  1. Non-Technical Skills Bingo-a game to facilitate the learning of complex concepts. (United States)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Glavin, Ronnie; Hartvigsen Grønholm Jepsen, Rikke Malene; Krage, Ralf


    Acquiring the concepts of non-technical skills (NTS) beyond a superficial level is a challenge for healthcare professionals and simulation faculty. Current simulation-based approaches to teach NTS are challenged when learners have to master NTS concepts, clinically challenging situations, and simulation as a complex technique. The combination of all three aspects might overwhelm learners. To facilitate the deeper comprehension of NTS concepts, we describe an innovative video-based game, the Non-Technical Skills (NTS) Bingo. Participants get NTS Bingo cards that show five NTS elements each. While observing (non-medical) video clips, they try to find examples for the elements on their cards, typically observable behaviours that match a given element. After the video, participants "defend" their solution in a discussion with the game leader and other players. This discussion and the reflection aim to deepen the processing of the NTS concepts. We provide practical guidance for the conduct of NTS Bingo, including a selection of usable video clips and tips for the facilitated discussion after a clip. We use NTS in anaesthesia as example and provide guidance on how to adapt NTS Bingo to other disciplines. NTS Bingo is based on theoretical considerations on concept learning, which we describe to support the rationale for its conduct.

  2. Conceptual Elements: A Detailed Framework to Support and Assess Student Learning of Biology Core Concepts (United States)

    Cary, Tawnya; Branchaw, Janet


    The Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: Call to Action report has inspired and supported a nationwide movement to restructure undergraduate biology curricula to address overarching disciplinary concepts and competencies. The report outlines the concepts and competencies generally but does not provide a detailed framework to guide the development of the learning outcomes, instructional materials, and assessment instruments needed to create a reformed biology curriculum. In this essay, we present a detailed Vision and Change core concept framework that articulates key components that transcend subdisciplines and scales for each overarching biological concept, the Conceptual Elements (CE) Framework. The CE Framework was developed using a grassroots approach of iterative revision and incorporates feedback from more than 60 biologists and undergraduate biology educators from across the United States. The final validation step resulted in strong national consensus, with greater than 92% of responders agreeing that each core concept list was ready for use by the biological sciences community, as determined by scientific accuracy and completeness. In addition, we describe in detail how educators and departments can use the CE Framework to guide and document reformation of individual courses as well as entire curricula. PMID:28450444

  3. Integrated learning of mathematics, science and technology concepts through LEGO/Logo projects (United States)

    Wu, Lina

    This dissertation examined integrated learning in the domains of mathematics, science and technology based on Piaget's constructivism, Papert's constructionism, and project-based approach to education. Ten fifth grade students were involved in a two-month long after school program where they designed and built their own computer-controlled LEGO/Logo projects that required the use of gears, ratios and motion concepts. The design of this study centered on three notions of integrated learning: (1) integration in terms of what educational materials/settings provide, (2) integration in terms of students' use of those materials, and (3) integration in the psychological sense. In terms of the first notion, the results generally showed that the LEGO/Logo environment supported the integrated learning of math, science and technology concepts. Regarding the second notion, the students all completed impressive projects of their own design. They successfully combined gears, motors, and LEGO parts together to create motion and writing control commands to manipulate the motion. But contrary to my initial expectations, their successful designs did not require numerical reasoning about ratios in designing effective gear systems. When they did reason about gear relationships, they worked with "qualitative" ratios, e.g., "a larger driver gear with a smaller driven gear increases the speed." In terms of the third notion of integrated learning, there was evidence in all four case study students of the psychological processes involved in linking mathematical, scientific, and/or technological concepts together to achieve new conceptual units. The students not only made connections between ideas and experiences, but also recognized decisive patterns and relationships in their project work. The students with stronger overall project performances showed more evidence of synthesis than the students with relatively weaker performances did. The findings support the conclusion that all three

  4. ITS standards : lessons learned from deployment : raising ITS standards IQ with a public sector workshop (United States)


    This document contains information about a Public Sector Workshop held in Minnesota that focused on increasing the awareness of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) standards. It gives an overview of how the workshop proceeded, which topics were ...

  5. Evaluating meaningful learning using concept mapping in dental hygiene education: a pilot study. (United States)

    Canasi, Dina M; Amyot, Cynthia; Tira, Daniel


    Concept mapping, as a teaching strategy, has been shown to promote critical thinking and problem solving in educational settings. Dental clinicians must distinguish between critical and irrelevant characteristics in the delivery of care, thus necessitating reasoning skills to do so. One of the aims of the American Dental Education Association Commission on Change and Innovation (ADEA-CCI) is to identify deficiencies in curriculum which were meant to improve critical thinking and problem solving skills necessary in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to compare 2 teaching strategies, traditional lecture and lecture supported by concept mapping exercises within collaborative working groups, to determine if there is a beneficial effect on meaningful learning. For this pilot study, the study population consisted of students from 2 geographically separated associate level dental hygiene programs in the southeastern U.S. A quasi-experimental control group pre- and post-test design was used. The degree of meaningful learning achieved by both programs was assessed by comparing pre- and post-test results. Both programs experienced a significant degree of meaningful learning from pre- to post-test. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the programs on the post-test. These results were in direct contrast to research in other disciplines on concept mapping and its effect on promoting meaningful learning. Further investigation into the study's outcome was obtained through a follow-up focus group. In spite of careful attention to methodology in the development of this research project, the focus group illuminated methodological failings that potentially impacted the outcome of the study. Recommendations are underscored for future conduct of educational research of this kind.

  6. Combination of inquiry learning model and computer simulation to improve mastery concept and the correlation with critical thinking skills (CTS) (United States)

    Nugraha, Muhamad Gina; Kaniawati, Ida; Rusdiana, Dadi; Kirana, Kartika Hajar


    Among the purposes of physics learning at high school is to master the physics concepts and cultivate scientific attitude (including critical attitude), develop inductive and deductive reasoning skills. According to Ennis et al., inductive and deductive reasoning skills are part of critical thinking. Based on preliminary studies, both of the competence are lack achieved, it is seen from student learning outcomes is low and learning processes that are not conducive to cultivate critical thinking (teacher-centered learning). One of learning model that predicted can increase mastery concepts and train CTS is inquiry learning model aided computer simulations. In this model, students were given the opportunity to be actively involved in the experiment and also get a good explanation with the computer simulations. From research with randomized control group pretest-posttest design, we found that the inquiry learning model aided computer simulations can significantly improve students' mastery concepts than the conventional (teacher-centered) method. With inquiry learning model aided computer simulations, 20% of students have high CTS, 63.3% were medium and 16.7% were low. CTS greatly contribute to the students' mastery concept with a correlation coefficient of 0.697 and quite contribute to the enhancement mastery concept with a correlation coefficient of 0.603.

  7. The Engineering Design Process: Conceptions Along the Learning-to-Teach Continuum (United States)

    Iveland, Ashley

    In this study, I sought to identify differences in the views and understandings of engineering design among individuals along the learning-to-teach continuum. To do so, I conducted a comprehensive review of literature to determine the various aspects of engineering design described in the fields of professional engineering and engineering education. Additionally, I reviewed literature on the methods used in teaching engineering design at the secondary (grade 7-12) level - to describe the various models used in classrooms, even before the implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States, 2013). Last, I defined four groups along the learning-to-teach continuum: prospective, preservice, and practicing teachers, as well as teacher educators. The context of this study centered around a California public university, including an internship program where undergraduates engaged with practicing mentor teachers in science and engineering teaching at local high schools, and a teacher education program where secondary science preservice teachers and the teacher educators who taught them participated. Interviews were conducted with all participants to gain insights into their views and understandings of engineering design. Prospective and preservice teachers were interviewed multiple times throughout the year and completed concept maps of the engineering design process multiple times as well; practicing teachers and teacher educators were interviewed once. Three levels of analyses were conducted. I identified 30 aspects of engineering discussed by participants. Through phenomenographic methods, I also constructed six conceptual categories for engineering design to organize those aspects most commonly discussed. These categories were combined to demonstrate a participant's view of engineering design (e.g., business focused, human centered, creative, etc.) as well as their complexity of understanding of engineering design overall (the more categories

  8. Using Expectancy Value Theory as a Framework to Reduce Student Resistance to Active Learning: A Proof of Concept. (United States)

    Cooper, Katelyn M; Ashley, Michael; Brownell, Sara E


    There has been a national movement to transition college science courses from passive lectures to active learning environments. Active learning has been shown to be a more effective way for students to learn, yet there is concern that some students are resistant to active learning approaches. Although there is much discussion about student resistance to active learning, few studies have explored this topic. Furthermore, a limited number of studies have applied theoretical frameworks to student engagement in active learning. We propose using a theoretical lens of expectancy value theory to understand student resistance to active learning. In this study, we examined student perceptions of active learning after participating in 40 hours of active learning. We used the principal components of expectancy value theory to probe student experience in active learning: student perceived self-efficacy in active learning, value of active learning, and potential cost of participating in active learning. We found that students showed positive changes in the components of expectancy value theory and reported high levels of engagement in active learning, which provide proof of concept that expectancy value theory can be used to boost student perceptions of active learning and their engagement in active learning classrooms. From these findings, we have built a theoretical framework of expectancy value theory applied to active learning.

  9. Lessons learned from standardized plant design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, B.


    Following France's hydropower program, Electricite de France began producing electricity with nuclear power during the 60s with units that were all different. In the early 70s, EDF launched an extensive nuclear program which was fueled by the 1973 oil crisis. The particularity of this program is based on the standardization of the design which enables the cost of engineering studies, components and construction to be reduced. As all of the sites presented various conditions, a single design was possible except for the heat sink, connection to the grid and foundations. In order to follow technical progress, the program was divided into several homogeneous series: CP0, CP1 and CP2 for 900 MWe reactors, P4 and P'4 for 1300 MWe reactors and N4 for 1450 MWe reactors. EDF has managed to apply standardization throughout the service life of the plant: all units of the same series are modified in the same manner and with a same batch of modifications. The standardization of operations is also the EDF's rule: technical specifications, safety reports, and safety procedures are normally the same for units belonging to the same series. Nevertheless, when plant design and operations, and heavy maintenance are considered, it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain strict standardization across the board: when examined closely, variations are possible-as regards the chemical specifications of the secondary system, for instance. On the other hand, at the fabrication stage, it is difficult to maintain fabrication procedures and alloy compositions rigorously the same. Standardization offers a tremendous advantage representing 30-40% of construction costs. The main drawback is the risk of generic defects. On the other hand, the risk is rather small owing to the small differences among units. (author)

  10. Citizenship education in Lebanon: An introduction into students’ concepts and learning experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassel Akar


    Full Text Available Lebanon continues to use citizenship education as a tool for social cohesion in its post-conflict sectarian society. Recently, teachers from previous studies (Akar, 2006 have raised certain issues concerning the challenges of teaching citizenship in Lebanon’s National and Civic Education classrooms. This initial study in Lebanon explores some of the challenges that students face when learning citizenship within their classroom by investigating their concepts of citizenship in addition to their learning experiences. Thirty-one students from two year-11 classrooms in different schools participated. During a 45-minute class lesson, I administered a survey pack collecting quantitative and qualitative data. This pack included a diamond ranking exercise, open-ended questions and a 15-minute class discussion at the end of class. Evidence showed that these students value active and dynamic behaviours based on humanistic and democratic principles. They also demonstrated a strong sense of national identity with little or no reference to a global one. Finally, the findings showed that traditional methods of learning such as memorization and the paradoxical climate of learning democratic civic behaviours in a society of internal conflicts further challenged their learning experiences.

  11. Tugboats and tennis games: Preservice conceptions of teaching and learning revealed through metaphors (United States)

    Gurney, Bruce F.

    Black (1979) writes about the inextricable interrelationships among language, perception, knowledge, experience and metaphor. An extension of this, grounded in Wittgenstein's (1953) notion of the symbolic, experiential basis of first language, is the view that metaphors are windows into this primitive, personal framework. The purpose of this paper is to take an exploratory look at preservice teachers' metaphors of teaching and learning and to examine some components of student teachers' own intuitions in this area. In this study, a questionnaire was administered to one hundred and fifty-one science education students at the beginning of their preservice training on which they were challenged to generate a personal metaphor for teaching and learning. Descriptive elements within the responses were differentiated and applied to the development of a classification scheme. Both the technique and the categorization are seen as useful devices for the identification of common conceptions about the teaching and learning process. The metaphors have been seen to communicate a richness of meaning which convey elements of mood, control, roles, attitudes and beliefs as they apply to teaching and learning and which, it is argued here, are grounded on more deeply rooted symbols than literal language. In the light of constructivist pedagogy, the elicitation of students' preconceptions is seen to be germane to the organization of learning experiences.Received: 27 June 1993; Revised: 2 August 1994;

  12. The "proactive" model of learning: Integrative framework for model-free and model-based reinforcement learning utilizing the associative learning-based proactive brain concept. (United States)

    Zsuga, Judit; Biro, Klara; Papp, Csaba; Tajti, Gabor; Gesztelyi, Rudolf


    Reinforcement learning (RL) is a powerful concept underlying forms of associative learning governed by the use of a scalar reward signal, with learning taking place if expectations are violated. RL may be assessed using model-based and model-free approaches. Model-based reinforcement learning involves the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The model-free system involves the pedunculopontine-tegmental nucleus (PPTgN), the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the ventral striatum (VS). Based on the functional connectivity of VS, model-free and model based RL systems center on the VS that by integrating model-free signals (received as reward prediction error) and model-based reward related input computes value. Using the concept of reinforcement learning agent we propose that the VS serves as the value function component of the RL agent. Regarding the model utilized for model-based computations we turned to the proactive brain concept, which offers an ubiquitous function for the default network based on its great functional overlap with contextual associative areas. Hence, by means of the default network the brain continuously organizes its environment into context frames enabling the formulation of analogy-based association that are turned into predictions of what to expect. The OFC integrates reward-related information into context frames upon computing reward expectation by compiling stimulus-reward and context-reward information offered by the amygdala and hippocampus, respectively. Furthermore we suggest that the integration of model-based expectations regarding reward into the value signal is further supported by the efferent of the OFC that reach structures canonical for model-free learning (e.g., the PPTgN, VTA, and VS). (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Developing K-16 Student Standards for Language Learning: A Critical Examination of the Case of Esperanto (United States)

    Fonseca-Greber, Bonnie; Reagan, Timothy


    In light of the ongoing attention to standards-based education in U.S. schools and the concern over how to effectively develop literacy skills in a first, let alone a second, language, this article reports on the drafting of the K-16 Student Standards for Learning Esperanto in the United States. Esperanto is ideally suited to aid children in the…

  14. Standard setting in the teaching and learning process in the Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standards are set at different levels to govern different requirements that collectively add up to the ingredients of quality education of a child. This study investigated whether or not there are quantitative standards of achievement for guiding teaching and learning in the school system in Kenya. It also investigated teachers' ...

  15. Towards a Standards-Based Approach to E-Learning Personalization Using Reusable Learning Objects. (United States)

    Conlan, Owen; Dagger, Declan; Wade, Vincent

    E-Learning systems that produce personalized course offerings for the learner are often expensive, both from a time and financial perspective, to develop and maintain. Learning content personalized to a learners' cognitive preferences has been shown to produce more effective learning, however many approaches to realizing this form of…

  16. A Nordic perspective on career competences and guidance:Career choices and career learning. NVL & ELGPN concept note


    Thomsen, Rie


    This concept note reflects an initiative within the Nordic ELPGN group, in partnership with the Nordic network for adult learning (NVL), to investigate the possibilities for collaboration between the Nordic countries in developing a number of joint documents on career competences and/or a competence framework for career learning in the Nordic countries.The objective for this concept note is to contribute to a shared Nordic frame of understanding for career competences which can be used in the...

  17. Structured feedback on students' concept maps: the proverbial path to learning? (United States)

    Joseph, Conran; Conradsson, David; Nilsson Wikmar, Lena; Rowe, Michael


    Good conceptual knowledge is an essential requirement for health professions students, in that they are required to apply concepts learned in the classroom to a variety of different contexts. However, the use of traditional methods of assessment limits the educator's ability to correct students' conceptual knowledge prior to altering the educational context. Concept mapping (CM) is an educational tool for evaluating conceptual knowledge, but little is known about its use in facilitating the development of richer knowledge frameworks. In addition, structured feedback has the potential to develop good conceptual knowledge. The purpose of this study was to use Kinchin's criteria to assess the impact of structured feedback on the graphical complexity of CM's by observing the development of richer knowledge frameworks. Fifty-eight physiotherapy students created CM's targeting the integration of two knowledge domains within a case-based teaching paradigm. Each student received one round of structured feedback that addressed correction, reinforcement, forensic diagnosis, benchmarking, and longitudinal development on their CM's prior to the final submission. The concept maps were categorized according to Kinchin's criteria as either Spoke, Chain or Net representations, and then evaluated against defined traits of meaningful learning. The inter-rater reliability of categorizing CM's was good. Pre-feedback CM's were predominantly Chain structures (57%), with Net structures appearing least often. There was a significant reduction of the basic Spoke- structured CMs (P = 0.002) and a significant increase of Net-structured maps (P student development.

  18. An effective self-assessment based on concept map extraction from test-sheet for personalized learning (United States)

    Liew, Keng-Hou; Lin, Yu-Shih; Chang, Yi-Chun; Chu, Chih-Ping


    Examination is a traditional way to assess learners' learning status, progress and performance after a learning activity. Except the test grade, a test sheet hides some implicit information such as test concepts, their relationships, importance, and prerequisite. The implicit information can be extracted and constructed a concept map for considering (1) the test concepts covered in the same question means these test concepts have strong relationships, and (2) questions in the same test sheet means the test concepts are relative. Concept map has been successfully employed in many researches to help instructors and learners organize relationships among concepts. However, concept map construction depends on experts who need to take effort and time for the organization of the domain knowledge. In addition, the previous researches regarding to automatic concept map construction are limited to consider all learners of a class, which have not considered personalized learning. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes a new approach to automatically extract and construct concept map based on implicit information in a test sheet. Furthermore, the proposed approach also can help learner for self-assessment and self-diagnosis. Finally, an example is given to depict the effectiveness of proposed approach.

  19. Concept maps: A tool for knowledge management and synthesis in web-based conversational learning. (United States)

    Joshi, Ankur; Singh, Satendra; Jaswal, Shivani; Badyal, Dinesh Kumar; Singh, Tejinder


    Web-based conversational learning provides an opportunity for shared knowledge base creation through collaboration and collective wisdom extraction. Usually, the amount of generated information in such forums is very huge, multidimensional (in alignment with the desirable preconditions for constructivist knowledge creation), and sometimes, the nature of expected new information may not be anticipated in advance. Thus, concept maps (crafted from constructed data) as "process summary" tools may be a solution to improve critical thinking and learning by making connections between the facts or knowledge shared by the participants during online discussion This exploratory paper begins with the description of this innovation tried on a web-based interacting platform (email list management software), FAIMER-Listserv, and generated qualitative evidence through peer-feedback. This process description is further supported by a theoretical construct which shows how social constructivism (inclusive of autonomy and complexity) affects the conversational learning. The paper rationalizes the use of concept map as mid-summary tool for extracting information and further sense making out of this apparent intricacy.

  20. Teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching in student-centred medical curricula: the impact of context and personal characteristics. (United States)

    Jacobs, Johanna C G; van Luijk, Scheltus J; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Croiset, Gerda; Scheele, Fedde


    Gibbs and Coffey (2004) have reported that teaching practices are influenced by teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching. In our previous research we found significant differences between teachers' conceptions in two medical schools with student-centred education. Medical school was the most important predictor, next to discipline, gender and teaching experience. Our research questions for the current study are (1) which specific elements of medical school explain the effect of medical school on teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching? How? and (2) which contextual and personal characteristics are related to conceptions of learning and teaching? How? Individual interviews were conducted with 13 teachers of the undergraduate curricula in two medical schools. Previously their conceptions of learning and teaching were assessed with the COLT questionnaire. We investigated the meanings they attached to context and personal characteristics, in relation to their conceptions of learning and teaching. We used a template analysis. Large individual differences existed between teachers. Characteristics mentioned at the medical school and curriculum level were 'curriculum tradition', 'support by educational department' and 'management and finances'. Other contextual characteristics were 'leadership style' at all levels but especially of department chairs, 'affordances and support', 'support and relatedness', and 'students' characteristics'. Personal characteristics were 'agency', 'experience with PBL (as a student or a teacher)','personal development', 'motivation and work engagement'and 'high content expertise'. Several context and personal characteristics associated with teachers' conceptions were identified, enabling a broader view on faculty development with attention for these characteristics, next to teaching skills.

  1. Teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching in student-centred medical curricula: the impact of context and personal characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.C.G.; Luijk, S.J. van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Kusurkar, R.A.; Croiset, G.; Scheele, F.


    BACKGROUND: Gibbs and Coffey (2004) have reported that teaching practices are influenced by teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching. In our previous research we found significant differences between teachers' conceptions in two medical schools with student-centred education. Medical school

  2. The Use of Instructional Animations in a College Algebra Course: Can It Facilitate Learning of Concepts and Skill Development? (United States)

    Serfaty de Markus, Alicia


    This quasi-treatment study, using a non-equivalent group design, explored how a set of animations related to various concepts in algebra impacted students' ability to learn as measured by changes in quiz and test scores. The concepts that were investigated were addition and subtraction of rational expressions, solving equations involving rational…

  3. Reconsidering the risk assessment concept: Standardizing the impact description as a building block for vulnerability assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hollenstein


    Full Text Available Risk assessments for natural hazards are becoming more widely used and accepted. Using an extended definition of risk, it becomes obvious that performant procedures for vulnerability assessments are vital for the success of the risk concept. However, there are large gaps in knowledge about vulnerability. To alleviate the situation, a conceptual extension of the scope of existing and new models is suggested. The basis of the suggested concept is a stadardization of the output of hazard assessments. This is achieved by defining states of the target objects that depend on the impact and at the same time affect the object's performance characteristics. The possible state variables can be related to a limited set of impact descriptors termed generic impact description interface. The concept suggests that both hazard and vulnerability assessment models are developed according to the specification of this interface, thus facilitating modularized risk assessments. Potential problems related to the application of the concept include acceptance issues and the lacking accuracy of transformation of outputs of existing models. Potential applications and simple examples for adapting existing models are briefly discussed.

  4. The effectiveness of process oriented guided inquiry learning to reduce alternate conceptions in secondary chemistry (United States)

    Barthlow, Michelle J.


    A nonequivalent, control group, pretest-posttest design was used to investigate student achievement in secondary chemistry. This study investigated the effect of process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) in high school chemistry to reduce alternate conceptions related to the particulate nature of matter versus traditional lecture pedagogy. Data were collected from chemistry students in four large high schools and analyzed using ANCOVA. The results show that POGIL pedagogy, as opposed to traditional lecture pedagogy, resulted in fewer alternate conceptions related to the particulate nature of matter. Male and female students in the POGIL group posted better posttest scores than their traditional group peers. African-American and Hispanic students in the POGIL group exhibited achievement gains consistent with Caucasian and Asian students. Further studies are needed to determine the value of POGIL to address achievement gap concerns in chemistry.

  5. Portuguese primary school children's conceptions about digestion: identification of learning obstacles (United States)

    Silva, Rui Graça; Lima, Nelson; Coquet, Eduarda; Clément, Pierre


    A cross-sectional study of Portuguese primary school pupils' conceptions on digestion and the digestive tract was carried out before and after teaching this topic. Pupils of the prior four school years (5/6 to 9/10 year old) drew what happens to a cookie inside their body. In some cases they also wrote a short text or were interviewed. To identify their level of graphic development, they produced a free-hand drawing. The main conceptual changes in explaining digestion were strongly linked to teaching. Children's previous conceptions were not epistemological obstacles to learning about digestion. The main obstacles were of didactical origin, as images of primary school books do not represent (i) the path of food from the intestine into the blood, (associated to the epistemological obstacle of the permeability of the gut wall); (ii) a clear continuous tract from stomach to anus, which causes a specific confusion at the intestine level.

  6. Conceptual Blending Monitoring Students' Use of Metaphorical Concepts to Further the Learning of Science (United States)

    Fredriksson, Alexandra; Pelger, Susanne


    The aim of this study is to explore how tertiary science students' use of metaphors in their popular science article writing may influence their understanding of subject matter. For this purpose, six popular articles written by students in physics or geology were analysed by means of a close textual analysis and a metaphor analysis. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the students. The articles showed variation regarding the occurrence of active (non-conventional) metaphors, and metaphorical concepts, i.e. metaphors relating to a common theme. In addition, the interviews indicated that students using active metaphors and metaphorical concepts reflected more actively upon their use of metaphors. These students also discussed the possible relationship between subject understanding and creation of metaphors in terms of conceptual blending. The study suggests that students' process of creating metaphorical concepts could be described and visualised through integrated networks of conceptual blending. Altogether, the study argues for using conceptual blending as a tool for monitoring and encouraging the use of adequate metaphorical concepts, thereby facilitating students' opportunities of understanding and influencing the learning of science.

  7. A Quasi-Experimental Examination: Cognitive Sequencing of Instruction Using Experiential Learning Theory for STEM Concepts in Agricultural Education (United States)

    Smith, Kasee L.; Rayfield, John


    Understanding methods for effectively instructing STEM education concepts is essential in the current climate of education (Freeman, Marginson, & Tyler 2014). Kolb's experiential learning theory (ELT) outlines four specific modes of learning, based on preferences for grasping and transforming information. This quasi-experimental study was…

  8. Naturally Acquired Learned Helplessness: The Relationship of School Failure to Achievement Behavior, Attributions, and Self-Concept. (United States)

    Johnson, Dona S.


    Personality and behavioral consequences of learned helplessness were monitored in children experiencing failure in school. The predictive quality of learned helplessness theory was compared with that of value expectancy theories. Low self-concept was predicted significantly by school failure, internal attributions for failure, and external…

  9. Exploring Factors That Promote Online Learning Experiences and Academic Self-Concept of Minority High School Students (United States)

    Kumi-Yeboah, Alex; Dogbey, James; Yuan, Guangji


    The rapid growth of online education at the K-12 level in recent years presents the need to explore issues that influence the academic experiences of students choosing this method of learning. In this study, we examined factors that promote/hinder the learning experiences and academic self-concept of minority students attending an online high…

  10. On the Role of Discipline-Related Self-Concept in Deep and Surface Approaches to Learning among University Students (United States)

    Platow, Michael J.; Mavor, Kenneth I.; Grace, Diana M.


    The current research examined the role that students' discipline-related self-concepts may play in their deep and surface approaches to learning, their overall learning outcomes, and continued engagement in the discipline itself. Using a cross-lagged panel design of first-year university psychology students, a causal path was observed in which…

  11. Investigating Cross-Cultural Variation in Conceptions of Learning and the Use of Self-Regulated Strategies. (United States)

    Purdie, Nola; Pillay, Hitendra; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian


    Examines concepts of learning, motivational orientations, and use of range of learning strategies focusing on high schools students (n=222) in Australia and in Malaysia (n=168). Indicates that Malaysian students obtained higher scores for more motivation strategies than Australian students. Includes references. (CMK)

  12. The learning evaluations of the concept function in the mathematical subject I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Valle Castañeda


    Full Text Available The evaluation must be one of the most complex tasks that teachers face today, both for the process itself and for having to issue an assessment about the achievements and deficiencies of the students. It is for them that techniques and instruments were developed, which allow the evaluation of the function concept in the Mathematics I subject´s. Methods of the theoretical level, of the empirical level such as the historical-logical analysis, the surveys, were used in the research carried out. The documentary analyses, as well as procedures such as the analysis - synthesis that made it possible to investigate the theoretical and practical fundament´s learning evaluation´s. The evaluation instruments presented allowed for the evaluation of the students in Mathematics I, less than one of the most important functions of the evaluation: the formative or educational function. These constituted a reference for the continuous improvement of student learning.

  13. The Relationships among Scientific Epistemic Beliefs, Conceptions of Learning Science, and Motivation of Learning Science: A Study of Taiwan High School Students (United States)

    Ho, Hsin-Ning Jessie; Liang, Jyh-Chong


    This study explores the relationships among Taiwanese high school students' scientific epistemic beliefs (SEBs), conceptions of learning science (COLS), and motivation of learning science. The questionnaire responses from 470 high school students in Taiwan were gathered for analysis to explain these relationships. The structural equation modeling…

  14. From the School Health Education Study to the National Health Education Standards: Concepts Endure (United States)

    Nobiling, Brandye D.; Lyde, Adrian R.


    Background: The landmark School Health Education Study (SHES) project influenced by the conceptual approach to teaching and learning provides perspective on modern school health instruction. Conceptual education, the cornerstone of the SHES curriculum framework (CF), "Health Education: A Conceptual Approach to Curriculum Design," fosters…

  15. Learning motion concepts using real-time microcomputer-based laboratory tools (United States)

    Thornton, Ronald K.; Sokoloff, David R.


    Microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) tools have been developed which interface to Apple II and Macintosh computers. Students use these tools to collect physical data that are graphed in real time and then can be manipulated and analyzed. The MBL tools have made possible discovery-based laboratory curricula that embody results from educational research. These curricula allow students to take an active role in their learning and encourage them to construct physical knowledge from observation of the physical world. The curricula encourage collaborative learning by taking advantage of the fact that MBL tools present data in an immediately understandable graphical form. This article describes one of the tools—the motion detector (hardware and software)—and the kinematics curriculum. The effectiveness of this curriculum compared to traditional college and university methods for helping students learn basic kinematics concepts has been evaluated by pre- and post-testing and by observation. There is strong evidence for significantly improved learning and retention by students who used the MBL materials, compared to those taught in lecture.

  16. Standardizing central line safety: lessons learned for physician leaders. (United States)

    Mueller, Jeff T; Wright, Alan J; Fedraw, Leslie A; Murad, M Hassan; Brown, Daniel R; Thompson, Kristine M; Flick, Randall; Seville, Maria Teresa A; Huskins, W Charles


    A comprehensive central venous catheter (CVC) safety program reduces mechanical and infectious complications and requires an integrated multidisciplinary effort. A multistate health care system implemented a discovery and diffusion project addressing CVC insertion, maintenance, and removal. Process and outcome measures were collected before and after the intervention. The project was completed in 12 months. It was associated with statistically significant improvement in 6 process measures and reduction in the rate of ICU central line-associated bloodstream infection (from 1.16 to 0.80 infections/1000 catheter days; incidence rate ratio = 0.69; 95% confidence interval = 0.51, 0.93). A comprehensive CVC standardization project increased compliance with several established best practices, was associated with improved outcomes, produced a refined definition of discovery and diffusion project components, and identified several discrete leadership principles that can be applied to future clinical improvement initiatives.

  17. How Clean Are Hotel Rooms? Part II: Examining the Concept of Cleanliness Standards. (United States)

    Almanza, Barbara A; Kirsch, Katie; Kline, Sheryl Fried; Sirsat, Sujata; Stroia, Olivia; Choi, Jin Kyung; Neal, Jay


    Hotel room cleanliness is based on observation and not on microbial assessment even though recent reports suggest that infections may be acquired while staying in hotel rooms. Exploratory research in the first part of the authors' study was conducted to determine if contamination of hotel rooms occurs and whether visual assessments are accurate indicators of hotel room cleanliness. Data suggested the presence of microbial contamination that was not reflective of visual assessments. Unfortunately, no standards exist for interpreting microbiological data and other indicators of cleanliness in hotel rooms. The purpose of the second half of the authors' study was to examine cleanliness standards in other industries to see if they might suggest standards in hotels. Results of the authors' study indicate that standards from other related industries do not provide analogous criteria, but do provide suggestions for further research.

  18. Computerization of the standard corsi block-tapping task affects its underlying cognitive concepts: a pilot study. (United States)

    Claessen, Michiel H G; van der Ham, Ineke J M; van Zandvoort, Martine J E


    The tablet computer initiates an important step toward computerized administration of neuropsychological tests. Because of its lack of standardization, the Corsi Block-Tapping Task could benefit from advantages inherent to computerization. This task, which requires reproduction of a sequence of movements by tapping blocks as demonstrated by an examiner, is widely used as a representative of visuospatial attention and working memory. The aim was to validate a computerized version of the Corsi Task (e-Corsi) by comparing recall accuracy to that on the standard task. Forty university students (Mage = 22.9 years, SD = 2.7 years; 20 female) performed the standard Corsi Task and the e-Corsi on an iPad 3. Results showed higher accuracy in forward reproduction on the standard Corsi compared with the e-Corsi, whereas backward performance was comparable. These divergent performance patterns on the 2 versions (small-to-medium effect sizes) are explained as a result of motor priming and interference effects. This finding implies that computerization has serious consequences for the cognitive concepts that the Corsi Task is assumed to assess. Hence, whereas the e-Corsi was shown to be useful with respect to administration and registration, these findings also stress the need for reconsideration of the underlying theoretical concepts of this task.

  19. Differential-associative processing or example elaboration: Which strategy is best for learning the definitions of related and unrelated concepts? (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda


    Definitions of related concepts (e.g., genotype - phenotype ) are prevalent in introductory classes. Consequently, it is important that educators and students know which strategy(s) work best for learning them. This study showed that a new comparative elaboration strategy, called differential-associative processing, was better for learning definitions of related concepts than was an integrative elaborative strategy, called example elaboration. This outcome occurred even though example elaboration was administered in a naturalistic way (Experiment 1) and students spent more time in the example elaboration condition learning (Experiments 1, 2, 3), and generating pieces of information about the concepts (Experiments 2 and 3). Further, with unrelated concepts ( morpheme-fluid intelligence ), performance was similar regardless if students used differential-associative processing or example elaboration (Experiment 3). Taken as a whole, these results suggest that differential-associative processing is better than example elaboration for learning definitions of related concepts and is as good as example elaboration for learning definitions of unrelated concepts.

  20. Improving learning with science and social studies text using computer-based concept maps for students with disabilities. (United States)

    Ciullo, Stephen; Falcomata, Terry S; Pfannenstiel, Kathleen; Billingsley, Glenna


    Concept maps have been used to help students with learning disabilities (LD) improve literacy skills and content learning, predominantly in secondary school. However, despite increased access to classroom technology, no previous studies have examined the efficacy of computer-based concept maps to improve learning from informational text for students with LD in elementary school. In this study, we used a concurrent delayed multiple probe design to evaluate the interactive use of computer-based concept maps on content acquisition with science and social studies texts for Hispanic students with LD in Grades 4 and 5. Findings from this study suggest that students improved content knowledge during intervention relative to a traditional instruction baseline condition. Learning outcomes and social validity information are considered to inform recommendations for future research and the feasibility of classroom implementation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Consensus standards for introductory e-learning courses in human participants research ethics. (United States)

    Williams, John R; Sprumont, Dominique; Hirtle, Marie; Adebamowo, Clement; Braunschweiger, Paul; Bull, Susan; Burri, Christian; Czarkowski, Marek; Fan, Chien Te; Franck, Caroline; Gefenas, Eugenjius; Geissbuhler, Antoine; Klingmann, Ingrid; Kouyaté, Bocar; Kraehenbhul, Jean-Pierre; Kruger, Mariana; Moodley, Keymanthri; Ntoumi, Francine; Nyirenda, Thomas; Pym, Alexander; Silverman, Henry; Tenorio, Sara


    This paper reports the results of a workshop held in January 2013 to begin the process of establishing standards for e-learning programmes in the ethics of research involving human participants that could serve as the basis of their evaluation by individuals and groups who want to use, recommend or accredit such programmes. The standards that were drafted at the workshop cover the following topics: designer/provider qualifications, learning goals, learning objectives, content, methods, assessment of participants and assessment of the course. The authors invite comments on the draft standards and eventual endorsement of a final version by all stakeholders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  2. Effect of learning disabilities on academic self-concept in children with epilepsy and on their quality of life. (United States)

    Brabcová, Dana; Zárubová, Jana; Kohout, Jiří; Jošt, Jiří; Kršek, Pavel


    Academic self-concept could significantly affect academic achievement and self-confidence in children with epilepsy. However, limited attention has been devoted to determining factors influencing academic self-concept of children with epilepsy. We aimed to analyze potentially significant variables (gender, frequency of seizures, duration of epilepsy, intellectual disability, learning disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) in relation to academic self-concept in children with epilepsy and to additional domains of their quality of life. The study group consisted of 182 children and adolescents aged 9-14 years who completed the SPAS (Student's Perception of Ability Scale) questionnaire determining their academic self-concept and the modified Czech version of the CHEQOL-25 (Health-Related Quality of Life Measure for Children with Epilepsy) questionnaire evaluating their health-related quality of life. Using regression analysis, we identified learning disability as a key predictor for academic-self concept of children with epilepsy. While children with epilepsy and with no learning disability exhibited results comparable to children without epilepsy, participants with epilepsy and some learning disability scored significantly lower in almost all domains of academic self-concept. We moreover found that children with epilepsy and learning disability have significantly lower quality of life in intrapersonal and interpersonal domains. In contrast to children with epilepsy and with no learning disability, these participants have practically no correlation between their quality of life and academic self-concept. Our findings suggest that considerable attention should be paid to children having both epilepsy and learning disability. It should comprise services of specialized counselors and teaching assistants with an appropriate knowledge of epilepsy and ability to empathize with these children as well as educational interventions focused on their teachers

  3. Learning abstract visual concepts via probabilistic program induction in a Language of Thought. (United States)

    Overlan, Matthew C; Jacobs, Robert A; Piantadosi, Steven T


    The ability to learn abstract concepts is a powerful component of human cognition. It has been argued that variable binding is the key element enabling this ability, but the computational aspects of variable binding remain poorly understood. Here, we address this shortcoming by formalizing the Hierarchical Language of Thought (HLOT) model of rule learning. Given a set of data items, the model uses Bayesian inference to infer a probability distribution over stochastic programs that implement variable binding. Because the model makes use of symbolic variables as well as Bayesian inference and programs with stochastic primitives, it combines many of the advantages of both symbolic and statistical approaches to cognitive modeling. To evaluate the model, we conducted an experiment in which human subjects viewed training items and then judged which test items belong to the same concept as the training items. We found that the HLOT model provides a close match to human generalization patterns, significantly outperforming two variants of the Generalized Context Model, one variant based on string similarity and the other based on visual similarity using features from a deep convolutional neural network. Additional results suggest that variable binding happens automatically, implying that binding operations do not add complexity to peoples' hypothesized rules. Overall, this work demonstrates that a cognitive model combining symbolic variables with Bayesian inference and stochastic program primitives provides a new perspective for understanding people's patterns of generalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  5. Physics holo.lab learning experience: using smartglasses for augmented reality labwork to foster the concepts of heat conduction (United States)

    Strzys, M. P.; Kapp, S.; Thees, M.; Klein, P.; Lukowicz, P.; Knierim, P.; Schmidt, A.; Kuhn, J.


    Fundamental concepts of thermodynamics rely on abstract physical quantities such as energy, heat and entropy, which play an important role in the process of interpreting thermal phenomena and statistical mechanics. However, these quantities are not covered by human visual perception, and since heat sensation is purely qualitative and easy to deceive, an intuitive understanding often is lacking. Today immersive technologies like head-mounted displays of the newest generation, especially HoloLens, allow for high-quality augmented reality learning experiences, which can overcome this gap in human perception by presenting different representations of otherwise invisible quantities directly in the field of view of the user on the experimental apparatus, which simultaneously avoids a split-attention effect. In a mixed reality (MR) scenario as presented in this paper—which we call a holo.lab—human perception can be extended to the thermal regime by presenting false-color representations of the temperature of objects as a virtual augmentation directly on the real object itself in real-time. Direct feedback to experimental actions of the users in the form of different representations allows for immediate comparison to theoretical principles and predictions and therefore is supposed to intensify the theory–experiment interactions and to increase students’ conceptual understanding. We tested this technology for an experiment on thermal conduction of metals in the framework of undergraduate laboratories. A pilot study with treatment and control groups (N = 59) showed a small positive effect of MR on students’ performance measured with a standardized concept test for thermodynamics, pointing to an improvement of the understanding of the underlying physical concepts. These findings indicate that complex experiments could benefit even more from augmentation. This motivates us to enrich further experiments with MR.

  6. Designing problem-based curricula: The role of concept mapping in scaffolding learning for the health sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Bridges


    Full Text Available While the utility of concept mapping has been widely reported in primary and secondary educational contexts, its application in the health sciences in higher education has been less frequently noted. Two case studies of the application of concept mapping in undergraduate and postgraduate health sciences are detailed in this paper. The case in undergraduate dental education examines the role of concept mapping in supporting problem-based learning and explores how explicit induction into the principles and practices of CM has add-on benefits to learning in an inquiry-based curriculum. The case in postgraduate medical education describes the utility of concept mapping in an online inquiry-based module design. Specific attention is given to applications of CMapTools™ software to support the implementation of Novakian concept mapping in both inquiry-based curricular contexts.

  7. Teaching Plate Tectonic Concepts using GeoMapApp Learning Activities (United States)

    Goodwillie, A. M.; Kluge, S.


    GeoMapApp Learning Activities ( ) can help educators to expose undergraduate students to a range of earth science concepts using high-quality data sets in an easy-to-use map-based interface called GeoMapApp. GeoMapApp Learning Activities require students to interact with and analyse research-quality geoscience data as a means to explore and enhance their understanding of underlying content and concepts. Each activity is freely available through the SERC-Carleton web site and offers step-by-step student instructions and answer sheets. Also provided are annotated educator versions of the worksheets that include teaching tips, additional content and suggestions for further work. The activities can be used "off-the-shelf". Or, since the educator may require flexibility to tailor the activities, the documents are provided in Word format for easy modification. Examples of activities include one on the concept of seafloor spreading that requires students to analyse global seafloor crustal age data to calculate spreading rates in different ocean basins. Another activity has students explore hot spots using radiometric age dating of rocks along the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain. A third focusses upon the interactive use of contours and profiles to help students visualise 3-D topography on 2-D computer screens. A fourth activity provides a study of mass wasting as revealed through geomorphological evidence. The step-by-step instructions and guided inquiry approach reduce the need for teacher intervention whilst boosting the time that students can spend on productive exploration and learning. The activities can be used, for example, in a classroom lab with the educator present and as self-paced assignments in an out-of-class setting. GeoMapApp Learning Activities are funded through the NSF GeoEd program and are aimed at students in the introductory undergraduate, community college and high school levels. The activities are

  8. A Research and Study Course for learning the concept of discrete randomvariable using Monte Carlo methods

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    Vicente D. Estruch


    Full Text Available The concept of random variable is a mathematical construct that presents some theoretical complexity. However, learning  this  concept  can  be  facilitated  if  it  is  presented  as  the  end  of  a  sequential  process  of  modeling  of  a  real event. More specifically, to learn the concept of discrete random variable, the Monte Carlo simulation can provide an extremely useful tool because in the process of modeling / simulation one can approach the theoretical concept of random variable, while the random variable is observed \\in action". This paper presents a Research and Study Course  (RSC  based  on  series  of  activities  related  to  random  variables  such  as  training  and  introduction  of  simulation  elements,  then  the  construction  of  the  model  is  presented,  which  is  the  substantial  part  of  the  activity, generating a random variable and its probability function. Starting from a simple situation related to reproduction and  survival  of  the  litter  of  a  rodent,  with  random  components,  step  by  step,  the  model  that  represents  the  real raised situation is built obtaining an \\original" random variable. In the intermediate stages of the construction of the model have a fundamental role the uniform discrete and binomial distributions. The trajectory of these stages allows reinforcing the concept of random variable while exploring the possibilities offered by Monte Carlo methods to  simulate  real  cases  and  the  simplicity  of  implementing  these  methods  by  means  of  the  Matlab© programming language.

  9. Aesthetic concepts, perceptual learning, and linguistic enculturation: considerations from Wittgenstein, language, and music. (United States)

    Croom, Adam M


    Aesthetic non-cognitivists deny that aesthetic statements express genuinely aesthetic beliefs and instead hold that they work primarily to express something non-cognitive, such as attitudes of approval or disapproval, or desire. Non-cognitivists deny that aesthetic statements express aesthetic beliefs because they deny that there are aesthetic features in the world for aesthetic beliefs to represent. Their assumption, shared by scientists and theorists of mind alike, was that language-users possess cognitive mechanisms with which to objectively grasp abstract rules fixed independently of human responses, and that cognizers are thereby capable of grasping rules for the correct application of aesthetic concepts without relying on evaluation or enculturation. However, in this article I use Wittgenstein's rule-following considerations to argue that psychological theories grounded upon this so-called objective model of rule-following fail to adequately account for concept acquisition and mastery. I argue that this is because linguistic enculturation, and the perceptual learning that's often involved, influences and enables the mastery of aesthetic concepts. I argue that part of what's involved in speaking aesthetically is to belong to a cultural practice of making sense of things aesthetically, and that it's within a socio-linguistic community, and that community's practices, that such aesthetic sense can be made intelligible.

  10. Pediatric residents' learning styles and temperaments and their relationships to standardized test scores. (United States)

    Tuli, Sanjeev Y; Thompson, Lindsay A; Saliba, Heidi; Black, Erik W; Ryan, Kathleen A; Kelly, Maria N; Novak, Maureen; Mellott, Jane; Tuli, Sonal S


    Board certification is an important professional qualification and a prerequisite for credentialing, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) assesses board certification rates as a component of residency program effectiveness. To date, research has shown that preresidency measures, including National Board of Medical Examiners scores, Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society membership, or medical school grades poorly predict postresidency board examination scores. However, learning styles and temperament have been identified as factors that 5 affect test-taking performance. The purpose of this study is to characterize the learning styles and temperaments of pediatric residents and to evaluate their relationships to yearly in-service and postresidency board examination scores. This cross-sectional study analyzed the learning styles and temperaments of current and past pediatric residents by administration of 3 validated tools: the Kolb Learning Style Inventory, the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, and the Felder-Silverman Learning Style test. These results were compared with known, normative, general and medical population data and evaluated for correlation to in-service examination and postresidency board examination scores. The predominant learning style for pediatric residents was converging 44% (33 of 75 residents) and the predominant temperament was guardian 61% (34 of 56 residents). The learning style and temperament distribution of the residents was significantly different from published population data (P  =  .002 and .04, respectively). Learning styles, with one exception, were found to be unrelated to standardized test scores. The predominant learning style and temperament of pediatric residents is significantly different than that of the populations of general and medical trainees. However, learning styles and temperament do not predict outcomes on standardized in-service and board examinations in pediatric residents.

  11. The Influence of Teachers' Conceptions on Their Students' Learning: Children's Understanding of Sheet Music (United States)

    López-Íñiguez, Guadalupe; Pozo, Juan Ignacio


    Background: Despite increasing interest in teachers' and students' conceptions of learning and teaching, and how they influence their practice, there are few studies testing the influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning. Aims: This study tests how teaching conception (TC; with a distinction between…

  12. Improving students’ creativity using cooperative learning with virtual media on static fluida concept (United States)

    Gunawan; Harjono, A.; Sahidu, H.; Nisrina


    Creativity is an important component of global competition in the 21st century. Therefore, learning innovation is needed to make students more creative. This research was conducted to improve students' creativity through cooperative learning using virtual media for the static fluid concept. This study was a quasi-experiment through a pre-test post-test design. The samples were chosen using cluster random sampling technique to obtain two groups, namely experimental group and control group. Data were collected using a creativity test in the form of an essay consisting of verbal and figural tests. The data were analyzed using t-test and N-gain test to determine the improvement of creativity in both groups. The results showed that the improvement of students' creativity in the experimental group was higher than the control group. The difference in the improvement of students’ creativity in both group is significant. Students become more creative especially related to indicators of fluency and elaboration. We conclude that the application of cooperative learning model using virtual media has a positive effect on students’ creativity.

  13. Concept of Draft International Standard for a Unified Approach to Space Program Quality Assurance (United States)

    Stryzhak, Y.; Vasilina, V.; Kurbatov, V.


    For want of the unified approach to guaranteed space project and product quality assurance, implementation of many international space programs has become a challenge. Globalization of aerospace industry and participation of various international ventures with diverse quality assurance requirements in big international space programs requires for urgent generation of unified international standards related to this field. To ensure successful fulfillment of space missions, aerospace companies should design and process reliable and safe products with properties complying or bettering User's (or Customer's) requirements. Quality of the products designed or processed by subcontractors (or other suppliers) should also be in compliance with the main user (customer)'s requirements. Implementation of this involved set of unified requirements will be made possible by creating and approving a system (series) of international standards under a generic title Space Product Quality Assurance based on a system consensus principle. Conceptual features of the baseline standard in this system (series) should comprise: - Procedures for ISO 9000, CEN and ECSS requirements adaptation and introduction into space product creation, design, manufacture, testing and operation; - Procedures for quality assurance at initial (design) phases of space programs, with a decision on the end product made based on the principle of independence; - Procedures to arrange incoming inspection of products delivered by subcontractors (including testing, audit of supplier's procedures, review of supplier's documentation), and space product certification; - Procedures to identify materials and primary products applied; - Procedures for quality system audit at the component part, primary product and materials supplier facilities; - Unified procedures to form a list of basic performances to be under configuration management; - Unified procedures to form a list of critical space product components, and unified

  14. Pre-Big Bang, fundamental Physics and noncyclic cosmologies. Possible alternatives to standard concepts and laws (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.


    Detailed analyses of WMAP and Planck data can have significant implications for noncyclic pre-Big Bang approaches incorporating a new fundamental scale beyond the Planck scale and, potentially, new ultimate constituents of matter with unconventional basic properties as compared to standard particles. Cosmic-ray experiments at the highest energies can also yield relevant information. Hopefully, future studies will be able to deal with alternatives: i) to standard physics for the structure of the physical vacuum, the nature of space-time, the validity of quantum field theory and conventional symmetries, the interpretation of string-like theories...; ii) to standard cosmology concerning the origin and evolution of our Universe, unconventional solutions to the cosmological constant problem, the validity of inflationary scenarios, the need for dark matter and dark energy... Lorentz-like symmetries for the properties of matter can then be naturally stable space-time configurations resulting from more general primordial scenarios that incorporate physics beyond the Planck scale and describe the formation and evolution of the physical vacuum. A possible answer to the question of the origin of half-integer spins can be provided by a primordial spinorial space-time with two complex coordinates instead of the conventional four real ones, leading to a really new cosmology. We discuss basic questions and phenomenological topics concerning noncyclic pre-Big Bang cosmologies and potentially related physics.

  15. Relationship between mathematical abstraction in learning parallel coordinates concept and performance in learning analytic geometry of pre-service mathematics teachers: an investigation (United States)

    Nurhasanah, F.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Sabandar, J.; Suryadi, D.


    As one of the non-conventional mathematics concepts, Parallel Coordinates is potential to be learned by pre-service mathematics teachers in order to give them experiences in constructing richer schemes and doing abstraction process. Unfortunately, the study related to this issue is still limited. This study wants to answer a research question “to what extent the abstraction process of pre-service mathematics teachers in learning concept of Parallel Coordinates could indicate their performance in learning Analytic Geometry”. This is a case study that part of a larger study in examining mathematical abstraction of pre-service mathematics teachers in learning non-conventional mathematics concept. Descriptive statistics method is used in this study to analyze the scores from three different tests: Cartesian Coordinate, Parallel Coordinates, and Analytic Geometry. The participants in this study consist of 45 pre-service mathematics teachers. The result shows that there is a linear association between the score on Cartesian Coordinate and Parallel Coordinates. There also found that the higher levels of the abstraction process in learning Parallel Coordinates are linearly associated with higher student achievement in Analytic Geometry. The result of this study shows that the concept of Parallel Coordinates has a significant role for pre-service mathematics teachers in learning Analytic Geometry.

  16. Living Traditions--A Teacher's Guide: Teaching Local History Using State and National Learning Standards. (United States)

    Skelding, Mark; Kemple, Martin; Kiefer, Joseph

    This guide is designed to take teachers through a step-by-step process for developing an integrated, standards-based curriculum that focuses on the stories, history, folkways, and agrarian traditions of the local community. Such a place-based curriculum helps students to become culturally literate, makes learning relevant and engaging, draws on…

  17. Helping Children Learn Mathematics through Multiple Intelligences and Standards for School Mathematics. (United States)

    Adams, Thomasenia Lott


    Focuses on the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics 2000 process-oriented standards of problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, connections, and representation as providing a framework for using the multiple intelligences that children bring to mathematics learning. Presents ideas for mathematics lessons and activities to…

  18. Early Learning and Development Standards in East Asia and the Pacific: Experiences from Eight Countries (United States)

    Miyahara, Junko; Meyers, Cliff


    This paper analyses how countries in UNICEF's East Asia and Pacific Region (EAPR) have engaged in the Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) process. ELDS has been developed by the governments of Cambodia, China, Fiji, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam over the last 3 years with technical and financial support from…

  19. Equivalence of the Traditional and Non-Standard Definitions of Concepts from Real Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cowles


    Full Text Available ACL2(r is a variant of ACL2 that supports the irrational real and complex numbers. Its logical foundation is based on internal set theory (IST, an axiomatic formalization of non-standard analysis (NSA. Familiar ideas from analysis, such as continuity, differentiability, and integrability, are defined quite differently in NSA–some would argue the NSA definitions are more intuitive. In previous work, we have adopted the NSA definitions in ACL2(r, and simply taken as granted that these are equivalent to the traditional analysis notions, e.g., to the familiar epsilon-delta definitions. However, we argue in this paper that there are circumstances when the more traditional definitions are advantageous in the setting of ACL2(r, precisely because the traditional notions are classical, so they are unencumbered by IST limitations on inference rules such as induction or the use of pseudo-lambda terms in functional instantiation. To address this concern, we describe a formal proof in ACL2(r of the equivalence of the traditional and non-standards definitions of these notions.

  20. Concept Maps as a strategy to asses learning in biochemistry using educational softwares

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    A. M. P. Azevedo


    Full Text Available This abstract reports  the  use of concept  maps applied  to the evaluation of concepts  learned  through the use of an educational software to study  metabolic  pathways called Diagrama Metabolico Dinamico Virtual  do Ciclo de Krebs (DMDV.  Experience  with the use of this method  was carried  through  with two distinct groups  of students.  The  first  group  was composed  by 24 students (in  2003 who used DMDV during  the  classes (computer room.  The second group was formed by 36 students (in 2004 who could access DMDV software anytime  through  the intranet. The construction of the conceptual map by the student permits  the representation of knowledge, the mental  processes that were absorved and the adaptation during the study,  building new mental schemes that could be related to the concept of reflexioning  abstraction (Piaget, 1995 during  the  process of operation  with  these  concepts.   The evaluation of knowlegde was made by the analysis  of three conceptual  maps constructed by each one of them:   (a  one map  before initiating the  study  with  DMDV,  (b  the  second just  after  the  study and (c the third  one two months  later.  We used the following criteria  for the analysis:  predominance of associative  over classificatory  character; correct concepts  and  relationships; coherence;  number  of relationships;  creativity and  logic.   The  initial  maps  showed  that all  students had  some  previous mental scheme  about  the proposed  concept.    All final  concept maps  showed  an  expansion  of the concepts  as compared  to the initial  maps, something  which can be seen even by a mere glance at the size of graphics.  A purely visual comparison  between the maps indicated  that new elements have been added.   The  associative  character has been shown to predominate as compared  to the  classificatory one.  The

  1. Physique des particules introduction aux concepts et au formalisme du modèle standard

    CERN Document Server

    Clément, Benoit


    Cet ouvrage propose une introduction à la physique des particules pour tout étudiant de niveau M1, qu'il se destine à la physique théorique ou non. Il présente la physique des particules de manière abordable sans occulter les concepts formels sur lesquels elle repose. Les rappels de mécanique relativiste et du formalisme de Lagrange permettent de comprendre la nature et le comportement des particules à très haute énergie. Enfin, les règles de Feynman offrent une description simple de leurs interactions. Chaque chapitre est complété par des exercices corrigés. Dans cette seconde édition, actualisée, le chapitre sur les champs classiques et quantiques libres a été entièrement refondu pour aborder les problématiques liées à la mécanique relativiste, et de nouveaux exercices ont été ajoutés.

  2. Investigating inquiry beliefs and nature of science (NOS) conceptions of science teachers as revealed through online learning (United States)

    Atar, Hakan Yavuz

    teachers NOS conceptions. Developing desired understanding of nature of science conceptions and having an adequate experience with inquiry learning is especially important for science teachers because science education literature suggests that the development of teachers' nature of science conceptions is influenced by their experiences with inquiry science (Akerson et. al. 2000) and implementation of science lessons reflect teachers' NOS conceptions (Abd-EL-Khalick & Boujaoude, 1997; Matson & Parsons, 1998; Rosenthal, 1993; Trowbridge, Bybee & Powell, 2000; Turner & Sullenger, 1999). Furthermore, the impediments to successful integration of inquiry based science instruction from teachers' perspective are particularly important, as they are the implementers of inquiry based science education reform. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between the teachers' NOS conceptions and their inquiry beliefs and practices in their classrooms and how this relationship impedes or contributes to the implementation of inquiry based science education reform efforts. The participants of this study were in-service teachers who were accepted into the online Masters Program in science education program at a southern university. Three online courses offered in the summer semester of 2005 constituted the research setting of this study: (1) Special Problems in the Teaching of Secondary School Science: Nature of Science & Science Teaching, (2) Curriculum in Science Education, and (3) Colloquium. Multiple data sources were used for data triangulation (Miles & Huberman, 1984; Yin, 1994) in order to understand the relationship between participants' NOS views and their conceptions and beliefs about inquiry-based science teaching. The study revealed that the relationship between the teachers' NOS conceptions and their inquiry beliefs and practices is far from being simple and linear. Data suggests that the teachers' sophistication of NOS conceptions influence their perception of

  3. Evaluation of Standard Concepts Design of Library Interior Physical Environment (Case Study at University of Ma Chung

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    Debri Haryndia Putri


    Full Text Available Currently the function of a room is not only used as a shelter, the function of the room itself to be increased as a refreshing or relaxation area for users to follow the development of creativity and technology in the field of design. The comfortable factor becomes the main factor that indicates a successful process of creating a space. No exception library. The nature of library seemed stiff because of its function as a place to read, now can be developed and made into more dynamic with the special design concepts or color patterns used. Libraries can be created a special concept that suits the characteristics of the users themselves. Most users of the library, especially in college libraries are teenagers. Naturally, teenagers like to gather with their friends and we have to facilitate this activity in our library design concept. In addition we can also determine the needs of users through research by questionnaire method. The answers of users can be mapped and drawn conclusions. To explore the research, the author reviewed some literature about library interior design and observed the library of Ma Chung University as a case study. The combined results of the method can be concluded and the discovery of ideal standards of physical environment. So, the library can be made as a comfortable reading environment so as to increased interest in reading behavior and the frequent visits of students in the library.

  4. The architecture of Virtual Learning Environments under the conceptions of Bakhtinian studies

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    Adolfo Tanzi Neto


    Full Text Available Grounded on the conceptual framework of Bakhtin's architectonic form, we seek to demonstrate that the dimensions of a genre practiced in a virtual learning environment (VLE are directly related to its design (conception, idealization, and form, that is, to its architectonic form as the design of a VLE, which can foster (new multiliteracies, provide flexibility or not for multisemiotic genre practices in the contemporary world. To achieve this aim, we observed the design of two tools from two distinct VLEs; in one of them we found the influence of traditional school relationships of time and space (and power, generating an architectonic form of the traditional school characterized by its genres and literacies. In the other VLE, considering its architectonic form, we concluded that the design tends to favor the use of different modes of language - textual, graphic, sound, with static and dynamic images with easy communication/interaction in the contemporary technological media.

  5. A virtual trainer concept for robot-assisted human motor learning in rowing

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    Baumgartner L.


    Full Text Available Keeping the attention level and observing multiple physiological and biomechanical variables at the same time at high precision is very challenging for human trainers. Concurrent augmented feedback, which is suggested to enhance motor learning in complex motor tasks, can also hardly be provided by a human trainer. Thus, in this paper, a concept for a virtual trainer is presented that may overcome the limits of a human trainer. The intended virtual trainer will be implemented in a CAVE providing auditory, visual and haptic cues. As a first application, the virtual trainer will be used in a realistic scenario for sweep rowing. To provide individual feedback to each rower, the virtual trainer quantifies errors and provides concurrent auditory, visual, and haptic feedback. The concurrent feedback will be adapted according to the actual performance, individual maximal rowing velocity, and the athlete’s individual perception.

  6. The Concept of Alliance as an Image and Positioning Instrument for Institutions of Higher Learning

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    Víctor Manuel Alcántar Enríquez


    Full Text Available The present work provides a foundation for the concept of alliance which includes the ability of this to foster the university’s societal position as based on public perception of the institution. Accordingly, the work briefly addresses the development of the university’s collaboration with the productive sector, and emphasizes the need for institutions of higher learning to consider as well, those social sectors (including the government outside the realm of industry or technological expansion. The study concludes by affirming that alliance can become an effective instrument for promoting the university. It is therefore necessary to research the social perception of the university as a means of bolstering its relevance.

  7. Capturing the Integration of Practice-Based Learning with Beliefs, Values, and Attitudes using Modified Concept Mapping. (United States)

    Mcnaughton, Susan; Barrow, Mark; Bagg, Warwick; Frielick, Stanley


    Practice-based learning integrates the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains and is influenced by students' beliefs, values, and attitudes. Concept mapping has been shown to effectively demonstrate students' changing concepts and knowledge structures. This article discusses how concept mapping was modified to capture students' perceptions of the connections between the domains of thinking and knowing, emotions, behavior, attitudes, values, and beliefs and the specific experiences related to these, over a period of eight months of practice-based clinical learning. The findings demonstrate that while some limitations exist, modified concept mapping is a manageable way to gather rich data about students' perceptions of their clinical practice experiences. These findings also highlight the strong integrating influence of beliefs and values on other areas of practice, suggesting that these need to be attended to as part of a student's educational program.

  8. The influence of project-based learning on the student conception about kinematics and critical thinking skills (United States)

    Handhika, J.; Cari, C.; Sunarno, W.; Suparmi, A.; Kurniadi, E.


    This research revealed the influence of project-based learning (PjBL) to increasing the level of the conception. The research method used the pre-experimental design with one group pre-test post-test. PjBL applied to students of physics education program of IKIP PGRI Madiun (23 Students). The test used to determine the level of conception is multiple choice tests and index of certainty. Activities on PjBL described. Obtained that the PjBL model can increase the level of conception and Critical thinking skills with the average normalized gain 0.49 and 0.57 (Medium category). It can be concluded that the PjBL could improve the level of conception and critical thinking ability of the students. Implementation of each model phase following learning objectives and needs analysis is the key to improve both.

  9. A real-time standard parts inspection based on deep learning (United States)

    Xu, Kuan; Li, XuDong; Jiang, Hongzhi; Zhao, Huijie


    Since standard parts are necessary components in mechanical structure like bogie and connector. These mechanical structures will be shattered or loosen if standard parts are lost. So real-time standard parts inspection systems are essential to guarantee their safety. Researchers would like to take inspection systems based on deep learning because it works well in image with complex backgrounds which is common in standard parts inspection situation. A typical inspection detection system contains two basic components: feature extractors and object classifiers. For the object classifier, Region Proposal Network (RPN) is one of the most essential architectures in most state-of-art object detection systems. However, in the basic RPN architecture, the proposals of Region of Interest (ROI) have fixed sizes (9 anchors for each pixel), they are effective but they waste much computing resources and time. In standard parts detection situations, standard parts have given size, thus we can manually choose sizes of anchors based on the ground-truths through machine learning. The experiments prove that we could use 2 anchors to achieve almost the same accuracy and recall rate. Basically, our standard parts detection system could reach 15fps on NVIDIA GTX1080 (GPU), while achieving detection accuracy 90.01% mAP.

  10. Machine learning methods to predict child posttraumatic stress: a proof of concept study. (United States)

    Saxe, Glenn N; Ma, Sisi; Ren, Jiwen; Aliferis, Constantin


    The care of traumatized children would benefit significantly from accurate predictive models for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), using information available around the time of trauma. Machine Learning (ML) computational methods have yielded strong results in recent applications across many diseases and data types, yet they have not been previously applied to childhood PTSD. Since these methods have not been applied to this complex and debilitating disorder, there is a great deal that remains to be learned about their application. The first step is to prove the concept: Can ML methods - as applied in other fields - produce predictive classification models for childhood PTSD? Additionally, we seek to determine if specific variables can be identified - from the aforementioned predictive classification models - with putative causal relations to PTSD. ML predictive classification methods - with causal discovery feature selection - were applied to a data set of 163 children hospitalized with an injury and PTSD was determined three months after hospital discharge. At the time of hospitalization, 105 risk factor variables were collected spanning a range of biopsychosocial domains. Seven percent of subjects had a high level of PTSD symptoms. A predictive classification model was discovered with significant predictive accuracy. A predictive model constructed based on subsets of potentially causally relevant features achieves similar predictivity compared to the best predictive model constructed with all variables. Causal Discovery feature selection methods identified 58 variables of which 10 were identified as most stable. In this first proof-of-concept application of ML methods to predict childhood Posttraumatic Stress we were able to determine both predictive classification models for childhood PTSD and identify several causal variables. This set of techniques has great potential for enhancing the methodological toolkit in the field and future studies should seek to

  11. Effects of different forms of physiology instruction on the development of students' conceptions of and approaches to science learning. (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hui; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    The purpose of this study was to investigate students' conceptions of and approaches to learning science in two different forms: internet-assisted instruction and traditional (face-to-face only) instruction. The participants who took part in the study were 79 college students enrolled in a physiology class in north Taiwan. In all, 46 of the participants were from one class and 33 were from another class. Using a quasi-experimental research approach, the class of 46 students was assigned to be the "internet-assisted instruction group," whereas the class of 33 students was assigned to be the "traditional instruction group." The treatment consisted of a series of online inquiry activities. To explore the effects of different forms of instruction on students' conceptions of and approaches to learning science, two questionnaires were administered before and after the instruction: the Conceptions of Learning Science Questionnaire and the Approaches to Learning Science Questionnaire. Analysis of covariance results revealed that the students in the internet-assisted instruction group showed less agreement than the traditional instruction group in the less advanced conceptions of learning science (such as learning as memorizing and testing). In addition, the internet-assisted instruction group displayed significantly more agreement than the traditional instruction group in more sophisticated conceptions (such as learning as seeing in a new way). Moreover, the internet-assisted instruction group expressed more orientation toward the approaches of deep motive and deep strategy than the traditional instruction group. However, the students in the internet-assisted instruction group also showed more surface motive than the traditional instruction group did.

  12. Understanding Mathematic Concept in Relation and Function Method through Active Learning Type Group to Group Distributed LKS (United States)

    Kudri, F.; Rahmi, R.; Haryono, Y.


    This research is motivated by the lack of understanding of mathematical concepts students and teachers have not familiarize students discussed in groups. This researchaims to determine whether an understanding of mathematical concepts junior class VIII SMPN 2 in Ranah Batahan Kabupaten Pasaman Barat by applying active learning strategy group to group types with LKS better than conventional learning. The type of research is experimental the design of randomized trials on the subject. The population in the study were all students VIII SMPN 2 Ranah Batahan Kabupaten Pasaman Barat in year 2012/2013 which consists of our class room experiment to determine the grade and control class with do nerandomly, so that classes VIII1 elected as a experiment class and class VIII4 as a control class. The instruments used in the test empirically understanding mathematical concepts are shaped by the essay with rt=0,82 greater than rt=0,468 means reliable tests used. The data analysis technique used is the test with the help of MINITAB. Based on the results of the data analisis known that both of the sample are normal and homogenity in real rate α = 0,05, so the hypothesis of this research is received. So, it can be concluded students’ understanding mathematical concept applied the active Group to Group learning strategy with LKS is better than the students’ understanding mathematical concept with Conventional Learning.

  13. [A Study on the Cognitive Learning Effectiveness of Scenario-Based Concept Mapping in a Neurological Nursing Course]. (United States)

    Pan, Hui-Ching; Hsieh, Suh-Ing; Hsu, Li-Ling


    The multiple levels of knowledge related to the neurological system deter many students from pursuing studies on this topic. Thus, in facing complicated and uncertain medical circumstances, nursing students have diffi-culty adjusting and using basic neurological-nursing knowledge and skills. Scenario-based concept-mapping teaching has been shown to promote the integration of complicated data, clarify related concepts, and increase the effectiveness of cognitive learning. To investigate the effect on the neurological-nursing cognition and learning attitude of nursing students of a scenario-based concept-mapping strategy that was integrated into the neurological nursing unit of a medical and surgical nursing course. This quasi-experimental study used experimental and control groups and a pre-test / post-test design. Sopho-more (2nd year) students in a four-year program at a university of science and technology in Taiwan were convenience sampled using cluster randomization that was run under SPSS 17.0. Concept-mapping lessons were used as the intervention for the experimental group. The control group followed traditional lesson plans only. The cognitive learning outcome was measured using the neurological nursing-learning examination. Both concept-mapping and traditional lessons significantly improved post-test neurological nursing learning scores (p learning attitude with regard to the teaching material. Furthermore, a significant number in the experimental group expressed the desire to add more lessons on anatomy, physiology, and pathology. These results indicate that this intervention strategy may help change the widespread fear and refusal of nursing students with regard to neurological lessons and may facilitate interest and positively affect learning in this important subject area. Integrating the concept-mapping strategy and traditional clinical-case lessons into neurological nursing lessons holds the potential to increase post-test scores significantly

  14. Same/different concept learning by capuchin monkeys in matching-to-sample tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Truppa

    Full Text Available The ability to understand similarities and analogies is a fundamental aspect of human advanced cognition. Although subject of considerable research in comparative cognition, the extent to which nonhuman species are capable of analogical reasoning is still debated. This study examined the conditions under which tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella acquire a same/different concept in a matching-to-sample task on the basis of relational similarity among multi-item stimuli. We evaluated (i the ability of five capuchin monkeys to learn the same/different concept on the basis of the number of items composing the stimuli and (ii the ability to match novel stimuli after training with both several small stimulus sets and a large stimulus set. We found the first evidence of same/different relational matching-to-sample abilities in a New World monkey and demonstrated that the ability to match novel stimuli is within the capacity of this species. Therefore, analogical reasoning can emerge in monkeys under specific training conditions.

  15. Same/Different Concept Learning by Capuchin Monkeys in Matching-to-Sample Tasks (United States)

    Truppa, Valentina; Piano Mortari, Eva; Garofoli, Duilio; Privitera, Sara; Visalberghi, Elisabetta


    The ability to understand similarities and analogies is a fundamental aspect of human advanced cognition. Although subject of considerable research in comparative cognition, the extent to which nonhuman species are capable of analogical reasoning is still debated. This study examined the conditions under which tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) acquire a same/different concept in a matching-to-sample task on the basis of relational similarity among multi-item stimuli. We evaluated (i) the ability of five capuchin monkeys to learn the same/different concept on the basis of the number of items composing the stimuli and (ii) the ability to match novel stimuli after training with both several small stimulus sets and a large stimulus set. We found the first evidence of same/different relational matching-to-sample abilities in a New World monkey and demonstrated that the ability to match novel stimuli is within the capacity of this species. Therefore, analogical reasoning can emerge in monkeys under specific training conditions. PMID:21858225

  16. An efficient incremental learning mechanism for tracking concept drift in spam filtering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Jian Sheu

    Full Text Available This research manages in-depth analysis on the knowledge about spams and expects to propose an efficient spam filtering method with the ability of adapting to the dynamic environment. We focus on the analysis of email's header and apply decision tree data mining technique to look for the association rules about spams. Then, we propose an efficient systematic filtering method based on these association rules. Our systematic method has the following major advantages: (1 Checking only the header sections of emails, which is different from those spam filtering methods at present that have to analyze fully the email's content. Meanwhile, the email filtering accuracy is expected to be enhanced. (2 Regarding the solution to the problem of concept drift, we propose a window-based technique to estimate for the condition of concept drift for each unknown email, which will help our filtering method in recognizing the occurrence of spam. (3 We propose an incremental learning mechanism for our filtering method to strengthen the ability of adapting to the dynamic environment.

  17. Use of Physics Innovative Device for Improving Students‟ Motivation and Performance in Learning Selected Concepts in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Songalia Sobremisana


    Full Text Available This research was focused on the development and evaluation of physics innovative device in enhancing students’ motivation and performance in learning selected concepts in physics. The Physics innovative device was developed based upon research on student difficulties in learning relevant concepts in physics and their attitudes toward the subject. Basic concepts in mechanics were also made as baselines in the development of the locally-produced Physics innovative learning device. Such learning devices are valuable resources when used either in lecture or demonstration classes. The developmental, descriptive and quasi-experimental research methods were utilized to determine the effectiveness, in terms of motivation and performance, of the innovative device in Physics. The instruments used for the data collection were the Instructional Materials Motivational Scale (IMMS developed by Keller and the students’ performance test. Pretest and posttest mean scores were measured to determine if there is a mean gain score difference between the experimental and control groups. The study revealed that the group taught with the Physics innovative device performed significantly better than those taught in the traditional method and also the use of Physics innovative device generally improved students’ understanding of concepts and led to higher academic achievements. Analysis of the students’ level of motivation showed that their interests were captured, the instructions they received were relevant to their personal goals and motives, their confidence to learn on their own were build-up, and learning for them was rewarding and important. In the four dimensions (ARCS of IMMS students were found to be attentive, confident, and in agreement in using the fun-learning tool having realize its applicability and relevance in learning their Physics lessons. Results of the study disclosed students and teachers consider the novel device acceptable because it is

  18. Linking descriptive geology and quantitative machine learning through an ontology of lithological concepts (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Huber, R.; Robertson, J.; Cox, S. J. D.; Woodcock, R.


    Despite the recent explosion of quantitative geological data, geology remains a fundamentally qualitative science. Numerical data only constitute a certain part of data collection in the geosciences. In many cases, geological observations are compiled as text into reports and annotations on drill cores, thin sections or drawings of outcrops. The observations are classified into concepts such as lithology, stratigraphy, geological structure, etc. These descriptions are semantically rich and are generally supported by more quantitative observations using geochemical analyses, XRD, hyperspectral scanning, etc, but the goal is geological semantics. In practice it has been difficult to bring the different observations together due to differing perception or granularity of classification in human observation, or the partial observation of only some characteristics using quantitative sensors. In the past years many geological classification schemas have been transferred into ontologies and vocabularies, formalized using RDF and OWL, and published through SPARQL endpoints. Several lithological ontologies were compiled by and published through a SPARQL endpoint. This work is complemented by the development of a Python API to integrate this vocabulary into Python-based text mining applications. The applications for the lithological vocabulary and Python API are automated semantic tagging of geochemical data and descriptions of drill cores, machine learning of geochemical compositions that are diagnostic for lithological classifications, and text mining for lithological concepts in reports and geological literature. This combination of applications can be used to identify anomalies in databases, where composition and lithological classification do not match. It can also be used to identify lithological concepts in the literature and infer quantitative values. The resulting semantic tagging opens new possibilities for linking these diverse sources of data.

  19. Self Concept and Learned Helplessness in a group of teachers from Lima Metropolitana

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    Sandra Carrillo Luna


    Full Text Available 86 teachers from Lima Metropolitana trained by PLANCAD were assessed with the Self Perception Profile for Adult~ (Messer y Harter, 1986 and with a Learned Helplessness Scale (Macassi, 1988. Correlations between the different domains from Self Concept (SC, Learned Helplessness (LH and sorne social-demographic variables were analyzed. The result~ showed that the LH exhibits significan! and inverse correlations with sorne domains of SC such a~: lntelligence, Job Competence (JC. Sociability, Adequate Provider (AP, Physical Appearance (PA, lntimate Relationships (IR, Academic Achievement (AA and the Job Satisfaction Degree. They also showed significan! correlations between the variable age and two domains of SC: Sociability and IR; between Career Satisfaction and the SC domains of Sociability, AP, JC and IR; also between Job Satisfaction and the SC domains of lntelligence, Household Management, JC, AP, PA and IR. Finally significan! correlations were showed between Academic Achievement with the domain of Sociability. The results also showed significan! Differences between the punctuation obtained from the variables of sex, the institutions.

  20. Structural Modeling for Influence of Mathematics Self-Concept, Motivation to Learn Mathematics and Self-Regulation Learning on Mathematics Academic Achievement


    Hamideh Jafari Koshkouei; Ahmad Shahvarani; Mohammad Hassan Behzadi; Mohsen Rostamy-Malkhalifeh


    The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of mathematics self-concept (MSC), motivation to learn mathematics (SMOT) and self-regulation learning (SRL) on students' mathematics academic achievement. This study is of a descriptive survey type. 300 female students at the first grade of high school (the second period) in City Qods, were selected by multiple step cluster sampling method and completed MSC, SMOT and SRL questionnaires. Mathematics academic achievement was measur...

  1. What We Can Learn about Phenomenal Concepts from Wittgenstein’s Private Language

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    Roberto Sá Pereira


    Full Text Available This paper is both systematic and historical in nature. From a historical viewpoint, I aim to show that to establish Wittgenstein’s claim that “an ‘inner process’ stands in need of outward criteria” (PI §580 there is an enthymeme in Wittgenstein’s private language argument (henceforth PLA overlooked in the literature, namely Wittgenstein’s suggestion that both perceptual and bodily experiences are transparent in the relevant sense that one cannot point to a mental state and wonder “What is that?” From a systematic viewpoint, I aim to show that Wittgenstein’s PLA teaches us that the prevailing picture of the nature of phenomenal concepts (henceforth PCs is upside down: we can only introspectively know what is going on inside our heads, after we learn of what is going on outside (PI §580. In this regard, I aim to defend two associate claims against the prevailing view of PCs on the basis of PLA. First, by means of transparency, I aim to show that there is no de re awareness of our private sensation that could determine the meaning of sensation-words; for example, I am never aware of the phenomenal blueness of my experience of something blue. The second associated claim is that introspective self-knowledge of our private sensation is always de dicto. We can only know introspectively that phenomenal blueness is the phenomenal character of the experience we are undergoing after we have learned that (de dicto knowledge blue is the color that usually causes in us that kind of experience. Likewise, we can only introspectively know that pain is the phenomenal character of the experience we are undergoing after we have learned that pain is what usually causes some typical pain behavior.

  2. Middle school students' learning of mechanics concepts through engagement in different sequences of physical and virtual experiments (United States)

    Sullivan, Sarah; Gnesdilow, Dana; Puntambekar, Sadhana; Kim, Jee-Seon


    Physical and virtual experimentation are thought to have different affordances for supporting students' learning. Research investigating the use of physical and virtual experiments to support students' learning has identified a variety of, sometimes conflicting, outcomes. Unanswered questions remain about how physical and virtual experiments may impact students' learning and for which contexts and content areas they may be most effective. Using a quasi-experimental design, we examined eighth grade students' (N = 100) learning of physics concepts related to pulleys depending on the sequence of physical and virtual labs they engaged in. Five classes of students were assigned to either the: physical first condition (PF) (n = 55), where students performed a physical pulley experiment and then performed the same experiment virtually, or virtual first condition (VF) (n = 45), with the opposite sequence. Repeated measures ANOVA's were conducted to examine how physical and virtual labs impacted students' learning of specific physics concepts. While we did not find clear-cut support that one sequence was better, we did find evidence that participating in virtual experiments may be more beneficial for learning certain physics concepts, such as work and mechanical advantage. Our findings support the idea that if time or physical materials are limited, using virtual experiments may help students understand work and mechanical advantage.

  3. Talking and learning physics: Predicting future grades from network measures and Force Concept Inventory pretest scores

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    Jesper Bruun


    Full Text Available The role of student interactions in learning situations is a foundation of sociocultural learning theory, and social network analysis can be used to quantify student relations. We discuss how self-reported student interactions can be viewed as processes of meaning making and use this to understand how quantitative measures that describe the position in a network, called centrality measures, can be understood in terms of interactions that happen in the context of a university physics course. We apply this discussion to an empirical data set of self-reported student interactions. In a weekly administered survey, first year university students enrolled in an introductory physics course at a Danish university indicated with whom they remembered having communicated within different interaction categories. For three categories pertaining to (1 communication about how to solve physics problems in the course (called the PS category, (2 communications about the nature of physics concepts (called the CD category, and (3 social interactions that are not strictly related to the content of the physics classes (called the ICS category in the introductory mechanics course, we use the survey data to create networks of student interaction. For each of these networks, we calculate centrality measures for each student and correlate these measures with grades from the introductory course, grades from two subsequent courses, and the pretest Force Concept Inventory (FCI scores. We find highly significant correlations (p<0.001 between network centrality measures and grades in all networks. We find the highest correlations between network centrality measures and future grades. In the network composed of interactions regarding problem solving (the PS network, the centrality measures hide and PageRank show the highest correlations (r=-0.32 and r=0.33, respectively with future grades. In the CD network, the network measure target entropy shows the highest correlation

  4. Evaluation of Arabic Language Learning Program for Non-Native Speakers in Saudi Electronic University According to Total Quality Standards (United States)

    Alowaydhi, Wafa Hafez


    The current study aimed at standardizing the program of learning Arabic for non-native speakers in Saudi Electronic University according to certain standards of total quality. To achieve its purpose, the study adopted the descriptive analytical method. The author prepared a measurement tool for evaluating the electronic learning programs in light…

  5. [Conception and implementation of a novel E-learning module with EbM learning contents in operative dentistry]. (United States)

    Gerhardt-Szép, Susanne; Dreher, Stefanie; Rüttermann, Stefan; Weberschock, Tobias


    Computer-assisted learning (CAL) programs are becoming more widely used in medical and dental training. However, the combination of CAL programs and evidence-based education in dentistry has not been described previously. The aim was to determine the acceptance and user-friendliness of a CAL program combined with evidence-based training. The didactic concept of the module includes the case-oriented, problem-based embedding of a total of 32 EbM learning assignments, which can be completed interactively and self-determinedly in an interdisciplinary context using focus patients with different diseases. The present study was conducted at the Dental School of the Goethe University in Frankfurt/Main. Data on acceptance and user-friendliness were collected from three consecutive cohorts of 114 dental students attending their first clinical semester. They used the "Toothache Walk-in Clinic: FOCUS" CAL, which can be downloaded via the Internet. The instrument consisted of 64 statements. The first part addressed general information about the user. The second part contained 43 specific statements on the CAL program. These included factors A (handling and technical aspects), B (content and functional range), and C (didactics and suitability for education). Possible responses ranged from 0 to 3 (0 = strongly disagree, 3 = strongly agree). All of the 114 questionnaires distributed were returned (response rate 100%). Most users (90.1%) considered the topics of evidence-based dentistry important for their training. They rated the program by using German school grades, and the overall rating was 2.26 (SD = 0.64). Most students (88.6%) considered the program useful for their clinical training in the treatment of patients. The mean scores for the 43 specific items amounted to 1.90 (factor A, SD = 0.63), 1.55 (factor B, SD = 1.93), and 2.23 (factor C, SD = 0.79). The CAL program with dental medicine vignettes and learning elements for evidence-based medicine received a primarily

  6. Standardization of computer-assisted semen analysis using an e-learning application. (United States)

    Ehlers, J; Behr, M; Bollwein, H; Beyerbach, M; Waberski, D


    Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) is primarily used to obtain accurate and objective kinetic sperm measurements. Additionally, AI centers use computer-assessed sperm concentration in the sample as a basis for calculating the number of insemination doses available from a given ejaculate. The reliability of data is often limited and results can vary even when the same CASA systems with identical settings are used. The objective of the present study was to develop a computer-based training module for standardized measurements with a CASA system and to evaluate its training effect on the quality of the assessment of sperm motility and concentration. A digital versatile disc (DVD) has been produced showing the standardization of sample preparation and analysis with the CASA system SpermVision™ version 3.0 (Minitube, Verona, WI, USA) in words, pictures, and videos, as well as the most probable sources of error. Eight test persons educated in spermatology, but with different levels of experience with the CASA system, prepared and assessed 10 aliquots from one prediluted bull ejaculate using the same CASA system and laboratory equipment before and after electronic learning (e-learning). After using the e-learning application, the coefficient of variation was reduced on average for the sperm concentration from 26.1% to 11.3% (P ≤ 0.01), and for motility from 5.8% to 3.1% (P ≤ 0.05). For five test persons, the difference in the coefficient of variation before and after use of the e-learning application was significant (P ≤ 0.05). Individual deviations of means from the group mean before e-learning were reduced compared with individual deviations from the group mean after e-learning. According to a survey, the e-learning application was highly accepted by users. In conclusion, e-learning presents an effective, efficient, and accepted tool for improvement of the precision of CASA measurements. This study provides a model for the standardization of other

  7. Drama-Based Science Teaching and Its Effect on Students' Understanding of Scientific Concepts and Their Attitudes towards Science Learning (United States)

    Abed, Osama H.


    This study investigated the effect of drama-based science teaching on students' understanding of scientific concepts and their attitudes towards science learning. The study also aimed to examine if there is an interaction between students' achievement level in science and drama-based instruction. The sample consisted of (87) of 7th grade students…

  8. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Understanding State of Matter and Solubility Concepts by Using 5E Learning Cycle Model (United States)

    Ceylan, Eren; Geban, Omer


    The main purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of 5E learning cycle model based instruction and traditionally designed chemistry instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of state of matter and solubility concepts. In this study, 119 tenth grade students from chemistry courses instructed by same teacher from an Anatolian…

  9. Metacognitive Reading Strategies in Learning Disability: Relations between Usage Level, Academic Self-Efficacy and Self-Concept (United States)

    Girli, Alev; Öztürk, Halil


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the usage levels of metacognitive reading strategies by students diagnosed with specific learning disability (SLD), academic self-efficacy and the concept of self, in comparison to their typically developing (TD) peers. The data to be used in the study were collected using the…

  10. Developing a Local Instruction Theory for Learning the Concept of Angle through Visual Field Activities and Spatial Representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustang, B.; Zulkardi, Z.; Darmawijoyo, D.; Dolk, M.L.A.M.; van Eerde, H.A.A.


    This paper reports a study on designing and testing an instructional sequence for the teaching and learning of the concept of angle in Indonesian primary schools. The study’s context is employing the current reform movement adopting Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia (an Indonesian version of

  11. Developing Pre-Service Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge of Electromagnetism by Integrating Concept Maps and Collaborative Learning (United States)

    Govender, Nadaraj


    This case study explored the development of two pre-service teachers' subject matter knowledge (SMK) of electromagnetism while integrating the use of concept maps (CM) and collaborative learning (CL) strategies. The study aimed at capturing how these pre-service teachers' SMK in electromagnetism was enhanced after having been taught SMK in a…

  12. Mathematical Challenges to Secondary School Students in a Guided Reinvention Teaching-Learning Strategy towards the Concept of Energy Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logman, P.S.W.M.; Kaper, W.H.; Ellermeijer, A.L.; Taşar, M.F.


    Guiding sixteen-year-old students to rediscover the concept of energy conservation may be done in three distinct learning steps. First, we have chosen for the students to reinvent what we call partial laws of energy conservation (e.g. Σm∙g∙h = k1). Secondly, the students are asked to combine these

  13. Web-Searching to Learn: The Role of Internet Self-Efficacy in Pre-School Educators' Conceptions and Approaches (United States)

    Kao, Chia-Pin; Chien, Hui-Min


    This study was conducted to explore the relationships between pre-school educators' conceptions of and approaches to learning by web-searching through Internet Self-efficacy. Based on data from 242 pre-school educators who had prior experience of participating in web-searching in Taiwan for path analyses, it was found in this study that…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Paola Martínez-Salcedo


    Full Text Available This article discloses an experimental strategy that aims to contribute to science education in Colombia, through a proposal focusing on learning the concept of force. For this experimental teaching sequence for teaching and learning the concept of "Force" was developed from the perspective of meaningful learning of Ausubel; and applied to students from fifth grade of School Lucrecio Jaramillo Vélez, headquarters "Agrupación Colombia".  Initially an investigation of prior knowledge about the concept of force, according to the results was performed was developed and applied a proposal that included questionnaires, field work, observations in science classes, surveys, experiments, socialization of work laboratory and representations contained in the notebooks, the results of these activities were analyzed qualitatively, obtaining an evaluation and interpretation of the acquired learning observed in students an appropriation of the concept, possibly because it is a proposal of an experimental nature, focusing on the student, in which the exploration of phenomena by experimental means is favorable, the approach of hypotheses and troubleshooting, besides favoring an approach to enjoyment and joy by science.

  15. Enhancing Learning Outcomes through New E-Textbooks: A Desirable Combination of Presentation Methods and Concept Maps (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Kuo-Hsiang; Ho, Chun-Heng


    It is possible that e-textbook readers and tablet PC's will become mainstream reading devices in the future. However, knowledge about instructional design in this field of learning sciences is inadequate. This study aimed to analyse how two factors, that is, presentation methods and concept maps, interact with cognitive load and learning…

  16. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Approach Based on Conceptual Change Condition on Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium Concepts (United States)

    Bilgin, Ibrahim; Geban, Omer


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the cooperative learning approach based on conceptual change conditions over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' conceptual understanding and achievement of computational problems related to chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 87 tenth grade…

  17. Assessing Student Knowledge of Chemistry and Climate Science Concepts Associated with Climate Change: Resources to Inform Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Versprille, Ashley; Zabih, Adam; Holme, Thomas A.; McKenzie, Lallie; Mahaffy, Peter; Martin, Brian; Towns, Marcy


    Climate change is one of the most critical problems facing citizens today. Chemistry faculty are presented with the problem of making general chemistry content simultaneously relevant and interesting. Using climate science to teach chemistry allows faculty to help students learn chemistry content in a rich context. Concepts related to…

  18. Effect of Feedback Strategy and Motivation of Achievement to Improving Learning Results Concept in Learning Civic Education in Vocational High School (United States)

    Sumarno; Setyosari, Punaji; Haryono


    This study aims to examine the effect of feedback strategies on understanding and applying the concept of National ideology to students who have different achievement motivation, on learning Citizenship Education in vocational high schools. This research uses quasi experiment research design (Quasi Experiment). The subjects of this study were 133…

  19. Recommendation of standardized health learning contents using archetypes and semantic web technologies. (United States)

    Legaz-García, María del Carmen; Martínez-Costa, Catalina; Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás


    Linking Electronic Healthcare Records (EHR) content to educational materials has been considered a key international recommendation to enable clinical engagement and to promote patient safety. This would suggest citizens to access reliable information available on the web and to guide them properly. In this paper, we describe an approach in that direction, based on the use of dual model EHR standards and standardized educational contents. The recommendation method will be based on the semantic coverage of the learning content repository for a particular archetype, which will be calculated by applying semantic web technologies like ontologies and semantic annotations.

  20. Evaluation of Virtual Teaching-Learning Environments based on usability standards

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    Jose I. Cocunubo-Suarez


    Full Text Available The main objective of this review article is to determine the necessary sub-characteristics or aspects for the evaluation of Virtual Teaching-Learning Environments (VTLEs as final or finished products based on ISO 9126, 14598 and 25000-SQuaRE standards. A systematic information search was carried out. A total of 108 documents were retrieved about subjects such as web usability, virtual learning environments, usability, educational software, educational web evaluation, usability evaluation and web usability evaluation. Out of the 108 documents, 70 were selected by inclusion and exclusion analysis. The eight subfeatures of greater statistical frequency were identified among the subset of documents and then integrated as a proposal for standard 25000-SQuaRE.