WorldWideScience

Sample records for learning situated learning

  1. Situating learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo; Georg, Susse; Finchman, Rob

    2004-01-01

    This paper looks at learning experiences in South Africa and Thailand by highlighting the role of context and culture in the learning process. The authors are based at Danish and South African higher education institutions and have contributed to DUCED's TFS programme in the positions of overall...

  2. Learning through Situated Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Eriksén, Sara; Wessels, Bridgette

    2014-01-01

    Specific, situated participatory design (PD) practices have always been at the heart of Participatory Design research. The role of the very situatedness and specificity of PD practice for theory-building within PD research is, however, seldom discussed explicitly. In this article, we explore why...... of such a pragmatic epistemology of PD on understanding and arguing for PD research approaches. These concepts are illustrated referring to PD practices as experienced in PD research projects. Our epistemological argumentation supports the emphasis on exploring new PD practices and learning and theorizing about PD...

  3. Situated Learning: Conceptualization and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Lakshmi; Johnson, Norman; Junglas, Iris; Ives, Blake

    2010-01-01

    A focus on the interaction between cognitive schemas and context in situ has been suggested as fundamental in organizational decision making and information interpretation. Past research suggests that the situation and the social interaction that occur during learning at the cognitive level consist of factors that affect the process, but the…

  4. Normalization and Personalization of Learning Situation: NPLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounia Abik

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The personalization of learning is a major pedagogical challenge solicited by pedagogues and didacts. There are several projects about the production of personalizable learning situations such as Reload-LDE and Alfanet. These projects are interested in producing new standardized and personalizable learning situations. However, on the Web, an important number of learning situations exist. These situations are rich in information but don't consider all the characteristics of participants taking part in the learning, nor their technical environments. In this paper we suggest a help system that can transform an existing learning situation to another structure standardized and personalizable depending on the context of learning personalization that we have defined.

  5. The Effect of Situated Learning on Students Vocational English Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özüdogru, Melike; Özüdogru, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    The current study aimed to find out the effect of situated learning on students' Vocational English learning. This research employed a mixed method research design. In the quantitative part of the study, pre-tests and post-tests were implemented to investigate the differences in students' vocational English learning between the experimental and…

  6. Learning situation models in a smart home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdiczka, Oliver; Crowley, James L; Reignier, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of learning situation models for providing context-aware services. Context for modeling human behavior in a smart environment is represented by a situation model describing environment, users, and their activities. A framework for acquiring and evolving different layers of a situation model in a smart environment is proposed. Different learning methods are presented as part of this framework: role detection per entity, unsupervised extraction of situations from multimodal data, supervised learning of situation representations, and evolution of a predefined situation model with feedback. The situation model serves as frame and support for the different methods, permitting to stay in an intuitive declarative framework. The proposed methods have been integrated into a whole system for smart home environment. The implementation is detailed, and two evaluations are conducted in the smart home environment. The obtained results validate the proposed approach.

  7. Exploring Situated Ambiguity in Students' Entrepreneurial Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubberød, Elin; Pettersen, Inger Beate

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Building on entrepreneurial learning research, the purpose of this paper is to argue that the students participating in foreign entrepreneurial education programmes can have realistic entrepreneurial learning experiences. This research addresses two specific questions: how situated ambiguity induced by a foreign culture may contribute to…

  8. Cross-situational word learning in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Claudia; Mirman, Daniel; Cardona, Pedro; Juncadella, Montserrat; Martin, Nadine; Laine, Matti; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2017-08-01

    Human learners can resolve referential ambiguity and discover the relationships between words and meanings through a cross-situational learning (CSL) strategy. Some people with aphasia (PWA) can learn word-referent pairings under referential uncertainty supported by online feedback. However, it remains unknown whether PWA can learn new words cross-situationally and if such learning ability is supported by statistical learning (SL) mechanisms. The present study examined whether PWA can learn novel word-referent mappings in a CSL task without feedback. We also studied whether CSL is related to SL in PWA and neurologically healthy individuals. We further examined whether aphasia severity, phonological processing and verbal short-term memory (STM) predict CSL in aphasia, and also whether individual differences in verbal STM modulate CSL in healthy older adults. Sixteen people with chronic aphasia underwent a CSL task that involved exposure to a series of individually ambiguous learning trials and a SL task that taps speech segmentation. Their learning ability was compared to 18 older controls and 39 young adults recruited for task validation. CSL in the aphasia group was below the older controls and young adults and took place at a slower rate. Importantly, we found a strong association between SL and CSL performance in all three groups. CSL was modulated by aphasia severity in the aphasia group, and by verbal STM capacity in the older controls. Our findings indicate that some PWA can preserve the ability to learn new word-referent associations cross-situationally. We suggest that both PWA and neurologically intact individuals may rely on SL mechanisms to achieve CSL and that verbal STM also influences CSL. These findings contribute to the ongoing debate on the cognitive mechanisms underlying this learning ability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Learning second language vocabulary: neural dissociation of situation-based learning and text-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-04-01

    Second language (L2) acquisition necessitates learning and retrieving new words in different modes. In this study, we attempted to investigate the cortical representation of an L2 vocabulary acquired in different learning modes and in cross-modal transfer between learning and retrieval. Healthy participants learned new L2 words either by written translations (text-based learning) or in real-life situations (situation-based learning). Brain activity was then measured during subsequent retrieval of these words. The right supramarginal gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus were involved in situation-based learning and text-based learning, respectively, whereas the left inferior frontal gyrus was activated when learners used L2 knowledge in a mode different from the learning mode. Our findings indicate that the brain regions that mediate L2 memory differ according to how L2 words are learned and used. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Situated learning - beyond apprenticeship and social constructionism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the theoretical and philosophical fundament of Jean Lave & Etienne Wenger’s theory of ’situated learning’. In Denmark, the theory has been categorized under as different paradigms as a theory of learning as ‘apprenticeship’ and as ‘social constructionism......’. This may seem as a theoretical discussion without any implications for an actual practice. But, as it will be argued in the paper, the perception of the theory has fundamental consequences for how it is considered to contribute to the understanding of learning and to analyses of learning in an actual...... context. The paper can, thus, be considered as not only a contribution to a narrow discussion of ‘situated learning’, but also to the wider discussion of how to conceptualize ‘learning’ as such. In addition, the paper discusses some of the analytical perspectives, which are at stake in some of the other...

  11. Learning Situations in Nursing Education: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Hooman; Zare, Zahra; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh; Griffiths, Pauline; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba

    2018-02-01

    The nursing student requires opportunities to learn within authentic contexts so as to enable safe and competent practice. One strategy to facilitate such learning is the creation of learning situations. A lack of studies on the learning situation in nursing and other health care fields has resulted in insufficient knowledge of the characteristics of the learning situation, its antecedents, and consequences. Nurse educators need to have comprehensive and practical knowledge of the definition and characteristics of the learning situation so as to enable their students to achieve enhanced learning outcomes. The aim of this study was to clarify the concept of the learning situation as it relates to the education of nurses and improve understanding of its characteristics, antecedents, and consequences. The Bonis method of concept analysis, as derived from the Rodgers' evolutionary method, provided the framework for analysis. Data collection and analysis were undertaken in two phases: "interdisciplinary" and "intra-disciplinary." The data source was a search of the literature, encompassing nursing and allied health care professions, published from 1975 to 2016. No agreement on the conceptual phenomenon was discovered in the international literature. The concept of a learning situation was used generally in two ways and thus classified into the themes of: "formal/informal learning situation" and "biologic/nonbiologic learning situation." Antecedents to the creation of a learning situation included personal and environmental factors. The characteristics of a learning situation were described in terms of being complex, dynamic, and offering potential and effective learning opportunities. Consequences of the learning situation included enhancement of the students' learning, professionalization, and socialization into the professional role. The nurse educator, when considering the application of the concept of a learning situation in their educational planning, must

  12. A Situated Cultural Festival Learning System Based on Motion Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Hsing; Lin, Yu-Kai; Fang, Rong-Jyue; Lu, You-Te

    2017-01-01

    A situated Chinese cultural festival learning system based on motion sensing is developed in this study. The primary design principle is to create a highly interactive learning environment, allowing learners to interact with Kinect through natural gestures in the designed learning situation to achieve efficient learning. The system has the…

  13. Effects of Situated Mobile Learning Approach on Learning Motivation and Performance of EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chester S. J.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Chiang, Tosti H. C.; Su, Addison Y. S.

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a 5-step vocabulary learning (FSVL) strategy and a mobile learning tool in a situational English vocabulary learning environment and assessed their effects on the learning motivation and performance of English as a foreign language (EFL) students in a situational English vocabulary learning environment. Overall, 80 EFL…

  14. The didactic situation in geometry learning based on analysis of learning obstacles and learning trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyowati, Fitria; Budiyono, Slamet, Isnandar

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to design a didactic situation based on the analysis of learning obstacles and learning trajectory on prism volume. The type of this research is qualitative and quantitative research with steps: analyzing the learning obstacles and learning trajectory, preparing the didactic situation, applying the didactic situation in the classroom, mean difference test of problem solving ability with t-test statistic. The subjects of the study were 8th grade junior high school students in Magelang 2016/2017 selected randomly from eight existing classes. The result of this research is the design of didactic situations that can be implemented in prism volume learning. The effectiveness of didactic situations that have been designed is shown by the mean difference test that is the problem solving ability of the students after the application of the didactic situation better than before the application. The didactic situation that has been generated is expected to be a consideration for teachers to design lessons that match the character of learners, classrooms and teachers themselves, so that the potential thinking of learners can be optimized to avoid the accumulation of learning obstacles.

  15. Lessons Learned from Developing SAWA: A Situation Awareness Assistant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matheus, Christopher J; Kokar, Mieczyslaw M; Letkowski, Jerzy J; Call, Catherine; Baclawski, Kenneth; Hinman, Michael; Salerno, John; Boulware, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    .... During the process of its development several lessons were learned about advantages and limitations of certain approaches, techniques and technologies as they are applied to situation awareness...

  16. Cross-situational statistical word learning in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suanda, Sumarga H; Mugwanya, Nassali; Namy, Laura L

    2014-10-01

    Recent empirical work has highlighted the potential role of cross-situational statistical word learning in children's early vocabulary development. In the current study, we tested 5- to 7-year-old children's cross-situational learning by presenting children with a series of ambiguous naming events containing multiple words and multiple referents. Children rapidly learned word-to-object mappings by attending to the co-occurrence regularities across these ambiguous naming events. The current study begins to address the mechanisms underlying children's learning by demonstrating that the diversity of learning contexts affects performance. The implications of the current findings for the role of cross-situational word learning at different points in development are discussed along with the methodological implications of employing school-aged children to test hypotheses regarding the mechanisms supporting early word learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Learning Behavior Models for Interpreting and Predicting Traffic Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Gindele, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we present Bayesian state estimation and machine learning methods for predicting traffic situations. The cognitive ability to assess situations and behaviors of traffic participants, and to anticipate possible developments is an essential requirement for several applications in the traffic domain, especially for self-driving cars. We present a method for learning behavior models from unlabeled traffic observations and develop improved learning methods for decision trees.

  18. Situated learning and interacting with/through technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing interest within social and humanistic sciences towards understanding practice theoretically and analytically. Lave and Wenger’s concept “situated learning” describes the process of newcomers moving toward full participation in a community. Wenger later refined his approach in h...... practices. The interdisciplinary interaction analysis (IA) is suggested as the best way to study the various aspects of situated learning in technology-intensive interactions.......There is a growing interest within social and humanistic sciences towards understanding practice theoretically and analytically. Lave and Wenger’s concept “situated learning” describes the process of newcomers moving toward full participation in a community. Wenger later refined his approach in his...... book ‘Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity’. Situated learning is equalled with social order: instead of understanding learning as a separate practice from everyday life, learning is seen as a more mundane phenomenon. It is sometimes difficult to operationalize Lave and Wenger...

  19. Constructivism, the so-called semantic learning theories, and situated cognition versus the psychological learning theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Juan José; Rodríguez Moneo, María

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, the perspective of situated cognition, which gave rise both to the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning and has probably become the most representative standpoint of constructivism, is examined. We consider the claim of situated cognition to provide alternative explanations of the learning phenomenon to those of psychology and, especially, to those of the symbolic perspective, currently predominant in cognitive psychology. The level of analysis of situated cognition (i.e., global interactive systems) is considered an inappropriate approach to the problem of learning. From our analysis, it is concluded that the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning which originated in situated cognition can hardly be considered alternatives to the psychological learning theories, and they are unlikely to add anything of interest to the learning theory or to contribute to the improvement of our knowledge about the learning phenomenon.

  20. Emotions, Coping and Learning in Error Situations in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Andreas; Seifried, Jürgen; Harteis, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the complex relationship between emotions, coping approaches and learning in error situations in the workplace. The study also examines the influence of individual error orientation, as well as psychological safety, and team learning behaviour as contextual factors. Design/methodology/approach: To measure…

  1. Pre-larp workshops as learning situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    I dette kapitel udforskes ligheder mellem prærollespilsworkshops og undervisningssituationer ved at bruge constructive alignment som en designramme. Analogien mellem workshops og undervisning udvikles ved at analysere, hvordan deltagere og arrangører arbejder med rollespilsværktøjet ars armandi i...... de workshops som blev afholdt før rollespillet Delirium (2010). Nogle af aktiviteterne i en prærollespilsworkshop minder meget om undervisnings- og læringsaktiviteter i universitetskurser der søger at anvende konstruktivistisk tankegang. Begrebet tilsigtede læringsresultater (intended learning...

  2. Epistemic Communities, Situated Learning and Open Source Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses open source software (OSS) development as an epistemic community where each individual project is perceived as a single epistemic community. OSS development is a learning process where the involved parties contribute to, and learn from the community. It is discovered that theory...... of epistemic communities does indeed contribute to the understanding of open source software development. But, the important learning process of open source software development is not readily explained. The paper then introduces situated learning and legitimate peripheral participation as theoretical...

  3. Cross-situational word learning is both implicit and strategic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    For decades, implicit learning researchers have examined a variety of cognitive tasks in which people seem to automatically extract structure from the environment. Similarly, recent statistical learning studies have shown that people can learn word-object mappings from the repeated co-occurrence of words and objects in individually ambiguous situations. In light of this, the goal of the present paper is to investigate whether adult cross-situational learners require an explicit effort to learn word-object mappings, or if it may take place incidentally, only requiring attention to the stimuli. In two implicit learning experiments with incidental tasks directing participants' attention to different aspects of the stimuli, we found evidence of learning, suggesting that cross-situational learning mechanisms can operate incidentally, without explicit effort. However, performance was superior under explicit study instructions, indicating that strategic processes also play a role. Moreover, performance under instruction to learn word meanings did not differ from performance at counting co-occurrences, which may indicate these tasks engage similar strategies.

  4. Collaborative learning situated in the university context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles MARTÍNEZ RUIZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Effective strategies in teacher education can be based on conceptual change and social constructivism models. From this framework theory, we assume that, in order to improve the succession of the different progressive stages of teachers'conceptual development, social and collaborative strategies are more adequate than individual methodologies. The main aim of this research is to analyze the use of particular and appropiate strategies in a constructivist and collaborative teacher education context. The case-study carried out proves that conceptual change is more effective when it is implemented synergistically with strategies directed towards group autonomy and group-regulation of learning rhythms and goals. The results demostrate the benefits derived from the use of strategies that propitiate the sharing and comparing practice among prospective teachers, especially, if they are, as usual, at heterogenous levels of teaching expertise.

  5. A learning arena for knowledge development by the use of didactics and situated learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2010-01-01

    This paper unfolds the concept of a learning arena as a means of building robust and effec-tive global operations networks through a focus on organizational didactics and situated learning. The paper builds on six case studies in three MNEs which have come far in establishing capabilities...... for the transfer of operations activities. However, they have tended to take a piecemeal and substance-based approach in relation to learning. A new model shows the contours of a learning arena, and case studies illustrate how different learning arenas may be used for supporting knowledge development....

  6. Cross-Situational Learning with Bayesian Generative Models for Multimodal Category and Word Learning in Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Taniguchi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a Bayesian generative model that can form multiple categories based on each sensory-channel and can associate words with any of the four sensory-channels (action, position, object, and color. This paper focuses on cross-situational learning using the co-occurrence between words and information of sensory-channels in complex situations rather than conventional situations of cross-situational learning. We conducted a learning scenario using a simulator and a real humanoid iCub robot. In the scenario, a human tutor provided a sentence that describes an object of visual attention and an accompanying action to the robot. The scenario was set as follows: the number of words per sensory-channel was three or four, and the number of trials for learning was 20 and 40 for the simulator and 25 and 40 for the real robot. The experimental results showed that the proposed method was able to estimate the multiple categorizations and to learn the relationships between multiple sensory-channels and words accurately. In addition, we conducted an action generation task and an action description task based on word meanings learned in the cross-situational learning scenario. The experimental results showed that the robot could successfully use the word meanings learned by using the proposed method.

  7. Bringing Context and Structure Back into Situated Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Saka-Helmhout, Ayse; Becker-Ritterspach, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Practice-based studies have progressed thinking in the knowledge, learning and innovation fields by emphasizing the continual negotiation of social structures and meaning through participation. Yet, only a few contributions discuss how participation and learning are affected by broader structures....... This is an inconsistency in the understanding of ‘situated’ learning where learning through participation is restricted to the immediate community involved in a social activity. We aim to address this inconsistency by investigating the effects of the interplay between institutional and organizational structures...... institutional systems.In contrast to older views, our case findings suggest that while the interplay between institutional context and organizational structure indeed matters, it does not determine collective participation and situated learning as actors can actively create solutions when structural conditions...

  8. How Pre-Service Teachers Learn Educational Technology with the Situated Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, Sevda

    2018-01-01

    This research investigated pre-service teachers' motivation, learning strategies, and engagement in a situated learning based educational technology course. In this study, correlational research design was used. The sample of this study was 65 second year science education pre-service teachers. The data were collected through two questionnaires.…

  9. Creating the learning situation to promote student deep learning: Data analysis and application case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanyuan; Wu, Shaoyan

    2017-05-01

    How to lead students to deeper learning and cultivate engineering innovative talents need to be studied for higher engineering education. In this study, through the survey data analysis and theoretical research, we discuss the correlation of teaching methods, learning motivation, and learning methods. In this research, we find that students have different motivation orientation according to the perception of teaching methods in the process of engineering education, and this affects their choice of learning methods. As a result, creating situations is critical to lead students to deeper learning. Finally, we analyze the process of learning situational creation in the teaching process of «bidding and contract management workshops». In this creation process, teachers use the student-centered teaching to lead students to deeper study. Through the study of influence factors of deep learning process, and building the teaching situation for the purpose of promoting deep learning, this thesis provide a meaningful reference for enhancing students' learning quality, teachers' teaching quality and the quality of innovation talent.

  10. Music in Informal and formal learning situations in ECEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Sæther

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is, through theory, research and practical experiences, to discuss how informal teaching and learning situations exemplified by activities including music plays a part in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC. The theoretical frame in this article is based on perspectives on informal teaching and learning in music and in general (Green 2002, 2008; Henze, 2009; Folkestad, 2006; Mak, 2007. The tradition in Norwegian ECEC centers has been based on informal learning processes mainly through social interaction, play, dialogs, aesthetical and outdoor activities in everyday life. ECEC teachers challenged to articulate Informal teaching and learning as professional educators. In light of that statement it is introduced, theoretical perspectives and studies of professions (Abbott, 1988; Grimen, 2008; Heggen, 2008; Polanyi, 2002. The author describes and discusses opportunities of music in ECEC centers and how music can contribute learning in informal learning situations. The discussion refers narrative episodes from observations of ECEC practice. Methodology is based on thematic analysis inspired of  Riessman (2008 and Polkinghorne (1995.

  11. Applications of Situated Learning to Foster Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds-Cady, Cynthia; Sosulski, Marya R.

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss 2 macro-level community practice courses, examining how each applies the concepts of situated learning to foster the development of communities of practice through use of a unique model for antioppressive practice. The theoretical underpinnings and a discussion of the implementation of each stage of the model is provided. The…

  12. Gardens of Situations: Learning from the Danish Modern Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boris, Stefan Darlan

    2009-01-01

    of an interlacing of understanding and space.” (Sieverts, 2007) Learning from a series of modern Danish landscape architectural projects by Brandt, Sørensen and Andersson I will define a specific form for gardening – and more importantly a specific form for gathering – which I call „Gardens of Situations...

  13. Situation Creator: A Pedagogical Agent Creating Learning Opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Hoppe, Ulrich; Pinkwart, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Miao, Y., Hoppe, H. U., & Pinkwart, N. (2007). Situation Creator: A Pedagogical Agent Creating Learning Opportunities. In R. Luckin, K. Koedinger & J. Greer (Eds.), Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (pp. 614-617). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS

  14. The role of reference in cross-situational word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Felix Hao; Mintz, Toben H

    2018-01-01

    Word learning involves massive ambiguity, since in a particular encounter with a novel word, there are an unlimited number of potential referents. One proposal for how learners surmount the problem of ambiguity is that learners use cross-situational statistics to constrain the ambiguity: When a word and its referent co-occur across multiple situations, learners will associate the word with the correct referent. Yu and Smith (2007) propose that these co-occurrence statistics are sufficient for word-to-referent mapping. Alternative accounts hold that co-occurrence statistics alone are insufficient to support learning, and that learners are further guided by knowledge that words are referential (e.g., Waxman & Gelman, 2009). However, no behavioral word learning studies we are aware of explicitly manipulate subjects' prior assumptions about the role of the words in the experiments in order to test the influence of these assumptions. In this study, we directly test whether, when faced with referential ambiguity, co-occurrence statistics are sufficient for word-to-referent mappings in adult word-learners. Across a series of cross-situational learning experiments, we varied the degree to which there was support for the notion that the words were referential. At the same time, the statistical information about the words' meanings was held constant. When we overrode support for the notion that words were referential, subjects failed to learn the word-to-referent mappings, but otherwise they succeeded. Thus, cross-situational statistics were useful only when learners had the goal of discovering mappings between words and referents. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of word learning in children's language acquisition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reinforcement and inference in cross-situational word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles, Paulo F C; Fontanari, José F

    2013-01-01

    Cross-situational word learning is based on the notion that a learner can determine the referent of a word by finding something in common across many observed uses of that word. Here we propose an adaptive learning algorithm that contains a parameter that controls the strength of the reinforcement applied to associations between concurrent words and referents, and a parameter that regulates inference, which includes built-in biases, such as mutual exclusivity, and information of past learning events. By adjusting these parameters so that the model predictions agree with data from representative experiments on cross-situational word learning, we were able to explain the learning strategies adopted by the participants of those experiments in terms of a trade-off between reinforcement and inference. These strategies can vary wildly depending on the conditions of the experiments. For instance, for fast mapping experiments (i.e., the correct referent could, in principle, be inferred in a single observation) inference is prevalent, whereas for segregated contextual diversity experiments (i.e., the referents are separated in groups and are exhibited with members of their groups only) reinforcement is predominant. Other experiments are explained with more balanced doses of reinforcement and inference.

  16. Learning in Context: Technology Integration in a Teacher Preparation Program Informed by Situated Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Randy L.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Binns, Ian C.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation explores the effectiveness of a teacher preparation program aligned with situated learning theory on preservice science teachers' use of technology during their student teaching experiences. Participants included 26 preservice science teachers enrolled in a 2-year Master of Teaching program. A specific program goal was to…

  17. Modeling Learner Situation Awareness in Collaborative Mobile Web 2.0 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Helmi; Nordin, Norazah; Din, Rosseni; Ally, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The concept of situation awareness is essential in enhancing collaborative learning. Learners require information from different awareness aspects to deduce a learning situation for decision-making. Designing learning environments that assist learners to understand situation awareness via monitoring actions and reaction of other learners has been…

  18. An integrative account of constraints on cross-situational learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurovsky, Daniel; Frank, Michael C

    2015-12-01

    Word-object co-occurrence statistics are a powerful information source for vocabulary learning, but there is considerable debate about how learners actually use them. While some theories hold that learners accumulate graded, statistical evidence about multiple referents for each word, others suggest that they track only a single candidate referent. In two large-scale experiments, we show that neither account is sufficient: Cross-situational learning involves elements of both. Further, the empirical data are captured by a computational model that formalizes how memory and attention interact with co-occurrence tracking. Together, the data and model unify opposing positions in a complex debate and underscore the value of understanding the interaction between computational and algorithmic levels of explanation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Patterns in Elementary School Students' Strategic Actions in Varying Learning Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Jonna; Järvenoja, Hanna; Järvelä, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    This study uses log file traces to examine differences between high-and low-achieving students' strategic actions in varying learning situations. In addition, this study illustrates, in detail, what strategic and self-regulated learning constitutes in practice. The study investigates the learning patterns that emerge in learning situations…

  20. Learning Behavior Analysis of a Ubiquitous Situated Reflective Learning System with Application to Life Science and Technology Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Chen, Hong-Ren; Chen, Nian-Shing; Lin, Li-Kai; Chen, Jin-Wen

    2018-01-01

    Education research has shown that reflective study can efficiently enhance learning, and the acquisition of knowledge and skills from real-life situations has become a focus of interest for scholars. The knowledge-learning model based on verbal instruction, used in traditional classrooms, does not make use of real-life situations that encourage…

  1. Learning circumference concepts from the didactical situations theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir de Sousa Cavalcanti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The circumference study, as its importance, it is one of the most relevant contents in the Analytical Geometry curriculum. However, the complexity of related concepts to this theme linked to the content fragmentation, it difficulties the students thinking of transforming geometrical problems into equations solution, systems or inequations. Within, in this article we present a partial report of a master research work, of qualitative mode, which aimed to develop and to evaluate an alternative methodology by using musical parody composition to the teaching of Mathematics in trying to contribute to the circumference concepts learning process. For that, we carried out a case study with 36 third year high school students of a public school from the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba. The research work was based and discussed on Brousseau Didactical Situation Theory. It was chosen triangulation technique for the data analyses, collected from interviews, questionnaires and a list of mathematical exercises. We concluded that the parody composition resource allowed the students better understand the concepts of center, ratio, cord and the definition of the general circumference equation, as they were capable to identify the relative positions which a circumference assumes in relation to an equation of a straight line and between two circumferences in the various concepts that differentiated them. Thus, we can state that the musical parody composition as a didactical resource can contribute to the learning of mathematical contents.

  2. Systematic review of effectiveness of situated e-learning on medical and nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Chang, Yi-Ting; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Erdley, William Scott; Lin, Chyi-Her; Chang, Ying-Ju

    2013-08-01

    Because of the complexity of clinical situations, traditional didactic education is limited in providing opportunity for student-patient interaction. Situated e-learning can enhance learners' knowledge and associated abilities through a variety of activities. Healthcare providers who interact with virtual patients in designed situations may avoid unnecessary risks and encounters with real patients. However, the effectiveness of situated e-learning is inconsistent. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of situated e-learning in prelicensure and postlicensure medical and nursing education. Literature databases of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, ERIC, and Cochrane Library were searched. The study eligibility criteria included articles published in English, which examined the effectiveness of situated e-learning on the outcomes of knowledge and performance for clinicians or students in medicine and nursing. Effect sizes were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. Fourteen articles were included for meta-analysis. Situated e-learning could effectively enhance learners' knowledge and performance when the control group received no training. Compared to traditional learning, the effectiveness of situated e-learning on performance diminished but still remained significant whereas the effect become insignificant on knowledge. The subgroup analyses indicate the situated e-learning program significantly improved students' clinical performance but not for clinicians. Situated e-learning is an effective method to improve novice learners' performance. The effect of situated e-learning on the improvement of cognitive ability is limited when compared to traditional learning. Situated e-learning is a useful adjunct to traditional learning for medical and nursing students. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. Learning game for training child bicyclists' situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Esko; Sahlberg, Heidi; Rovamo, Emilia; Summala, Heikki

    2017-08-01

    Encouraging more children to bicycle would produce both environmental and health benefits, but bicycling accidents are a major source of injuries and fatalities among children. One reason for this may be children's less developed hazard perception skills. We assume that children's situation awareness could be trained with a computer based learning game, which should also improve their hazard perception skills. In this paper, we present a prototype for such a game and pilot it with 8-9year old children. The game consisted of videos filmed from a bicyclist's perspective. Using a touchscreen, the player's task was to point out targets early enough to gain points. The targets were either overt (other visible road users on a potentially conflicting course) or covert (occlusions, i.e. locations where other road users could suddenly emerge). If a target was missed or identified too late, the video was paused and feedback was given. The game was tested with 49 children from the 2nd grade of primary school (aged 8-9). 31 young adults (aged 22-34) played the game for comparison. The effect of the game on situation awareness was assessed with situation awareness tests in a crossover design. Similar videos were used in the tests as in the game, but instead of pointing out the targets while watching, the video was suddenly masked and participants were asked to locate all targets which had been present just before the masking, choosing among several possible locations. Their performance was analyzed using Signal Detection Theory and answer latencies. The game decreased answer latency and marginally changed response bias in a less conservative direction for both children and adults, but it did not significantly increase sensitivity for targets. Adults performed better in the tests and in the game, and it was possible to satisfactorily predict group membership based on the scores. Children found it especially difficult to find covert targets. Overall, the described version of the

  4. Impairments in Learning Due to Motivational Conflict: Situation Really Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassler, Nina K.; Grund, Axel; Hilckmann, Kristina; Fries, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Although many theories mention distractions by conflicting alternatives as a problem for self-regulation, motivational conflicts are rarely considered when explaining impairments in learning. In two studies, we investigate the assumption of motivational interference theory that students show different amounts of impairments in learning depending…

  5. Lifelong Education (Learning) in China: Present Situation and Development Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhupeng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the historic background and development of lifelong education (learning) in China, this paper introduces major developments of lifelong education (learning) that have been achieved through adopting a series of measures under policies issued by the Chinese government since the 1990s. Throughout the decades, efforts have been made to…

  6. Situating e-Learning: Accelerating Precepts from the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan; Sturm, Sean; González Geraldo, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    E-learning entails a different cognitive performativity from class or textual teaching and learning. It is critiqued through three case studies from lecturers working digitally in different ways. The authors' various challenges in shifting from the classroom to the "digitas" illuminate the risk of interpassivity into which…

  7. Situated learning theory: adding rate and complexity effects via Kauffman's NK model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu; McKelvey, Bill

    2004-01-01

    For many firms, producing information, knowledge, and enhancing learning capability have become the primary basis of competitive advantage. A review of organizational learning theory identifies two approaches: (1) those that treat symbolic information processing as fundamental to learning, and (2) those that view the situated nature of cognition as fundamental. After noting that the former is inadequate because it focuses primarily on behavioral and cognitive aspects of individual learning, this paper argues the importance of studying learning as interactions among people in the context of their environment. It contributes to organizational learning in three ways. First, it argues that situated learning theory is to be preferred over traditional behavioral and cognitive learning theories, because it treats organizations as complex adaptive systems rather than mere information processors. Second, it adds rate and nonlinear learning effects. Third, following model-centered epistemology, it uses an agent-based computational model, in particular a "humanized" version of Kauffman's NK model, to study the situated nature of learning. Using simulation results, we test eight hypotheses extending situated learning theory in new directions. The paper ends with a discussion of possible extensions of the current study to better address key issues in situated learning.

  8. Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Laabidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays learning technologies transformed educational systems with impressive progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Furthermore, when these technologies are available, affordable and accessible, they represent more than a transformation for people with disabilities. They represent real opportunities with access to an inclusive education and help to overcome the obstacles they met in classical educational systems. In this paper, we will cover basic concepts of e-accessibility, universal design and assistive technologies, with a special focus on accessible e-learning systems. Then, we will present recent research works conducted in our research Laboratory LaTICE toward the development of an accessible online learning environment for persons with disabilities from the design and specification step to the implementation. We will present, in particular, the accessible version “MoodleAcc+” of the well known e-learning platform Moodle as well as new elaborated generic models and a range of tools for authoring and evaluating accessible educational content.

  9. Constructive, Self-Regulated, Situated, and Collaborative Learning: An Approach for the Acquisition of Adaptive Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Corte, Erik

    2012-01-01

    In today's learning society, education must focus on fostering adaptive competence (AC) defined as the ability to apply knowledge and skills flexibly in different contexts. In this article, four major types of learning are discussed--constructive, self-regulated, situated, and collaborative--in relation to what students must learn in order to…

  10. Undergraduate Political Communication in Action: Volunteer Experiences in a Situated Learning Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    In many college classes, students spend their time learning about the theories from the linear logic of a textbook. However, true learning occurs when these theories are integrated with hands-on authentic experiences. Situated learning courses are designed to bridge the gap between the theoretical and the authentic. Students apply classroom…

  11. The LEONARDO-DA-VINCI pilot project "e-learning-assistant" - Situation-based learning in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferle, Petra Ina; Van den Stock, Etienne; Nauerth, Annette

    2010-07-01

    E-learning will play an important role in the training portfolio of students in higher and vocational education. Within the LEONARDO-DA-VINCI action programme transnational pilot projects were funded by the European Union, which aimed to improve the usage and quality of e-learning tools in education and professional training. The overall aim of the LEONARDO-DA-VINCI pilot project "e-learning-assistant" was to create new didactical and technical e-learning tools for Europe-wide use in nursing education. Based on a new situation-oriented learning approach, nursing teachers enrolled in the project were instructed to adapt, develop and implement e- and blended learning units. According to the training contents nursing modules were developed by teachers from partner institutions, implemented in the project centers and evaluated by students. The user-package "e-learning-assistant" as a product of the project includes two teacher training units, the authoring tool "synapse" to create situation-based e-learning units, a student's learning platform containing blended learning modules in nursing and an open sourced web-based communication centre. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Role of the implicit theories of intelligence in learning situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, D; Cury, F; Bailly, D; Rufo, M

    2004-01-01

    Most studies have tried to explain the school difficulties by analysing the intellectual factors that lead to school failure. However in addition to the instrumental capacities, authors also recognize the role played by other factors such as motivation. More specifically, the theory of achievement motivation aims to determine motivational factors involved in achievement situations when the students have to demonstrate their competencies. This paradigm attributes a central place to beliefs in order to explain children's behavior in academic situations. According to Dweck, it seems that beliefs about the nature of intelligence have a very powerful impact on behavior. These implicit theories of intelligence create a meaning system or conceptual framework that influences the individual interpretation of school situations. Thus, an entity theory of intelligence is the belief that intelligence is a fixed trait, a personal quality that cannot be changed. Students who subscribe to this theory believe that although people can learn new things, their underlying intelligence remains the same. In contrast, an incremental theory of intelligence is the belief that intelligence is a malleable quality that can increase through efforts. The identification of these two theories allows us to understand the cognition and behavior of individuals in achievement situations. Many studies carried out in the academic area show that students who hold an entity theory of intelligence (ie they consider intelligence like a stable quality) have a strong tendency to attribute their failures to a fixed trait. They are more likely to blame their intelligence for ne-gative outcomes and to attribute failures to their bad intellectual ability. In contrast, students who hold an incremental theory of intelligence (ie they consider intelligence as a malleable quality) are more likely to understand the same ne-gative outcomes in terms of specific factors: they attribute them to a lack of effort. This

  13. The Ecology of Interactive Learning Environments: Situating Traditional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2014-01-01

    In educational discourse on human learning (i.e. the result of experience) and development (i.e. the result of maturation), there are three fundamental theoretical frameworks, -- behaviourism, cognitivism and constructivism, each of which have been applied, with varying degrees of success, in online environments. An ecological framework of human…

  14. Quality Management In Open And Distance Learning Situation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of Nigerian Education has been criticized from the lowest to the highest level of the system. It has been discussed in various mass media. People have expressed the need to raise the quality of our education in the country. This paper looks at the concepts of quality, management and open and distance learning.

  15. Situated Learning with Online Portfolios, Classroom Websites and Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltry, Chris; Henriksen, Danah; Wu, Min Lun; Dickson, W. Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In this article we describe the evolution of an elective course designed specifically for undergraduate students in our pre-service teacher education program. This course is intended to prepare these undergraduate students as future teachers--helping them to make effective and creative uses of technology in learning settings. This course…

  16. Pragmatically Framed Cross-Situational Noun Learning Using Computational Reinforcement Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najnin, Shamima; Banerjee, Bonny

    2018-01-01

    Cross-situational learning and social pragmatic theories are prominent mechanisms for learning word meanings (i.e., word-object pairs). In this paper, the role of reinforcement is investigated for early word-learning by an artificial agent. When exposed to a group of speakers, the agent comes to understand an initial set of vocabulary items belonging to the language used by the group. Both cross-situational learning and social pragmatic theory are taken into account. As social cues, joint attention and prosodic cues in caregiver's speech are considered. During agent-caregiver interaction, the agent selects a word from the caregiver's utterance and learns the relations between that word and the objects in its visual environment. The "novel words to novel objects" language-specific constraint is assumed for computing rewards. The models are learned by maximizing the expected reward using reinforcement learning algorithms [i.e., table-based algorithms: Q-learning, SARSA, SARSA-λ, and neural network-based algorithms: Q-learning for neural network (Q-NN), neural-fitted Q-network (NFQ), and deep Q-network (DQN)]. Neural network-based reinforcement learning models are chosen over table-based models for better generalization and quicker convergence. Simulations are carried out using mother-infant interaction CHILDES dataset for learning word-object pairings. Reinforcement is modeled in two cross-situational learning cases: (1) with joint attention (Attentional models), and (2) with joint attention and prosodic cues (Attentional-prosodic models). Attentional-prosodic models manifest superior performance to Attentional ones for the task of word-learning. The Attentional-prosodic DQN outperforms existing word-learning models for the same task.

  17. The Effect of Context on Training: Is Learning Situated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-13

    functions in quantitative reasoning. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Hillsdale, NJ.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1991...conceptual replication by Hendrickson and Schroeder (1941) used two levels of abstract explanation as well as a control group and found more transfer with more...learning. Annual review of psychology, 12: 243-280. Bjork, R. A. & Richardson-Klavehn, A., (1989). On the Puzzling Relationship Between Environment Context

  18. Design A Situated Learning Environment Using Mixed Reality Technology - A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rasimah Che Mohd Yusoff; Halimah Badioze Zaman; Azlina Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Mixed Reality (MR) is one of the newest technologies explored in education. It promises the potential to promote teaching and learning and making learners- experience more "engaging". However, there still lack of research on designing a virtual learning environment using MR technology. In this paper, we describe the Mixed Reality technology, the characteristics of situated learning as instructional design for virtual environment using mixed reality technology. We also exp...

  19. Cross-situational statistically based word learning intervention for late-talking toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Meyers, Christina; Oglivie, Trianna; Nicholas, Katrina; Arizmendi, Genesis

    2014-01-01

    To explore the efficacy of a word learning intervention for late-talking toddlers that is based on principles of cross-situational statistical learning. Four late-talking toddlers were individually provided with 7-10 weeks of bi-weekly word learning intervention that incorporated principles of cross-situational statistical learning. Treatment was input-based meaning that, aside from initial probes, children were not asked to produce any language during the sessions. Pre-intervention data included parent-reported measures of productive vocabulary and language samples. Data collected during intervention included production on probes, spontaneous production during treatment, and parent report of words used spontaneously at home. Data were analyzed for number of target words learned relative to control words, effect sizes, and pre-post treatment vocabulary measures. All children learned more target words than control words and, on average, showed a large treatment effect size. Children made pre-post vocabulary gains, increasing their percentile scores on the MCDI, and demonstrated a rate of word learning that was faster than rates found in the literature. Cross-situational statistically based word learning intervention has the potential to improve vocabulary learning in late-talking toddlers. Limitations on interpretation are also discussed. Readers will describe what cross-situational learning is and how it might apply to treatment. They will identify how including lexical and contextual variability in a word learning intervention for toddlers affected treatment outcomes. They will also recognize evidence of improved rate of vocabulary learning following treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Collaborative Virtual Environment for Situated Language Learning Using VEC3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ya-Chun; Yang, Mau-Tsuen

    2008-01-01

    A 3D virtually synchronous communication architecture for situated language learning has been designed to foster communicative competence among undergraduate students who have studied English as a foreign language (EFL). We present an innovative approach that offers better e-learning than the previous virtual reality educational applications. The…

  1. The Impact of Learning Task Design on Students' Situational Interest in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roure, Cédric; Pasco, Denis

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the framework of interest, studies have shown that teachers can enhance students' situational interest (SI) by manipulating the components of learning tasks. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of learning task design on students' SI in physical education (PE). Method: The participants were 167 secondary school…

  2. Fundamental Research in Engineering Education. Student Learning in Industrially Situated Virtual Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretsky, Milo D.; Kelly, Christine; Gummer, Edith

    2011-01-01

    The instructional design and the corresponding research on student learning of two virtual laboratories that provide an engineering task situated in an industrial context are described. In this problem-based learning environment, data are generated dynamically based on each student team's distinct choices of reactor parameters and measurements.…

  3. Situated learning in the mobile age: mobile devices on a field trip to the sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa D.I. Pfeiffer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on learning about fish biodiversity via mobile devices in a situated learning scenario. Mobile devices do not only facilitate relating the presented information to the real world in a direct way; they also allow the provision of dynamic representations on demand. This study asks whether mobile devices are suited to support knowledge acquisition in a situated learning scenario and whether providing dynamic content is an additional benefit of mobile devices in combination with a real-world experience. The study was conducted during a regular university course at the Mediterranean Sea. Students had to acquire knowledge on 18 Mediterranean fish species by using either static (n = 16 or dynamic learning materials (n = 17. An initial classroom activity was followed by a real-world experience with mobile devices (snorkelling activity. Learning outcomes were measured before and after snorkelling. A 2×2 mixed ANOVA revealed that students performed better after than before the mobile learning experience, whereas no main effect for learning material could be found. However, an interaction between both factors indicated that the knowledge gain in the dynamic group exceeded the knowledge gain in the static group. These results indicate that mobile devices are helpful to unfold the potential of dynamic visualisations for learning biodiversity in a situated learning scenario.

  4. Culture, Learning, and Development and the Natural World: The Influences of Situative Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Megan

    2015-01-01

    The study of human learning and development from situative or sociocultural perspectives has had significant impacts on a wide range of scholarship largely driven by the theoretical and methodological focus on understanding the role of "activity systems" in cognition and development. This article first explores how situative perspectives…

  5. A framework for understanding outcomes of mutual learning situations in IT projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus Rotvit Perlt

    2012-01-01

    How do we analyse and understand design decisions derived from mutual learning (ML) situations and how may practitioners take advantage of these in IT projects? In the following we present a framework of design decisions inferred from ML situations that occurred between end-users and stakeholders...

  6. Developing a Curriculum for Initial Teacher Education Using a Situated Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that the implications of the concept of situated learning are important when developing a curriculum for initial teacher education (ITE). It describes and analyses the use of a model of ITE designed to stimulate discussions promoting the development of professional craft knowledge situated mainly in schools and to connect these…

  7. Toward Self-Referential Autonomous Learning of Object and Situation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damerow, Florian; Knoblauch, Andreas; Körner, Ursula; Eggert, Julian; Körner, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Most current approaches to scene understanding lack the capability to adapt object and situation models to behavioral needs not anticipated by the human system designer. Here, we give a detailed description of a system architecture for self-referential autonomous learning which enables the refinement of object and situation models during operation in order to optimize behavior. This includes structural learning of hierarchical models for situations and behaviors that is triggered by a mismatch between expected and actual action outcome. Besides proposing architectural concepts, we also describe a first implementation of our system within a simulated traffic scenario to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach.

  8. Dynamic Sensor Tasking for Space Situational Awareness via Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, R.; Furfaro, R.

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies the Sensor Management (SM) problem for optical Space Object (SO) tracking. The tasking problem is formulated as a Markov Decision Process (MDP) and solved using Reinforcement Learning (RL). The RL problem is solved using the actor-critic policy gradient approach. The actor provides a policy which is random over actions and given by a parametric probability density function (pdf). The critic evaluates the policy by calculating the estimated total reward or the value function for the problem. The parameters of the policy action pdf are optimized using gradients with respect to the reward function. Both the critic and the actor are modeled using deep neural networks (multi-layer neural networks). The policy neural network takes the current state as input and outputs probabilities for each possible action. This policy is random, and can be evaluated by sampling random actions using the probabilities determined by the policy neural network's outputs. The critic approximates the total reward using a neural network. The estimated total reward is used to approximate the gradient of the policy network with respect to the network parameters. This approach is used to find the non-myopic optimal policy for tasking optical sensors to estimate SO orbits. The reward function is based on reducing the uncertainty for the overall catalog to below a user specified uncertainty threshold. This work uses a 30 km total position error for the uncertainty threshold. This work provides the RL method with a negative reward as long as any SO has a total position error above the uncertainty threshold. This penalizes policies that take longer to achieve the desired accuracy. A positive reward is provided when all SOs are below the catalog uncertainty threshold. An optimal policy is sought that takes actions to achieve the desired catalog uncertainty in minimum time. This work trains the policy in simulation by letting it task a single sensor to "learn" from its performance

  9. A Situative Metaphor for Teacher Learning: The Case of University Tutors Learning to Grade Student Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Pete; Bloxham, Sue

    2014-01-01

    In the continuing concern about academic standards in the higher education sector a great deal of emphasis has been placed on quality assurance procedures rather than on considering how university tutors learn to grade the quality of work produced by students. As part of a larger research project focused on how tutors grade student coursework,…

  10. Making Sense of Crisis: Cognitive Barriers of Learning in Critical Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona PERGHEL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of cognitive issues in learning from crisis situations, in particular the managers’ mental representations of crisis and the relationship of these “maps” with the learning process through “sense-making”, as well as the possible cognitive barriers that might prevent the process of learning from crisis and thus allow the incubation of crises to develop in the company. Reviewing secondary data from the current literature, the paper focuses on the complexity of human “sense-making” and understanding the phenomena of crisis and the meaning people assign to it. Considerable attention and analysis has been done in order to assess the manner in which organizations can effectively learn to prevent crisis situations, addressing the theoretical frameworks that analyse the barriers that might occur in the learning from crisis process at an individual and group level, pointing out the need of recognition and sense-making that sometimes the current state of knowledge is not well. The paper argues that the effective organizational learning from crises requires changes in the core beliefs, values and assumptions of organizational members, which translate into sustained behavioural changes and that these changes are possible through intense cognitive processes, in particular through the way managers make sense of crisis situations.  Keywords: crisis, learning, cognitive barriers, sense-making, managers, literature review

  11. Situated Learning in Youth Elite Football: A Danish Case Study among Talented Male under-18 Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Laursen, Dan Norgaard; Sorensen, Jan Kahr

    2011-01-01

    Background: The application of a social theory of learning and the notion of situated learning as a theoretical basis for understanding students' learning in PE is broadly recognised. Nevertheless, it is far more unusual for this theoretical approach to provide a basis for understanding learning processes in talent development in elite sport.…

  12. Situating cognitive/socio-cognitive approaches to student learning in genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    2009-03-01

    In this volume, Furberg and Arnseth report on a study of genetics learning from a socio-cultural perspective, focusing on students' meaning making as they engage in collaborative problem solving. Throughout the paper, they criticize research on student understanding and conceptual change conducted from a cognitive/socio-cognitive perspective on several reasonable grounds. However, their characterization of work undertaken from this perspective sometimes borders on caricature, failing to acknowledge the complexities of the research and the contexts within which it has been carried out. In this commentary, I expand their characterization of the cognitive/socio-cognitive perspective in general and situate my own work on genetics learning so as to provide a richer view of the enterprise. From this richer, more situated view, I conclude that research from both perspectives and collaboration between those looking at learning from different perspectives will ultimately provide a more complete picture of science learning.

  13. Examining Motivation in Online Distance Learning Environments: Complex, Multifaceted, and Situation-Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Hartnett

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing research into motivation in online environments has tended to use one of two approaches. The first adopts a trait-like model that views motivation as a relatively stable, personal characteristic of the learner. Research from this perspective has contributed to the notion that online learners are, on the whole, intrinsically motivated. The alternative view concentrates on the design of online learning environments to encourage optimal learner motivation. Neither approach acknowledges a contemporary view of motivation that emphasises the situated, mutually constitutive relationship of the learner and the learning environment. Using self-determination theory (SDT as a framework, this paper explores the motivation to learn of preservice teachers in two online distance-learning contexts. In this study, learners were found to be not primarily intrinsically motivated. Instead, student motivation was found to be complex, multifaceted, and sensitive to situational conditions.

  14. The company objects keep: Linking referents together during cross-situational word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettersten, Martin; Wojcik, Erica; Benitez, Viridiana L; Saffran, Jenny

    2018-04-01

    Learning the meanings of words involves not only linking individual words to referents but also building a network of connections among entities in the world, concepts, and words. Previous studies reveal that infants and adults track the statistical co-occurrence of labels and objects across multiple ambiguous training instances to learn words. However, it is less clear whether, given distributional or attentional cues, learners also encode associations amongst the novel objects. We investigated the consequences of two types of cues that highlighted object-object links in a cross-situational word learning task: distributional structure - how frequently the referents of novel words occurred together - and visual context - whether the referents were seen on matching backgrounds. Across three experiments, we found that in addition to learning novel words, adults formed connections between frequently co-occurring objects. These findings indicate that learners exploit statistical regularities to form multiple types of associations during word learning.

  15. Competition between multiple words for a referent in cross-situational word learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Viridiana L.; Yurovsky, Daniel; Smith, Linda B.

    2016-01-01

    Three experiments investigated competition between word-object pairings in a cross-situational word-learning paradigm. Adults were presented with One-Word pairings, where a single word labeled a single object, and Two-Word pairings, where two words labeled a single object. In addition to measuring learning of these two pairing types, we measured competition between words that refer to the same object. When the word-object co-occurrences were presented intermixed in training (Experiment 1), we found evidence for direct competition between words that label the same referent. Separating the two words for an object in time eliminated any evidence for this competition (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 demonstrated that adding a linguistic cue to the second label for a referent led to different competition effects between adults who self-reported different language learning histories, suggesting both distinctiveness and language learning history affect competition. Finally, in all experiments, competition effects were unrelated to participants’ explicit judgments of learning, suggesting that competition reflects the operating characteristics of implicit learning processes. Together, these results demonstrate that the role of competition between overlapping associations in statistical word-referent learning depends on time, the distinctiveness of word-object pairings, and language learning history. PMID:27087742

  16. A joint model of word segmentation and meaning acquisition through cross-situational learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Okko; Rasilo, Heikki

    2015-10-01

    Human infants learn meanings for spoken words in complex interactions with other people, but the exact learning mechanisms are unknown. Among researchers, a widely studied learning mechanism is called cross-situational learning (XSL). In XSL, word meanings are learned when learners accumulate statistical information between spoken words and co-occurring objects or events, allowing the learner to overcome referential uncertainty after having sufficient experience with individually ambiguous scenarios. Existing models in this area have mainly assumed that the learner is capable of segmenting words from speech before grounding them to their referential meaning, while segmentation itself has been treated relatively independently of the meaning acquisition. In this article, we argue that XSL is not just a mechanism for word-to-meaning mapping, but that it provides strong cues for proto-lexical word segmentation. If a learner directly solves the correspondence problem between continuous speech input and the contextual referents being talked about, segmentation of the input into word-like units emerges as a by-product of the learning. We present a theoretical model for joint acquisition of proto-lexical segments and their meanings without assuming a priori knowledge of the language. We also investigate the behavior of the model using a computational implementation, making use of transition probability-based statistical learning. Results from simulations show that the model is not only capable of replicating behavioral data on word learning in artificial languages, but also shows effective learning of word segments and their meanings from continuous speech. Moreover, when augmented with a simple familiarity preference during learning, the model shows a good fit to human behavioral data in XSL tasks. These results support the idea of simultaneous segmentation and meaning acquisition and show that comprehensive models of early word segmentation should take referential word

  17. Learning Object Names at Different Hierarchical Levels Using Cross-Situational Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Hsin; Zhang, Yayun; Yu, Chen

    2018-05-01

    Objects in the world usually have names at different hierarchical levels (e.g., beagle, dog, animal). This research investigates adults' ability to use cross-situational statistics to simultaneously learn object labels at individual and category levels. The results revealed that adults were able to use co-occurrence information to learn hierarchical labels in contexts where the labels for individual objects and labels for categories were presented in completely separated blocks, in interleaved blocks, or mixed in the same trial. Temporal presentation schedules significantly affected the learning of individual object labels, but not the learning of category labels. Learners' subsequent generalization of category labels indicated sensitivity to the structure of statistical input. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. How does of initial inaccuracy benefit cross-situational word learning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmick, C.; Kachergis, G.E.; Gureckis, T.; Gunzelmann, G.; Howes, A.; Tenbrink, T.; Davelaar, E.

    2017-01-01

    Both children and adults are able to extract several intended word-referent mappings from a series of scenes containing multiple words and objects. Known as cross-situational learning, this ability is thought to be an important means of acquiring language. Proposed models of this ability range from

  19. Polish Hip Hop as a Form of Multiliteracies and Situated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrence, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this ethnographic study was to examine Hip Hop in Poland through the lens of multiliteracies and situated learning. This analysis is concerned with the transmission of Hip Hop to and within Wroclaw, Poland, and its acculturation and assimilation in Wroclaw, Poland. Further, this study seeks to illustrate how professional Polish Hip…

  20. Authentic Role-Playing as Situated Learning: Reframing Teacher Education Methodology for Higher-Order Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaman, Lori Hostetler; Flanagan, Toni Michele

    2013-01-01

    This article draws from situated learning theory, teacher education research, and the authors' collaborative self-study to propose a teacher education pedagogy that may help to bridge the theory-into-practice gap for preservice teachers. First, we review the Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium standards to confirm the call for…

  1. Gesture as a Resource for Intersubjectivity in Second-Language Learning Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhiah, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    This study documents the role of hand gestures in achieving mutual understanding in second-language learning situations. The study tracks the way gesture is coordinated with talk in tutorials between two Korean students and their American teachers. The study adopts an interactional approach to the study of participants' talk and gestural…

  2. A Review of the Situation of Service-Learning in Higher Education in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opazo, Hector; Aramburuzabala, Pilar; Cerrillo, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    As the prevalence of service-learning (S-L) within higher education institutions grows across the globe, it makes sense to explore, describe and discuss the recent situation in Spain. As a relatively new pedagogy, S-L has gained prominence in Spanish higher education since its emergence in the early 2000s, and it is increasingly used. This article…

  3. Effects of Redundancy and Modality on the Situational Interest of Adult Learners in Multimedia Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousay, Tonia A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two design principles as prescribed by the cognitive theory of multimedia learning on the situational interest of adult learners in a multimedia-based continuing education training program. One hundred and two adult learners employed by an emergency medical service were randomly assigned to one of three…

  4. Supporting Situated Learning Based on QR Codes with Etiquetar App: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Miguel Olmedo; Pérez-Sanagustín, Mar; Alario-Hoyos, Carlos; Soldani, Xavier; Kloos, Carlos Delgado; Sayago, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    EtiquetAR is an authoring tool for supporting the design and enactment of situated learning experiences based on QR tags. Practitioners use etiquetAR for creating, managing and personalizing collections of QR codes with special properties: (1) codes can have more than one link pointing at different multimedia resources, (2) codes can be updated…

  5. Induced lexical categories enhance cross-situational learning of word meanings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alishahi, A.; Chrupala, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we bring together two sources of information that have been proposed as clues used by children acquiring word meanings. One mechanism is cross-situational learning which exploits co-occurrences between words and their referents in perceptual context accompanying utterances. The other

  6. Fight the Power: Situated Learning and Conscientisation in a Gendered Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curnow, Joe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I employ situated learning theory to explore gendered processes of marginalisation and conscientisation in a social movement organisation. Using a student activist organisation as a case study, I explain women's awareness of and resistance to masculine performances of leadership and decision-making through the concept of…

  7. Predicting Online Learning Success: Applying the Situational Theory of Publics to the Virtual Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger-Ross, Matthew J.; Waters, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Following the trend of increased interest by students to take online courses and by institutions to offer them, scholars have taken many different approaches to understand what makes one student successful in online learning while another may fail. This study proposes that using the situational theory of publics will provide a better understanding…

  8. The Theory about didactical situations used to analyze practice related teaching and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Vibe

    2018-01-01

    Based on research showing that the students’ challenges in practice based learning can be located to the transitions between theory and practice, this study focuses on how teachers support the students in these transitions. The theoretical framework is mainly Brousseau’s ‘Theory about didactical...... the results show that the Theory of didactical situations can be a useful framework accomplishing practice related teaching and learning. In the discussion a number of challenges in relation to practice related teaching is highlighted focusing on the relation between the five situations in the theory...... situations’ that defines five situations of practice related teaching. The data includes observations combined with interviews of teachers in relation to various examples of practice related teaching in the social and health care programs. Based on the analysis of three examples of practice related teaching...

  9. Emotion control in collaborative learning situations: do students regulate emotions evoked by social challenges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvenoja, Hanna; Järvelä, Sanna

    2009-09-01

    During recent decades, self-regulated learning (SRL) has become a major research field. SRL successfully integrates the cognitive and motivational components of learning. Self-regulation is usually seen as an individual process, with the social aspects of regulation conceptualized as one aspect of the context. However, recent research has begun to investigate whether self-regulation processes are complemented by socially shared regulation processes. The presented study investigated what kind of socio-emotional challenges students experience during collaborative learning and whether the students regulate the emotions evoked during these situations. The interplay of the emotion regulation processes between the individual and the group was also studied. The sample for this study was 63 teacher education students who studied in groups of three to five during three collaborative learning tasks. Students' interpretations of experienced social challenges and their attempts to regulate emotions evoked by these challenges were collected following each task using the Adaptive Instrument for the Regulation of Emotions. The results indicated that students experienced a variety of social challenges. Students also reported the use of shared regulation in addition to self-regulation. Finally, the results suggested that intrinsic group dynamics are derived from both individual and social elements of collaborative situations. The findings of the study support the assumption that students can regulate emotions collaboratively as well as individually. The study contributes to our understanding of the social aspects of emotional regulation in collaborative learning contexts.

  10. Construction of a Learning Agent Handling Its Rewards According to Environmental Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Koichi; Numao, Masayuki

    The authors aim at constructing an agent which learns appropriate actions in a Multi-Agent environment with and without social dilemmas. For this aim, the agent must have nonrationality that makes it give up its own profit when it should do that. Since there are many studies on rational learning that brings more and more profit, it is desirable to utilize them for constructing the agent. Therefore, we use a reward-handling manner that makes internal evaluation from the agent's rewards, and then the agent learns actions by a rational learning method with the internal evaluation. If the agent has only a fixed manner, however, it does not act well in the environment with and without dilemmas. Thus, the authors equip the agent with several reward-handling manners and criteria for selecting an effective one for the environmental situation. In the case of humans, what generates the internal evaluation is usually called emotion. Hence, this study also aims at throwing light on emotional activities of humans from a constructive view. In this paper, we divide a Multi-Agent environment into three situations and construct an agent having the reward-handling manners and the criteria. We observe that the agent acts well in all the three Multi-Agent situations composed of homogeneous agents.

  11. Blended learning in situated contexts: 3-year evaluation of an online peer review project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, S; Chang, J W W; Chu, C H; Gardner, K

    2014-08-01

    Situated and sociocultural perspectives on learning indicate that the design of complex tasks supported by educational technologies holds potential for dental education in moving novices towards closer approximation of the clinical outcomes of their expert mentors. A cross-faculty-, student-centred, web-based project in operative dentistry was established within the Universitas 21 (U21) network of higher education institutions to support university goals for internationalisation in clinical learning by enabling distributed interactions across sites and institutions. This paper aims to present evaluation of one dental faculty's project experience of curriculum redesign for deeper student learning. A mixed-method case study approach was utilised. Three cohorts of second-year students from a 5-year bachelor of dental surgery (BDS) programme were invited to participate in annual surveys and focus group interviews on project completion. Survey data were analysed for differences between years using multivariate logistical regression analysis. Thematic analysis of questionnaire open responses and interview transcripts was conducted. Multivariate logistic regression analysis noted significant differences across items over time indicating learning improvements, attainment of university aims and the positive influence of redesign. Students perceived the enquiry-based project as stimulating and motivating, and building confidence in operative techniques. Institutional goals for greater understanding of others and lifelong learning showed improvement over time. Despite positive scores, students indicated global citizenship and intercultural understanding were conceptually challenging. Establishment of online student learning communities through a blended approach to learning stimulated motivation and intellectual engagement, thereby supporting a situated approach to cognition. Sociocultural perspectives indicate that novice-expert interactions supported student development of

  12. Perceived learning outcome: the relationship between experience, realism and situation awareness during simulator training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saus, Evelyn-Rose; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Eid, Jarle

    2010-01-01

    Navigation errors are a frequent cause of serious accidents and work-related injuries among seafarers. The present study investigated the effects of experience, perceived realism, and situation awareness (SA) on the perceived learning outcome of simulator-based navigation training. Thirty-two Norwegian Navy officer cadets were assigned to a low and a high mental workload conditions based on previous educational and navigational experience. In the low mental workload condition, experience (negatively associated), perceived realism, and subjective SA explained almost half of the total variance in perceived learning outcome. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that only subjective SA made a unique contribution to the learning outcome. In the high mental workload condition, perceived realism and subjective SA together explained almost half of the variance in perceived learning outcome. Furthermore, both perceived realism and subjective SA were shown to make an independent contribution to perceived learning outcomes. The results of this study show that in order to enhance the learning outcomes from simulator training it is necessary to design training procedures and scenarios that enable students to achieve functional fidelity and to generate and maintain SA during training. This can further improve safety and reduce the risk of maritime disasters.

  13. User Perspectives of Reference Management Software in a Context-Based Learning Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Akramy

    2013-12-01

    based, and how these can help to encourage positive learning environments that are connected to the new generation of students. A pedagogical implementation was conducted in spring 2010 for all students (semester 1 in occupational therapist and physical therapist programs. The methods used were interviews as well as a questionnaire. The material was analyzed according to content analysis. The result showed three categories: Usability, Accessibility and Learning Situation. These illustrated the students' perception of how easy, convenient and time saving it is to use reference management software tools. Accessibility describes the technical requirements associated with the tool and learning situation is described by the increased communication through networking and the students feel that they're willing to use the tool in different contexts in the future. Based on the results, we noted that students are positive about the use of reference management software tool. From the results we can conclude that it is crucial to select a reference management software tool which fulfills the requirement of availability. This study shows that neither EndNote nor Zotero meet the requirements regarding the availability of an optimal learning situation. As an educator it is most important to take into consideration, when using technical devices, that the student feels competent when using devices. This is advantageous for the student by offering them a sense of security and continuity in the learning process. References Illeris, K. (2007. Lärande [Learning] (2. ed.. Lund: Studentlittertur. Vygotskij, L. S., & Clole, M. (1978. Mind in society; the development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard U.P.

  14. Managing Reputation Risk and Situational Crisis in Higher Institutions of Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Effiong, Andem Ita

    2014-01-01

    Extant literature on crisis and corporate reputation management has presented the Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT) model as a valid and reliable framework for managing crisis and predicting stakeholders’perceptions of organizations’ reputation in times of crisis. In order to verifythe applicability of the model in higher institutions of learning in adeveloping country context, a study was conducted in September, 2011 in twopublic universities in Nigeria. The findings of the stud...

  15. Situated learning in virtual simulations: Researching the authentic dimension in virtual worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Falconer, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses a case study of postgraduate students undertaking accident investigation and risk assessment exercises in an online virtual world as part of their course curriculum. These exercises were constructed to overcome the ethical and practical barriers inherent in real-world exercises. In particular this paper focusses upon the potential of such exercises to facilitate the authentic dimension of situated learning and identifies some of the factors that affect the s...

  16. The Effects of Situated Learning Through a Community Partnership in a Teacher Preparation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Meyers

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the value of using an alternative approach to college course instruction in an off-campus location, an agency for individuals with developmental disabilities. The situated learning model is an alternative to the traditional college course instructional approach for preservice teachers. This model immerses students in the actual setting where they can practice the skills and apply the concepts emphasized in the curriculum. Through a partnership between the college, the community agency, and a public school, graduate students in the special education program developed and implemented a life-skills curriculum for individuals with developmental disabilities, at the same time learning essential principles of delivering instruction. The school-aged students who participated in the study were from a racially mixed urban school district, while the adult clients from the community agency attended the program at the end of their community-based workday. Based on the results of surveys and focus group discussions, participants in the study indicated that the situated learning model of instruction in a community setting better prepared them in the acquisition and application of their teaching skills, and built their competence in developing educational programs for individuals with disabilities.

  17. Social cultural and situative perspective of studying emotions in teaching and learning: characteristics, challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Seng-Chee

    2013-09-01

    In this forum, I take a learning sciences perspective to examine the paper by Bellocchi, Ritchie, Tobin, Sandhu and Sandhu ( Cultural Studies of Science Education, doi: 10.1007/s11422-013-9526-3 , 2013) titled "Examining emotional climate of preservice science teacher education." I characterize their approach as a social cultural and situative perspective of studying emotions in teaching and learning. Such an approach overcomes the limitations of examining emotions as individual psychological constructs, but it also incurs other methodological challenges. I suggest an alternative approach of examining the individual's emotions, as well as their aggregates as a group measure. This approach allows us to study variations in emotional outcomes at an individual level or at a group level. I also suggest examining interplay of emotions with other aspects of learning outcomes, for example, cognitive learning outcomes. Finally, I suggest studying development of meta-emotional knowledge among teachers as another fertile area of research that could benefit the teachers in their classroom practices.

  18. The development and current situation of e-learning in Spanish Vocational Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Jorge Garcia Marcos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a study aimed to analyze organizational models at institutional level, technological tools and educational resources that distinguish online vocational studies throughout the Spanish territory. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used for data collection. The most relevant results of the study were: there is an increase in the number of students enrolled in vocational training distance learning studies, materials specifically created and distributed in an open format for distance learning are used in some regions, absolute hegemony of Moodle as a virtual learning environment with its synchronous and asynchronous communication tools, existence of a gap between regions regarding the ratio of students per module and the hours devoted to tutorials, distance learning national implementation for the most vocational training studies, and creation of an interactive map specifically in order to show information collected in the study. Considering this situation, there are certain aspects which differ significantly among regions and which could be improved in two ways: firstly, throughout better communication and coordination, and secondly, by means of exchanging experiences between regions.

  19. The Influence of the Openness of an E-Learning Situation on Adult Students' Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezegou, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This article presents empirical research conducted with French speaking adults studying for a diploma. Their training took place mainly in e-learning. The goal of this research was to identify and explain the processes of influence existing between two specific dimensions: the degree of openness of the components of the e-learning situation and…

  20. "Just Keep Going, Stay Together, and Sing OUT." Learning Byzantine Music in an Informal and Situated Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashier, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This project examines the communal process of music learning as it occurs in a Byzantine chant learning group at a Greek Orthodox Church. The goal of this project was to investigate the act of music making, as situated in a particular sociocultural context, in order to address the question: Through what processes do individuals share music…

  1. Transferring an educational board game to a multi-user mobile learning game to increase shared situational awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kurapati, Shalini; Kolfschoten, Gwendolyn

    2013-01-01

    Klemke, R., Kurapati, S., & Kolfschoten, G. (2013, 6 June). Transferring an educational board game to a multi-user mobile learning game to increase shared situational awareness. In P. Rooney (Ed.), Proceedings of the 3rd Irish Symposium on Game Based Learning (pp. 8-9). Dublin, Ireland. Please see

  2. Transferring an educational board game to a multi-user mobile learning game to increase shared situational awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kurapati, Shalini; Kolfschoten, Gwendolyn

    2013-01-01

    Klemke, R., Kurapati, S., & Kolfschoten, G. (2013, 6 June). Transferring an educational board game to a multi-user mobile learning game to increase shared situational awareness. Presentation at the 3rd Irish Symposium on Game Based Learning, Dublin, Ireland. Please see also

  3. Situated Cognition and Learning Environments: Implications for Teachers On- and Offline in the New Digital Media Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Kimberley; Lee, Ung-Sang

    2015-01-01

    John Seely Brown suggested that learning environments should be spaces in which all work is public, is subject to iterative critique by instructors and peers, and in which social interaction is primary. In such spaces, students and teachers engage in a situated cognition approach to teaching and learning where "cognitive accomplishments rely…

  4. Remember dax? Relations between children's cross-situational word learning, memory, and language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlach, Haley A; DeBrock, Catherine A

    2017-04-01

    Learning new words is a difficult task. Children are able to resolve the ambiguity of the task and map words to referents by tracking co-occurrence probabilities across multiple moments in time, a behavior termed cross-situational word learning (CSWL). Although we observe developments in CSWL abilities across childhood, the cognitive processes that drive individual and developmental change have yet to be identified. This research tested a developmental systems account by examining whether multiple cognitive systems co-contribute to children's CSWL. The results of two experiments revealed that multiple cognitive domains, such as memory and language abilities, are likely to drive the development of CSWL above and beyond children's age. The results also revealed that memory abilities are likely to be particularly important above and beyond other cognitive abilities. These findings have implications for theories and computational models of CSWL, which typically do not account for individual children's cognitive capacities or changes in cognitive capacities across time.

  5. Social transmission of avoidance behavior under situational change in learned and unlearned rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Masuda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rats receive information from other conspecifics by observation or other types of social interaction. Such social interaction may contribute to the effective adaptation to changes of environment such as situational switching. Learning to avoid dangerous places or objects rapidly occurs with even a single conditioning session, and the conditioned memory tends to be sustained over long periods. The avoidance is important for adaptation, but the details of the conditions under which the social transmission of avoidance is formed are unknown. We demonstrate that the previous experience of avoidance learning is important for the formation of behaviors for social transmission of avoidance and that the experienced rats adapt to a change of situation determined by the presence or absence of aversive stimuli. We systematically investigated social influence on avoidance behavior using a passive avoidance test in a light/dark two-compartment apparatus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rats were divided into two groups, one receiving foot shocks and another with no aversive experience in a dark compartment. Experienced and inexperienced rats were further divided into subjects and partners. In Experiment 1, each subject experienced (1 interaction with an experienced partner, (2 interaction with an inexperienced partner, or (3 no interaction. In Experiment 2, each subject experienced interaction with a partner that received a shock. The entering latency to a light compartment was measured. The avoidance behavior of experienced rats was inhibited by interaction with inexperienced or experienced partners in a safely-changed situation. The avoidance of experienced rats was reinstated in a dangerously-changed situation by interaction with shocked rats. In contrast, the inexperienced rats were not affected by any social circumstances. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that transmitted information among rats can be updated under a

  6. The influence of an online virtual situated environment on a Chinese learning community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-En Chang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study used an online virtual environment to create and develop a Chinese learning community. The purposes of research were (1 to enhance the Chinese learners’ oral Chinese communication skills and (2 to change the community members’ Chinese speaking and teaching behavior. This is an action research. The research tried to create a community in a virtual environment. The research results showed that (1 a virtual community can enhance learner’s Chinese competence, and (2 future Chinese teachers’ instructional and leading skills can be developed in a virtual community situation.

  7. The Impact of Situation-Based Learning to Students’ Quantitative Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, T.; Cahya, E.; Suhendra

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, the usage of quantities can be seen almost everywhere. There has been an increase of quantitative thinking, such as quantitative reasoning and quantitative literacy, within the context of daily life. However, many people today are still not fully equipped with the knowledge of quantitative thinking. There are still a lot of individuals not having enough quantitative skills to perform well within today’s society. Based on this issue, the research aims to improve students’ quantitative literacy in junior high school. The qualitative analysis of written student work and video observations during the experiment reveal that the impact of situation-based learning affects students’ quantitative literacy.

  8. Situating teacher learning in the practice of mathematics and science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Monica Louise

    Education reforms propose new content and pedagogy for students. Making such reforms possible in schools depends on creating new content and pedagogy for teachers' learning. This study investigated an approach to support teachers' learning which has been rapidly growing in popularity. Specifically, the study was designed to learn how a collaborative professional development experience, situated in teachers' own practice, might help elementary teachers develop knowledge for teaching. Eleven fourth and fifth grade teachers from two public schools participated in this professional development which was modeled after Japanese Lesson Study. A qualitative research methodology of critical inquiry was used to analyze the data. The researcher was both designer and participant. This intervention gave these teachers opportunities to learn content, pedagogy, and skills for collaborative inquiry, but not all the teachers continued their involvement. Challenges of time, talk and individualism were problems for all and were among the main reasons teachers in one group gave for leaving the program. Three characteristics of the teachers who completed the project included: (a) dissatisfaction with the learning outcomes of their students; (b) participation with colleagues in social activities throughout the school year; (c) an existing trusting relationship with the program facilitator. The features of this new pedagogy of professional development require teachers to break from typical orientations to practice. This produces a paradox. On one hand, many American teachers do not have the skills needed to be expert at this, for the professional culture does not support such work. On the other hand, if teachers are not given opportunities to collaborate in meaningful ways, the skills they need cannot develop. Although, these teachers were not yet experts in this collaborative inquiry process, the skills required began to develop in the course of engaging in this professional development

  9. 2.5-year-olds use cross-situational consistency to learn verbs under referential uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rose M; Fisher, Cynthia

    2012-02-01

    Recent evidence shows that children can use cross-situational statistics to learn new object labels under referential ambiguity (e.g., Smith & Yu, 2008). Such evidence has been interpreted as support for proposals that statistical information about word-referent co-occurrence plays a powerful role in word learning. But object labels represent only a fraction of the vocabulary children acquire, and arguably represent the simplest case of word learning based on observations of world scenes. Here we extended the study of cross-situational word learning to a new segment of the vocabulary, action verbs, to permit a stronger test of the role of statistical information in word learning. In two experiments, on each trial 2.5-year-olds encountered two novel intransitive (e.g., "She's pimming!"; Experiment 1) or transitive verbs (e.g., "She's pimming her toy!"; Experiment 2) while viewing two action events. The consistency with which each verb accompanied each action provided the only source of information about the intended referent of each verb. The 2.5-year-olds used cross-situational consistency in verb learning, but also showed significant limits on their ability to do so as the sentences and scenes became slightly more complex. These findings help to define the role of cross-situational observation in word learning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fire disaster preparedness and situational analysis in higher learning institutions of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M. Kihila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire disasters are accompanied with devastating impact affecting both lives and properties. The magnitude of the impacts has been severe in places with low levels of fire disaster preparedness. A study was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate the level of fire disaster preparedness considering the availability and condition of firefighting facilities as well as the knowledge on fire management among the selected 10 higher learning institutions. Information for the buildings was obtained from the interviews with the managers of the buildings and field observations; information on the user’s preparedness was obtained from interviews using structured questionnaire conducted with the users of the buildings including the visitors. Results from the studied buildings indicated that 60% of the firefighting facilities were not regularly serviced; 50% stored some hazardous materials; 70% of them had not enough water storage for firefighting purposes; 60% had no identifiable fire assembly points; and 90% of the sessions conducted in the buildings involved more than 100 people in a single venue. Further results indicated that 51% of the respondents were not able to operate the installed firefighting facilities; 80.7% of the respondents had never received any training on firefighting and prevention; 95.6% of the respondents had never participated in any fire drills; and 81.5% of them were not aware of the fire responder’s contacts. General situation indicated that higher learning institutions are not well prepared to manage fire outbreaks suggesting that plans to rectify the situation are imperative.

  11. An Examination of Digital Game-Based Situated Learning Applied to Chinese Language Poetry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Ren; Lin, You-Shiuan

    2016-01-01

    By gradually placing more importance on game-based education and changing learning motivation by applying game-playing characteristics, students' learning experiences can be enhanced and a better learning effect can be achieved. When teaching the content of Chinese poetry in Taiwanese junior high schools, most teachers only explain the meaning of…

  12. Hypotetical learning trajectory to anticipate mathematics anxiety in algebra learning based on the perspective of didactical situation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliani, R. E.; Suryadi, D.; Dahlan, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this research is to design an alleged teacher learning path or Hypotetical Learning Trajectory (HLT) to anticipate mathematics anxiety of students in learning algebra. HLT loads expected mathematics learning objectives, estimates the level of knowledge and understanding of the students, as well as the selection of mathematical activity in accordance with the learning competencies. This research uses educational design research method. The research steps consist of a preliminary design, experimental and retrospective analysis. Data were gathered from various sources, such as data is written during the research process of test results, documentation, sheet results of students' work, results of interviews, questionnaires, and video recordings. The subjects of the study were 10 junior high school students. Based on the research identified 2 students at the level of high anxiety, 7 people at medium anxiety level and 1 student at low anxiety level. High anxiety levels about 20%, was approximately 70% and approximately 10% lower. These results can be used as an evaluation and reflection for designing materials that can anticipate mathematics anxiety of students learning algebra concepts.

  13. Managing Reputation Risk and Situational Crisis in Higher Institutions of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andem Ita Effiong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Extant literature on crisis and corporate reputation management has presented the Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT model as a valid and reliable framework for managing crisis and predicting stakeholders’perceptions of organizations’ reputation in times of crisis. In order to verifythe applicability of the model in higher institutions of learning in adeveloping country context, a study was conducted in September, 2011 in twopublic universities in Nigeria. The findings of the study revealed thatalthough the institutions did not fully implement the core tenets of SCCT, thestrategies adopted in each of the two crisis situations were similar to some ofthe recommendations of the SCCT in different ways. While one institutionfocused on a strategy similar to what the SCCT model describes as “rebuildcrisis response strategy” with informing and adjusting tactics, the secondinstitution utilized a victimization or “Victimage” strategy with strongattribution of blames; and frequent reminder of the stakeholders of the extentof losses that the institution would incur from the crisis. The outcome wasthat the institution with high emphasis on rebuilding and informationadjustment strategy recorded very little damage to its reputation capital, duringand after the crises. Conversely, the second institution which believed invictimization and high attribution recorded significant losses in reputation assets,which included withdrawal of key stakeholders and loss of recognition ofprograms by some professional agencies. The implication for crisis managers in thetwo institutions includes the need to always approach situational crises in aholistic manner. Such holistic approach would involve a refocus, critical analysis,planning and implementation of crisis response strategies based on the relevantsituations, events, and the people concerned. The research was designed as acase study with focus group discussions as the data collection method

  14. Industrially-Situated Project-Based Learning: A Study of Feedback and Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbuena, Debra M.

    The Virtual Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Process Development Project provides the context for the two areas of the research presented in this dissertation. The first area, generally referred to as feedback in this dissertation, focuses on student learning and the interactions of students and instructors that take place in the project, specifically focused on characterizing feedback and determining the influence of feedback as student teams progress towards completing the project. The characteristics of feedback found in this project are presented within a situative perspective using the analytical framework of episodes. The characteristics include: a list and categorization of episode themes, the structure and flow of episodes during the coaching session, the sub-structure present within individual episodes, and the types of feedback present. This dissertation shows how these characteristics frame participation in a community of practice and can be used as tools to scaffold instructor feedback in project-based learning. Episodes analysis is also used to investigate how feedback on professional skills can help to enculturate students into a community of practice and influence their fluency with professional skills and engagement in more technical activities. The second area examines the spread of this innovative project from its home institution to other institutions. In this area an analysis of the spread of the Virtual CVD Process Development Project in the high school setting is presented. The project was found to provide versatility for instructors and afford student learning in the areas of motivation, cognition, and epistemological beliefs. These two areas inform each other. As the project is assessed at different institutions, it is continually improved and the sensitivity of different aspects of the project is explored, e.g., the aspects of the project that are crucial to maintain effectiveness are identified. One of these aspects is the feedback that

  15. The Use of Flexible, Interactive, Situation-Focused Software for the E-Learning of Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Ralph Edward

    This paper discusses the classroom, home, and distance use of new, flexible, interactive, application-oriented software known as Active Learning Suite. The actual use of the software, not just a controlled experiment, is reported on. Designed for the e-learning of university mathematics, the program was developed by a joint U.S.-Russia team and…

  16. Situational Leadership Theory as a Foundation for a Blended Learning Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, David

    2016-01-01

    Ultimately with the raise of computer technology, blended learning has found its way into teaching. The technology continues to evolve, challenging teachers and lecturers alike. Most studies on blended learning focus on the practical or applied side and use essentially pedagogical concepts. This study demonstrates that the leadership sciences can…

  17. Evaluating Listening and Speaking Skills in a Mobile Game-Based Learning Environment with Situational Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Shih, Timothy K.; Ma, Zhao-Heng; Shadiev, Rustam; Chen, Shu-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Game-based learning activities that facilitate students' listening and speaking skills were designed in this study. To participate in learning activities, students in the control group used traditional methods, while students in the experimental group used a mobile system. In our study, we looked into the feasibility of mobile game-based learning…

  18. Actualizing Communities of Practice (COPs and Situated Learning for A Sustainable Eco-Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Victoria Pineda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An eco-village as defined by Robert Gilman is a “human-scale, full-featured settlement where you feel you know the others, and human activities are integrated with natural, biological systems.” Roland Mayerl argued that this maybe ideal, but there are huge challenges. He claims the challenges are at different levels—there is the physical layer that constitutes food production, animals, water and wastewater treatment. Other layers will be the built environment, the economic system and the governance in the village.This paper argues that one of the challenging layers is the human layer that was excluded in the modeling of many eco-village works. While there are many good models of an eco-village, sustainability will primarily be laid on the shoulders of the members of the community or the village for that matter. Sustainability should be espoused by the members of the eco-village. But how can sustainability be attained? What sustainability approach or strategy can be employed?“Communities of practice (COP are formed by people who engage in a process of collective learning in a shared domain of human endeavor.“ (Wenger, 2004 COPs are concepts commonly applied in organizations and virtual communities. Using this approach together with periphery participation and situated learning, this paper presents a human-based model of a sustainable eco-village and some useful examples.The paper also argues that an eco-village necessitates the support of technology in enhancing and preserving the shared practices. Hence, use of social media deployed in the web is one of the recommended ways that also permit collective action among members of the eco-village.

  19. Research on Motivation in Collaborative Learning: Moving beyond the Cognitive-Situative Divide and Combining Individual and Social Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvela, Sanna; Volet, Simone; Jarvenoja, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    In this article we propose that in order to advance our understanding of motivation in collaborative learning we should move beyond the cognitive-situative epistemological divide and combine individual and social processes. Our claim is that although recent research has recognized the importance of social aspects in emerging and sustained…

  20. Situated teaching improves empathy learning of the students in a BSN program: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwo-Chen; Yu, Chin-Ching; Hsieh, Pei-Ling; Li, Chin-Ching; Chao, Yann-Fen C

    2018-05-01

    Empathy is an important clinical skill for nursing students, but it is a characteristic difficult to teach and assess. To evaluate the effect of situated teaching on empathy learning among undergraduate nursing students. A cohort study with pre-post-test quasi-experimental design. The 2nd-year students were enrolled from two BSN programs. The teaching program was completed over 4 months on the basis of experiential learning theory which integrated the following four elements: classroom-based role play, self-reflection, situated learning and acting. The Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Profession-Student version was administered before and after the program. Objective Structure Clinical Examination (OSCE) was administered at the end of program and a rubrics scale was used to measure empathy. A generalized estimation equation was used to identify the effect of subjective empathy, and an independent t-test was used for the objective assessment between two groups. A total of 103 students were enrolled. The results showed that subjective empathy increased significantly in experimental group. In the Objective Structured Clinical Examination, examiners and standard patients gave significantly higher empathy scores to the situated teaching group than the control group. The present study indicated that situated teaching can improve empathy learning of the nursing students. However different methods of assessment of empathy produce different results. We therefore recommend that multiple measurements from difference perspectives are preferable in the assessment of empathy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of an IOS App Using Situated Learning, Communities of Practice, and Augmented Reality for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the development process and framework used to construct a transportation app that uses situated learning, augmented reality, and communities of practice. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can cause social impairments as well as the limit the potential for the individual to achieve independence…

  2. Interorganizational learning systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    1999-01-01

    The occurrence of organizational and interorganizational learning processes is not only the result of management endeavors. Industry structures and market related issues have substantial spill-over effects. The article reviews literature, and it establishes a learning model in which elements from...... organizational environments are included into a systematic conceptual framework. The model allows four types of learning to be identified: P-learning (professional/craft systems learning), T-learning (technology embedded learning), D-learning (dualistic learning systems, where part of the labor force is exclude...... from learning), and S-learning (learning in social networks or clans). The situation related to service industries illustrates the typology....

  3. Quality management of eLearning for medical education: current situation and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrusch, Jasmin; Marienhagen, Jörg; Böckers, Anja; Gerhardt-Szép, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the German Council of Science had advised universities to establish a quality management system (QMS) that conforms to international standards. The system was to be implemented within 5 years, i.e., until 2014 at the latest. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a QMS suitable for electronic learning (eLearning) domain of medical education to be used across Germany has meanwhile been identified. We approached all medical universities in Germany (n=35), using an anonymous questionnaire (8 domains, 50 items). Our results (response rate 46.3%) indicated very reluctant application of QMS in eLearning and a major information deficit at the various institutions. Authors conclude that under the limitations of this study there seems to be a considerable need to improve the current knowledge on QMS for eLearning, and that clear guidelines and standards for their implementation should be further defined.

  4. Situating Student Learning in Rich Contexts: A Constructionist Approach to Digital Archives Education

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Cocciolo

    2011-01-01

    Objective - This paper sought to determine whether a constructionist pedagogical approach to digital archives education could positively influence student perceptions of their learning. Constructionism is a learning theory that places students in the role of designers and emphasizes creating tangible artifacts in a social environment. This theory was used in the instructional design of the Digital Archive Creation Project (DACP), a major component of a digital archives course offered to stude...

  5. Remote Laboratories Framework : Focus on Reusability and Security in m-Learning Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Lardon

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Remote laboratories is a spreading concept which allows the remote use of devices through Internet connexion. The paper deals with the providing of a framework which is reusable for many devices, from different end-user media such as phone, computer or TV and acceptable in industry, therefore taking into account multi information systems securities. The problem is addressed through the point of view of m-learning situations which involves the lack of rich user interactions and the fact that the user belongs to external information systems when he interacts with the remote device. The modelisation of the remote device with ontologies, the use of a central application server, message oriented middleware and standard web services (database, authentication are the keys allowing the independence of the framework to the device. The adaptation of the GUI to the end-user device is made through a proxy which refactor the requests and responses according to the capabilities of the end-user device (size of screen, interactions tools. The use of a user-centric model of identities federation allows us to provide an efficient way to reach the goal of transparency to security constraints.

  6. Classroom management of situated group learning: A research study of two teaching strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeh, Kathy; Fawns, Rod

    2000-06-01

    Although peer-based work is encouraged by theories in developmental psychology and although classroom interventions suggest it is effective, there are grounds for recognising that young pupils find collaborative learning hard to sustain. Discontinuities in collaborative skill during development have been suggested as one interpretation. Theory and research have neglected situational continuities that the teacher may provide in management of formal and informal collaborations. This experimental study, with the collaboration of the science faculty in one urban secondary college, investigated the effect of two role attribution strategies on communication in peer groups of different gender composition in three parallel Year 8 science classes. The group were set a problem that required them to design an experiment to compare the thermal insulating properties of two different materials. This presents the data collected and key findings, and reviews the findings from previous parallel studies that have employed the same research design in different school settings. The results confirm the effectiveness of social role attribution strategies in teacher management of communication in peer-based work.

  7. Parental causal attributions and emotions in daily learning situations with the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlund, Emmi; Aunola, Kaisa; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the dynamics between the causal attributions parents reported daily for their children's success in learning situations and parental positive emotions. The sample consisted of 159 mothers and 147 fathers of 162 first graders (83 girls, 79 boys; aged from 6 to 7 years, M = 7.5 years, SD = 3.6 months). Parents filled in a structured diary questionnaire concerning their causal attributions and emotions over 7 successive days in the fall semester and again over 7 successive days in the spring semester. Multilevel analyses showed that both parental causal attributions and positive emotions varied more within parents (between days over the week) than between parents. Furthermore, mothers' positive emotions on a certain day predicted their causal attributions on that same day rather than vice versa. The higher the level of positive emotions parents reported in a specific day, the more they used effort and ability as causal attributions for their offspring's success on that same day. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Robot education peers in a situated primary school study: Personalisation promotes child learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Paul; Ashurst, Emily; Read, Robin; Kennedy, James; Belpaeme, Tony

    2017-01-01

    The benefit of social robots to support child learning in an educational context over an extended period of time is evaluated. Specifically, the effect of personalisation and adaptation of robot social behaviour is assessed. Two autonomous robots were embedded within two matched classrooms of a primary school for a continuous two week period without experimenter supervision to act as learning companions for the children for familiar and novel subjects. Results suggest that while children in both personalised and non-personalised conditions learned, there was increased child learning of a novel subject exhibited when interacting with a robot that personalised its behaviours, with indications that this benefit extended to other class-based performance. Additional evidence was obtained suggesting that there is increased acceptance of the personalised robot peer over a non-personalised version. These results provide the first evidence in support of peer-robot behavioural personalisation having a positive influence on learning when embedded in a learning environment for an extended period of time.

  9. Robot education peers in a situated primary school study: Personalisation promotes child learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Baxter

    Full Text Available The benefit of social robots to support child learning in an educational context over an extended period of time is evaluated. Specifically, the effect of personalisation and adaptation of robot social behaviour is assessed. Two autonomous robots were embedded within two matched classrooms of a primary school for a continuous two week period without experimenter supervision to act as learning companions for the children for familiar and novel subjects. Results suggest that while children in both personalised and non-personalised conditions learned, there was increased child learning of a novel subject exhibited when interacting with a robot that personalised its behaviours, with indications that this benefit extended to other class-based performance. Additional evidence was obtained suggesting that there is increased acceptance of the personalised robot peer over a non-personalised version. These results provide the first evidence in support of peer-robot behavioural personalisation having a positive influence on learning when embedded in a learning environment for an extended period of time.

  10. Robot education peers in a situated primary school study: Personalisation promotes child learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashurst, Emily; Read, Robin; Kennedy, James; Belpaeme, Tony

    2017-01-01

    The benefit of social robots to support child learning in an educational context over an extended period of time is evaluated. Specifically, the effect of personalisation and adaptation of robot social behaviour is assessed. Two autonomous robots were embedded within two matched classrooms of a primary school for a continuous two week period without experimenter supervision to act as learning companions for the children for familiar and novel subjects. Results suggest that while children in both personalised and non-personalised conditions learned, there was increased child learning of a novel subject exhibited when interacting with a robot that personalised its behaviours, with indications that this benefit extended to other class-based performance. Additional evidence was obtained suggesting that there is increased acceptance of the personalised robot peer over a non-personalised version. These results provide the first evidence in support of peer-robot behavioural personalisation having a positive influence on learning when embedded in a learning environment for an extended period of time. PMID:28542648

  11. Learning How to Learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.; Lauridsen, Ole

    Ole Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Karen M. Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Learning Styles in Higher Education – Learning How to Learn Applying learning styles (LS) in higher education...... by Constructivist learning theory and current basic knowledge of how the brain learns. The LS concept will thus be placed in a broader learning theoretical context as a strong learning and teaching tool. Participants will be offered the opportunity to have their own LS preferences established before...... teaching leads to positive results and enhanced student learning. However, learning styles should not only be considered a didactic matter for the teacher, but also a tool for the individual students to improve their learning capabilities – not least in contexts where information is not necessarily...

  12. Teacher learning as workplace learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imants, J.; Van Veen, K.

    2010-01-01

    Against the background of increasing attention in teacher professional development programs for situating teacher learning in the workplace, an overview is given of what is known in general and in educational workplace learning literature on the characteristics and conditions of the workplace.

  13. Learning to Learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Helen; Weiss, Martin

    1988-01-01

    The article reviews theories of learning (e.g., stimulus-response, trial and error, operant conditioning, cognitive), considers the role of motivation, and summarizes nine research-supported rules of effective learning. Suggestions are applied to teaching learning strategies to learning-disabled students. (DB)

  14. Situating Student Learning in Rich Contexts: A Constructionist Approach to Digital Archives Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Cocciolo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This paper sought to determine whether a constructionist pedagogical approach to digital archives education could positively influence student perceptions of their learning. Constructionism is a learning theory that places students in the role of designers and emphasizes creating tangible artifacts in a social environment. This theory was used in the instructional design of the Digital Archive Creation Project (DACP, a major component of a digital archives course offered to students enrolled in a Master’s program in library science at Pratt Institute School of Library and Information Science.Methods - Participants were the 31 students enrolled in the DACP during the fall and spring semesters of 2010. They were surveyed as to their perceived learning outcomes as a result of their engagement with the DACP. Results - Results indicated that students perceived strong increases in their learning following their engagement in the DACP, particularly in terms of their skills, confidence, understanding of topics covered in other courses, and overall understanding. Factors that influenced these increases include the collaborative teamwork, the role of the facilitator or instructor, and individual effort.Conclusion - The project demonstrated that a constructionist pedagogical approach to digital archives education positively impacted students’ perceptions of their learning.

  15. Learning from authoritarian teachers: Controlling the situation or controlling yourself can sustain motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Everhart Chaffee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology encompasses the study of positive outcomes, optimal functioning, and resilience in difficult circumstances. In the context of language learning, positive outcomes include academic engagement, self-determined motivation, persistence in language learning, and eventually becoming a proficient user of the language. These questionnaire studies extend previous research by addressing how these positive outcomes can be achieved even in adverse circumstances. In Study 1, the primary and secondary control scales of interest were validated using 2468 students at a Canadian university. Study 2 examined the capacity of 100 Canadian language learners to adjust themselves to fit in with their environment, termed secondary control, and how it was related to their motivation for and engagement in language learning and their feelings of anxiety speaking in the classroom. Secondary control in the form of adjusting one’s attitude towards language learning challenges through positive reappraisals was positively associated with self-determined motivation, need satisfaction, and engagement. analyses, positive reappraisals were also found to buffer the negative effects of having a controlling instructor on students’ engagement and anxiety. These findings suggest that personal characteristics interact with the learning environment to allow students to function optimally in their language courses even when the teacher is controlling.

  16. Enhancing students’ mathematical representation and selfefficacy through situation-based learning assisted by geometer’s sketchpad program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowanto; Kusumah, Y. S.

    2018-05-01

    This research was conducted based on the problem of a lack of students’ mathematical representation ability as well as self-efficacy in accomplishing mathematical tasks. To overcome this problem, this research used situation-based learning (SBL) assisted by geometer’s sketchpad program (GSP). This research investigated students’ improvement of mathematical representation ability who were taught under situation-based learning (SBL) assisted by geometer’s sketchpad program (GSP) and regular method that viewed from the whole students’ prior knowledge (high, average, and low level). In addition, this research investigated the difference of students’ self-efficacy after learning was given. This research belongs to quasi experiment research using non-equivalent control group design with purposive sampling. The result of this research showed that students’ enhancement in their mathematical representation ability taught under SBL assisted by GSP was better than the regular method. Also, there was no interaction between learning methods and students prior knowledge in student’ enhancement of mathematical representation ability. There was significant difference of students’ enhancement of mathematical representation ability taught under SBL assisted by GSP viewed from students’ prior knowledge. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in terms of self-efficacy between those who were taught by SBL assisted by GSP with the regular method.

  17. Competence Description for Personal Recommendations: The Importance of Identifying the Complexity of Learning and Performance Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Frans J.; Nadolski, Rob J.; Berlanga, Adriana J.; Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans G. K.; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    For competences development of learners and professionals, target competences and corresponding competence development opportunities have to be identified. Personal Recommender Systems (PRS) provide personal recommendations for learners aimed at finding and selecting learning activities that best match their needs. This article argues that a…

  18. Early Adolescents' Enjoyment Experienced in Learning Situations at School and Its Relation to Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenauer, Gerda; Hascher, Tina

    2014-01-01

    While many studies confirm that positive emotions, including enjoyment, lead to better student achievement, less empirical evidence exists about possible mediator variables that link achievement to enjoyment. It is proposed that achievement and enjoyment form a circular dependency; enjoyment in learning leads to higher achievement but a degree of…

  19. Social Cultural and Situative Perspective of Studying Emotions in Teaching and Learning: Characteristics, Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Seng-Chee

    2013-01-01

    In this forum, I take a learning sciences perspective to examine the paper by Bellocchi, Ritchie, Tobin, Sandhu and Sandhu ("Cultural Studies of Science Education," doi:10.1007/s11422-013-9526-3, 2013) titled "Examining emotional climate of preservice science teacher education." I characterize their approach as a social…

  20. It's the situation that matters : Affective involvement in context-oriented learning tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fechner, Sabine; van Vorst, H.; Kölbach, E.; Sumfleth, E.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the evaluation of affective variables in contextbased learning (cbl) environments. Although the majority of studies in the field have shown positive effects on attitude, the need to investigate specific elements of cbl tasks has become evident. On the basis of prior research

  1. Experiential and Cooperative Learning: Using a Situation Analysis Project in Principles of Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Caroline; Huser, Ann

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose a semester-long experiential-learning project for introductory marketing students. The project requires an analysis of a product category, competition, and consumer base to support a new product proposal. The purpose is to (a) put into practice the concepts and definitions taught in an introductory marketing…

  2. Enriching Adaptation in E-Learning Systems through a Situation-Aware Ontology Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernas, Ana Marilza; Diaz, Alicia; Motz, Regina; de Oliveira, Jose Palazzo Moreira

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The broader adoption of the internet along with web-based systems has defined a new way of exchanging information. That advance added by the multiplication of mobile devices has required systems to be even more flexible and personalized. Maybe because of that, the traditional teaching-controlled learning style has given up space to a new…

  3. Approaches to Learning with Media and Media Literacy Education--Trends and Current Situation in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulodziecki, Gerhard; Grafe, Silke

    2012-01-01

    German approaches to media literacy education are concerned with the questions, how the variety of media can be used in a meaningful way for learning and teaching and what educational tasks result from the extensive use of media. Considering these questions there are various conceptual ideas, research and development projects as well as…

  4. Authentic Education by Providing a Situation for Student-Selected Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strimel, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Students are seldom given an authentic experience within school that allows them the opportunity to solve real-life complex engineering design problems that have meaning to their lives and/ or the greater society. They are often confined to learning environments that are limited by the restrictions set by course content for assessment purposes and…

  5. Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Coll. of Education.

    Information is provided regarding major learning styles and other factors important to student learning. Several typically asked questions are presented regarding different learning styles (visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic, and multisensory learning), associated considerations, determining individuals' learning styles, and appropriate…

  6. Instructional Plans and Situated Learning: The Challenge of Suchman's Theory of Situated Action for Instructional Designers and Instructional Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streibel, Michael J.

    This paper discusses the implications of Lucy Suchman's conclusion that a theory of situated action--i.e., the actual sense that specific users make out of specific Xeroxing events--is truer to the lived experience of Xerox users than a cognitive account of the user's plans--e.g., the hierarchy of subprocedures for how Xerox machines should be…

  7. Deep Learning in Open Source Learning Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents research on deep learning in a digital learning environment and raises the question if digital instructional designs can catalyze deeper learning than traditional classroom teaching. As a theoretical point of departure the notion of ‘situated learning’ is utilized...... and contrasted to the notion of functionalistic learning in a digital context. The mechanism that enables deep learning in this context is ‘The Open Source Learning Stream’. ‘The Open Source Learning Stream’ is the notion of sharing ‘learning instances’ in a digital space (discussion board, Facebook group......, unistructural, multistructural or relational learning. The research concludes that ‘The Open Source Learning Stream’ can catalyze deep learning and that there are four types of ‘Open Source Learning streams’; individual/ asynchronous, individual/synchronous, shared/asynchronous and shared...

  8. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  9. THE CONSTRUCT, INTRODUCTION AND SITUATE OF RUDIMENTARY NUMBER SKILLS FOR CHILDREN IN NUMERACY LEARNING OUTCOMES

    OpenAIRE

    Adeleke, A. G.; Jegede, P. O.; Ajayi, H. O.

    2017-01-01

    The competence and positive disposition development toward mathematic subject has been observed an uphill task to learners across educational endeavors despite its need in life at home, paid work, participation in community and civic life. The Nigerian Education Policy (2013) made numeracy an important aspect of the specific objectives of primary education in Nigeria. However, the teaching-learning processes lithely attend to specification(s) of utilities. In Nigeria, most schools lack instru...

  10. Teachers’ Real and Perceived of ICTs Supported-Situation for Mathematics Teaching and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Fathurrohman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this research was to gain information related to the real and perceived ICT Infrastructures, Facilities, and Resources in Bojonegara Sub District, Indonesia. This article emphasize the publication of this information because it is needed for implementation of technology-based mathematics teaching and learning. The method used was survey. Instruments of survey were questionnaires, unstructured interview guideline, and handycam. During the survey, total of 220 questionnaire packages were distributed to teachers, however only 119 (response rate 54.1% of them were filled and returned. A total of 12 teachers were interviewed, with five of these interviews were video recorded. Several head masters welcomed and allowed researcher to visit their schools and make documentation of ICT Infrastructures, facilities, and resources, while the others did not allow the researcher to do that. Based on survey, many important findings have been discovered. It is suggested that the Teachers-Centered Learning with Technology is the most appropriate method of technology-based learning to be implemented.

  11. Student movement in Chile, situated learning and digital activism. Commitment, social change and technological uses in teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Peña

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available From the student movement emerged in Chile in 2011, the article reflects on the school as a learning space of audiovisual digital technologies and how this process can impact on the political communication dimension of a social movement. To do this, it is described and analyzed the case of a school where formal education in languages and digital technologies is overlapping with the use of applications and resources of the social web and so-called "social media" (youtube, blogs, social networks by high school students who become student leaders. Data are generated through key informant interviews and a selection of videos created for the students and uploaded to the Internet. The content of the interviews is approached from the concept of situated learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991 and videos from the concept of video activism (Askanius, 2013; Mateos & Rajas, 2014. The results show that concrete use of digital tools obtained in formal educational spaces in a context of mobilization processes, generates new experiences of non-formal learning, which allow both students and teachers to reflect on their communicative practices and improve them. They also show an uncritical use of digital tools, which is a wake-up call on the need to incorporate privacy and self-care topics in internet within the contents to be developed by the school as space for digital learning.

  12. Situated cognition and cognitive apprenticeship: a model for teaching and learning clinical skills in a technologically rich and authentic learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Norman N; Jarvis, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    The acquisition of a range of diverse clinical skills is a central feature of the pre-registration nursing curriculum. Prior to exposure to clinical practice, it is essential that learners have the opportunity to practise and develop such skills in a safe and controlled environment under the direction and supervision of clinical experts. However, the competing demands of the HE nursing curriculum coupled with an increased number of learners have resulted in a reduced emphasis on traditional apprenticeship learning. This paper presents an alternative model for clinical skills teaching that draws upon the principles of cognitive apprenticeship [Collins, A., Brown, J.S., Newman, S., 1989. Cognitive Apprenticeship: teaching the crafts of reading, writing and mathematics. In: Resnick, L.B. (Ed.) Knowing. Learning and Instruction: Essays in Honor of Robert Glaser. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey, pp. 453-494] and situated cognition within a technologically rich and authentic learning environment. It will show how high quality DVD materials illustrating clinical skills performed by expert practitioners have been produced and used in conjunction with CCTV and digital recording technologies to support learning within a pedagogic framework appropriate to skills acquisition. It is argued that this model not only better prepares the student for the time they will spend in the practice setting, but also lays the foundation for the development of a clinically competent practitioner with the requisite physical and cognitive skills who is fit for purpose [UKCC, 1999. Fitness for Practice: The UKCC Commission for Nursing and Midwifery Education. United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing Midwifery and Health Visiting, London].

  13. Eliciting mentor and pre-service teachers’ practical knowledge using teacher-tagged classroom situations : Making teaching explicit: Approaches to assisting student teacher learning in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niek Bogert; Dr. Jan Bruggen; Dr. F.J.A.J. Crasborn; Prof. Dr. Wim Jochems

    2014-01-01

    EARLI SIG 11 Conference, Frauenchiemsee (Germany) - Symposium Situated learning plays a key role in internships and other practice-based learning settings in teacher education. The dominant assumption for a long time has been that the development of teaching competency is advanced most through

  14. Regulation of Emotions in Socially Challenging Learning Situations: An Instrument to Measure the Adaptive and Social Nature of the Regulation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvenoja, Hanna; Volet, Simone; Jarvela, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) research has conventionally relied on measures, which treat SRL as an aptitude. To study self-regulation and motivation in learning contexts as an ongoing adaptive process, situation-specific methods are needed in addition to static measures. This article presents an "Adaptive Instrument for Regulation of Emotions"…

  15. The present situation of the motivation of learning English in kindergarten——A case on LanZhou in GanSu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小花

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is very important in the field of education. This article aims at investigating the present situation of motivation of English learning in kindergarten as well as some feasible suggestions that will be put forward.

  16. Toward Understanding the Potential of Games for Learning: Learning Theory, Game Design Characteristics, and Situating Video Games in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkay, Selen; Hoffman, Daniel; Kinzer, Charles K.; Chantes, Pantiphar; Vicari, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have argued that an effort should be made to raise teachers' and parents' awareness of the potentially positive educational benefits of playing video games (e.g., see Baek, 2008). One part of this effort should be to increase understanding of how video games can be situated within teachers' existing goals and knowledge…

  17. Landscaping: teamwork and integration into inter-individual coordination as a learning situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayen, Patrick; Olry, Paul

    2012-01-01

    One of the dimensions of work that is not well known in training is teamwork and the work of the team leader. The team leader is the personne who provides local supervision. Teachers and trainers, as well as business employers aknowledge the place and importance of teamwork and the role of the team leader. However, most consider themselves, insufficiently prepared to offer training in line with these elements. This paper thus aims to present the results of an analysis of group work in the field of landscaping conducted from the perspective of team work and team leader learning and training.

  18. Effectiveness of cooperative learning compared to competitive or individual situations and its application to technology: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia CAMILLI TRUJILLO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on reviewing significant evidence about cooperative learning in comparison to competitive and individual situations. To do this, we identified the factors that improve or limit its application together with the impact of technology on this methodology. This evidence was the result of 18 meta-analyses made between 1980 and 2010. Meta-analysis is defined as the statistical analysis of a large collection of results that concern a research issue and come from individual studies with the idea of integrating their conclusions. The English and Spanish descriptors used were aprendizaje cooperativo, aprendizaje colaborativo, cooperative learning, collaborative learning and other terms related to meta-analysis such as evidencias significativas, mejores evidencias, integración de resultados, revisión sistemática, síntesis cuantitativa, meta-analysis, bestevidence, integrating findings, systematic integration, systematic review, synthesis. The search was not referred to any particular period of time. The resources and databases reviewed were extracted from the Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, and the list of references given in the meta-analysis. The results show that cooperative learning, as a methodology, is more appropriate than other traditional methodologies. Its application in the new higher education context, as a result of the European Higher Education Area, can open the way for the inclusion of active and innovative teaching methodologies. So, the challenge for the faculty consists on integrating research, innovation and evaluation in their teaching in order to improve educational quality levels. In short, cooperative learning becomes a valuable indicator and a suitable tool to forecast positive results.

  19. Engagement and learning: an exploratory study of situated practice in multi-disciplinary stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Simon; Howell, Alison; Humby, Kate; Ross, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Active participation is considered to be a key factor in stroke rehabilitation. Patient engagement in learning is an important part of this process. This study sets out to explore how active participation and engagement are 'produced' in the course of day-to-day multi-disciplinary stroke rehabilitation. Ethnographic observation, analytic concepts drawn from discourse analysis (DA) and the perspective and methods of conversation analysis (CA) were applied to videotaped data from three sessions of rehabilitation therapy each for two patients with communication impairments (dysarthria, aphasia). Engagement was facilitated (and hindered) through the interactional work of patients and healthcare professionals. An institutional ethos of 'right practice' was evidenced in the working practices of therapists and aligned with or resisted by patients; therapeutic activity type (impairment, activity or functional focus) impacted on the ways in which patient engagement was developed and sustained. This exploration of multi-disciplinary rehabilitation practice adds a new dimension to our understanding of the barriers and facilitators to patient engagement in the learning process and provides scope for further research. Harmonising the rehabilitation process across disciplines through more focused attention to ways in which patient participation is enhanced may help improve the consistency and quality of patient engagement.

  20. Active Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    Present generation students are primarily active learners with varied learning experiences and lecture courses may not suit all their learning needs. Effective learning involves providing students with a sense of progress and control over their own learning. This requires creating a situation where learners have a chance to try out or test their…

  1. Learning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning Problems KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning Problems What's in ... for how to make it better. What Are Learning Disabilities? Learning disabilities aren't contagious, but they ...

  2. Learning about Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    The field of children's learning was thriving when the Merrill-Palmer Quarterly was launched; the field later went into eclipse and now is in the midst of a resurgence. This commentary examines reasons for these trends, and describes the emerging field of children's learning. In particular, the new field is seen as differing from the old in its…

  3. Learning to Learn Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Trude Høgvold; Glad, Tone; Filstad, Cathrine

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate whether the formal and informal learning patterns of community health-care nurses changed in the wake of a reform that altered their work by introducing new patient groups, and to explore whether conditions in the new workplaces facilitated or impeded shifts in learning patterns. Design/methodology/approach:…

  4. Cyber situation awareness: modeling detection of cyber attacks with instance-based learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Varun; Ahn, Young-Suk; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2013-06-01

    To determine the effects of an adversary's behavior on the defender's accurate and timely detection of network threats. Cyber attacks cause major work disruption. It is important to understand how a defender's behavior (experience and tolerance to threats), as well as adversarial behavior (attack strategy), might impact the detection of threats. In this article, we use cognitive modeling to make predictions regarding these factors. Different model types representing a defender, based on Instance-Based Learning Theory (IBLT), faced different adversarial behaviors. A defender's model was defined by experience of threats: threat-prone (90% threats and 10% nonthreats) and nonthreat-prone (10% threats and 90% nonthreats); and different tolerance levels to threats: risk-averse (model declares a cyber attack after perceiving one threat out of eight total) and risk-seeking (model declares a cyber attack after perceiving seven threats out of eight total). Adversarial behavior is simulated by considering different attack strategies: patient (threats occur late) and impatient (threats occur early). For an impatient strategy, risk-averse models with threat-prone experiences show improved detection compared with risk-seeking models with nonthreat-prone experiences; however, the same is not true for a patient strategy. Based upon model predictions, a defender's prior threat experiences and his or her tolerance to threats are likely to predict detection accuracy; but considering the nature of adversarial behavior is also important. Decision-support tools that consider the role of a defender's experience and tolerance to threats along with the nature of adversarial behavior are likely to improve a defender's overall threat detection.

  5. The Influence of the Openness of an E-Learning Situation on Adult Students’ Self-Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Jézégou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents empirical research conducted with French speaking adults studying for a diploma. Their training took place mainly in e-learning. The goal of this research was to identify and explain the processes of influence existing between two specific dimensions: the degree of openness of the components of the e-learning situation and students’ self-regulated behaviors in the management of these components. This research was based on the socio-cognitive theory of self-regulation (Bandura, 1986; Schunk & Zimmerman, 2007; Zimmerman, 2002 and on a theoretical definition of the notion of “openness” (Jézégou, 2005. It applied the “actantial model” (Greimas, 1966; Hiernaux, 1977 for analyzing data collected while using a specific validated instrument of assessment of openness (Jézégou, 2010a. The main results of this empirical work are the role played by three psychological dimensions in the influence processes identified. More empirical study is required to confirm their validity.

  6. Collaborative and situated learning on the web ? how can teacher education theoretically and practically respond to changing demands and roles of teachers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2006-01-01

    Etienne Wenger. The work by Jean Lave from 1988 (Lave, 1988) based on anthropological field studies in Brazil and Liberia as well as later works by Lave & Wenger (Lave and Wenger, 1991; Chaiklin and Lave, 1993; Wenger, 1998; Wenger, McDermott, R. and W. Snyder, 2002) on situated learning and social...... and scaffolded learning (Wood, Bruner & Ross, 1976; Bruner, 1985; Bruner 1996; Kaye, 1992; Meyer, 1993; Sorensen, 1999) and ?learning in communities of practice? have deeply inspired and to a certain degree become a sort of theoretical and practical framework in Denmark with respect to development of web based...

  7. [Disasters and emergency situations: what have we learned from the past to prepare for the future?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Kobi

    2010-07-01

    Israel has gained extensive experience in the mass casuaLty field, especially from dealing with terrorism events. This special issue of "Harefuah" includes articles that describe and analyze several aspects and approaches related to mass casualty event (MCE) preparedness and response strategies, based on Israel's experience. Feigenberg reports that Magen David Adom (MDA) was able to evacuate all urgent injuries during an MCE from the site to a hospital in 28 minutes, on average. Of the MCE casualties, 71% were evacuated directly to level 1 trauma centers. Rafalowski notes that the ability of MDA to implement organizational and operational Learning processes close to the time of the incident, as well as their modular operational approach, which allows flexibility in responding to simultaneous events, are probably among the reasons that have helped MDA reach a high Level of success in dealing with MCEs. Analysis of terrorism injury data demonstrates that these injuries, suffered by both children and adults, are characterized by increased complexity, with higher severity, higher in-patient mortality rates, and significantly greater use of precious hospital resources such as intensive care, operating rooms, CT, and days of hospitalization. Extensive experience dealing with MCEs has brought managerial insights to the entire health system, for instance in the hospitalization system and clinical management of injuries. In her article, Adini defines five major components for assessing the Israeli health system in emergencies. Shasha's article discusses the principles of hospital preparedness while working under fire. The importance of this subject has in recent years helped bring a more academic approach to emergency and disaster management in the world and in Israel, as enacted at Tel Aviv University's Multidisciplinary Master's Program in Emergency and Disaster Management, and also in other universities that focus on specific disciplines. In summary, achieving

  8. Objective Function and Learning Algorithm for the General Node Fault Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yi; Feng, Rui-Bin; Leung, Chi-Sing; Sum, John

    2016-04-01

    Fault tolerance is one interesting property of artificial neural networks. However, the existing fault models are able to describe limited node fault situations only, such as stuck-at-zero and stuck-at-one. There is no general model that is able to describe a large class of node fault situations. This paper studies the performance of faulty radial basis function (RBF) networks for the general node fault situation. We first propose a general node fault model that is able to describe a large class of node fault situations, such as stuck-at-zero, stuck-at-one, and the stuck-at level being with arbitrary distribution. Afterward, we derive an expression to describe the performance of faulty RBF networks. An objective function is then identified from the formula. With the objective function, a training algorithm for the general node situation is developed. Finally, a mean prediction error (MPE) formula that is able to estimate the test set error of faulty networks is derived. The application of the MPE formula in the selection of basis width is elucidated. Simulation experiments are then performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Sensory Media: Multidisciplinary Approaches in Designing a Situated & Mobile Learning Environment for Past Topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje Rasmussen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Handheld digital devices are rapidly increasing their sensory capabilities for registering multiple types of input, such as movement, orientation, position and touch, as well as light and sound. Mobile Augmented Rreality is one of the emerging forms of representation and expression that exploits these sensory media. In the following text we will present and discuss a type of indirect augmented reality, which we call situated simulations. In a situated simulation there is approximate identity between the 3D environment displayed on the screen and the user's real perspective on a given location. This makes it possible to create simulations of relevant objects and environments related to a specific place, for example, interpretations of its past. We present a situated simulation

  10. Emergent learning and learning ecologies in Web 2.0

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Roy; Karousou, Regina; Mackness, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes emergent learning and situates it within learning networks and systems and the broader learning ecology of Web 2.0. It describes the nature of emergence and emergent learning and the conditions that enable emergent, self-organised learning to occur and to flourish. Specifically, it explores whether emergent learning can be validated and self-correcting and whether it is possible to link or integrate emergent and prescribed learning. It draws on complexity theory, commu...

  11. Lessons learned from creating a mobile version of an educational board game to increase situational awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kurapati, Shalini; Lukosch, Heide; Specht, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an iterative design process for a serious game, which aims to raise situational awareness among different stakeholders in a logistics value chain by introducing multi-user role-playing games. It does so in several phases: After introducing the field of logistics as a problem

  12. Investigation of Current Situation of Learning Motivation, Social Anxiety and Loneliness of the Left-behind Children in Rural Primary School

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Biyun; Xu Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To understand the situation of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children. Method: Selecting three rural primary schools in Xian’an District of Xianning City to investigate left-behind situation, learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of pupils in Grades 4 to 6 in rural primary school in Xian’an District by the use of the MAAT-I-A which is revised by Zhou Bucheng, the Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC) and the Children’s Lonelin...

  13. Distance Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braddock, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    A study reviewing the existing Army Distance Learning Plan (ADLP) and current Distance Learning practices, with a focus on the Army's training and educational challenges and the benefits of applying Distance Learning techniques...

  14. Control of zoonoses in emergency situations: lessons learned during recent outbreaks (gaps and weaknesses of current zoonoses control programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darem Tabbaa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In emergency situations, domestic animals and wildlife are, like people, exposed to infectious diseases and environmental contaminants in the air, soil, water and food. They can suffer from acute and/or chronic diseases from such exposure. Often animals serve as disease reservoirs or early warning systems for the community in regard to the spread of zoonotic diseases. Over 100 years of experience have shown that animal and human health are closely related. During the past few years, emergent disease episodes have increased; nearly all have involved zoonotic agents. As there is no way to predict when or where the next important new zoonotic pathogen will emerge or what its ultimate importance might be, investigation at the first sign of emergence of a new zoonotic disease is particularly important. Today, in many emerging situations, different activities involving zoonotic disease control are at risk because of failed investigative infrastructures or financial constraints. Considering that zoonotic diseases have their own characteristics, their prevention and control require unique strategies, based more on fundamental and applied research than on traditional approaches. Such strategies require cooperation and coordination between animal and public health sectors and the involvement of other disciplines and experts such as epidemiologists, entomologists, environmentalists and climatologists. Lessons learned from the avian influenza pandemic threat, the Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and rabies outbreaks are presented and the gaps and weakness of current control programmes are discussed.

  15. Blended learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Blended Learning has been implemented, evaluated and researched for the last decades within different educational areas and levels. Blended learning has been coupled with different epistemological understandings and learning theories, but the fundamental character and dimensions of learning...... in blended learning are still insufficient. Moreover, blended learning is a misleading concept described as learning, despite the fact that it fundamentally is an instructional and didactic approach (Oliver & Trigwell, 2005) addressing the learning environment (Inglis, Palipoana, Trenhom & Ward, 2011......) instead of the learning processes behind. Much of the existing research within the field seems to miss this perspective. The consequence is a lack of acknowledgement of the driven forces behind the context and the instructional design limiting the knowledge foundation of learning in blended learning. Thus...

  16. Investigation of Current Situation of Learning Motivation, Social Anxiety and Loneliness of the Left-behind Children in Rural Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Biyun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the situation of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children. Method: Selecting three rural primary schools in Xian’an District of Xianning City to investigate left-behind situation, learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of pupils in Grades 4 to 6 in rural primary school in Xian’an District by the use of the MAAT-I-A which is revised by Zhou Bucheng, the Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC and the Children’s Loneliness Scale (CLS. Results: (1 The learning motivation of the left-behind children in rural primary school is in a slightly higher medium level. Social anxiety is significantly higher than normal level in Chinese city, and the level of loneliness of about 1/5 of the left-behind children is relatively high. (2 The score of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children in the level of knowledge learning has significant grade differences, without significant gender differences. (3 The level of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children is slightly higher than that of non-left-behind children, but both differences are not significant.

  17. Facilitating "Organisational Learning" in a "Learning Institution"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Alan; Sillitoe, James

    2013-01-01

    The term "organisational learning" was popularised by Peter Senge in "The Fifth Discipline", his seminal book from 1990. Since then, the term has become widely accepted among those interested in organisational learning and change management. However, partly due to the somewhat ambiguous situation which arises in a university…

  18. Visual Access in Interpreter-Mediated Learning Situations for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing High School Students Where an Artifact Is in Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Gøril

    2016-01-01

    This article highlights interpreter-mediated learning situations for deaf high school students where such mediated artifacts as technical machines, models, and computer graphics are used by the teacher to illustrate his or her teaching. In these situations, the teacher’s situated gestures and utterances, and the artifacts will contribute independent pieces of information. However, the deaf student can only have his or her visual attention focused on one source at a time. The problem to be addressed is how the interpreter coordinates the mediation when it comes to deaf students’ visual orientation. The presented discourse analysis is based on authentic video recordings from inclusive learning situations in Norway. The theoretical framework consists of concepts of role, footing, and face-work (Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. London, UK: Penguin Books). The findings point out dialogical impediments to visual access in interpreter-mediated learning situations, and the article discusses the roles and responsibilities of teachers and educational interpreters. PMID:26681267

  19. Visual Access in Interpreter-Mediated Learning Situations for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing High School Students Where an Artifact Is in Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Sigrid Slettebakk; Thomassen, Gøril

    2016-04-01

    This article highlights interpreter-mediated learning situations for deaf high school students where such mediated artifacts as technical machines, models, and computer graphics are used by the teacher to illustrate his or her teaching. In these situations, the teacher's situated gestures and utterances, and the artifacts will contribute independent pieces of information. However, the deaf student can only have his or her visual attention focused on one source at a time. The problem to be addressed is how the interpreter coordinates the mediation when it comes to deaf students' visual orientation. The presented discourse analysis is based on authentic video recordings from inclusive learning situations in Norway. The theoretical framework consists of concepts of role, footing, and face-work (Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. London, UK: Penguin Books). The findings point out dialogical impediments to visual access in interpreter-mediated learning situations, and the article discusses the roles and responsibilities of teachers and educational interpreters. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Learn, how to learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2002-12-01

    Ernest L. Boyer, in his 1990 book, "Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate" cites some ground breaking studies and offers a new paradigm that identifies the need to recognize the growing conversation about teaching, scholarship and research in the Universities. The use of `ACORN' model suggested by Hawkins and Winter to conquer and mastering change, may offer some helpful hints for the novice professor, whose primary objective might be to teach students to `learn how to learn'. Action : It is possible to effectively change things only when a teaching professor actually tries out a new idea. Communication : Changes are successful only when the new ideas effectively communicated and implemented. Ownership : Support for change is extremely important and is critical. Only strong commitment for accepting changes demonstrates genuine leadership. Reflection : Feedback helps towards thoughtful evaluation of the changes implemented. Only reflection can provide a tool for continuous improvement. Nurture : Implemented changes deliver results only when nurtured and promoted with necessary support systems, documentation and infrastructures. Inspired by the ACORN model, the author experimented on implementing certain principles of `Total Quality Management' in the classroom. The author believes that observing the following twenty principles would indeed help the student learners how to learn, on their own towards achieving the goal of `Lifelong Learning'. The author uses an acronym : QUOTES : Quality Underscored On Teaching Excellence Strategy, to describe his methods for improving classroom teacher-learner participation. 1. Break down all barriers. 2. Create consistency of purpose with a plan. 3. Adopt the new philosophy of quality. 4. Establish high Standards. 5. Establish Targets / Goals. 6. Reduce dependence on Lectures. 7. Employ Modern Methods. 8. Control the Process. 9. Organize to reach goals. 10. Prevention vs. Correction. 11. Periodic Improvements. 12

  1. Intentional Learning Vs Incidental Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbaz Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    This study is conducted to demonstrate the knowledge of intentional learning and incidental learning. Hypothesis of this experiment is intentional learning is better than incidental learning, participants were demonstrated and were asked to learn the 10 non sense syllables in a specific sequence from the colored cards in the end they were asked to recall the background color of each card instead of non-sense syllables. Independent variables of the experiment are the colored cards containing n...

  2. Posthuman learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    This book shall explore the concept of learning from the new perspective of the posthuman. The vast majority of cognitive, behavioral and part of the constructionist learning theories operate with an autonomous individual who learn in a world of separate objects. Technology is (if mentioned at all......) understood as separate from the individual learner and perceived as tools. Learning theory has in general not been acknowledging materiality in their theorizing about what learning is. A new posthuman learning theory is needed to keep up with the transformations of human learning resulting from new...... technological experiences. One definition of learning is that it is a relatively permanent change in behavior as the result of experience. During the first half of the twentieth century, two theoretical approaches dominated the domain of learning theory: the schools of thought commonly known as behaviorism...

  3. Situated Learning Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2007-01-01

    change along the maybe colliding institutional and the personal trajectory of participation? These are the central questions addressed in this symposium. IDENTITY WORK IN INSTITUTIONS OF ADULT EDUCATION Some of the effects of globalization are outsourcing of low-skilled jobs to low-paid countries...... of them is an extension of the demands in working life. Now it is not enough that you are skilled, you must also have the right attitude and personality and therefore education and development project not only facilitates development of skills and knowledge but also tries to work on participants' opinions...

  4. Learning e-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ZAMFIR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available What You Understand Is What Your Cognitive Integrates. Scientific research develops, as a native environment, knowledge. This environment consists of two interdependent divisions: theory and technology. First division occurs as a recursive research, while the second one becomes an application of the research activity. Over time, theories integrate methodologies and technology extends as infrastructure. The engine of this environment is learning, as the human activity of knowledge work. The threshold term of this model is the concepts map; it is based on Bloom’ taxonomy for the cognitive domain and highlights the notion of software scaffolding which is grounded in Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory with its major theme, Zone of Proximal Development. This article is designed as a conceptual paper, which analyzes specific structures of this type of educational research: the model reflects a foundation for a theory and finally, the theory evolves as groundwork for a system. The outcomes of this kind of approach are the examples, which are, theoretically, learning outcomes, and practically exist as educational objects, so-called e-learning.

  5. Complex scenes and situations visualization in hierarchical learning algorithm with dynamic 3D NeoAxis engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James; Ternovskiy, Igor V.

    2013-06-01

    We applied a two stage unsupervised hierarchical learning system to model complex dynamic surveillance and cyber space monitoring systems using a non-commercial version of the NeoAxis visualization software. The hierarchical scene learning and recognition approach is based on hierarchical expectation maximization, and was linked to a 3D graphics engine for validation of learning and classification results and understanding the human - autonomous system relationship. Scene recognition is performed by taking synthetically generated data and feeding it to a dynamic logic algorithm. The algorithm performs hierarchical recognition of the scene by first examining the features of the objects to determine which objects are present, and then determines the scene based on the objects present. This paper presents a framework within which low level data linked to higher-level visualization can provide support to a human operator and be evaluated in a detailed and systematic way.

  6. Learning in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2007-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of the concept of learning context. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann and Gregory Bateson it suggests an alternative to situated, social learning and activity theory. The conclusion is that learning context designates an individual's reconstruction of the environment...... through contingent handling of differences and that the individual emerge as learning through the actual construction. Selection of differences is influenced by the learner's actual knowledge, the nature of the environment and the current horizon of meaning in which the current adaptive perspective...... becomes a significant factor. The re-description contributes to didaktik  through renewed understandings of participants' background in teaching and learning....

  7. "Fab 13": The Learning Factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Steven M.; Eucker, Tom R.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how situated learning theory was employed in the design of Fab 13, a four-day simulation-based learning experience for manufacturing professionals at Intel Corporation. Presents a conceptual framework for understanding situated learning and discusses context, content, anchored instruction, facilitation, scaffolding, collaborating,…

  8. Blended Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Baaren, John

    2009-01-01

    Van der Baaren, J. (2009). Blended Learning. Presentation given at the Mini symposium 'Blended Learning the way to go?'. November, 5, 2009, The Hague, The Netherlands: Netherlands Defence Academy (NDLA).

  9. Interface learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Sally

    2014-01-01

    "Interface learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school collaboration" investigates and analyzes the learning that takes place when museums and upper secondary schools in Denmark work together in local partnerships to develop and carry out school-related, museum-based coursework...... for students. The research focuses on the learning that the students experience in the interface of the two learning environments: The formal learning environment of the upper secondary school and the informal learning environment of the museum. Focus is also on the learning that the teachers and museum...... professionals experience as a result of their collaboration. The dissertation demonstrates how a given partnership’s collaboration affects the students’ learning experiences when they are doing the coursework. The dissertation presents findings that museum-school partnerships can use in order to develop...

  10. Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... books. While his friends were meeting for pickup soccer games after school, he was back home in ... sometimes thought to contribute to learning disabilities. Poor nutrition early in life also may lead to learning ...

  11. Workplace learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    2005-01-01

    In November 2004 the Research Consortium on workplace learning under Learning Lab Denmark arranged the international conference “Workplace Learning – from the learner’s perspective”. The conference’s aim was to bring together researchers from different countries and institutions to explore...... and discuss recent developments in our understanding of workplace and work-related learning. The conference had nearly 100 participants with 59 papers presented, and among these five have been selected for presentation is this Special Issue....

  12. Children's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    A new field of children's learning is emerging. This new field differs from the old in recognizing that children's learning includes active as well as passive mechanisms and qualitative as well as quantitative changes. Children's learning involves substantial variability of representations and strategies within individual children as well as…

  13. Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbriale, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Teachers always have been and always will be the essential element in the classroom. They can create magic inside four walls, but they have never been able to create learning environments outside the classroom like they can today, thanks to blended learning. Blended learning allows students and teachers to break free of the isolation of the…

  14. Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Victor C. X.; Cranton, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The theory of transformative learning has been explored by different theorists and scholars. However, few scholars have made an attempt to make a comparison between transformative learning and Confucianism or between transformative learning and andragogy. The authors of this article address these comparisons to develop new and different insights…

  15. Blended Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bauerová, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is focused on a new approach of education called blended learning. The history and developement of Blended Learning is described in the first part. Then the methods and tools of Blended Learning are evaluated and compared to the traditional methods of education. At the final part an efficient developement of the educational programs is emphasized.

  16. Just Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2017-01-01

    In this "First Person Singular" essay, the author describes her education, teaching experience, and interest in understanding the learning of language. Anyone reading this essay will not be surprised to learn that the author's questions about language learning and optimal teaching methods were only met with further questions, and no…

  17. Problem-Based Learning at the Faculty of Medicine of the Université de Montréal: A Situated Cognition Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntyonga-Pono, Marie-Pierrette

    2006-12-01

    This study describes the typical case of problem-based learning (PBL) application at the Faculty of Medicine of the Université de Montréal and its analysis from the perspective of situated cognition. I used a typical case study to determine the general model of PBL application and performed my analysis by a global processing of information, against to the conceptual model of situated cognition. A typical PBL tutorial case consists of a meeting of a group of about 8 students with a tutor to discuss a medical problem. Learning objectives are predetermined by faculty and recorded in the tutor's handbook. Broadly speaking, the analysis revealed a certain kind of scaffolding within a "zone of proximal development" (ZPD). The adaptation of PBL at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Montreal is hybrid, original, and can be related to the model of cognitive apprenticeship, but the tutor's role, however, does not fit the model of cognitive apprenticeship completely.

  18. Chapter Five: Language Learning and Discursive Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter is framed by the three questions related to learning in Practice Theory posed by Johannes Wagner (2008): (1) What is learned?; (2) Who is learning?; and (3) Who is participating in the learning? These questions are addressed in two learning theories: Language Socialization and Situated Learning theory. In Language Socialization, the…

  19. Learning Networks for Lifelong Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Presentation in a seminar organized by Christopher Hoadley at Penn State University, October 2004.Contains general introduction into the Learning Network Programme and a demonstration of the Netlogo Simulation of a Learning Network.

  20. Acquiring English language competences in a multi-lingual situation: the learning experiences of Dutch second language learners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.,P.G.C.E., M.A. N.H. Helen Renou-Kirby

    2004-01-01

    Background to the problem Dutch society demonstrates a development which is apparent in many societies in the 21st century; it is becoming ethnically heterogeneous. This means that children who are secondlanguage speakers of Dutch are learning English, a core curriculum subject, through the medium

  1. Cultural Models of Teaching and Learning in Math and Science: Exploring the Intersections of Culture, Cognition, and Pedagogical Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrare, Joseph J.; Hora, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    While researchers have examined how disciplinary and departmental cultures influence instructional practices in higher education, there has yet to be an examination of this relationship at the embodied level of culture. In this article we utilize cultural models theory to examine the theories of student learning and teaching practice espoused and…

  2. The Effects of Social Cue Principles on Cognitive Load, Situational Interest, Motivation, and Achievement in Pedagogical Agent Multimedia Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sanghoon

    2015-01-01

    Animated pedagogical agents have become popular in multimedia learning with combined delivery of verbal and non-verbal forms of information. In order to reduce unnecessary cognitive load caused by such multiple forms of information and also to foster generative cognitive processing, multimedia design principles with social cues are suggested…

  3. Learning and the Instructional System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Robert B.

    1977-01-01

    Faculty members can use information about six components of the learning situation to increase student learning. The nature, function, and interrelationships of the following elements are described: instructor, content, medium, student, evaluation, environment, and implementation. (Editor/LBH)

  4. Learning organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jelenc Krašovec

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A vast array of economical, social, political, cultural and other factors influences the transformed role of learning and education in the society, as well as the functioning of local community and its social and communication patterns. The influences which are manifested as global problems can only be successfully solved on the level of local community. Analogously with the society in general, there is a great need of transforming a local community into a learning, flexible and interconnected environment which takes into account different interests, wishes and needs regarding learning and being active. The fundamental answer to changes is the strategy of lifelong learning and education which requires reorganisation of all walks of life (work, free time, family, mass media, culture, sport, education and transforming of organisations into learning organisations. With learning society based on networks of knowledge individuals are turning into learning individuals, and organisations into learning organisations; people who learn take the responsibility of their progress, learning denotes partnership among learning people, teachers, parents, employers and local community, so that they work together to achieve better results.

  5. Learning Opportunities for Group Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Alfonso J.; Mataveli, Mara

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyse the impact of organizational learning culture and learning facilitators in group learning. Design/methodology/approach: This study was conducted using a survey method applied to a statistically representative sample of employees from Rioja wine companies in Spain. A model was tested using a structural equation…

  6. Mimetic Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wulf

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Mimetic learning, learning by imitation, constitutes one of the most important forms of learning. Mimetic learning does not, however, just denote mere imitation or copying: Rather, it is a process by which the act of relating to other persons and worlds in a mimetic way leads to an en-hancement of one’s own world view, action, and behaviour. Mimetic learning is productive; it is related to the body, and it establishes a connection between the individual and the world as well as other persons; it creates practical knowledge, which is what makes it constitutive of social, artistic, and practical action. Mimetic learning is cultural learning, and as such it is crucial to teaching and education (Wulf, 2004; 2005.

  7. Deep learning

    CERN Document Server

    Goodfellow, Ian; Courville, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language proces...

  8. Towards Smart City Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Stan, Catalin; Wøldike, Niels Peter

    2015-01-01

    , the concept of smart city learning is exploited to situate learning about geometric shapes in concrete buildings and thus make them more accessible for younger children. In close collaboration with a local school a game for 3rd graders was developed and tested on a field trip and in class. A mixed measures...

  9. Understanding Learning Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodkinson, Phil; Biesta, Gert; James, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper sets out an explanation about the nature of learning cultures and how they work. In so doing, it directly addresses some key weaknesses in current situated learning theoretical writing, by working to overcome unhelpful dualisms, such as the individual and the social, and structure and agency. It does this through extensive use of some…

  10. Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of illnesses and disabilities Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities affect how you ... ADHD. Learning disabilities Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Learning disabilities top Having a learning disability does not ...

  11. Informal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callanan, Maureen; Cervantes, Christi; Loomis, Molly

    2011-11-01

    We consider research and theory relevant to the notion of informal learning. Beginning with historical and definitional issues, we argue that learning happens not just in schools or in school-aged children. Many theorists have contrasted informal learning with formal learning. Moving beyond this dichotomy, and away from a focus on where learning occurs, we discuss five dimensions of informal learning that are drawn from the literature: (1) non-didactive, (2) highly socially collaborative, (3) embedded in meaningful activity, (4) initiated by learner's interest or choice, and (5) removed from external assessment. We consider these dimensions in the context of four sample domains: learning a first language, learning about the mind and emotions within families and communities, learning about science in family conversations and museum settings, and workplace learning. Finally, we conclude by considering convergences and divergences across the different literatures and suggesting areas for future research. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 646-655 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.143 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Integrating Facebook in Upper Secondary Biology Instruction: A Case Study of Students' Situational Interest and Participation in Learning Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup; Dohn, Nina Bonderup

    2017-12-01

    The sciences are often perceived by students as irrelevant as they do not see the content of science as related to their daily lives. Web 2.0-mediated activities are characterized by user-driven content production, collaboration, and multi-way communication. It has been proposed that employing Web 2.0 in educational activities will promote richer opportunities for making learning personally meaningful, collaborative, and socially relevant. Since Facebook is already in use among youths, it potentially provides a communicative link between educational content and students' lives. The present study was conducted as a case study to provide an inductive, explorative investigation of whether and how the integration of Facebook into upper secondary biology can affect interest in biology and participation in learning communication. The results indicate that the coupling of formal and informal communication practices on Facebook serves to maintain interest and open up new learning possibilities while at the same time creating barriers to communication. These barriers are due to distractions, ethical issues, and a certain depreciation of the activities ensuing from the everydayness of Facebook as a communication platform. In conclusion, use of Facebook as an educational platform is not clearly good or bad.

  13. The Relative Merits of Transparency: Investigating Situations that Support the Use of Robotics in Developing Student Learning Adaptability across Virtual and Physical Computing Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Sandra Y.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether developing earlier forms of knowledge in specific learning environments prepares students better for future learning when they are placed in an unfamiliar learning environment. Forty-one students in the fifth and sixth grades learned to program robot movements using abstract concepts of speed, distance and direction.…

  14. Machine Learning

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning, which builds on ideas in computer science, statistics, and optimization, focuses on developing algorithms to identify patterns and regularities in data, and using these learned patterns to make predictions on new observations. Boosted by its industrial and commercial applications, the field of machine learning is quickly evolving and expanding. Recent advances have seen great success in the realms of computer vision, natural language processing, and broadly in data science. Many of these techniques have already been applied in particle physics, for instance for particle identification, detector monitoring, and the optimization of computer resources. Modern machine learning approaches, such as deep learning, are only just beginning to be applied to the analysis of High Energy Physics data to approach more and more complex problems. These classes will review the framework behind machine learning and discuss recent developments in the field.

  15. Doing learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang; Koch, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how learning occurs in a systems development project, using a company developing wind turbine control systems in collaboration with customers as case. Design/methodology/approach: Dewey’s approach to learning is used, emphasising reciprocity between the individual...... learning processes and that the interchanges between materiality and systems developers block the learning processes due to a customer with imprecise demands and unclear system specifications. In the four cases discussed, learning does occur however. Research limitations/implications: A qualitative study...... focusing on individual systems developers gives limited insight into whether the learning processes found would occur in other systems development processes. Practical implications: Managers should ensure that constitutive means, such as specifications, are available, and that they are sufficiently...

  16. Metric learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bellet, Aurelien; Sebban, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Similarity between objects plays an important role in both human cognitive processes and artificial systems for recognition and categorization. How to appropriately measure such similarities for a given task is crucial to the performance of many machine learning, pattern recognition and data mining methods. This book is devoted to metric learning, a set of techniques to automatically learn similarity and distance functions from data that has attracted a lot of interest in machine learning and related fields in the past ten years. In this book, we provide a thorough review of the metric learnin

  17. Ubiquitous English Learning System with Dynamic Personalized Guidance of Learning Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Ting; Sung, Tien-Wen; Huang, Yueh-Min; Yang, Chu-Sing; Yang, Jin-Tan

    2011-01-01

    Situated learning has been recognized as an effective approach in enhancing learning impressions and experiences for students. Can we take advantage of situated learning in helping students who are not English native speakers to read English articles more effective? Can the effectiveness of situated learning be further promoted by individual…

  18. A model of involvement in work-related learning and development activity: the effects of individual, situational, motivational, and age variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Todd J; Weiss, Elizabeth M; Barbeite, Francisco G

    2003-08-01

    Eight hundred employees from across the U.S. work force participated in a detailed 13-month longitudinal study of involvement in learning and development activities. A new model was posited and tested in which the hypothesized sequence was as follows: worker age --> individual and situational antecedents --> perceived benefits of participation and self-efficacy for development --> attitudes toward development --> intentions to participate --> participation. The results depict a person who is oriented toward employee development as having participated in development activities before, perceiving themselves as possessing qualities needed for learning, having social support for development at work and outside of work, being job involved, having insight into his or her career, and believing in the need for development, in his or her ability to develop skills and to receive intrinsic benefits from participating. Given the aging work force, a detailed treatment of age differences in development is presented. Implications for new ideas in practice and future research are discussed.

  19. Learning to learn in MOOCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Sandra; Ringtved, Ulla Lunde

    This paper outlines one way of understanding what it is about learning in MOOCs that is so distinctive, and explores the implications for the design of MOOCs. It draws on an ongoing research study into the nature of learning in MOOCs at the University of Melbourne.......This paper outlines one way of understanding what it is about learning in MOOCs that is so distinctive, and explores the implications for the design of MOOCs. It draws on an ongoing research study into the nature of learning in MOOCs at the University of Melbourne....

  20. Interaction Forms in Successful Collaborative Learning in Virtual Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuopala, Essi; Hyvönen, Pirkko; Järvelä, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Despite the numerous studies on social interaction in collaborative learning, little is known about interaction forms in successful computer-supported collaborative learning situations. The purpose of this study was to explore and understand student interaction in successful collaborative learning during a university course which was mediated by…

  1. Learning Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    1998-01-01

    the article present different concepts and modelsof learning. It discuss some strutural tendenciesof developing environmental management systemsand point out alternatives to increasing formalization of rules.......the article present different concepts and modelsof learning. It discuss some strutural tendenciesof developing environmental management systemsand point out alternatives to increasing formalization of rules....

  2. Blended learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Forsøg på at indkredse begrebet blended learning i forbindelse med forberedelsen af projekt FlexVid.......Forsøg på at indkredse begrebet blended learning i forbindelse med forberedelsen af projekt FlexVid....

  3. Reflective Learning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    The main intent of this study was to identify the impact of using learning log as a learning strategy on the academic performance of university students. Second year psychology students were included as subjects of this study. In the beginning of the study, the students were divided into two: experimental group (N = 60) and ...

  4. Perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Aaron R

    2017-07-10

    Perceptual learning refers to how experience can change the way we perceive sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and touch. Examples abound: music training improves our ability to discern tones; experience with food and wines can refine our pallet (and unfortunately more quickly empty our wallet), and with years of training radiologists learn to save lives by discerning subtle details of images that escape the notice of untrained viewers. We often take perceptual learning for granted, but it has a profound impact on how we perceive the world. In this Primer, I will explain how perceptual learning is transformative in guiding our perceptual processes, how research into perceptual learning provides insight into fundamental mechanisms of learning and brain processes, and how knowledge of perceptual learning can be used to develop more effective training approaches for those requiring expert perceptual skills or those in need of perceptual rehabilitation (such as individuals with poor vision). I will make a case that perceptual learning is ubiquitous, scientifically interesting, and has substantial practical utility to us all. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Pervasive Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2009-01-01

    , it is not a specific place where you can access scarce information. Pervasive or ubiquitous communication opens up for taking the organizing and design of learning landscapes a step further. Furthermore it calls for theoretical developments, which can open up for a deeper understanding of the relationship between...... emerging contexts, design of contexts and learning....

  6. Flipped Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Peter; Hachmann, Roland

    I FLIPPED LEARNING – FLIP MED VIDEO kan du læse om, hvordan du som underviser kommer godt i gang med at implementere video i undervisning, der har afsæt i tankerne omkring flipped learning. Bogen indeholder fire dele: I Del 1 fokuserer vi på det metarefleksive i at tænke video ind i undervisningen...

  7. Flipped Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachmann, Roland; Holmboe, Peter

    arbejde med faglige problemstillinger gennem problembaserede og undersøgende didaktiske designs. Flipped Learning er dermed andet og mere end at distribuere digitale materialer til eleverne forud for undervisning. Flipped Learning er i lige så høj grad et syn på, hvordan undervisning med digitale medier...

  8. Embodied Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that psychological discourse fails miserably to provide an account of learning that can explain how humans come to understand, particularly understanding that has been grasped meaningfully. Part of the problem with psychological approaches to learning is that they are disconnected from the integral role embodiment plays in how…

  9. Distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Pucelj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available I would like to underline the role and importance of knowledge, which is acquired by individuals as a result of a learning process and experience. I have established that a form of learning, such as distance learning definitely contributes to a higher learning quality and leads to innovative, dynamic and knowledgebased society. Knowledge and skills enable individuals to cope with and manage changes, solve problems and also create new knowledge. Traditional learning practices face new circumstances, new and modern technologies appear, which enable quick and quality-oriented knowledge implementation. The centre of learning process at distance learning is to increase the quality of life of citizens, their competitiveness on the workforce market and ensure higher economic growth. Intellectual capital is the one, which represents the biggest capital of each society and knowledge is the key factor for succes of everybody, who are fully aware of this. Flexibility, openness and willingness of people to follow new IT solutions form suitable environment for developing and deciding to take up distance learning.

  10. Legitimate Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, John

    1997-01-01

    What is considered legitimate learning is culturally and contextually specific, depending on what values are involved. Different values are engaged depending on whether legitimate learning is considered transformation of the individual in relation to self, in relation to society, or in relation to the workplace. (SK)

  11. Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Diane E.

    1990-01-01

    As scientists seek to develop machines that can "learn," that is, solve problems by imitating the human brain, a gold mine of information on the processes of human learning is being discovered, expert systems are being improved, and human-machine interactions are being enhanced. (SK)

  12. Blended Learning as Transformational Institutional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerLinden, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews institutional approaches to blended learning and the ways in which institutions support faculty in the intentional redesign of courses to produce optimal learning. The chapter positions blended learning as a strategic opportunity to engage in organizational learning.

  13. "Learned Helplessness" or "Learned Incompetence"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergent, Justine; Lambert, Wallace E.

    Studies in the past have shown that reinforcements independent of the subjects actions may induce a feeling of helplessness. Most experiments on learned helplessness have led researchers to believe that uncontrollability (non-contingency of feedback upon response) was the determining feature of learned helplessness, although in most studies…

  14. Learning, Learning Organisations and the Global Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikutty, Sankaran

    2009-01-01

    The steadily increasing degree of globalisation of enterprises implies development of many skills, among which the skills to learn are among the most important. Learning takes place at the individual level, but collective learning and organisational learning are also important. Learning styles of individuals are different and learning styles are…

  15. Can machine learning explain human learning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vahdat, M.; Oneto, L.; Anguita, D.; Funk, M.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    Learning Analytics (LA) has a major interest in exploring and understanding the learning process of humans and, for this purpose, benefits from both Cognitive Science, which studies how humans learn, and Machine Learning, which studies how algorithms learn from data. Usually, Machine Learning is

  16. Patient Safety and Organizational Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinck Pedersen, Kirstine

    pragmatism, situated learning theory and science and technology studies, the paper contrasts the notion of ‘systemic’ learning expressed by the safety policy program with notions of learning as a socio-materially situated practice. Based on fieldwork conducted in 2010 in a Danish university hospital, I...... propose that learning, and more specifically learning from critical incidents, should be understood as a practical and experience-based activity as well as an equally individual and social achievement, which is always formed in relation to the specificities of the concrete situation. Parting from......The key trope of patient safety policy is learning. With the motto of going from ‘a culture of blame to a learning culture’, the safety program introduces a ‘systemic perspective’ to facilitate openness and willingness to talk about failures, hereby making failures into a system property. Within...

  17. Evaluation of learning materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Hansen, Thomas Illum

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a holistic framework for evaluating learning materials and designs for learning. A holistic evaluation comprises investigations of the potential learning potential, the actualized learning potential, and the actual learning. Each aspect is explained and exemplified through...

  18. Situational analysis of teaching and learning of medicine and nursing students at Makerere University College of Health Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiguli Juliet

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS in Uganda is undergoing a major reform to become a more influential force in society. It is important that its medicine and nursing graduates are equipped to best address the priority health needs of the Ugandan population, as outlined in the government’s Health Sector Strategic Plan (HSSP. The assessment identifies critical gaps in the core competencies of the MakCHS medicine and nursing and ways to overcome them in order to achieve HSSP goals. Methods Documents from the Uganda Ministry of Health were reviewed, and medicine and nursing curricula were analyzed. Nineteen key informant interviews (KII and seven focus group discussions (FGD with stakeholders were conducted. The data were manually analyzed for emerging themes and sub-themes. The study team subsequently used the checklists to create matrices summarizing the findings from the KIIs, FGDs, and curricula analysis. Validation of findings was done by triangulating information from the different data collection methods. Results The core competencies that medicine and nursing students are expected to achieve by the end of their education were outlined for both programs. The curricula are in the process of reform towards competency-based education, and on the surface, are well aligned with the strategic needs of the country. But implementation is inadequate, and can be changed: • Learning objectives need to be more applicable to achieving competencies. • Learning experiences need to be more relevant for competencies and setting in which students will work after graduation (i.e. not just clinical care in a tertiary care facility. • Student evaluation needs to be better designed for assessing these competencies. Conclusion MakCHS has made a significant attempt to produce relevant, competent nursing and medicine graduates to meet the community needs. Ways to make them more effective though deliberate efforts to

  19. Learning Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Falmagne, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Learning spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for practical systems of educational technology. Learning spaces generalize partially ordered sets and are special cases of knowledge spaces. The various structures are investigated from the standpoints of combinatorial properties and stochastic processes. Leaning spaces have become the essential structures to be used in assessing students' competence of various topics. A practical example is offered by ALEKS, a Web-based, artificially intelligent assessment and learning system in mathematics and other scholarly fields. At the heart of A

  20. Supportive Learning: Linear Learning and Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bih Ni; Abdullah, Sopiah; Kiu, Su Na

    2016-01-01

    This is a conceptual paper which is trying to look at the educational technology is not limited to high technology. However, electronic educational technology, also known as e-learning, has become an important part of today's society, which consists of a wide variety of approaches to digitization, components and methods of delivery. In the…

  1. Learning to learn: self-managed learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Miranda Izquierdo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Thi is article analyzes the potentialities and weaknesses that non directive Pedagogy presents, an example of the so called self managed pedagogy, whose postulates are good to analyze for the contributions that this position can make to the search of new ways of learning.

  2. What is Social Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Reed

    2010-12-01

    between individual and wider social learning. Many unsubstantiated claims for social learning exist, and there is frequently confusion between the concept itself and its potential outcomes. This lack of conceptual clarity has limited our capacity to assess whether social learning has occurred, and if so, what kind of learning has taken place, to what extent, between whom, when, and how. This response attempts to provide greater clarity on the conceptual basis for social learning. We argue that to be considered social learning, a process must: (1 demonstrate that a change in understanding has taken place in the individuals involved; (2 demonstrate that this change goes beyond the individual and becomes situated within wider social units or communities of practice; and (3 occur through social interactions and processes between actors within a social network. A clearer picture of what we mean by social learning could enhance our ability to critically evaluate outcomes and better understand the processes through which social learning occurs. In this way, it may be possible to better facilitate the desired outcomes of social learning processes.

  3. Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chatterjee, Samrat; Thomas, Dennis G.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Muller, George

    2017-04-21

    The absence of a robust and unified theory of cyber dynamics presents challenges and opportunities for using machine learning based data-driven approaches to further the understanding of the behavior of such complex systems. Analysts can also use machine learning approaches to gain operational insights. In order to be operationally beneficial, cybersecurity machine learning based models need to have the ability to: (1) represent a real-world system, (2) infer system properties, and (3) learn and adapt based on expert knowledge and observations. Probabilistic models and Probabilistic graphical models provide these necessary properties and are further explored in this chapter. Bayesian Networks and Hidden Markov Models are introduced as an example of a widely used data driven classification/modeling strategy.

  4. Learning Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik; Fast, Alf Michael

    2018-01-01

    Is leadership a result of inheritance or is it something one learns during formal learning in e.g. business schools? This is the essential question addressed in this article. The article is based on a case study involving a new leader in charge of a group of profession practitioners. The leader...... promotes his leadership as a profession comparable to the professions of practitioners. This promotion implies that leadership is something one can and probably must learn during formal learning. The practitioners on the other hand reject this comprehension of leadership and long for a fellow practitioner...... to lead the organization. While asked they are unable to describe how, where and when they think a practitioner develops leadership skills necessary for leading fellows. In the following we will start analysing the case in order to comprehend and discuss both the professional leaders and the practitioners...

  5. Group learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel, Ricardo; Noguira, Eloy Eros da Silva; Elkjær, Bente

    The article presents a study that aims at the apprehension of the group learning in a top management team composed by teachers in a Brazilian Waldorf school whose management is collective. After deciding to extend the school, they had problems recruiting teachers who were already trained based...... on the Steiner´s ideas, which created practical problems for conducting management activities. The research seeks to understand how that group of teachers collectively manage the school, facing the lack of resources, a significant heterogeneity in the relationships, and the conflicts and contradictions......, and they are interrelated to the group learning as the construction, maintenance and reconstruction of the intelligibility of practices. From this perspective, it can be said that learning is a practice and not an exceptional phenomenon. Building, maintaining and rebuilding the intelligibility is the group learning...

  6. Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD) See all related organizations Publications Problemas de aprendizaje Order NINDS Publications Patient Organizations CHADD - Children and ... NICHD) See all related organizations Publications Problemas de aprendizaje Order NINDS Publications Definition Learning disabilities are disorders ...

  7. Reflective Learning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    The experimental group students used learning log on a weekly basis while the control group did not. ... The term “memory” in psychology usually denotes an interest in the retention ... activities that contribute to information being remembered.

  8. Learning outcomes between Socioscientific Issues-Based Learning and Conventional Learning Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Piyaluk Wongsri; Prasart Nuangchalerm

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Socioscientific issues-based learning activity is essential for scientific reasoning skills and it could be used for analyzing problems be applied to each situation for more successful and suitable. The purposes of this research aimed to compare learning achievement, analytical thinking and moral reasoning of seventh grade students who were organized between socioscientific issues-based learning and conventional learning activities. Approach: The samples used in research we...

  9. How an Orientation to Learning Influences the Expansive-Restrictive Nature of Teacher Learning and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined teachers' learning situated in a school to reveal factors that support and hinder learning in the workplace. The investigation analyzed teachers' orientation to learning, examining beliefs, practices, and experiences about teachers' learning in relation to change in the workplace. A hypothesis is that teacher learning and…

  10. Promoting practical clinical management learning: the current situation about Information and Communications Technology capability development in student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmer, Marian

    2005-11-01

    This paper is about work-based learning in information management for student nurses. It seeks, through a literature review, to make a case for and promote Information and Communications Technology capability development in student nurses within their clinical environment. The profession of nursing, like many other jobs, is facing the increasing usage of information technology in day-to-day operations. Admission and discharges of patients have been held on computer databases since at least the 1980s. With the new Labour Government in 1997, increasing focus was placed on the effectiveness of the National Health Service and using computers as one way to assist in achieving greater effectiveness. Nurse education therefore needed to reflect this need and support trainee nurses to acquire skills in Information and Communications Technology. This paper is part of an ongoing professional doctorate inquiry into Information and Communications Technology capability development in student nurses. A literature search was conducted on teaching information and technology skills via Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Most of the available studies were neither based on the UK nor were they about student nurses. As there is a dearth of published work in this specific area, relevant, related and tangential literature was reviewed. It is argued that current practice and published work on Information and Communications Technology capability development by student nurses hardly exists. The literature confirmed that success in this area requires sound change management, an understanding of National Health Service culture, and effective people leadership skills. Nurse educators and managers need to pay more attention to understand how organizations work, particularly organizations where student nurses carry out their work. As the search revealed a significant gap in the literature in this area, a practical conceptual framework to fully analyse, develop and

  11. [Learning how to learn for specialist further education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, G; Lütcke, B; St Pierre, M; Hüttl, S

    2017-02-01

    The world of medicine is becoming from year to year more complex. This necessitates efficient learning processes, which incorporate the principles of adult education but with unchanged periods of further education. The subject matter must be processed, organized, visualized, networked and comprehended. The learning process should be voluntary and self-driven with the aim of learning the profession and becoming an expert in a specialist field. Learning is an individual process. Despite this, the constantly cited learning styles are nowadays more controversial. An important factor is a healthy mixture of blended learning methods, which also use new technical possibilities. These include a multitude of e‑learning options and simulations, which partly enable situative learning in a "shielded" environment. An exemplary role model of the teacher and feedback for the person in training also remain core and sustainable aspects in medical further education.

  12. Lifelong Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Lone; Jensen, Annie Aarup

    2010-01-01

    Master education for adults has become a strategy for Lifelong Learning among many well-educated people in Denmark. This type of master education is part of the ‘parallel education system' in Denmark. As one of the first Danish universities who offered this type of Master education, Aalborg...... the intended as well as the unintended effects (personal and professional) of the master education. The data have been gathered among graduates from a specific master education, Master in Learning Processes, and the paper will draw on results from a quantitative survey based on a questionnaire answered by 120...

  13. Learning SPARQL

    CERN Document Server

    DuCharme, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Get hands-on experience with SPARQL, the RDF query language that's become a key component of the semantic web. With this concise book, you will learn how to use the latest version of this W3C standard to retrieve and manipulate the increasing amount of public and private data available via SPARQL endpoints. Several open source and commercial tools already support SPARQL, and this introduction gets you started right away. Begin with how to write and run simple SPARQL 1.1 queries, then dive into the language's powerful features and capabilities for manipulating the data you retrieve. Learn wha

  14. Mastering machine learning with scikit-learn

    CERN Document Server

    Hackeling, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    If you are a software developer who wants to learn how machine learning models work and how to apply them effectively, this book is for you. Familiarity with machine learning fundamentals and Python will be helpful, but is not essential.

  15. E-LEARNING-IMPLICATIONS FOR ADULT LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana CRIU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available If a few decades ago, the education received in school could be in most of the cases enough to go with for the rest of one’s entire life, today the situation has changed dramatically. The individual has to be prepared for a new type of life and training, namely lifelong learning. The individual’s survival in society could depend on his capacity to learn, to re-qualify, to forget what he once learned and to train for the future in an entirely different manner. Within this context, e-learning and distance education can be viable alternatives for the necessary and imperative adaptation process. Modern man’s education has to go beyond the stage of level oriented education (limited in terms of trainee number and training duration and advance towards continuous education, which is able to train the individual irrespective of his location and with no limitations in terms of time. The passage towards the information society involves mutations in the object of the activities, mainly in terms of selecting, storing, preserving, managing and protecting information. Against this extremely fluctuant background, a relevant question rises: is the adult capable of coping, both individually and socially, with the challenge of e-learning?

  16. Perspectives on the dental school learning environment: theory X, theory Y, and situational leadership applied to dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Joseph P; Troendle, Karen

    2007-08-01

    This article applies two well-known management and leadership models-Theory X and Theory Y, and Situational Leadership-to dental education. Theory X and Theory Y explain how assumptions may shape the behaviors of dental educators and lead to the development of "cop" and "coach" teaching styles. The Situational Leadership Model helps the educator to identify the teaching behaviors that are appropriate in a given situation to assist students as they move from beginner to advanced status. Together, these models provide a conceptual reference to assist in the understanding of the behaviors of both students and faculty and remind us to apply discretion in the education of our students. The implications of these models for assessing and enhancing the educational environment in dental school are discussed.

  17. Cognitive Style and Learning Strategies JoAnn Salvisberg looks at current SLA theories and their possible applications to the classroom situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JoAnn Salvisberg

    2005-01-01

    @@ People learn and process new information in different ways. For decades researchers have been studying and comparing the personality traits any cognitive learning styles of students to discover any distinguishing trait patterns(i. e. more characteristic of academically successful students than other learners) . Moreover, many believe that if the classroom environment and even the teachers' teaching style can be tailored to meet the students' learning styles, learning as well as the students' self-concept as a learner will increase (Corzza, Gustin and Edelkind, 1995). This article will offer a brief overview of differences in style and strategies and discuss the implications for teaching.

  18. Transforming learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    A new Learning and Skills Council for post-16 learning is the latest proposal from the UK Government in its attempt to ensure a highly skilled workforce for the next century. Other aims will be to reduce the variability in standards of the existing post-16 system, coordination and coherence between further education and training, and a reduction in the duplication and layers in contracting and funding. The proposals include: a national Learning and Skills Council, with 40-50 local Learning and Skills Councils to develop local plans; a strengthened strategic role for business in education and training, influencing a budget of #5bn a radical new youth programme entitled `Connexions', with dedicated personal advisors for young people; greater cooperation between sixth forms and colleges; and the establishment of an independent inspectorate covering all work-related learning and training, to include a new role for Ofsted in inspecting the provision for 16-19 year-olds in schools and colleges. It is hoped that this programme will build on the successes of the previous systems and that savings of at least #50m can be achieved through streamlining and the reduction in bureaucracy. The intentions are set out in a White Paper, Learning to Succeed, which is available from the Stationery Office and bookshops, as well as on the website www.dfee.gov.uk/post16. Published in addition to the White Paper was `School Sixth form funding: a consultation paper' (available from DfEE publications, Prolog, PO Box 5050, Sherwood Park, Annesley, Nottingham NG15 0DJ) and `Transition plan for the post-16 education and training and for local delivery of support for small firms' (available from Trevor Tucknutt, TECSOP Division, Level 3, Department for Education and Employment, Moorfoot, Sheffield S1 4PQ). The deadline for comments on both the sixth form consultation document and the White Paper is 15 October 1999. Almost simultaneously with the announcement of the above proposals came the

  19. Deepening Learning through Learning-by-Inventing

    OpenAIRE

    Apiola, Mikko; Tedre, Matti

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that deep approaches to learning, intrinsic motivation, and self-regulated learning have strong positive effects on learning. How those pedagogical theories can be integrated in computing curricula is, however, still lacking empirically grounded analyses. This study integrated, in a robotics-based programming class, a method of learning-by-inventing, and studied its qualitative effects on students’ learning through 144 interviews. Five findings were related with learning the...

  20. Learning and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... List About PPMD Events News Login By Area Learning & Behavior Attention, Listening & Learning Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) ... Care Guidelines ❯ By Area ❯ Learning & Behavior Share Print Learning & Behavior Facts to Remember People with Duchenne may ...

  1. Learning via Query Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Active learning is a subfield of machine learning that has been successfully used in many applications. One of the main branches of active learning is query synthe- sis, where the learning agent constructs artificial queries from scratch in order

  2. Managing Learning for Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, K. Peter

    1995-01-01

    Presents findings of organizational learning literature that could substantiate claims of learning organization proponents. Examines four learning processes and their contribution to performance-based learning management: knowledge acquisition, information distribution, information interpretation, and organizational memory. (SK)

  3. Learning Object Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  4. Not Utilized Learning Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Linda

    2007-01-01

      When the Danish Nursing Education in 2002 became a Bachelor Degree the clinical part of the education was reduced. Therefore, it was necessary to optimize learning in practice.       I made a qualitative investigation to describe student nurses' learning processes in non-routine situations where...... they interact with psychiatric patients. The theoretical framework includes primarily P. Jarvis' concept disjuncture and A. Heller's theory about everyday life. The empirical part of the study is primarily based on qualitative semi-structured interviews with, observations of and obser-views with a volunteer......-conscious disjuncture, in development of the concept pseudo-everyday life activities and in a categorizing mo­del for and a theory about student nurses' learning processes. The theory includes relations between 4 types of  disjuncture, 3 types of content in the learning processes, and factors that provoke...

  5. Reality in Virtual Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Frank; Pettersson, Michael

    professors most often decide what and when one could learn by providing the context and substance. In this perspective, the student has a role which is close to the one of a passive receiver, and s/he is mainly preoccupied with the problem of generating substance in memory most efficiently. Today, technology......-time educational logic. There are fewer attempts to use ICT according to a different pedagogical perspective than the old professor authoritarian model. The purpose of this paper is to illuminate some challenges virtual students experience when facing a new ICT-based learning situation. We will try to explore...... and develop understandings of what it might mean to be a student when learning occurs within a virtual problem based learning landscape. When students are used to the traditional classroom, challenges appear in the twilight zone between two pedagogical practices. How do the students cope with challenges...

  6. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  7. Learned Helplessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Carol E.

    1976-01-01

    Learned helplessness--the belief that a person's actions have no influence on the outcome of an event--is similar in many respects to the crisis state and depression. The author shows how this impaired social and psychological functioning occurs and identifies techniques that the social worker can use to prevent it. (Author)

  8. Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirth, Sharyn

    This booklet uses hypothetical case examples to illustrate the definition, causal theories, and specific types of learning disabilities (LD). The cognitive and language performance of students with LD is compared to standard developmental milestones, and common approaches to the identification and education of children with LD are outlined.…

  9. Learning Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    In spring 2012, Sherry Kaufman, a consultant at Francis W. Parker School in Chicago, was asked to support kindergarten teachers in deepening their practice of constructivism and exploring the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education. Central to such an approach is the belief that all learning is socially constructed through interaction…

  10. Learning Mongoid

    CERN Document Server

    Rege, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial with focused examples that will help you build scalable, high performance Rails web applications with Mongoid.If you are an application developer who wants to learn how to use Mongoid in a Rails application, this book will be great for you. You are expected to be familiar with MongoDB and Ruby.

  11. Learning Lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The lichen is an ideal subject for student study because it is omnipresent in school yards, easily collected and observed year-round, a pioneer of evolution on land, and a bioindicator of air pollution. After doing fieldwork on this unusual composite organism as an apprentice with a team of lichenologists, Sarah Thorne developed Learning Lichens.…

  12. Learning Ionic

    CERN Document Server

    Ravulavaru, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn how to build hybrid mobile applications using Ionic. It is also ideal for people who want to explore theming for Ionic apps. Prior knowledge of AngularJS is essential to complete this book successfully.

  13. Supervised Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokach, Lior; Maimon, Oded

    This chapter summarizes the fundamental aspects of supervised methods. The chapter provides an overview of concepts from various interrelated fields used in subsequent chapters. It presents basic definitions and arguments from the supervised machine learning literature and considers various issues, such as performance evaluation techniques and challenges for data mining tasks.

  14. Learning Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Duval

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief introduction to the domain of ‘learning analytics’. We first explain the background and idea behind the concept. Then we give a brief overview of current research issues. We briefly list some more controversial issues before concluding.

  15. Learning Ansible

    CERN Document Server

    Mohaan, Madhurranjan

    2014-01-01

    If you want to learn how to use Ansible to automate an infrastructure, either from scratch or to augment your current tooling with Ansible, then this is the book for you. It has plenty of practical examples to help you get to grips with Ansible.

  16. Learning Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:The issue of Teaching physics vs Learning physics in our institutions of higher learning will be discussed. Physics is taught mainly by frontal lectures an old (and proven) method. The great advancements of the Information Age are introduced by exposing the students to vast amounts of computerized information and directing them to numerical problem solving by interacting with the computer. These modern methods have several drawbacks: 1. Students get the impression of easy material acquisition while in fact it becomes superficial. 2. There is little integration of topics that are taught in different courses. 3. Insufficient interest is built among undergraduate students to pursue studies that involve deeper thinking and independent research (namely, studies towards a doctoral degree). Learning physics is a formative process in the education of physicists, natural scientists and engineers. It must be based on discussions and exchange of ideas among the students, since understanding the studied material means being able to explain it to a colleague. Some universities in the US initiated programs of learning physics by creating an environment in which small groups of students are engaged in discussing material, jointly solving problems and jointly conducting simulated experiments. This is done under the supervision of a mentor. Suggestions for implementing this method in Israel will be discussed

  17. Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Learning Orientation, and Supportive Learning Environment on Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woojae; Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    While workplace learning includes formal and informal learning, the relationship between the two has been overlooked, because they have been viewed as separate entities. This study investigated the effects of formal learning, personal learning orientation, and supportive learning environment on informal learning among 203 middle managers in Korean…

  18. From learning objects to learning activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses and questions the current metadata standards for learning objects from a pedagogical point of view. From a social constructivist approach, the paper discusses how learning objects can support problem based, self-governed learning activities. In order to support this approach......, it is argued that it is necessary to focus on learning activities rather than on learning objects. Further, it is argued that descriptions of learning objectives and learning activities should be separated from learning objects. The paper presents a new conception of learning objects which supports problem...... based, self-governed activities. Further, a new way of thinking pedagogy into learning objects is introduced. It is argued that a lack of pedagogical thinking in learning objects is not solved through pedagogical metadata. Instead, the paper suggests the concept of references as an alternative...

  19. How we learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Knud

    How We Learn, deals with the fundamental issues of the processes of learning, critically assessing different types of learning and obstacles to learning. It also considers a broad range of other important questions in relation to learning such as: modern research into learning and brain functions......, self-perception, motivation and competence development, teaching, intelligence and learning style, learning in relation to gender and life age. The book provides a comprehensive introduction to both traditional learning theory and the newest international research into learning processes, while...... at the same time being an innovative contribution to a new and more holistic understanding of learning including discussion on school-based learning, net-based learning, workplace learning and educational politics. How We Learn examines all the key factors that help to create a holistic understanding of what...

  20. Emergent Learning and Learning Ecologies in Web 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Williams

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes emergent learning and situates it within learning networks and systems and the broader learning ecology of Web 2.0. It describes the nature of emergence and emergent learning and the conditions that enable emergent, self-organised learning to occur and to flourish. Specifically, it explores whether emergent learning can be validated and self-correcting and whether it is possible to link or integrate emergent and prescribed learning. It draws on complexity theory, communities of practice, and the notion of connectivism to develop some of the foundations for an analytic framework, for enabling and managing emergent learning and networks in which agents and systems co-evolve. It then examines specific cases of learning to test and further develop the analytic framework.The paper argues that although social networking media increase the potential range and scope for emergent learning exponentially, considerable effort is required to ensure an effective balance between openness and constraint. It is possible to manage the relationship between prescriptive and emergent learning, both of which need to be part of an integrated learning ecology.

  1. CHANGING TEACHING FOR BETTER LEARNING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TOMIC, W.; VAN DER SIJDE, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    What is it that teachers do that leads to student learning? How can we increase students' achievement and improve their attitudes? In order to improve the quality of education the authors focus on teaching/learning processes taking place in the traditional classroom situations. The study reported is

  2. Using Learning Games to Meet Learning Objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question on how learning games can be used to meet with the different levels in Bloom’s and the SOLO taxonomy, which are commonly used for evaluating the learning outcome of educational activities. The paper discusses the quality of game-based learning outcomes based on a...... on a case study of the learning game 6Styles....

  3. Still to Learn from Vicarious Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, J. T.

    2015-01-01

    The term "vicarious learning" was introduced in the 1960s by Bandura, who demonstrated how learning can occur through observing the behaviour of others. Such social learning is effective without the need for the observer to experience feedback directly. More than twenty years later a series of studies on vicarious learning was undertaken…

  4. Learning Effectiveness of a Strategic Learning Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Melinda S.; Swerdzewski, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of a postsecondary strategic learning course for improving metacognitive awareness and regulation was evaluated through systematic program assessment. The course emphasized students' awareness of personal learning through the study of learning theory and through practical application of specific learning strategies. Students…

  5. Social Media and Seamless Learning: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panke, Stefanie; Kohls, Christian; Gaiser, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses best practice approaches and metrics for evaluation that support seamless learning with social media. We draw upon the theoretical frameworks of social learning theory, transfer learning (bricolage), and educational design patterns to elaborate upon different ideas for ways in which social media can support seamless learning.…

  6. Deep Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bornø; Bahnsen, Chris Holmberg; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2018-01-01

    I løbet af de sidste 10 år er kunstige neurale netværk gået fra at være en støvet, udstødt tekno-logi til at spille en hovedrolle i udviklingen af kunstig intelligens. Dette fænomen kaldes deep learning og er inspireret af hjernens opbygning.......I løbet af de sidste 10 år er kunstige neurale netværk gået fra at være en støvet, udstødt tekno-logi til at spille en hovedrolle i udviklingen af kunstig intelligens. Dette fænomen kaldes deep learning og er inspireret af hjernens opbygning....

  7. Learning Java

    CERN Document Server

    Niemeyer, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Version 5.0 of the Java 2 Standard Edition SDK is the most important upgrade since Java first appeared a decade ago. With Java 5.0, you'll not only find substantial changes in the platform, but to the language itself-something that developers of Java took five years to complete. The main goal of Java 5.0 is to make it easier for you to develop safe, powerful code, but none of these improvements makes Java any easier to learn, even if you've programmed with Java for years. And that means our bestselling hands-on tutorial takes on even greater significance. Learning Java is the most widely sou

  8. Learning Raspbian

    CERN Document Server

    Harrington, William

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who have worked with the Raspberry Pi and who want to learn how to make the most of the Raspbian operating system and their Raspberry Pi. Whether you are a beginner to the Raspberry Pi or a seasoned expert, this book will make you familiar with the Raspbian operating system and teach you how to get your Raspberry Pi up and running.

  9. Guided discovery learning in geometry learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanah, V. N.; Usodo, B.; Subanti, S.

    2018-03-01

    Geometry is a part of the mathematics that must be learned in school. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of Guided Discovery Learning (GDL) toward geometry learning achievement. This research had conducted at junior high school in Sukoharjo on academic years 2016/2017. Data collection was done based on student’s work test and documentation. Hypothesis testing used two ways analysis of variance (ANOVA) with unequal cells. The results of this research that GDL gave positive effect towards mathematics learning achievement. GDL gave better mathematics learning achievement than direct learning. There was no difference of mathematics learning achievement between male and female. There was no an interaction between sex differences and learning models toward student’s mathematics learning achievement. GDL can be used to improve students’ mathematics learning achievement in geometry.

  10. Retail Executives’ Professional Learning Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Aquino Lucena

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research question that is addressed in this article is the following: what do the executives from small retailing firms learn in their work environment? The theoretical framework of the study is based on texts from the field of learning. This is a qualitative investigation. Ten interviews with clothing retail executives were carried out. Later, these interviews were transcribed and analyzed. In the data analysis stage, two categories were established in response to the research question. Regarding the first, respondents perceived difficulties (problems in their work environments and obtained specific information and knowledge in order to deal with these situations. So as to overcome different professional difficulties, respondents learned about colors and types of fabric and about certain manufacturing process aspects referring to the clothing sold by their companies. They also declared to have learned about their companies’ suppliers and about certain issues referring to sales, and to the accounting and the financial management of their companies. The second category refers to a change in some of the respondents’ habits. This learning content refers to predispositions to respond and/ or act in situations at their work environments. Respondents reported having changed the way they related to other people. They emphasized that they had learned how to interact with the employees at their stores and how to carry out supervision. Differently from other studies, we found that the retailers’ learning (individual learning affected their companies’ learning (organizational learning through changes in certain aspects of the analyzed companies’ organizational structures.

  11. Learning to Learn Together with CSCL Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Baruch B.; de Groot, Reuma; Mavrikis, Manolis; Dragon, Toby

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we identify "Learning to Learn Together" (L2L2) as a new and important educational goal. Our view of L2L2 is a substantial extension of "Learning to Learn" (L2L): L2L2 consists of learning to collaborate to successfully face L2L challenges. It is inseparable from L2L, as it emerges when individuals face problems…

  12. Technology, Learning, and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Anne A. Ghost

    2012-01-01

    The learning needs for adults that result from the constant increase in technology are rooted in the adult learning concepts of (a) andragogy, (b) self-directed learning, (c) learning-how-to-learn, (d) real-life learning, and (e) learning strategies. This study described the learning strategies that adults use in learning to engage in an online…

  13. Learning and Best Practices for Learning in Open-Source Software Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Holt, Lila

    2013-01-01

    This research is about participants who use open-source software (OSS) discussion forums for learning. Learning in online communities of education as well as non-education-related online communities has been studied under the lens of social learning theory and situated learning for a long time. In this research, we draw parallels among these two…

  14. Intentional learning: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollman, Sarah; Candela, Lori

    2018-01-01

    To use a concept analysis to determine a clear definition of the term "intentional learning" for use in nursing. The term intentional learning has been used for years in educational, business, and even nursing literature. It has been used to denote processes leading to higher order thinking and the ability to use knowledge in new situations; both of which are important skills to develop in nursing students. But the lack of a common, accepted definition of the term makes it difficult for nurse educators to base instruction and learning experiences on or to evaluate its overall effectiveness in educating students for diverse, fast-paced clinical practices. A concept analysis following the eight-step method developed by Walker and Avant (2011). Empirical and descriptive literature.  Five defining attributes were identified: (1) self-efficacy for learning, (2) active, effortful, and engaged learning, (3) mastery of goals where learning is the goal, (4) self-directed learning, and (5) self-regulation of learning. Through this concept analysis, nursing will have a clear definition of intentional learning. This will enable nurse educators to generate, evaluate, and test learning experiences that promote further development of intentional learning in nursing students. Nurses in practice will also be able to evaluate if the stated benefits are demonstrated and how this impacts patient care and outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  16. Machine-Learning Research

    OpenAIRE

    Dietterich, Thomas G.

    1997-01-01

    Machine-learning research has been making great progress in many directions. This article summarizes four of these directions and discusses some current open problems. The four directions are (1) the improvement of classification accuracy by learning ensembles of classifiers, (2) methods for scaling up supervised learning algorithms, (3) reinforcement learning, and (4) the learning of complex stochastic models.

  17. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  18. Learning Vaadin

    CERN Document Server

    Frankel, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    This book begins with a tutorial on Vaadin 7, followed by a process of planning, analyzing, building, and deploying a fully functional RIA while covering troubleshooting details along the way, making it an invaluable resource for answers to all your Vaadin questions. If you are a Java developer with some experience in Java web development and want to enter the world of Rich Internet Applications this technology and book are ideal for you. Learning Vaadin will be perfect as your next step towards building eye-candy dynamic web applications on a Java-based platform.

  19. Learning Cypher

    CERN Document Server

    Panzarino, Onofrio

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide full of tips and examples of real-world applications. In each chapter, a thorough example will show you the concepts in action, followed by a detailed explanation.This book is intended for those who want to learn how to create, query, and maintain a graph database, or who want to migrate to a graph database from SQL. It would be helpful to have some familiarity with Java and/or SQL, but no prior experience is required.

  20. Learning Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Randal; Phoenix, Tom

    2011-01-01

    If you're just getting started with Perl, this is the book you want-whether you're a programmer, system administrator, or web hacker. Nicknamed "the Llama" by two generations of users, this bestseller closely follows the popular introductory Perl course taught by the authors since 1991. This 6th edition covers recent changes to the language up to version 5.14. Perl is suitable for almost any task on almost any platform, from short fixes to complete web applications. Learning Perl teaches you the basics and shows you how to write programs up to 128 lines long-roughly the size of 90% of the Pe

  1. Learning scikit-learn machine learning in Python

    CERN Document Server

    Garreta, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    The book adopts a tutorial-based approach to introduce the user to Scikit-learn.If you are a programmer who wants to explore machine learning and data-based methods to build intelligent applications and enhance your programming skills, this the book for you. No previous experience with machine-learning algorithms is required.

  2. The windmill of learning processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Linda

    2011-01-01

    that part of the nursing education has been reduced in some countries as e.g. Denmark.  The approach is presented through a model termed the 'Windmill of Learning Processes', which draws on empirical data from a qualitative investigation with an explorative and descriptive design, and on the theoretical......This article presents a new approach to student nurses' learning from their interaction with psychiatric patients. Using the approach can enable students and mentors to exploit students' learning opportunities, and help students to get the most out of their clinical placement in a time, where...... concepts of 'disjuncture', and 'everyday life activities'. 'Disjuncture' is defined as a situation in which there is disharmony between a person's experiences and the current situation. In such a situation there is potential for learning. My analysis of the empirical data led to the identification of a new...

  3. Technology Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Klemke, R., & Specht, M. (2013, 26-27 September). Technology Enhanced Learning. Presentation at the fourth international conference on eLearning (eLearning 2013), Belgrade, Serbia. http://econference.metropolitan.ac.rs/

  4. Mobile Inquiry Based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Specht, M. (2012, 8 November). Mobile Inquiry Based Learning. Presentation given at the Workshop "Mobile inquiry-based learning" at the Mobile Learning Day 2012 at the Fernuniversität Hagen, Hagen, Germany.

  5. Learning and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Under various circumstances and in different species the outward expression of learning varies considerably, and this has led to the classification of different categories of learning. Just as there is no generally agreed on definition of learning, there is no one system of classification. Types of learning commonly recognized are: Habituation, sensitization, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, trial and error, taste aversion, latent learning, cultural learning, imprinting, insight ...

  6. Toward Learning Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoda, Rashina; Babb, Jeff; Nørbjerg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    to sacrifice learning-focused practices. Effective learning under pressure involves conscious efforts to implement original agile practices such as retrospectives and adapted strategies such as learning spikes. Teams, their management, and customers must all recognize the importance of creating learning teams......Today's software development challenges require learning teams that can continuously apply new engineering and management practices, new and complex technical skills, cross-functional skills, and experiential lessons learned. The pressure of delivering working software often forces software teams...

  7. Greedy Deep Dictionary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tariyal, Snigdha; Majumdar, Angshul; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new deep learning tool called deep dictionary learning. Multi-level dictionaries are learnt in a greedy fashion, one layer at a time. This requires solving a simple (shallow) dictionary learning problem, the solution to this is well known. We apply the proposed technique on some benchmark deep learning datasets. We compare our results with other deep learning tools like stacked autoencoder and deep belief network; and state of the art supervised dictionary learning t...

  8. Learning Networks for Professional Development & Lifelong Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Sloep, P. B. (2009). Learning Networks for Professional Development & Lifelong Learning. Presentation at a NeLLL seminar with Etienne Wenger held at the Open Universiteit Nederland. September, 10, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  9. Use of blended learning in workplace learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgsen, Marianne; Løvstad, Charlotte Vange

    2014-01-01

    -based teaching materials. This paper presents the experiences of this particular project, and goes on to discuss the following points: • The blended learning design – use of IT for teaching, learning and communication • Digital learning materials – principals of design and use • Work place learning and learning......In 2014, a new system has been put in place for the inspection and approval of social welfare institutions in Denmark. In as little as 10 weeks, 330 new employees in five regional centres participated in an introductory course, designed as work place learning with extensive use of e-learning and IT...... from work – the interplay between experiences of the learner and the curriculum of the program •The approach taken to customising the e-learning design to the needs and demands of a particular case....

  10. Learning Design Development for Blended Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janne Saltoft

    Learning design development for blended learning We started implementing Blackboard at Aarhus University in 2013. At the Health Faculty Blackboard replaced AULA which was a LMS with functionality for file distribution and only a vague focus on learning tools. Most teachers therefore had...... no experiences with blended leaning and technology supported out-of-class activities. At the pedagogical unit at the Health faculty we wanted to follow the Blackboard implementation with pedagogical tools for learning design to evolve the pedagogical use of the system. We needed to make development of blended...... learning courses easier for the teachers and also ensure quality in the courses. This poster describes the process from development of the learning design to implementation of the learning design at the faculty: 1. How to place demands on a learning design-model and how to develop and use such a model. 2...

  11. Judgments of Learning in Collaborative Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsdingen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Helsdingen, A. S. (2010, March). Judgments of Learning in Collaborative Learning Environments. Poster presented at the 1st International Air Transport and Operations Symposium (ATOS 2010), Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology.

  12. Learning design guided learning analytics in MOOCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, Francis; Firssova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Poster presentation for our paper Brouns, F., & Firssova, O. (2016, October).The role of learning design and learning analytics in MOOCs. Paper presented at 9th EDEN Research Workshop, Oldenburg, Germany.

  13. Networked professional learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sloep, P. B. (2013). Networked professional learning. In A. Littlejohn, & A. Margaryan (Eds.), Technology-enhanced Professional Learning: Processes, Practices and Tools (pp. 97–108). London: Routledge.

  14. Knowledge and Learning in Engineering Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2007-01-01

    , this chapter discusses the cencept of learning and purports to theorize learning in a Social Theory of Learning (STL). The attempt to reconstruct learning in an STL addresses three main issues: an STL must try to specify the subject-world relationship, describe the 'mechanism' of learning, and identify......During the 20th century, traditional epistemological theories of knowledge have been under siege. In recent years, efforts have been made to reconstruct the concept of 'knowledge' to emphasize its contextual, situated and social character. Drawing on the results and methods of these efforts...... the 'telos' of learning. This attempt will in fact give answers to three fundamental questions: 1) What is learning? 2) How do we learn? and 3) Why do we learn? These questions are discussed in relation to engineering practices of getting to know and learning....

  15. Mixed artefacts as mediators for collaborative learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove; Davidsen, Jacob; Konnerup, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    eLearningLab at Aalborg University conduct teaching and research in the intersection between Human Computer Interaction (technology), Information architecture (organization) and learning and development (human action). Inspired by the lay out of workshops spaces at architecture schools, eLearning...... Work and Computer Supported Collaborative Learning. This paper presents the ideas behind the eLearning Lab‘s DesignLab.......eLearningLab at Aalborg University conduct teaching and research in the intersection between Human Computer Interaction (technology), Information architecture (organization) and learning and development (human action). Inspired by the lay out of workshops spaces at architecture schools, eLearning......-through-construction as part of the Problem Based Learning pedagogy, and to increase students‘ awareness of the role of embodied interaction in learning. Simultaneously the Lab facilitates design of prototypes and exploration of use situations within the fields of Human-Computer Interaction, Computer Supported Cooperative...

  16. Supporting Learning with Wireless Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arttu Perttula

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, learning is studied in in situ applications that involve sensors. The main questions are how to conceptualize experiential learning involving sensors and what kinds of learning applications using sensors already exist or could be designed. It is claimed that experiential learning, context information and sensor data supports twenty first century learning. The concepts of context, technology-mediated experiences, shared felt experiences and experiential learning theory will be used to describe a framework for sensor-based mobile learning environments. Several scenarios and case examples using sensors and sensor data will be presented, and they will be analyzed using the framework. Finally, the article contributes to the discussion concerning the role of technology-mediated learning experiences and collective sensor data in developing twenty first century learning by characterizing what kinds of skills and competences are supported in learning situations that involve sensors.

  17. In-Time On-Place Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauters, Merja; Purma, Jukka; Leinonen, Teemu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this short paper is to look at how mobile video recording devices could support learning related to physical practices or places and situations at work. This paper discusses particular kind of workplace learning, namely learning using short video clips that are related to physical environment and tasks preformed in situ. The paper…

  18. Resonant learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvang, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    -experience and personal therapy in training, first and foremost from the students’ perspective. The author focuses on presenting the qualitative part of her research which namely addresses the students’ experiences. Semi-structured qualitative interviews and qualitative music analyses were conducted, using a hermeneutic...... approach. The informants were nine music therapy students from Aalborg University, enrolled in the fifth year of their Master’s degree training programme. They were asked to bring a recording of an improvisation of their own choice to the interview. The qualitative data collection of text and music......The article presents a part of the authors PhD-study in music therapy about self-experiential training and the development of music therapeutic competencies. One of the purposes of the study was to explore and generate understanding and insight into the phenomena of learning through self...

  19. Blended Learning: An Innovative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalima; Dangwal, Kiran Lata

    2017-01-01

    Blended learning is an innovative concept that embraces the advantages of both traditional teaching in the classroom and ICT supported learning including both offline learning and online learning. It has scope for collaborative learning; constructive learning and computer assisted learning (CAI). Blended learning needs rigorous efforts, right…

  20. Brain Research: Implications for Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Louise M.; Soares, Anthony T.

    Brain research has illuminated several areas of the learning process: (1) learning as association; (2) learning as reinforcement; (3) learning as perception; (4) learning as imitation; (5) learning as organization; (6) learning as individual style; and (7) learning as brain activity. The classic conditioning model developed by Pavlov advanced…

  1. Blended Learning in Personalized Assistive Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinagi, Catherine; Skourlas, Christos

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the special needs/requirements of disabled students and cost-benefits for applying blended learning in Personalized Educational Learning Environments (PELE) in Higher Education are studied. The authors describe how blended learning can form an attractive and helpful framework for assisting Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing (D-HH) students to…

  2. LEARNING ABOUT LEARNING, A CONFERENCE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRUNER, JEROME

    TO EXPLORE THE NATURE OF THE LEARNING PROCESS, THREE IMPORTANT PROBLEM AREAS WERE STUDIED. STUDIES IN THE FIRST AREA, ATTITUDINAL AND AFFECTIVE SKILLS, ARE CONCERNED WITH INDUCING A CHILD TO LEARN AND SUSTAINING HIS ATTENTION. STUDIES IN THE SECOND AREA, COGNITIVE SKILLS, SOUGHT TO DISCOVER WHETHER GENERAL IDEAS AND SKILLS CAN BE LEARNED IN SUCH A…

  3. When Learning Analytics Meets E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerkawski, Betul C.

    2015-01-01

    While student data systems are nothing new and most educators have been dealing with student data for many years, learning analytics has emerged as a new concept to capture educational big data. Learning analytics is about better understanding of the learning and teaching process and interpreting student data to improve their success and learning…

  4. Learning Networks for Professional Development & Lifelong Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, Francis; Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Brouns, F., & Sloep, P. B. (2009). Learning Networks for Professional Development & Lifelong Learning. Presentation of the Learning Network Programme for a Korean delegation of Chonnam National University and Dankook University (researchers dr. Jeeheon Ryu and dr. Minjeong Kim and a Group of PhD and

  5. Stimulating Deep Learning Using Active Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Tee Meng; Dawood, Fauziah K. P.; a/p S. Narayansany, Kannaki; a/p Palaniappa Manickam, M. Kamala; Jen, Leong Siok; Hoay, Kuan Chin

    2016-01-01

    When students and teachers behave in ways that reinforce learning as a spectator sport, the result can often be a classroom and overall learning environment that is mostly limited to transmission of information and rote learning rather than deep approaches towards meaningful construction and application of knowledge. A group of college instructors…

  6. Learning Analytics for Networked Learning Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joksimovic, Srecko; Hatala, Marek; Gaševic, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Teaching and learning in networked settings has attracted significant attention recently. The central topic of networked learning research is human-human and human-information interactions occurring within a networked learning environment. The nature of these interactions is highly complex and usually requires a multi-dimensional approach to…

  7. Facilitating Learning Organizations. Making Learning Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsick, Victoria J.; Watkins, Karen E.

    This book offers advice to facilitators and change agents who wish to build systems-level learning to create knowledge that can be used to gain a competitive advantage. Chapter 1 describes forces driving companies to build, sustain, and effectively use systems-level learning and presents and links a working definition of the learning organization…

  8. Online transfer learning with extreme learning machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haibo; Yang, Yun-an

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new transfer learning algorithm for online training. The proposed algorithm, which is called Online Transfer Extreme Learning Machine (OTELM), is based on Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine (OSELM) while it introduces Semi-Supervised Extreme Learning Machine (SSELM) to transfer knowledge from the source to the target domain. With the manifold regularization, SSELM picks out instances from the source domain that are less relevant to those in the target domain to initialize the online training, so as to improve the classification performance. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed OTELM can effectively use instances in the source domain to enhance the learning performance.

  9. Professional learning versus interprofessional learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Cathrine Sand

    2014-01-01

    to improve quality in the Danish healthcare system (1). Cooperation between patients and professionals is challenged when patients are transferred between department, hospitals or sectors (2). Sharing and developing knowledge inter-professionally and in particular across sectors is inadequate (3......, which is necessary for development of the future undergraduate health professional education programmes. The PhD project intends to generate knowledge of: - the contributions of InterTværs to the quality of future health professional education programmes and to the future healthcare system....... The transition challenges in the healthcare system do not seem to only affect patients and knowledge, but also the students and learning. References: (1) Institute for Quality and Accreditation in Healthcare. 2012. The Danish Healthcare Quality Programme. Accreditation Standards for Hospitals (2) Siemsen IMD...

  10. Blended Learning: enabling Higher Education Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Matheos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Blended learning research and practice have been areas of growth for two decades in Canada, with over 95% of Canadian higher education institutions involved in some form of blended learning. Despite strong evidence based research and practice blended learning, for the most part, has remained at sidelined in Canadian universities. The article argues the need for blended learning to situate itself within the timely and crucial Higher Education Reform (HER agenda. By aligning the affordances of blended learning with the components of HER, blended learning can clearly serve as an enabler for HER.

  11. The Relation between Academic Procrastination of University Students and Their Assignment and Exam Performances: The Situation in Distance and Face-to-Face Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, M. Betul

    2017-01-01

    The relation between assignment and exam performances of the university students and their academic procrastination behaviors in distance and face-to-face learning environments was investigated in this study. Empirical research carried out both in face-to-face and online environments have generally shown a negative correlation between academic…

  12. When does social learning become cultural learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2017-03-01

    Developmental research on selective social learning, or 'social learning strategies', is currently a rich source of information about when children copy behaviour, and who they prefer to copy. It also has the potential to tell us when and how human social learning becomes cultural learning; i.e. mediated by psychological mechanisms that are specialized, genetically or culturally, to promote cultural inheritance. However, this review article argues that, to realize its potential, research on the development of selective social learning needs more clearly to distinguish functional from mechanistic explanation; to achieve integration with research on attention and learning in adult humans and 'dumb' animals; and to recognize that psychological mechanisms can be specialized, not only by genetic evolution, but also by associative learning and cultural evolution. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Records for learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The article present and discuss findings from a participatory development of new learning practices among intensive care nurses, with an emphasize on the role of place making in informal learning activities.......The article present and discuss findings from a participatory development of new learning practices among intensive care nurses, with an emphasize on the role of place making in informal learning activities....

  14. Mobile Learning Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annan, Nana Kofi; Ofori-Dwumfou, George; Falch, Morten

    2012-01-01

    on the first experiences gained by both teachers and students by asking the following questions: What are the perceptions of teachers on m-learning? What are the effects of m-learning on students? What does m-learning contribute to face-to-face teaching and learning? Questionnaires were administered...

  15. Students Engaged in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Emad A.; Groccia, James E.

    2018-01-01

    Engaging students in learning is a basic principle of effective undergraduate education. Outcomes of engaging students include meaningful learning experiences and enhanced skills in all learning domains. This chapter reviews the influence of engaging students in different forms of active learning on cognitive, psychomotor, and affective skill…

  16. Cultural Learning Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael

    2016-01-01

    M. Tomasello, A. Kruger, and H. Ratner (1993) proposed a theory of cultural learning comprising imitative learning, instructed learning, and collaborative learning. Empirical and theoretical advances in the past 20 years suggest modifications to the theory; for example, children do not just imitate but overimitate in order to identify and…

  17. Teaching for Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracy Wilson; Colby, Susan A.

    2007-01-01

    The authors have been engaged in research focused on students' depth of learning as well as teachers' efforts to foster deep learning. Findings from a study examining the teaching practices and student learning outcomes of sixty-four teachers in seventeen different states (Smith et al. 2005) indicated that most of the learning in these classrooms…

  18. Culture and Organizational Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, N.; Yanow, D.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, theories of organizational learning have taken one of two approaches that share a common characterization of learning but differ in focus. One approach focuses on learning by individuals in organizational contexts; the other, on individual learning as a model for organizational

  19. Motivation and learning physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Hans Ernst; Horstendahl, Michaela

    1997-09-01

    Being involved in science education we cannot avoid confronting the problem of students' waning interest in physics. Therefore, we want to focus on arguments developed by new theoretical work in the field of motivation. Especially, we are attracted by the theory of motivation featured by Deci and Ryan, because it is related to an assumptions of human development similar to our own approach. Beneath elements of cognitive development, motivation is seen as a basic concept to describe students' learning in a physics classroom. German students at lower and upper secondary level regard physics as very difficult to learn, very abstract and dominated by male students. As a result physics at school continuously loses importance and acceptance although a lot of work has been done to modernise and develop the related physics courses. We assume that knowing about the influence of motivation on learning physics may lead to new insights in the design of classroom settings. Referring to Deci and Ryan, we use a model of motivation to describe the influence of two different teaching strategies (teacher and discourse oriented) on learning. Electrostatics was taught in year 8. The outcomes of a questionnaire which is able to evaluate defined, motivational states are compared with the interpretation of the same student's interaction in the related situation of the physics classroom. The scales of the questionnaire and the categories of analysis of the video-recording are derived from the same model of motivation.

  20. Algorithms for Reinforcement Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Szepesvari, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    Reinforcement learning is a learning paradigm concerned with learning to control a system so as to maximize a numerical performance measure that expresses a long-term objective. What distinguishes reinforcement learning from supervised learning is that only partial feedback is given to the learner about the learner's predictions. Further, the predictions may have long term effects through influencing the future state of the controlled system. Thus, time plays a special role. The goal in reinforcement learning is to develop efficient learning algorithms, as well as to understand the algorithms'

  1. Rethinking e-learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Christian

    2006-01-01

    “Technology alone does not deliver educational success. It only becomes valuable in education if learners and teachers can do something useful with it” (E-Learning: The Partnership Challenge, 2001, p. 24). This quotation could be used as a bon mot for this chapter. Our main goal is to rethink e-learning...... by shifting the focus of attention from learning resources (learning objects) to learning activities, which also implies a refocusing of the pedagogical discussion of the learning process.Firstly, we try to identify why e-learning has not been able to deliver the educational results as expected five years ago...

  2. Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Phelan BNS, MSc, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The public health nurses’ scope of practice explicitly includes child protection within their role, which places them in a prime position to identify child protection concerns. This role compliments that of other professions and voluntary agenices who work with children. Public health nurses are in a privileged position as they form a relationship with the child’s parent(s/guardian(s and are able to see the child in its own environment, which many professionals cannot. Child protection in Ireland, while influenced by other countries, has progressed through a distinct pathway that streamlined protocols and procedures. However, despite the above serious failures have occurred in the Irish system, and inquiries over the past 20 years persistently present similar contributing factors, namely, the lack of standardized and comprehensive service responses. Moreover, poor practice is compounded by the lack of recognition of the various interactional processes taking place within and between the different agencies of child protection, leading to psychological barriers in communication. This article will explore the lessons learned for public health nurses practice in safeguarding children in the Republic of Ireland.

  3. Learning tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    Tinnitus, implying the perception of sound without the presence of any acoustical stimulus, is a chronic and serious problem for about 2% of the human population. In many cases, tinnitus is a pitch-like sensation associated with a hearing loss that confines the tinnitus frequency to an interval of the tonotopic axis. Even in patients with a normal audiogram the presence of tinnitus may be associated with damage of hair-cell function in this interval. It has been suggested that homeostatic regulation and, hence, increase of activity leads to the emergence of tinnitus. For patients with hearing loss, we present spike-timing-dependent Hebbian plasticity (STDP) in conjunction with homeostasis as a mechanism for ``learning'' tinnitus in a realistic neuronal network with tonotopically arranged synaptic excitation and inhibition. In so doing we use both dynamical scaling of the synaptic strengths and altering the resting potential of the cells. The corresponding simulations are robust to parameter changes. Understanding the mechanisms of tinnitus induction, such as here, may help improving therapy. Work done in collaboration with Julie Goulet and Michael Schneider. JLvH has been supported partially by BCCN - Munich.

  4. Learning after acquired brain injury. Learning the hard way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boosman, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: When the brain has suffered damage, the learning process can be considerably disturbed. Brain damage can influence what is learned, but also how learning takes place. What patients can learn can be viewed in terms of ‘learning ability’ and how patients learn in terms of ‘learning style’.

  5. Interpretable Active Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Richard L.; Chang, Kyu Hyun; Friedler, Sorelle A.

    2017-01-01

    Active learning has long been a topic of study in machine learning. However, as increasingly complex and opaque models have become standard practice, the process of active learning, too, has become more opaque. There has been little investigation into interpreting what specific trends and patterns an active learning strategy may be exploring. This work expands on the Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations framework (LIME) to provide explanations for active learning recommendations. W...

  6. e-Learning Mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Almanasreh, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    This study concerns the use of e-learning in the educational system shedding the light on its advantages and disadvantages, and analyzing its applicability either partially or totally. From mathematical perspectives, theories are developed to test the courses tendency to online transformation. This leads to a new trend of learning, the offline-online-offline learning (fnf-learning), it merges e-learning mode with the traditional orientation of education. The derivation of the new trend is bas...

  7. Learning Theories In Instructional Multimedia For English Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Farani, Rizki

    2016-01-01

    Learning theory is the concept of human learning. This concept is one of the important components in instructional for learning, especially English learning. English subject becomes one of important subjects for students but learning English needs specific strategy since it is not our vernacular. Considering human learning process in English learning is expected to increase students' motivation to understand English better. Nowadays, the application of learning theories in English learning ha...

  8. Learning and Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: This chapter introduces a psycho-societal approach to theorizing learning, combining a materialist theory of socialization with a hermeneutic interpretation methodology. The term "approach" indicates the intrinsic connection between theory, empirical research process and epistemic subject....... Learning is theorized as dynamic subjective experience of (socially situated) realities, counting on individual subjectivity as well as subjective aspects of social interaction. This psycho-societal theory of subjective experiences conceptualizes individual psychic development as interactional experience...... of societal relations, producing an inner psycho-dynamic as a conscious and unconscious individual resource in future life. The symbolization of immediate sensual experiences form an individual life experience of social integration, language use being the medium of collective, social experience (knowledge...

  9. Learning to Be Mobile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    of this creative cyclomobility research focuses on adult cycling or more extreme sports, such as BMX trials or mountain biking. There is, however, little qualitative research to date on family bike rides, eg. how children learn to sit in or ride a bike and how parents or caregivers talk and interact with children...... predominantly on separate bike lanes, with bike-only traffic lights at intersections for example. The analysis will be illustrated with clips comprising multi-angle video recordings of the two types of bike rides. After several experiments, more than one video camera was necessary to capture audio and visual...... are presented and discussed: 1) riding/talk formations; 2) stretchy participation frameworks; 3) navigating static and moving obstacles; 4) situated noticings: 5) learning safe riding; and 6) negotiating the appropriate road conduct of other road users....

  10. Jamming and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinck, Lars

    2017-01-01

    -academy students ‘sitting in’. Fieldwork was documented through sound recordings, diaries, and field notes from participant observation and informal interviews. Analyses apply a situated learning theoretical perspective on the band members’ as well as the students’ participation and reveal important learning...... to take place. Analyses also indicate the musicians’ changing participation being analytically inseparable from the changing music itself. The study’s final argument is two-fold: Revitalising jamming as a studio-recording practice within popular music highlights important aspects of professional musicians......’ interactive communication processes. And transferring this artistic endeavour into an educational practice suggests an increased focus on students ‘sitting in’ with professional bands, and teachers playing alongside with students....

  11. Designing Learning Resources in Synchronous Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rene B

    2015-01-01

    Computer-mediated Communication (CMC) and synchronous learning environments offer new solutions for teachers and students that transcend the singular one-way transmission of content knowledge from teacher to student. CMC makes it possible not only to teach computer mediated but also to design...... and create new learning resources targeted to a specific group of learners. This paper addresses the possibilities of designing learning resources within synchronous learning environments. The empirical basis is a cross-country study involving students and teachers in primary schools in three Nordic...... Countries (Denmark, Sweden and Norway). On the basis of these empirical studies a set of design examples is drawn with the purpose of showing how the design fulfills the dual purpose of functioning as a remote, synchronous learning environment and - using the learning materials used and recordings...

  12. Multimodal sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemény, Ferenc; Meier, Beat

    2016-02-01

    While sequence learning research models complex phenomena, previous studies have mostly focused on unimodal sequences. The goal of the current experiment is to put implicit sequence learning into a multimodal context: to test whether it can operate across different modalities. We used the Task Sequence Learning paradigm to test whether sequence learning varies across modalities, and whether participants are able to learn multimodal sequences. Our results show that implicit sequence learning is very similar regardless of the source modality. However, the presence of correlated task and response sequences was required for learning to take place. The experiment provides new evidence for implicit sequence learning of abstract conceptual representations. In general, the results suggest that correlated sequences are necessary for implicit sequence learning to occur. Moreover, they show that elements from different modalities can be automatically integrated into one unitary multimodal sequence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Transformative learning spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslo, Elina

    Despite rapid development of learning theory in general and language learning theory in particular in the last years, we still cannot provide an unequivocal answer on the question “why do individuals who presumably possess similar cognitive capacities for second language learning achieve such var......, Leo (2010). The ecology of language learning: Practice to theory, theory to practice. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences. Elsevier......., social, personal, cultural, and historical world they live in (van Lier, 2000). People can learn when they discover possibilities for learning, which appear in this complex world – so called affordances (Gibson, 1979). This happens in the interaction between people and their environment on the basis...... to the different ways of interaction of cognitive, affective and social factors by different individuals. Learning stories, where multilingual individuals are telling about their subjective experiences in language learning in particular and learning in general, are constructed by using a special developed...

  14. Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python

    OpenAIRE

    Pedregosa, Fabian; Varoquaux, Gaël; Gramfort, Alexandre; Michel, Vincent; Thirion, Bertrand; Grisel, Olivier; Blondel, Mathieu; Prettenhofer, Peter; Weiss, Ron; Dubourg, Vincent; Vanderplas, Jake; Passos, Alexandre; Cournapeau, David; Brucher, Matthieu; Perrot, Matthieu

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Scikit-learn is a Python module integrating a wide range of state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms for medium-scale supervised and unsupervised problems. This package focuses on bringing machine learning to non-specialists using a general-purpose high-level language. Emphasis is put on ease of use, performance, documentation, and API consistency. It has minimal dependencies and is distributed under the simplified BSD license, encouraging its use in both academic ...

  15. Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python

    OpenAIRE

    Pedregosa, Fabian; Varoquaux, Gaël; Gramfort, Alexandre; Michel, Vincent; Thirion, Bertrand; Grisel, Olivier; Blondel, Mathieu; Louppe, Gilles; Prettenhofer, Peter; Weiss, Ron; Dubourg, Vincent; Vanderplas, Jake; Passos, Alexandre; Cournapeau, David; Brucher, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    Scikit-learn is a Python module integrating a wide range of state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms for medium-scale supervised and unsupervised problems. This package focuses on bringing machine learning to non-specialists using a general-purpose high-level language. Emphasis is put on ease of use, performance, documentation, and API consistency. It has minimal dependencies and is distributed under the simplified BSD license, encouraging its use in both academic and commercial settings....

  16. Assessing learning at the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Arnoud

    2018-01-01

    • Defining learning at the workplace • Assessing learning at the workplace • Facilitating learning at the workplace: - Structure - Culture - Leadership - Personal factors • Conclusions • Discussion

  17. Mobile learning in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkan Güllüoüǧlu, Sabri

    2013-03-01

    This paper outlines the main infrastructure for implicating mobile learning in medicine and present a sample mobile learning application for medical learning within the framework of mobile learning systems. Mobile technology is developing nowadays. In this case it will be useful to develop different learning environments using these innovations in internet based distance education. M-learning makes the most of being on location, providing immediate access, being connected, and acknowledges learning that occurs beyond formal learning settings, in places such as the workplace, home, and outdoors. Central to m-learning is the principle that it is the learner who is mobile rather than the device used to deliver m learning. The integration of mobile technologies into training has made learning more accessible and portable. Mobile technologies make it possible for a learner to have access to a computer and subsequently learning material and activities; at any time and in any place. Mobile devices can include: mobile phone, personal digital assistants (PDAs), personal digital media players (eg iPods, MP3 players), portable digital media players, portable digital multimedia players. Mobile learning (m-learning) is particularly important in medical education, and the major users of mobile devices are in the field of medicine. The contexts and environment in which learning occurs necessitates m-learning. Medical students are placed in hospital/clinical settings very early in training and require access to course information and to record and reflect on their experiences while on the move. As a result of this paper, this paper strives to compare and contrast mobile learning with normal learning in medicine from various perspectives and give insights and advises into the essential characteristics of both for sustaining medical education.

  18. Learning How (and How Not) to Weld: Vocational Learning in Technical Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Stig-Börje; Kilbrink, Nina

    2018-01-01

    This article focuses on vocational learning in technical vocational education in upper-secondary school, with a special focus on the object of learning to weld. A concrete teaching situation where the learning object to weld is the focus of the interaction between a vocational teacher and an upper-secondary student was documented by a video camera…

  19. Adult Learning for Social Change in Museums: An Exploration of Sociocultural Learning Approaches to Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghwan; You, Jieun; Yeon Park, Soo

    2016-01-01

    This integrative literature review critically examined how scholars were articulating the work of museums to make a space for "adult learning for social change through community engagement". We applied sociocultural adult learning theories (situated learning and cultural-historical activity theory), to 25 theoretical and empirical…

  20. Learning to Support Learning Together: An Experience with the Soft Systems Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Adolfo; Mejia, Andres

    2008-01-01

    An action research approach called soft systems methodology (SSM) was used to foster organisational learning in a school regarding the role of the learning support department within the school and its relation with the normal teaching-learning activities. From an initial situation of lack of coordination as well as mutual misunderstanding and…

  1. The E-Learning Setting Circle: First Steps toward Theory Development in E-Learning Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüth, Marco; Kaspar, Kai

    2017-01-01

    E-learning projects and related research generate an increasing amount of evidence within and across various disciplines and contexts. The field is very heterogeneous as e-learning approaches are often characterized by rather unique combinations of situational factors that guide the design and realization of e-learning in a bottom-up fashion.…

  2. Pervasive Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper; Helms, Niels Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The potentials of pervasive communication in learning within industry and education are right now being explored through different R&D projects. This paper outlines the background for and the possible learning potentials in what we describe as pervasive learning environments (PLE). PLE?s differ...... from virtual learning environments (VLE) primarily because in PLE?s the learning content is very much related to the actual context in which the learner finds himself. Two local (Denmark) cases illustrate various aspects of pervasive learning. One is the eBag, a pervasive digital portfolio used...

  3. Transnational Learning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    This paper analyses and compares the transnational learning processes in the employment field in the European Union and among the Nordic countries. Based theoretically on a social constructivist model of learning and methodologically on a questionnaire distributed to the relevant participants......, a number of hypotheses concerning transnational learning processes are tested. The paper closes with a number of suggestions regarding an optimal institutional setting for facilitating transnational learning processes.Key words: Transnational learning, Open Method of Coordination, Learning, Employment......, European Employment Strategy, European Union, Nordic countries....

  4. Learning to Innovate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mei, Maggie

    the relationship between organizational learning and innovation creation in an organizational context. Taking a nuanced view of organizational learning, the dissertation investigates how three different organizational learning processes could affect innovation creation at the firm level and project level...... to the understanding of managing organizational learning for innovation creation at firms. The three studies in this dissertation show how three prominent organizational learning processes impact on firms’ innovation performance. Furthermore, the studies in this dissertation emphasize that there are limitation...... and boundary conditions for different organizational learning processes....

  5. e-Learning for Lifelong Learning in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2010-01-01

    The chapter on 'e-Learning for Lifelong Learning in Denmark' is part of an international White Paper, focusing on educational systems, describing status and characteristics and highlighting specific cases of e-learning and of lifelong learning....

  6. LearnSafe. Learning organisations for nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.; Kettunen, J.; Reiman, T.

    2005-03-01

    The nuclear power industry is currently undergoing a period of major change, which has brought with it a number of challenges. These changes have forced the nuclear power plants to initiate their own processes of change in order to adapt to the new situation. This adaptation must not compromise safety at any time, but during a rapid process of change there is a danger that minor problems may trigger a chain of events leading to a degraded safety. Organisational learning has been identified as an important component in ensuring the continued safety and efficiency of nuclear organisations. In response to these challenges a project LearnSafe 'Learning organisations for nuclear safety' was set up and funded by the European Community under the 5th Euratom Framework Programme. The present report gives an account of the LearnSafe project and its major results. (orig.)

  7. Learning by Erring: fire!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjugn, Roger; Hansen, Jarle

    2013-08-01

    Biorepositories may be affected by a number of emergencies ranging from bad publicity to natural disasters, and biorepositories should have plans for handling such situations. The emergency management process includes all phases from mitigation to recovery. Fire is one disaster that may cause extensive damage to both physical structures and humans. In this article, we analyze events related to a fire in a storage facility for mechanical freezers. The analysis covers both the pre-crisis stage, the fire itself, and the post-crisis stage. Even the best intended planning cannot stop a crisis from happening. However, an open-minded analysis of the crisis with focus on learning and quality improvement can improve an organization's ability to handle the next emergency situation.

  8. From Learning to Labour to Learning for Precarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovemark, Marianne; Beach, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    A demand on national economies in the 1970s was that they should begin to increase their labour market flexibility, which came to mean transferring risks and insecurity onto workers. Education was one way to prepare future workers for this new situation. The present article examines this preparation of learning for precarity some 40 years on. It…

  9. Learning, Learning Analytics, Activity Visualisation and Open learner Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Susan; Kickmeier-Rust, Michael; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on visualisation approaches in learning analytics, considering how classroom visualisations can come together in practice. We suggest an open learner model in situations where many tools and activity visualisations produce more visual information than can be readily interpreted....

  10. Vicarious learning: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Experiential learning theory stresses the primacy of personal experience and the literature suggests that direct clinical experience is required in order for learning to take place. However, raw or first hand experience may not be the only mechanisms by which students engage in experiential learning. There is a growing body of literature within higher education which suggests that students are able to use another's experience to learn: vicarious learning. This literature review aims to outline vicarious learning within a nursing context. Many of the studies regarding vicarious learning are situated within Higher Education in general, however, within the United States these relate more specifically to nursing students. The literature indicates the increasing global interest in this area. This paper reveals that whilst the literature offers a number of examples illustrating how vicarious learning takes place, opinion on the role of the lecturer is divided and requires further exploration and clarification. The implications for nurse education are discussed.

  11. SITUAÇÕES DE APRENDIZAGEM COMPARTILHADAS: O CASO DA CONTAGEM POR AGRUPAMENTO. SITUATIONS OF SHARED LEARNING: THE CASE OF SCORING BY ASSEMBLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraga, Laura Pippi

    2012-05-01

    the concept of scoring by assembly within a dynamics that has as the fundamental base the sharing acts. The activity related in this article embraces three moments from AOE – the historical synthesis of the concept – through the guiding and actions that involved the children in the construction of the scoring by assembly concept and in the collective resolution of a problem presented from a dramatization. Among other aspects, it was possible to notice that the sharing of the actions was important for the process so that it could collaborate on the appropriation of the concepts by the students and also for the formation of the teachers and training teachers involved in the process. It is emphasized the importance of teaching situations that are intentionally organized by the teacher to be established as learning problems to allow a general organization of actions, giving a chance to understand concepts.

  12. Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougan, A.D.; Blair, S.

    2006-01-01

    LLNL turned in 5 Declaration Line Items (DLI's) in 2006. Of these, one was declared completed. We made some changes to streamline our process from 2005, used less money, time and fewer team members. This report is a description of what changes we made in 2006 and what we learned. Many of our core review team had changed from last year, including our Laboratory Director, the Facility safety and security representatives, our Division Leader, and the OPSEC Committee Chair. We were able to hand out an AP Manual to some of them, and briefed all newcomers to the AP process. We first went to the OPSEC Committee and explained what the Additional Protocol process would be for 2006 and solicited their help in locating declarable projects. We utilized the 'three questions' from the AP meeting last year. LLNL has no single place to locate all projects at the laboratory. We talked to Resource Managers and key Managers in the Energy and Environment Directorate and in the Nonproliferation Homeland and International Security Directorate to find applicable projects. We also talked to the Principal Investigators who had projects last year. We reviewed a list of CRADA's and LDRD projects given to us by the Laboratory Site Office. Talking to the PI's proved difficult because of vacation or travel schedules. We were never able to locate one PI in town. Fortunately, collateral information allowed us to screen out his project. We had no problems in downloading new versions of the DWA and DDA. It was helpful for both Steve Blair and Arden Dougan to have write privileges. During the time we were working on the project, we had to tag-team the work to allow for travel and vacation schedules. We had some difficulty locating an 'activities block' in the software. This was mentioned as something we needed to fix from our 2005 declaration. Evidently the Activities Block has been removed from the current version of the software. We also had trouble finding the DLI Detail Report, which we included

  13. Stealth Learning: Unexpected Learning Opportunities through Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Educators across the country struggle to create engaging, motivating learning environments for their Net Gen students. These learners expect instant gratification that traditional lectures do not provide. This leaves educators searching for innovative ways to engage students in order to encourage learning. One solution is for educators to use…

  14. From E-learning to Blended Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Skov; Hansen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    . The project uses a ?capacity building strategy where new practice and skills are built through pedagogical interventions mostly designed as courses based on blended learning with a dialogue oriented and practice related team-work as an important part. Through this work the team learns how to use a specific...

  15. Generative Learning: Adults Learning within Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaides, Aliki

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which ambiguity can serve as a catalyst for adult learning. The purpose of this study is to understand learning that is generated when encountering ambiguity agitated by the complexity of liquid modernity. "Ambiguity," in this study, describes an encounter with an appearance of reality that is at first…

  16. LEARNING HOW TO LEARN A LANGUAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    Language Training; Tel. 73127; Andrée Fontbonne; Tel. 72844

    2001-01-01

    This bilingual seminar is for anyone who would like to develop learning strategies and skills for learning a foreign language. Languages: French and English. Length: 3 days, 7 hours per day. Dates: 4, 5, 6 March 2002. Price: 460 CHF per person (for a group of 8 people). If you are interested, please enrol through our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training

  17. LEARNING HOW TO LEARN A LANGUAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    Language Training; Tel. 73127; Andrée Fontbonne; Tel. 72844

    2001-01-01

    This bilingual seminar is for anyone who would like to develop learning strategies and skills for learning a foreign language. Languages: French and English. Length: 3 days, 7 hours per day. Dates: 5, 6, 7 November 2001. Price: 460 CHF per person (for a group of 8 people). If you are interested, please enrol through our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training

  18. Constructivist learning theories and complex learning environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R-J. Simons; Dr. S. Bolhuis

    2004-01-01

    Learning theories broadly characterised as constructivist, agree on the importance to learning of the environment, but differ on what exactly it is that constitutes this importance. Accordingly, they also differ on the educational consequences to be drawn from the theoretical perspective. Cognitive

  19. Transformative Learning: Personal Empowerment in Learning Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassi, Marja-Liisa; Laursen, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of personal empowerment as a form of transformative learning. It focuses on commonly ignored but enhancing elements of mathematics learning and argues that crucial personal resources can be essentially promoted by high engagement in mathematical problem solving, inquiry, and collaboration. This personal…

  20. Cooperative Learning as a Democratic Learning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbil, Deniz Gökçe; Kocabas, Ayfer

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the effects of applying the cooperative learning method on the students' attitude toward democracy in an elementary 3rd-grade life studies course was examined. Over the course of 8 weeks, the cooperative learning method was applied with an experimental group, and traditional methods of teaching life studies in 2009, which was still…

  1. Learning about Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning About Allergies KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning About Allergies What's in ... in the spring. Why Do Some Kids Get Allergies? People may be born with a genetic (say: ...

  2. Pervasive Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper; Helms, Niels Henrik

    in schools. The other is moreover related to work based learning in that it foresees a community of practitioners accessing, sharing and adding to knowledge and learning objects held within a pervasive business intelligence system. Limitations and needed developments of these and other systems are discussed......Abstract: The potentials of pervasive communication in learning within industry and education are right know being explored through different R&D projects. This paper outlines the background for and the possible learning potentials in what we describe as pervasive learning environments (PLE). PLE......'s differ from virtual learning environments (VLE) primarily because in PLE's the learning content is very much related to the actual context in which the learner finds himself. Two local (Denmark) cases illustrate various aspects of pervasive learning. One is the eBag, a pervasive digital portfolio used...

  3. Learning by Doing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettler, Joel

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that, as people become the key differentiation of competitive advantage, companies are turning to experiential learning programs to foster work force collaboration and cooperation. Discusses the history of experiential learning and its application in the workplace. (JOW)

  4. Learning Networks Distributed Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Harrie; Vogten, Hubert; Koper, Rob; Tattersall, Colin; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Sloep, Peter; Van Bruggen, Jan; Spoelstra, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Learning Networks Distributed Environment is a prototype of an architecture that allows the sharing and modification of learning materials through a number of transport protocols. The prototype implements a p2p protcol using JXTA.

  5. Learning about Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning About Proteins KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning About Proteins What's in ...

  6. Learning in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helth, Poula

    on theories of aesthetic performance and transformative learning, and on empirical studies through interventive methods within action research and ethnography. Transformative learning in my study has been developed based on aesthetic performance addressing leaders’ learning in practice. This kind of learning......The thesis presents the essence of my study of how leaders transform their practice through aesthetic performance. The background of the study is leaders' need for learning in and through practice, as an alternative to learning in classrooms and to leadership education programs. The study is based...... happens when leaders become aware of the potential for transformation of their leadership practice when they experiment with aesthetic performance integrated in a learning process. The greatest impact in relation to organisational transformation is, when leaders base their learning on a collective...

  7. MOOC Blended learning ontwikkelen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verjans, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Presentatie over het ontwerpen van leeractiviteiten (learning design) tijdens de zesde live sessie van de MOOC Blended learning ontwikkelen. Met gebruikmaking van presentatiematerialen van Diana Laurillard, Grainne Conole, Helen Beetham, Jos Fransen, Pieter Swager, Helen Keegan, Corinne Weisgerber.

  8. Social Structures for Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Bogenrieder (Irma); B. Nooteboom (Bart)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis article investigates what learning groups there are in organizations, other than the familiar 'communities of practice'. It first develops an interdisciplinary theoretical framework for identifying, categorizing and understanding learning groups. For this, it employs a

  9. Learning about Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning About Carbohydrates KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning About Carbohydrates Print en ... source of energy for the body. What Are Carbohydrates? There are two major types of carbohydrates (or ...

  10. Preventing Learned Helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Cheri

    1986-01-01

    To prevent learned helplessness in learning disabled students, teachers can share responsibilities with the students, train students to reinforce themselves for effort and self control, and introduce opportunities for changing counterproductive attitudes. (CL)

  11. Teaming up for learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Fransen, J. (2012). Teaming up for learning: Team effectiveness in collaborative learning in higher education (Doctoral dissertation). November, 16, 2012, Open University in the Netherlands (CELSTEC), Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  12. Teachability in Computational Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Shinohara, Ayumi; Miyano, Satoru

    1990-01-01

    This paper considers computationai learning from the viewpoint of teaching. We introduce a notion of teachability with which we establish a relationship between the learnability and teachability. We also discuss the complexity issues of a teacher in relation to learning.

  13. The sign learning theory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KING OF DAWN

    The sign learning theory also holds secrets that could be exploited in accomplishing motor tasks. ... Introduction ... In his classic work: Cognitive Map in Rats and Men (1948),Tolman talked about five groups of experiments viz: latent learning ...

  14. Efficient Learning Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    This paper presents the current approach to implementing educational technology with learning design at the Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, by introducing the concept of ‘efficient learning design’. The underlying hypothesis is that implementing learning design is more than...... engaging educators in the design process and developing teaching and learning, it is a shift in educational practice that potentially requires a stakeholder analysis and ultimately a business model for the deployment. What is most important is to balance the institutional, educator, and student...... perspectives and to consider all these in conjunction in order to obtain a sustainable, efficient learning design. The approach to deploying learning design in terms of the concept of efficient learning design, the catalyst for educational development, i.e. the learning design model and how it is being used...

  15. Pervasive Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Hundebøl, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    The potentials of pervasive communication in learning within industry and education are right know being explored through different R&D projects. This paper outlines the background for and the possible learning potentials in what we describe as pervasive learning environments (PLE). PLE's differ...... from virtual learning environments (VLE) primarily because in PLE's the learning content is very much related to the actual context in which the learner finds himself. Two local (Denmark) cases illustrate various aspects of pervasive learning. One is the eBag, a pervasive digital portfolio used...... in schools. The other is moreover related to work based learning in that it foresees a community of practitioners accessing, sharing and adding to knowledge and learning objects held within a pervasive business intelligence system. Limitations and needed developments of these and other systems are discussed...

  16. Learning Design Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, David; Blat, Josep; Garcia, Rocío; Vogten, Hubert; Kwong, KL

    2005-01-01

    Griffiths, D., Blat, J., Garcia, R., Vogten, H. & Kwong, KL. (2005). Learning Design Tools. In: Koper, R. & Tattersall, C., Learning Design: A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education and Training (pp. 109-136). Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.

  17. Genetic Science Learning Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic Science Learning Center Making science and health easy for everyone to understand Home News Our Team What We Do ... Collaboration Conferences Current Projects Publications Contact The Genetic Science Learning Center at The University of Utah is a ...

  18. Mobile Informal Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Börner, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Glahn, C., & Börner, D. (2009). Mobile Informal Learning. Presented at Mobile Learning in Context Symposium at the Open University of the Netherlands. September, 11, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  19. Making Learning Meaningful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, A. Louis; Kelly, Paul V.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses two theories of cognitive development, Ausubel's theory of verbal learning and Piaget's development theory. Illustrates that both concept mapping and the learning cycle are rooted in these two theories. (DDR)

  20. Learning and Retention through Predictive Inference and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Love, Bradley C.

    2010-01-01

    Work in category learning addresses how humans acquire knowledge and, thus, should inform classroom practices. In two experiments, we apply and evaluate intuitions garnered from laboratory-based research in category learning to learning tasks situated in an educational context. In Experiment 1, learning through predictive inference and…

  1. Advancing Learner Autonomy in TEFL via Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.; Shan, Tan Hui

    2015-01-01

    The present paper begins by situating learner autonomy and collaborative learning as part of a larger paradigm shift towards student-centred learning. Next are brief discussions of learner autonomy and how learner autonomy links with collaborative learning. In the main part of the paper, four central principles of collaborative learning are…

  2. Approach to Dynamic Assembling of Individualized Learning Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubchak, Vladimir; Kupenko, Olena; Kuzikov, Borys

    2012-01-01

    E-learning students are generally heterogeneous and have different capabilities knowledge base and needs. The aim of the Sumy State University (SSU) e-learning system project is to cater to these individual needs by assembling individual learning path. This paper shows current situation with e-learning in Ukraine, state-of-art of development of…

  3. Student Approaches to Learning and Studying. Research Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, John B.

    A common thread in contemporary research in student learning refers to the ways in which students go about learning. A theory of learning is presented that accentuates the interaction between the person and the situation. Research evidence implies a form of meta-cognition called meta-learning, the awareness of students of their own learning…

  4. New learning : three ways to learn in a new balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, P.R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Because people are learning all the time, we need criteria that can help us distinguish between better and worse kinds of learning. Organizations and societies as well as the psychology of learning ask for new learning outcomes, new learning processes and new forms of instruction. New learning

  5. Learning about Learning: A Conundrum and a Possible Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    What is it to learn in the modern world? We can identify four "learning epochs" through which our understanding of learning has passed: a metaphysical view; an empirical view; an experiential view; and, currently, a "learning-amid-contestation" view. In this last and current view, learning has its place in a world in which, the more one learns,…

  6. Effects of Cooperative E-Learning on Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shang-Pao; Fu, Hsin-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the effects of E-Learning and cooperative learning on learning outcomes. E-Learning covers the dimensions of Interpersonal communication, abundant resources, Dynamic instruction, and Learning community; and, cooperative learning contains three dimensions of Cooperative motive, Social interaction, and Cognition…

  7. Learning, Play, and Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning, Play, and Your Newborn KidsHealth / For Parents / Learning, ... Some Other Ideas Print What Is My Newborn Learning? Play is the chief way that infants learn ...

  8. Supervised Learning for Dynamical System Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefny, Ahmed; Downey, Carlton; Gordon, Geoffrey J

    2015-01-01

    Recently there has been substantial interest in spectral methods for learning dynamical systems. These methods are popular since they often offer a good tradeoff between computational and statistical efficiency. Unfortunately, they can be difficult to use and extend in practice: e.g., they can make it difficult to incorporate prior information such as sparsity or structure. To address this problem, we present a new view of dynamical system learning: we show how to learn dynamical systems by solving a sequence of ordinary supervised learning problems, thereby allowing users to incorporate prior knowledge via standard techniques such as L 1 regularization. Many existing spectral methods are special cases of this new framework, using linear regression as the supervised learner. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework by showing examples where nonlinear regression or lasso let us learn better state representations than plain linear regression does; the correctness of these instances follows directly from our general analysis.

  9. Immersive Learning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-20

    Immersive Learning Technologies Mr. Peter Smith Lead, ADL Immersive Learning Team 08/20/2009 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Immersive Learning Technologies 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Why Immersive Learning Technologies

  10. Learning a Second Language

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Caroline; Hermann, Charlotte; Andersen, Signe Hvalsøe; Grigalauskyte, Simona; Tolsgaard, Mads; Holmegaard, Thorbjørn; Hajaya, Zaedo Musa

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the concept of second language learning in Denmark with focus on how second language learners negotiate their identities in relation to language learning and integration. By investigating three language learners’ acquisition of Danish through key theories on the field of second language learning, focus is centred on the subjects’ lived experiences of the learning process within their everyday lives and in the classroom. Through interviews and observations it can be conclud...

  11. Social Structures for Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bogenrieder, I.M.; Nooteboom, B.

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis article investigates what learning groups there are in organizations, other than the familiar 'communities of practice'. It first develops an interdisciplinary theoretical framework for identifying, categorizing and understanding learning groups. For this, it employs a constructivist, interactionist theory of knowledge and learning. It employs elements of transaction cost theory and of social theory of trust. Transaction cost economics neglects learning and trust, but element...

  12. Pervasive e-learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper; Helms, Niels Henrik

    2009-01-01

    This article falls within planning, production and delivery of innovative learning resources. The establishment of pervasive learning environments is based on the successful combination and re-configuration of inter-connected sets of learning objects, databases and data-streams. The text presents...... a definition of Pervasive Learning Environments and discusses the pedagogical potentials and challenges in developing such environments with emphasis on context, new didactics, content and affordances....

  13. Evolving to organizational learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, B L

    2000-02-01

    To transform in stride with the business changes, organizations need to think of development as "organizational learning" rather than "training." Companies need to manage learning as a strategic competitive advantage for current and future business rather than as a perk for individuals. To position themselves for success in a dynamic business environment, companies need to reframe their concept of learning and development to a mindset of organizational learning.

  14. LEADING THE LEARNING ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sapna Rijal

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have identified leadership as being one of the most important factors that influence the development of learning organization. They suggest that creating a collective vision of the future, empowering and developing employees so that they are better able to handle environmental challenges, modeling learning behavior and creating a learning environment, are crucial skills for leaders of learning organization. These roles are suitable to a transformational leader. Despite the potenti...

  15. Social learning in fish

    OpenAIRE

    Atton, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Social learning is known to be a common phenomenon in fish, which they utilise under many different contexts, including foraging, mate-choice and migration. Here I review the literature on social learning in fish and present two studies. The first examines the ability of threespined sticklebacks to use social learning in the enhancement of food preferences. The second study examines the ability of both threespined sticklebacks and ninespined sticklebacks to use social learning in the avoidanc...

  16. Learning from prescribing errors

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, B

    2002-01-01

    

 The importance of learning from medical error has recently received increasing emphasis. This paper focuses on prescribing errors and argues that, while learning from prescribing errors is a laudable goal, there are currently barriers that can prevent this occurring. Learning from errors can take place on an individual level, at a team level, and across an organisation. Barriers to learning from prescribing errors include the non-discovery of many prescribing errors, lack of feedback to th...

  17. Mentoring in the Learning Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Norman H.; Galbraith, Michael W.

    1995-01-01

    The mentoring model of one-to-one interaction is an important approach to lifelong learning and a pragmatic method of helping adults adapt to changing personal, social, and workplace situations. Mentoring can promote meaningful understanding and appreciation of multicultural and other differences. (SK)

  18. Associative Learning Through Acquired Salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction.

  19. Microsoft Azure machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Mund, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    The book is intended for those who want to learn how to use Azure Machine Learning. Perhaps you already know a bit about Machine Learning, but have never used ML Studio in Azure; or perhaps you are an absolute newbie. In either case, this book will get you up-and-running quickly.

  20. My Teaching Learning Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjani, Neelam Saleem

    2014-01-01

    The heart of teaching learning philosophy is the concept of nurturing students and teaching them in a way that creates passion and enthusiasm in them for a lifelong learning. According to Duke (1990) education is a practice of artful action where teaching learning process is considered as design and knowledge is considered as colours. Teaching…

  1. Enhancing learning with technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus; Klemke, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Specht, M., & Klemke, R. (2013, 26-27 September). Enhancing Learning with Technology. In D. Milosevic (Ed.), Proceedings of the fourth international conference on eLearning (eLearning 2013) (pp. 37-45). Belgrade Metropolitan University, Belgrade, Serbia. http://econference.metropolitan.ac.rs/

  2. Deep Learning Policy Quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wolfshaar, Jos; Wiering, Marco; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a novel type of actor-critic approach for deep reinforcement learning which is based on learning vector quantization. We replace the softmax operator of the policy with a more general and more flexible operator that is similar to the robust soft learning vector quantization algorithm.

  3. Games for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    2013-01-01

    Today there is a great deal of interest in and a lot of hype about using video games in schools. Video games are a new silver bullet. Games can create good learning because they teach in powerful ways. The theory behind game-based learning is not really new, but a traditional and well-tested approach to deep and effective learning, often…

  4. Learning Probabilistic Decision Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred; Dalgaard, Jens; Silander, Tomi

    2004-01-01

    efficient representations than Bayesian networks. In this paper we present an algorithm for learning PDGs from data. First experiments show that the algorithm is capable of learning optimal PDG representations in some cases, and that the computational efficiency of PDG models learned from real-life data...

  5. A learning space Odyssey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the alignment of learning space with higher education learning and teaching. Significant changes in higher education the past decades, such as increased information and communication technology (ICT) and new learning theories have resulted in the dilemma whether higher

  6. Learning in Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palos, Ramona; Veres Stancovici, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims at identifying the presence of the dimensions of learning capabilities and the characteristics of a learning organization within two companies in the field of services, as well as identifying the relationships between their learning capability and the organizational culture. Design/methodology/approach: This has been a…

  7. Learning Outcomes Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Spoelstra, Howard; Burgoyne, Louise; O’Tuathaigh, Colm

    2018-01-01

    Aim of the study The learning outcomes study, conducted as part of WP3 of the BioApp project, has as objectives: (a) generating a comprehensive list of the learning outcomes; (b) reaching an agreement on the scope and priority of the learning outcomes, and (c) making suggestions for the further

  8. Action Learning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  9. Invited Reaction: Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Learning Orientation, and Supportive Learning Environment on Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseh, Maria; Manikoth, Nisha N.

    2011-01-01

    As the authors of the preceding article (Choi and Jacobs, 2011) have noted, the workplace learning literature shows evidence of the complementary and integrated nature of formal and informal learning in the development of employee competencies. The importance of supportive learning environments in the workplace and of employees' personal learning…

  10. KARATE WITH CONSTRUCTIVE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikrishna Karanam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Any conventional learning process involves the traditional hierarchy of garnering of information and then recall gathered information. Constructive learning is an important research area having wide impact on teaching methods in education, learning theories, and plays a major role in many education reform movements. It is observed that constructive learning advocates the interconnection between emotions and learning. Human teachers identify the emotions of students with varying degrees of accuracy and can improve the learning rate of the students by motivating them. In learning with computers, computers also should be given the capability to recognize emotions so as to optimize the learning process. Image Processing is a very popular tool used in the process of establishing the theory of Constructive Learning. In this paper we use the Optical Flow computation in image sequences to analyze the accuracy of the moves of a karate player. We have used the Lucas-Kanade method for computing the optical flow in image sequences. A database consisting of optical flow images by a group of persons learning karate is formed and the learning rates are analyzed in order to main constructive learning. The contours of flow images are compared with the standard images and the error graphs are plotted. Analysis of the emotion of the amateur karate player is made by observing the error plots.

  11. Repurposing learning object components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.; Jovanovic, J.; Gasevic, D.; Duval, E.; Meersman, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an ontology-based framework for repurposing learning object components. Unlike the usual practice where learning object components are assembled manually, the proposed framework enables on-the-fly access and repurposing of learning object components. The framework supports two

  12. Canadian Chefs' Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier-MacBurnie, Paulette; Doyle, Wendy; Mombourquette, Peter; Young, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the formal and informal workplace learning of professional chefs. In particular, it considers chefs' learning strategies and outcomes as well as the barriers to and facilitators of their workplace learning. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology is based on in-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured…

  13. Learning: An Evolutionary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    This paper draws on the philosophy of Karl Popper to present a descriptive evolutionary epistemology that offers philosophical solutions to the following related problems: "What happens when learning takes place?" and "What happens in human learning?" It provides a detailed analysis of how learning takes place without any direct transfer of…

  14. Guided Learning at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billett, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Guided learning (questioning, diagrams/analogies, modeling, coaching) was studied through critical incident interviews in five workplaces. Participation in everyday work activities was the most effective contributor to workplace learning. Organizational readiness and the efficacy of guided learning in resolving novel tasks were also important. (SK)

  15. Adult Learning Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine Knowles' theory of andragogy and his six assumptions of how adults learn while providing evidence to support two of his assumptions based on the theory of andragogy. As no single theory explains how adults learn, it can best be assumed that adults learn through the accumulation of formal and informal…

  16. Learning analytics dashboard applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.; Duval, E.; Klerkx, J.; Govaerts, S.; Santos, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces learning analytics dashboards that visualize learning traces for learners and teachers. We present a conceptual framework that helps to analyze learning analytics applications for these kinds of users. We then present our own work in this area and compare with 15 related

  17. Innovazione nel mobile learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immaculada Arnedillo-Sànchez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Descrizione, da una prospettiva europea, dell’innovazione nel settore del mobile learning e l’utilizzabilita’ del mobile learning in contesti educativi. Vengono illustrate i principali progetti europei di m-learning e si esamina le prospettive pedagogiche e teoriche relative al campo.

  18. Under Threes' Mathematical Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzén, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The article focuses on mathematics for toddlers in preschool, with the aim of challenging a strong learning discourse that mainly focuses on cognitive learning. By devoting more attention to other perspectives on learning, the hope is to better promote children's early mathematical development. Sweden is one of few countries to have a curriculum…

  19. Learning from Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Although error avoidance during learning appears to be the rule in American classrooms, laboratory studies suggest that it may be a counterproductive strategy, at least for neurologically typical students. Experimental investigations indicate that errorful learning followed by corrective feedback is beneficial to learning. Interestingly, the…

  20. Learning from Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Legaz, Juan Enrique; Soubeyran, Antoine

    2003-01-01

    We present a model of learning in which agents learn from errors. If an action turns out to be an error, the agent rejects not only that action but also neighboring actions. We find that, keeping memory of his errors, under mild assumptions an acceptable solution is asymptotically reached. Moreover, one can take advantage of big errors for a faster learning.

  1. Learning from Failed Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences and dilemmas posed by learning issues for decision making are discussed. Learning requires both awareness of barriers and a coping strategy. The motives to hold back information essential for learning stem from perverse incentives, obscure outcomes, and the hindsight bias. There is little awareness of perverse incentives that…

  2. E-Learning Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Dawn G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the advantages of using intelligent agents to facilitate the location and customization of appropriate e-learning resources and to foster collaboration in e-learning environments. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes an e-learning environment that can be used to provide customized…

  3. How People Learn in an Asynchronous Online Learning Environment: The Relationships between Graduate Students' Learning Strategies and Learning Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Beomkyu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between learners' learning strategies and learning satisfaction in an asynchronous online learning environment. In an attempt to shed some light on how people learn in an online learning environment, one hundred and sixteen graduate students who were taking online learning courses…

  4. Organizational learning in a college of nursing: A learning history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Bret; Cowan, Lisa A; Hoyt, Hannah C

    2018-02-01

    College of nursing leaders can foster organizational learning as a means of achieving their desired organizational outcomes. Organizational learning has not previously been studied in colleges of nursing, leaving college administrators and faculty little guidance as they strive to improve outcomes in their own colleges. The purpose of this study was to discover new insights related to organizational learning in a college of nursing. The learning history method was used to document and describe organizational learning in a college of nursing. This study was conducted with a college of nursing situated in a private, religious-based university in the western United States. Six stakeholders and 16 individuals familiar with the college's history were purposively recruited for this study. Participants included college administrators, faculty, students, alumni, and individuals with university-level responsibilities related to the college. Semi-structured interviews and college artifacts were used to gather data. Data was reviewed and themes identified through a process called "distillation." The college's vision, "Learning the Healer's Art" provides purpose and motivation within the college. Four themes provide additional insight into how the college established a learning culture and fosters behavior conducive to organizational learning: (1) Character and Quality, (2) Long-Term Perspective, (3) Collaborative Leadership and Adaptation, and (4) Mentoring. College of nursing leaders can foster organizational learning and pursue improvement within their colleges. Recommended actions include developing a shared vision for the college, building a cadre of qualified faculty and students who have strong personal character, maintaining a long-term perspective, using a collaborative approach to leadership and adaptation, and facilitating mentoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Office Software Learning and Examination System Design Based on Fragmented Learning Idea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragmented learning is that through the segmentation of learning content or learning time, make learners can use the fragmented time for learning fragmentated content, have the characteristics of time flexibility, learning targeted and high learning efficiency. Based on the fragmented learning ideas, combined with the teaching idea of micro class and interactive teaching, comprehensive utilization of flash animation design software, .NET development platform, VSTO technology, multimedia development technology and so on, design and develop a system integrated with learning, practice and examination of the Office software, which is not only conducive to the effective and personalized learning of students, but also conducive to the understanding the students’ situation of teachers, and liberate teachers from the heavy labor of mechanical, focus on promoting the formation of students’ knowledge system.

  6. A Flow of Entrepreneurial Learning Elements in Experiential Learning Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum; Christensen, Marie Ernst

    This paper explored the concept of learning in an experiential learning setting and whether the learning process can be understood as a flow of learning factors influencing the outcome. If many constituting factors lead to the development of learning outcomes, there might need to be developed...... that are a part of experiential learning settings and curriculum development....... a differentiated approach to facilitate experiential learning. Subsequently the paper investigated how facilitators of learning processes can design a learning space where the boundary of what is expected from the learner is challenged. In other words the aim was to explore the transformative learning processes...

  7. Quantum Speedup for Active Learning Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Davide Paparo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Can quantum mechanics help us build intelligent learning agents? A defining signature of intelligent behavior is the capacity to learn from experience. However, a major bottleneck for agents to learn in real-life situations is the size and complexity of the corresponding task environment. Even in a moderately realistic environment, it may simply take too long to rationally respond to a given situation. If the environment is impatient, allowing only a certain time for a response, an agent may then be unable to cope with the situation and to learn at all. Here, we show that quantum physics can help and provide a quadratic speedup for active learning as a genuine problem of artificial intelligence. This result will be particularly relevant for applications involving complex task environments.

  8. Political learning among youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on students’ first political learning and explores the research question, what dynamic patterns of political learning can be explored among a selection of young, diverse Danish students’ first political interests? The authors use theories of learning in their analytical......, but are active constructors of their political life. Their emotions and social environment are highly important for their political orientation. It is recommended that further research focus on dynamic learning and on arenas for political learning rather than on “single agent studies.” Recommendations...

  9. Quantum machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biamonte, Jacob; Wittek, Peter; Pancotti, Nicola; Rebentrost, Patrick; Wiebe, Nathan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-09-13

    Fuelled by increasing computer power and algorithmic advances, machine learning techniques have become powerful tools for finding patterns in data. Quantum systems produce atypical patterns that classical systems are thought not to produce efficiently, so it is reasonable to postulate that quantum computers may outperform classical computers on machine learning tasks. The field of quantum machine learning explores how to devise and implement quantum software that could enable machine learning that is faster than that of classical computers. Recent work has produced quantum algorithms that could act as the building blocks of machine learning programs, but the hardware and software challenges are still considerable.

  10. Rethinking expansive learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte; Lundh Snis, Ulrika

    Abstract: This paper analyses an online community of master’s students taking a course in ICT and organisational learning. The students initiated and facilitated an educational design for organisational learning called Proactive Review in the organisation where they are employed. By using an online...... discussion forum on Google groups, they created new ways of reflecting and learning. We used netnography to select qualitative postings from the online community and expansive learning concepts for data analysis. The findings show how students changed practices of organisational learning...

  11. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Written as a tutorial to explore and understand the power of R for machine learning. This practical guide that covers all of the need to know topics in a very systematic way. For each machine learning approach, each step in the process is detailed, from preparing the data for analysis to evaluating the results. These steps will build the knowledge you need to apply them to your own data science tasks.Intended for those who want to learn how to use R's machine learning capabilities and gain insight from your data. Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning, but have never used R; or

  12. Rhetorical ways of thinking Vygotskian theory and mathematical learning

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Lillie R; Macadino, Vittoria

    2012-01-01

    Combining Vygotskian theory with current teaching and learning practices, this volume focuses on how the co-construction of learning models the interpretation of a mathematical situation, providing educationalists with a valuable practical methodology.

  13. Teaching chemistry to students with learning difficulties: exemplary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching chemistry to students with learning difficulties: exemplary adaptive instructional practices of experienced teachers. ... Arguably, today's science classrooms are witnessing a situation in which students experience a special learning ...

  14. Learning through Participatory Action Research for Community Ecotourism Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.

    1996-01-01

    Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)

  15. Learning Analytics for Supporting Seamless Language Learning Using E-Book with Ubiquitous Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Kousuke; Uosaki, Noriko; Ogata, Hiroaki

    2018-01-01

    Seamless learning has been recognized as an effective learning approach across various dimensions including formal and informal learning contexts, individual and social learning, and physical world and cyberspace. With the emergence of seamless learning, the majority of the current research focuses on realizing a seamless learning environment at…

  16. FLIPPED LEARNING: PRACTICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Kuzminska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to issues of implementation of the flipped learning technology in the practice of higher education institutions. The article defines the principles of technology and a model of the educational process, it notes the need to establish an information support system. The article defines online platforms and resources; it describes recommendations for the design of electronic training courses and organization of the students in the process of implementing the proposed model, as well as tools for assessing its effectiveness. The article provides a description of flipped learning implementation scenario and formulates suggestions regarding the use of this model as a mechanism to improve the efficiency of the learning process in the ICT-rich environment of high school: use of learning management systems (LMS and personal learning environments (PLE of participants in a learning process. The article provides an example of implementation of the flipped learning model as a part of the Information Technologies course in the National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine (NULES. The article gives examples of tasks, resources and services, results of students’ research activity, as well as an example of the personal learning network, established in the course of implementation of the flipped learning model and elements of digital student portfolios. It presents the results of the monitoring of learning activities and students’ feedback. The author describes cautions against the mass introduction of the flipped learning model without monitoring of readiness of the participants of the educational process for its implementation

  17. Learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. J. Ryke

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Under various circumstances and in different species the outward expression of learning varies considerably, and this has led to the classification of different categories of learning. Just as there is no generally agreed on definition of learning, there is no one system of classification. Types of learning commonly recognized are: Habituation, sensitization, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, trial and error, taste aversion, latent learning, cultural learning, imprinting, insight learning, learning-set learning and instinct. The term memory must include at least two separate processes. It must involve, on the one hand, that of learning something and on the other, at some later date, recalling that thing. What lies between the learning and (he remembering must be some permanent record — a memory trace — within the brain. Memory exists in at least two forms: memory for very recent events (short-term which is relatively labile and easily disruptable; and long-term memory, which is much more stable. Not everything that gets into short-term memory becomes fixed in the long-term store; a filtering mechanism selects things that might be important and discards the rest.

  18. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Learning for intelligent mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ernest L.; Liao, Xiaoqun; Alhaj Ali, Souma M.

    2003-10-01

    Unlike intelligent industrial robots which often work in a structured factory setting, intelligent mobile robots must often operate in an unstructured environment cluttered with obstacles and with many possible action paths. However, such machines have many potential applications in medicine, defense, industry and even the home that make their study important. Sensors such as vision are needed. However, in many applications some form of learning is also required. The purpose of this paper is to present a discussion of recent technical advances in learning for intelligent mobile robots. During the past 20 years, the use of intelligent industrial robots that are equipped not only with motion control systems but also with sensors such as cameras, laser scanners, or tactile sensors that permit adaptation to a changing environment has increased dramatically. However, relatively little has been done concerning learning. Adaptive and robust control permits one to achieve point to point and controlled path operation in a changing environment. This problem can be solved with a learning control. In the unstructured environment, the terrain and consequently the load on the robot"s motors are constantly changing. Learning the parameters of a proportional, integral and derivative controller (PID) and artificial neural network provides an adaptive and robust control. Learning may also be used for path following. Simulations that include learning may be conducted to see if a robot can learn its way through a cluttered array of obstacles. If a situation is performed repetitively, then learning can also be used in the actual application. To reach an even higher degree of autonomous operation, a new level of learning is required. Recently learning theories such as the adaptive critic have been proposed. In this type of learning a critic provides a grade to the controller of an action module such as a robot. The creative control process is used that is "beyond the adaptive critic." A

  20. Motion Learning Based on Bayesian Program Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Meng-Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of virtual human has been highly anticipated since the 1980s. By using computer technology, Human motion simulation could generate authentic visual effect, which could cheat human eyes visually. Bayesian Program Learning train one or few motion data, generate new motion data by decomposing and combining. And the generated motion will be more realistic and natural than the traditional one.In this paper, Motion learning based on Bayesian program learning allows us to quickly generate new motion data, reduce workload, improve work efficiency, reduce the cost of motion capture, and improve the reusability of data.

  1. Blended Learning or E-learning?

    OpenAIRE

    Tayebinik, Maryam; Puteh, Marlia

    2013-01-01

    ICT or Information and Communication Technology has pervaded the fields of education.In recent years the term e-learning has emerged as a result of the integration of ICT in the education fields. Following the application this technology into teaching, some pitfalls have been identified and this have led to the Blended learning phenomenon.However the preference on this new method has been debated quite extensively.The aim of this paper is to investigate the advantages of blended learning over...

  2. Evaluation and Policy Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Højlund, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how evaluation induces policy learning – a question largely neglected by the scholarly literature on evaluation and policy learning. Following a learner's perspective, the article attempts to ascertain who the learners are, and what, and how, learners actually learn from...... evaluations. In so doing, it focuses on what different types of learners actually learn within the context of the evaluation framework (the set of administrative structures defining the evaluation goals and process). Taking the empirical case of three EU programme evaluations, the patterns of policy learning...... emanating from them are examined. The findings are that only two types of actors involved in the evaluation are actually learning (programme units and external evaluators), that learners learn different things (programme overview, small-scale programme adjustments, policy change and evaluation methods...

  3. Introduction to machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  4. Semantic Learning Service Personalized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Chen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To provide users with more suitable and personalized service, personalization is widely used in various fields. Current e-Learning systems search for learning resources using information search technology, based on the keywords that selected or inputted by the user. Due to lack of semantic analysis for keywords and exploring the user contexts, the system cannot provide a good learning experiment. In this paper, we defined the concept and characteristic of the personalized learning service, and proposed a semantic learning service personalized framework. Moreover, we made full use of semantic technology, using ontologies to represent the learning contents and user profile, mining and utilizing the friendship and membership of the social relationship to construct the user social relationship profile, and improved the collaboration filtering algorithm to recommend personalized learning resources for users. The results of the empirical evaluation show that the approach is effectiveness in augmenting recommendation.

  5. Infant Statistical Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Kirkham, Natasha Z.

    2017-01-01

    Perception involves making sense of a dynamic, multimodal environment. In the absence of mechanisms capable of exploiting the statistical patterns in the natural world, infants would face an insurmountable computational problem. Infant statistical learning mechanisms facilitate the detection of structure. These abilities allow the infant to compute across elements in their environmental input, extracting patterns for further processing and subsequent learning. In this selective review, we summarize findings that show that statistical learning is both a broad and flexible mechanism (supporting learning from different modalities across many different content areas) and input specific (shifting computations depending on the type of input and goal of learning). We suggest that statistical learning not only provides a framework for studying language development and object knowledge in constrained laboratory settings, but also allows researchers to tackle real-world problems, such as multilingualism, the role of ever-changing learning environments, and differential developmental trajectories. PMID:28793812

  6. Exploitative Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies...... and learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry......, it is predominantly the marketing-related investment decisions associated with starting to export that lead to increases in firm productivity. We conclude that learning-by-exporting might be more properly characterized as ?learning about and exploiting new markets? rather than ?learning about new technologies...

  7. Learning as Negotiating Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg; Keller, Hanne Dauer

    The paper explores the contribution of Communities of Practice (COP) to Human Resource Development (HRD). Learning as negotiating identities captures the contribution of COP to HRD. In COP the development of practice happens through negotiation of meaning. The learning process also involves modes...... of belonging constitutive of our identities. We suggest that COP makes a significant contribution by linking learning and identification. This means that learning becomes much less instrumental and much more linked to fundamental questions of being. We argue that the COP-framework links learning with the issue...... of time - caught in the notion of trajectories of learning - that integrate past, present and future. Working with the learners' notion of time is significant because it is here that new learning possibilities become visible and meaningful for individuals. Further, we argue that the concept of identity...

  8. Lessons learned bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    During the past four years, the Department of Energy -- Savannah River Operations Office and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program completed various activities ranging from waste site investigations to closure and post closure projects. Critiques for lessons learned regarding project activities are performed at the completion of each project milestone, and this critique interval allows for frequent recognition of lessons learned. In addition to project related lessons learned, ER also performs lessons learned critiques. T'he Savannah River Site (SRS) also obtains lessons learned information from general industry, commercial nuclear industry, naval nuclear programs, and other DOE sites within the complex. Procedures are approved to administer the lessons learned program, and a database is available to catalog applicable lessons learned regarding environmental remediation, restoration, and administrative activities. ER will continue to use this database as a source of information available to SRS personnel

  9. Is mobile learning a substitute for electronic learning?

    OpenAIRE

    Sitthiworachart, Jirarat; Joy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Mobile learning is widely regarded as the next generation of learning technologies, and refers to the use of mobile devices in education to enhance learning activities. The increasing use of mobile devices has encouraged research into the capabilities of mobile learning systems. Many questions arise about mobile learning, such as whether mobile learning can be a substitute for electronic learning, what the potential benefits and problems of utilizing mobile devices in education are, and what ...

  10. Learning domain abstractions for long lived robots

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available the ability to continually learn from a lifetime of experience. Key to this is the ability to generalise from experiences and form representations which facilitate faster learning of new tasks, as well as the transfer of knowledge between different situations...

  11. Music and Informal Learning in Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt-Rawden, Kari; Denora, Tia

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors focus on informal learning as it is situated in and derived from everyday life experience (Lave, 1988; Lave and Wenger, 1991). Their concern is with informal musical learning and its link to health, well-being and the care of self, an area that has already received some attention from research in music therapy,…

  12. Overcoming Learned Helplessness in Community College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roueche, John E.; Mink, Oscar G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews research on the effects of repeated experiences of helplessness and on locus of control. Identifies conditions necessary for overcoming learned helplessness; i.e., the potential for learning to occur; consistent reinforcement; relevant, valued reinforcers; and favorable psychological situation. Recommends eight ways for teachers to…

  13. Affect and Learning : a computational analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekens, Douwe Joost

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we have studied the influence of emotion on learning. We have used computational modelling techniques to do so, more specifically, the reinforcement learning paradigm. Emotion is modelled as artificial affect, a measure that denotes the positiveness versus negativeness of a situation

  14. Teaching and Learning in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Barry; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian

    The 11 chapters in this book, each contributed by a different author, are organized around the "3P model" of learning at the college level developed by John Biggs, which allows teachers to monitor and modify their teaching in light of students' learning. The 3P model includes presage (student and situational variables), process (how…

  15. Workplaces as Transformative Learning Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslo, Elina

    2010-01-01

    some other examples on “successful learning” from the formal, informal and non-formal learning environments, trying to prove those criteria. This presentation provides a view on to new examples on transformative learning spaces we discovered doing research on Workplace Learning in Latvia as a part......Abstract to the Vietnam Forum on Lifelong Learning: Building a Learning Society Hanoi, 7-8 December 2010 Network 2: Competence development as Workplace Learning Title of proposal: Workplaces as Transformative Learning Spaces Author: Elina Maslo, dr. paed., University of Latvia, elina@latnet.lv Key...... words: learning, lifelong learning, adult learning, workplace learning, transformative learning spaces During many years of research on lifelong foreign language learning with very different groups of learners, we found some criteria, which make learning process successful. Since then we tried to find...

  16. Flexible learning intinerary vs. linear learning itinerary

    OpenAIRE

    Martín San José, Juan Fernando; Juan Lizandra, María Carmen; Gil Gómez, Jose Antonio; Rando, Noemí

    2014-01-01

    The latest video game and entertainment technology and other technologies are facilitating the development of new and powerful e-Learning systems. In this paper, we present a computer-based game for learning about five historical ages. The objective of the game is to reinforce the events that mark the transition from one historical age to another and the order of the historical ages. Our game incorporates natural human-computer interaction based on video game technology, Frontal Projection, a...

  17. LEARNING HOW TO LEARN A LANGUAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    Language Training; Tel. 73127; Andrée Fontbonne; Tel. 72844

    2001-01-01

    This bilingual seminar is for anyone who would like to develop learning strategies and skills for learning a foreign language. Languages: French and English. Length: 3 days, 7 hours per day. Dates: 7, 8, 9 March 2001. Price: 462 CHF per person (for a group of 8 people). If you are interested, please enrol through our Web pages: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/LANG/lang0_F.html

  18. LEARNING HOW TO LEARN A LANGUAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    Moniek Laurent

    2002-01-01

    This bilingual seminar is for anyone who would like to develop learning strategies and skills for learning a foreign language. Languages: French and English. Length: 3 days, 7 hours per day. Dates: 4, 5, 6 March 2002. Price: 460 CHF per person (for a group of 8 people). If you are interested, please enrol through our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training   Language Training Moniek Laurent Tel. 78582 moniek.laurent@cern.ch

  19. LEARNING HOW TO LEARN A LANGUAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    Formation en Langues; Andrée Fontbonne - Tél. 72844; Language Training; Françoise Benz - Tel. 73127; Andrée Fontbonne - Tel. 72844

    2000-01-01

    This bilingual seminar is for anyone who would like to develop learning strategies and skills for learning a foreign language. It is particularly recommended for those wishing to sign up for a 3-month self-study session in the Resource Centre. Languages: French and English. Length: 5 hours a day for one week. Dates: 27 November to December 2000. Price: 490 CHF per person (for a group of 8 people). If you are interested, please enrol through our Web pages.

  20. Learning to practice: Practicing to learn

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, F.

    2005-01-01

    There is clearly a lack of consensus regarding the terminology used to describe the APStraciJ eXp 0jtatjon of knowledge in an organisational context. The theory of knowledge exploitation is bound up in various concepts, the most familiar being Organisational Learning, Knowledge Management and the Learning Organisation. This report is an enquiry into the applicability of these concepts to the design led architectural practice. Implicit within this study is a suggestion that the firm can be suc...

  1. CULTURAL VARIATIONS IN LEARNING AND LEARNING STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah OMIDVAR,, Putra University, MALAYSIA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The need for cross-cultural understanding of the relationship between culture and learning style is becoming increasingly important because of the changing cultural mix of classrooms and society at large. The research done regarding the two variables is mostly quantitative. This review summarizes results of the existing research on cultural variations in learning styles. Limitations of the existing studies are discussed and some suggestion for future research is proposed.

  2. Learning from neural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Hill, David J

    2006-01-01

    One of the amazing successes of biological systems is their ability to "learn by doing" and so adapt to their environment. In this paper, first, a deterministic learning mechanism is presented, by which an appropriately designed adaptive neural controller is capable of learning closed-loop system dynamics during tracking control to a periodic reference orbit. Among various neural network (NN) architectures, the localized radial basis function (RBF) network is employed. A property of persistence of excitation (PE) for RBF networks is established, and a partial PE condition of closed-loop signals, i.e., the PE condition of a regression subvector constructed out of the RBFs along a periodic state trajectory, is proven to be satisfied. Accurate NN approximation for closed-loop system dynamics is achieved in a local region along the periodic state trajectory, and a learning ability is implemented during a closed-loop feedback control process. Second, based on the deterministic learning mechanism, a neural learning control scheme is proposed which can effectively recall and reuse the learned knowledge to achieve closed-loop stability and improved control performance. The significance of this paper is that the presented deterministic learning mechanism and the neural learning control scheme provide elementary components toward the development of a biologically-plausible learning and control methodology. Simulation studies are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  3. Continuum of eLearning: 2012 Project Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    multimedia, and Continuum of eLearning | Purpose and Vision 19 << UNCLASSIFIED>> (limited) situated learning. Future versions of the CoL self-paced...Continuum of eLearning : 2012 Project Summary Report Continuum of eLearning The Next Evolution of Joint Training on JKO October 2012 Joint...Technical Report November 2011 – August 2012 Continuum of eLearning : 2012 Project Summary Report N00140-06-D-0060 David T. Fautua, Sae Schatz, Andrea

  4. Theoretical Foundations of Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    I study the informational complexity of active learning in a statistical learning theory framework. Specifically, I derive bounds on the rates of...convergence achievable by active learning , under various noise models and under general conditions on the hypothesis class. I also study the theoretical...advantages of active learning over passive learning, and develop procedures for transforming passive learning algorithms into active learning algorithms

  5. The Army Learning Organisation Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    learning • Sharing information • Learning resulting in purposeful action • Creating environments that promote learning • Technology and resources...individual and collective learning • Exploiting and investing in technology to facilitate learning (i.e. blended and E- learning ) • Lifelong or...opportunities provided by training and education programs. More significantly, participants noted the multi-layered nature of informal and formal learning

  6. Active Learning Through Discussion in E-Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Daru Wahyuningsih

    2016-01-01

    Active learning is generally made by a lecturer in learning face to face. In the face to face learning, lecturer can implement a variety of teaching methods to make students actively involved in learning. This is different from learning that is actuating in e-learning. The main characteristic of e-learning is learning that can take place anytime and anywhere. Special strategies are needed so that lecturer can make students play an active role in the course of e-learning. Research in order to ...

  7. Zero Learning: Case explorations of barriers to organizational learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; S., Jacob

    2003-01-01

    that the existence of learning barriers may not only inhibit on-going learning process, but also lead to a negative cycle of non-learning in the organization. The implications of a "zero learning" cycle caused by learning barriers are discussed and insights are provided as to how barriers may be resolved so...

  8. Seamless Language Learning: Second Language Learning with Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chai, Ching Sing; Aw, Guat Poh

    2017-01-01

    This conceptual paper describes a language learning model that applies social media to foster contextualized and connected language learning in communities. The model emphasizes weaving together different forms of language learning activities that take place in different learning contexts to achieve seamless language learning. it promotes social…

  9. Learning "While" Working: Success Stories on Workplace Learning in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardinois, Rocio

    2011-01-01

    Cedefop's report "Learning while working: success stories on workplace learning in Europe" presents an overview of key trends in adult learning in the workplace. It takes stock of previous research carried out by Cedefop between 2003 and 2010 on key topics for adult learning: governance and the learning regions; social partner roles in…

  10. Can Social Learning Increase Learning Speed, Performance or Both?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinerman, J.V.; Stork, J.; Rebolledo Coy, M.A.; Hubert, J.G.; Eiben, A.E.; Bartz-Beielstein, Thomas; Haasdijk, Evert

    2017-01-01

    Social learning enables multiple robots to share learned experiences while completing a task. The literature offers contradicting examples of its benefits; robots trained with social learning reach a higher performance, an increased learning speed, or both, compared to their individual learning

  11. Toward a Social Approach to Learning in Community Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Leda; Scharrer, Erica; Paredes, Mari Castaneda

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe a social approach to learning in community service learning that extends the contributions of three theoretical bodies of scholarship on learning: social constructionism, critical pedagogy, and community service learning. Building on the assumptions about learning described in each of these areas, engagement, identity, and…

  12. Deep learning: Using machine learning to study biological vision

    OpenAIRE

    Majaj, Najib; Pelli, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Today most vision-science presentations mention machine learning. Many neuroscientists use machine learning to decode neural responses. Many perception scientists try to understand recognition by living organisms. To them, machine learning offers a reference of attainable performance based on learned stimuli. This brief overview of the use of machine learning in biological vision touches on its strengths, weaknesses, milestones, controversies, and current directions.

  13. Blended learning in anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Gert Værge; Brogner, Heidi Marie

    behind DBR is that new knowledge is generated through processes that simultaneously develop, test and improve a design, in this case, an educational design (1) The main principles used in the project is blended learning and flipped learning (2). …"I definitely learn best in practice, but the theory...... in working with the assignments in the classroom."... External assesor, observer and interviewer Based on the different evaluations, the conclusion are that the blended learning approach combined with the ‘flipped classroom’ is a very good way to learn and apply the anatomy, both for the students......The aim of the project was to bridge the gap between theory and practice by working more collaboratively, both peer-to-peer and between student and lecturer. Furthermore the aim was to create active learning environments. The methodology of the project is Design-Based Research (DBR). The idea...

  14. Cultural dimensions of learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyford, Glen A.

    1990-06-01

    How, what, when and where we learn is frequently discussed, as are content versus process, or right brain versus left brain learning. What is usually missing is the cultural dimension. This is not an easy concept to define, but various aspects can be identified. The World Decade for Cultural Development emphasizes the need for a counterbalance to a quantitative, economic approach. In the last century poets also warned against brutalizing materialism, and Sorokin and others have described culture more recently in terms of cohesive basic values expressed through aesthetics and institutions. Bloom's taxonomy incorporates the category of affective learning, which internalizes values. If cultural learning goes beyond knowledge acquisition, perhaps the surest way of understanding the cultural dimension of learning is to examine the aesthetic experience. This can use myths, metaphors and symbols, and to teach and learn by using these can help to unlock the human potential for vision and creativity.

  15. Learning through reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2007-01-01

    Universities can from the student?s point of view be seen as places of learning an explicit curriculum of a particular discipline. From a fieldwork among physicist students at the Niels Bohr Institute in Denmark, I argue that the learning of cultural code-curricula in higher educational...... institutions designate in ambiguous ways. I argue claim that students also have to learn institutional cultural codes, which are not the explicit curricula presented in textbooks, but a socially designated cultural code-curricula learned through everyday interactions at the university institutes. I further...... argue that this code-curriculum is learned through what I shall term indefinite learning processes, which are mainly pre-discursive to the newcomer...

  16. Cultural Learning Redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael

    2016-05-01

    M. Tomasello, A. Kruger, and H. Ratner (1993) proposed a theory of cultural learning comprising imitative learning, instructed learning, and collaborative learning. Empirical and theoretical advances in the past 20 years suggest modifications to the theory; for example, children do not just imitate but overimitate in order to identify and affiliate with others in their cultural group, children learn from pedagogy not just episodic facts but the generic structure of their cultural worlds, and children collaboratively co-construct with those in their culture normative rules for doing things. In all, human children do not just culturally learn useful instrumental activities and information, they conform to the normative expectations of the cultural group and even contribute themselves to the creation of such normative expectations. © 2016 The Author. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Problem Based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Graaff, Erik; Guerra, Aida

    , the key principles remain the same everywhere. Graaff & Kolmos (2003) identify the main PBL principles as follows: 1. Problem orientation 2. Project organization through teams or group work 3. Participant-directed 4. Experiental learning 5. Activity-based learning 6. Interdisciplinary learning and 7...... model and in general problem based and project based learning. We apply the principle of teach as you preach. The poster aims to outline the visitors’ workshop programme showing the results of some recent evaluations.......Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is an innovative method to organize the learning process in such a way that the students actively engage in finding answers by themselves. During the past 40 years PBL has evolved and diversified resulting in a multitude in variations in models and practices. However...

  18. Deep learning with Python

    CERN Document Server

    Chollet, Francois

    2018-01-01

    DESCRIPTION Deep learning is applicable to a widening range of artificial intelligence problems, such as image classification, speech recognition, text classification, question answering, text-to-speech, and optical character recognition. Deep Learning with Python is structured around a series of practical code examples that illustrate each new concept introduced and demonstrate best practices. By the time you reach the end of this book, you will have become a Keras expert and will be able to apply deep learning in your own projects. KEY FEATURES • Practical code examples • In-depth introduction to Keras • Teaches the difference between Deep Learning and AI ABOUT THE TECHNOLOGY Deep learning is the technology behind photo tagging systems at Facebook and Google, self-driving cars, speech recognition systems on your smartphone, and much more. AUTHOR BIO Francois Chollet is the author of Keras, one of the most widely used libraries for deep learning in Python. He has been working with deep neural ...

  19. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  20. Formalized Informal Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2013-01-01

    are examined and the relation between network society competences, learners’ informal learning strategies and ICT in formalized school settings over time is studied. The authors find that aspects of ICT like multimodality, intuitive interaction design and instant feedback invites an informal bricoleur approach....... When integrated into certain designs for teaching and learning, this allows for Formalized Informal Learning and support is found for network society competences building....