WorldWideScience

Sample records for learning specific formal

  1. Formalized Informal Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2013-01-01

    are examined and the relation between network society competences, learners’ informal learning strategies and ICT in formalized school settings over time is studied. The authors find that aspects of ICT like multimodality, intuitive interaction design and instant feedback invites an informal bricoleur approach....... When integrated into certain designs for teaching and learning, this allows for Formalized Informal Learning and support is found for network society competences building....

  2. Formalized informal learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2011-01-01

    and other relevant stakeholders, as well as participant observations in the classroom documented by thick descriptions, formal and informal interviews and focus group interviews. The aim of the study was to explore and identify relations between designs for teaching and learning and the students' learning......This paper presents findings from a large-scale longitudinal, qualitative study - Project ICT and Learning (PIL) - that engaged the participation of eight primary schools in Denmark, and was conducted between 2006 and 2008. The research design was based on action research, involving teachers...... of school subjects within defined learning goals and curricula, along with various implementations of ICT in the pedagogical everyday practice (Levinsen & Sørensen 2008). However, another research strand - the topic of this paper - emerged during the project's life cycle as a consequence of ongoing changes...

  3. The role of formal specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, J.

    1994-01-01

    The role of formal requirements specification is discussed under the premise that the primary purpose of such specifications is to facilitate clear and unambiguous communications among the communities of interest for a given project. An example is presented in which the failure to reach such an understanding resulted in an accident at a chemical plant. Following the example, specification languages based on logical formalisms and notations are considered. These are rejected as failing to serve the communications needs of diverse communities. The notion of a specification as a surrogate for a program is also considered and rejected. The paper ends with a discussion of the type of formal notation that will serve the communications role and several encouraging developments are noted

  4. Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning in the Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Heather L.; Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This research report investigates the links between formal, non-formal and informal learning and the differences between them. In particular, the report aims to link these notions of learning to the field of sciences and engineering in Canada and the United States, including professional development of adults working in these fields. It offers…

  5. Lifelong Learning to Empowerment: Beyond Formal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Alexis; Balasubramanian, K.; Atieno, Rosemary; Onyango, James

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of lifelong learning vis-à-vis the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and stresses the need for an approach blending formal education, non-formal and informal learning. The role of Open and Distance Learning (ODL) in moving beyond formal education and the importance of integrating pedagogy, andragogy and…

  6. User Interface Technology for Formal Specification Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michael; Philpot, Andrew; Pressburger, Thomas; Underwood, Ian; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Formal specification development and modification are an essential component of the knowledge-based software life cycle. User interface technology is needed to empower end-users to create their own formal specifications. This paper describes the advanced user interface for AMPHION1 a knowledge-based software engineering system that targets scientific subroutine libraries. AMPHION is a generic, domain-independent architecture that is specialized to an application domain through a declarative domain theory. Formal specification development and reuse is made accessible to end-users through an intuitive graphical interface that provides semantic guidance in creating diagrams denoting formal specifications in an application domain. The diagrams also serve to document the specifications. Automatic deductive program synthesis ensures that end-user specifications are correctly implemented. The tables that drive AMPHION's user interface are automatically compiled from a domain theory; portions of the interface can be customized by the end-user. The user interface facilitates formal specification development by hiding syntactic details, such as logical notation. It also turns some of the barriers for end-user specification development associated with strongly typed formal languages into active sources of guidance, without restricting advanced users. The interface is especially suited for specification modification. AMPHION has been applied to the domain of solar system kinematics through the development of a declarative domain theory. Testing over six months with planetary scientists indicates that AMPHION's interactive specification acquisition paradigm enables users to develop, modify, and reuse specifications at least an order of magnitude more rapidly than manual program development.

  7. Formal specifications for safety grade systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisholm, G.H.; Smith, B.T.; Wojcik, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the findings of a study into the application of formal methods to the specification of a safety system for an operating nuclear reactor. They developed a formal specification that is used to verify and validate that no unsafe condition will result from action or inaction of the system. For this reason, the specification must facilitate thinking about, talking about, and implementing the system. In fact, the specification must provide a bridge between people (designers, engineers, policy makers) and diverse implementations (hardware, software, sensors, power supplies) at all levels. For a specification to serve as an effective linkage, it must have the following properties: (1) completeness, (2) conciseness, (3) unambiguity, and (4) communicativeness. In this paper they describe the development of a specification that has three properties. This development is based on the use of formal methods, i.e., methods that add mathematical rigor to the development, analysis and operation of computer systems and to applications based thereon (Neumann). They demonstrate that a specification derived from a formal basis facilitates development of the design and its subsequent verification

  8. Ontology Assisted Formal Specification Extraction from Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Mihis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field of knowledge processing, the ontologies are the most important mean. They make possible for the computer to understand better the natural language and to make judgments. In this paper, a method which use ontologies in the semi-automatic extraction of formal specifications from a natural language text is proposed.

  9. Informal and Formal Learning of General Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaan, Nadia Roos; Dekker, Anne R. J.; van der Velden, Alike W.; de Groot, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand the influence of formal learning from a web-based training and informal (workplace) learning afterwards on the behaviour of general practitioners (GPs) with respect to prescription of antibiotics. Design/methodology/approach: To obtain insight in various learning processes, semi-structured…

  10. Blending Formal and Informal Learning Networks for Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerkawski, Betül C.

    2016-01-01

    With the emergence of social software and the advance of web-based technologies, online learning networks provide invaluable opportunities for learning, whether formal or informal. Unlike top-down, instructor-centered, and carefully planned formal learning settings, informal learning networks offer more bottom-up, student-centered participatory…

  11. A Comparison of Participation Patterns in Selected Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwier, Richard A.; Seaton, J. X.

    2013-01-01

    Does learner participation vary depending on the learning context? Are there characteristic features of participation evident in formal, non-formal, and informal online learning environments? Six online learning environments were chosen as epitomes of formal, non-formal, and informal learning contexts and compared. Transcripts of online…

  12. Blending formal and informal learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølund, Gro

    The aim of this paper is to explore the possibilities collaboration offers in the virtual learning environments of the armed forces. I will argue that for reasons of culture and structure in the armed forces, the opportunities created by collaborative learning activities in e-learning and blended...... learning are especially fruitful here. Collaboration is a pervasive, foundational form of activity in our armies, air forces and navies. It expresses itself in cultural traits such as never leaving a soldier behind, taking your share and being someone you can count on, to name a few. Moreover, most armed...... forces activities are structured forms of collaboration; staff work, tactical planning, active duty and so forth are all day-to-day examples. Collaborative activities in virtual learning spaces tap into that culture. However, and perhaps confusingly, a study I conducted last year at the Royal Danish...

  13. Formal specification level concepts, methods, and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Soeken, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces a new level of abstraction that closes the gap between the textual specification of embedded systems and the executable model at the Electronic System Level (ESL). Readers will be enabled to operate at this new, Formal Specification Level (FSL), using models which not only allow significant verification tasks in this early stage of the design flow, but also can be extracted semi-automatically from the textual specification in an interactive manner.  The authors explain how to use these verification tasks to check conceptual properties, e.g. whether requirements are in conflict, as well as dynamic behavior, in terms of execution traces. • Serves as a single-source reference to a new level of abstraction for embedded systems, known as the Formal Specification Level (FSL); • Provides a variety of use cases which can be adapted to readers’ specific design flows; • Includes a comprehensive illustration of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, along with examples of how to i...

  14. Informal Science Learning in the Formal Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Lori; Straits, William

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors share advice from the viewpoints of both a formal and informal educator that will help teachers identify the right Informal Science Institutions (ISIs)--institutions that specialize in learning that occurs outside of the school setting--to maximize their students' learning and use informal education to their…

  15. Informal and formal learning of general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, Nadia Roos; Dekker, Anne R. J.; van der Velden, Alike W.; de Groot, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to understand the influence of formal learning from a web-based training and informal (workplace) learning afterwards on the behaviour of general practitioners (GPs) with respect to prescription of antibiotics. Design/methodology/approach To obtain insight in

  16. Formal specification is an experimental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorner, D. [Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark)

    1992-09-01

    Traditionally, abstract models of large, complex systems have been given in free-form mathematics, combining - often in ad-hoc, not formally supported ways - notions from the disciplines of partial differential equations, functional analysis, mathematical statistics, etc. Such models have been very useful for assimilation of information, analysis (investigation), and prediction (simulation). These models have, however, usually not been helpful in deriving computer representations of the modelled systems - for the purposes of computerized monitoring and control, Computing science, concerned with how to construct objects that can exist within the computer, offers ways of complementing, and in some cases, replacing or combining traditional mathematical models. Formal, model-, as well as property-oriented, specifications in the styles of denotational (respectively, algebraic semantics) represent major approaches to such modelling. In this expository, discursive paper we illustrate what we mean by model-oriented specifications of large, complex technological computing systems. The three modelling examples covers the introvert programming methodological subject of SDEs: software development environments, the distributed computing system subject of wfs`s: (transaction) work flow systems, and the extrovert subject of robots: robotics! the thesis is, just as for mathematical modelling, that we can derive much understanding, etc., from experimentally creating such formally specified models - on paper - and that we gain little in additionally building ad-hoc prototypes. Our models are expressed in a model-oriented style using the VDM specification language Meta-IV In this paper the models only reflect the {open_quotes}data modelling{close_quotes} aspects. We observe that such data models are more easily captured in the model-oriented siyle than in the algebraic semantics property-oriented style which originally was built of the abstraction of operations. 101 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Young People, Entrepreneurship And Non Formal Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Pantea, Maria-Carmen; Diroescu, Raluca; Podlasek-Ziegler, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The book was published by SALTO-Youth Participation, a Resource Centre of the European Commission. It looks into the relationship between youth work (non-formal learning) and entrepreneurship. The book explores the theoretical developments in the field, the ethical dilemmas and tensions, and proposes practice-oriented information: illustrative examples, strategies for action and methods of non-formal education. Structured in 24 chapters, the book is an opportunity to open up debates and quest...

  18. MOOC & B-Learning: Students' Barriers and Satisfaction in Formal and Non-Formal Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Santiuste, Elba; Gámiz-Sánchez, Vanesa-M.; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The study presents a comparative analysis of two virtual learning formats: one non-formal through a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) and the other formal through b-learning. We compare the communication barriers and the satisfaction perceived by the students (N = 249) by developing a qualitative analysis using semi-structured questionnaires and…

  19. Why formal learning theory matters for cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulop, Sean; Chater, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews a number of different areas in the foundations of formal learning theory. After outlining the general framework for formal models of learning, the Bayesian approach to learning is summarized. This leads to a discussion of Solomonoff's Universal Prior Distribution for Bayesian learning. Gold's model of identification in the limit is also outlined. We next discuss a number of aspects of learning theory raised in contributed papers, related to both computational and representational complexity. The article concludes with a description of how semi-supervised learning can be applied to the study of cognitive learning models. Throughout this overview, the specific points raised by our contributing authors are connected to the models and methods under review. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Learning Orientation, and Supportive Learning Environment on Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woojae; Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    While workplace learning includes formal and informal learning, the relationship between the two has been overlooked, because they have been viewed as separate entities. This study investigated the effects of formal learning, personal learning orientation, and supportive learning environment on informal learning among 203 middle managers in Korean…

  1. Moving interprofessional learning forward through formal assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Judy

    2010-04-01

    There is increasing agreement that graduates who finish tertiary education with the full complement of skills and knowledge required for their designated profession are not 'work-ready' unless they also acquire interpersonal, collaborative practice and team-working capabilities. Health workers are unable to contribute to organisational culture in a positive way unless they too attain these capabilities. These capabilities have been shown to improve health care in terms of patient safety, worker satisfaction and health service efficiency. Given the importance of interprofessional learning (IPL) which seeks to address these capabilities, why is IPL not consistently embedded into the education of undergraduates, postgraduates and vocationally qualified personnel through formal assessment? This paper offers an argument for the formal assessment of IPL. It illustrates how the interests of the many stakeholders in IPL can benefit from, and contribute to, the integration of IPL into mainstream professional development and tertiary education. It offers practical examples of assessment in IPL which could drive learning and offer authentic, contextual teaching and learning experiences to undergraduates and health workers alike. Assessment drives learning and without formal assessment IPL will continue to be viewed as an optional topic of little relative importance for learners. In order to make the next step forward, IPL needs to be recognised and endorsed through formal assessment, both at the tertiary education level and within the workplace environment. This is supported by workforce initiatives and tertiary education policy which can be used to specify the capabilities or generic skills necessary for effective teamwork and collaborative practice.

  2. SBME : Exploring boundaries between formal, non-formal, and informal learning

    OpenAIRE

    Shahoumian, Armineh; Parchoma, Gale; Saunders, Murray; Hanson, Jacky; Dickinson, Mike; Pimblett, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In medical education learning extends beyond university settings into practice. Non-formal and informal learning support learners’ efforts to meet externally set and learner-identified objectives. In SBME research, boundaries between formal, non-formal, and informal learning have not been widely explored. Whether SBME fits within or challenges these categories can make a contribution. Formal learning is described in relation to educational settings, planning, assessment, and accreditation. In...

  3. The base of the iceberg: informal learning and its impact on formal and non-formal learning

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The author looks at learning (formal, non-formal and informal) and examines the hidden world of informal (unconscious, unplanned) learning. He points out the importance of informal learning for creating tacit attitudes and values, knowledge and skills which influence (conscious, planned) learning - formal and non-formal. Moreover, he explores the implications of informal learning for educational planners and teachers in the context of lifelong learning. While mainly aimed at adult educators, ...

  4. Learning Conditions for Non-Formal and Informal Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip; Nijs, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the presence of learning conditions for non-formal and informal workplace learning in relation to the characteristics of the employee and the organisation he or she works for. Design/methodology/approach: The questionnaire developed by Clauwaert and Van Bree on learning conditions was…

  5. Improving Learner Outcomes in Lifelong Education: Formal Pedagogies in Non-Formal Learning Contexts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepke, Nick; Leach, Linda

    2006-01-01

    This article explores how far research findings about successful pedagogies in formal post-school education might be used in non-formal learning contexts--settings where learning may not lead to formal qualifications. It does this by examining a learner outcomes model adapted from a synthesis of research into retention. The article first…

  6. Connecting Formal and Informal Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran

    The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project---to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of assuming that "experience is the best teacher"(e.g. Aristotle, 360 BC; Dewey, 1934; Kolb, 1997; Pliny, AD 77). As a practical geographer I endorsed that assumption throughout my teaching career, paying attention to local topography, physical features, and natural resources in the geographic hinterland. I was particularly interested in understanding the impact of the physical landscape on humankind, and reciprocally, noting humankind's widespread impressions on the natural world. Until I began this research project, I assumed that everyone else paid a similar attention to immediate surroundings. The work that I describe in this dissertation emerges out of a conviction that there are many degrees of truth to the idea that experience is a great teacher. Its effectiveness seems to depend on how one's "experience" is mediated, and how "learning from it" is defined. This motivated me to think about design principles for linking people's experiences to learning. I began to explore, experimentally, how I might enhance people's abilities to notice, represent, and discuss their experiences in order to better learn from them. This study investigated how different ways of connecting outdoor learning experiences to formal schooling impacts students' performance. I studied high-school students in outdoor settings as they engaged in evocative issues of learning pertaining to consequential everyday life encounters. Different kinds of "expert mediation" were introduced and tested as the students engaged in investigative activities around the science of dam removal and habitat restoration. I measured outcomes with the aid of pre- and

  7. From Safety Analysis to Formal Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Mark; Ravn, Anders P.; Stavridou, Victoria

    1998-01-01

    Software for safety critical systems must deal with the hazards identified bysafety analysis. This paper investigates, how the results of onesafety analysis technique, fault trees, are interpreted as software safetyrequirements to be used in the program design process. We propose thatfault tree...... analysis and program development use the samesystem model. This model is formalized in areal-time, interval logic, based on a conventional dynamic systems modelwith state evolving over time. Fault trees are interpreted astemporal formulas, and it is shown how such formulas can be usedfor deriving safety...

  8. The Interrelatedness of Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning: Evidence from Labour Market Program Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Roslyn; Harrison, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Definitions, differences and relationships between formal, non-formal and informal learning have long been contentious. There has been a significant change in language and reference from adult education to what amounts to forms of learning categorised by their modes of facilitation. Nonetheless, there is currently a renewed interest in the…

  9. Combining Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning for Workforce Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misko, Josie

    2008-01-01

    This literature review, undertaken for Australian Industry Group, shows how multiple variations and combinations of formal, informal and non-formal learning, accompanied by various government incentives and organisational initiatives (including job redesign, cross-skilling, multi-skilling, diversified career pathways, action learning projects,…

  10. Synthesizing Flight Software (FSW) Discrete Controllers from Formal Specifications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a Domain Specific Language (DSL) approach to interpret requirements and map them to formal specifications and legacy formats; explore and...

  11. Enhancing Formal E-Learning with Edutainment on Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labus, A.; Despotovic-Zrakic, M.; Radenkovic, B.; Bogdanovic, Z.; Radenkovic, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the investigation of the possibilities of enhancing the formal e-learning process by harnessing the potential of informal game-based learning on social networks. The goal of the research is to improve the outcomes of the formal learning process through the design and implementation of an educational game on a social network…

  12. How Online Journalists Learn within a Non-Formal Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronstad, Morten; Eide, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of workplace learning, with a focus on the non-formal learning that takes place among online journalists. The focus of this article is journalists working in an online newspaper and their experiences with workplace and non-formal learning, centering on framework conditions…

  13. multiPDEVS: A Parallel Multicomponent System Specification Formalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Foures

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on multiDEVS formalism, we introduce multiPDEVS, a parallel and nonmodular formalism for discrete event system specification. This formalism provides combined advantages of PDEVS and multiDEVS approaches, such as excellent simulation capabilities for simultaneously scheduled events and components able to influence each other using exclusively their state transitions. We next show the soundness of the formalism by giving a construction showing that any multiPDEVS model is equivalent to a PDEVS atomic model. We then present the simulation procedure associated, usually called abstract simulator. As a well-adapted formalism to express cellular automata, we finally propose to compare an implementation of multiPDEVS formalism with a more classical Cell-DEVS implementation through a fire spread application.

  14. ASLan++ — A Formal Security Specification Language for Distributed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Oheimb, David; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces ASLan++, the AVANTSSAR Specification Language. ASLan++ has been designed for formally specifying dynamically composed security-sensitive web services and service-oriented architectures, their associated security policies, as well as their security properties, at both communi...

  15. Recognising Non-Formal and Informal Learning: An Open Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perulli, Elisabetta

    2009-01-01

    The social-institutional endorsement towards the perspective of recognising and enhancing learning acquired outside the formal education and training contexts (non-formal and informal learning), has been gaining strength and has entered policy agendas throughout Europe, but also in other major non-European countries. Nevertheless there are still…

  16. Invited Reaction: Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Learning Orientation, and Supportive Learning Environment on Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseh, Maria; Manikoth, Nisha N.

    2011-01-01

    As the authors of the preceding article (Choi and Jacobs, 2011) have noted, the workplace learning literature shows evidence of the complementary and integrated nature of formal and informal learning in the development of employee competencies. The importance of supportive learning environments in the workplace and of employees' personal learning…

  17. Formal specification and animation of a water level monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, P.S.; Stokes, P.A.

    1993-03-01

    This report describes the Vienna Development Method (VDM), which is a formal method for software specification and development. VDM evolved out of attempts to use mathematics in programming language specifications in order to avoid ambiguities in specifications written in natural language. This report also describes the use of VDM for a real-time application, where it is used to formally specify the requirements of a water level monitoring system. The procedures and techniques used to produce an executable form (animation) of the specification are covered. (Author)

  18. Structuring Formal Requirements Specifications for Reuse and Product Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimdahl, Mats P. E.

    2001-01-01

    In this project we have investigated how formal specifications should be structured to allow for requirements reuse, product family engineering, and ease of requirements change, The contributions of this work include (1) a requirements specification methodology specifically targeted for critical avionics applications, (2) guidelines for how to structure state-based specifications to facilitate ease of change and reuse, and (3) examples from the avionics domain demonstrating the proposed approach.

  19. Programs for Children with Specific Learning Disabilities. P.L. 91-230, Title VI-G Formal Final Evaluation. (Statistical Analysis of Data).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Philip J.

    The paper reports the final evaluation of a program for approximately 143 learning disabled (LD) students (grades 6-to-12) from six school districts. A number of test instruments were used to evaluate student progress during the program, including the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT), the Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty, and the…

  20. A formal proof of the expressiveness of deep learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentkamp, A.; Blanchette, J.C.; Klakow, Dietrich

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning has had a profound impact on computer science in recent years, with applications to image recognition, language processing, bioinformatics, and more. Recently, Cohen et al. provided theoretical evidence for the superiority of deep learning over shallow learning. We formalized their

  1. Blending Student Technology Experiences in Formal and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K.-W.; Khaddage, F.; Knezek, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the importance of recognizing students' technology-enhanced informal learning experiences and develop pedagogies to connect students' formal and informal learning experiences, in order to meet the demands of the knowledge society. The Mobile-Blended Collaborative Learning model is proposed as a framework to…

  2. Formal specifications for Java’s synchronisation classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amighi, A.; Blom, Stefan; Huisman, Marieke; Mostowski, Wojciech; Zaharieva, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses formal specification and verification of the synchronisation classes of the Java API. In many verification systems for concurrent programs, synchronisation is treated as a primitive operation. As a result, verification rules for synchronisation are hard-coded in the logic, and

  3. Non-Formal Learning: Clarification of the Concept and Its Application in Music Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, On Nei Annie

    2011-01-01

    The concept of non-formal learning, which falls outside the categories of informal and formal learning, has not been as widely discussed, especially in the music education literature. In order to bridge this gap and to provide supplementary framework to the discussion of informal and formal learning, therefore, this paper will first summarize…

  4. Formal Methods for Abstract Specifications – A Comparison of Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Instenberg, Martin; Schneider, Axel; Schnetter, Sabine

    2006-01-01

    In industry formal methods are becoming increasingly important for the verification of hardware and software designs. However current practice for specification of system and protocol functionality on high level of abstraction is textual description. For verification of the system behavior manual...... inspections and tests are usual means. To facilitate the introduction of formal methods in the development process of complex systems and protocols, two different tools evolved from research activities – UPPAAL and SpecEdit – have been investigated and compared regarding their concepts and functionality...

  5. The formality of learning science in everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonderup Dohn, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The terms non-formal and informal are attributed to learning in everyday life by many authors, often linked to their interests in particular learning practices. However, many authors use the terms without any clear definition, or employ conflicting definitions and boundaries. An analysis of relev......The terms non-formal and informal are attributed to learning in everyday life by many authors, often linked to their interests in particular learning practices. However, many authors use the terms without any clear definition, or employ conflicting definitions and boundaries. An analysis...

  6. An Entry Point for Formal Methods: Specification and Analysis of Event Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Barringer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Formal specification languages have long languished, due to the grave scalability problems faced by complete verification methods. Runtime verification promises to use formal specifications to automate part of the more scalable art of testing, but has not been widely applied to real systems, and often falters due to the cost and complexity of instrumentation for online monitoring. In this paper we discuss work in progress to apply an event-based specification system to the logging mechanism of the Mars Science Laboratory mission at JPL. By focusing on log analysis, we exploit the "instrumentation" already implemented and required for communicating with the spacecraft. We argue that this work both shows a practical method for using formal specifications in testing and opens interesting research avenues, including a challenging specification learning problem.

  7. Combining Formal Logic and Machine Learning for Sentiment Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Niklas Christoffer; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a formal logical method for deep structural analysis of the syntactical properties of texts using machine learning techniques for efficient syntactical tagging. To evaluate the method it is used for entity level sentiment analysis as an alternative to pure machine learning...

  8. Community Garden: A Bridging Program between Formal and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Community garden activities can play a significant role in bridging formal and informal learning, particularly in urban children's science and environmental education. It promotes relational methods of learning, discussing, and practicing that will integrate food security, social interactions, community development, environmental activism, and…

  9. Mentoring as a Formalized Learning Strategy with Community Sports Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark; Armour, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine formalized mentoring as a learning strategy for volunteer sports coaches and to consider implications for other volunteer groups in the community. Despite the increasingly popular use of mentoring as a learning and support strategy across professional domains, and the sheer scale of volunteer sports coach…

  10. Informal Learning and Non-Formal Education for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchem, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The following article examines the issues of open, distance and technology-based informal learning and non-formal education for individual and community development. It argues that these two modes of education, which are estimated to constitute 70-90% of lifelong learning, are insufficiently represented in the literature of open and distance…

  11. Informal Learning in a Formal Educational System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents findings related to a research study which aims to describe and understand some of the essential learning processes involved in changing a first-year physics student into a research scientist. One part of this study explores a common feature of most undergraduate studies in sc....... The settings for students' learning bear much resemblance to informal learning settings reported in earlier studies related to e.g. science center visits....... in science - the pronounced border between the domains of production and acquisition of knowledge. Based on ongoing ethnographic fieldwork, certain aspects of this division between the two domains are investigated. A case study representing students' border-crossing activities is described and discussed...

  12. Formal specification and implementation of operations in information management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandewall, E.

    1983-02-01

    Among information management systems we include general purpose systems, such as text editors and data editors (forms management systems), as well as special purpose systems such as mail systems and computer based calendars. Based on a method for formal specification of some aspects of IMS, namely the structure of the data base, the update operations, and the user dialogue, the paper shows how reasonable procedures for executing IMS operations can be written in the notation of a first-order theory, in such a way that the procedure is a logical consequence of the specification. (Author)

  13. Adolescent Learning in the Zoo: Embedding a Non-Formal Learning Environment to Teach Formal Aspects of Vertebrate Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph; Kummer, Barbara; Wilhelm, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of a zoo visit in terms of learning and retention of knowledge concerning the adaptations and behavior of vertebrate species. Basis of the work was the concept of implementing zoo visits as an out-of-school setting for formal, curriculum based learning. Our theoretical framework centers on the…

  14. Machine Learning-based Intelligent Formal Reasoning and Proving System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shengqing; Huang, Xiaojian; Fang, Jiaze; Liang, Jia

    2018-03-01

    The reasoning system can be used in many fields. How to improve reasoning efficiency is the core of the design of system. Through the formal description of formal proof and the regular matching algorithm, after introducing the machine learning algorithm, the system of intelligent formal reasoning and verification has high efficiency. The experimental results show that the system can verify the correctness of propositional logic reasoning and reuse the propositional logical reasoning results, so as to obtain the implicit knowledge in the knowledge base and provide the basic reasoning model for the construction of intelligent system.

  15. Exploiting formal, non-formal and informal learning when using business games in leadership education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Kenneth; Nielsen, Rikke Kristine; Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This paper aims to address the necessity of allowing non-formal and informal processes to unfold when using business games for leadership development. While games and simulations have long been used in management training and leadership development, emphasis has been placed on the formal...... of the process is not assessed. Practical implications This paper suggests that the use of business games in leadership development should focus more on the processes and activities surrounding the game rather than narrowly focusing on the game. Originality/value This paper suggests a novel approach to using...... parts of the process and especially on the gaming experience. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on a qualitative study of a French management game on change management, in which the game-based learning process is examined in light of adult learning. Findings This paper concludes that less...

  16. Delivering Formal Outdoor Learning in Protected Areas: A Case Study of Scottish Natural Heritage National Nature Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    In most countries, protected area management agencies provide formal outdoor learning opportunities for a wide range of educational groups. For high-quality formal outdoor learning programmes that provide a range of experiences to be effectively delivered, specific resources and infrastructure are needed. Using the case study of Scottish Natural…

  17. Management Development Experiences and Expectations: Informal vs Formal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Karen; Bish, Adelle

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Many organisations are reconsidering their investment in formal education and training, in favour of more informal approaches to learning such as mentoring, temporary assignments, stretch assignments, and job rotation. The purpose of this paper is to explore the ways in which managers have developed capabilities for their roles thus far…

  18. The Lessons of Non-Formal Learning for Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carol C.

    2012-01-01

    Non-formal learning for urban youth has a long history in the United States; it remains a source of innovation. This essay draws on literature about organizations that use community ties to encourage cognitive development and identity formation. It then describes how one youth organization in Camden, New Jersey uses presentations to the community…

  19. Designing for Non-Formal Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Implementation of information technology is evident within different sectors of society such that adoption presents new opportunities in ever-widening circles. Such widespread use includes by, and for, disabled people. Within this community it has been reported that use of IT can augment opportun......Implementation of information technology is evident within different sectors of society such that adoption presents new opportunities in ever-widening circles. Such widespread use includes by, and for, disabled people. Within this community it has been reported that use of IT can augment...... reflect upon how, by questioning the technology as introduced above, interesting paradigms for design become apparent. Certain of these are application- specific and others are more generic. Such paradigms have been subject of limited research which I suggest should be extended to question from a social...

  20. Formal Specification Based Automatic Test Generation for Embedded Network Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hye Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems have become increasingly connected and communicate with each other, forming large-scaled and complicated network systems. To make their design and testing more reliable and robust, this paper proposes a formal specification language called SENS and a SENS-based automatic test generation tool called TGSENS. Our approach is summarized as follows: (1 A user describes requirements of target embedded network systems by logical property-based constraints using SENS. (2 Given SENS specifications, test cases are automatically generated using a SAT-based solver. Filtering mechanisms to select efficient test cases are also available in our tool. (3 In addition, given a testing goal by the user, test sequences are automatically extracted from exhaustive test cases. We’ve implemented our approach and conducted several experiments on practical case studies. Through the experiments, we confirmed the efficiency of our approach in design and test generation of real embedded air-conditioning network systems.

  1. FORMS OF LEARNING WITHIN HIGHER EDUCATION. BLENDING FORMAL, INFORMAL AND NON-FORMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina- Teodora MANOLESCU

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes that occur in the socio-economic environment determine new challenges for individuals that strive to acquire new, more valuable competencies. The universities, considered one of the most important pillars in developing such competencies, are challenged to develop and harmonize different forms of education (formal, informal and non-formal in order to respond to individuals’ and organizations’ needs. The mixture of learning forms can bring competitive advantage for the universities. However mixing the learning forms is not so easy to accomplish, considering that the stakeholders’ requirements could be divergent and the resources are limited. This paper aims at presenting the advantages and disadvantages of these forms of learning and also outlines few examples of the interferences. At last, the paper presents some preliminary results of a quantitative research regarding the perception on the usage of the three forms of learning of one of its stakeholders - the higher education candidates. Some implications for both universities and high school education are highlighted.

  2. Formal and informal facilitators of learning capability: the moderating effect of learning climate

    OpenAIRE

    ELENA REVILLA

    2006-01-01

    Organizations need to put in practice the most favourable conditions to facilitate learning capability. The different ways of thinking about learning in organizations distinguish two kinds of learning facilitators: formal and informal facilitators. In this paper, we suggest that organizations undertake both types of learning facilitators, but considering that informal facilitators may act as potential moderators of the effects of formal ones. We have focused on one comprehensive informal faci...

  3. Non-formal learning and tacit knowledge in professional work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraut, M

    2000-03-01

    This paper explores the conceptual and methodological problems arising from several empirical investigations of professional education and learning in the workplace. 1. To clarify the multiple meanings accorded to terms such as 'non-formal learning', 'implicit learning' and 'tacit knowledge', their theoretical assumptions and the range of phenomena to which they refer. 2. To discuss their implications for professional practice. A largely theoretical analysis of issues and phenomena arising from empirical investigations. The author's typology of non-formal learning distinguishes between implicit learning, reactive on-the-spot learning and deliberative learning. The significance of the last is commonly overemphasized. The problematic nature of tacit knowledge is discussed with respect to both detecting it and representing it. Three types of tacit knowledge are discussed: tacit understanding of people and situations, routinized actions and the tacit rules that underpin intuitive decision-making. They come together when professional performance involves sequences of routinized action punctuated by rapid intuitive decisions based on tacit understanding of the situation. Four types of process are involved--reading the situation, making decisions, overt activity and metacognition--and three modes of cognition--intuitive, analytic and deliberative. The balance between these modes depends on time, experience and complexity. Where rapid action dominates, periods of deliberation are needed to maintain critical control. Finally the role of both formal and informal social knowledge is discussed; and it is argued that situated learning often leads not to local conformity but to greater individual variation as people's careers take them through a series of different contexts. This abstract necessarily simplifies a more complex analysis in the paper itself.

  4. Using formal specification in the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) experiment. Formal design and verification technology for life critical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Doug; Jamsek, Damir

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this task was to investigate how formal methods could be incorporated into a software engineering process for flight-control systems under DO-178B and to demonstrate that process by developing a formal specification for NASA's Guidance and Controls Software (GCS) Experiment. GCS is software to control the descent of a spacecraft onto a planet's surface. The GCS example is simplified from a real example spacecraft, but exhibits the characteristics of realistic spacecraft control software. The formal specification is written in Larch.

  5. Learning Competences in Open Mobile Environments: A Comparative Analysis Between Formal and Non-Formal Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dominguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the increasing use of mobile devices in education, new approaches to define the learning competences in the field of digitally mediated learning have emerged. This paper examines these approaches, using data obtained from empirical research with a group of Spanish university students. The analysis is focused on the experiences of students in the use of mobile devices in both formal and open-informal educational contexts. The theoretical framework of the study is based on the ecological focus applied to explanatory models of digital literacy. As a result of the data it is possible to study this framework in depth, taking into account the theories defending an open view of digital literacy. The study may be of interest to instructional designers and researchers in the fields of open educational resources and technologies applied to education in open contexts.

  6. Bridging the gap between formal education and informal learning

    OpenAIRE

    Salmi, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    To promote public understanding of science, new forms of education are actively being sought. A huge amount of information, especially about modern phenomena, is obtained in a personal way from family, friends and peer groups. Furthermore, the roles of television, libraries, magazines and newspapers, and of course by ICT and web-based reality are essential. Informal learning has often been regarded as the opposite and criticism of formal education. However, since 2000s, informal education has...

  7. Registration of an enterprise information system development by formal specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mišovič

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The economical view from the Enterprise process sets ERP, SCM, CRM, BI, … to a functionality and Enterprise Information System structure by informaticians is demonstrable reality. A comprehensive Enterprise Information System software solution, that respects the mentioned economical platform by large software firms, has got required attributes of a data, process and communication integrity but there is not financially sustainable for small enterprises. These enterprises are predominantly oriented to progressive computerization of enterprise processes and rather gradually buy application packages for individual process sets. Large and small software firms provide needed partial solutions, nevertheless small firms solutions are connected with the data, process and communication disintegration. Since the compatibility requirement is not generally accepted, finding of an EAI solution have become one of the main System Integration tasks. This article provides one specific style for a complex or partial Enterprise Information System solution. This solution is founded on formal and descriptive specifications that can sustain required data, process and communication integration among packages of applications. As a result, this style provides the new view for the effectiveness of the associated process of information modeling.

  8. Community garden: A bridging program between formal and informal learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Datta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Community garden activities can play a significant role in bridging formal and informal learning, particularly in urban children’s science and environmental education. It promotes relational methods of learning, discussing, and practicing that will integrate food security, social interactions, community development, environmental activism, and cultural integration. Throughout the last five years of my community garden activities, I have learned that community garden-based practices adhere to particular forms of agency: embracing diversity, sharing power, and trust building as a part of everyday learning. My auto-ethnographic study provides valuable insights for environmental educators whose goals include, incorporating ethnic diversity as well as engaging children in research, ultimately leading to community action.

  9. Non-formal Learning through Ludic Engagement within Interactive Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    Adaptive responsive environments that encourage interaction for children with severe disabilities offer a distinct potential for play and learning in rehabilitation. Physical training and therapy for these children is often enduring, tedious, and boring through repetition – and this is often...... the case for both the child and the facilitator/therapist. Despite this, little is yet known about how the utilization of empowering technology influences the users’ communication and learning. The aim of this thesis is twofold: to contribute to the understanding of the role of action and interaction...... in the learning involved when people with different abilities are using interactive environments, and to make a contribution to the research field by concluding at tentative generalizations on design for non-formal learning in interactive environments.      The thesis consists of seven studies which analyze...

  10. Adolescent Learning in the Zoo: Embedding a Non-Formal Learning Environment to Teach Formal Aspects of Vertebrate Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph; Kummer, Barbara; Wilhelm, Christian

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of a zoo visit in terms of learning and retention of knowledge concerning the adaptations and behavior of vertebrate species. Basis of the work was the concept of implementing zoo visits as an out-of-school setting for formal, curriculum based learning. Our theoretical framework centers on the self-determination theory, therefore, we used a group-based, hands-on learning environment. To address this questions, we used a treatment—control design (BACI) with different treatments and a control group. Pre-, post- and retention tests were applied. All treatments led to a substantial increase of learning and retention knowledge compared to the control group. Immediately after the zoo visit, the zoo-guide tour provided the highest scores, while after a delay of 6 weeks, the learner-centered environment combined with a teacher-guided summarizing scored best. We suggest incorporating the zoo as an out-of-school environment into formal school learning, and we propose different methods to improve learning in zoo settings.

  11. New Technologies and Learning Environments: A Perspective from Formal and Non-Formal Education in Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Julieta Lopez; Reynaga, Francisco Javier Arriaga

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of two research works, the first approaches non-formal education and the second addresses formal education. In both studies in-depth interview techniques were used. There were some points of convergence between them on aspects such as the implementation of learning environments and the integration of ICT. The interview…

  12. Formal methods in design and verification of functional specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaelisuo, H.

    1995-01-01

    It is claimed that formal methods should be applied already when specifying the functioning of the control/monitoring system, i.e. when planning how to implement the desired operation of the plant. Formal methods are seen as a way to mechanize and thus automate part of the planning. All mathematical methods which can be applied on related problem solving should be considered as formal methods. Because formal methods can only support the designer, not replace him/her, they must be integrated into a design support tool. Such a tool must also aid the designer in getting the correct conception of the plant and its behaviour. The use of a hypothetic design support tool is illustrated to clarify the requirements such a tool should fulfill. (author). 3 refs, 5 figs

  13. Learning in non-formal education: Is it "youthful" for youth in action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norqvist, Lars; Leffler, Eva

    2017-04-01

    This article offers insights into the practices of a non-formal education programme for youth provided by the European Union (EU). It takes a qualitative approach and is based on a case study of the European Voluntary Service (EVS). Data were collected during individual and focus group interviews with learners (the EVS volunteers), decision takers and trainers, with the aim of deriving an understanding of learning in non-formal education. The research questions concerned learning, the recognition of learning and perspectives of usefulness. The study also examined the Youthpass documentation tool as a key to understanding the recognition of learning and to determine whether the learning was useful for learners (the volunteers). The findings and analysis offer several interpretations of learning, and the recognition of learning, which take place in non-formal education. The findings also revealed that it is complicated to divide learning into formal and non- formal categories; instead, non-formal education is useful for individual learners when both formal and non-formal educational contexts are integrated. As a consequence, the division of formal and non-formal (and possibly even informal) learning creates a gap which works against the development of flexible and interconnected education with ubiquitous learning and mobility within and across formal and non-formal education. This development is not in the best interests of learners, especially when seeking useful learning and education for youth (what the authors term "youthful" for youth in action).

  14. The formality of learning science in everyday life: A conceptual literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Bonderup Dohn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The terms non-formal and informal are attributed to learning in everyday life by many authors, often linked to their interests in particular learning practices. However, many authors use the terms without any clear definition, or employ conflicting definitions and boundaries. An analysis of relevant literature revealed two fundamentally different interpretations of informal learning. The one describes formality of education at the organizational level, while the second describes formality of learning at the psychological level. This article presents a conceptual reconciling of these two perspectives. Based on a literature review, the educational modes of education are defined as discrete entities (formal, non-formal, and informal education, whereas formality at the psychological level is defined in terms of attributes of formality and informality along a continuum (formal ↔ informal learning. Relations to other  well-established frameworks within the field of informal learning are discussed.

  15. Problem-Based Learning in Formal and Informal Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimic, Goran; Jevremovic, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered instructional strategy in which students solve problems and reflect on their experiences. Different domains need different approaches in the design of PBL systems. Therefore, we present one case study in this article: A Java Programming PBL. The application is developed as an additional module for…

  16. Bridging In-school and Out-of-school Learning: Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach, Haim

    2007-04-01

    The present paper thoroughly examines how one can effectively bridge in-school and out-of-school learning. The first part discusses the difficulty in defining out-of-school learning. It proposes to distinguish three types of learning: formal, informal, and non-formal. The second part raises the question of whether out-of-school learning should be dealt with in the in-school system, in view of the fact that we experience informal learning anyway as well as considering the disadvantages and difficulties teachers are confronted with when planning and carrying out scientific fieldtrips. The voices of the teachers, the students, and the non-formal institution staff are heard to provide insights into the problem. The third part discusses the cognitive and affective aspects of non-formal learning. The fourth part presents some models explaining scientific fieldtrip learning and based on those models, suggests a novel explanation. The fifth part offers some recommendations of how to bridge in and out-of-school learning. The paper closes with some practical ideas as to how one can bring the theory described in the paper into practice. It is hoped that this paper will provide educators with an insight so that they will be able to fully exploit the great potential that scientific field trips may offer.

  17. Informal in Formal: The Relationship of Informal and Formal Learning in Popular and Jazz Music Master Workshops in Conservatoires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkkula, Esa

    2016-01-01

    The present article will examine informal learning in popular and jazz music education in Finland and evaluate it as a part of formal upper secondary vocational musicians' training, which is typically teacher directed. It is not necessarily the best model of working in popular and jazz music learning, which has traditionally benefitted from…

  18. Family Literacy and the New Canadian: Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning: The Case of Literacy, Essential Skills and Language Learning in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines literacy and language learning across the lifespan within the context of immigrants in the Canadian context. It explores the process of improving literacy skills and acquiring second or third language skills through the systems of formal, non-formal and informal learning, as defined by the OECD [Organisation for Economic…

  19. Validity of Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminskiene, Lina; Stasiunaitiene, Egle

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies the validity of assessment of non-formal and informal learning achievements (NILA) as one of the key factors for encouraging further development of the process of assessing and recognising non-formal and informal learning achievements in higher education. The authors analyse why the recognition of non-formal and informal…

  20. How Teachers Learn: The Roles of Formal, Informal, and Independent Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. Monty; Dexter, Sara

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative study of math and science teachers at two middle schools identifies how their system for learning to integrate technology into their teaching goes beyond what school leaders typically consider when planning for teachers' learning. In addition to (a) the district-initiated, or formal, system of professional development (PD) and…

  1. A Time to Define: Making the Specific Learning Disability Definition Prescribe Specific Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Spaulding, Lucinda S.; Beam, Andrea P.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike other special education categories defined in U.S. law (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), the definition of specific learning disability (SLD) has not changed since first proposed in 1968. Thus, although the operational definition of SLD has responded to new knowledge and understanding about the construct, the formal definition…

  2. Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the ‘artificial grammar-learning’ paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective. PMID:22688631

  3. Augmenting Reality and Formality of Informal and Non-Formal Settings to Enhance Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sanagustin, Mar; Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Santos, Patricia; Kloos, Carlos Delgado; Blat, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Visits to museums and city tours have been part of higher and secondary education curriculum activities for many years. However these activities are typically considered "less formal" when compared to those carried out in the classroom, mainly because they take place in informal or non-formal settings. Augmented Reality (AR) technologies…

  4. Learning in later life: participation in formal, non-formal and informal activities in a nationally representative Spanish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Celdrán, Montserrat

    2013-06-01

    This article examines the participation of Spanish older people in formal, non-formal and informal learning activities and presents a profile of participants in each kind of learning activity. We used data from a nationally representative sample of Spanish people between 60 and 75 years old ( n  = 4,703). The data were extracted from the 2007 Encuesta sobre la Participación de la Población Adulta en Actividades de Aprendizaje (EADA, Survey on Adult Population Involvement in Learning Activities). Overall, only 22.8 % of the sample participated in a learning activity. However, there was wide variation in the participation rates for the different types of activity. Informal activities were far more common than formal ones. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that education level and involvement in social and cultural activities were associated with likelihood of participating, regardless of the type of learning activity. When these variables were taken into account, age did not predict decreasing participation, at least in non-formal and informal activities. Implications for further research, future trends and policies to promote older adult education are discussed.

  5. Professional Development across the Teaching Career: Teachers' Uptake of Formal and Informal Learning Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Dirk; Kunter, Mareike; Klusmann, Uta; Ludtke, Oliver; Baumert, Jurgen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined teachers' uptake of formal and informal learning opportunities across the career cycle. Analyses were based on data from 1939 German secondary teachers in 198 schools. Results showed that formal learning opportunities (in-service training) were used most frequently by mid-career teachers, whereas informal learning opportunities…

  6. Authenticity in Learning for the Twenty-First Century: Bridging the Formal and the Informal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, David; Lee, Shu-Shing; Lim, Kenneth Y. T.

    2012-01-01

    The paper attempts to bridge informal and formal learning by leveraging on affordance structures associated with informal environments to help learners develop social, cognitive, and metacognitive dispositions that can be applied to learning in classrooms. Most studies focus on either learning in formal or informal contexts, but this study seeks…

  7. Personal Learning Environments, Social Media, and Self-Regulated Learning: A Natural Formula for Connecting Formal and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Nada; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    A Personal Learning Environment or PLE is a potentially promising pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning using social media and supporting student self-regulated learning in higher education contexts. The purpose of this paper is to (a) review research that support this claim, (b) conceptualize the connection…

  8. An exploration of student midwives' language to describe non-formal learning in professional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Gina; Pope, Rosemary

    2005-05-01

    The essence of non-formal learning in midwifery practice has not been previously explored. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the language of a sample of student midwives' descriptions of their practice learning in a range of clinical settings. The students submitted audio-diaries as part of a national study (Pope, R., Graham. L., Finnerty. G., Magnusson, C. 2003. An investigation of the preparation and assessment for midwifery practice within a range of settings. Project Report. University of Surrey). Participants detailed their learning activities and support obtained whilst working with their named mentors for approximately 10 days or shifts. The rich audio-diary data have been analysed using Discourse Analysis. A typology of non-formal learning (Eraut, M. 2000. Non-formal learning and implicit knowledge in professional work. British Journal of Educational Psychology 70, 113-136) has been used to provide a framework for the analysis. Non-formal learning is defined as any learning which does not take place within a formally organised learning programme (Eraut, M. 2000. Non-formal learning and implicit knowledge in professional work. British Journal of Educational Psychology 70, 113-136). Findings indicate that fear and ambiguity hindered students' learning. Recommendations include the protection of time by mentors within the clinical curriculum to guide and supervise students in both formal and non-formal elements of midwifery practice. This paper will explore the implications of the findings for practice-based education.

  9. Social Learning, Social Control, and Strain Theories: A Formalization of Micro-level Criminological Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Proctor, Kristopher Ryan

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation proposes theoretical formalization as a way of enhancing theory development within criminology. Differential association, social learning, social control, and general strain theories are formalized in order to identify assumptions of human nature, key theoretical concepts, theoretical knowledge claims, and scope conditions. The resulting formalization allows greater comparability between theories in terms of explanatory power, and additionally provides insights into integrat...

  10. Modeling of requirement specification for safety critical real time computer system using formal mathematical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, Bindu; Sasidhar Rao, B.; Ilango Sambasivam, S.; Swaminathan, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Real time computer systems are increasingly used for safety critical supervision and control of nuclear reactors. Typical application areas are supervision of reactor core against coolant flow blockage, supervision of clad hot spot, supervision of undesirable power excursion, power control and control logic for fuel handling systems. The most frequent cause of fault in safety critical real time computer system is traced to fuzziness in requirement specification. To ensure the specified safety, it is necessary to model the requirement specification of safety critical real time computer systems using formal mathematical methods. Modeling eliminates the fuzziness in the requirement specification and also helps to prepare the verification and validation schemes. Test data can be easily designed from the model of the requirement specification. Z and B are the popular languages used for modeling the requirement specification. A typical safety critical real time computer system for supervising the reactor core of prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) against flow blockage is taken as case study. Modeling techniques and the actual model are explained in detail. The advantages of modeling for ensuring the safety are summarized

  11. Formal specification of a query expression generator using RSL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the specification, an implementation of our generator is generated in C++ using a command within the RSL project support environment that translates RSL to C++. The preliminary results with our generator show that it holds promise as a stand-alone tool as well. (Botswana Journal of Technology: 2002 11(2): 9-17) ...

  12. Design of an eLearning System for Accreditation of Non-formal Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kovatcheva , Eugenia; Nikolov , Roumen

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with issues related to the non-formal learning in vocational education, and the role of ICT for providing appropriate accreditation model in such education. The presented conclusions are based on the Leonardo da Vinci project LeoSPAN. The paper emphasises on the development of a model and a prototype of an adaptive eLearning system that ensures the pre-defined learner outcomes. One of the advantages of the eLearning system is the flexibility for people who upgrade and improve...

  13. Using Exemption Examinations to Assess Finnish Business Students' Non-Formal and Informal Learning of ESP: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomainen, Satu

    2014-01-01

    In recent years Finnish university language centres have increasingly developed procedures for assessing and recognising the skills in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) that students acquire in various non-formal and informal learning environments. This article describes the procedures developed by the University of Eastern Finland Language…

  14. Exploring entrepreneurial learning during formal business rescue processes: Insights from the South African experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anéa Burke-le Roux

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Currently, little is known about entrepreneurial learning under turnaround and rescue conditions. A better understanding of the content dimensions as well as the factors that drive or restrain entrepreneurial learning during business rescue (BR is relevant for theory and industry development. Research purpose: BR is a fairly new regime in South Africa that extends beyond turnaround practices. It is acknowledged that business failure can fuel cognitive processes and subsequently entrepreneurial learning but to what extent in the context of formal BR proceedings requires exploration. Practice suggests that the role of the business rescue practitioner (BRP as ‘disproportionate influencer’ can affect the learning of filing entrepreneurs. Motivation for the study: In the absence of guidelines, this study set out to explore and make sense of the specific content dimensions that entrepreneurs learn during such proceedings to assist role players. Research design, approach and method: The research question for this exploratory investigation obtained first-hand accounts from subjects that have been directly involved in BR proceedings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. ‘Investigator triangulation’ was also used to extract as much richness and data as possible applying interpretative phenomenological analysis. Findings: We extracted three key content dimensions which entrepreneurs learned during BR: rescue process, business related and personal learnings. Entrepreneurs with ‘positive’ experiences of BR learned more than those with negative experiences. The key driving and restraining factors to entrepreneurial learning were both associated with the behaviour of the BRP. Practical/managerial implications: BR has introduced another dimension to learning from business failure. Understanding the content dimensions learned by entrepreneurs during BR broadens insights of the Regulator, BRPs and educators about the potential long

  15. A Preliminary Investigation of Self-Directed Learning Activities in a Non-Formal Blended Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwier, Richard A.; Morrison, Dirk; Daniel, Ben K.

    2009-01-01

    This research considers how professional participants in a non-formal self-directed learning environment (NFSDL) made use of self-directed learning activities in a blended face-to-face and on line learning professional development course. The learning environment for the study was a professional development seminar on teaching in higher education…

  16. Negotiating the Boundaries between the Formal and the Informal: An Experienced Teacher's Refective Adaptations of Informal Learning in a Keyboard Class for At-Risk Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes-Onishi, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to address the important questions raised in literature on the intersections between formal and informal learning. Specifically, this will be discussed within the concept of "productive dissonance" and the pedagogical tensions that arise in the effort of experienced teachers to transition from the formal to…

  17. Context-Aware Writing Support for SNS: Connecting Formal and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waragai, Ikumi; Kurabayashi, Shuichi; Ohta, Tatsuya; Raindl, Marco; Kiyoki, Yasushi; Tokuda, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents another stage in a series of research efforts by the authors to develop an experience-connected mobile language learning environment, bridging formal and informal learning. Building on a study in which the authors tried to connect classroom learning (of German in Japan) with learners' real life experiences abroad by having…

  18. Non-Formal Education, Out-of-School Learning Needs and Employment Opportunities: Evidence from Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Frederique

    2009-01-01

    Non-formal education (NFE) is now considered as playing a critical role in the achievement of the objective of Education for All, by reaching the learning needs of youth and adults who do not have access to formal education, increasing their employment opportunities and therefore contributing to poverty alleviation. Yet there is still insufficient…

  19. Doctoral Students as Journal Editors: Non-Formal Learning through Academic Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to formal pedagogic elements of the doctorate--supervision and other structured institutional provisions--but we know less about the role played by non-formal practices in doctoral students' learning. This paper explores the experiences of eight doctoral students involved in editing student-run journals. Editorship and…

  20. Circuit architecture derivation starting from a formal requirements specification considering a DDS as example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbe, H.; Richter, R.; Jentschel, H.-J.

    2004-05-01

    Based on a formal specification of a direct digital synthesis (DDS) and assuming the availability of a set of possible circuit architectures we derive a customised system configuration. e calculate the design parameters that can be used for the specification to synthesise the circuit components. We show how the derived parameters and the selected IC technology influence the complexity of the circuit implementation.

  1. Identifying the Goal, User model and Conditions of Recommender Systems for Formal and Informal Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2009). Identifying the Goal, User model and Conditions of Recommender Systems for Formal and Informal Learning. Journal of Digital Information, 10(2), 4-24.

  2. 'No man is an island'. Testing the specific role of social isolation in formal thought disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Paulo; Spray, Amy; Sellwood, William; Bentall, Richard P

    2015-12-15

    Recent work has focused on the role of the environment in psychosis with emerging evidence that specific psychotic experiences are associated with specific types of adversity. One risk factor that has been often associated with psychosis is social isolation, with studies identifying isolation as an important feature of prodromal psychosis and others reporting that social networks of psychotic patients are smaller and less dense than those of healthy individuals. In the present study, we tested a prediction that social isolation would be specifically associated with formal thought disorder. 80 patients diagnosed with psychosis-spectrum disorder and 30 healthy participants were assessed for formal thought disorder with speech samples acquired during an interview that promoted personal disclosure and an interview targeting everyday topics. Social isolation was significantly associated with formal thought disorder in the neutral interview and in the salient interview, even when controlling for comorbid hallucinations, delusions and suspiciousness. Hallucinations, delusions and suspiciousness were not associated with social isolation when formal thought disorder was controlled for. Formal thought disorder is robustly and specifically associated with social isolation. Social cognitive mechanisms and processes are discussed which may explain this relationship as well as implications for clinical practice and future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Learning in non-formal education : is it “youthful” for youth in action?

    OpenAIRE

    Norqvist, Lars; Leffler, Eva

    2017-01-01

    This article offers insights into the practices of a non-formal education programme for youth provided by the European Union (EU). It takes a qualitative approach and is based on a case study of the European Voluntary Service (EVS). Data were collected during individual and focus group interviews with learners (the EVS volunteers), decision takers and trainers, with the aim of deriving an understanding of learning in non-formal education. The research questions concerned learning, the recogni...

  4. A preliminary formal specification of virtual organization creation with RAISE specification language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nami, M.R.; Sharifi, M.; Malekpour, A.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, several flavors of Formal Methods (FMs) have been gaining industrial acceptance and production quality software tools have begun emerging. Domain Engineering (DE) has been introduced as one of outstanding ideas in software development. It serves form al methods that provide a rigorous,

  5. Virtual and physical toys: open-ended features for non-formal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Eva; Brooks, Anthony

    2006-04-01

    This paper examines the integrated toy--both physical and virtual--as an essential resource for collaborative learning. This learning incorporates rehabilitation, training, and education. The data derived from two different cases. Pedagogical issues related to non-formal learning and open-ended features of design are discussed. Findings suggest that social, material, and expressive affordances constitute a base for an alterative interface to encourage children's play and learning.

  6. ReMashed – Recommendation Approaches for Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments in Formal and Informal Learning Settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Pecceu, Dries; Arts, Tanja; Hutten, Edwin; Rutledge, Lloyd; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Peccau, D., Arts, T., Hutten, E., Rutledge, L., Van Rosmalen, P., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2009). ReMashed – Recommendation Approaches for Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments in Formal and Informal Learning Settings. Presentation at the 2nd Workshop Mash-Up Personal Learning

  7. Construction and Evaluation of an Integrated Formal/Informal Learning Environment for Foreign Language Learning across Real and Virtual Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waragai, Ikumi; Ohta, Tatsuya; Kurabayashi, Shuichi; Kiyoki, Yasushi; Sato, Yukiko; Brückner, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the prototype of a foreign language learning space, based on the construction of an integrated formal/informal learning environment. Before the background of the continued innovation of information technology that places conventional learning styles and educational methods into new contexts based on new value-standards,…

  8. Understanding the Construction of Personal Learning Networks to Support Non-Formal Workplace Learning of Training Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Christin

    2013-01-01

    Workers in the 21st century workplace are faced with rapid and constant developments that place a heavy demand on them to continually learn beyond what the Human Resources and Training groups can meet. As a consequence, professionals must rely on non-formal learning approaches through the development of a personal learning network to keep…

  9. Formal, non-formal and informal learning in music : vocal students as animateurs : a case study of non-formal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kors, Ninja; Mak, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The pilot project that will be described in this report was all about the animateur. What are his skills and attitudes? What are the pedagogical interventions that he uses in a workshop or an event? What are the main issues that arise when we try to include such a naturally non-formal and informal

  10. Building the Capability of Non-Formal Education Teachers to Develop a Learning Society for Promoting Lifelong Education in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungsri, Sumalee

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to study Thai non-formal education teachers' perceptions of their opportunities to obtain knowledge about the learning society; identify the knowledge of non-formal education teachers need about the learning society which could be obtained through a distance learning package; and to develop and evaluate distance learning package on…

  11. Development formalization of the e-learning pedagogical scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Іванович Пушкар

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The place of the pedagogical scenario in development of the e-learning support system has been defined. The process of student's interaction with the system of e-learning in the form of a proper dialogue has been proposed. Peculiarities of constructing typical models of scenarios of academic disciplines have been analyzed. A technique for quantitative assessment of the relationships between the objects of study in the model of a pedagogical scenario has been offered

  12. Music in Informal and formal learning situations in ECEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Sæther

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is, through theory, research and practical experiences, to discuss how informal teaching and learning situations exemplified by activities including music plays a part in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC. The theoretical frame in this article is based on perspectives on informal teaching and learning in music and in general (Green 2002, 2008; Henze, 2009; Folkestad, 2006; Mak, 2007. The tradition in Norwegian ECEC centers has been based on informal learning processes mainly through social interaction, play, dialogs, aesthetical and outdoor activities in everyday life. ECEC teachers challenged to articulate Informal teaching and learning as professional educators. In light of that statement it is introduced, theoretical perspectives and studies of professions (Abbott, 1988; Grimen, 2008; Heggen, 2008; Polanyi, 2002. The author describes and discusses opportunities of music in ECEC centers and how music can contribute learning in informal learning situations. The discussion refers narrative episodes from observations of ECEC practice. Methodology is based on thematic analysis inspired of  Riessman (2008 and Polkinghorne (1995.

  13. Policy Review on Adult Learning: The Adult Non-Formal Education Policy of Mali, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadio, Moussa

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of policy development for adult learning in Mali, West Africa. On January 2007, the Malian government adopted the "Adult Non-formal Education Policy Document," which was intended to regulate the adult learning sector and federate the actions of policy makers, adult education providers, and adult…

  14. The use of mobile games in formal and informal learning environments: a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutromanos, George; Avraamidou, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to review studies that explored the impact of the use of mobile games in both formal and informal learning environments. Through a review of studies on mobile learning that have been published between 2000 and 2013, we aim to identify the ways in which researchers used

  15. The Use of Mobile Games in Formal and Informal Learning Environments: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutromanos, George; Avraamidou, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to review studies that explored the impact of the use of mobile games in both formal and informal learning environments. Through a review of studies on mobile learning that have been published between 2000 and 2013, we aim to identify the ways in which researchers used mobile games in a variety of learning…

  16. Exploring the contribution of formal and informal learning to academic staff member employability: A Dutch perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, Marcel; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Boon, Jo; van Rooij, Shahron Williams

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Little attention has been paid to the employability of academic staff and the extent to which continuous learning contributes to academic career success. The purpose of this paper is to explore the contribution of formal and informal learning to employability. Design/methodology/approach –

  17. Analysis of Formal Methods for Specification of E-Commerce Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Ali Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce based application characteristics portray elevated dynamics while incorporating decentralized nature. Extreme emphasis influencing structural design plus implementation, positions such applications highly appreciated. Significant research articles reveal that, applying formal methods addressing challenges incumbent with E-commerce based applications, contribute towards reliability and robustness obliging the system. Anticipating and designing sturdy e-process and concurrent implementation, allows application behavior extra strength against errors, frauds and hacking, minimizing program faults during application operations. Programmers find extreme difficulty guaranteeing correct processing under all circumstances, however, not impossible. Concealed flaws and errors, triggered only under unexpected and unanticipated scenarios, pilot subtle mistakes and appalling failures. Code authors utilize various formal methods for reducing these flaws. Mentioning prominent methods would include, ASM (Abstract State Machines, B-Method, z-Language, UML (Unified Modelling Language etc. This paper primarily focuses different formal methods applied while deliberating specification and verification techniques for cost effective.

  18. Formal and Information Learning in a Computer Clubhouse Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Anne; Lowe, Jenny; Hopkins, Josie

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the establishment and running of an after-school Computer Clubhouse, describing aspects of the leadership, mentoring and learning activities undertaken there. Research data has been collected from examination of documents associated with the Clubhouse, interviews with its founders, Director, session leaders and mentors, and…

  19. Network Learning and Innovation in SME Formal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivka Deiters

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The driver for this paper is the need to better understand the potential for learning and innovation that networks canprovide especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs which comprise by far the majority of enterprises in the food sector. With the challenges the food sector is facing in the near future, learning and innovation or more focused, as it is being discussed in the paper, ‘learning for innovation’ are not just opportunities but pre‐conditions for the sustainability of the sector. Network initiatives that could provide appropriate support involve social interaction and knowledge exchange, learning, competence development, and coordination (organization and management of implementation. The analysis identifies case studies in any of these orientations which serve different stages of the innovation process: invention and implementation. The variety of network case studies cover networks linked to a focus group for training, research, orconsulting, networks dealing with focused market oriented product or process development, promotional networks, and networks for open exchange and social networking.

  20. Guidelines for enhancing learning curiosity of non-formal student using daily life context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mongkondaw Ornwipa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were: to study learning curiosity within student, teacher and administrators, and to suggest the student of non-formal education learning curiosity by using daily life context. A sample was selected from a group of student of non-formal education for 400 students, categorized to 184 students of secondary education, students of high school education 216, 40 teachers of non-formal education and 20 administrators with district level of the office of the Non - Formal and Informal Education by Multi - Stage Sampling. The research tools were surveyed by using questionnaire of students. The results of the study were as follows and the questionnaire as learning curiosity of the teacher and administrator from the Non - Formal and Informal Education awareness, and transcribing from focus group discussion. The quantitative analysis by the computer program (SPSS for statistical analysis and analyzing qualitative data by content analysis were included. The results of the study were as follows a student learning curiosity was in high level, a student supporting for learning curiosity in occupation was in high level, the teacher opinion for learning curiosity of student was in middle level. The supporting should be academic, Work and family consecutive. The administrator of the Non - Formal and Informal Education thought, learning curiosity of student was in middle level. The student should be gained occupation knowledge for the first, because of their lifestyle in the north eastern of Thailand; they needed to support their family. Almost citizens were agriculturist, gardener, farmer or merchandiser, and then to permit academic education, family and socialization, the occupation developing was given precedence.

  1. mLearning Scaffolding Model for Undergraduate English Language Learning: Bridging Formal and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim; Hussin, Zaharah; Asra; Zakaria, Abd Razak

    2013-01-01

    Learning using mobile devices also known as mLearning is the current buzz word in the present debates over the use of technology in education. Although mLearning has a high prospect for future education, it is yet to be

  2. The Incidence and Intensity of Formal Lifelong Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Lars

    across genders. We consider both the incidence (take-up in a given year) and intensity (hours conditional on enrolment) of training. We find evidence of considerable lifelong learning with regards to enrolment in basic and vocational training regardless of gender, whereas post-secondary training...... hours in post-secondary training are strongly age dependent. Hours in basic training do decrease significantly with age but the effects are very small....

  3. Educational Process Reengineering and Diffusion of Innovation in Formal Learning Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Rongbutsri, Nikorn

    2011-01-01

    administration and evaluation and assessment. Educational environments are flexible and not governed by standard operating procedures, making technology use lithe. Theory of diffusion of innovations‟ is recommended to be integrated to reason and measure acceptance or rejection of EPR selected technology......In technology mediated learning while relative advantages of technologies is proven, lack of contextualization and process centric change, and lack of user driven change has kept intervention and adoption of educational technologies among individuals and organizations as challenges. Reviewing...... the formal, informal and non-formal learning environments, this study focuses on the formal part. This paper coins the term 'Educational Process Reengineering (EPR) based on the established concept of 'Business Process Reengineering (BPR) for process improvement of teaching learning activities, academic...

  4. ReMashed – Recommendation Approaches for Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments in Formal and Informal Learning Settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Pecceu, Dries; Arts, Tanja; Hutten, Edwin; Rutledge, Lloyd; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Peccau, D., Arts, T., Hutten, E., Rutledge, L., Van Rosmalen, P., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2009). ReMashed – Recommendation Approaches for Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments in Formal and Informal Learning Settings. In F. Wild, M. Kalz, M. Palmér & D. Müller (Eds.),

  5. Recognition, Accreditation and Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning: Prospects for Lifelong Learning in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2009-01-01

    This study was an exploration on the various issues related to recognition, accreditation and validation of non-formal and informal learning to open up avenues for lifelong learning and continuing education in Nepal. The perceptions, experiences, and opinions of Nepalese Development Activists, Educational Administrators, Policy Actors and…

  6. Investigating Instructional Strategies for Using Social Media in Formal and Informal Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiyun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high popularity of personal use of online social media, a low percentage of students and instructors use them for educational purposes. This qualitative study explores the use of social media among faculty in the discipline of public administration in the United States. Eight instructors participated in telephone interviews about their experiences and perceptions of using social media for teaching and learning. Instructors perceive that informal learning using social media could be facilitated by instructors and integrated into formal learning environments for enriched discussions, increased engagement, and broad connections. This study provides qualitative empirical support for social learning theories while offering strategies for and examples of how social media can be used to connect formal and informal learning.

  7. Application of different entropy formalisms in a neural network for novel word learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khordad, R.; Rastegar Sedehi, H. R.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper novel word learning in adults is studied. For this goal, four entropy formalisms are employed to include some degree of non-locality in a neural network. The entropy formalisms are Tsallis, Landsberg-Vedral, Kaniadakis, and Abe entropies. First, we have analytically obtained non-extensive cost functions for the all entropies. Then, we have used a generalization of the gradient descent dynamics as a learning rule in a simple perceptron. The Langevin equations are numerically solved and the error function (learning curve) is obtained versus time for different values of the parameters. The influence of index q and number of neuron N on learning is investigated for the all entropies. It is found that learning is a decreasing function of time for the all entropies. The rate of learning for the Landsberg-Vedral entropy is slower than other entropies. The variation of learning with time for the Landsberg-Vedral entropy is not appreciable when the number of neurons increases. It is said that entropy formalism can be used as a means for studying the learning.

  8. Connecting Informal and Formal Learning Experiences in the Age of Participatory Media: Commentary on Bull et al. (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhow, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The recent editorial in this journal by Bull et al. ("Connecting Informal and Formal Learning Experiences in the Age of Participatory Media" Vol 8, Iss 2) discussed the challenges of bridging formal learning practices and informal learning opportunities within the context of today's Web-enhanced world. In this commentary, Christine…

  9. L.I.M.E. A recommendation model for informal and formal learning, engaged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Burgos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In current eLearning models and implementations (e.g. Learning Management Systems-LMS there is a lack of engagement between formal and informal activities. Furthermore, the online methodology focuses on a standard set of units of learning and learning objects, along with pre-defined tests, and collateral resources like, i.e. discussion fora and message wall. They miss the huge potential of learning via the interlacement of social networks, LMS and external sources. Thanks to user behaviour, user interaction, and personalised counselling by a tutor, learning performance can be improved. We design and develop an adaptation eLearning model for restricted social networks, which supports this approach. In addition, we build an eLearning module that implements this conceptual model in a real application case, and present the preliminary analysis and positive results.

  10. Use of Online Learning Resources in the Development of Learning Environments at the Intersection of Formal and Informal Learning: The Student as Autonomous Designer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebenicnik, Maja; Pitt, Ian; Istenic Starcic, Andreja

    2015-01-01

    Learning resources that are used in the education of university students are often available online. The nature of new technologies causes an interweaving of formal and informal learning, with the result that a more active role is expected from students with regard to the use of ICT for their learning. The variety of online learning resources…

  11. Linguistic Models at the Crossroads of Agents, Learning and Formal Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor BECERRA-BONACHE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at reviewing the most relevant linguistic applications developed in the intersection between three different fields: machine learning, formal language theory and agent technologies. On the one hand, we present some of the main linguistic contributions of the intersection between machine learning and formal languages, which constitutes a well-established research area known as Grammatical Inference. On the other hand, we present an overview of the main linguistic applications of models developed in the intersection between agent technologies and formal languages, such as colonies, grammar systems and eco-grammar systems. Our goal is to show how interdisciplinary research between these three fields can contribute to better understand how natural language is acquired and processed.

  12. Non-formal Therapy and Learning Potentials through Human Gesture Synchronised to Robotic Gesture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva; Brooks, Tony

    2007-01-01

    Children with severe physical disabilities have limited possibilities for joyful experiences and interactive play. Physical training and therapy to improve such opportunities for these children is often enduring, tedious and boring through repetition-and this is often the case for both patient an...... additional opportunities, and motivated non-formal potentials in therapy and learning to supplement the field....

  13. Practitioner Perspectives on Learning for Social Change through Non-Formal Global Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor J.

    2018-01-01

    This article engages with debates about transformative learning and social change, exploring practitioner perspectives on non-formal education activities run by non-governmental organisations. The research looked at how global citizenship education practitioners met their organisation's goals of change for social justice through educational…

  14. Student Teachers' Discourse about Digital Technologies and Transitions between Formal and Informal Learning Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöntinen, Susanna; Dillon, Patrick; Väisänen, Pertti

    2017-01-01

    This research is a contribution to issues of digital technology use at the interface of formal and informal learning contexts. The research was conducted in the discourse tradition and investigates Finnish teacher training students' 'manners of speaking' as resources for, and obstacles to, making pedagogical changes in response to the potential of…

  15. Qualitative Parameters for Evaluation Procedures of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiunaitiene, Egle; Kaminskiene, Lina

    2009-01-01

    The article introduces evaluation principles of non-formal and informal learning that determine the quality of evaluation, describes stages of the evaluation procedure, differentiates their qualitative parameters and defines their criteria and indicators. It also brings in the discussion that consideration of qualitative parameters for the…

  16. Social Media and Education: Reconceptualizing the Boundaries of Formal and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhow, Christine; Lewin, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that social media has the potential to bridge formal and informal learning through participatory digital cultures. Exemplars of sophisticated use by young people support this claim, although the majority of young people adopt the role of consumers rather than full participants. Scholars have suggested the potential of social media for…

  17. An examination of the impact of non-formal and informal learning on adult environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digby, Cynthia Louise Barrett

    The purpose of this research is to consider the environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, of adults in Minnesota, and possible factors that influence environmental literacy. Specifically, this study is designed to: (1) measure the environmental literacy of Minnesota adults, (2) explore possible relationships between Minnesota adults, environmental literacy variables and their demographic, non-formal and informal learning, and (3) determine the relative contribution of demographic and learning variables for predicting environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. This research was accomplished by conducting a secondary data analysis of The Third Minnesota Report Card on Environmental Literacy: A Survey of Adult Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior (Murphy & Olson, 2008). Phone interviews were completed between August and November 2007 with one thousand adults throughout Minnesota. Findings indicated that for age, education, and income, there was a weak positive relationship with environmental knowledge, attitude and behavior scores. There was a significant effect for gender and environmental knowledge scores, with males receiving higher environmental knowledge scores than females. There was a significant effect for gender and environmental attitudes, and behavior scores as well, with females receiving slightly higher environmental attitude and behavior scores than males. After controlling for the effects of demographic variables on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, non-formal learning participation appears to be a moderate contributor to both environmental knowledge and environmental behaviors. After controlling for the effects of demographic variables on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, informal learning participation appears to be a slight contributor to environmental attitudes, and a moderate contributor to environmental knowledge and behaviors. Overall, the results of this study suggest that participation

  18. Synthesis of FBD-based PLC design from NuSCR formal specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Junbeom; Cha, Sungdeok; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Song, Duck Yong

    2005-01-01

    NuSCR is a formal specification language to document requirements for real-time embedded software with nuclear engineering applications in mind. Domain experts actively participated in selecting how to best represent various aspects. It uses tabular notations to specify required computations and automata to document state- or time-dependent behavior. As programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are widely used to implement real-time embedded software, synthesis of PLC code from a formal specification is desirable if transformation rules can be rigorously defined. In addition to improved productivity, results of safety analysis performed on requirements remain valid. In this paper, we demonstrate how NuSCR specification can be translated into semantically equivalent function block diagram (FBD) code. The process, except the initial phase where user provides information on missing or implicit details, is automated. Since executable code can be automatically generated using CASE tools from FBD, much of software development is automated. Proposed technique is currently being used in developing reactor protection system (RPS) for nuclear power plants in Korea, and experience to date has been positive. We demonstrate the proposed approach using the fixed set-point rising trip which is one of the most complex trip logics included in the RPS

  19. IMPROVEMENT OF GRAPH INTERPRETATION ABILITY USING HYPERTEXT-ASSISTED KINEMATIC LEARNING AND FORMAL THINKING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Manurung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of hypertext media in improving graph interpretation ability is investigated in this paper. In addition, joint ability of the formal thinking to improve the graph ability of prospective students is considered. The research design used is the one-group pretest-posttest experimental design is carried out in the research by taking 36 students on from Physics Education Program in one institute for teacher education in Medan. The test consists of graph interpretation ability test in the topic of kinematics and Test of Logical Thinking (TOLT or formal thinking before learning and graph interpretation ability test after learning. The data are then analysed by using SPSS based two ways Analisys of Variance (ANOVA method. The results show that the ability to interpretate graph is significantly improved by using hypertext media assisted kinematic learning.

  20. Formal Specification and Automatic Analysis of Business Processes under Authorization Constraints: An Action-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando, Alessandro; Giunchiglia, Enrico; Ponta, Serena Elisa

    We present an approach to the formal specification and automatic analysis of business processes under authorization constraints based on the action language \\cal{C}. The use of \\cal{C} allows for a natural and concise modeling of the business process and the associated security policy and for the automatic analysis of the resulting specification by using the Causal Calculator (CCALC). Our approach improves upon previous work by greatly simplifying the specification step while retaining the ability to perform a fully automatic analysis. To illustrate the effectiveness of the approach we describe its application to a version of a business process taken from the banking domain and use CCALC to determine resource allocation plans complying with the security policy.

  1. Migration and Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning in Europe: Inclusion, Exclusion or Polarisation in the Recognition of Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Otero, Manuel; Villalba-Garcia, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    This article explores (1) the degree to which immigrants can be considered dominant groups in the area of validation of non-formal and informal learning and are subject to specific validation measures in 33 European countries; (2) whether country clusters can be identified within Europe with regard to the dominance of immigrants in the area of…

  2. Financial literacy among Turkish college students: the role of formal education, learning approaches, and parental teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akben-Selcuk, Elif; Altiok-Yilmaz, Ayse

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed financial literacy and its correlates among Turkish college students, with special emphasis on the role of formal education, learning approaches, and parental influences. Financial literacy was measured by the College Student Financial Literacy Survey, which assesses knowledge in four areas: general financial management, saving and borrowing, insurance, and investing. 853 Turkish university students were administered the survey (416 men, 437 women; M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 0.6). The mean percentage of correct responses was 45% (SD = 12.8%). Regression results showed that formal finance education in college, a deep approach to learning, and direct financial teaching by parents were significantly associated with higher financial literacy scores.

  3. Mixed messages in learning communication skills? Students comparing role model behaviour in clerkships with formal training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essers, Geurt; Van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; Bolhuis, Sanneke

    2012-01-01

    Medical students learn professional communication through formal training and in clinical practice. Physicians working in clinical practice have a powerful influence on student learning. However, they may demonstrate communication behaviours not aligning with recommendations in training programs. This study aims to identify more precisely what differences students perceive between role model communication behaviour during clerkships and formal training. In a cross-sectional study, data were collected about physicians' communication performance as perceived by students. Students filled out a questionnaire in four different clerkships in their fourth and fifth year. Just over half of the students reported communication similar to formal training. This was especially true for students in the later clerkships (paediatrics and primary care). Good examples were seen in providing information corresponding to patients' needs and in shared decision making, although students often noted that in fact the doctor made the decision. Bad examples were observed in exploring cognitions and emotions, and in providing information meeting patient's pace. Further study is needed on actual physician behaviour in clinical practice. From our results, we conclude that students need help in reflecting on and learning from the gap in communication patterns they observe in training versus clinical practice.

  4. Formal Learning Sequences and Progression in the Studio: A Framework for Digital Design Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus Wärnestål

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how to leverage the design studio learning environment throughout long-term Digital Design education in order to support students to progress from tactical, well-defined, device-centric routine design, to confidently design sustainable solutions for strategic, complex, problems for a wide range of devices and platforms in the digital space. We present a framework derived from literature on design, creativity, and theories on learning that: (a implements a theory of formal learning sequences as a user-centered design process in the studio; and (b describes design challenge progressions in the design studio environment modeled in seven dimensions. The framework can be used as a tool for designing, evaluating, and communicating course progressions within – and between series of – design studio courses. This approach is evaluated by implementing a formal learning sequence framework in a series of design studio courses that progress in an undergraduate design-oriented Informatics program. Reflections from students, teachers, and external clients indicate high student motivation and learning goal achievement, high teacher satisfaction and skill development, and high satisfaction among external clients.

  5. The Effects of Formal Learning and Informal Learning on Job Performance: The Mediating Role of the Value of Learning at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoonhee; Choi, Woojae

    2016-01-01

    Although research has widely recognized the relationships between formal and informal learning and job performance, empirical studies have not paid sufficient attention to these relationships. In addition, there is little understanding how individual perceptions toward learning influence the relationships between the aforementioned two types of…

  6. Formal to Informal Learning with IT: Research Challenges and Issues for E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of clarity and consistency, the term e-learning is used throughout the paper to refer to technology-enhanced learning and information technology (IT) in teaching and learning. IT depicts computing and other IT resources. Research into e-learning has changed in focus and breadth over the last four decades as a consequence of…

  7. Employability Enhancement through Formal and Informal Learning: An Empirical Study among Dutch Non-Academic University Staff Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Beatrice; Boon, Jo; van der Klink, Marcel; Meijs, Ely

    2009-01-01

    Although learning is generally perceived as a way to improve employees' current job performance, so far, no research has been conducted to explore the possible relationships between formal and informal learning, on the one hand, and employability, on the other. Though contemporary views stress the importance of the job as a powerful learning site,…

  8. Formal specification and verification of interactive systems with plasticity: Applications to nuclear-plant supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Raquel Araujo de

    2015-01-01

    specification. Usability properties verify whether the system follows ergonomic properties to ensure a good usability. Validity properties verify whether the system follows the requirements that specify its expected behavior.-The comparison of different versions of UIs. Using equivalence checking, our approach verifies to which extent UIs present the same interaction capabilities and appearance. We can show whether two UI models are equivalent or not. When they are not equivalent, the UI divergences are listed, thus providing the possibility of leaving them out of the analysis. Furthermore, the approach shows that one UI can contain at least all interaction capabilities of another. We also present in this thesis three industrial case studies in the nuclear power plant domain which the approach was applied to, providing additional examples of successful use of formal methods in industrial systems. (author)

  9. E-learning Sudan, formal learning for out-of-school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbé, Hester; Badri, Aiman; Telford, Rebecca; van der Hulst, Anja; van Joolingen, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    E-Learning Sudan (ELS) is a custom-built computer/tablet game that provides alternative learning opportunities to Sudanese children who are excluded from education. Unique in ELS is that children can learn mathematics, in their own remote village, without a teacher. This research study assessed the

  10. Multiple Modes in Corporate Learning: Propelling Business IQ with Formal, Informal and Social Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, John; Ogilvie, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing that the shifting corporate environment is placing ever greater stresses on learning organizations, this paper reports how companies are increasingly offering employees a wide choice of learning options beyond conventional classroom training, including online, social learning, and other modalities in "blended" programs. Identifying a…

  11. SoundScapes: non-formal learning potentials from interactive VEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Tony; Petersson, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Non-formal learning is evident from an inhabited information space that is created from non-invasive multi-dimensional sensor technologies that source human gesture. Libraries of intuitive interfaces empower natural interaction where the gesture is mapped to the multisensory content. Large screen...... and international bodies have consistently recognized SoundScapes which, as a research body of work, is directly responsible for numerous patents. Please note that my full name is Anthony Lewis Brooks. I publish with Anthony Brooks: A. L. Brooks; Tony Brooks.  ...

  12. Formal Framework to improve the reliability of concurrent and collaborative learning games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounier

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-player learning games are complex software applications resulting from a costly and complex engineering process, and involving multiple stakeholders (domain experts, teachers, game designers, programmers, testers, etc.. Moreover, they are dynamic systems that evolve over time and implement complex interactions between objects and players. Usually, once a learning game is developed, testing activities are conducted by humans who explore the possible executions of the game’s scenario to detect bugs. The complexity and the dynamic nature of multiplayer learning games enforces the complexity of testing activities. Indeed, it is impracticable to explore manually all possible executions due to their huge number. Moreover, the test cannot verify some properties on multi-player and collaborative scenarios, such as paths leading to deadlock between learners or prevent learners to meet all objectives and win the game. This type of properties should be verified at the design stage. We propose a framework enabling a formal modeling of game scenarios and an associated automatic verification of learning game’s scenario at the design stage of the development process.We use Symmetric Petri nets as a modeling language and choose to verify properties by means of model checkers. This paper discusses the possibilities offered by this framework to verify learning game’s properties before the programming stage.

  13. Eight-Legged Encounters—Arachnids, Volunteers, and Art help to Bridge the Gap between Informal and Formal Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebets, Eileen A.; Welch-Lazoritz, Melissa; Tisdale, Pawl; Wonch Hill, Trish

    2018-01-01

    Increased integration and synergy between formal and informal learning environments is proposed to provide multiple benefits to science learners. In an effort to better bridge these two learning contexts, we developed an educational model that employs the charismatic nature of arachnids to engage the public of all ages in science learning; learning that aligns with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas associated with Biodiversity and Evolution). We created, implemented, and evaluated a family-focused, interactive science event—Eight-Legged Encounters (ELE)—which encompasses more than twenty modular activities. Volunteers facilitated participant involvement at each activity station and original artwork scattered throughout the event was intended to attract visitors. Initial ELE goals were to increase interest in arachnids and science more generally, among ELE participants. In this study, we tested the efficacy of ELE in terms of (i) activity-specific visitation rates and self-reported interest levels, (ii) the self-reported efficacy of our use of volunteers and original artwork on visitor engagement, and (iii) self-reported increases in interest in both spiders and science more generally. We collected survey data across five ELE events at four museum and zoo sites throughout the Midwest. We found that all activities were successful at attracting visitors and capturing their interest. Both volunteers and artwork were reported to be effective at engaging visitors, though likely in different ways. Additionally, most participants reported increased interest in learning about arachnids and science. In summary, ELE appears effective at engaging the public and piquing their interest. Future work is now required to assess learning outcomes directly, as well as the ability for participants to transfer knowledge gain across learning environments. PMID:29495395

  14. Eight-Legged Encounters-Arachnids, Volunteers, and Art help to Bridge the Gap between Informal and Formal Science Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebets, Eileen A; Welch-Lazoritz, Melissa; Tisdale, Pawl; Wonch Hill, Trish

    2018-02-26

    Increased integration and synergy between formal and informal learning environments is proposed to provide multiple benefits to science learners. In an effort to better bridge these two learning contexts, we developed an educational model that employs the charismatic nature of arachnids to engage the public of all ages in science learning; learning that aligns with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas associated with Biodiversity and Evolution). We created, implemented, and evaluated a family-focused, interactive science event- Eight-Legged Encounters (ELE )-which encompasses more than twenty modular activities. Volunteers facilitated participant involvement at each activity station and original artwork scattered throughout the event was intended to attract visitors. Initial ELE goals were to increase interest in arachnids and science more generally, among ELE participants. In this study, we tested the efficacy of ELE in terms of (i) activity-specific visitation rates and self-reported interest levels, (ii) the self-reported efficacy of our use of volunteers and original artwork on visitor engagement, and (iii) self-reported increases in interest in both spiders and science more generally. We collected survey data across five ELE events at four museum and zoo sites throughout the Midwest. We found that all activities were successful at attracting visitors and capturing their interest. Both volunteers and artwork were reported to be effective at engaging visitors, though likely in different ways. Additionally, most participants reported increased interest in learning about arachnids and science. In summary, ELE appears effective at engaging the public and piquing their interest. Future work is now required to assess learning outcomes directly, as well as the ability for participants to transfer knowledge gain across learning environments.

  15. Eight-Legged Encounters—Arachnids, Volunteers, and Art help to Bridge the Gap between Informal and Formal Science Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen A. Hebets

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased integration and synergy between formal and informal learning environments is proposed to provide multiple benefits to science learners. In an effort to better bridge these two learning contexts, we developed an educational model that employs the charismatic nature of arachnids to engage the public of all ages in science learning; learning that aligns with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas associated with Biodiversity and Evolution. We created, implemented, and evaluated a family-focused, interactive science event—Eight-Legged Encounters (ELE—which encompasses more than twenty modular activities. Volunteers facilitated participant involvement at each activity station and original artwork scattered throughout the event was intended to attract visitors. Initial ELE goals were to increase interest in arachnids and science more generally, among ELE participants. In this study, we tested the efficacy of ELE in terms of (i activity-specific visitation rates and self-reported interest levels, (ii the self-reported efficacy of our use of volunteers and original artwork on visitor engagement, and (iii self-reported increases in interest in both spiders and science more generally. We collected survey data across five ELE events at four museum and zoo sites throughout the Midwest. We found that all activities were successful at attracting visitors and capturing their interest. Both volunteers and artwork were reported to be effective at engaging visitors, though likely in different ways. Additionally, most participants reported increased interest in learning about arachnids and science. In summary, ELE appears effective at engaging the public and piquing their interest. Future work is now required to assess learning outcomes directly, as well as the ability for participants to transfer knowledge gain across learning environments.

  16. Formal Specification and Run-time Monitoring Within the Ballistic Missile Defense Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caffall, Dale S; Cook, Thomas; Drusinsky, Doron; Michael, James B; Shing, Man-Tak; Sklavounos, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    .... Ballistic Missile Defense Advanced Battle Manager (ABM) project in an effort that is amongst the most comprehensive application of formal methods to a large-scale safety-critical software application ever reported...

  17. MobilED: a mobile tools and services platform for formal and informal learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ford, M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available technologies could be used for teaching and learning within and outside the school context. The applicability of mobile phones in an educational environment is examined, with a specific focus on the differences and similarities between the developing...

  18. PENDEKATAN BRAIN BASED LEARNING DALAM PENANAMAN NILAI BUDAYA MELALUI PENDIDIKAN FORMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfikri Anas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengeksplorasi gagasan penggunaan pendekatan brain based learning dalam penanaman nilai budaya melalui pendidikan formal. Undang-Undang  menyatakan dengan tegas bahwa pendidikan adalah upaya sadar untuk mengembangkan potensi setiap siswa agar menjadi warga negara yang cerdas, kreatif dan berakhlak mulia.  Nilai-nilai budaya  mengkondisikan manusia untuk hidup saling menghargai dengan berbagai nilai-nilai yang diyakini bersama. Seyogyanya kehidupan menjadi harmonis karena semua yang melingkupi kehidupan manusia menggiring ke arah sana. Akan tetapi mengapa tatakrama, kreatifitas, kemandirian dan ciri-ciri kemanusiaan lainnya menjadi memudar? Dunia pendidikan termasuk yang paling disoroti. Berbagai pendapat ekstrim menyatakan, pendidikan telah mencabut anak dari akar budayanya. Penyebabnya adalah pembelajaran yang monoton, mengekang, dan mempoisisikan anak sebagai obyek pembelajaran, bukan subyek yang aktif. Untuk mengembalikan fungsi pendidikan ke arah yang diharapkan, harus diciptakan iklim pembelajaran yang semirip mungkin dengan kehidupan nyata serta pengintegrasian kurikulum dengan hal-hal nyata dalam kehidupan. Kondisi ini akan mendorong  peserta didik  untuk berkembang dan menjadi anak-anak yang cerdas, kreatif, dan berakhlak mulia. Hal inilah yang menjadi salah satu sasaran penerapan brain based learning. The objective of this study is to explore ​​the use of brain based learning approach in character education ​​through formal education. Law insists that education is a conscious effort to develop the potential of every student to become a smart, creative, and noble citizen. Cultural values suggest human condition to live with mutual respect with different values ​​shared together. If this condition is achieved, a harmonious life for all human life can be realized. However, why manners, creativity, independence and other human traits is fading

  19. Experiences from the formal specification of the integration platform and the synthesis of SDT with the software bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunem, Harald; Mohn, Peter; Sandmark, Haakon; Stoelen, Ketil

    1999-04-01

    The three year programme 1997-1999 for the OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP) identifies the need to gain experience from applying formal techniques in real-life system developments. This motivated the initiation of the HRP research activity Integration of Formal Specification in the Development of HAMMLAB 2000 (INT-FS). The principal objective was to experiment with formal techniques in system developments at the HRP; in particular, system developments connected to HAMMLAB 2000 - the computerised laboratory for man-machine-interaction experiments currently under construction. It was hoped that this experimentation with formal techniques should result in a better understanding of how such techniques should be utilised in a more industrial setting. To obtain more knowledge with respect to the practical effects and consequences of an increased level of formalization was another objective. This report summarises experiences, results and conclusions from a pre-study addressing INT-FS related issues connected to the development of the HAMMLAB 2000 Integration Platform (IP). The report starts by giving a brief overview of the IP. Then it describes and summarises experiences from the formalization of a top-level requirements specification for the IP. Finally, it discusses various approaches for the integration of applications generated automatically through the CASE-tool SDT and the Software Bus on which the communication within HAMMLAB 2000 will be based. The report concludes that the selected formalisms and tools are well-suited to describe IP-like systems. The report also concludes that the integration of SDT applications with the Software Bus will not be a major obstacle, and finally that a monitoring component for the IP is well-suited for development within INT-FS (author) (ml)

  20. Employability enhancement through formal and informal learning: An empirical study among Dutch non-academic university staff members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Beatrice; Boon, Jo; van der Klink, Marcel; Meijs, Ely

    2009-01-01

    Although learning is generally perceived as a way to improve employees' current job performance, so far, no research has been conducted to explore the possible relationships between formal and informal learning, on the one hand, and employability, on the other. Though contemporary views stress the

  1. What Challenges and Benefits Can Non-Formal Law and Language Integrated Learning Bring to University Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabekova, Atabekova; Gorbatenko, Rimma; Belousov, Aleksandr; Grebnev, Ruslan; Sheremetieva, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores the ways in which non-formal content and language integrated learning within university studies can affect students' academic progress. The research has included theoretical and empirical studies. The article focuses on the observation of students' learning process, draws attention to challenges and benefits students experienced…

  2. The Contribution of Non-Formal Learning in Higher Education to Student Teachers' Professional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sylvia Y. F.; Wong, Angel K. Y.; Li, Dora D. Y.; Cheng, May M. H.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports a mixed methods study on the contribution of various aspects of pre-service student teachers' learning in initial teacher education (ITE) to their professional competence in a Five-year Bachelor of Education Programme in Hong Kong. Special attention is given to how student teachers' non-formal learning in higher education…

  3. Youth Clubs as Spaces of Non-Formal Learning: Professional Idealism Meets the Spatiality Experienced by Young People in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilakoski, Tomi; Kivijärvi, Antti

    2015-01-01

    For many young people, youth clubs constitute a key instrument for learning outside the school curriculum. In this article, we scrutinise Finnish youth clubs empirically as spaces of non-formal learning from the perspectives of both professional youth workers and young people themselves. We propose that youth workers tend to present an educational…

  4. Teacher Learning and Instructional Change: How Formal and On-the-Job Learning Opportunities Predict Change in Elementary School Teachers' Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Leigh Mesler; Spillane, James P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent education reform has emphasized the importance of teacher learning in improving classroom instruction and raising student achievement. This article focuses on teachers' learning opportunities, including formal professional development and on-the-job learning that occurs through interactions with colleagues. Using data from 30 elementary…

  5. Learning Needs Analysis of Collaborative E-Classes in Semi-Formal Settings: The REVIT Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mavroudi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis, the first phase of the typical instructional design process, is often downplayed. This paper focuses on the analysis concerning a series of e-courses for collaborative adult education in semi-formal settings by reporting and generalizing results from the REVIT project. REVIT, an EU-funded research project, offered custom e-courses to learners in several remote European areas and received a ‘best practice’ distinction in social inclusion. These e-courses were designed and developed for the purpose of providing training in aspects of the learners’ professional domains related to the utilization of information and communication technologies. The main challenge was to prove that it is possible and economically feasible to provide meaningful training opportunities via distance education, by utilizing existing infrastructure (“revitalizing schools” and by making use of modern digital technology affordances coupled with suitable distance learning techniques and Web 2.0 tools. ADDIE, the generic instructional systems design model, enhanced with a rapid prototyping phase, was put forth in order to allow stakeholders to interact with a prototypical e-course, which served as an introductory lesson and as a reference point, since its evaluation informed the design choices of all subsequent e-courses. The learning needs approach adopted in REVIT combined learner analysis, context analysis, and needs analysis into a coherent analysis framework in which several methods (observation, estimation, document analysis, survey, and dialogue were exploited. Putting emphasis on the analysis phase and decoupling the design from the delivery of the e-courses facilitated adaptation and localization. Adaptation and localization issues concerning the adoption of the REVIT distance learning framework, taking into account the socio-cultural and pedagogical context, are discussed. A central result reported is that the analysis phase was crucial for the

  6. Greek Young Adults with Specific Learning Disabilities Seeking Learning Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonti, Eleni; Bampalou, Christina E.; Kouimtzi, Eleni M.; Kyritsis, Zacharias

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons why Greek young adults with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) seek learning assessments. The study sample consisted of 106 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for SLD. Data were collected through self-report records (clinical interview) of adults…

  7. Adolescents with specific learning disabilities - perceptions of specific learning disabilities in the environment of secondary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    The thesis focuses on adolescents with specific learning disabilities in the milieu of secondary schools. It is divided into a theoretical part and an empirical part. The first part introduces a topic of specific learning disabilities in the developmental stage of adolescence. It first describes the most relevant aspects of adolescent development. The attention is then paid to typical manifestations of specific learning disabilities in adolescence, and also to secondary symptoms usually conne...

  8. [Specific learning disabilities - from DSM-IV to DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-09-01

    The publication of the DSM-5 means changes in the classification and recommendations for diagnosis of specific learning disabilities. Dyslexia and dyscalculia have been reintroduced into the DSM. Three specific learning disorders - impairment in reading, impairment in the written expression, and impairment in mathematics, described by subskills - are now part of the DSM-5. Three subcomponents of the reading disorder are expressly differentiated: word reading accuracy, reading rate, and fluency and reading comprehension. Impaired subskills of the specific learning disorder with impairment in written expression are spelling accuracy, grammar and punctuation accuracy, and clarity and organization of written expression. Four subskills are found in the mathematics disorder: number sense, memorization of arithmetic facts, accurate or fluent calculation, and accurate math reasoning. Each impaired academic domain and subskill should be recorded. A description of the severity degree was also included. The diagnosis is based on a variety of methods, including medical history, clinical interview, school report, teacher evaluation, rating scales, and psychometric tests. The IQ discrepancy criterion was abandoned, though that of age or class discrepancy criterion was retained. The application of a discrepancy is recommended by 1 to 2.5 SD. All three specific developmental disorders are common (prevalence 5 %-15 %), occur early during the first years of formal schooling, and persist into adulthood.

  9. IMS Learning Design Support for the Formalization of Collaborative Learning Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Asensio-Pérez, Juan; Dimitriadis, Yannis

    2004-01-01

    The paper was granted with "an ICALT Best Paper Award". Appears in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT04), pp. 350-354, Joensuu, Finland, 31 Aug - 1 Sep 2004. (source link).

  10. Learning LM Specificity for Ganglion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Unsupervised learning models have been proposed based on experience (Ahumada and Mulligan, 1990;Wachtler, Doi, Lee and Sejnowski, 2007) that allow the cortex to develop units with LM specific color opponent receptive fields like the blob cells reported by Hubel and Wiesel on the basis of visual experience. These models used ganglion cells with LM indiscriminate wiring as inputs to the learning mechanism, which was presumed to occur at the cortical level.

  11. Formal Specification and Verification of Real-Time Multi-Agent Systems using Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QASIM, A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have formally specified and verified the actions of communicating real-time software agents (RTAgents. Software agents are expected to work autonomously and deal with unfamiliar situations astutely. Achieving cent percent test cases coverage for these agents has always been a problem due to limited resources. Also a high degree of dependability and predictability is expected from real-time software agents. In this research we have used Timed-Arc Petri Net's for formal specification and verification. Formal specification of e-agents has been done in the past using Linear Temporal Logic (LTL but we believe that Timed-Arc Petri Net's being more visually expressive provides a richer framework for such formalism. A case study of Stock Market System (SMS based on Real Time Multi Agent System framework (RTMAS using Timed-Arc Petri Net's is taken to illustrate the proposed modeling approach. The model was verified used AF, AG, EG, and EF fragments of Timed Computational Tree Logic (TCTL via translations to timed automata.

  12. Formal Specification and Verification of Fully Asynchronous Implementations of the Data Encryption Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendelin Serwe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two formal models of the Data Encryption Standard (DES, a first using the international standard LOTOS, and a second using the more recent process calculus LNT. Both models encode the DES in the style of asynchronous circuits, i.e., the data-flow blocks of the DES algorithm are represented by processes communicating via rendezvous. To ensure correctness of the models, several techniques have been applied, including model checking, equivalence checking, and comparing the results produced by a prototype automatically generated from the formal model with those of existing implementations of the DES. The complete code of the models is provided as appendices and also available on the website of the CADP verification toolbox.

  13. Formalization and Transformation of Informal Analysis Models into Executive REFINE (trademark) Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    describing how. 5. EDDA . EDDA is an attempt to add mathematical formalism to SADT. Because it is based on SADT, it cannot easily represent any other...design methodology. EDDA has two forms: G- EDDA , the standard graphical version of SADT, and S- EDDA , a textual language that partially represents the...used. "* EDDA only supports the SADT methodology and is too limited in scope to be useful in our research. "* SAMM lacks the semantic richness of

  14. Formal and Informal Learning and First-Year Psychology Students' Development of Scientific Thinking: A Two-Wave Panel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyyılmaz, Demet; Griffin, Laura M; Martín, Miguel H; Kucharský, Šimon; Peycheva, Ekaterina D; Vaupotič, Nina; Edelsbrunner, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    Scientific thinking is a predicate for scientific inquiry, and thus important to develop early in psychology students as potential future researchers. The present research is aimed at fathoming the contributions of formal and informal learning experiences to psychology students' development of scientific thinking during their 1st-year of study. We hypothesize that informal experiences are relevant beyond formal experiences. First-year psychology student cohorts from various European countries will be assessed at the beginning and again at the end of the second semester. Assessments of scientific thinking will include scientific reasoning skills, the understanding of basic statistics concepts, and epistemic cognition. Formal learning experiences will include engagement in academic activities which are guided by university authorities. Informal learning experiences will include non-compulsory, self-guided learning experiences. Formal and informal experiences will be assessed with a newly developed survey. As dispositional predictors, students' need for cognition and self-efficacy in psychological science will be assessed. In a structural equation model, students' learning experiences and personal dispositions will be examined as predictors of their development of scientific thinking. Commonalities and differences in predictive weights across universities will be tested. The project is aimed at contributing information for designing university environments to optimize the development of students' scientific thinking.

  15. Formal and Informal Learning and First-Year Psychology Students’ Development of Scientific Thinking: A Two-Wave Panel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyyılmaz, Demet; Griffin, Laura M.; Martín, Miguel H.; Kucharský, Šimon; Peycheva, Ekaterina D.; Vaupotič, Nina; Edelsbrunner, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific thinking is a predicate for scientific inquiry, and thus important to develop early in psychology students as potential future researchers. The present research is aimed at fathoming the contributions of formal and informal learning experiences to psychology students’ development of scientific thinking during their 1st-year of study. We hypothesize that informal experiences are relevant beyond formal experiences. First-year psychology student cohorts from various European countries will be assessed at the beginning and again at the end of the second semester. Assessments of scientific thinking will include scientific reasoning skills, the understanding of basic statistics concepts, and epistemic cognition. Formal learning experiences will include engagement in academic activities which are guided by university authorities. Informal learning experiences will include non-compulsory, self-guided learning experiences. Formal and informal experiences will be assessed with a newly developed survey. As dispositional predictors, students’ need for cognition and self-efficacy in psychological science will be assessed. In a structural equation model, students’ learning experiences and personal dispositions will be examined as predictors of their development of scientific thinking. Commonalities and differences in predictive weights across universities will be tested. The project is aimed at contributing information for designing university environments to optimize the development of students’ scientific thinking. PMID:28239363

  16. On Formal and Informal Factors: Enabling Learning for Safe Offshore Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve J. Steiro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional safety thinking has been concerned with investigating accident causations in order to learn from these. However, successful operations constitute the great majority of all the operations. It would thus be interesting to add a focus towards learning from operations that go well. The purpose of the current study is to identify factors that might contribute to successful operations in terms of safety. This purpose is approached by an empirical study consisting of 10 interviews with people who work on board a drilling rig currently operating in Norway. The informants who participated in the interviews hold different positions and come from different companies represented on board the rig. The findings in this study show that it can be difficult to characterize or define successful operations. The definition will be subjective; however, there are some common features of successful operations. Maintaining the life and health of people are the number one priority. A successful operation should also result in the intended product even though it might take some more time than planned. A successful operation is created by many factors and conditions. This study identified 27 factors that might contribute to successful operations in terms of safety. A lot of the theory explaining successful operations focuses on informal factors related to humans and their actions. However, the findings in this study implies that there must be both formal and informal factors present.

  17. Formal semantic specifications as implementation blueprints for real-time programming languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyock, S.

    1981-01-01

    Formal definitions of language and system semantics provide highly desirable checks on the correctness of implementations of programming languages and their runtime support systems. If these definitions can give concrete guidance to the implementor, major increases in implementation accuracy and decreases in implementation effort can be achieved. It is shown that of the wide variety of available methods the Hgraph (hypergraph) definitional technique (Pratt, 1975), is best suited to serve as such an implementation blueprint. A discussion and example of the Hgraph technique is presented, as well as an overview of the growing body of implementation experience of real-time languages based on Hgraph semantic definitions.

  18. Formal Specification and Description Language and Message Sequence Chart to Model and Validate Session Initiation Protocol Services

    OpenAIRE

    Sa'ed Abed; Mohammad H. Al Shayeji; Ovais Ahmed; Sahel Alouneh

    2016-01-01

    Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling layer protocol for building, adjusting and ending sessions among participants including Internet conferences, telephone calls and multimedia distribution. SIP facilitates user movement by proxying and forwarding requests to the present location of the user. In this paper, we provide a formal Specification and Description Language (SDL) and Message Sequence Chart (MSC) to model and define the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) SIP protocol a...

  19. Use of Online Learning Resources in the Development of Learning Environments at the Intersection of Formal and Informal Learning: The Student as Autonomous Designer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Lebeničnik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning resources that are used in the education of university students are often available online. The nature of new technologies causes an interweaving of formal and informal learning, with the result that a more active role is expected from students with regard to the use of ICT for their learning. The variety of online learning resources (learning content and learning tools facilitates informed use and enables students to create the learning environment that is most appropriate for their personal learning needs and preferences. In contemporary society, the creation of an inclusive learning environment supported by ICT is pervasive. The model of Universal Design for Learning is becoming increasingly significant in responding to the need for inclusive learning environments. In this article, we categorize different online learning activities into the principles of Universal Design for Learning. This study examines ICT use among university students (N = 138, comparing student teachers with students in other study programs. The findings indicate that among all students, activities with lower demands for engagement are most common. Some differences were observed between student teachers and students from other programs. Student teachers were more likely than their peers to perform certain activities aimed at meeting diverse learner needs, but the percentage of students performing more advanced activities was higher for students in other study programs than for student teachers. The categorization of activities revealed that student teachers are less likely to undertake activities that involve interaction with others. Among the sample of student teachers, we found that personal innovativeness is correlated with diversity of activities in only one category. The results show that student teachers should be encouraged to perform more advanced activities, especially activities involving interaction with others, collaborative learning and use of ICT to

  20. Cooperate to Validate. Observal-Net Experts' Report on Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning (VNIL) 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber Guisan, Saskia; Voit, Janine; Lengauer, Sonja; Proinger, Eva; Duvekot, Ruud; Aagaard, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    The present publication is one of the outcomes of the OBSERVAL-NET project (followup of the OBSERVAL project). The main aim of OBSERVAL-NET was to set up a stakeholder centric network of organisations supporting the validation of non-formal and informal learning in Europe based on the formation of national working groups in the 8 participating…

  1. Models of Transformative Learning for Social Justice: Comparative Case Studies of Non-Formal Development Education in Britain and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents comparative case studies of non-formal development education by non-profit organisations in two European countries. The study aimed to explore the extent to which such activities provide opportunities for transformative learning. The research was qualitative and began with interviews with educators across 14 organisations in…

  2. Cooperate to Validate: OBSERVAL-NET Experts' Report on Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning (VNIL) 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber Guisan, Saskia; Voit, Janine; Lengauer, Sonja; Proinger, Eva; Duvekot, Ruud; Aagaard, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    The present publication is one of the outcomes of the OBSERVAL-NET project (follow-up of the OBSERVAL project). The main aim of OBSERVAL-NET was to set up a stakeholder-centric network of organisations supporting the validation of non-formal and informal learning in Europe based on the formation of national working groups in the 8 participating…

  3. Policies of Adult Education in Portugal and France: The European Agenda of Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaco, C.; Lafont, P.; Pariat, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the influence of the European Union's educational policies on the implementation of devices for the recognition and the validation of informal and non-formal learning within public policies on education and training for adults in European Union Member States. Portugal and France are taken as examples. The European Union's…

  4. Participation in Non-Formal Learning in EU-15 and EU-8 Countries: Demand and Supply Side Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosmaa, Eve-Liis; Saar, Ellu

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth analysis of participation in non-formal learning in different European Union member states. The paper also seeks to extend analysis of the training gap by pursuing the distinction between the supply and the demand for skills. We use aggregate data from the Adult Education Survey (Eurostat)…

  5. Does Online Game-Based Learning Work in Formal Education at School? A Case Study of VISOLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Morris S. Y.

    2015-01-01

    VISOLE (Virtual Interactive Student-Oriented Environment) is a teacher-facilitated pedagogical approach to integrating constructivist online game-based learning into formal curriculum teaching in school education. This paper reports a case study on the implementation of VISOLE in secondary Geography education. We compared the pedagogical…

  6. Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning: A Lithuanian Case of Novice Consultants' Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkšaitiene, Nijole

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of the investigation into institutional support provided to adults by 12 novice consultants on assessment and recognition of their non-formal and informal learning in four institutions of higher education (HEIs) in Lithuania. Using the general systems perspective and perception theory, novice consultants'…

  7. Is adolescence a critical period for learning formal thinking skills? A case study investigating the development of formal thinking skills in a short-term inquiry-based intervention program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Forrest S.

    Current domestic and international comparative studies of student achievement in science are demonstrating that the U.S. needs to improve science education if it wants to remain competitive in the global economy. One of the causes of the poor performance of U.S. science education is the lack of students who have developed the formal thinking skills that are necessary to obtain scientific literacy. Previous studies have demonstrated that formal thinking skills can be taught to adolescents, however only 25% of incoming college freshman have these necessary skills. There is some evidence that adolescence (girls aged 11-13, boys aged 12-14) is a critical period where students must learn formal thinking skills, similar to the critical period that exists for young children learning languages. It is not known whether it is more difficult for students to learn formal thinking skills either prior to or following adolescence. The purpose of this quantitative case study is to determine whether adolescence is a critical period for students to learn formal thinking skills. The study also investigates whether a formal thinking skills focused program can improve students' intelligence. In this study 32 students who had not developed any formal thinking skills, ranging in age from 10-16, underwent an intensive four-week, inquiry-based, formal thinking skill intervention program that focused on two formal thinking skills: (1) the ability to control and exclude variables; and (2) the ability to manipulate ratios and proportionalities. The students undergoing the training were matched with control students by age, gender, formal thinking skill ability, and intelligence. The control group attended their traditional science course during the intervention periods. The results of the study showed that the intervention program was successful in developing students' formal thinking skills. The pre-adolescents (males, age 10-11, females, age 10) were unable to learn formal thinking skills

  8. Combining the GW formalism with the polarizable continuum model: A state-specific non-equilibrium approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchemin, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.duchemin@cea.fr [INAC, SP2M/L-Sim, CEA/UJF Cedex 09, 38054 Grenoble (France); Jacquemin, Denis [Laboratoire CEISAM - UMR CNR 6230, Université de Nantes, 2 Rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Institut Universitaire de France, 1 rue Descartes, 75005 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Blase, Xavier [CNRS, Inst. NÉEL, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inst. NÉEL, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2016-04-28

    We have implemented the polarizable continuum model within the framework of the many-body Green’s function GW formalism for the calculation of electron addition and removal energies in solution. The present formalism includes both ground-state and non-equilibrium polarization effects. In addition, the polarization energies are state-specific, allowing to obtain the bath-induced renormalisation energy of all occupied and virtual energy levels. Our implementation is validated by comparisons with ΔSCF calculations performed at both the density functional theory and coupled-cluster single and double levels for solvated nucleobases. The present study opens the way to GW and Bethe-Salpeter calculations in disordered condensed phases of interest in organic optoelectronics, wet chemistry, and biology.

  9. Cognitive Clusters in Specific Learning Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Michele; Carretta, Elisa; Bonvicini, Laura; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo

    The heterogeneity among children with learning disabilities still represents a barrier and a challenge in their conceptualization. Although a dimensional approach has been gaining support, the categorical approach is still the most adopted, as in the recent fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The introduction of the single overarching diagnostic category of specific learning disorder (SLD) could underemphasize interindividual clinical differences regarding intracategory cognitive functioning and learning proficiency, according to current models of multiple cognitive deficits at the basis of neurodevelopmental disorders. The characterization of specific cognitive profiles associated with an already manifest SLD could help identify possible early cognitive markers of SLD risk and distinct trajectories of atypical cognitive development leading to SLD. In this perspective, we applied a cluster analysis to identify groups of children with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-based diagnosis of SLD with similar cognitive profiles and to describe the association between clusters and SLD subtypes. A sample of 205 children with a diagnosis of SLD were enrolled. Cluster analyses (agglomerative hierarchical and nonhierarchical iterative clustering technique) were used successively on 10 core subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition. The 4-cluster solution was adopted, and external validation found differences in terms of SLD subtype frequencies and learning proficiency among clusters. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed, tracing directions for further studies.

  10. Formal specification of open distributed systems - overview and evaluation of existing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoelen, Ketil

    1998-02-01

    This report classifies, compares and evaluates eleven specification languages for distributed systems. The eleven specification languages have been picked from a wide spectrum of areas embracing both industry and research. We have selected languages that we see as important; either because they have proved useful within the commercial software industry, or because they play or we expect them to play an important role within research. Based on literature studies, we investigate the suitability of these specification languages to describe open distributed systems. The languages are also evaluated with respect to support for refinement and the characterization of proof-obligations. The report consists of five main parts: Part 1 gives the background and motivation for the evaluation; it also introduces the basic terminology; Part 2 motivates, identifies and formulates the concrete evaluation criterions; Part 3 evaluates the specification languages with respect to the evaluation criterions formulated in Part 2; Part 4 sums up the results from the evaluation in the form of tables; it also draws some conclusions and identifies some directions for further studies; Part 5 consists of two appendices, namely a bibliography and a list of abbreviations. (author)

  11. Computer-Aided Discovery of Formal Specification Behavioral Requirements and Requirement to Implementation Mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    the executable SRM is developed according to the specification and marketing documents. Hence, for example, the Vehicles, Car, and Truck classes in...transitions ternary relation: transitions ⊆ states x transitionIDs x states, such as <"Init", "Tr1", " stP "> • A conditions unary relation bound to

  12. Formal Specification and Validation of Secure Connection Establishment in a Generic Access Network Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, Paul; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Generic Access Network (GAN) architecture is defined by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), and allows telephone services, such as SMS and voice-calls, to be accessed via generic IP networks. The main usage of this is to allow mobile phones to use WiFi in addition to the usual GSM...... network. The GAN specification relies on the Internet Protocol Security layer (IPSec) and the Internet Key Exchange protocol (IKEv2) to provide encryption across IP networks, and thus avoid compromising the security of the telephone networks. The detailed usage of these two Internet protocols (IPSec...

  13. Validation of non-formal and informal learning from a European perspective – linking validation arrangements with national qualifications frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Mikulec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses European policy on the validation of non-formal and informal learning, which is presented as a “salvation narrative” that can improve the functioning of the labour market, provide a way out from unemployment and strengthen the competitiveness of the economy. Taking as our starting point recent findings in adult education theory on the validation of non-formal and informal learning, we aim to prove the thesis that what European validation policy promotes is above all economic purpose and that it establishes a “Credential/Credit-exchange” model of validation of non-formal and informal learning. We proceed to ecxamine the effect of European VNIL policy in selected European countries where validation arrangements are linked to the qualifications framework. We find that the “Credential/ Credit-exchange” validation model was first established in a few individual European countries and then transferred, as a “successful” model, to the level of common European VNIL policy.

  14. Does formal complexity reflect cognitive complexity? Investigating aspects of the Chomsky Hierarchy in an artificial language learning study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öttl, Birgit; Jäger, Gerhard; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether formal complexity, as described by the Chomsky Hierarchy, corresponds to cognitive complexity during language learning. According to the Chomsky Hierarchy, nested dependencies (context-free) are less complex than cross-serial dependencies (mildly context-sensitive). In two artificial grammar learning (AGL) experiments participants were presented with a language containing either nested or cross-serial dependencies. A learning effect for both types of dependencies could be observed, but no difference between dependency types emerged. These behavioral findings do not seem to reflect complexity differences as described in the Chomsky Hierarchy. This study extends previous findings in demonstrating learning effects for nested and cross-serial dependencies with more natural stimulus materials in a classical AGL paradigm after only one hour of exposure. The current findings can be taken as a starting point for further exploring the degree to which the Chomsky Hierarchy reflects cognitive processes.

  15. Migration and validation of non-formal and informal learning in Europe: Inclusion, exclusion or polarisation in the recognition of skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Otero, Manuel; Villalba-Garcia, Ernesto

    2015-10-01

    This article explores (1) the degree to which immigrants can be considered dominant groups in the area of validation of non-formal and informal learning and are subject to specific validation measures in 33 European countries; (2) whether country clusters can be identified within Europe with regard to the dominance of immigrants in the area of validation; and (3) whether validation systems are likely to lead to the inclusion of immigrants or foster a process of "devaluation" of their skills and competences in their host countries. Based on the European Inventory on validation of non- formal and informal learning project (chiefly its 2014 update) as well as a review of 124 EU-funded (Lifelong Learning Programme and European Social Fund) validation projects, the authors present the following findings: (1) in the majority of European countries, immigrants are not a dominant group in the area of validation. (2) In terms of country clusters, Central European and Nordic countries tend to consider immigrants a dominant target group for validation to a greater extent than Southern and Eastern European countries. (3) Finally, few initiatives aim to ensure that immigrants' skills and competences are not devalued in their host country, and those initiatives which are in place benefit particularly those defined as "highly skilled" individuals, on the basis of their productive potential. There is, thus, a "low road" and a "high road" to validation, leading to a process of polarisation in the recognition of the skills and competences of immigrants.

  16. The formal specification of abstract data types and their implementation in Fortran 90: implementation issues concerning the use of pointers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maley, D.; Kilpatrick, P. L.; Schreiner, E. W.; Scott, N. S.; Diercksen, G. H. F.

    1996-10-01

    In this paper we continue our investigation into the development of computational-science software based on the identification and formal specification of Abstract Data Types (ADTs) and their implementation in Fortran 90. In particular, we consider the consequences of using pointers when implementing a formally specified ADT in Fortran 90. Our aim is to highlight the resulting conflict between the goal of information hiding, which is central to the ADT methodology, and the space efficiency of the implementation. We show that the issue of storage recovery cannot be avoided by the ADT user, and present a range of implementations of a simple ADT to illustrate various approaches towards satisfactory storage management. Finally, we propose a set of guidelines for implementing ADTs using pointers in Fortran 90. These guidelines offer a way gracefully to provide disposal operations in Fortran 90. Such an approach is desirable since Fortran 90 does not provide automatic garbage collection which is offered by many object-oriented languages including Eiffel, Java, Smalltalk, and Simula.

  17. Teaching Foreign Languages to Pupils with Specific Learning Disability

    OpenAIRE

    VOLDÁNOVÁ, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with the topic of specific learning disability. In the theoretical part I define the term specific learning disability and I mention the related terms. I deal with the history, types and causes of specific learning disability, further I describe the possibilities of diagnostics and re-education concerning specific learning disability. I also attend to the situation of a pupil in the family and school background. The main attention is especially paid to teaching forei...

  18. 34 CFR 300.307 - Specific learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific learning disabilities. 300.307 Section 300.307... Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.307 Specific learning disabilities. (a) General. A State must adopt, consistent with § 300.309...

  19. The recognition of non-formal education in higher education: Where are we now, and are we learning from experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Harris

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of non-formal education in the form of Open Education Resources (OERs and Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs gives rise to the questions of how such education can be formally recognized for credit. Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR, and Qualification Frameworks are fields of practice actively engaged in and associated with the recognition of non-formal education (RNFE and can provide guidance on RNFE for the recognition of OERs/MOOCs. A scoping exercise reviews the literatures from the three fields and associated practical exemplars. Findings suggest a growing demand for, growth in, and diversification of, the recognition of non-formal education. Synergies or creative combinations of expertise across the three fields that could be further exploited to gain maximum traction for RNFE are identified. These are multi-dimensional: top-down, bottom-up, sector to sector, country to country, qualification framework to qualification framework, system to system, field to field. There is ample evidence that the process of recognition, albeit demanding, does have a positive effect on the quality of the NFE, and by association, it is hoped, on the qualification status of individuals and their access to related social and economic benefits.

  20. A Comparison of Participation Patterns in Selected Formal, Non-formal, and Informal Online Learning Environments / Comparaison des modes de participation dans des environnements formels, non formels et informels d'apprentissage en ligne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Schwier

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Does learner participation vary depending on the learning context? Are there characteristic features of participation evident in formal, non-formal, and informal online learning environments? Six online learning environments were chosen as epitomes of formal, non-formal, and informal learning contexts and compared. Transcripts of online discussions were analyzed and compared employing Transcript Analysis Tools for measures of density, intensity, and reciprocity of participation (Fahy, Crawford, & Ally, 2001, and mean reply depth (Wiley, n.d.. This paper provides an initial description and comparison of participation patterns in a formal, non-formal, and informal learning environment, and discusses the significance of differences observed. La participation des apprenants varie-t-elle en fonction du contexte d'apprentissage? Existe-t-il des caractéristiques de participation spécifiques aux environnements formels, non formels et informels d'apprentissage en ligne? Six environnements d'apprentissage en ligne ont été sélectionnés pour illustrer les contextes formels, non formels et informels d'apprentissage et ont été comparés. Les transcriptions des discussions en ligne ont été analysées et comparées à l’aide des Transcript Analysis Tools pour mesurer la densité, l'intensité et la réciprocité de la participation (Fahy, Crawford, et Ally, 2001, ainsi que la profondeur moyenne de réponse (John Wiley & Sons, nd. Cet article décrit et compare les modes de participation dans un environnement formel, non formel et informel d'apprentissage, et discute la portée des différences observées.

  1. Beyond formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    The ongoing debate over the role of formalism and formal specifications in software features many speakers with diverse positions. Yet, in the end, they share the conviction that the requirements of a software system can be unambiguously specified, that acceptable software is a product demonstrably meeting the specifications, and that the design process can be carried out with little interaction between designers and users once the specification has been agreed to. This conviction is part of a larger paradigm prevalent in American management thinking, which holds that organizations are systems that can be precisely specified and optimized. This paradigm, which traces historically to the works of Frederick Taylor in the early 1900s, is no longer sufficient for organizations and software systems today. In the domain of software, a new paradigm, called user-centered design, overcomes the limitations of pure formalism. Pioneered in Scandinavia, user-centered design is spreading through Europe and is beginning to make its way into the U.S.

  2. Reasoning about variables in 11 to 18 year olds: informal, schooled and formal expression in learning about functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Michal; Watson, Anne; Lerman, Steve

    2016-09-01

    This study examines expressions of reasoning by some higher achieving 11 to 18 year-old English students responding to a survey consisting of function tasks developed in collaboration with their teachers. We report on 70 students, 10 from each of English years 7-13. Iterative and comparative analysis identified capabilities and difficulties of students and suggested conjectures concerning links between the affordances of the tasks, the curriculum, and students' responses. The paper focuses on five of the survey tasks and highlights connections between informal and formal expressions of reasoning about variables in learning. We introduce the notion of `schooled' expressions of reasoning, neither formal nor informal, to emphasise the role of the formatting tools introduced in school that shape future understanding and reasoning.

  3. Formal specification with JML

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Ahrendt, Wolfgang; Bruns, Daniel; Hentschel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This text is a general, self contained, and tool independent introduction into the Java Modeling Language, JML. It is a preview of a chapter planned to appear in a book about the KeY approach and tool to the verification of Java software. JML is the dominating starting point of KeY style Java

  4. Learning in Non-Formal Education: Is It "Youthful" for Youth in Action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norqvist, Lars; Leffler, Eva

    2017-01-01

    This article offers insights into the practices of a non-formal education programme for youth provided by the European Union (EU). It takes a qualitative approach and is based on a case study of the European Voluntary Service (EVS). Data were collected during individual and focus group interviews with learners (the EVS volunteers), decision takers…

  5. Non-Formal Adult Learning Programs at Canadian Post-Secondary Institutions: Trends, Issues, and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Dale; Curran, Vernon; Hollett, Ann

    2009-01-01

    A number of recent policy reports have suggested that Canadian universities and community colleges should play a more significant role in response to the adult education and training needs of Canada's workforce. This article discusses the results of a study that examined investment trends and the characteristics of non-formal adult learner…

  6. Using Formal Game Design Methods to Embed Learning Outcomes into Game Mechanics and Avoid Emergent Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Simon; Grey, David; Gordon, Neil; Purdy, Jon

    2017-01-01

    This paper offers an approach to designing game-based learning experiences inspired by the Mechanics-Dynamics-Aesthetics (MDA) model (Hunicke et al., 2004) and the elemental tetrad model (Schell, 2008) for game design. A case for game based learning as an active and social learning experience is presented including arguments from both teachers and…

  7. An effective technique for the software requirements analysis of NPP safety-critical systems, based on software inspection, requirements traceability, and formal specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Seo Ryong; Seong, Poong Hyun; Yoo, Junbeom; Cha, Sung Deok; Yoo, Yeong Jae

    2005-01-01

    A thorough requirements analysis is indispensable for developing and implementing safety-critical software systems such as nuclear power plant (NPP) software systems because a single error in the requirements can generate serious software faults. However, it is very difficult to completely analyze system requirements. In this paper, an effective technique for the software requirements analysis is suggested. For requirements verification and validation (V and V) tasks, our technique uses software inspection, requirement traceability, and formal specification with structural decomposition. Software inspection and requirements traceability analysis are widely considered the most effective software V and V methods. Although formal methods are also considered an effective V and V activity, they are difficult to use properly in the nuclear fields as well as in other fields because of their mathematical nature. In this work, we propose an integrated environment (IE) approach for requirements, which is an integrated approach that enables easy inspection by combining requirement traceability and effective use of a formal method. The paper also introduces computer-aided tools for supporting IE approach for requirements. Called the nuclear software inspection support and requirements traceability (NuSISRT), the tool incorporates software inspection, requirement traceability, and formal specification capabilities. We designed the NuSISRT to partially automate software inspection and analysis of requirement traceability. In addition, for the formal specification and analysis, we used the formal requirements specification and analysis tool for nuclear engineering (NuSRS)

  8. Are Students' Learning Styles Discipline Specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cheryl; Reichard, Carla; Mokhtari, Kouider

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which community college students' learning style preferences vary as a function of discipline. Reports significant differences in students' learning style preferences across disciplines, but not by gender. Adds that student learning style preferences varied by academic performance as measured by gender. Discusses…

  9. Developing an eLearning tool formalizing in YAWL the guidelines used in a transfusion medicine service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paola; Piazza, Miriam; Leonardi, Giorgio; Roncoroni, Layla; Russo, Carlo; Spadaro, Salvatore; Quaglini, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    The blood transfusion is a complex activity subject to a high risk of eventually fatal errors. The development and application of computer-based systems could help reducing the error rate, playing a fundamental role in the improvement of the quality of care. This poster presents an under development eLearning tool formalizing the guidelines of the transfusion process. This system, implemented in YAWL (Yet Another Workflow Language), will be used to train the personnel in order to improve the efficiency of care and to reduce errors.

  10. Learning Through Experience: Influence of Formal and Informal Training on Medical Error Disclosure Skills in Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Brian M; Coffey, Maitreya; Nousiainen, Markku T; Brydges, Ryan; McDonald-Blumer, Heather; Atkinson, Adelle; Levinson, Wendy; Stroud, Lynfa

    2017-02-01

    Residents' attitudes toward error disclosure have improved over time. It is unclear whether this has been accompanied by improvements in disclosure skills. To measure the disclosure skills of internal medicine (IM), paediatrics, and orthopaedic surgery residents, and to explore resident perceptions of formal versus informal training in preparing them for disclosure in real-world practice. We assessed residents' error disclosure skills using a structured role play with a standardized patient in 2012-2013. We compared disclosure skills across programs using analysis of variance. We conducted a multiple linear regression, including data from a historical cohort of IM residents from 2005, to investigate the influence of predictor variables on performance: training program, cohort year, and prior disclosure training and experience. We conducted a qualitative descriptive analysis of data from semistructured interviews with residents to explore resident perceptions of formal versus informal disclosure training. In a comparison of disclosure skills for 49 residents, there was no difference in overall performance across specialties (4.1 to 4.4 of 5, P  = .19). In regression analysis, only the current cohort was significantly associated with skill: current residents performed better than a historical cohort of 42 IM residents ( P  formal (workshops, morbidity and mortality rounds) and informal (role modeling, debriefing) activities in preparation for disclosure in real-world practice. Residents across specialties have similar skills in disclosure of errors. Residents identified role modeling and a strong local patient safety culture as key facilitators for disclosure.

  11. Requirements for Semantic Educational Recommender Systems in Formal E-Learning Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus G. Boticario; Olga C. Santos

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes how recommender systems can be applied to current e-learning systems to guide learners in personalized inclusive e-learning scenarios. Recommendations can be used to overcome current limitations of learning management systems in providing personalization and accessibility features. Recommenders can take advantage of standards-based solutions to provide inclusive support. To this end we have identified the need for developing semantic educational recommender systems, which ...

  12. A spin-adapted size-extensive state-specific multi-reference perturbation theory. I. Formal developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shuneng; Cheng, Lan; Liu, Wenjian; Mukherjee, Debashis

    2012-01-01

    We present in this paper a comprehensive formulation of a spin-adapted size-extensive state-specific multi-reference second-order perturbation theory (SA-SSMRPT2) as a tool for applications to molecular states of arbitrary complexity and generality. The perturbative theory emerges in the development as a result of a physically appealing quasi-linearization of a rigorously size-extensive state-specific multi-reference coupled cluster (SSMRCC) formalism [U. S. Mahapatra, B. Datta, and D. Mukherjee, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 6171 (1999), 10.1063/1.478523]. The formulation is intruder-free as long as the state-energy is energetically well-separated from the virtual functions. SA-SSMRPT2 works with a complete active space (CAS), and treats each of the model space functions on the same footing. This thus has the twin advantages of being capable of handling varying degrees of quasi-degeneracy and of ensuring size-extensivity. This strategy is attractive in terms of the applicability to bigger systems. A very desirable property of the parent SSMRCC theory is the explicit maintenance of size-extensivity under a variety of approximations of the working equations. We show how to generate both the Rayleigh-Schrödinger (RS) and the Brillouin-Wigner (BW) versions of SA-SSMRPT2. Unlike the traditional naive formulations, both the RS and the BW variants are manifestly size-extensive and both share the avoidance of intruders in the same manner as the parent SSMRCC. We discuss the various features of the RS as well as the BW version using several partitioning strategies of the hamiltonian. Unlike the other CAS based MRPTs, the SA-SSMRPT2 is intrinsically flexible in the sense that it is constructed in a manner that it can relax the coefficients of the reference function, or keep the coefficients frozen if we so desire. We delineate the issues pertaining to the spin-adaptation of the working equations of the SA-SSMRPT2, starting from SSMRCC, which would allow us to incorporate essentially

  13. Experiences with formal engineering: model-based specification, implementation and testing of a software bus at Neopost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtema, M.; Salaün, G.; Schätz, B.; Belinfante, Axel; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Marinelli, L.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the actual industrial use of formal methods during the development of a software bus. During an internship at Neopost Inc., of 14 weeks, we developed the server component of a software bus, called the XBus, using formal methods during the design, validation and testing phase: we modeled

  14. Experiences with Formal Engineering : Model-Based Specification, Implementation and Testing of a Software Bus at Neopost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtema, Marten; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Belinfante, Axel; Marinelli, Lawrence; Salaün, Gwen; Schätz, Bernhard

    We report on the actual industrial use of formal methods during the development of a software bus. At Neopost Inc., we developed the server component of a software bus, called the XBus, using formal methods during the design, validation and testing phase: We modeled our design of the XBus in the

  15. "Debate" Learning Method and Its Implications for the Formal Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mohammad; Motaghi, Zohre; Nasrabadi, Hassanali Bakhtiyar; Heshi, Kamal Nosrati

    2016-01-01

    Regarding the importance of enhancement in learner's social skills, especially in learning process, this study tries to introduce one of the group learning programs entitled "debate" as a teaching method in Iran religious universities. It also considers the concept and the history of this method by qualitative and descriptive-analytical…

  16. Insights in reinforcement rearning : formal analysis and empirical evaluation of temporal-difference learning algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hasselt, H.P.

    2011-01-01

    A key aspect of artificial intelligence is the ability to learn from experience. If examples of correct solutions exist, supervised learning techniques can be used to predict what the correct solution will be for future observations. However, often such examples are not readily available. The field

  17. Fostering Collaborative Learning with Mobile Web 2.0 in Semi-Formal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanza-Simwami, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    Mobile Web 2.0 technologies such as: mobile apps, social networking sites and video sharing sites have become essential drivers for shaping daily activities and meeting learning needs in various settings. However, very few studies link mobile Web 2.0 to supporting collaborative learning in real-life problem solving activities in semi-formal…

  18. Teacher Perspectives on Technology Integration Professional Development: Formal, Informal, and Independent Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Monty; Dexter, Sara

    2018-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined the technology integration learning activities of four teachers throughout one year using weekly quantitative surveys and a series of three qualitative individual interviews. Through the teachers' own voices an illustration of their learning processes is presented, and the gap between what is supported by their…

  19. Requirements for Semantic Educational Recommender Systems in Formal E-Learning Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus G. Boticario

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes how recommender systems can be applied to current e-learning systems to guide learners in personalized inclusive e-learning scenarios. Recommendations can be used to overcome current limitations of learning management systems in providing personalization and accessibility features. Recommenders can take advantage of standards-based solutions to provide inclusive support. To this end we have identified the need for developing semantic educational recommender systems, which are able to extend existing learning management systems with adaptive navigation support. In this paper we present three requirements to be considered in developing these semantic educational recommender systems, which are in line with the service-oriented approach of the third generation of learning management systems, namely: (i a recommendation model; (ii an open standards-based service-oriented architecture; and (iii a usable and accessible graphical user interface to deliver the recommendations.

  20. MOOCs, Open educational resources and social networking: bridging the gap between informal and formal learning//MOOC, recursos de educación abierto y redes sociales: acortando la distancia entre aprendizaje informal y formal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Sclater

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available MOOCs and open educational resources (OER provide a wealth of learning opportunities for people around the globe, many of whom have no access to formal higher education. OER are often difficult to locate and are accessed on their own without support from or dialogue with subject experts and peers. This paper looks at whether it is possible to develop effective learning communities around OER and whether these communities can emerge spontaneously and in a self-organised way without moderation. It examines the complex interplay between formal and informal learning, and examines whether MOOCs are the answer to providing effective interaction and dialogue for those wishing to study at university level for free on the Internet.

  1. The Potential of the Non-Formal Educational Sector for Supporting Chemistry Learning and Sustainability Education for All Students--A Joint Perspective from Two Cases in Finland and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affeldt, Fiona; Tolppanen, Sakari; Aksela, Maija; Eilks, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    Non-formal education has been suggested as becoming more and more important in the last decades. As the aims of non-formal education are broad and diverse, a large variety of non-formal learning activities is available. One of the emerging fields in many countries, among them Finland and Germany, has been the establishment of non-formal laboratory…

  2. A Personalization Effect in Multimedia Learning: Students Learn Better When Words Are in Conversational Style Rather Than Formal Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard E.; Fennell, Sherry; Farmer, Lindsay; Campbell, Julie

    2004-01-01

    Students received a personalized or nonpersonalized version of a narrated animation explaining how the human respiratory system works. The narration for the nonpersonalized version was in formal style, whereas the narration for the personalized version was in conversational style in which "the" was changed to "your" in 12 places. In 3 experiments,…

  3. Specific learning disorder: prevalence and gender differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Moll

    Full Text Available Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed.

  4. Dynamic Parameter Identification of Subject-Specific Body Segment Parameters Using Robotics Formalism: Case Study Head Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Miguel; Valera, Angel; Page, Alvaro; Besa, Antonio; Mata, Vicente

    2016-05-01

    Accurate knowledge of body segment inertia parameters (BSIP) improves the assessment of dynamic analysis based on biomechanical models, which is of paramount importance in fields such as sport activities or impact crash test. Early approaches for BSIP identification rely on the experiments conducted on cadavers or through imaging techniques conducted on living subjects. Recent approaches for BSIP identification rely on inverse dynamic modeling. However, most of the approaches are focused on the entire body, and verification of BSIP for dynamic analysis for distal segment or chain of segments, which has proven to be of significant importance in impact test studies, is rarely established. Previous studies have suggested that BSIP should be obtained by using subject-specific identification techniques. To this end, our paper develops a novel approach for estimating subject-specific BSIP based on static and dynamics identification models (SIM, DIM). We test the validity of SIM and DIM by comparing the results using parameters obtained from a regression model proposed by De Leva (1996, "Adjustments to Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's Segment Inertia Parameters," J. Biomech., 29(9), pp. 1223-1230). Both SIM and DIM are developed considering robotics formalism. First, the static model allows the mass and center of gravity (COG) to be estimated. Second, the results from the static model are included in the dynamics equation allowing us to estimate the moment of inertia (MOI). As a case study, we applied the approach to evaluate the dynamics modeling of the head complex. Findings provide some insight into the validity not only of the proposed method but also of the application proposed by De Leva (1996, "Adjustments to Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's Segment Inertia Parameters," J. Biomech., 29(9), pp. 1223-1230) for dynamic modeling of body segments.

  5. Orientation of nurses towards formal and informal learning: motives and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, Dolores

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to gain information on the current orientation of registered nurses towards continuing education and lifelong learning. The population (N=162) consists of 2nd and 1st Level nurses who have or are currently taking part in continuing education. Qualitative empirical data were obtained through semi structured one to one interviews. The research questions sought information related to some of the reasons and motives for the participants' taking part in various categories of learning. Also explored was what factors might influence these participants' learning activities and the views and perceptions of their learning experiences. For many of these nurses, the initial motive for taking part in continuing education was the perception that they were being left behind by the higher educational level of nurses entering the profession. Contrary to some anecdotal views, the participants generally felt that higher education (HE) contributed to enhanced client care, reporting additional personal and professional satisfaction. Alleged poor support from managers for continuing education and the lack of parity, often within the same organisation regarding the selection criteria to take part in a variety of learning activities, was a source of dissatisfaction for some of these participants. Their determination to learn, however, remained strong.

  6. A Collaborative Diagonal Learning Network: The role of formal and informal professional development in elementary science reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke-Nieves, Natasha Anika

    Science education research has consistently shown that elementary teachers have a low self-efficacy and background knowledge to teach science. When they teach science, there is a lack of field experiences and inquiry-based instruction at the elementary level due to limited resources, both material and pedagogical. This study focused on an analysis of a professional development (PD) model designed by the author known as the Collaborative Diagonal Learning Network (CDLN). The purpose of this study was to examine elementary school teacher participants pedagogical content knowledge related to their experiences in a CDLN model. The CDLN model taught formal and informal instruction using a science coach and an informal educational institution. Another purpose for this research included a theoretical analysis of the CDLN model to see if its design enabled teachers to expand their resource knowledge of available science education materials. The four-month-long study used qualitative data obtained during an in-service professional development program facilitated by a science coach and educators from a large natural history museum. Using case study as the research design, four elementary school teachers were asked to evaluate the effectiveness of their science coach and museum educator workshop sessions. During the duration of this study, semi-structured individual/group interviews and open-ended pre/post PD questionnaires were used. Other data sources included researcher field notes from lesson observations, museum field trips, audio-recorded workshop sessions, email correspondence, and teacher-created artifacts. The data were analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach. Themes that emerged included increased self-efficacy; increased pedagogical content knowledge; increased knowledge of museum education resources and access; creation of a professional learning community; and increased knowledge of science notebooking. Implications for formal and informal

  7. Does a Formal Wiki Event Contribute to the Formation of a Network of Practice? A Social Capital Perspective on the Potential for Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Martin; Littlejohn, Allison; Rienties, Bart

    2018-01-01

    Informal learning in blended and online settings plays an increasingly important role in the continuous professional development of individuals. Yet, how do individuals engage into these types of activities? We argue that social capital theory can provide valuable insights into how people behave and decide to take part in (in)formal learning.…

  8. Towards the Construction of a Personal Professional Pathway: An Experimental Project for the Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning in the University of Catania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    In Italy, accreditation of prior learning is a sensitive issue. Despite the lack of laws or qualification frameworks regulating the recognition of non-formal and informal learning, most Italian universities proceed with caution, allowing only a restricted number of credits in the university curriculum related to practical activities or to external…

  9. Agent-Based Model of Information Security System: Architecture and Formal Framework for Coordinated Intelligent Agents Behavior Specification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorodetski, Vladimir

    2001-01-01

    The contractor will research and further develop the technology supporting an agent-based architecture for an information security system and a formal framework to specify a model of distributed knowledge...

  10. Bootstrapping in a language of thought: a formal model of numerical concept learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Goodman, Noah D

    2012-05-01

    In acquiring number words, children exhibit a qualitative leap in which they transition from understanding a few number words, to possessing a rich system of interrelated numerical concepts. We present a computational framework for understanding this inductive leap as the consequence of statistical inference over a sufficiently powerful representational system. We provide an implemented model that is powerful enough to learn number word meanings and other related conceptual systems from naturalistic data. The model shows that bootstrapping can be made computationally and philosophically well-founded as a theory of number learning. Our approach demonstrates how learners may combine core cognitive operations to build sophisticated representations during the course of development, and how this process explains observed developmental patterns in number word learning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Haptic Paddle Enhancements and a Formal Assessment of Student Learning in System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlewicz, Jenna L.; Kratchman, Louis B.; Webster, Robert J., III

    2014-01-01

    The haptic paddle is a force-feedback joystick used at several universities in teaching System Dynamics, a core mechanical engineering undergraduate course where students learn to model dynamic systems in several domains. A second goal of the haptic paddle is to increase the accessibility of robotics and haptics by providing a low-cost device for…

  12. MobilED – a mobile tools and services platform for formal and informal learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ford, M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available and language technologies (voice, text, images) are used via the mobile phone as tools in the learning process. The first 2 pilots focused on the use of low-cost mobile phones, which are readily available in the developing world. It consisted of the development...

  13. An evaluation of learning resources in the teaching of formal philosophical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A.J. Stuart

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In any discipline, across a wide variety of subjects, there are numerous learning resources available to students. For many students the resources that will be most beneficial to them are quickly apparent but, because of the nature of philosophy and the philosophical method, it is not immediately clear which resources will be most valuable to students for whom the development of critical thinking skills is crucial. If we are to support these students effectively in their learning we must establish what these resources are how we can continue to maintain and improve them, and how we can encourage students to make good use of them. In this paper we describe and assess our evaluation of the use made by students of learning resources in the context of learning logic and in developing their critical thinking skills. We also assess the use of a new resource, electronic handsets, the purpose of which is to encourage students to respond to questions in lectures and to gain feedback about how they are progressing with the material.

  14. Creating Personal Meaning through Technology-Supported Science Inquiry Learning across Formal and Informal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastopoulou, Stamatina; Sharples, Mike; Ainsworth, Shaaron; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire; Wright, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to engaging students in personal inquiry learning is described, whereby they carry out scientific investigations that are personally meaningful and relevant to their everyday lives. The learners are supported by software that guides the inquiry process, extending from the classroom into the school grounds, home, or…

  15. Keeping older workers committed and employed through formal and informal HRD initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, Ida; Horstink, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Human resources development (HRD) initiatives are often targeted towards increasing employee organisational commitment. This specifically holds for more informal practices of learning and development, although most learning situations encompass both formal and informal elements. In this chapter a

  16. Student Agency: an Analysis of Students' Networked Relations Across the Informal and Formal Learning Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappa, Natasha Anne; Tang, Kok-Sing

    2017-06-01

    Agency is a construct facilitating our examination of when and how young people extend their own learning across contexts. However, little is known about the role played by adolescent learners' sense of agency. This paper reports two cases of students' agentively employing and developing science literacy practices—one in Singapore and the other in the USA. The paper illustrates how these two adolescent learners in different ways creatively accessed, navigated and integrated in-school and out-of-school discourses to support and nurture their learning of physics. Data were gleaned from students' work and interviews with students participating in a physics curricular programme in which they made linkages between their chosen out-of-school texts and several physics concepts learnt in school. The students' agentive moves were identified by means of situational mapping, which involved a relational analysis of the students' chosen artefacts and discourses across time and space. This relational analysis enabled us to address questions of student agency—how it can be effected, realised, construed and examined. It highlights possible ways to intervene in these networked relations to facilitate adolescents' agentive moves in their learning endeavours.

  17. Cognitive Clusters in Specific Learning Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Michele; Carretta, Elisa; Bonvicini, Laura; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The heterogeneity among children with learning disabilities still represents a barrier and a challenge in their conceptualization. Although a dimensional approach has been gaining support, the categorical approach is still the most adopted, as in the recent fifth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders." The…

  18. Lessons Learned- The Use of Formal Expert Elicitation in Probablistic Seismic Hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.J. Coppersmith; R.C. Perman; R.R. Youngs

    2006-05-10

    Probabilistic seismic hazard analyses provide the opportunity, indeed the requirement, to quantify the uncertainties in important inputs to the analysis. The locations of future earthquakes, their recurrence rates and maximum size, and the ground motions that will result at a site of interest are all quantities that require careful consideration because they are uncertain. The earliest PSHA models [Cornell, 1968] provided solely for the randomness or aleatory variability in these quantities. The most sophisticated seismic hazard models today, which include quantified uncertainties, are merely more realistic representations of this basic aleatory model. All attempts to quantify uncertainties require expert judgment. Further, all uncertainty models should endeavor to consider the range of views of the larger technical community at the time the hazard analysis is conducted. In some cases, especially for large projects under regulatory review, formal structured methods for eliciting expert judgments have been employed. Experience has shown that certain key elements are required for these assessments to be successful, including: (1) experts should be trained in probability theory, uncertainty quantification, and ways to avoid common cognitive biases; (2) comprehensive and user-friendly databases should be provided to the experts; (3) experts should be required to evaluate all potentially credible hypotheses; (4) workshops and other interactions among the experts and proponents of published viewpoints should be encouraged; (5) elicitations are best conducted in individual interview sessions; (6) feedback should be provided to the experts to give them insight into the significance of alternative assessments to the hazard results; and (7) complete documentation should include the technical basis for all assessments. Case histories are given from seismic hazard analyses in Europe, western North America, and the stable continental region of the United States.

  19. Elluminate Article: Research on Formal Virtual Learning Communities in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Schwier

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The publisher of IRRODL, The Canadian Institute of Distance Education Research (CIDER, is pleased to link here to a series of eight online seminars that took place over Spring 2005, using Elluminate live e-learning and collaborative solutions. These interactive CIDER Sessions disseminate research emanating from Canada's vibrant DE research community, and we feel these archived recordings are highly relevant to many in the international distance education research community. To access these sessions, you must first download FREE software. Visit http://www.elluminate.com/support/ to download this software.

  20. University career centres – venues of non-formal learning for students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Žnidaršič Žagar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of young people, including tertiary graduates, into the labour market is facing stagnation in Slovenia. Besides external factors that are beyond the control of an individual, good employability also depends on personal characteristics of the employment seeker. Awareness of the importance of good employability means empowering and strengthening individuals through process of lifelong learning, thus enabling them to find and retain sustainable employment within the labour market. This consequently enables them to fulfil their career goals and creatively contribute to their own personal satisfaction and success, as well as that of society as a whole. Universities in Slovenia have established careers centres. The University of Ljubljana opened its first careers centre years ago (in 2008, and we are now beginning to see the results, which are similar to those achieved by careers centres of other European universities. This confirms that promotion and facilitation of good employability is more effective when careers centres are closely involved in the study process.

  1. Merging social networking environments and formal learning environments to support and facilitate interprofessional instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sharla; Greidanus, Elaine; Carbonaro, Michael; Drummond, Jane; Patterson, Steven

    2009-04-28

    This study describes the redesign of an interprofessional team development course for health science students. A theoretical model is hypothesized as a framework for the redesign process, consisting of two themes: 1) the increasing trend among post-secondary students to participate in social networking (e.g., Facebook, Second Life) and 2) the need for healthcare educators to provide interprofessional training that results in effective communities of practice and better patient care. The redesign focused on increasing the relevance of the course through the integration of custom-designed technology to facilitate social networking during their interprofessional education. Results suggest that students in an educationally structured social networking environment can be guided to join learning communities quickly and access course materials. More research and implementation work is required to effectively develop interprofessional health sciences communities in a combined face-to-face and on-line social networking context.

  2. Creativity in Hong Kong Classrooms: Transition from a Seriously Formal Pedagogy to Informally Playful Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Anna N. N.; Chow, Bonnie W. Y.; Chan, Aubrey Y. T.; Chui, Barbie H. T.; Sam, C. T.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides research evidence that creativity can be nurtured as abilities and skills both in the general domain as well as in specific domains with methods appropriate to the holistic development of young learners. It reports upon two empirical studies on the enhancement of creativity in children and young people, and connects to…

  3. Recognition and Validation of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Lifelong Learning and University in the Italian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rienzo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a reflection, on the basis of empirical research conducted in Italy, on theoretical, methodological and systemic-organisational aspects linked to the recognition and validation of the prior learning acquired by adult learners or workers who decide to enrol at university at a later stage in their lives. The interest in this research…

  4. Formal Specification and Verification of Real-Time Multi-Agent Systems using Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    OpenAIRE

    QASIM, A.; KAZMI, S. A. R.; FAKHIR, I.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we have formally specified and verified the actions of communicating real-time software agents (RTAgents). Software agents are expected to work autonomously and deal with unfamiliar situations astutely. Achieving cent percent test cases coverage for these agents has always been a problem due to limited resources. Also a high degree of dependability and predictability is expected from real-time software agents. In this research we have used Timed-Arc Petri Net...

  5. Integrating semi-formal and formal requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Olivé, Antoni; Dubois, Eric; Pastor, Joan Antoni; Huyts, Sander

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the integration of informal, semiformal and formal requirements specification techniques. We present a framework for requirements specification called TRADE, within which several well-known semiformal specification techniques are placed. TRADE is based on an analysis of

  6. Formal matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Krylov, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is a comprehensive account of formal matrices, examining homological properties of modules over formal matrix rings and summarising the interplay between Morita contexts and K theory. While various special types of formal matrix rings have been studied for a long time from several points of view and appear in various textbooks, for instance to examine equivalences of module categories and to illustrate rings with one-sided non-symmetric properties, this particular class of rings has, so far, not been treated systematically. Exploring formal matrix rings of order 2 and introducing the notion of the determinant of a formal matrix over a commutative ring, this monograph further covers the Grothendieck and Whitehead groups of rings. Graduate students and researchers interested in ring theory, module theory and operator algebras will find this book particularly valuable. Containing numerous examples, Formal Matrices is a largely self-contained and accessible introduction to the topic, assuming a sol...

  7. Conduct disorders as a result of specific learning disorders

    OpenAIRE

    VOKROJOVÁ, Nela

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on relationship between specific learning disorders and conduct disorders in puberty. The theoretical part explains the basic terms apearing in the thesis such as specific learning disorders, conduct disorders, puberty and prevention of conduct disorder formation. It presents Czech and foreign research which have already been done in this and related areas. The empirical part uses a quantitative method to measure anxiety and occurrence of conduct disorders in second grade ...

  8. ALOUD: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study: Association between biological and psychological determinants and study success in adult formal distance education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Jérôme; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    De Groot, R. H. M., Neroni, J., Gijselaers, J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 6 December). ALOUD: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study: Associations between biological and psychological determinants and study success in adult formal distance education. Presented at the Open University for

  9. Combining Formal and Informal Learning: The Use of an Application to Enhance Information Gathering and Sharing Competence in a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yukiko; Rachmawan, Irene Erlyn Wina; Brückner, Stefan; Waragai, Ikumi; Kiyoki, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to enhance foreign language learners' language competence by integrating formal and informal learning environments and considers how they can improve their grammatical and lexical skills through the gathering (comprehension) and sharing (writing) of information in the foreign language. Experiments with German learners at a Japanese…

  10. Global Perspectives on Recognising Non-Formal and Informal Learning: Why Recognition Matters. Technical and Vocational Education and Training: Issues, Concerns and Prospects. Volume 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with the relevance of recognition, validation and accreditation (RVA) of non-formal and informal learning in education and training, the workplace and society. It examines RVA's strategic policy objectives and best practice features as well as the challenges faced and ways forward as reported by Member States. Special attention is…

  11. Making the informal formal: An examination of why and how teachers and students leverage experiences in informal learning environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Barbara P.

    This study was an effort to understand the impact of informal learning environments (museums, aquaria, nature centers, and outdoor education programs) on school groups by developing a picture of why and how teachers and their students leverage experiences in these settings. This work relied on the self-reported visions for science education of formal and informal teachers as a means of creating a portrait or profile of the teacher visitor thus providing a new way to assess the quality of informal visits based on vision elements. Multi-level, year long case studies at six school sites and their partnering informal centers that included multiple interviews, observations (250 hours) of both school based and field trip activities, as well as focus group interviews with students two months past their field trip experience comprised the bulk of data collection activities. In addition to this more intensive work with case study teachers data was gathered from a broader group of participants through surveys (n = 396) and one-time classroom teacher interviews (n = 36) in an effort to validate or confirm case study findings. I discovered that central to informal and formal teachers' visions was a view of education as empowerment. I explored such goals as empowering students to conceive of themselves and their worlds differently, empowering students by sharing responsibility for what and how they learn, and empowering students by creating environments where everyone can contribute meaningfully. Much of what classroom teachers did to leverage the informal experience in supporting their visions of education related to these goals. For example teachers used shared experiences in informal settings as a way for their students to gain better access to and understanding of the classroom curriculum thereby increasing student participation and allowing more students to be successful. They also changed their approach to content by basing the classroom curriculum on students' interests

  12. Perceptual learning is specific to the trained structure of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yamit; Daikhin, Luba; Ahissar, Merav

    2013-12-01

    What do we learn when we practice a simple perceptual task? Many studies have suggested that we learn to refine or better select the sensory representations of the task-relevant dimension. Here we show that learning is specific to the trained structural regularities. Specifically, when this structure is modified after training with a fixed temporal structure, performance regresses to pretraining levels, even when the trained stimuli and task are retained. This specificity raises key questions as to the importance of low-level sensory modifications in the learning process. We trained two groups of participants on a two-tone frequency discrimination task for several days. In one group, a fixed reference tone was consistently presented in the first interval (the second tone was higher or lower), and in the other group the same reference tone was consistently presented in the second interval. When following training, these temporal protocols were switched between groups, performance of both groups regressed to pretraining levels, and further training was needed to attain postlearning performance. ERP measures, taken before and after training, indicated that participants implicitly learned the temporal regularity of the protocol and formed an attentional template that matched the trained structure of information. These results are consistent with Reverse Hierarchy Theory, which posits that even the learning of simple perceptual tasks progresses in a top-down manner, hence can benefit from temporal regularities at the trial level, albeit at the potential cost that learning may be specific to these regularities.

  13. Formality in Brackets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Nyqvist, Anette

    Ethnographic work in formal organizations involves learning to recognize the many layers of front stage and back stage of organized life, and to bracket formality. It means to be alert to the fact that what is formal and front stage for one some actors, and in some situations, may in fact be back...... stage and informal for others. Walking the talk, donning the appropriate attire, wearing the proper suit, may be part of what is takes to figure out the code of formal organizational settings – an entrance ticket to the backstage, as it were. Oftentimes, it involves a degree of mimicry, of ‘following...... suits’ (Nyqvist 2013), and of doing ‘ethnography by failure’ (Garsten 2013). In this paper, we explore the layers of informality and formality in our fieldwork experiences among financial investors and policy experts, and discuss how to ethnographically represent embodied fieldwork practices. How do we...

  14. A predictive validity study of the Learning Style Questionnaire (LSQ) using multiple, specific learning criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappe, F.R.; Boekholt, L.; den Rooyen, C.; van der Flier, H.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple and specific learning criteria were used to examine the predictive validity of the Learning Style Questionnaire (LSQ). Ninety-nine students in a college of higher learning in The Netherlands participated in a naturally occurring field study. The students were categorized into one of four

  15. Academic Achievement and Memory Differences among Specific Learning Disabilities Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Jessica A.; Fraccaro, Rebecca L.; Miller, Daniel C.; Maricle, Denise E.

    2014-01-01

    Reading, writing, and math are academic skills involving a number of different executive functions, particularly working memory. Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) may present myriad academic difficulties, depending on their specific area(s) of processing weakness. is study examined differences in academic achievement and working…

  16. 一个形式化基于规格说明类测试的方法%An approach to formalizing specification-based class testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪淮扣; 刘玲

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a framework that can be used to formalize the specification-based single-class test generation process.Object-Z is used to describe both software requirements and the proposed framework. Using this framework, test engineers can automatically get the testing process model during the test generation process. With this model, properties of test cases (such as relationship between test cases and methods can easily be captured. Furthermore, with the framework, the test process model can be updated automatically with the test generation process. The properties of test cases can then be updated correspondingly. It will greatly facilitate the regression testing. The main contribution of this paper is that it provides an approach to formalizing testing process by extending existing framework to class testing, and a way to represent test cases as multi-part, multi-step, multi-level artifacts.

  17. Computational learning on specificity-determining residue-nucleotide interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Ka-Chun; Li, Yue; Peng, Chengbin; Moses, Alan M.; Zhang, Zhaolei

    2015-01-01

    The protein–DNA interactions between transcription factors and transcription factor binding sites are essential activities in gene regulation. To decipher the binding codes, it is a long-standing challenge to understand the binding mechanism across different transcription factor DNA binding families. Past computational learning studies usually focus on learning and predicting the DNA binding residues on protein side. Taking into account both sides (protein and DNA), we propose and describe a computational study for learning the specificity-determining residue-nucleotide interactions of different known DNA-binding domain families. The proposed learning models are compared to state-of-the-art models comprehensively, demonstrating its competitive learning performance. In addition, we describe and propose two applications which demonstrate how the learnt models can provide meaningful insights into protein–DNA interactions across different DNA binding families.

  18. Computational learning on specificity-determining residue-nucleotide interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Ka-Chun

    2015-11-02

    The protein–DNA interactions between transcription factors and transcription factor binding sites are essential activities in gene regulation. To decipher the binding codes, it is a long-standing challenge to understand the binding mechanism across different transcription factor DNA binding families. Past computational learning studies usually focus on learning and predicting the DNA binding residues on protein side. Taking into account both sides (protein and DNA), we propose and describe a computational study for learning the specificity-determining residue-nucleotide interactions of different known DNA-binding domain families. The proposed learning models are compared to state-of-the-art models comprehensively, demonstrating its competitive learning performance. In addition, we describe and propose two applications which demonstrate how the learnt models can provide meaningful insights into protein–DNA interactions across different DNA binding families.

  19. Formal Analysis of Domain Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bharadwaj, Ramesh

    2002-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in the application of formal methods, in particular, precise formal notations and automatic analysis tools for the creation and analysis of requirements specifications (i.e...

  20. English Language Education in Formal and Cram School Contexts: An Analysis of Listening Strategy and Learning Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Mu-hsuan

    2017-01-01

    Formal English language education in Taiwan now starts at Year 3 in primary school, with an emphasis on communicative proficiency. In addition to formal education, attending English cram schools after regular school has become a common phenomenon for Taiwanese students. The main purpose of gaining additional reinforcement in English cram schools…

  1. Evolution and Revolutions of Adult Learning: Capacity Building in Adult and Non-Formal Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, Chinwe U.

    2015-01-01

    The National Commission for Mass Literacy, Adult and Non-Formal Education (NMEC) is the Federal Statutory Agency set up to co-ordinate all aspects of Non-Formal Education in Nigeria whether offered by government agencies or non-governmental organisations. This study looked at the existing Capacity Building Programme, the delivery methods, impact…

  2. Sequence-specific procedural learning deficits in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2014-05-01

    This study tested the procedural deficit hypothesis of specific language impairment (SLI) by comparing children's performance in two motor procedural learning tasks and an implicit verbal sequence learning task. Participants were 7- to 11-year-old children with SLI (n = 48), typically developing age-matched children (n = 20) and younger typically developing children matched for receptive grammar (n = 28). In a serial reaction time task, the children with SLI performed at the same level as the grammar-matched children, but poorer than age-matched controls in learning motor sequences. When tested with a motor procedural learning task that did not involve learning sequential relationships between discrete elements (i.e. pursuit rotor), the children with SLI performed comparably with age-matched children and better than younger grammar-matched controls. In addition, poor implicit learning of word sequences in a verbal memory task (the Hebb effect) was found in the children with SLI. Together, these findings suggest that SLI might be characterized by deficits in learning sequence-specific information, rather than generally weak procedural learning. © 2014 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Learning speaker-specific characteristics with a deep neural architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Salman, Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    Speech signals convey various yet mixed information ranging from linguistic to speaker-specific information. However, most of acoustic representations characterize all different kinds of information as whole, which could hinder either a speech or a speaker recognition (SR) system from producing a better performance. In this paper, we propose a novel deep neural architecture (DNA) especially for learning speaker-specific characteristics from mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, an acoustic representation commonly used in both speech recognition and SR, which results in a speaker-specific overcomplete representation. In order to learn intrinsic speaker-specific characteristics, we come up with an objective function consisting of contrastive losses in terms of speaker similarity/dissimilarity and data reconstruction losses used as regularization to normalize the interference of non-speaker-related information. Moreover, we employ a hybrid learning strategy for learning parameters of the deep neural networks: i.e., local yet greedy layerwise unsupervised pretraining for initialization and global supervised learning for the ultimate discriminative goal. With four Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) benchmarks and two non-English corpora, we demonstrate that our overcomplete representation is robust in characterizing various speakers, no matter whether their utterances have been used in training our DNA, and highly insensitive to text and languages spoken. Extensive comparative studies suggest that our approach yields favorite results in speaker verification and segmentation. Finally, we discuss several issues concerning our proposed approach.

  4. E-assessment of prior learning: a pilot study of interactive assessment of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Annika; Andrén, Marianne; Engström, Maria

    2014-04-18

    The current paper presents a pilot study of interactive assessment using information and communication technology (ICT) to evaluate the knowledge, skills and abilities of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care. Theoretical and practical assessment methods were developed and used with simulated patients and computer-based tests to identify strengths and areas for personal development among staff with no formal education. Of the 157 staff with no formal education, 87 began the practical and/or theoretical assessments, and 63 completed both assessments. Several of the staff passed the practical assessments, except the morning hygiene assessment, where several failed. Other areas for staff development, i.e. where several failed (>50%), were the theoretical assessment of the learning objectives: Health, Oral care, Ergonomics, hygiene, esthetic, environmental, Rehabilitation, Assistive technology, Basic healthcare and Laws and organization. None of the staff passed all assessments. Number of years working in elderly care and staff age were not statistically significantly related to the total score of grades on the various learning objectives. The interactive assessments were useful in assessing staff members' practical and theoretical knowledge, skills, and abilities and in identifying areas in need of development. It is important that personnel who lack formal qualifications be clearly identified and given a chance to develop their competence through training, both theoretical and practical. The interactive e-assessment approach analyzed in the present pilot study could serve as a starting point.

  5. E-assessment of prior learning: a pilot study of interactive assessment of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The current paper presents a pilot study of interactive assessment using information and communication technology (ICT) to evaluate the knowledge, skills and abilities of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care. Methods Theoretical and practical assessment methods were developed and used with simulated patients and computer-based tests to identify strengths and areas for personal development among staff with no formal education. Results Of the 157 staff with no formal education, 87 began the practical and/or theoretical assessments, and 63 completed both assessments. Several of the staff passed the practical assessments, except the morning hygiene assessment, where several failed. Other areas for staff development, i.e. where several failed (>50%), were the theoretical assessment of the learning objectives: Health, Oral care, Ergonomics, hygiene, esthetic, environmental, Rehabilitation, Assistive technology, Basic healthcare and Laws and organization. None of the staff passed all assessments. Number of years working in elderly care and staff age were not statistically significantly related to the total score of grades on the various learning objectives. Conclusion The interactive assessments were useful in assessing staff members’ practical and theoretical knowledge, skills, and abilities and in identifying areas in need of development. It is important that personnel who lack formal qualifications be clearly identified and given a chance to develop their competence through training, both theoretical and practical. The interactive e-assessment approach analyzed in the present pilot study could serve as a starting point. PMID:24742168

  6. Formal verification of Simulink/Stateflow diagrams a deductive approach

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Naijun; Zhao, Hengjun

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a state-of-the-art technique for formal verification of continuous-time Simulink/Stateflow diagrams, featuring an expressive hybrid system modelling language, a powerful specification logic and deduction-based verification approach, and some impressive, realistic case studies. Readers will learn the HCSP/HHL-based deductive method and the use of corresponding tools for formal verification of Simulink/Stateflow diagrams. They will also gain some basic ideas about fundamental elements of formal methods such as formal syntax and semantics, and especially the common techniques applied in formal modelling and verification of hybrid systems. By investigating the successful case studies, readers will realize how to apply the pure theory and techniques to real applications, and hopefully will be inspired to start to use the proposed approach, or even develop their own formal methods in their future work.

  7. Software Formal Inspections Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Software Formal Inspections Guidebook is designed to support the inspection process of software developed by and for NASA. This document provides information on how to implement a recommended and proven method for conducting formal inspections of NASA software. This Guidebook is a companion document to NASA Standard 2202-93, Software Formal Inspections Standard, approved April 1993, which provides the rules, procedures, and specific requirements for conducting software formal inspections. Application of the Formal Inspections Standard is optional to NASA program or project management. In cases where program or project management decide to use the formal inspections method, this Guidebook provides additional information on how to establish and implement the process. The goal of the formal inspections process as documented in the above-mentioned Standard and this Guidebook is to provide a framework and model for an inspection process that will enable the detection and elimination of defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. An ancillary aspect of the formal inspection process incorporates the collection and analysis of inspection data to effect continual improvement in the inspection process and the quality of the software subjected to the process.

  8. Vulnerability Assessment by Learning Attack Specifications in Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Leal Franqueira, V.; Lopes, Raul H.C.

    This paper presents an evolutionary approach for learning attack specifications that describe attack scenarios. The objective is to find vulnerabilities in computer networks which minimise the cost of an attack with maximum impact. Although we focus on Insider Threat, the proposed approach applies

  9. Assessing the Learning Path Specification: a Pragmatic Quality Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, José; Berlanga, Adriana; Heyenrath, Stef; Martens, Harrie; Vogten, Hubert; Finders, Anton; Herder, Eelco; Hermans, Henry; Melero, Javier; Schaeps, Leon; Koper, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Janssen, J., Berlanga, A. J., Heyenrath, S., Martens, H., Vogten, H., Finders, A., Herder, E., Hermans, H., Melero Gallardo, J., Schaeps, L., & Koper, R. (2010). Assessing the Learning Path Specification: a Pragmatic Quality Approach. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 16(21), 3191-3209.

  10. Specific Learning Difficulties--What Teachers Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Diana

    2015-01-01

    This book clearly explains what Specific Learning Difficulties (SpLD) are, and describes the symptoms of conditions most commonly encountered in the mainstream classroom: dyslexia, dyspraxia, dyscalculia, dysgraphia, Autism Spectrum Disorder, ADHD, and OCD. The author provides an overview of the strengths and weaknesses commonly associated with…

  11. Learning Physiotherapy: The Impact of Formal Education and Professional Experience. Linkoping Studies in Education and Psychology, No. 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrandt, Madeleine

    This study investigated whether students of physiotherapy experienced the concepts "health,""movement,""function," and "interaction" differently during formal education and after some professional experience. Data were gathered by interviewing two groups of physiotherapy students at Linkoping University…

  12. Impact of Computer Aided Learning on Children with Specific Learning Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    The Spastic Society Of Karnataka , Bangalore

    2004-01-01

    Study conducted by The Spastics Society of Karnataka on behalf of Azim Premji Foundation to assess the effectiveness of computers in enhancing learning for children with specific learning disabilities. Azim Premji Foundation is not liable for any direct or indirect loss or damage whatsoever arising from the use or access of any information, interpretation and conclusions that may be printed in this report.; Study to assess the effectiveness of computers in enhancing learning for children with...

  13. The specificity of learned parallelism in dual-memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Schubert, Torsten; Pashler, Harold; Rickard, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    Retrieval of two responses from one visually presented cue occurs sequentially at the outset of dual-retrieval practice. Exclusively for subjects who adopt a mode of grouping (i.e., synchronizing) their response execution, however, reaction times after dual-retrieval practice indicate a shift to learned retrieval parallelism (e.g., Nino & Rickard, in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29, 373-388, 2003). In the present study, we investigated how this learned parallelism is achieved and why it appears to occur only for subjects who group their responses. Two main accounts were considered: a task-level versus a cue-level account. The task-level account assumes that learned retrieval parallelism occurs at the level of the task as a whole and is not limited to practiced cues. Grouping response execution may thus promote a general shift to parallel retrieval following practice. The cue-level account states that learned retrieval parallelism is specific to practiced cues. This type of parallelism may result from cue-specific response chunking that occurs uniquely as a consequence of grouped response execution. The results of two experiments favored the second account and were best interpreted in terms of a structural bottleneck model.

  14. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for children with specific learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, May Loong; Ho, Jacqueline J; Teh, Keng Hwang

    2016-09-28

    About 5% of school children have a specific learning disorder, defined as unexpected failure to acquire adequate abilities in reading, writing or mathematics that is not a result of reduced intellectual ability, inadequate teaching or social deprivation. Of these events, 80% are reading disorders. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in particular, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which normally are abundant in the brain and in the retina, are important for learning. Some children with specific learning disorders have been found to be deficient in these PUFAs, and it is argued that supplementation of PUFAs may help these children improve their learning abilities. 1. To assess effects on learning outcomes of supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for children with specific learning disorders.2. To determine whether adverse effects of supplementation of PUFAs are reported in these children. In November 2015, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, 10 other databases and two trials registers. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing PUFAs with placebo or no treatment in children younger than 18 years with specific learning disabilities, as diagnosed in accordance with the fifth (or earlier) edition of theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), or the 10th (or earlier) revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) or equivalent criteria. We included children with coexisting developmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism. Two review authors (MLT and KHT) independently screened the titles and abstracts of articles identified by the search and eliminated all studies that did not meet the inclusion criteria. We contacted study authors to ask for missing information and clarification, when needed. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. Two small studies

  15. Superfield formalism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimensional superfields, is a clear signature of the presence of the (anti-)BRST invariance in the original. 4D theory. Keywords. Non-Abelian 1-form gauge theory; Dirac fields; (anti-)Becchi–Roucet–Stora–. Tyutin invariance; superfield formalism; ...

  16. Category Specificity in Normal Episodic Learning: Applications to Object Recognition and Category-Specific Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Bub, Daniel N.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Lindsay, D. Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Studies of patients with category-specific agnosia (CSA) have given rise to multiple theories of object recognition, most of which assume the existence of a stable, abstract semantic memory system. We applied an episodic view of memory to questions raised by CSA in a series of studies examining normal observers' recall of newly learned attributes…

  17. Reciprocal relations between cognitive neuroscience and formal cognitive models: opposites attract?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.; Eichele, T.; Brown, S.; Serences, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscientists study how the brain implements particular cognitive processes such as perception, learning, and decision-making. Traditional approaches in which experiments are designed to target a specific cognitive process have been supplemented by two recent innovations. First, formal

  18. Formal verification - Robust and efficient code: Introduction to Formal Verification

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In general, FV means "proving that certain properties hold for a given system using formal mathematics". This definition can certainly feel daunting, however, as we will learn, we can reap benefits from the paradigm without digging too deep into ...

  19. The effects of formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching on psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and motor learning outcomes in physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Whipp

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education. Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical and student learning outcomes within high school physical education classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59 were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach. Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in physical education.

  20. The effects of formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching on psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and motor learning outcomes in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipp, Peter R; Jackson, Ben; Dimmock, James A; Soh, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education (PE). Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT) program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and student learning outcomes within high school PE classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59) were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach) or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach). Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in PE.

  1. Managing specific learning disability in schools in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Sunil; Sholapurwala, Rukhshana; Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2011-07-01

    Specific learning disability (dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia) afflicts 5-15% of school-going children. Over the last decade; awareness about this invisible handicap has grown in India. However, much needs to be done to ensure that each afflicted child gets an opportunity to achieve his or her full academic potential in regular mainstream schools. In order to achieve this ideal scenario, all regular classroom teachers should be sensitized to suspect, and trained to screen for this disability when the child is in primary school. School managements should become proactive to set up resource rooms and employ special educators to ensure that these children receive regular and affordable remedial education; and be diligent in ensuring that these children get the mandatory provisions both during school and board examinations. Once specific learning disability is recognized as a disability by the Government of India, these children with the backing of the Right to Education Act, would be able to benefit significantly.

  2. Design, implementation and evaluation of innovative science teaching strategies for non-formal learning in a natural history museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çil, Emine; Maccario, Nihal; Yanmaz, Durmuş

    2016-09-01

    Background: Museums are useful educational resources in science teaching. Teaching strategies which promote hands-on activities, student-centred learning, and rich social interaction must be designed and implemented throughout the museum visit for effective science learning.

  3. Unpacking (In)formal Learning in an Academic Development Programme: A Mixed-Method Social Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienties, Bart; Hosein, Anesa

    2015-01-01

    How and with whom academics develop and maintain formal and informal networks for reflecting on their teaching practice has received limited attention even though academic development (AD) programmes have become an almost ubiquitous feature of higher education. The primary goal of this mixed-method study is to unpack how 114 academics in an AD…

  4. Investigating the Impact of Formal Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    In work-related, instrumental learning contexts the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's (1985) experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory (2000) predict skill-adaptation as a possible outcome. This prediction was experimentally explored by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants'…

  5. Adult Learners' Learning Environment Perceptions and Satisfaction in Formal Education--Case Study of Four East-European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovan, Marko; Makovec, Danijela

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore attitudes towards learning and perceptions of the learning environment. Our theoretical examination is based on the social-cognitive theory of motivation and research that emphasizes the connections between an individual's perceptions of the learning environment and his/her motivation, interest, attitudes…

  6. Formalization of Database Systems -- and a Formal Definition of {IMS}

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines; Løvengreen, Hans Henrik

    1982-01-01

    Drawing upon an analogy between Programming Language Systems and Database Systems we outline the requirements that architectural specifications of database systems must futfitl, and argue that only formal, mathematical definitions may 6atisfy these. Then we illustrate home aspects and touch upon...... come ueee of formal definitions of data models and databaee management systems. A formal model of INS will carry this discussion. Finally we survey some of the exkting literature on formal definitions of database systems. The emphasis will be on constructive definitions in the denotationul semantics...... style of the VCM: Vienna Development Nethd. The role of formal definitions in international standardiaation efforts is briefly mentioned....

  7. Comparison of executive functions in students with and without specific learning disability with the characteristic reading and writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Hasanvandi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of present study was to investigate executive functions included of working memory, organization-planning and reasoning in the children with and without specific learning disability with the characteristic reading and writing. Materials and methods: The design of this research was Ex-Post Facto design. Statistical population was all male students of third grade primary schools in Tehran which were referred to education institution with diagnosis special learning disorders in educational centers. The sample included of 90 students chosen and assigned into 3 groups of 30 students, included of: children who had specific learning disability with characteristic reading, children who had specific learning disability with characteristic writing, normal children were selected by systematic randomized sampling and 3 groups were compared. The data instruments were: Wechsler’ subtests of similarities and digit differences, Andre Ray test, in formal (unofficial reading and dictation test. The obtained data were analyzed with ANOVA. Results: The results showed that there was difference between the group of normal children and other group in executive functions including working memory, organization-planning and reasoning (P<0.05. Also there was difference between two children groups with specific learning disability with  characteristic reading and writing in working memory and reasoning, whereas for organization-planning parameter there were not seen any differences between these two groups (P<0.05. Conclusion: Regarding to obtained results, it is recommended to adoption some ways for improvements of working memory, organization-planning and reasoning

  8. Psychologist in non-formal education

    OpenAIRE

    Pavićević Miljana S.

    2011-01-01

    Learning is not limited to school time. It starts at birth and continues throughout the entire life. Equally important as formal education there are also non-formal and informal education. Any kind of learning outside the traditional school can be called informal. However, it is not easy to define non-formal education because it is being described differently, for example as an education movement, process, system… Projects and programs implemented under the name of non-formal education are of...

  9. Formal Semanol Specification of Ada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    concurrent task modeling involved very little change to the SEMANOL metalanguage. A primitive capable of initiating concurrent SEMANOL task processors...i.e., #CO-COMPUTE) and two primitivc-; corresponding to integer semaphores (i.c., #P and #V) were all that were required. In addition, these changes... synchronization techniques and choice of correct unblocking alternatives. We should note that it had been our original intention to use the Ada Translator program

  10. Integrated formal operations plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, G.; Dearholt, W.; Donahue, S.; Frank, J.; Perkins, B.; Tyler, R.; Wrye, J.

    1994-01-05

    The concept of formal operations (that is, a collection of business practices to assure effective, accountable operations) has vexed the Laboratory for many years. To date most attempts at developing such programs have been based upon rigid, compliance-based interpretations of a veritable mountain of Department of Energy (DOE) orders, directives, notices, and standards. These DOE dictates seldom take the broad view but focus on highly specialized programs isolated from the overall context of formal operations. The result is a confusing array of specific, and often contradictory, requirements that produce a patchwork of overlapping niche programs. This unnecessary duplication wastes precious resources, dramatically increases the complexity of our work processes, and communicates a sense of confusion to our customers and regulators. Coupled with the artificial divisions that have historically existed among the Laboratory`s formal operations organizations (quality assurance, configuration management, records management, training, etc.), this approach has produced layers of increasingly vague and complex formal operations plans, each of which interprets its parent and adds additional requirements of its own. Organizational gridlock ensues whenever an activity attempts to implement these bureaucratic monstrosities. The integrated formal operations plan presented is to establish a set of requirements that must be met by an integrated formal operations program, assign responsibilities for implementation and operation of the program, and specify criteria against which the performance of the program will be measured. The accountable line manager specifies the items, processes, and information (the controlled elements) to which the formal operations program specified applies. The formal operations program is implemented using a graded approach based on the level of importance of the various controlled elements and the scope of the activities in which they are involved.

  11. Closing the gap between formalism and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole Ravn

    2008-01-01

    A common problem in learning mathematics concerns the gap between, on the one hand, doing the formalisms and calculations of abstract mathematics and, on the other hand, applying these in a specific contextualized setting for example the engineering world. The skills acquired through problem......-based learning (PBL), in the special model used at Aalborg University, Denmark, may give us some idea of how to bridge this gap. Through an investigation of a series of examples of student projects concerning the application of mathematical subjects-such as matrices, differential equations, cluster analysis...

  12. A formal MIM specification and tools for the common exchange of MIM diagrams: an XML-Based format, an API, and a validation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Augustin; Karac, Evrim I; Sunshine, Margot; Chang, Lucas; Nussinov, Ruth; Aladjem, Mirit I; Kohn, Kurt W

    2011-05-17

    The Molecular Interaction Map (MIM) notation offers a standard set of symbols and rules on their usage for the depiction of cellular signaling network diagrams. Such diagrams are essential for disseminating biological information in a concise manner. A lack of software tools for the notation restricts wider usage of the notation. Development of software is facilitated by a more detailed specification regarding software requirements than has previously existed for the MIM notation. A formal implementation of the MIM notation was developed based on a core set of previously defined glyphs. This implementation provides a detailed specification of the properties of the elements of the MIM notation. Building upon this specification, a machine-readable format is provided as a standardized mechanism for the storage and exchange of MIM diagrams. This new format is accompanied by a Java-based application programming interface to help software developers to integrate MIM support into software projects. A validation mechanism is also provided to determine whether MIM datasets are in accordance with syntax rules provided by the new specification. The work presented here provides key foundational components to promote software development for the MIM notation. These components will speed up the development of interoperable tools supporting the MIM notation and will aid in the translation of data stored in MIM diagrams to other standardized formats. Several projects utilizing this implementation of the notation are outlined herein. The MIM specification is available as an additional file to this publication. Source code, libraries, documentation, and examples are available at http://discover.nci.nih.gov/mim.

  13. The future of the IMS Learning Design specification: a critical look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    P. B. Sloep (2009). The future of the IMS Learning Design specification: a critical look. Presentation at the IMS Learning Design seminar 'The future of IMS Learning Design'. December, 10, 2009, Wollongong, Australia: University of Wollongong.

  14. Teaching English through Open Non-Formal Education (ONFE) in Bangladesh with an Effective Integration of ICT to Support Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Mizanoor; Panda, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    The program entitled "English in Action (EIA)", 9 year period DFID funded project in Bangladesh, was launched in 2008, for the desire to bring a change in the learning of English language. EIA works to reach a total of 25 million primary and secondary students and adult learners through communicative language learning techniques and the…

  15. Design, Implementation and Evaluation of Innovative Science Teaching Strategies for Non-Formal Learning in a Natural History Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çil, Emine; Maccario, Nihal; Yanmaz, Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Background: Museums are useful educational resources in science teaching. Teaching strategies which promote hands-on activities, student-centred learning, and rich social interaction must be designed and implemented throughout the museum visit for effective science learning. Purpose: This study aimed to design and implement innovative teaching…

  16. Teachers' Concerns about Adopting Constructivist Online Game-Based Learning in Formal Curriculum Teaching: The VISOLE Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Morris S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Our work is set against the backdrop of the pervasive discussion of harnessing online games to provide students with new constructivist learning opportunities. Upon the theoretical foundation, we have developed Virtual Interactive Student-Oriented Learning Environment (VISOLE), a teaching framework for implementing constructivist online game-based…

  17. Specific learning disability in mathematics: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Neelkamal; Evans, Teresa; Patel, Dilip R

    2018-01-01

    Math skills are necessary for success in the childhood educational and future adult work environment. This article reviews the changing terminology for specific learning disabilities (SLD) in math and describes the emerging genetics and neuroimaging studies that relate to individuals with math disability (MD). It is important to maintain a developmental perspective on MD, as presentation changes with age, instruction, and the different models (educational and medical) of identification. Intervention requires a systematic approach to screening and remediation that has evolved with more evidence-based literature. Newer directions in behavioral, educational and novel interventions are described.

  18. Unsupervised behaviour-specific dictionary learning for abnormal event detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2015-01-01

    the training data is only a small proportion of the surveillance data. Therefore, we propose behavior-specific dictionaries (BSD) through unsupervised learning, pursuing atoms from the same type of behavior to represent one behavior dictionary. To further improve the dictionary by introducing information from...... potential infrequent normal patterns, we refine the dictionary by searching ‘missed atoms’ that have compact coefficients. Experimental results show that our BSD algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art dictionaries in abnormal event detection on the public UCSD dataset. Moreover, BSD has less false alarms...

  19. The lasting effects of process-specific versus stimulus-specific learning during infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Hillary; Pickron, Charisse B; Scott, Lisa S

    2015-09-01

    The capacity to tell the difference between two faces within an infrequently experienced face group (e.g. other species, other race) declines from 6 to 9 months of age unless infants learn to match these faces with individual-level names. Similarly, the use of individual-level labels can also facilitate differentiation of a group of non-face objects (strollers). This early learning leads to increased neural specialization for previously unfamiliar face or object groups. The current investigation aimed to determine whether early conceptual learning between 6 and 9 months leads to sustained behavioral advantages and neural changes in these same children at 4-6 years of age. Results suggest that relative to a control group of children with no previous training and to children with infant category-level naming experience, children with early individual-level training exhibited faster response times to human faces. Further, individual-level training with a face group - but not an object group - led to more adult-like neural responses for human faces. These results suggest that early individual-level learning results in long-lasting process-specific effects, which benefit categories that continue to be perceived and recognized at the individual level (e.g. human faces). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Formal and informal home learning activities in relation to children's early numeracy and literacy skills: the development of a home numeracy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sowinski, Carla; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of children's home numeracy experience based on Sénéchal and LeFevre's home literacy model (Child Development, 73 (2002) 445-460). Parents of 183 children starting kindergarten in the fall (median child age=58 months) completed an early home learning experiences questionnaire. Most of the children whose parents completed the questionnaire were recruited for numeracy and literacy testing 1 year later (along with 32 children from the inner city). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to reduce survey items, and hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict the relation among parents' attitudes, academic expectations for their children, reports of formal and informal numeracy, and literacy home practices on children's test scores. Parental reports of formal home numeracy practices (e.g., practicing simple sums) predicted children's symbolic number system knowledge, whereas reports of informal exposure to games with numerical content (measured indirectly through parents' knowledge of children's games) predicted children's non-symbolic arithmetic, as did numeracy attitudes (e.g., parents' enjoyment of numeracy). The home literacy results replicated past findings; parental reports of formal literacy practices (e.g., helping their children to read words) predicted children's word reading, whereas reports of informal experiences (i.e., frequency of shared reading measured indirectly through parents' storybook knowledge) predicted children's vocabulary. These findings support a multifaceted model of children's early numeracy environment, with different types of early home experiences (formal and informal) predicting different numeracy outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Human reinforcement learning subdivides structured action spaces by learning effector-specific values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Samuel J; Pesaran, Bijan; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2009-10-28

    Humans and animals are endowed with a large number of effectors. Although this enables great behavioral flexibility, it presents an equally formidable reinforcement learning problem of discovering which actions are most valuable because of the high dimensionality of the action space. An unresolved question is how neural systems for reinforcement learning-such as prediction error signals for action valuation associated with dopamine and the striatum-can cope with this "curse of dimensionality." We propose a reinforcement learning framework that allows for learned action valuations to be decomposed into effector-specific components when appropriate to a task, and test it by studying to what extent human behavior and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity can exploit such a decomposition in a multieffector choice task. Subjects made simultaneous decisions with their left and right hands and received separate reward feedback for each hand movement. We found that choice behavior was better described by a learning model that decomposed the values of bimanual movements into separate values for each effector, rather than a traditional model that treated the bimanual actions as unitary with a single value. A decomposition of value into effector-specific components was also observed in value-related BOLD signaling, in the form of lateralized biases in striatal correlates of prediction error and anticipatory value correlates in the intraparietal sulcus. These results suggest that the human brain can use decomposed value representations to "divide and conquer" reinforcement learning over high-dimensional action spaces.

  2. Addiction memory as a specific, individually learned memory imprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, J

    2009-05-01

    The construct of "addiction memory" (AM) and its importance for relapse occurrence has been the subject of discussion for the past 30 years. Neurobiological findings from "social neuroscience" and biopsychological learning theory, in conjunction with construct-valid behavioral pharmacological animal models, can now also provide general confirmation of addiction memory as a pathomorphological correlate of addiction disorders. Under multifactorial influences, experience-driven neuronal learning and memory processes of emotional and cognitive processing patterns in the specific individual "set" and "setting" play an especially pivotal role in this connection. From a neuropsychological perspective, the episodic (biographical) memory, located at the highest hierarchical level, is of central importance for the formation of the AM in certain structural and functional areas of the brain and neuronal networks. Within this context, neuronal learning and conditioning processes take place more or less unconsciously and automatically in the preceding long-term-memory systems (in particular priming and perceptual memory). They then regulate the individually programmed addiction behavior implicitly and thus subsequently stand for facilitated recollection of corresponding, previously stored cues or context situations. This explains why it is so difficult to treat an addiction memory, which is embedded above all in the episodic memory, from the molecular carrier level via the neuronal pattern level through to the psychological meaning level, and has thus meanwhile become a component of personality.

  3. Psychological Co-morbidity in Children with Specific Learning Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Manoj K; Biswas, Haritha; Padhy, Susanta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Children under 19 years of age constitute over 40% of India's population and information about their mental health needs is a national imperative. Children with specific learning disorders (SLDs) exhibit academic difficulties disproportionate to their intellectual capacities. Prevalence of SLD ranges from 2% to 10%. Dyslexia (developmental reading disorder) is the most common type, affecting 80% of all SLD. About 30% of learning disabled children have behavioral and emotional problems, which range from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (most common) to depression, anxiety, suicide etc., to substance abuse (least common). Co-occurrence of such problems with SLD further adds to the academic difficulty. In such instances, diagnosis is difficult and tricky; improvement in academics demands comprehensive holistic treatment approach. SLD remains a large public health problem because of under-recognition, inadequate treatment and therefore merits greater effort to understand the co-morbidities, especially in the Indian population. As the literature is scarce regarding co-morbid conditions in learning disability in Indian scenario, the present study has tried to focus on Indian population. The educational concessions (recent most) given to such children by Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi are referred to. The issues to be addressed by the family physicians are: Low level of awareness among families and teachers, improper dissemination of accurate information about psychological problems, available help seeking avenues, need to develop service delivery models in rural and urban areas and focus on the integration of mental health and primary care keeping such co-morbidity in mind.

  4. d-Cycloserine reduces context specificity of sexual extinction learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Mirte; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip; Trimbos, Baptist; Both, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    d-Cycloserine (DCS) enhances extinction processes in animals. Although classical conditioning is hypothesized to play a pivotal role in the aetiology of appetitive motivation problems, no research has been conducted on the effect of DCS on the reduction of context specificity of extinction in human appetitive learning, while facilitation hereof is relevant in the context of treatment of problematic reward-seeking behaviors. Female participants were presented with two conditioned stimuli (CSs) that either predicted (CS+) or did not predict (CS-) a potential sexual reward (unconditioned stimulus (US); genital vibrostimulation). Conditioning took place in context A and extinction in context B. Subjects received DCS (125mg) or placebo directly after the experiment on day 1 in a randomized, double-blind, between-subject fashion (Placebo n=31; DCS n=31). Subsequent testing for CS-evoked conditioned responses (CRs) in both the conditioning (A) and the extinction context (B) took place 24h later on day 2. Drug effects on consolidation were then assessed by comparing the recall of sexual extinction memories between the DCS and the placebo groups. Post learning administration of DCS facilitates sexual extinction memory consolidation and affects extinction's fundamental context specificity, evidenced by reduced conditioned genital and subjective sexual responses, relative to placebo, for presentations of the reward predicting cue 24h later outside the extinction context. DCS makes appetitive extinction memories context-independent and prevents the return of conditioned response. NMDA receptor glycine site agonists may be potential pharmacotherapies for the prevention of relapse of appetitive motivation disorders with a learned component. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Using NASA Data in the Classroom: Promoting STEM Learning in Formal Education using Real Space Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, B.; Hemenway, M. K.; Mendez, B.; Odenwald, S.

    2013-04-01

    Among NASA's major education goals is the training of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) disciplines. The use of real data, from some of the most sophisticated observatories in the world, provides formal educators the opportunity to teach their students real-world applications of the STEM subjects. Combining real space science data with lessons aimed at meeting state and national education standards provides a memorable educational experience that students can build upon throughout their academic careers. Many of our colleagues have adopted the use of real data in their education and public outreach (EPO) programs. There are challenges in creating resources using real data for classroom use that include, but are not limited to, accessibility to computers/Internet and proper instruction. Understanding and sharing these difficulties and best practices with the larger EPO community is critical to the development of future resources. In this session, we highlight three examples of how NASA data is being utilized in the classroom: the Galaxies and Cosmos Explorer Tool (GCET) that utilizes real Hubble Space Telescope data; the computer image-analysis resources utilized by the NASA WISE infrared mission; and the space science derived math applications from SpaceMath@NASA featuring the Chandra and Kepler space telescopes. Challenges and successes are highlighted for these projects. We also facilitate small-group discussions that focus on additional benefits and challenges of using real data in the formal education environment. The report-outs from those discussions are given here.

  6. Formal Testing of Correspondence Carrying Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, M.C.; Bujorianu, L.M.; Maharaj, S.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays formal software development is characterised by use of multitude formal specification languages. Test case generation from formal specifications depends in general on a specific language, and, moreover, there are competing methods for each language. There is a need for a generic approach to

  7. M-Learning: Implications in Learning Domain Specificities, Adaptive Learning, Feedback, Augmented Reality, and the Future of Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the potential and effectiveness of m-learning in the field of Education and Learning domains. The purpose of this research is to illustrate how mobile technology can and is affecting novel change in instruction, from m-learning and the link to adaptive learning, to the uninitiated learner and capacities of…

  8. Psychological co-morbidity in children with specific learning disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children under 19 years of age constitute over 40% of India′s population and information about their mental health needs is a national imperative. Children with specific learning disorders (SLDs exhibit academic difficulties disproportionate to their intellectual capacities. Prevalence of SLD ranges from 2% to 10%. Dyslexia (developmental reading disorder is the most common type, affecting 80% of all SLD. About 30% of learning disabled children have behavioral and emotional problems, which range from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (most common to depression, anxiety, suicide etc., to substance abuse (least common. Co-occurrence of such problems with SLD further adds to the academic difficulty. In such instances, diagnosis is difficult and tricky; improvement in academics demands comprehensive holistic treatment approach. SLD remains a large public health problem because of under-recognition, inadequate treatment and therefore merits greater effort to understand the co-morbidities, especially in the Indian population. As the literature is scarce regarding co-morbid conditions in learning disability in Indian scenario, the present study has tried to focus on Indian population. The educational concessions (recent most given to such children by Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi are referred to. The issues to be addressed by the family physicians are: Low level of awareness among families and teachers, improper dissemination of accurate information about psychological problems, available help seeking avenues, need to develop service delivery models in rural and urban areas and focus on the integration of mental health and primary care keeping such co-morbidity in mind.

  9. Specific learning disabilities in children: deficits and neuropsychological profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Adarsh; Malhotra, Savita; Mohanty, Manju; Khehra, Nitasha; Kaur, Manreet

    2005-06-01

    The public is gradually becoming aware of specific learning disabilities (SLDs), which are very often the cause of academic difficulties. The aim of the study was to assess the SLDs in the clinic population at the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh using the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences SLD index and subsequently to assess the children's neuropsychological functions using a battery of tests. Thirty-five children in the age range of 7-14 years (both boys and girls) were recruited as the cohort, diagnosed clinically and assessed using the battery of tests for SLDs and neuropsychological tests consisting of the PGIMER memory scale for children, the Wisconsin card sorting test, the Bender visuo-motor gestalt test and Malin's intelligence scale for Indian children. The study revealed deficits in language and writing skills and impairments in specific areas of memory, executive functions and perceptuo-motor tasks. Identification of SLDs is useful in drawing up a treatment plan specific for a particular child.

  10. The Intercultural and Non-Formal Learning Processes of Children in Primary School Exchange Programmes in France and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Valérie; Wagner, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on educational anthropology, and presents the initial findings of a three-year international comparative study of primary school children's learning-processes during travel and cross-cultural encounters. A French-German research team investigated and here reports on primary school exchange programmes. Open coding of the…

  11. Advancing Mobile Learning in Formal and Informal Settings via Mobile App Technology: Where to from Here, and How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaddage, Ferial; Müller, Wolfgang; Flintoff, Kim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a brief review of the framework that addressed mobile learning implementation challenges (pedagogical, technological, policy and research) that was developed by Khaddage et al. (2015) is briefly discussed, followed by possible solutions that could be deployed to tackle those challenges. A unique approach is then applied to bridge the…

  12. Enhancing (In)Formal Learning Ties in Interdisciplinary Management Courses: A Quasi-Experimental Social Network Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienties, Bart; Héliot, YingFei

    2018-01-01

    While interdisciplinary courses are regarded as a promising method for students to learn and apply knowledge from other disciplines, there is limited empirical evidence available whether interdisciplinary courses can effectively "create" interdisciplinary students. In this innovative quasi-experimental study amongst 377 Master's…

  13. Participating in Non-Formal Learning: Patterns of Inequality in EU-15 and the New EU-8 Member Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosmaa, Eve-Liis; Saar, Ellu

    2010-01-01

    We concentrate on the following research questions: (1) Do the structure of the educational system and its interaction with the labour market affect the training gap between low-skilled blue collar workers and high-skilled white collar workers? and (2) Do the ways that institutional systems shape opportunities for lifelong learning differ between…

  14. Hard/Soft, Formal/Informal, Work/Learning: Tenuous/Persistent Binaries in the Knowledge-Based Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubas, Kaela; Butterwick, Shauna

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses insights from a study of women working, or seeking or preparing for work, in the information technology (IT) field. At issue is how and whether alternative career pathways and informally acquired skills and knowledge, as well as the operation of gender in learning and work, are acknowledged by employers, colleagues…

  15. English for Specific Purposes (ESP Modules in the Self-Access Learning Center (SALC for Success in the Global Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Knight

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available University students must prepare themselves to be successful members of the global workforce, and this paper introduces one way for a self-access center to support such preparation by students outside of the formal classroom environment. In this paper, it is proposed that the Self-Access Learning Center (SALC at Kanda University of International Studies (KUIS provide ESP (English for specific purposes modules intended to prepare students for their future careers. Within these self-study modules, the following should be recognized and incorporated: 1. The principles of ESP 2. Elements of outcome-based education 3. The relationship between leadership, learning, and teachingIn describing such ESP modules, this paper also proposes the development of self-access materials that could be made available to facilitate the independent study.

  16. Formal System Verification - Extension 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    vision of truly trustworthy systems has been to provide a formally verified microkernel basis. We have previously developed the seL4 microkernel...together with a formal proof (in the theorem prover Isabelle/HOL) of its functional correctness [6]. This means that all the behaviours of the seL4 C...source code are included in the high-level, formal specification of the kernel. This work enabled us to provide further formal guarantees about seL4 , in

  17. 40 years of formal methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines; Havelund, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    In this "40 years of formal methods" essay we shall first delineate, Sect. 1, what we mean by method, formal method, computer science, computing science, software engineering, and model-oriented and algebraic methods. Based on this, we shall characterize a spectrum from specification-oriented met...

  18. Transitions from Formal Education to the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Joann S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter frames the transition to adulthood in the context of the moving from formal educational settings to the often less-structured learning that occurs in workplace settings. Although schooling may end, learning continues.

  19. Problem based learning in Higher Education and new approaches to assessment as a consequence of new formal regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annie Aarup; Krogh, Lone

    on the basis of the project report in order to ensure alignment between goals, learning activities and assessment form. However, in 2006 the government announced that group examinations would no longer be permitted. As a result students are now allowed to do study work and write reports in groups......, but they are to be examined and assessed individually, i.e. without the presence of other students from the group. In this paper, we will investigate some of the consequences of these new regulations for   assessment. The research questions will address the question of alignment between group study and individual examination...... of group exams. Based on selected theoretical approaches to teaching, learning and assessment we wish to discuss the result of our research, the consequences of the changes in assessment forms, as well as the measures taken at the university in order to obtain new valid assessment forms. Finally...

  20. Restorative Practices as Formal and Informal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Candice C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews restorative practices (RP) as education in formal and informal contexts of learning that are fertile sites for cultivating peace. Formal practices involve instruction about response to conflict, while informal learning occurs beyond academic lessons. The research incorporated content analysis and a critical examination of the…

  1. "Mastery Learning" Como Metodo Psicoeducativo para Ninos con Problemas Especificos de Aprendizaje. ("Mastery Learning" as a Psychoeducational Method for Children with Specific Learning Problems.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coya, Liliam de Barbosa; Perez-Coffie, Jorge

    1982-01-01

    "Mastery Learning" was compared with the "conventional" method of teaching reading skills to Puerto Rican children with specific learning disabilities. The "Mastery Learning" group showed significant gains in the cognitive and affective domains. Results suggested Mastery Learning is a more effective method of teaching…

  2. Masses of Formal Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masses of Formal Philosophy is an outgrowth of Formal Philosophy. That book gathered the responses of some of the most prominent formal philosophers to five relatively open and broad questions initiating a discussion of metaphilosophical themes and problems surrounding the use of formal methods i...... in philosophy. Including contributions from a wide range of philosophers, Masses of Formal Philosophy contains important new responses to the original five questions.......Masses of Formal Philosophy is an outgrowth of Formal Philosophy. That book gathered the responses of some of the most prominent formal philosophers to five relatively open and broad questions initiating a discussion of metaphilosophical themes and problems surrounding the use of formal methods...

  3. An Examination of the Impact of Non-Formal and Informal Learning on Adult Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digby, Cynthia Louise Barrett

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to consider the environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, of adults in Minnesota, and possible factors that influence environmental literacy. Specifically, this study is designed to: (1) measure the environmental literacy of Minnesota adults, (2) explore possible relationships between Minnesota adults.…

  4. Exploring Culture-Specific Learning Styles in Accounting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Seth E.; Sauerwein, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review whether culture affects accounting students' learning processes to identify practical guidance for accounting educators facing a culturally diverse classroom. In spite of a significant literature thread in accounting education on student learning, relatively, little emphasis has been placed on…

  5. Anxiety levels in mothers of children with specific learning disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Parents of children with specific learning disability (SpLD undergo stress in coping with their child′s condition. Aim : To measure the levels of anxiety and find out the cause of anxiety in mothers of children with SpLD at time of diagnosis. Settings and Design : Prospective rating-scale and interview-based study conducted in our clinic. Materials and Methods : One hundred mothers of children (70 boys, 30 girls with SpLD were interviewed using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HAM-A and a semi-structured questionnaire. Detailed clinical and demographic data of mothers were noted. Statistical Analysis : Chi-square test or unpaired student′s t-test was applied wherever applicable. Results : The mean age of mothers was 40.14 years (±SD 4.94, range 25.07-54.0, 73% belonged to upper or upper middle socioeconomic strata of society, 67% were graduates or postgraduates, 58% were full-time home-makers, and 33% lived in joint families. Levels of anxiety were absent in 24%, mild in 75%, and moderate in 1% of mothers. Their mean total anxiety score was 5.65 (±SD 4.75, range 0-21, mean psychic anxiety score was 3.92 (±SD 3.11, range 0-13, and mean somatic anxiety score was 1.76 (±SD 2.05, range 0-10. Their common worries were related to child′s poor school performance (95%, child′s future (90%, child′s behavior (51%, and visits to our clinic (31%. Conclusion : Most mothers of children with SpLD have already developed mild anxiety levels by the time this hidden disability is diagnosed. These anxieties should be addressed by counseling to ensure optimum rehabilitation of these children.

  6. Anxiety levels in mothers of children with specific learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, S; Kumbhare, N; Kulkarni, M; Shah, N

    2009-01-01

    Parents of children with specific learning disability (SpLD) undergo stress in coping with their child's condition. To measure the levels of anxiety and find out the cause of anxiety in mothers of children with SpLD at time of diagnosis. Prospective rating-scale and interview-based study conducted in our clinic. One hundred mothers of children (70 boys, 30 girls) with SpLD were interviewed using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HAM-A) and a semi-structured questionnaire. Detailed clinical and demographic data of mothers were noted. Chi-square test or unpaired student's t-test was applied wherever applicable. The mean age of mothers was 40.14 years (+/-SD 4.94, range 25.07-54.0), 73% belonged to upper or upper middle socioeconomic strata of society, 67% were graduates or postgraduates, 58% were full-time home-makers, and 33% lived in joint families. Levels of anxiety were absent in 24%, mild in 75%, and moderate in 1% of mothers. Their mean total anxiety score was 5.65 (+/-SD 4.75, range 0-21), mean psychic anxiety score was 3.92 (+/-SD 3.11, range 0-13), and mean somatic anxiety score was 1.76 (+/-SD 2.05, range 0-10). Their common worries were related to child's poor school performance (95%), child's future (90%), child's behavior (51%), and visits to our clinic (31%). Most mothers of children with SpLD have already developed mild anxiety levels by the time this hidden disability is diagnosed. These anxieties should be addressed by counseling to ensure optimum rehabilitation of these children.

  7. Exchanges between formal and informal learning Spaces. In: Understanding European School Buildings: Policies, People and Practices. Edited by Anna Kristín Sigurðardóttir, Gonçalo Canto Moniz, Pamela Woolner, Ulrike Stadler Altmann

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Emmerik Damgaard; Hjartasson, Torfi; Gjessing, Eva

    The aim of this chapter is to illustrate how exchanges between formal and informal learning spaces beyond the framework of a classroom might enrich school practice, and help to identify important pedagogical challenges and opportunities. This is analyzed with references to a case on Icelandic sch...

  8. Cultivating Collaborations: Site Specific Design for Embodied Science Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Katherine; Glazier, Jocelyn; Towns, Betsy

    2018-05-21

    Immersion in well-designed outdoor environments can foster the habits of mind that enable critical and authentic scientific questions to take root in students' minds. Here we share two design cases in which careful, collaborative, and intentional design of outdoor learning environments for informal inquiry provide people of all ages with embodied opportunities to learn about the natural world, developing the capacity for understanding ecology and the ability to empathize, problem-solve and reflect. Embodied learning, as facilitated by and in well-designed outdoor learning environments, leads students to develop new ways of seeing, new scientific questions, new ways to connect with ideas, with others and new ways of thinking about the natural world. Using examples from our collaborative practices as experiential learning designers, we illustrate how creating the habits of mind critical to creating scientists, science-interested, and science-aware individuals benefits from providing students spaces to engage in embodied learning in nature. We show how public landscapes designed in creative partnerships between educators, scientists, designers and the public have potential to amplify science learning for all.

  9. Learning Technology Specification: Principles for Army Training Designers and Developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Bowers & Bowers, 2010; Moreno, 2006; Shönborn, 2011; Watkins & Hufnagel, 2007). • Interactive technologies can help maintain student engagement when...modified to better suit the trainee characteristics, learning objectives, and environmental constraints. • To maintain student engagement when...learning styles (e.g., auditory, visual, tactile) 1 2 3 4 5 Improves student engagement 1 2 3 4 5 Please list any additional factors that are

  10. Machine Learning Identification of Protein Properties Useful for Specific Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khamis, Abdullah

    2016-03-31

    Proteins play critical roles in cellular processes of living organisms. It is therefore important to identify and characterize their key properties associated with their functions. Correlating protein’s structural, sequence and physicochemical properties of its amino acids (aa) with protein functions could identify some of the critical factors governing the specific functionality. We point out that not all functions of even well studied proteins are known. This, complemented by the huge increase in the number of newly discovered and predicted proteins, makes challenging the experimental characterization of the whole spectrum of possible protein functions for all proteins of interest. Consequently, the use of computational methods has become more attractive. Here we address two questions. The first one is how to use protein aa sequence and physicochemical properties to characterize a family of proteins. The second one focuses on how to use transcription factor (TF) protein’s domains to enhance accuracy of predicting TF DNA binding sites (TFBSs). To address the first question, we developed a novel method using computational representation of proteins based on characteristics of different protein regions (N-terminal, M-region and C-terminal) and combined these with the properties of protein aa sequences. We show that this description provides important biological insight about characterization of the protein functional groups. Using feature selection techniques, we identified key properties of proteins that allow for very accurate characterization of different protein families. We demonstrated efficiency of our method in application to a number of antimicrobial peptide families. To address the second question we developed another novel method that uses a combination of aa properties of DNA binding domains of TFs and their TFBS properties to develop machine learning models for predicting TFBSs. Feature selection is used to identify the most relevant characteristics

  11. Solar adaptive optics: specificities, lessons learned, and open alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla, I.; Marino, J.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Collados, M.; Montoya, L.; Tallon, M.

    2016-07-01

    First on sky adaptive optics experiments were performed on the Dunn Solar Telescope on 1979, with a shearing interferometer and limited success. Those early solar adaptive optics efforts forced to custom-develop many components, such as Deformable Mirrors and WaveFront Sensors, which were not available at that time. Later on, the development of the correlation Shack-Hartmann marked a breakthrough in solar adaptive optics. Since then, successful Single Conjugate Adaptive Optics instruments have been developed for many solar telescopes, i.e. the National Solar Observatory, the Vacuum Tower Telescope and the Swedish Solar Telescope. Success with the Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics systems for GREGOR and the New Solar Telescope has proved to be more difficult to attain. Such systems have a complexity not only related to the number of degrees of freedom, but also related to the specificities of the Sun, used as reference, and the sensing method. The wavefront sensing is performed using correlations on images with a field of view of 10", averaging wavefront information from different sky directions, affecting the sensing and sampling of high altitude turbulence. Also due to the low elevation at which solar observations are performed we have to include generalized fitting error and anisoplanatism, as described by Ragazzoni and Rigaut, as non-negligible error sources in the Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics error budget. For the development of the next generation Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics systems for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope and the European Solar Telescope we still need to study and understand these issues, to predict realistically the quality of the achievable reconstruction. To improve their designs other open issues have to be assessed, i.e. possible alternative sensing methods to avoid the intrinsic anisoplanatism of the wide field correlation Shack-Hartmann, new parameters to estimate the performance of an adaptive optics solar system, alternatives to

  12. Digital Resource Developments for Mathematics Education Involving Homework across Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovic, Slaviša; Passey, Don

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore further an under-developed area--how drivers of curriculum, pedagogy and assessment conceptions and practices shape the creation and uses of technologically based resources to support mathematics learning across informal, non-formal and formal learning environments. The paper considers: the importance of…

  13. Comparing Three Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses Models for the Identification of Specific Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel C.; Maricle, Denise E.; Jones, Alicia M.

    2016-01-01

    Processing Strengths and Weaknesses (PSW) models have been proposed as a method for identifying specific learning disabilities. Three PSW models were examined for their ability to predict expert identified specific learning disabilities cases. The Dual Discrepancy/Consistency Model (DD/C; Flanagan, Ortiz, & Alfonso, 2013) as operationalized by…

  14. One-trial overshadowing: Evidence for fast specific fear learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haesen, Kim; Beckers, Tom; Baeyens, Frank; Vervliet, Bram

    2017-03-01

    Adaptive defensive actions necessitate a fear learning system that is both fast and specific. Fast learning serves to minimize the number of threat confrontations, while specific learning ensures that the acquired fears are tied to threat-relevant cues only. In Pavlovian fear conditioning, fear acquisition is typically studied via repetitive pairings of a single cue with an aversive experience, which is not optimal for the examination of fast specific fear learning. In this study, we adopted the one-trial overshadowing procedure from basic learning research, in which a combination of two visual cues is presented once and paired with an aversive electrical stimulation. Using on-line shock expectancy ratings, skin conductance reactivity and startle reflex modulation as indices of fear learning, we found evidence of strong fear after a single conditioning trial (fast learning) as well as attenuated fear responding when only half of the trained stimulus combination was presented (specific learning). Moreover, specificity of fear responding tended to correlate with levels of state and trait anxiety. These results suggest that one-trial overshadowing can be used as a model to study fast specific fear learning in humans and individual differences therein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Individual differences in implicit motor learning: task specificity in sensorimotor adaptation and sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark-Inbar, Alit; Raza, Meher; Taylor, Jordan A; Ivry, Richard B

    2017-01-01

    In standard taxonomies, motor skills are typically treated as representative of implicit or procedural memory. We examined two emblematic tasks of implicit motor learning, sensorimotor adaptation and sequence learning, asking whether individual differences in learning are correlated between these tasks, as well as how individual differences within each task are related to different performance variables. As a prerequisite, it was essential to establish the reliability of learning measures for each task. Participants were tested twice on a visuomotor adaptation task and on a sequence learning task, either the serial reaction time task or the alternating reaction time task. Learning was evident in all tasks at the group level and reliable at the individual level in visuomotor adaptation and the alternating reaction time task but not in the serial reaction time task. Performance variability was predictive of learning in both domains, yet the relationship was in the opposite direction for adaptation and sequence learning. For the former, faster learning was associated with lower variability, consistent with models of sensorimotor adaptation in which learning rates are sensitive to noise. For the latter, greater learning was associated with higher variability and slower reaction times, factors that may facilitate the spread of activation required to form predictive, sequential associations. Interestingly, learning measures of the different tasks were not correlated. Together, these results oppose a shared process for implicit learning in sensorimotor adaptation and sequence learning and provide insight into the factors that account for individual differences in learning within each task domain. We investigated individual differences in the ability to implicitly learn motor skills. As a prerequisite, we assessed whether individual differences were reliable across test sessions. We found that two commonly used tasks of implicit learning, visuomotor adaptation and the

  16. Specification, authoring and prototyping of personalised workplace learning solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Kravcik, Milos; Cristea, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of this document is to survey the existing approaches for the authoring and engineering of personalisation and adaptation in e-learning systems. This document enables the comparison of various methods and techniques, and facilitates their integration or reuse. It offers a cohesive r...

  17. Automatic Testing with Formal Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tretmans, G.J.; Belinfante, Axel

    1999-01-01

    The use of formal system specifications makes it possible to automate the derivation of test cases from specifications. This allows to automate the whole testing process, not only the test execution part of it. This paper presents the state of the art and future perspectives in testing based on

  18. Reduced autobiographical memory specificity is associated with impaired discrimination learning in anxiety disorder patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaert, Bert; Boddez, Yannick; Vervliet, Bram; Schruers, Koen; Hermans, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Associative learning plays an important role in the development of anxiety disorders, but a thorough understanding of the variables that impact such learning is still lacking. We investigated whether individual differences in autobiographical memory specificity are related to discrimination learning and generalization. In an associative learning task, participants learned the association between two pictures of female faces and a non-aversive outcome. Subsequently, six morphed pictures functioning as generalization stimuli (GSs) were introduced. In a sample of healthy participants (Study 1), we did not find evidence for differences in discrimination learning as a function of memory specificity. In a sample of anxiety disorder patients (Study 2), individuals who were characterized by low memory specificity showed deficient discrimination learning relative to high specific individuals. In contrast to previous findings, results revealed no effect of memory specificity on generalization. These results indicate that impaired discrimination learning, previously shown in patients suffering from an anxiety disorder, may be—in part—due to limited memory specificity. Together, these studies emphasize the importance of incorporating cognitive variables in associative learning theories and their implications for the development of anxiety disorders. In addition, re-analyses of the data (Study 3) showed that patients suffering from panic disorder showed higher outcome expectancies in the presence of the stimulus that was never followed by an outcome during discrimination training, relative to patients suffering from other anxiety disorders and healthy participants. Because we used a neutral, non-aversive outcome (i.e., drawing of a lightning bolt), these data suggest that learning abnormalities in panic disorder may not be restricted to fear learning, but rather reflect a more general associative learning deficit that also manifests in fear irrelevant contexts. PMID

  19. [Detection and specific studies in procedural learning difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magallón, S; Narbona, J

    2009-02-27

    The main disabilities in non-verbal learning disorder (NLD) are: the acquisition and automating of motor and cognitive processes, visual spatial integration, motor coordination, executive functions, difficulty in comprehension of the context, and social skills. AIMS. To review the research to date on NLD, and to discuss whether the term 'procedural learning disorder' (PLD) would be more suitable to refer to NLD. A considerable amount of research suggests a neurological correlate of PLD with dysfunctions in the 'posterior' attention system, or the right hemisphere, or the cerebellum. Even if it is said to be difficult the delimitation between NLD and other disorders or syndromes like Asperger syndrome, certain characteristics contribute to differential diagnosis. Intervention strategies for the PLD must lead to the development of motor automatisms and problem solving strategies, including social skills. The basic dysfunction in NLD affects to implicit learning of routines, automating of motor skills and cognitive strategies that spare conscious resources in daily behaviours. These limitations are partly due to a dysfunction in non-declarative procedural memory. Various dimensions of language are also involved: context comprehension, processing of the spatial and emotional indicators of verbal language, language inferences, prosody, organization of the inner speech, use of language and non-verbal communication; this is why the diagnostic label 'PLD' would be more appropriate, avoiding the euphemistic adjective 'non-verbal'.

  20. Interference in Ballistic Motor Learning: Specificity and Role of Sensory Error Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C.; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2011-01-01

    Humans are capable of learning numerous motor skills, but newly acquired skills may be abolished by subsequent learning. Here we ask what factors determine whether interference occurs in motor learning. We speculated that interference requires competing processes of synaptic plasticity in overlapping circuits and predicted specificity. To test this, subjects learned a ballistic motor task. Interference was observed following subsequent learning of an accuracy-tracking task, but only if the competing task involved the same muscles and movement direction. Interference was not observed from a non-learning task suggesting that interference requires competing learning. Subsequent learning of the competing task 4 h after initial learning did not cause interference suggesting disruption of early motor memory consolidation as one possible mechanism underlying interference. Repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of corticospinal motor output at intensities below movement threshold did not cause interference, whereas suprathreshold rTMS evoking motor responses and (re)afferent activation did. Finally, the experiments revealed that suprathreshold repetitive electrical stimulation of the agonist (but not antagonist) peripheral nerve caused interference. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate that peripheral nerve stimulation may cause interference. The finding underscores the importance of sensory feedback as error signals in motor learning. We conclude that interference requires competing plasticity in overlapping circuits. Interference is remarkably specific for circuits involved in a specific movement and it may relate to sensory error signals. PMID:21408054

  1. Visual Perceptual Learning and its Specificity and Transfer: A New Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Yu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Visual perceptual learning is known to be location and orientation specific, and is thus assumed to reflect the neuronal plasticity in the early visual cortex. However, in recent studies we created “Double training” and “TPE” procedures to demonstrate that these “fundamental” specificities of perceptual learning are in some sense artifacts and that learning can completely transfer to a new location or orientation. We proposed a rule-based learning theory to reinterpret perceptual learning and its specificity and transfer: A high-level decision unit learns the rules of performing a visual task through training. However, the learned rules cannot be applied to a new location or orientation automatically because the decision unit cannot functionally connect to new visual inputs with sufficient strength because these inputs are unattended or even suppressed during training. It is double training and TPE training that reactivate these new inputs, so that the functional connections can be strengthened to enable rule application and learning transfer. Currently we are investigating the properties of perceptual learning free from the bogus specificities, and the results provide some preliminary but very interesting insights into how training reshapes the functional connections between the high-level decision units and sensory inputs in the brain.

  2. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffing, Stephanie; Wach, F-Sophie; Spinath, Frank M; Brünken, Roland; Karbach, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

  3. Specific developmental disorders. The language-learning continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, L K

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this article is to inform and educate those who work with children who present with language-learning disorders about phonologic processing deficits, because this area has been shown to have a significant impact on children and adults who exhibit reading disabilities. Mental health professionals who work with children with reading problems need to be aware of what is known about this source of reading disorders and the implications of this knowledge for prevention and treatment. Advocating for appropriate instruction for children with reading problems is an important role mental health professionals can play in working with this population.

  4. Lessons Learned From Microkernel Verification — Specification is the New Bottleneck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Bormer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Software verification tools have become a lot more powerful in recent years. Even verification of large, complex systems is feasible, as demonstrated in the L4.verified and Verisoft XT projects. Still, functional verification of large software systems is rare – for reasons beyond the large scale of verification effort needed due to the size alone. In this paper we report on lessons learned for verification of large software systems based on the experience gained in microkernel verification in the Verisoft XT project. We discuss a number of issues that impede widespread introduction of formal verification in the software life-cycle process.

  5. Formal Verification -26 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    by testing of the components and successful testing leads to the software being ... Formal verification is based on formal methods which are mathematically based ..... scenario under which a similar error could occur. There are various other ...

  6. IMS Learning Design Specification (version 1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob; Olivier, Bill; Anderson, Thor

    2003-01-01

    Information Model is the core document with the actual specification, the other documents and schema's are derived from the Information Model. When you see any inconsistency between documents, look at the Information Model for the correct interpretation.

  7. Formalizing Informal Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Walton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a formalization of informal logic using the Carneades Argumentation System (CAS, a formal, computational model of argument that consists of a formal model of argument graphs and audiences. Conflicts between pro and con arguments are resolved using proof standards, such as preponderance of the evidence. CAS also formalizes argumentation schemes. Schemes can be used to check whether a given argument instantiates the types of argument deemed normatively appropriate for the type of dialogue.

  8. Learning Specific Content in Technology Education: Learning Study as a Collaborative Method in Swedish Preschool Class Using Hands-On Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbrink, Nina; Bjurulf, Veronica; Blomberg, Ingela; Heidkamp, Anja; Hollsten, Ann-Christin

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the process of a learning study conducted in technology education in a Swedish preschool class. The learning study method used in this study is a collaborative method, where researchers and teachers work together as a team concerning teaching and learning about a specific learning object. The object of learning in this study…

  9. Pragmatics for formal semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This tech talk describes how to write and how to inter-derive formal semantics for sequential programming languages. The progress reported here is (1) concrete guidelines to write each formal semantics to alleviate their proof obligations, and (2) simple calculational tools to obtain a formal...

  10. Exploring gender differences on general and specific computer self-efficacy in mobile learning adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Yukun; Xiong, Tao; Hu, Zhongyi; Kibelloh, Mboni

    2014-01-01

    Reasons for contradictory findings regarding the gender moderate effect on computer self-efficacy in the adoption of e-learning/mobile learning are limited. Recognizing the multilevel nature of the computer self-efficacy (CSE), this study attempts to explore gender differences in the adoption of mobile learning, by extending the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) with general and specific CSE. Data collected from 137 university students were tested against the research model using the structur...

  11. The Effect of Task-based Teaching on Incidental Vocabulary Learning in English for Specific Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    FALLAHRAFIE, Zahra; RAHMANY, Ramin; SADEGHI, Bahador

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Learning vocabulary is an essential part of language learning linking the four skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing together. This paper considers the incidental vocabulary teaching and learning within the framework of task-based activities in the hope of improving learners’ vocabulary acquiring in English for Specific Purposes courses (ESP), concentrating on Mechanical Engineering students at Islamic Azad University of Hashtgerd, Iran. A total number of 55 male and fe...

  12. Interference in ballistic motor learning: specificity and role of sensory error signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C

    2011-01-01

    Humans are capable of learning numerous motor skills, but newly acquired skills may be abolished by subsequent learning. Here we ask what factors determine whether interference occurs in motor learning. We speculated that interference requires competing processes of synaptic plasticity in overlap......Humans are capable of learning numerous motor skills, but newly acquired skills may be abolished by subsequent learning. Here we ask what factors determine whether interference occurs in motor learning. We speculated that interference requires competing processes of synaptic plasticity...... in overlapping circuits and predicted specificity. To test this, subjects learned a ballistic motor task. Interference was observed following subsequent learning of an accuracy-tracking task, but only if the competing task involved the same muscles and movement direction. Interference was not observed from a non......-learning task suggesting that interference requires competing learning. Subsequent learning of the competing task 4 h after initial learning did not cause interference suggesting disruption of early motor memory consolidation as one possible mechanism underlying interference. Repeated transcranial magnetic...

  13. Kernel-Based Learning for Domain-Specific Relation Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Roberto; Giannone, Cristina; Del Vescovo, Chiara; Moschitti, Alessandro; Naggar, Paolo

    In a specific process of business intelligence, i.e. investigation on organized crime, empirical language processing technologies can play a crucial role. The analysis of transcriptions on investigative activities, such as police interrogatories, for the recognition and storage of complex relations among people and locations is a very difficult and time consuming task, ultimately based on pools of experts. We discuss here an inductive relation extraction platform that opens the way to much cheaper and consistent workflows. The presented empirical investigation shows that accurate results, comparable to the expert teams, can be achieved, and parametrization allows to fine tune the system behavior for fitting domain-specific requirements.

  14. Placement and Achievement of Urban Hispanic Middle Schoolers with Specific Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrocas, Lisa; Cramer, Elizabeth D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined achievement gains in reading and math for Hispanic middle school students with specific learning disabilities in inclusive versus segregated settings in a large urban school district. The authors report learning gains for students with and without disabilities in inclusive versus segregated settings. Results indicate no…

  15. Working Memory Functioning in Children with Learning Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Bockmann, Ann-Katrin; Bornemann, Galina; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: On the basis of Baddeley's working memory model (1986), we examined working memory functioning in children with learning disorders with and without specific language impairment (SLI). We pursued the question whether children with learning disorders exhibit similar working memory deficits as children with additional SLI. Method: In…

  16. Principals' Perceptions of Instructional Leadership for Middle School Students of Color with Specific Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon-Luster, Beverly

    2013-01-01

    Instructional leadership is the most important responsibility for principals and the most vulnerable students in need of productive instructional leadership are students of color with specific learning disabilities. Instructional leaders are challenged with creating supportive learning environments and school cultures that promotes the education…

  17. Understanding Impulsivity among Children with Specific Learning Disabilities in Inclusion Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dababneh, Kholoud Adeeb; Al-Zboon, Eman K.

    2018-01-01

    Impulsive behavior is a characteristic of children with specific learning disabilities (SLD), and is related to learning ability. The present study aims to identify impulsivity behavior in children with SLD who attend inclusion schools, from their resource room teachers' perspectives. A 31-item questionnaire that addressed four subscales was…

  18. Are Language Learning Websites Special? Towards a Research Agenda for Discipline-Specific Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Lesley; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2006-01-01

    With the intention of defining an initial research agenda for discipline-specific factors in the usability of e-learning websites, this article focuses on the example of foreign language learning. First, general notions and concepts of usability are analyzed, and the term "pedagogical usability" is proposed as a means of focusing on the close…

  19. Context Fear Learning Specifically Activates Distinct Populations of Neurons in Amygdala and Hypothalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogrlic, Lidia; Wilson, Yvette M.; Newman, Andrew G.; Murphy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The identity and distribution of neurons that are involved in any learning or memory event is not known. In previous studies, we identified a discrete population of neurons in the lateral amygdala that show learning-specific activation of a c-"fos"-regulated transgene following context fear conditioning. Here, we have extended these studies to…

  20. Identifying Learning Patterns of Children at Risk for Specific Reading Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Baptiste; Krivulskaya, Suzanna; Hein, Sascha; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2016-01-01

    Differences in learning patterns of vocabulary acquisition in children at risk (+SRD) and not at risk (-SRD) for Specific Reading Disability (SRD) were examined using a microdevelopmental paradigm applied to the multi-trial Foreign Language Learning Task (FLLT; Baddeley et al., 1995). The FLLT was administered to 905 children from rural…

  1. D-Cycloserine reduces context specificity of sexual extinction learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, M.; Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; Spinhoven, P.; Trimbos, B.; Both, S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: d-Cycloserine (DCS) enhances extinction processes in animals. Although classical conditioning is hypothesized to play a pivotal role in the aetiology of appetitive motivation problems, no research has been conducted on the effect of DCS on the reduction of context specificity of

  2. d-Cycloserine reduces context specificity of sexual extinction learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Mirte; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip; Trimbos, Baptist; Both, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    d-Cycloserine (DCS) enhances extinction processes in animals. Although classical conditioning is hypothesized to play a pivotal role in the aetiology of appetitive motivation problems, no research has been conducted on the effect of DCS on the reduction of context specificity of extinction in human

  3. Working Memory Deficits in Children with Specific Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Maehler, Claudia; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    This article examines working memory functioning in children with specific developmental disorders of scholastic skills as defined by ICD-10. Ninety-seven second to fourth graders with a minimum IQ of 80 are compared using a 2 x 2 factorial (dyscalculia vs. no dyscalculia; dyslexia vs. no dyslexia) design. An extensive test battery assesses the…

  4. Self-Esteem among Boys with and without Specific Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Grace

    1980-01-01

    The self-esteem of 120 males with and without specific learning disabilities, at each of two levels of development (preadolescent and adolescent) was measured using Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory. (MP)

  5. Formal aspects of resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Maria Drigă

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience has represented during the recent years a leading concern both in Romania, within the European Union and worldwide. Specialists in economics, management, finance, legal sciences, political sciences, sociology, psychology, grant a particular interest to this concept. Multidisciplinary research of resilience has materialized throughout the time in multiple conceptualizations and theorizing, but without being a consensus between specialists in terms of content, specificity and scope. Through this paper it is intended to clarify the concept of resilience, achieving an exploration of the evolution of this concept in ecological, social and economic environment. At the same time, the paper presents aspects of feedback mechanisms and proposes a formalization of resilience using the logic and mathematical analysis.

  6. Specific Deficit in Implicit Motor Sequence Learning following Spinal Cord Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Bloch

    Full Text Available Physical and psychosocial rehabilitation following spinal cord injury (SCI leans heavily on learning and practicing new skills. However, despite research relating motor sequence learning to spinal cord activity and clinical observations of impeded skill-learning after SCI, implicit procedural learning following spinal cord damage has not been examined.To test the hypothesis that spinal cord injury (SCI in the absence of concomitant brain injury is associated with a specific implicit motor sequence learning deficit that cannot be explained by depression or impairments in other cognitive measures.Ten participants with SCI in T1-T11, unharmed upper limb motor and sensory functioning, and no concomitant brain injury were compared to ten matched control participants on measures derived from the serial reaction time (SRT task, which was used to assess implicit motor sequence learning. Explicit generation of the SRT sequence, depression, and additional measures of learning, memory, and intelligence were included to explore the source and specificity of potential learning deficits.There was no between-group difference in baseline reaction time, indicating that potential differences between the learning curves of the two groups could not be attributed to an overall reduction in response speed in the SCI group. Unlike controls, the SCI group showed no decline in reaction time over the first six blocks of the SRT task and no advantage for the initially presented sequence over the novel interference sequence. Meanwhile, no group differences were found in explicit learning, depression, or any additional cognitive measures.The dissociation between impaired implicit learning and intact declarative memory represents novel empirical evidence of a specific implicit procedural learning deficit following SCI, with broad implications for rehabilitation and adjustment.

  7. Rotor and wind turbine formalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The main conventions used in this book for the study of rotors are introduced in this chapter. The main assumptions and notations are provided. The formalism specific to wind turbines is presented. The forces, moments, velocities and dimensionless coefficients used in the study of rotors...

  8. Industrial use of formal methods formal verification

    CERN Document Server

    Boulanger, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    At present the literature gives students and researchers of the very general books on the formal technics. The purpose of this book is to present in a single book, a return of experience on the used of the "formal technics" (such proof and model-checking) on industrial examples for the transportation domain. This book is based on the experience of people which are completely involved in the realization and the evaluation of safety critical system software based.  The implication of the industrialists allows to raise the problems of confidentiality which could appear and so allow

  9. Working memory deficits in children with specific learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Maehler, Claudia; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    This article examines working memory functioning in children with specific developmental disorders of scholastic skills as defined by ICD-10. Ninety-seven second to fourth graders with a minimum IQ of 80 are compared using a 2 x 2 factorial (dyscalculia vs. no dyscalculia; dyslexia vs. no dyslexia) design. An extensive test battery assesses the three subcomponents of working memory described by Baddeley (1986): phonological loop, visual-spatial sketchpad, and central executive. Children with dyscalculia show deficits in visual-spatial memory; children with dyslexia show deficits in phonological and central executive functioning. When controlling for the influence of the phonological loop on the performance of the central executive, however, the effect is no longer significant. Although children with both reading and arithmetic disorders are consistently outperformed by all other groups, there is no significant interaction between the factors dyscalculia and dyslexia.

  10. Learning a specific content in technology education : Learning Study as collaborative method in Swedish preschool class using hands-on material 

    OpenAIRE

    Kilbrink, Nina; Bjurulf, Veronica; Blomberg, Ingela; Heidkamp, Anja; Hollsten, Ann-Christin

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the process of a learning study conducted in technology education in a Swedish preschool class. The learning study method used in this study is a collaborative method, where researchers and teachers work together as a team concerning teaching and learning about a specific learning object. The object of learning in this study concerns strong constructions and framed structures. This article describes how this learning study was conducted and discusses reflections made du...

  11. Domain-specific and domain-general constraints on word and sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lisa M D; Joanisse, Marc F

    2013-02-01

    The relative influences of language-related and memory-related constraints on the learning of novel words and sequences were examined by comparing individual differences in performance of children with and without specific deficits in either language or working memory. Children recalled lists of words in a Hebbian learning protocol in which occasional lists repeated, yielding improved recall over the course of the task on the repeated lists. The task involved presentation of pictures of common nouns followed immediately by equivalent presentations of the spoken names. The same participants also completed a paired-associate learning task involving word-picture and nonword-picture pairs. Hebbian learning was observed for all groups. Domain-general working memory constrained immediate recall, whereas language abilities impacted recall in the auditory modality only. In addition, working memory constrained paired-associate learning generally, whereas language abilities disproportionately impacted novel word learning. Overall, all of the learning tasks were highly correlated with domain-general working memory. The learning of nonwords was additionally related to general intelligence, phonological short-term memory, language abilities, and implicit learning. The results suggest that distinct associations between language- and memory-related mechanisms support learning of familiar and unfamiliar phonological forms and sequences.

  12. The learning continuum based on student's level of competence and specific pedagogical learning material on physiological aspects from teachers's opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Ria Fitriyani; Subali, Bambang

    2017-08-01

    The scope of learning continuum at the conceptual knowledge is formulated based on the student's level of competence and specific pedagogical learning material. The purpose of this study is to develop a learning continuum of specific pedagogical material aspects of physiology targeted for students in primary and secondary education. This research was conducted in Province of Yogyakarta Special Region from October 2016 to January 2017. The method used in this study was survey method. The data were collected using questionnaire that had been validated from the aspects of construct validity and experts judgements. Respondents in this study consist of 281 Science/Biology teachers at Public Junior and Senior High Schools in the Province of Yogyakarta Special Region which spread in Yogyakarta city and 4 regencies namely Sleman, Bantul, Kulonprogo, and Gunungkidul. The data were taken using a census. Data were analyzed using a descriptive analysis technique. The results show the learning continuum of physiology based on teachers's opinion from grade VII, VIII, and IX are taught in grade VII, VIII, IX and X on level of C2 (understanding) and the learning continuum of physiology based on teachers's opinion from grade X, XI and XII are taught in grade X and XI on level of C2 (understanding), C3 (applying), and C4 (analyzing) based on teachers's opinions. The conclusion is that many teachers refer to the existing curriculum rather than their own original idea for developing learning continuum.

  13. Fear of the Formal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    Over recent decades, institutions exhibiting high degrees of formality have come in for severe criticism. From the private to the public sector, and across a whole spectrum of actors spanning from practitioners to academics, formal organization is viewed with increasing doubt and skepticism....... In a “Schumpetarian world” (Teece et al., 1997: 509) of dynamic competition and incessant reform, formal organization appears as well suited to survival as a fish out of water. Indeed, formal organization, and its closely overlapping semantic twin bureaucracy, are not only represented as ill suited to the realities...... is that formal organization is an obstacle to be overcome. For that very reason, critics, intellectuals and reformers alike have urged public and private organizations to break out of the stifling straightjacket of formality, to dispense with bureaucracy, and to tear down hierarchies. This could either be done...

  14. Human reinforcement learning subdivides structured action spaces by learning effector-specific values

    OpenAIRE

    Gershman, Samuel J.; Pesaran, Bijan; Daw, Nathaniel D.

    2009-01-01

    Humans and animals are endowed with a large number of effectors. Although this enables great behavioral flexibility, it presents an equally formidable reinforcement learning problem of discovering which actions are most valuable, due to the high dimensionality of the action space. An unresolved question is how neural systems for reinforcement learning – such as prediction error signals for action valuation associated with dopamine and the striatum – can cope with this “curse of dimensionality...

  15. Projection specificity in heterogeneous locus coeruleus cell populations: implications for learning and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Akira; Tan, Bao Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) play a critical role in many functions including learning and memory. This relatively small population of cells sends widespread projections throughout the brain including to a number of regions such as the amygdala which is involved in emotional associative learning and the medial prefrontal cortex which is important for facilitating flexibility when learning rules change. LC noradrenergic cells participate in both of these functions, but it is not clear how this small population of neurons modulates these partially distinct processes. Here we review anatomical, behavioral, and electrophysiological studies to assess how LC noradrenergic neurons regulate these different aspects of learning and memory. Previous work has demonstrated that subpopulations of LC noradrenergic cells innervate specific brain regions suggesting heterogeneity of function in LC neurons. Furthermore, noradrenaline in mPFC and amygdala has distinct effects on emotional learning and cognitive flexibility. Finally, neural recording data show that LC neurons respond during associative learning and when previously learned task contingencies change. Together, these studies suggest a working model in which distinct and potentially opposing subsets of LC neurons modulate particular learning functions through restricted efferent connectivity with amygdala or mPFC. This type of model may provide a general framework for understanding other neuromodulatory systems, which also exhibit cell type heterogeneity and projection specificity. PMID:26330494

  16. Statistical word learning in children with autism spectrum disorder and specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haebig, Eileen; Saffran, Jenny R; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2017-11-01

    Word learning is an important component of language development that influences child outcomes across multiple domains. Despite the importance of word knowledge, word-learning mechanisms are poorly understood in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined underlying mechanisms of word learning, specifically, statistical learning and fast-mapping, in school-aged children with typical and atypical development. Statistical learning was assessed through a word segmentation task and fast-mapping was examined in an object-label association task. We also examined children's ability to map meaning onto newly segmented words in a third task that combined exposure to an artificial language and a fast-mapping task. Children with SLI had poorer performance on the word segmentation and fast-mapping tasks relative to the typically developing and ASD groups, who did not differ from one another. However, when children with SLI were exposed to an artificial language with phonemes used in the subsequent fast-mapping task, they successfully learned more words than in the isolated fast-mapping task. There was some evidence that word segmentation abilities are associated with word learning in school-aged children with typical development and ASD, but not SLI. Follow-up analyses also examined performance in children with ASD who did and did not have a language impairment. Children with ASD with language impairment evidenced intact statistical learning abilities, but subtle weaknesses in fast-mapping abilities. As the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) predicts, children with SLI have impairments in statistical learning. However, children with SLI also have impairments in fast-mapping. Nonetheless, they are able to take advantage of additional phonological exposure to boost subsequent word-learning performance. In contrast to the PDH, children with ASD appear to have intact statistical learning, regardless of

  17. Effectiveness of Memantine in Improvement of Cognitive Deficits in Specific Learning Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ahmadi Zahrani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Specific learning disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent difficulties in learning academic skills in reading, written expression, or mathematics. This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of memantine in the relief of cognitive deficits (selective attention, sustained attention, and working memory in specific learning disorder. Materials and Methods: This study is a clinical trial. Of all children 8-12 years referred to Amir Kabir Hospital 94 patients diagnosed with specific learning disorder based on DSMV diagnostic interview referred by specialist and randomly divided by two groups, memantine and placebo. Cognitive deficits before and after treatment were measured with continuous performance test, Stroop test and Wechsler Digit Span forward and reverse and Corsi test. Results: Multivariate analysis of variance showed a significant difference in error when answering, omission answer and corrected answer in continuous performance test, but this difference is not significant in response time. Difference in forward, reverse and collected auditory was significant and not significant in the auditory span. In active visual working memory at corsi cube test, difference was significant (p <0.05. Conclusion: The results showed that memantine in improvement of sustained attention, auditory working memory and visual working memory, is effective, while in selective attention is not effective and according to similarities of learning disorder and Attention deficit / Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and the effectiveness of memantine in improvement of symptoms of ADHD, we can also use this drug in improvement of cognitive deficits of specific learning disorder.

  18. Statistical Learning in Specific Language Impairment and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Obeid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Impairments in statistical learning might be a common deficit among individuals with Specific Language Impairment (SLI and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Using meta-analysis, we examined statistical learning in SLI (14 studies, 15 comparisons and ASD (13 studies, 20 comparisons to evaluate this hypothesis. Effect sizes were examined as a function of diagnosis across multiple statistical learning tasks (Serial Reaction Time, Contextual Cueing, Artificial Grammar Learning, Speech Stream, Observational Learning, Probabilistic Classification. Individuals with SLI showed deficits in statistical learning relative to age-matched controls g = .47, 95% CI [.28, .66], p < .001. In contrast, statistical learning was intact in individuals with ASD relative to controls, g = –.13, 95% CI [–.34, .08], p = .22. Effect sizes did not vary as a function of task modality or participant age. Our findings inform debates about overlapping social-communicative difficulties in children with SLI and ASD by suggesting distinct underlying mechanisms. In line with the procedural deficit hypothesis (Ullman & Pierpont, 2005, impaired statistical learning may account for phonological and syntactic difficulties associated with SLI. In contrast, impaired statistical learning fails to account for the social-pragmatic difficulties associated with ASD.

  19. Code-specific learning rules improve action selection by populations of spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Johannes; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

    2014-08-01

    Population coding is widely regarded as a key mechanism for achieving reliable behavioral decisions. We previously introduced reinforcement learning for population-based decision making by spiking neurons. Here we generalize population reinforcement learning to spike-based plasticity rules that take account of the postsynaptic neural code. We consider spike/no-spike, spike count and spike latency codes. The multi-valued and continuous-valued features in the postsynaptic code allow for a generalization of binary decision making to multi-valued decision making and continuous-valued action selection. We show that code-specific learning rules speed up learning both for the discrete classification and the continuous regression tasks. The suggested learning rules also speed up with increasing population size as opposed to standard reinforcement learning rules. Continuous action selection is further shown to explain realistic learning speeds in the Morris water maze. Finally, we introduce the concept of action perturbation as opposed to the classical weight- or node-perturbation as an exploration mechanism underlying reinforcement learning. Exploration in the action space greatly increases the speed of learning as compared to exploration in the neuron or weight space.

  20. Construction of the Questionnaire on Foreign Language Learning Strategies in Specific Croatian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božinović, Nikolina; Sindik, Joško

    2017-03-01

    Learning strategies are special thoughts or behaviours that individuals use to understand, learn or retain new information, according to the point of view of O’Malley & Chamot. The other view, promoted by Oxford, believes learning strategies are specific actions taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, and more transferrable to new situations of language learning and use. The use of appropriate strategies ensures greater success in language learning. The aim of the research was to establish metric characteristics of the Questionnaire on learning strategies created by the author, in line with the template of the original SILL questionnaire (Strategy Inventory for Language Learning). The research was conducted at the Rochester Institute of Technology Croatia on a sample of 201 participants who learned German, Spanish, French and Italian as a foreign language. The results have shown that one-component latent dimensions which describe the space of foreign language learning strategies according to Oxford’s classification, have metric characteristics which are low, but still satisfactory (reliability and validity). All dimensions of learning strategies appeared not to be adequately defined. Therefore, we excluded compensation strategies and merged social and affective strategies into social-affective strategies into the unique dimension. Overall, this version of Oxford’s original questionnaire, based on Oxford’s theoretical construct, applied on Croatian students, clearly shows that current version of the questionnaire has poor metric characteristics. One of the explanations of the results obtained could be positioned in multicultural context and intercultural dialogue. Namely, particular social, political and economic context in Croatia could shape even foreign language learning strategies.

  1. Formal Engineering Hybrid Systems: Semantic Underpinnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, M.C.; Bujorianu, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we investigate some issues in applying formal methods to hybrid system development and develop a categorical framework. We study the themes of stochastic reasoning, heterogeneous formal specification and retrenchment. Hybrid systems raise a rich pallets of aspects that need to be

  2. Geometry and Formal Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, George A.

    This paper presents a method of encoding geometric line-drawings in a way which allows sets of such drawings to be interpreted as formal languages. A characterization of certain geometric predicates in terms of their properties as languages is obtained, and techniques usually associated with generative grammars and formal automata are then applied…

  3. Using principles of learning to inform language therapy design for children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Meyers, Christina; Ancharski, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Language treatment for children with specific language impairment (SLI) often takes months to achieve moderate results. Interventions often do not incorporate the principles that are known to affect learning in unimpaired learners. To outline some key findings about learning in typical populations and to suggest a model of how they might be applied to language treatment design as a catalyst for further research and discussion. Three main principles of implicit learning are reviewed: variability, complexity and sleep-dependent consolidation. After explaining these principles, evidence is provided as to how they influence learning tasks in unimpaired learners. Information is reviewed on principles of learning as they apply to impaired populations, current treatment designs are also reviewed that conform to the principles, and ways in which principles of learning might be incorporated into language treatment design are demonstrated. This paper provides an outline for how theoretical knowledge might be applied to clinical practice in an effort to promote discussion. Although the authors look forward to more specific details on how the principles of learning relate to impaired populations, there is ample evidence to suggest that these principles should be considered during treatment design. © 2012 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  4. A Survey of Formal Methods in Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2012-01-01

    The use of formal methods and formal techniques in industry is steadily growing. In this survey we shall characterise what we mean by software development and by a formal method; briefly overview a history of formal specification languages - some of which are: VDM (Vienna Development Method, 1974...... need for multi-language formalisation (Petri Nets, MSC, StateChart, Temporal Logics); the sociology of university and industry acceptance of formal methods; the inevitability of the use of formal software development methods; while referring to seminal monographs and textbooks on formal methods....

  5. Necessity of Integral Formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Yong

    2011-01-01

    To describe the physical reality, there are two ways of constructing the dynamical equation of field, differential formalism and integral formalism. The importance of this fact is firstly emphasized by Yang in case of gauge field [Phys. Rev. Lett. 33 (1974) 445], where the fact has given rise to a deeper understanding for Aharonov-Bohm phase and magnetic monopole [Phys. Rev. D 12 (1975) 3845]. In this paper we shall point out that such a fact also holds in general wave function of matter, it may give rise to a deeper understanding for Berry phase. Most importantly, we shall prove a point that, for general wave function of matter, in the adiabatic limit, there is an intrinsic difference between its integral formalism and differential formalism. It is neglect of this difference that leads to an inconsistency of quantum adiabatic theorem pointed out by Marzlin and Sanders [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 160408]. It has been widely accepted that there is no physical difference of using differential operator or integral operator to construct the dynamical equation of field. Nevertheless, our study shows that the Schrödinger differential equation (i.e., differential formalism for wave function) shall lead to vanishing Berry phase and that the Schrödinger integral equation (i.e., integral formalism for wave function), in the adiabatic limit, can satisfactorily give the Berry phase. Therefore, we reach a conclusion: There are two ways of describing physical reality, differential formalism and integral formalism; but the integral formalism is a unique way of complete description. (general)

  6. Qualitative and quantitative revaluation of specific learning disabilities: a multicentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operto, Francesca F; Mazza, Roberta; Buttiglione, Maura; Craig, Francesco; Frolli, Alessandro; Pisano, Simone; Margari, Lucia; Coppola, Giangennaro

    2018-04-12

    Specific learning disabilities are disorders that affect the instrumental skills of academic learning, leaving intact the general intellectual functioning. It is possible to distinguish: dyslexia, dysorthography, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia. The diagnosis is made according to DSMV. The aim of this study is to evaluate the implementation of Law N° 170 following a diagnosis of specific learning disabilities in children and their evolution over time. The sample under examination consists of 75 children, 56 males and 18 females aged 7,8 to 16 years, with a diagnosis of specific learning disabilities; a revaluation was carried outthrough the use of standardized instruments according to age and school attended. A twopart questionnaire was proposed: the first part turned to the parents/carers of the child and the second part turned to the boy himself. The improvement parameter has been linked, through a statistical analysis of univarianza with intelligence quotient, age, application of the law 10 October 2010 n 170, rehabilitative paths and attending afterschool program. Most of the guys are followed at school by the application of the law 170 and, outside school, by attending speech and neuropsychological therapy and after school. Going to investigate the actual use of the measures put in place by the school, it is evident a partial and incomplete application of Law 170. The most suitable measures for these children are pedagogical measures in order to make them integrate with the group class and strengthen their capacities through specific measures provided by a specific legislative decree.

  7. Perceptual learning of basic visual features remains task specific with Training-Plus-Exposure (TPE) training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Lin-Juan; Wang, Ru-Jie; Yu, Cong; Zhang, Jun-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning is known to be specific to the trained retinal location, feature, and task. However, location and feature specificity can be eliminated by double-training or TPE training protocols, in which observers receive additional exposure to the transfer location or feature dimension via an irrelevant task besides the primary learning task Here we tested whether these new training protocols could even make learning transfer across different tasks involving discrimination of basic visual features (e.g., orientation and contrast). Observers practiced a near-threshold orientation (or contrast) discrimination task. Following a TPE training protocol, they also received exposure to the transfer task via performing suprathreshold contrast (or orientation) discrimination in alternating blocks of trials in the same sessions. The results showed no evidence for significant learning transfer to the untrained near-threshold contrast (or orientation) discrimination task after discounting the pretest effects and the suprathreshold practice effects. These results thus do not support a hypothetical task-independent component in perceptual learning of basic visual features. They also set the boundary of the new training protocols in their capability to enable learning transfer.

  8. Learning to spell from reading: general knowledge about spelling patterns influences memory for specific words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacton, Sébastien; Borchardt, Gaëlle; Treiman, Rebecca; Lété, Bernard; Fayol, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Adults often learn to spell words during the course of reading for meaning, without intending to do so. We used an incidental learning task in order to study this process. Spellings that contained double n, r and t which are common doublets in French, were learned more readily by French university students than spellings that contained less common but still legal doublets. When recalling or recognizing the latter, the students sometimes made transposition errors, doubling a consonant that often doubles in French rather than the consonant that was originally doubled (e.g., tiddunar recalled as tidunnar). The results, found in three experiments using different nonwords and different types of instructions, show that people use general knowledge about the graphotactic patterns of their writing system together with word-specific knowledge to reconstruct spellings that they learn from reading. These processes contribute to failures and successes in memory for spellings, as in other domains.

  9. Formalization of Hostel Management System. | Obi | Journal of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HMS) can invariably contribute greatly to the success, profitability and customerbased approach of such an organization. The use of formal specification creates a formal approach for specifying the underlying functions and properties of the ...

  10. What's Happening in "Their Space"? Exploring the Borders of Formal and Informal Learning with Undergraduate Students of Education in the Age of Mobile Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jane; Jones, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The changing nature of teaching and learning in an age of accessible technologies provides challenges and opportunities for the design of learning events. Working with a sample of undergraduate students of education in one UK higher education institution we use an exploratory, qualitative approach to investigate students' spontaneous uses of their…

  11. Linking Recognition Practices and National Qualifications Frameworks: International Benchmarking of Experiences and Strategies on the Recognition, Validation and Accreditation (RVA) of Non-Formal and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhu, Ed.; Duvekot, Ruud, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This publication is the outcome of the international conference organized by UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL), in collaboration with the Centre for Validation of Prior Learning at Inholland University of Applied Sciences, the Netherlands, and in partnership with the French National Commission for UNESCO that was held in Hamburg in…

  12. Estudio de la estructura y del comportamiento de las comunidades virtuales de aprendizaje no formal sobre estandarización del e-learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Two main hypotheses are supported on this research: 1) Virtual communities on informal e-learning are organized as directed graphs; and b) virtual communities on informal e-learning follow some patterns on participation and behavior that can be identified and bounded, related to face-to-face and

  13. Learning Category-Specific Dictionary and Shared Dictionary for Fine-Grained Image Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shenghua; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Ma, Yi

    2014-02-01

    This paper targets fine-grained image categorization by learning a category-specific dictionary for each category and a shared dictionary for all the categories. Such category-specific dictionaries encode subtle visual differences among different categories, while the shared dictionary encodes common visual patterns among all the categories. To this end, we impose incoherence constraints among the different dictionaries in the objective of feature coding. In addition, to make the learnt dictionary stable, we also impose the constraint that each dictionary should be self-incoherent. Our proposed dictionary learning formulation not only applies to fine-grained classification, but also improves conventional basic-level object categorization and other tasks such as event recognition. Experimental results on five data sets show that our method can outperform the state-of-the-art fine-grained image categorization frameworks as well as sparse coding based dictionary learning frameworks. All these results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  14. A Learning Model for L/M Specificity in Ganglion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Albert J.

    2016-01-01

    An unsupervised learning model for developing LM specific wiring at the ganglion cell level would support the research indicating LM specific wiring at the ganglion cell level (Reid and Shapley, 2002). Removing the contributions to the surround from cells of the same cone type improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the chromatic signals. The unsupervised learning model used is Hebbian associative learning, which strengthens the surround input connections according to the correlation of the output with the input. Since the surround units of the same cone type as the center are redundant with the center, their weights end up disappearing. This process can be thought of as a general mechanism for eliminating unnecessary cells in the nervous system.

  15. Towards sophisticated learning from EHRs: increasing prediction specificity and accuracy using clinically meaningful risk criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljeva, Ieva; Arandjelovic, Ognjen

    2016-08-01

    Computer based analysis of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) has the potential to provide major novel insights of benefit both to specific individuals in the context of personalized medicine, as well as on the level of population-wide health care and policy. The present paper introduces a novel algorithm that uses machine learning for the discovery of longitudinal patterns in the diagnoses of diseases. Two key technical novelties are introduced: one in the form of a novel learning paradigm which enables greater learning specificity, and another in the form of a risk driven identification of confounding diagnoses. We present a series of experiments which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques, and which reveal novel insights regarding the most promising future research directions.

  16. Towards Formal Implementation of PUS Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, D.

    2009-05-01

    As an effort to promote the reuse of on-board and ground systems ESA developed a standard for packet telemetry and telecommand - PUS. It defines a set of standard service models with the corresponding structures of the associated telemetry and telecommand packets. Various missions then can choose to implement those standard PUS services that best conform to their specific requirements. In this paper we propose a formal development (based on the Event-B method) of reusable service patterns, which can be instantiated for concrete application. Our formal models allow us to formally express and verify specific service properties including various telecommand and telemetry packet structure validation.

  17. Computer-Assisted Mathematics Instruction for Students with Specific Learning Disability: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stultz, Sherry L.

    2017-01-01

    This review was conducted to evaluate the current body of scholarly research regarding the use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to teach mathematics to students with specific learning disability (SLD). For many years, computers are utilized for educational purposes. However, the effectiveness of CAI for teaching mathematics to this specific…

  18. The Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction for Teaching Mathematics to Students with Specific Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stultz, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    Using computers to teach students is not a new idea. Computers have been utilized for educational purposes for over 80 years. However, the effectiveness of these programs for teaching mathematics to students with specific learning disability is unclear. This study was undertaken to determine if computer-assisted instruction was as effective as…

  19. Defining the Undefinable: Operationalization of Methods to Identify Specific Learning Disabilities among Practicing School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Joseph M.; Barrett, Courtenay A.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and consistent identification of students with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) is crucial; however, state and district guidelines regarding identification methods lack operationalization and are inconsistent throughout the United States. In the current study, the authors surveyed 471 school psychologists about "school" SLD…

  20. Extracurricular Activities and the Development of Social Skills in Children with Intellectual and Specific Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, B. A.; Floyd, F.; Robins, D. L.; Chan, W. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability and specific learning disabilities often lack age-appropriate social skills, which disrupts their social functioning. Because of the limited effectiveness of classroom mainstreaming and social skills training for these children, it is important to explore alternative opportunities for social skill…

  1. Graduation Prospects of College Students with Specific Learning Disorder and Students with Mental Health Related Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Mary; Budd, Jillian; Fichten, Catherine S.; Nguyen, Mai N.; Havel, Alice

    2018-01-01

    This study's goal was to compare aspects related to academic persistence of two groups of college students with non-visible disabilities: 110 Canadian two and four-year college students--55 with mental health related disabilities and 55 with Specific Learning Disorder (LD). Results show that students with mental health related disabilities were…

  2. Personalization for Specific Users : Designing Decision Support Systems to Support Stimulating Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruster, Laura; Faber, Niels R.; van Haren, Rob J.; Salvendy, G; Smith, MJ

    2009-01-01

    Creating adaptive systems becomes increasingly attractive in the context of specific groups of users, such as agricultural users. This group of users seems to differ with respect to information processing, knowledge management and learning styles. In this work we aim to offer directions toward

  3. Parents' Perspectives on Coping with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Concomitant Specific Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Carol L.

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses parental perspectives and coping strategies related to Duchenne muscular dystrophy and specific learning disabilities. Data were collected through individual semi-structured in-depth interviews with fifteen sets of parents. Participants were selected based on variables such as age of children, number of children with both…

  4. The Legal Meaning of Specific Learning Disability for IDEA Eligibility: The Latest Case Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2013-01-01

    Specific learning disability (SLD), although moderately declining in recent years, continues to be the largest of the eligibility classifications under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; NCES, 2012). The recognition of response to intervention (RTI) in the 2004 amendments of the IDEA as an approach for identifying students with…

  5. Executive Functioning and Psychopathology in Psychotherapy for Adolescents with Specific Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman-Rubin, Daphne; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Al-Yagon, Michal; Mufson, Laura; Apter, Alan; Mikulincer, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of executive functioning (EF) to improvements in psychiatric symptomatology following I Can Succeed (ICS; Kopelman-Rubin, 2012) psychotherapy, a skill-enhancement intervention designed to target EF and socio-emotional aspects of specific learning disabilities (SLD). Forty adolescents with SLD underwent ICS in…

  6. Working Memory and Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Archibald, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The authors compared 6- to 11-year-olds with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those with specific language impairment (SLI) on measures of memory (verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory) and learning (reading and mathematics). Children with DCD with typical language skills were impaired in all four areas of memory…

  7. Internet-Specific Epistemic Beliefs and Self-Regulated Learning in Online Academic Information Searching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yen-Lin; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Epistemic beliefs have been considered as important components of the self-regulatory model; however, their relationships with self-regulated learning processes in the Internet context need further research. The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between Internet-specific epistemic belief dimensions and self-regulated…

  8. Evaluating the Impact of Dyslexia Laws on the Identification of Specific Learning Disability and Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, B. Anne Barber; Odegard, Timothy N.

    2017-01-01

    Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that impacts word reading accuracy and/or reading fluency. Over half of the states in the USA have passed legislation intended to promote better identification of individuals with dyslexia. To date, no study has been conducted to investigate the potential impact of state laws on the identification of…

  9. Training School Psychologists to Identify Specific Learning Disabilities: A Content Analysis of Syllabi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Courtenay A.; Cottrell, Joseph M.; Newman, Daniel S.; Pierce, Benjamin G.; Anderson, Alisha

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 2.4 million children receive special education services for specific learning disabilities (SLDs), and school psychologists are key contributors to the SLD eligibility decision-making process. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004) enabled local education agencies to use response to intervention (RTI) instead of the…

  10. The effects of inspecting and constructing part-task-specific visualizations on team and individual learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slof, Bert; Erkens, Gijsbert; Kirschner, Paul A.; Helms-Lorenz, Michelle

    This study examined whether inspecting and constructing different part-task-specific visualizations differentially affects learning. To this end, a complex business-economics problem was structured into three phase-related part-tasks: (1) determining core concepts, (2) proposing multiple solutions,

  11. Specific Learning Disabilities in DSM-5: Are the Changes for Better or Worse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    DSM-5, the fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," was published in May 2013, amidst a storm of controversy. This article focuses on changes made to the diagnostic criteria for Specific Learning Disorders (SLD). Primary criticisms of the changes in the SLD concern…

  12. Fostering Self-Concept and Interest for Statistics through Specific Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproesser, Ute; Engel, Joachim; Kuntze, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Supporting motivational variables such as self-concept or interest is an important goal of schooling as they relate to learning and achievement. In this study, we investigated whether specific interest and self-concept related to the domains of statistics and mathematics can be fostered through a four-lesson intervention focusing on statistics.…

  13. Suicide Attempts among Individuals with Specific Learning Disorders: An Underrecognized Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Carroll, Samara Z.; Yang, Wook

    2018-01-01

    Several studies have linked specific learning disorders (SLDs) with suicidal ideation, but less is known about the disorders' association with suicide attempts. This gap in the literature is addressed via the 2012 nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 21,744). The prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts among those with…

  14. E-Learning Lifecycles:How Communities and Context can affect E-learning Specifications and Tool Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Magee

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of a large body of e-learning specifications, such as IMS and SCORM, has led to the proposal for a new way to facilitate content workflow. This involves the movement of educational digital content and the knowledge of pedagogical communities into an online space. Several projects have looked at the theoretical structure of these specifications. They implemented a series of tools in order to examine and research the issues around the actual usage of these specifications. The CAREO, ALOHA and ALOHA 2 projects were designed to expose both individual users and whole institutions to these ideas. Initial research into the result of those interactions indicates that there is some utility in the adoption of e-learning specifications. The future success of them will depend on their ability to adapt and meet the needs of the educational community as they begin to adopt, use and evolve the way they use the specifications and the tools created around them.

  15. Professional Learning of Instructors in Vocational and Professional Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Annemarieke; Kuntz, Jeff; Newton, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This article presents insights from a study into instructor professional learning in vocational and professional education (VPE) in Canada. While most studies on instructor learning focus on learning through formal professional development programmes, this study specifically focuses on professional learning as it happens in day-to-day practice.…

  16. Formal Specification and Verification of Concurrent Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    of examples from the emerging theory of This book describes operating systems in general programming languages. via the construction of MINIX , a UNIX...look-alike that runs on IBM-PC compatibles. The book con- Wegner72 tains a complete MINIX manual and a complete Wegnerflisting of its C codie. egner

  17. Formal Specification of Distributed Information Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, J.; Brinksma, Hendrik; de By, R.A.; de By, R.A.

    The design of distributed information systems tends to be complex and therefore error-prone. However, in the field of monolithic, i.e. non-distributed, information systems much has already been achieved, and by now, the principles of their design seem to be fairly well-understood. The past decade

  18. Formal specification with the Java modeling language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Ahrendt, Wolfgang; Grahl, Daniel; Hentschel, Martin; Ahrendt, Wolfgang; Beckert, Bernhard; Bubel, Richard; Hähnle, Reiner; Schmitt, Peter H.; Ulbrich, Mattoas

    2016-01-01

    This text is a general, self contained, and tool independent introduction into the Java Modeling Language, JML. It appears in a book about the KeY approach and tool, because JML is the dominating starting point of KeY style Java verification. However, this chapter does not depend on KeY, nor any

  19. Measuring the effect of formalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoelen, K.; Mohn, P.

    1998-01-01

    We present an ongoing research activity concerned with measuring the effect of an increased level of formalization in software development. We summarize the experiences from a first experimental development. Based on these experiences, we discuss a number of technical issues; in particular, problems connected to metrics based on fault reports. First of all, what is a fault? Secondly, how should the fault counting be integrated in the development process? Thirdly, any reasonable definition of fault depends on a notion of satisfaction. Hence, we must address the question: What does it mean for a specification or an implementation to satisfy a requirement imposed by a more high-level specification? (author)

  20. Especificación formal en OCL de reglas de consistencia entre los diagramas de clases y casos de uso de UML y el modelo de interfaces Formal OCL specification of consistency rules between the UML class and the use case models and the interfaces model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Zapata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el ciclo de vida del software, durante las fases de definición y análisis, se realiza una especificación de los requisitos. Para ello, es necesario realizar un proceso de captura de las necesidades y expectativas de los interesados, que se traduce posteriormente en un conjunto de modelos que representan tanto el problema como su solución. Por lo general, la mayoría de esos modelos se expresan en el lenguaje de modelado unificado -UML-, que define un conjunto de artefactos que permiten especificar los requisitos del software, los cuales deberían guardar consistencia, cuando se trate del mismo modelo. Sin embargo, la consistencia entre diferentes artefactos no se encuentra definida en la especificación de UML y poco se ha trabajado con este tipo de consistencia. En este artículo se propone un método para verificar la consistencia entre el diagrama de clases y el diagrama de casos de uso de UML de una manera formal. Dicho proceso se lleva a cabo evaluando una serie de reglas definidas en el lenguaje de restricciones de objetos -OCL- que se deben cumplir para garantizar que la información brindada por dichos modelos sea consistente. Como se reconoce la participación de los dos diagramas en la elaboración de las interfaces gráficas de usuario -GUI-, se define adicionalmente la consistencia con este artefacto.In a software lifetime, during definition and analysis stages, a specification of requirements is carried out. For such a purpose, it is necessary to get through a process to capture interested persons’ needs and expectations, which will later be translated into a set of models representing both the problem and the solution. Most models are frequently expressed by the UML (Unified Modeling Language which defines a set of devices for specifying software requirements which should be consistent with the same model. However, consistency among several devices is not defined in the UML specification and not too much work has been made

  1. Effects of practice schedule and task specificity on the adaptive process of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, João Augusto de Camargo; Tani, Go; Corrêa, Umberto Cesar

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of practice schedule and task specificity based on the perspective of adaptive process of motor learning. For this purpose, tasks with temporal and force control learning requirements were manipulated in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Specifically, the task consisted of touching with the dominant hand the three sequential targets with specific movement time or force for each touch. Participants were children (N=120), both boys and girls, with an average age of 11.2years (SD=1.0). The design in both experiments involved four practice groups (constant, random, constant-random, and random-constant) and two phases (stabilisation and adaptation). The dependent variables included measures related to the task goal (accuracy and variability of error of the overall movement and force patterns) and movement pattern (macro- and microstructures). Results revealed a similar error of the overall patterns for all groups in both experiments and that they adapted themselves differently in terms of the macro- and microstructures of movement patterns. The study concludes that the effects of practice schedules on the adaptive process of motor learning were both general and specific to the task. That is, they were general to the task goal performance and specific regarding the movement pattern. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. First-order and higher order sequence learning in specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gillian M; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2017-02-01

    A core claim of the procedural deficit hypothesis of specific language impairment (SLI) is that the disorder is associated with poor implicit sequence learning. This study investigated whether implicit sequence learning problems in SLI are present for first-order conditional (FOC) and higher order conditional (HOC) sequences. Twenty-five children with SLI and 27 age-matched, nonlanguage-impaired children completed 2 serial reaction time tasks. On 1 version, the sequence to be implicitly learnt comprised a FOC sequence and on the other a HOC sequence. Results showed that the SLI group learned the HOC sequence (η p ² = .285, p = .005) but not the FOC sequence (η p ² = .099, p = .118). The control group learned both sequences (FOC η p ² = .497, HOC η p 2= .465, ps < .001). The SLI group's difficulty learning the FOC sequence is consistent with the procedural deficit hypothesis. However, the study provides new evidence that multiple mechanisms may underpin the learning of FOC and HOC sequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Formal Institutions and Subjective Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A.V.

    2010-01-01

    A long tradition in economics explores the association between the quality of formal institutions and economic performance. The literature on the relationship between such institutions and happiness is, however, rather limited, and inconclusive. In this paper, we revisit the findings from recent...... cross-country studies on the institution-happiness association. Our findings suggest that their conclusions are qualitatively rather insensitive to the specific measure of 'happiness' used, while the associations between formal institutions and subjective well-being differ among poor and rich countries....... Separating different types of institutional quality, we find that in low-income countries the effects of economic-judicial institutions on happiness dominate those of political institutions, while analyses restricted to middle- and high-income countries show strong support for an additional beneficial effect...

  4. Agent-specific learning signals for self-other distinction during mentalising.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Ereira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Humans have a remarkable ability to simulate the minds of others. How the brain distinguishes between mental states attributed to self and mental states attributed to someone else is unknown. Here, we investigated how fundamental neural learning signals are selectively attributed to different agents. Specifically, we asked whether learning signals are encoded in agent-specific neural patterns or whether a self-other distinction depends on encoding agent identity separately from this learning signal. To examine this, we tasked subjects to learn continuously 2 models of the same environment, such that one was selectively attributed to self and the other was selectively attributed to another agent. Combining computational modelling with magnetoencephalography (MEG enabled us to track neural representations of prediction errors (PEs and beliefs attributed to self, and of simulated PEs and beliefs attributed to another agent. We found that the representational pattern of a PE reliably predicts the identity of the agent to whom the signal is attributed, consistent with a neural self-other distinction implemented via agent-specific learning signals. Strikingly, subjects exhibiting a weaker neural self-other distinction also had a reduced behavioural capacity for self-other distinction and displayed more marked subclinical psychopathological traits. The neural self-other distinction was also modulated by social context, evidenced in a significantly reduced decoding of agent identity in a nonsocial control task. Thus, we show that self-other distinction is realised through an encoding of agent identity intrinsic to fundamental learning signals. The observation that the fidelity of this encoding predicts psychopathological traits is of interest as a potential neurocomputational psychiatric biomarker.

  5. Formal methods in software development: A road less travelled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A van der Poll

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An integration of traditional verification techniques and formal specifications in software engineering is presented. Advocates of such techniques claim that mathematical formalisms allow them to produce quality, verifiably correct, or at least highly dependable software and that the testing and maintenance phases are shortened. Critics on the other hand maintain that software formalisms are hard to master, tedious to use and not well suited for the fast turnaround times demanded by industry. In this paper some popular formalisms and the advantages of using these during the early phases of the software development life cycle are presented. Employing the Floyd-Hoare verification principles during the formal specification phase facilitates reasoning about the properties of a specification. Some observations that may help to alleviate the formal-methods controversy are established and a number of formal methods successes is presented. Possible conditions for an increased acceptance of formalisms in oftware development are discussed.

  6. Statistical Survey of Non-Formal Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Nývlt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available focused on a programme within a regular education system. Labour market flexibility and new requirements on employees create a new domain of education called non-formal education. Is there a reliable statistical source with a good methodological definition for the Czech Republic? Labour Force Survey (LFS has been the basic statistical source for time comparison of non-formal education for the last ten years. Furthermore, a special Adult Education Survey (AES in 2011 was focused on individual components of non-formal education in a detailed way. In general, the goal of the EU is to use data from both internationally comparable surveys for analyses of the particular fields of lifelong learning in the way, that annual LFS data could be enlarged by detailed information from AES in five years periods. This article describes reliability of statistical data aboutnon-formal education. This analysis is usually connected with sampling and non-sampling errors.

  7. Enhanced Assessment Technology and Neurocognitive Aspects of Specific Learning Disorder with Impairment in Mathematics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios A. Pappas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Specific Learning Disorder with impairment in Mathematics (Developmental Dyscalculia is a complex learning disorder which affects arithmetic skills, symbolic magnitude processing, alertness, flexibility in problem solving and maintained attention. Neuro-cognitive studies revealed that such difficulties in children with DD could be related to poor Working Memory and attention deficits. Furthermore, neuroimaging studies indicate that brain structure differences in children with DD compared to typically developing children could affect mathematical performance. In this study we present the cognitive profile of Dyscalculia, as well as the neuropsychological aspects of the deficit, with special reference to the utilization of enhanced assessment technology such as computerized neuropsychological tools and neuroimaging techniques.

  8. Grammar predicts procedural learning and consolidation deficits in children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenius, Martina; Persson, Jonas; Tremblay, Antoine; Adi-Japha, Esther; Veríssimo, João; Dye, Cristina D; Alm, Per; Jennische, Margareta; Bruce Tomblin, J; Ullman, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) posits that Specific Language Impairment (SLI) can be largely explained by abnormalities of brain structures that subserve procedural memory. The PDH predicts impairments of procedural memory itself, and that such impairments underlie the grammatical deficits observed in the disorder. Previous studies have indeed reported procedural learning impairments in SLI, and have found that these are associated with grammatical difficulties. The present study extends this research by examining consolidation and longer-term procedural sequence learning in children with SLI. The Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT) task was given to children with SLI and typically developing (TD) children in an initial learning session and an average of three days later to test for consolidation and longer-term learning. Although both groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only the TD children showed clear signs of consolidation, even though the two groups did not differ in longer-term learning. When the children were re-categorized on the basis of grammar deficits rather than broader language deficits, a clearer pattern emerged. Whereas both the grammar impaired and normal grammar groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only those with normal grammar showed consolidation and longer-term learning. Indeed, the grammar-impaired group appeared to lose any sequence knowledge gained during the initial testing session. These findings held even when controlling for vocabulary or a broad non-grammatical language measure, neither of which were associated with procedural memory. When grammar was examined as a continuous variable over all children, the same relationships between procedural memory and grammar, but not vocabulary or the broader language measure, were observed. Overall, the findings support and further specify the PDH. They suggest that consolidation and longer-term procedural learning are impaired in SLI, but that these

  9. Grammar Predicts Procedural Learning and Consolidation Deficits in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenius, Martina; Persson, Jonas; Tremblay, Antoine; Adi-Japha, Esther; Veríssimo, João; Dye, Cristina D.; Alm, Per; Jennische, Margareta; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Ullman, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) posits that Specific Language Impairment (SLI) can be largely explained by abnormalities of brain structures that subserve procedural memory. The PDH predicts impairments of procedural memory itself, and that such impairments underlie the grammatical deficits observed in the disorder. Previous studies have indeed reported procedural learning impairments in SLI, and have found that these are associated with grammatical difficulties. The present study extends this research by examining the consolidation and longer-term procedural sequence learning in children with SLI. The Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT) task was given to children with SLI and typically-developing (TD) children in an initial learning session and an average of three days later to test for consolidation and longer-term learning. Although both groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only the TD children showed clear signs of consolidation, even though the two groups did not differ in longer-term learning. When the children were re-categorized on the basis of grammar deficits rather than broader language deficits, a clearer pattern emerged. Whereas both the grammar impaired and normal grammar groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only those with normal grammar showed consolidation and longer-term learning. Indeed, the grammar-impaired group appeared to lose any sequence knowledge gained during the initial testing session. These findings held even when controlling for vocabulary or a broad non-grammatical language measure, neither of which were associated with procedural memory. When grammar was examined as a continuous variable over all children, the same relationships between procedural memory and grammar, but not vocabulary or the broader language measure, were observed. Overall, the findings support and further specify the PDH. They suggest that consolidation and longer-term procedural learning are impaired in SLI, but that

  10. Different levels of food restriction reveal genotype-specific differences in learning a visual discrimination task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Makowiecki

    Full Text Available In behavioural experiments, motivation to learn can be achieved using food rewards as positive reinforcement in food-restricted animals. Previous studies reduce animal weights to 80-90% of free-feeding body weight as the criterion for food restriction. However, effects of different degrees of food restriction on task performance have not been assessed. We compared learning task performance in mice food-restricted to 80 or 90% body weight (BW. We used adult wildtype (WT; C57Bl/6j and knockout (ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice, previously shown to have a reverse learning deficit. Mice were trained in a two-choice visual discrimination task with food reward as positive reinforcement. When mice reached criterion for one visual stimulus (80% correct in three consecutive 10 trial sets they began the reverse learning phase, where the rewarded stimulus was switched to the previously incorrect stimulus. For the initial learning and reverse phase of the task, mice at 90%BW took almost twice as many trials to reach criterion as mice at 80%BW. Furthermore, WT 80 and 90%BW groups significantly differed in percentage correct responses and learning strategy in the reverse learning phase, whereas no differences between weight restriction groups were observed in ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice. Most importantly, genotype-specific differences in reverse learning strategy were only detected in the 80%BW groups. Our results indicate that increased food restriction not only results in better performance and a shorter training period, but may also be necessary for revealing behavioural differences between experimental groups. This has important ethical and animal welfare implications when deciding extent of diet restriction in behavioural studies.

  11. The Context-Specific Conceptions of Learning in Case-Based Accounting Assignments, Students' Characteristics and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Sinikka

    2017-01-01

    The present study contributes to accounting education literature by describing context-specific conceptions of learning related to case assignments, and by exploring the associations between the conceptions of learning, students' characteristics and performance. The data analysed consist of 1320 learning diaries of 336 students, connected with…

  12. Developing Formal Correctness Properties from Natural Language Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikora, Allen P.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the rationale of the program to transform natural language specifications into formal notation.Specifically, automate generation of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL)correctness properties from natural language temporal specifications. There are several reasons for this approach (1) Model-based techniques becoming more widely accepted, (2) Analytical verification techniques (e.g., model checking, theorem proving) significantly more effective at detecting types of specification design errors (e.g., race conditions, deadlock) than manual inspection, (3) Many requirements still written in natural language, which results in a high learning curve for specification languages, associated tools and increased schedule and budget pressure on projects reduce training opportunities for engineers, and (4) Formulation of correctness properties for system models can be a difficult problem. This has relevance to NASA in that it would simplify development of formal correctness properties, lead to more widespread use of model-based specification, design techniques, assist in earlier identification of defects and reduce residual defect content for space mission software systems. The presentation also discusses: potential applications, accomplishments and/or technological transfer potential and the next steps.

  13. Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

  14. Extracurricular activities and the development of social skills in children with intellectual and specific learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, B A; Floyd, F; Robins, D L; Chan, W Y

    2015-07-01

    Children with intellectual disability and specific learning disabilities often lack age-appropriate social skills, which disrupts their social functioning. Because of the limited effectiveness of classroom mainstreaming and social skills training for these children, it is important to explore alternative opportunities for social skill acquisition. Participation in social activities is positively related to children's social adjustment, but little is known about the benefits of activity participation for children with intellectual and specific learning disabilities. This study investigated the association between frequency and type of social activity participation and the social competence of 8-11-year-old children with intellectual disability (n = 40) and specific learning disabilities (n = 53), in comparison with typically developing peers (n = 24). More time involved in unstructured activities, but not structured activities, was associated with higher levels of social competence for all children. This association was strongest for children with intellectual disability, suggesting that participation in unstructured social activities was most beneficial for these children. Future research on the quality of involvement is necessary to further understand specific aspects of unstructured activities that might facilitate social development. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Ants use partner specific odors to learn to recognize a mutualistic partner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru K Hojo

    Full Text Available Regulation via interspecific communication is an important for the maintenance of many mutualisms. However, mechanisms underlying the evolution of partner communication are poorly understood for many mutualisms. Here we show, in an ant-lycaenid butterfly mutualism, that attendant ants selectively learn to recognize and interact cooperatively with a partner. Workers of the ant Pristomyrmex punctatus learn to associate cuticular hydrocarbons of mutualistic Narathura japonica caterpillars with food rewards and, as a result, are more likely to tend the caterpillars. However, the workers do not learn to associate the cuticular hydrocarbons of caterpillars of a non-ant-associated lycaenid, Lycaena phlaeas, with artificial food rewards. Chemical analysis revealed cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of the mutualistic caterpillars were complex compared with those of non-ant-associated caterpillars. Our results suggest that partner-recognition based on partner-specific chemical signals and cognitive abilities of workers are important mechanisms underlying the evolution and maintenance of mutualism with ants.

  16. Learning trajectories for speech motor performance in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtsmeier, Peter T; Goffman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) often perform below expected levels, including on tests of motor skill and in learning tasks, particularly procedural learning. In this experiment we examined the possibility that children with SLI might also have a motor learning deficit. Twelve children with SLI and thirteen children with typical development (TD) produced complex nonwords in an imitation task. Productions were collected across three blocks, with the first and second blocks on the same day and the third block one week later. Children's lip movements while producing the nonwords were recorded using an Optotrak camera system. Movements were then analyzed for production duration and stability. Movement analyses indicated that both groups of children produced shorter productions in later blocks (corroborated by an acoustic analysis), and the rate of change was comparable for the TD and SLI groups. A nonsignificant trend for more stable productions was also observed in both groups. SLI is regularly accompanied by a motor deficit, and this study does not dispute that. However, children with SLI learned to make more efficient productions at a rate similar to their peers with TD, revealing some modification of the motor deficit associated with SLI. The reader will learn about deficits commonly associated with specific language impairment (SLI) that often occur alongside the hallmark language deficit. The authors present an experiment showing that children with SLI improved speech motor performance at a similar rate compared to typically developing children. The implication is that speech motor learning is not impaired in children with SLI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Protege and Mentor Self-Disclosure: Levels and Outcomes within Formal Mentoring Dyads in a Corporate Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanberg, Connie R.; Welsh, Elizabeth T.; Kammeyer-Mueller, John

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of self-disclosure within protege/mentor dyads in formal mentoring partnerships within a corporate context as a means of learning more about specific relationship processes that may enhance the positive outcomes of mentoring. While both proteges and mentors self-disclosed in their relationships, proteges disclosed at a…

  18. Later learning stages in procedural memory are impaired in children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmottes, Lise; Meulemans, Thierry; Maillart, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), difficulties in the procedural memory system may contribute to the language difficulties encountered by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Most studies investigating the PDH have used the sequence learning paradigm; however these studies have principally focused on initial sequence learning in a single practice session. The present study sought to extend these investigations by assessing the consolidation stage and longer-term retention of implicit sequence-specific knowledge in 42 children with or without SLI. Both groups of children completed a serial reaction time task and were tested 24h and one week after practice. Results showed that children with SLI succeeded as well as children with typical development (TD) in the early acquisition stage of the sequence learning task. However, as training blocks progressed, only TD children improved their sequence knowledge while children with SLI did not appear to evolve any more. Moreover, children with SLI showed a lack of the consolidation gains in sequence knowledge displayed by the TD children. Overall, these results were in line with the predictions of the PDH and suggest that later learning stages in procedural memory are impaired in SLI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Multilingualism and child psychiatry: on differential diagnoses of language disorder, specific learning disorder, and selective mutism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiya, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Multilingualism poses unique psychiatric problems, especially in the field of child psychiatry. The author discusses several linguistic and transcultural issues in relation to Language Disorder, Specific Learning Disorder and Selective Mutism. Linguistic characteristics of multiple language development, including so-called profile effects and code-switching, need to be understood for differential diagnosis. It is also emphasized that Language Disorder in a bilingual person is not different or worse than that in a monolingual person. Second language proficiency, cultural background and transfer from the first language all need to be considered in an evaluation for Specific Learning Disorder. Selective Mutism has to be differentiated from the silent period observed in the normal successive bilingual development. The author concludes the review by remarking on some caveats around methods of language evaluation in a multilingual person.

  20. Non-Formal Education for a Culturally Isolated Student in a Remote Area: The Case of a Thai Student Who Received Learning Assistance via the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how a language minority student developed through flexible online learning assistance for the entrance examination of a Japanese public high school. The simple camera function of a digital tablet helped the isolated Thai student attain success in developing academic skills and self-esteem. The case also shows the insight…

  1. An Inquiry-Based Augmented Reality Mobile Learning Approach to Fostering Primary School Students' Historical Reasoning in Non-Formal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, Irene; Kyza, Eleni A.; Georgiou, Yiannis

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of a location-based augmented reality (AR) inquiry-learning environment in developing 3rd grade students' historical empathy and conceptual understanding. Historical empathy is an important element of historical thinking, which is considered to improve conceptual understanding and support the development of…

  2. The Goal Specificity Effect on Strategy Use and Instructional Efficiency during Computer-Based Scientific Discovery Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunsting, Josef; Wirth, Joachim; Paas, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Using a computer-based scientific discovery learning environment on buoyancy in fluids we investigated the "effects of goal specificity" (nonspecific goals vs. specific goals) for two goal types (problem solving goals vs. learning goals) on "strategy use" and "instructional efficiency". Our empirical findings close an important research gap,…

  3. Fear of the Formal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    term this ‘fear of the formal’, outlining key elements of its genealogy and exploring its contemporary manifestation in relation to recent and ongoing reforms of organisational life in a range of contexts. At the same time, we seek to indicate the continuing constitutive significance of formality...

  4. Formalization of Medical Guidelines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peleška, Jan; Anger, Z.; Buchtela, David; Šebesta, K.; Tomečková, Marie; Veselý, Arnošt; Zvára, K.; Zvárová, Jana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2005), s. 133-141 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET200300413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : GLIF model * formalization of guidelines * prevention of cardiovascular diseases Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  5. Readings in Formal Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Formal epistemology’ is a term coined in the late 1990s for a new constellation of interests in philosophy,the roots of which are found in earlier works of epistemologists, philosophers of science, and logicians. It addresses a growing agenda of problems concerning knowledge, belief, certainty, ...

  6. Criteria for logical formalization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav; Svoboda, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 190, č. 14 (2013), s. 2897-2924 ISSN 0039-7857 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : logic * logical form * formalization * reflective equilibrium Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.637, year: 2013

  7. IDEF3 Formalization Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES engineering management information systems method formalization 60 information engineering process modeling 16 PRICE...CODE information systems requirements definition methods knowlede acquisition methods systems engineering 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION ji. SECURITY... Management , Inc., Santa Monica, California. CORYNEN, G. C., 1975, A Mathematical Theory of Modeling and Simula- tion. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department

  8. The Benefits of Formalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Based on unique panel data consisting of both formal and informal firms, this paper uses a matched double difference approach to examine the relationship between legal status and firm level outcomes in micro, small and medium manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) in Vietnam. Controlling for determinin...

  9. Formalizing physical security procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meadows, C.; Pavlovic, Dusko

    Although the problems of physical security emerged more than 10,000 years before the problems of computer security, no formal methods have been developed for them, and the solutions have been evolving slowly, mostly through social procedures. But as the traffic on physical and social networks is now

  10. Pitch Discrimination Learning: Specificity for Pitch and Harmonic Resolvability, and Electrophysiological Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Carcagno, Samuele; Plack, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-hour training on a pitch discrimination task dramatically decreases the threshold for detecting a pitch difference between two harmonic complexes. Here, we investigated the specificity of this perceptual learning with respect to the pitch and the resolvability of the trained harmonic complex, as well as its cortical electrophysiological correlates. We trained 24 participants for 12 h on a pitch discrimination task using one of four different harmonic complexes. The complexes differed...

  11. Nitric oxide regulates input specificity of long-term depression and context dependence of cerebellar learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Ogasawara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that multiple internal models are acquired in the cerebellum and that these can be switched under a given context of behavior. It has been proposed that long-term depression (LTD of parallel fiber (PF-Purkinje cell (PC synapses forms the cellular basis of cerebellar learning, and that the presynaptically synthesized messenger nitric oxide (NO is a crucial "gatekeeper" for LTD. Because NO diffuses freely to neighboring synapses, this volume learning is not input-specific and brings into question the biological significance of LTD as the basic mechanism for efficient supervised learning. To better characterize the role of NO in cerebellar learning, we simulated the sequence of electrophysiological and biochemical events in PF-PC LTD by combining established simulation models of the electrophysiology, calcium dynamics, and signaling pathways of the PC. The results demonstrate that the local NO concentration is critical for induction of LTD and for its input specificity. Pre- and postsynaptic coincident firing is not sufficient for a PF-PC synapse to undergo LTD, and LTD is induced only when a sufficient amount of NO is provided by activation of the surrounding PFs. On the other hand, above-adequate levels of activity in nearby PFs cause accumulation of NO, which also allows LTD in neighboring synapses that were not directly stimulated, ruining input specificity. These findings lead us to propose the hypothesis that NO represents the relevance of a given context and enables context-dependent selection of internal models to be updated. We also predict sparse PF activity in vivo because, otherwise, input specificity would be lost.

  12. A Survey on Domain-Specific Languages for Machine Learning in Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, Ivens; Alencar, Paulo; Cowan, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The amount of data generated in the modern society is increasing rapidly. New problems and novel approaches of data capture, storage, analysis and visualization are responsible for the emergence of the Big Data research field. Machine Learning algorithms can be used in Big Data to make better and more accurate inferences. However, because of the challenges Big Data imposes, these algorithms need to be adapted and optimized to specific applications. One important decision made by software engi...

  13. Affordances of Telecollaboration tools for English for Specific Purposes online learning

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla Pavón, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores students’ perceptions of the affordances of different telecollaboration tools used in an innovation project for English for Specific Purposes online learning carried out between the University of Valencia (Spain) and Wofford College (South Carolina, United States) during the school year 2015-2016. Different tools for synchronous and asynchronous communication were used. The asynchronous tools included a discussion forum, a wiki, social networking websites and Google forms;...

  14. Impact of an education program on parental knowledge of specific learning disability

    OpenAIRE

    Karande Sunil; Mehta Vishal; Kulkarni Madhuri

    2007-01-01

    Background :A supportive home environment is one of the factors that can favorably determine the outcome of specific learning disability (SpLD) in a school-going child. However, there is no reliable information available on parental knowledge about SpLD. Aims :To investigate parental knowledge of SpLD and to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention on it. Settings and Design : Prospective questionnaire-based study conducted in our clinic. Materials and Methods : From April to Novemb...

  15. Machine learning-based patient specific prompt-gamma dose monitoring in proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueth, P.; Dauvergne, D.; Freud, N.; Létang, J. M.; Ray, C.; Testa, E.; Sarrut, D.

    2013-07-01

    Online dose monitoring in proton therapy is currently being investigated with prompt-gamma (PG) devices. PG emission was shown to be correlated with dose deposition. This relationship is mostly unknown under real conditions. We propose a machine learning approach based on simulations to create optimized treatment-specific classifiers that detect discrepancies between planned and delivered dose. Simulations were performed with the Monte-Carlo platform Gate/Geant4 for a spot-scanning proton therapy treatment and a PG camera prototype currently under investigation. The method first builds a learning set of perturbed situations corresponding to a range of patient translation. This set is then used to train a combined classifier using distal falloff and registered correlation measures. Classifier performances were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curves and maximum associated specificity and sensitivity. A leave-one-out study showed that it is possible to detect discrepancies of 5 mm with specificity and sensitivity of 85% whereas using only distal falloff decreases the sensitivity down to 77% on the same data set. The proposed method could help to evaluate performance and to optimize the design of PG monitoring devices. It is generic: other learning sets of deviations, other measures and other types of classifiers could be studied to potentially reach better performance. At the moment, the main limitation lies in the computation time needed to perform the simulations.

  16. Machine learning-based patient specific prompt-gamma dose monitoring in proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueth, P; Freud, N; Létang, J M; Sarrut, D; Dauvergne, D; Ray, C; Testa, E

    2013-01-01

    Online dose monitoring in proton therapy is currently being investigated with prompt-gamma (PG) devices. PG emission was shown to be correlated with dose deposition. This relationship is mostly unknown under real conditions. We propose a machine learning approach based on simulations to create optimized treatment-specific classifiers that detect discrepancies between planned and delivered dose. Simulations were performed with the Monte-Carlo platform Gate/Geant4 for a spot-scanning proton therapy treatment and a PG camera prototype currently under investigation. The method first builds a learning set of perturbed situations corresponding to a range of patient translation. This set is then used to train a combined classifier using distal falloff and registered correlation measures. Classifier performances were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curves and maximum associated specificity and sensitivity. A leave-one-out study showed that it is possible to detect discrepancies of 5 mm with specificity and sensitivity of 85% whereas using only distal falloff decreases the sensitivity down to 77% on the same data set. The proposed method could help to evaluate performance and to optimize the design of PG monitoring devices. It is generic: other learning sets of deviations, other measures and other types of classifiers could be studied to potentially reach better performance. At the moment, the main limitation lies in the computation time needed to perform the simulations. (paper)

  17. Formal Verification of Continuous Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer

    2012-01-01

    and the verification procedures should be algorithmically synthesizable. Autonomous control plays an important role in many safety-critical systems. This implies that a malfunction in the control system can have catastrophic consequences, e.g., in space applications where a design flaw can result in large economic...... losses. Furthermore, a malfunction in the control system of a surgical robot may cause death of patients. The previous examples involve complex systems that are required to operate according to complex specifications. The systems cannot be formally verified by modern verification techniques, due...

  18. Formalization in Component Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Jens Peter; Knudsen, John; Makowski, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    We present a unifying conceptual framework for components, component interfaces, contracts and composition of components by focusing on the collection of properties or qualities that they must share. A specific property, such as signature, functionality behaviour or timing is an aspect. Each aspect...... may be specified in a formal language convenient for its purpose and, in principle, unrelated to languages for other aspects. Each aspect forms its own semantic domain, although a semantic domain may be parameterized by values derived from other aspects. The proposed conceptual framework is introduced...

  19. Alignment-free genome tree inference by learning group-specific distance metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Kaustubh R; McHardy, Alice C

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary relationships between organisms is vital for their in-depth study. Gene-based methods are often used to infer such relationships, which are not without drawbacks. One can now attempt to use genome-scale information, because of the ever increasing number of genomes available. This opportunity also presents a challenge in terms of computational efficiency. Two fundamentally different methods are often employed for sequence comparisons, namely alignment-based and alignment-free methods. Alignment-free methods rely on the genome signature concept and provide a computationally efficient way that is also applicable to nonhomologous sequences. The genome signature contains evolutionary signal as it is more similar for closely related organisms than for distantly related ones. We used genome-scale sequence information to infer taxonomic distances between organisms without additional information such as gene annotations. We propose a method to improve genome tree inference by learning specific distance metrics over the genome signature for groups of organisms with similar phylogenetic, genomic, or ecological properties. Specifically, our method learns a Mahalanobis metric for a set of genomes and a reference taxonomy to guide the learning process. By applying this method to more than a thousand prokaryotic genomes, we showed that, indeed, better distance metrics could be learned for most of the 18 groups of organisms tested here. Once a group-specific metric is available, it can be used to estimate the taxonomic distances for other sequenced organisms from the group. This study also presents a large scale comparison between 10 methods--9 alignment-free and 1 alignment-based.

  20. Formal methods for industrial critical systems a survey of applications

    CERN Document Server

    Margaria-Steffen, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    "Today, formal methods are widely recognized as an essential step in the design process of industrial safety-critical systems. In its more general definition, the term formal methods encompasses all notations having a precise mathematical semantics, together with their associated analysis methods, that allow description and reasoning about the behavior of a system in a formal manner.Growing out of more than a decade of award-winning collaborative work within the European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics, Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems: A Survey of Applications presents a number of mainstream formal methods currently used for designing industrial critical systems, with a focus on model checking. The purpose of the book is threefold: to reduce the effort required to learn formal methods, which has been a major drawback for their industrial dissemination; to help designers to adopt the formal methods which are most appropriate for their systems; and to offer a panel of state-of...

  1. Quality specifications in postgraduate medical e-learning: an integrative literature review leading to a postgraduate medical e-learning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leeuw, R A; Westerman, Michiel; Nelson, E; Ket, J C F; Scheele, F

    2016-07-08

    E-learning is driving major shifts in medical education. Prioritizing learning theories and quality models improves the success of e-learning programs. Although many e-learning quality standards are available, few are focused on postgraduate medical education. We conducted an integrative review of the current postgraduate medical e-learning literature to identify quality specifications. The literature was thematically organized into a working model. Unique quality specifications (n = 72) were consolidated and re-organized into a six-domain model that we called the Postgraduate Medical E-learning Model (Postgraduate ME Model). This model was partially based on the ISO-19796 standard, and drew on cognitive load multimedia principles. The domains of the model are preparation, software design and system specifications, communication, content, assessment, and maintenance. This review clarified the current state of postgraduate medical e-learning standards and specifications. It also synthesized these specifications into a single working model. To validate our findings, the next-steps include testing the Postgraduate ME Model in controlled e-learning settings.

  2. Talker-specific learning in amnesia: Insight into mechanisms of adaptive speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, Alison M; Duff, Melissa C; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    A hallmark of human speech perception is the ability to comprehend speech quickly and effortlessly despite enormous variability across talkers. However, current theories of speech perception do not make specific claims about the memory mechanisms involved in this process. To examine whether declarative memory is necessary for talker-specific learning, we tested the ability of amnesic patients with severe declarative memory deficits to learn and distinguish the accents of two unfamiliar talkers by monitoring their eye-gaze as they followed spoken instructions. Analyses of the time-course of eye fixations showed that amnesic patients rapidly learned to distinguish these accents and tailored perceptual processes to the voice of each talker. These results demonstrate that declarative memory is not necessary for this ability and points to the involvement of non-declarative memory mechanisms. These results are consistent with findings that other social and accommodative behaviors are preserved in amnesia and contribute to our understanding of the interactions of multiple memory systems in the use and understanding of spoken language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Proceedings of the IDA (Institute for Defense Analyses) Workshop on Formal Specification and Verification of Ada (Trade Name) (2nd) Held in Alexandria, Virginia on July 23-25, 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    2% -N X Mailing Directory U Bernard Abrams ABRAMS@USC-ECLB Grumman Aerospace Corporation Mail Station 001-31T Bethpage, NY 11714 (516) 575-9487 Omar...Aerospace & Comm. Corp. 10440 State Highway 83 Colorado Springs, Colorado 80908 Mark R. Cornwell CORNWELL @NRL-CSS Code 7590 Naval Research Lab Washington...5) Role of the Formal Definition of Ada Bernard Lang, INRIA, no date, 10 pages [6) The Users of a Formal Definition for Ada Bernd Krieg-Brdckner 2

  4. Teaching Sustainability Using an Active Learning Constructivist Approach: Discipline-Specific Case Studies in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kalamas Hedden

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present our rationale for using an active learning constructivist approach to teach sustainability-related topics in a higher education. To push the boundaries of ecological literacy, we also develop a theoretical model for sustainability knowledge co-creation. Drawing on the experiences of faculty at a major Southeastern University in the United States, we present case studies in architecture, engineering, geography, and marketing. Four Sustainability Faculty Fellows describe their discipline-specific case studies, all of which are project-based learning experiences, and include details regarding teaching and assessment. Easily replicated in other educational contexts, these case studies contribute to the advancement of sustainability education.

  5. Formalisms for reuse and systems integration

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Reuse and integration are defined as synergistic concepts, where reuse addresses how to minimize redundancy in the creation of components; while, integration focuses on component composition. Integration supports reuse and vice versa. These related concepts support the design of software and systems for maximizing performance while minimizing cost. Knowledge, like data, is subject to reuse; and, each can be interpreted as the other. This means that inherent complexity, a measure of the potential utility of a system, is directly proportional to the extent to which it maximizes reuse and integration. Formal methods can provide an appropriate context for the rigorous handling of these synergistic concepts. Furthermore, formal languages allow for non ambiguous model specification; and, formal verification techniques provide support for insuring the validity of reuse and integration mechanisms.   This edited book includes 12 high quality research papers written by experts in formal aspects of reuse and integratio...

  6. Enhancing System Realisation in Formal Model Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran-Jørgensen, Peter Würtz Vinther

    and requirements of software extensions targeting Overture. The tools developed in this PhD project have successfully supported three case studies from externally funded projects. The feedback received from the case study work has further helped improve the code generation infrastructure and the tools built using...... implementation. One way to realise the system’s software is by automatically generating it from the formal specification – a technique referred to as code generation. However, in general it is difficult to make guarantees about the correctness of the generated code – especially while requiring automation...... of the steps involved in realising the formal specification. This PhD dissertation investigates ways to improve the automation of the steps involved in realising and validating a system based on a formal specification. The approach aims to develop properly designed software tools which support the integration...

  7. The learning continuum of ecology based on teachers' opinion about student's level of competence and specific pedagogical learning material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramesti, Indah Cahaya; Subali, Bambang

    2017-08-01

    This study aims at designing learning continuum for developing a curriculum based on teachers' opinion about student's level of competence and specific pedagogical learning material on ecological aspect targeted for students of Primary and Secondary Education. This research is a descriptive research using survey methods. The researchers conducted a census by distributing questionnaires that had been validated from the aspects of construct validity and experts judgements to 147 natural science teachers at junior high school and 134 Biology teachers at senior high school as a population throughout 4 regencies and 1 city in Yogyakarta Special Region.. Data analysis techniques used descriptive analysis. In conclusion, teacher's opinion is influenced by curriculum that exist today. According to the opinions of Natural Science teachers at Junior High School, most of the ecological aspects such as characteristics of biomes, characteristics of ecosystems, characteristics of communities, characteristics of populations, etc. should be taught in grade VII with the level of competence: to understand (C2), while Biology teachers at Senior High School state that the ecological aspect should be taught in class X with the level of competence: to understand (C2), apply (C3) and analyze (C4). Teachers should be a privy in the formulation of the curriculum, so they're not only accept and apply the existing curriculum but also give opinions to improve the curriculum, especially in terms of ecology.

  8. PLE in formal education: challenges for openness and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This short comment reflects on a critical account of educational tech- nology and makes reference to the chapter by Vieritz et al. about the use of widget bundles for formal learning in higher education.

  9. Prevalence of specific learning disabilities among primary school children in a South Indian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogasale, Vijayalaxmi V; Patil, Vishwanath D; Patil, Nanasaheb M; Mogasale, Vittal

    2012-03-01

    To measure the prevalence of specific learning disabilities (SpLDs) such as dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia among primary school children in a South Indian city. A cross-sectional multi-staged stratified randomized cluster sampling study was conducted among children aged 8-11 years from third and fourth standard. A six level screening approach that commenced with identification of scholastic backwardness followed by stepwise exclusion of impaired vision and hearing, chronic medical conditions and subnormal intelligence was carried out among these children. In the final step, the remaining children were subjected to specific tests for reading, comprehension, writing and mathematical calculation. The prevalence of specific learning disabilities was 15.17% in sampled children, whereas 12.5%, 11.2% and 10.5% had dysgraphia, dyslexia and dyscalculia respectively. This study suggests that the prevalence of SpLDs is at the higher side of previous estimations in India. The study is unique due to its large geographically representative design and identification of the problem using simplified screening approach and tools, which minimizes the number and time of specialist requirement and spares the expensive investigation. This approach and tools are suitable for field situations and resource scarce settings. Based on the authors' experience, they express the need for more prevalence studies, remedial education and policy interventions to manage SpLDs at main stream educational system to improve the school performance in Indian children.

  10. Pitch discrimination learning: specificity for pitch and harmonic resolvability, and electrophysiological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcagno, Samuele; Plack, Christopher J

    2011-08-01

    Multiple-hour training on a pitch discrimination task dramatically decreases the threshold for detecting a pitch difference between two harmonic complexes. Here, we investigated the specificity of this perceptual learning with respect to the pitch and the resolvability of the trained harmonic complex, as well as its cortical electrophysiological correlates. We trained 24 participants for 12 h on a pitch discrimination task using one of four different harmonic complexes. The complexes differed in pitch and/or spectral resolvability of their components by the cochlea, but were filtered into the same spectral region. Cortical-evoked potentials and a behavioral measure of pitch discrimination were assessed before and after training for all the four complexes. The change in these measures was compared to that of two control groups: one trained on a level discrimination task and one without any training. The behavioral results showed that learning was partly specific to both pitch and resolvability. Training with a resolved-harmonic complex improved pitch discrimination for resolved complexes more than training with an unresolved complex. However, we did not find evidence that training with an unresolved complex leads to specific learning for unresolved complexes. Training affected the P2 component of the cortical-evoked potentials, as well as a later component (250-400 ms). No significant changes were found on the mismatch negativity (MMN) component, although a separate experiment showed that this measure was sensitive to pitch changes equivalent to the pitch discriminability changes induced by training. This result suggests that pitch discrimination training affects processes not measured by the MMN, for example, processes higher in level or parallel to those involved in MMN generation.

  11. Machine-learning identifies substance-specific behavioral markers for opiate and stimulant dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Woo-Young; Vassileva, Jasmin

    2016-04-01

    Recent animal and human studies reveal distinct cognitive and neurobiological differences between opiate and stimulant addictions; however, our understanding of the common and specific effects of these two classes of drugs remains limited due to the high rates of polysubstance-dependence among drug users. The goal of the current study was to identify multivariate substance-specific markers classifying heroin dependence (HD) and amphetamine dependence (AD), by using machine-learning approaches. Participants included 39 amphetamine mono-dependent, 44 heroin mono-dependent, 58 polysubstance dependent, and 81 non-substance dependent individuals. The majority of substance dependent participants were in protracted abstinence. We used demographic, personality (trait impulsivity, trait psychopathy, aggression, sensation seeking), psychiatric (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, anxiety, depression), and neurocognitive impulsivity measures (Delay Discounting, Go/No-Go, Stop Signal, Immediate Memory, Balloon Analogue Risk, Cambridge Gambling, and Iowa Gambling tasks) as predictors in a machine-learning algorithm. The machine-learning approach revealed substance-specific multivariate profiles that classified HD and AD in new samples with high degree of accuracy. Out of 54 predictors, psychopathy was the only classifier common to both types of addiction. Important dissociations emerged between factors classifying HD and AD, which often showed opposite patterns among individuals with HD and AD. These results suggest that different mechanisms may underlie HD and AD, challenging the unitary account of drug addiction. This line of work may shed light on the development of standardized and cost-efficient clinical diagnostic tests and facilitate the development of individualized prevention and intervention programs for HD and AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Is there a need for a specific educational scholarship for using e-learning in medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandars, John; Goh, Poh Sun

    2016-10-01

    We propose the need for a specific educational scholarship when using e-learning in medical education. Effective e-learning has additional factors that require specific critical attention, including the design and delivery of e-learning. An important aspect is the recognition that e-learning is a complex intervention, with several interconnecting components that have to be aligned. This alignment requires an essential iterative development process with usability testing. Effectiveness of e-learning in one context may not be fully realized in another context unless there is further consideration of applicability and scalability. We recommend a participatory approach for an educational scholarship for using e-learning in medical education, such as by action research or design-based research.

  13. Representative Model of the Learning Process in Virtual Spaces Supported by ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacho, José

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the results of research activities for building the representative model of the learning process in virtual spaces (e-Learning). The formal basis of the model are supported in the analysis of models of learning assessment in virtual spaces and specifically in Dembo´s teaching learning model, the systemic approach to evaluating…

  14. Shape-specific perceptual learning in a figure-ground segregation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Do-Joon; Olson, Ingrid R; Chun, Marvin M

    2006-03-01

    What does perceptual experience contribute to figure-ground segregation? To study this question, we trained observers to search for symmetric dot patterns embedded in random dot backgrounds. Training improved shape segmentation, but learning did not completely transfer either to untrained locations or to untrained shapes. Such partial specificity persisted for a month after training. Interestingly, training on shapes in empty backgrounds did not help segmentation of the trained shapes in noisy backgrounds. Our results suggest that perceptual training increases the involvement of early sensory neurons in the segmentation of trained shapes, and that successful segmentation requires perceptual skills beyond shape recognition alone.

  15. Older Adults' Motivation to Learn in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Yin

    2011-01-01

    A limited amount of literature has discussed older adults in formal education, especially their motivations to learn in higher education. This study aims to understand older adults' learning in the context of higher education. Specifically, this study argues that higher education can function as a stimulating learning environment that helps older…

  16. Improving Job Performance: Workplace Learning Is the First Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryoush, Younes; Silong, Abu Daud; Omar, Zohara; Othman, Jamilah

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to contribute new knowledge to the existing literature on workplace learning and job performance. Particularly, the study analyzes contemporary literature on workplace learning and job performance, specifically formal and informal learning as well as employee task performance and contextual performance. The study…

  17. Subject-Specific Sparse Dictionary Learning for Atlas-Based Brain MRI Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Carass, Aaron; Reich, Daniel S; Prince, Jerry L; Pham, Dzung L

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative measurements from segmentations of human brain magnetic resonance (MR) images provide important biomarkers for normal aging and disease progression. In this paper, we propose a patch-based tissue classification method from MR images that uses a sparse dictionary learning approach and atlas priors. Training data for the method consists of an atlas MR image, prior information maps depicting where different tissues are expected to be located, and a hard segmentation. Unlike most atlas-based classification methods that require deformable registration of the atlas priors to the subject, only affine registration is required between the subject and training atlas. A subject-specific patch dictionary is created by learning relevant patches from the atlas. Then the subject patches are modeled as sparse combinations of learned atlas patches leading to tissue memberships at each voxel. The combination of prior information in an example-based framework enables us to distinguish tissues having similar intensities but different spatial locations. We demonstrate the efficacy of the approach on the application of whole-brain tissue segmentation in subjects with healthy anatomy and normal pressure hydrocephalus, as well as lesion segmentation in multiple sclerosis patients. For each application, quantitative comparisons are made against publicly available state-of-the art approaches.

  18. Emotional and Meta-Emotional Intelligence as Predictors of Adjustment Problems in Students with Specific Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Antonella; Guastaferro, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse adjustment problems in a group of adolescents with a Specific Learning Disorder (SLD), examining to what extent they depend on the severity level of the learning disorder and/or on the individual's level of emotional intelligence. Adjustment problems,, perceived severity levels of SLD, and emotional and…

  19. Formalizing the concept of sound.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-08-03

    The notion of formalized music implies that a musical composition can be described in mathematical terms. In this article we explore some formal aspects of music and propose a framework for an abstract approach.

  20. Mobilità ubiquitaria con i telefoni cellulari in contesto scolastico formale – un approccio al mobile learning basato su una cultura ecologica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Bachmair

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Non basta limitarsi ad aggiungere i telefoni cellulari alla lunga lista dei media che sono entrati nel mondo nella scuola per migliorare l’offerta formativa. In quest’ottica, il contributo qui presentato si sofferma sui telefoni cellulari considerandoli come una nuova risorsa culturale emergente in un sistema massmediale connotato da personalizzazione, mobilità e convergenza. Inoltre, un simile approccio che vede i cellulari come risorse culturali, sollecita la scuola ad affrontare un dibattito sulle risorse in chiave ecologica. Per individuare soluzioni di impiego di queste nuove risorse culturali, funzionali ai curricoli scolastici, viene prima di tutto suggerita un’analisi dei telefoni cellulari da una prospettiva teorica, considerandoli in rapporto alle strutture sociali, che si riferiscono all’«agency» degli utenti e alle pratiche culturali di uso dei media e dell’apprendimento. In secondo luogo, attraverso questa analisi triangolare delle strutture, dell’agency e delle pratiche, viene esplorato il complesso mobile (mobile complex al fine di collocare la scuola al suo interno. Successivamente viene descritta un’esperienza di impiego del cellulare per la didattica della matematica in contesto scolastico. Dall’analisi di questo progetto dovrebbero emergere le opportunità offerte dai contesti generati dagli utenti, i quali dovrebbero facilitare l’integrazione dell’apprendimento informale nella scuola. Questa investigazione ha condotto alla messa a punto di linee guida per il mobile learning articolate in tre punti1.

  1. Use of ecological bag as a didactic resource of the “Quinzinho de Barros” zoo for the environmental education in non-formal learning spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Cherutti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sorocaba’s Zoo has been developing several environmental education programs for students and for the teachers’ continuing education, being one of these programs, the oriented visit. This visit has as target to promote the interaction between the public and the Zoo visitors guide during the tour by the Zoo’s different areas. In this tour the ecological bags are used with the finality of showing several concepts related to the environmental conservation, this way, educating the students for the visit. This environmental project researched the application of the ecological bag as teaching and learning resource tool during the oriented visit. Two group visits of six and eight year old students from public schools were guided and oriented. The data occurred with a group which used previously the ecological bag in their respective classrooms at school, and an other group which just visited the Zoo and did not make any use of the ecological bag. The tools used were the interview and observations performed with the zoo guide, students and teachers from both groups. After analysis of the data obtained, it was concluded that the ecological bag is an important didactical resource if linked to the school activities in the assimilation of the concepts presented in this research.

  2. The implications of technological learning on the prospects of specific renewable energy technologies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyterlinde, M.A.; De Vries, H.J.; Junginger, H.M.

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this chapter is to examine the impact of technological learning on the diffusion of specific renewable energy technologies into the electricity market of the EU-25 until 2020, using a market simulation model (ADMIRE REBUS). It is assumed that from 2012 a harmonized trading system for renewable energy certificates will be implemented. Also it is assumed that a target of 24% renewable electricity (RES-E) in 2020 is set and met. By comparing optimistic and pessimistic endogenous technological learning scenarios, it is found that the diffusion of onshore wind energy into the market is relatively robust, regardless of technological development. However the diffusion rates of offshore wind energy and biomass gasification greatly depend on their technological development. Competition between these two options and already existing biomass combustion options largely determines the overall costs of electricity from renewables and the choice of technologies for the individual member countries. In the optimistic learning scenario, in 2020 the market price for RES-E is 1 euroct/kWh lower than in the pessimistic scenario (about 7 vs. 8 euroct/kWh). As a result, the total expenditures for RES-E market stimulation are 30% lower in the optimistic scenario. For comparison, instead of introducing a harmonized trading system, also continuation of present policies to support renewables was evaluated, assuming that the member states of the EU can fulfil their ambition levels only by exploiting their domestic renewable energy potentials (i.e. exclusion of international trade). This would require many member states to use their offshore wind potential, making the diffusion of offshore wind much less dependent on both the rate of technological learning and competition from biomass options, compared to the harmonization policy scenario

  3. Developing Non-Formal Education Competences as a Complement of Formal Education for STEM Lecturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas-Marín, Roy Alonso

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on a current practice piece on professional development for university lecturers, transformative learning, dialogism and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) education. Its main goals are to identify the key characteristics that allow STEM educators to experiment with the usage of non-formal education…

  4. Learning to see the difference specifically alters the most informative V4 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiguel, Steven; Vogels, Rufin; Mysore, Santosh G; Orban, Guy A

    2006-06-14

    Perceptual learning is an instance of adult plasticity whereby training in a sensory (e.g., a visual task) results in neuronal changes leading to an improved ability to perform the task. Yet studies in primary visual cortex have found that changes in neuronal response properties were relatively modest. The present study examines the effects of training in an orientation discrimination task on the response properties of V4 neurons in awake rhesus monkeys. Results indicate that the changes induced in V4 are indeed larger than those in V1. Nonspecific effects of training included a decrease in response variance, and an increase in overall orientation selectivity in V4. The orientation-specific changes involved a local steepening in the orientation tuning curve around the trained orientation that selectively improved orientation discriminability at the trained orientation. Moreover, these changes were largely confined to the population of neurons whose orientation tuning was optimal for signaling small differences in orientation at the trained orientation. Finally, the modifications were restricted to the part of the tuning curve close to the trained orientation. Thus, we conclude that it is the most informative V4 neurons, those most directly involved in the discrimination, that are specifically modified by perceptual learning.

  5. Post-Learning Sleep Transiently Boosts Context Specific Operant Extinction Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Inostroza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Operant extinction is learning to supress a previously rewarded behavior. It is known to be strongly associated with the specific context in which it was acquired, which limits the therapeutic use of operant extinction in behavioral treatments, e.g., of addiction. We examined whether sleep influences contextual memory of operant extinction over time, using two different recall tests (Recent and Remote. Rats were trained in an operant conditioning task (lever press in context A, then underwent extinction training in context B, followed by a 3-h retention period that contained either spontaneous morning sleep, morning sleep deprivation, or spontaneous evening wakefulness. A recall test was performed either immediately after the 3-h experimental retention period (Recent recall or after 48 h (Remote, in the extinction context B and in a novel context C. The two main findings were: (i at the Recent recall test, sleep in comparison with sleep deprivation and spontaneous wakefulness enhanced extinction memory but, only in the extinction context B; (ii at the Remote recall, extinction performance after sleep was enhanced in both contexts B and C to an extent comparable to levels at Recent recall in context B. Interestingly, extinction performance at Remote recall was also improved in the sleep deprivation groups in both contexts, with no difference to performance in the sleep group. Our results suggest that 3 h of post-learning sleep transiently facilitate the context specificity of operant extinction at a Recent recall. However, the improvement and contextual generalization of operant extinction memory observed in the long-term, i.e., after 48 h, does not require immediate post-learning sleep.

  6. Topical Roots of Formal Dialectic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Erik C. W.

    Formal dialectic has its roots in ancient dialectic. We can trace this influence in Charles Hamblin's book on fallacies, in which he introduced his first formal dialectical systems. Earlier, Paul Lorenzen proposed systems of dialogical logic, which were in fact formal dialectical systems avant la

  7. LEARNING MATERIALS SELECTION FOR DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION OF ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES OF FUTURE PROFESSIONALS IN THE FIELD OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Synekop

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of differentiation the learning materials selection will optimize the training English for Specific Purposes of the future professionals in the field of information technology at university level. The purpose of the article is to define the basic unit of learning material, the factors of influence on the learning material selection, principles, criteria and the procedure of learning material selection in this paper. Reviewing the scientific achievements in the learning material selection in teaching English has become a basis for defining the factors of influence, principles and criteria in the research. The basic unit of learning material (learning English text for professional purposes is outlined. The factors of influence and principles (correspondence of learning materials to professional interests and needs of information technology students; necessary ability and accessibility; regarding the linguistic and stylistic necessity and sufficiency; availability of Internet sources information of the learning material selection are defined. Also, the qualitative criteria (authenticity; professional significance, relevance and informativeness; conformity of foreign language level and intellectual development of students; variety of genres and forms of speech, their sufficient filling by linguistic material; coherence, integrity, consistency, semantic completeness; topic conformity; situation conformity; unlimited access, reliability and exemplarity of Internet sources and the quantitative criteria (the amount of material of the learning material selection are highlighted. The process of English for Specific Purposes material selection (defining the disciplines of different cycles; defining spheres and related topics; outlining situations, communicative roles and intentions of professional communication; specifying the sources of selection; evaluating the texts; analysis of the knowledge, skills and sub-skills required for the

  8. Perception and coping with the specific learning disabilities impacts on everyday life of children with this diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vilímová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    TITLE: Perception and coping with the specific learning disabilities impacts on everyday life of children with this diagnosis. ABSTRACT This text is focused on recognition of impacts of the specific learning disabilities on everyday life as the children with this diagnosis themselves see it and the strategies used by these children in order to cope with these disabilities. The theoretical part summarizes the necessary knowledge of the early school age developmental stage, the interaction of a...

  9. Towards Formal Verification of a Separation Microkernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Andrew; Sanan, David; Hinchey, Mike

    2013-08-01

    The best approach to verifying an IMA separation kernel is to use a (fixed) time-space partitioning kernel with a multiple independent levels of separation (MILS) architecture. We describe an activity that explores the cost and feasibility of doing a formal verification of such a kernel to the Common Criteria (CC) levels mandated by the Separation Kernel Protection Profile (SKPP). We are developing a Reference Specification of such a kernel, and are using higher-order logic (HOL) to construct formal models of this specification and key separation properties. We then plan to do a dry run of part of a formal proof of those properties using the Isabelle/HOL theorem prover.

  10. Automated Formal Verification for PLC Control Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Fernández Adiego, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are widely used devices used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that the PLC software is compliant with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of the safety-critical software. However, these techniques are still not widely applied in industry due to the complexity of building formal models, which represent the system and the formalization of requirement specifications. We propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (e.g. CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an Intermediate Model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in any of the languages described in the IEC 61131-3 standard (ST, IL, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. This approach has been applied to CERN PLC programs validating the methodology.

  11. Formal education in outdoor studies: introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Regional cultural perspectives involve outdoor studies in different ways in formal curricula. This section focuses on Western Europe, particularly the UK and Scandinavia, although also has a more international reach in Backman’s consideration of the training of teachers and in place-responsive teaching as described by Mannion and Lynch. ‘Outdoor studies’ is not seen in curricula per se but under various more specialised aspects such as outdoor play, outdoor learning, environmental education, ...

  12. The effects of analogy-based instruction on concept learning and retention in a non-formal coral reef ecology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brylske, Alexander Frederick

    While a number of instructional models focus on the use of analogies, research into their effectiveness in enhancing comprehension and retention of scientific concepts, particularly involving adult learners, has been limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of using the common teaching strategy for comparing the function of a coral reef to that of a city by using an analogy-based instructional model termed FAR. The training program entitled "Marine Resource Management for Dive Professionals" (MRMDP) was developed for this study. It was targeted to professionals in the recreational scuba industry to improve their understanding of coal reef ecology, as well as orient them to pertinent marine resource management issues, and promote environmentally-responsible attitudes and diving practices among their clients. A quasi-experimental pre-post-delayed posttest control group design was used to explore five research questions and corresponding hypotheses. A 55-item researcher-developed test of coral reef ecology was administered pre and post instruction. The delayed posttest was self-administered by the subjects three weeks after course completion. Data on seven experiential variables hypothesized as research factors were collected. Ten MRMPD courses were taught in seven nations, involving 194 subjects (85 subjects in four control courses, 109 in six treatment course). The results were analyzed using multiple regression/correlation (MRC) techniques to determine: (1) any significant relationship between pretest performance and experiential variables, (2) treatment versus control group posttest performance, and (3) treatment versus control group delayed posttest performance. Within the treatment group, learning gains and retention were determined by t-test analysis. Results indicated: (1) all research factors except one were significant predictors of pretest scores in the presence of the covariate; (2) no significant difference was found between

  13. Formal refinement of extended state machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fayolle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In a traditional formal development process, e.g. using the B method, the informal user requirements are (manually translated into a global abstract formal specification. This translation is especially difficult to achieve. The Event-B method was developed to incrementally and formally construct such a specification using stepwise refinement. Each increment takes into account new properties and system aspects. In this paper, we propose to couple a graphical notation called Algebraic State-Transition Diagrams (ASTD with an Event-B specification in order to provide a better understanding of the software behaviour. The dynamic behaviour is captured by the ASTD, which is based on automata and process algebra operators, while the data model is described by means of an Event-B specification. We propose a methodology to incrementally refine such specification couplings, taking into account new refinement relations and consistency conditions between the control specification and the data specification. We compare the specifications obtained using each approach for readability and proof complexity. The advantages and drawbacks of the traditional approach and of our methodology are discussed. The whole process is illustrated by a railway CBTC-like case study. Our approach is supported by tools for translating ASTD's into B and Event-B into B.

  14. A Formal Model For Declarative Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    it as a general formal model for specification and execution of declarative, event-based business processes, as a generalization of a concurrency model, the classic event structures. The model allows for an intuitive operational semantics and mapping of execution state by a notion of markings of the graphs and we...

  15. Investigation of distinctive characteristics of children with specific learning disorder and borderline intellectual functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Ozkan

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borderline intelligence function (BIF and specific learning disorder (SLD are common diagnoses in children who are brought up for learning problems and school failure. Objective The aim of our study was to determine whether there were distinctive aspects of cognitive testing routinely used in evaluating SLD and BIF and investigate emotion regulation skills and minor neurologic symptoms. Method Sixty children (30 SLD and 30 BIF who are currently attending primary school are selected for study. Visual Aural Digit Span Test – Form B, Gessel Figure Drawing Test, Bender Gestalt Visual Motor Perception Test, WISC-R, Emotion Regulation Scale (ERS and Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES was administered. Results There was no statistically significant difference between groups in cognitive tests. The emotional regulation ability measured by the emotional regulation subscale was better in the SLD group than the BIF group (p = 0.014. In the NES, sensory integration (p = 0.008, motor coordination (p = 0.047 and other (p < 0.001 subscales showed higher scores in the BIF group. Discussion It has been shown that cognitive tests don’t have distinguishing features in the evaluation of SLD and BIF. Emotion regulation subscale score of ERS and sensory integration, motor coordination, and total scores of NES can be used in both discrimination of groups.

  16. Perinatal exposure to dioxins perturbs learning performance of the rat in a dose-specific fashion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojo, R.; Rieko, H.; Masaki, K.; Junzo, Y.; Chiharu, T. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxins (chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin congeners and related compounds including coplanar PCBs) are transferred transplacentally and lactationally from mothers to the developing brain of offspring. Maternal exposure to dioxins are suspected to cause adverse effects on the advanced brain function of offspring, because Previous studies indicate that the most toxic dioxin congener, 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), affected the advanced brain function of rats, even when mothers had been exposed to a relatively low level of dioxins that would not affect themselves. In coplanar PCBs, which are dioxin-like, toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) are based on similar toxicity to TCDD and on a common mechanism of action, mediated by the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). However, non-coplanar PCBs, which are considered to be non-dioxin-like PCBs, also show adverse effects on the learning and memory functions of offspring. In the present study, we hypothesize that coplanar PCBs have two types of toxicities, one is the similar to TCDD and the other is the specific toxicity of PCB itself. To address this hypothesis, effects of maternal exposure to one of the coplanar PCBs, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126, 1997 WHO TEF = 0.1), on learning and behavioural performance of rats assessed by schedule-controlled operant behavior (SCOB) were examined and compared to TCDD.

  17. Reporting intellectual capital in health care organizations: specifics, lessons learned, and future research perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, Stefania; Bronzetti, Giovanni; Sicoli, Graziella

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the concept of intellectual capital (IC) in the health sector sphere by studying the case of a major nonprofit research organization in this sector, which has for some time been publishing IC reports. In the last few years, health care organizations have been the object of great attention in the implementation and transfer of managerial models and tools; however, there is still a lack of attention paid to the strategic management of IC as a fundamental resource for supporting and enhancing performance improvement dynamics. The main aim of this article is to examine the IC reporting model used by the Center of Molecular Medicine (CMM), a Swedish health organization which is an outstanding benchmark in reporting its IC. We also consider the specifics of IC reporting for health organizations, the lessons learned by analyzing CMM's IC reporting, and future perspectives for research.

  18. Health-related quality of life of children with newly diagnosed specific learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Sunil; Bhosrekar, Kirankumar; Kulkarni, Madhuri; Thakker, Arpita

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to measure health-related quality of life (HRQL) of children with newly diagnosed specific learning disability (SpLD) using the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form 50. We detected clinically significant deficits (effect size > or = -0.5) in 9 out of 12 domains: limitations in family activities, emotional impact on parents, social limitations as a result of emotional-behavioral problems, time impact on parents, general behavior, physical functioning, social limitations as a result of physical health, general health perceptions and mental health; and in both summary scores (psychosocial > physical). Multivariate analysis revealed having > or = 1 non-academic problem(s) (p or =1 non-academic problem(s) (p = 0.006) or first-born status (p = 0.035) predicted a poor physical summary score. HRQL is significantly compromised in children having newly diagnosed SpLD.

  19. Investigating quality of life and self-stigma in Hong Kong children with specific learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yi; Chan, Yim Yuk; Cheng, Sui Lam; Chow, Man Yin; Tsang, Yau Wai; Lee, Clara; Lin, Chung-Ying

    2017-09-01

    Children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) are likely to develop self-stigma and have a poor quality of life (QoL) because of their poor academic performance. Although both self-stigma and poor QoL issues are likely to be found in low academic achievers without SpLD, children with SpLD have worse situation because their diagnosis of SpLD suggests that their learning struggles are biological and permanent. Specifically, students' perception of own capabilities may be affected more by the diagnosis of SpLD than their own actual performance. We examined the self-stigma and QoL of children with SpLD in Hong Kong, a region with an academics-focused culture. Children with SpLD (n=49,M age ±SD=9.55±1.21; SpLD group) and typically developing children (n=32,M age ±SD=9.81±1.40; TD group) completed a Kid-KINDL to measure QoL and a Modified Self-Stigma Scale to measure self-stigma. All parents completed a parallel Kid-KINDL to measure QoL of their children. Compared with the TD group, the SpLD group had a higher level of self-stigma (p=0.027) and lower QoL (child-reported Kid-KINDL: p=0.001; parent-reported Kid-KINDL: plearning process of children with SpLD may be designed to overcome self-stigma and to improve QoL. In addition, the program may involve parents of the children with SpLD or other people (e.g., the peer of the children with SpLD) for improving their understanding and perceptions of SpLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Do students with Down syndrome have a specific learning profile for reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratz, Christoph

    2013-12-01

    The present study assessed achieved reading stages of 190 school-aged children with Down syndrome (DS, age 6-20) in Bavaria, one of the most populated federal states in Germany. Teachers described the reading stages of their students in a questionnaire. The achieved stages of reading according to the developmental model of Frith are compared to a sample of 1419 students with intellectual disability (ID) regardless of etiology, but excluding DS; thereafter parallelized ID-groups were compared. Results of the questionnaire addressed to the students' teachers showed that 20.2% of the students with DS do not read at all, 7.6% read at a logographic stage, 49.4% at an alphabetic and 22.8% at an orthographic level. Alongside these findings among the whole sample, correlations are described concerning age, gender, IQ and sociocultural background. The students with DS are then compared to other students with ID with mixed etiologies. This comparison stresses the emphasis on the alphabetic level amongst students with DS. This emphasis also exists when DS and non-DS students are parallelized in groups of ID, thus showing that students with DS and severe ID are ahead in reading, but those with mild ID are behind. Knowledge about specific literacy attainment of students with DS is vital for planning instruction, for creating learning environments, and for formulating future fields of research. Especially students with DS need specific teaching which takes their impaired verbal short term memory into account, such as learning to read in syllables. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.