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Sample records for learning problems drugs

  1. Learning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning Problems KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning Problems What's in ... for how to make it better. What Are Learning Disabilities? Learning disabilities aren't contagious, but they ...

  2. Recovery from Problem Drug Use: What Can We Learn from the Dociologist Erving Goffman?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Joanne; Nettleton, Sarah; Pickering, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    In this commentary, we critically review the contribution of the sociologist Erving Goffman (1922-1982) to understanding recovery from problem drug use. Previous research has indicated that drug users have a "spoiled identity" and must restore a "normal" or "unspoiled" identity in order to recover. This argument has been linked to Goffman's…

  3. Problem Based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Graaff, Erik; Guerra, Aida

    , the key principles remain the same everywhere. Graaff & Kolmos (2003) identify the main PBL principles as follows: 1. Problem orientation 2. Project organization through teams or group work 3. Participant-directed 4. Experiental learning 5. Activity-based learning 6. Interdisciplinary learning and 7...... model and in general problem based and project based learning. We apply the principle of teach as you preach. The poster aims to outline the visitors’ workshop programme showing the results of some recent evaluations.......Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is an innovative method to organize the learning process in such a way that the students actively engage in finding answers by themselves. During the past 40 years PBL has evolved and diversified resulting in a multitude in variations in models and practices. However...

  4. Problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyens, Sofie; Kirschner, Paul A.; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Loyens, S. M. M., Kirschner, P. A., & Paas, F. (2011). Problem-based learning. In S. Graham (Editor-in-Chief), A. Bus, S. Major, & L. Swanson (Associate Editors), APA educational psychology handbook: Vol. 3. Application to learning and teaching (pp. 403-425). Washington, DC: American Psychological

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors ... GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved November 2017. How are Drug Misuse and HIV Related? Drug misuse and addiction ...

  6. Problem Solving and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2009-07-01

    One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.

  7. Problems with drugs in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrhovac, B

    1997-01-01

    Croatia has 4.8 million inhabitants, 11,800 physicians, 2000 pharmacists, two now shareholding, pharmaceutical companies (about 6500 employees, total sales of about 350 million US dollars). There are a number of problems due to the war (GNP fell from 3800 to about 1500 US dollars), occupation of 25% of its territory, 0.5 million refugees and lack of resources (139 US dollars/capita for health, about 40 US dollars i.e. 30%!! for drugs)--about three times less than before the aggression. The drug situation is controlled with the help of: (1) donations (approximate value of 600 million US dollars since 1991 from Europe and US), (2) (essential) drug formularies--250 for outpatients, and 580 generic names for various levels of hospital use, (3) special efforts to purchase drugs of good quality at a reasonable price (a kind of tender), (4) control of prescribing (prescriptions, specialists referral) especially by GPs. A new Medicines Act is in preparation and about 1000 generic names are on the market. DRUG EDUCATION: Pharmaca: the Croatian journal of pharmacotherapy has been published since 1962, there are several Drug bulletins (one published since 1975); special chapters on clinical pharmacology in textbooks, translation of three editions of Laurence's textbook with special commentary and adaptation to local needs; ADR spontaneous and intensive monitoring (WHO programme) with a personal feedback to the reporters and regular articles on drug use in a number of periodicals. Data on drug consumption indicates that there is room for improvement of prescribing. There is an enthusiasm for 'vasoactive drugs'--after dipirydamole came oxpentifylline and antimicrobials are always overprescribed. All these problems will hopefully decrease when the war finally stops and when industry (especially tourism) starts being fruitful again. In any case the importance of teaching of pharmacotherapy at the under- and postgraduate level should be recognized. Copyright 1997 by John Wiley

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects National Drug & Alcohol Facts Week NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog ... Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering Festival Drug & Alcohol Chat Day HBO Addiction Project Learn the Link ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV ... Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making decisions. ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... depict the devastating consequences of compromised judgment and critical thinking that can result from drug use. Young ... HIV epidemic. As we learn more about the critical connection between drug misuse and HIV/AIDS and ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  15. Dimensions of problem based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2013-01-01

    The article contributes to the literature on problem based learning and problem-oriented project work, building on and reflecting the experiences of the authors through decades of work with problem-oriented project pedagogy. The article explores different dimensions of problem based learning such...... and Learning (MIL). We discuss changes in the roles of the teachers as supervisors within this learning environment, and we explore the involvement of students as active participants and co-designers of how course and project activities unfold....

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse ... Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug misuse are ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs ... HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug misuse ...

  18. Educational audit on drug dose calculation learning in a Tanzanian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Patient safety is a key concern for nurses; ability to calculate drug ... Specific objectives were to assess learning from targeted teaching, to identify problem areas in perfor- .... this could result in reduced risk of drug dose error in.

  19. Problem Based Learning Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    2018-01-01

    “How do two online learning designs affect student engagement in the PBL online modules?” The empirical data were collected and analyzed using a netnographic approach. The study finds that concepts such as self-directed learning and active involvement may be perceived very differently from the students...

  20. Types of Learning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... Article Body Dyslexia Dyslexia is defined as difficulty reading. When children are learning to read and write ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... people on HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy), for example, who continue to misuse drugs. The Learn the Link public service campaign is just one example of how NIDA continues to respond to the ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... of many drugs, which can alter judgment and inhibition and lead people to engage in impulsive and ... easily copy and paste to help show your support for Learn the Link . Be sure to check ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... risky behavior. Drug misuse by any route (not just injection) can put a person at risk for ... The Learn the Link public service campaign is just one example of how NIDA continues to respond ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... in the spread of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, ... learn about current statistics of HIV in the United States, please visit: https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids- ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to parents, teachers, and the media about the link between drug misuse and HIV. Post on Facebook or Twitter ; add photos to your Flickr , ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to parents, teachers, and the media about the link between drug ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging ... Badges Other Resources Strategic Plan Search Share Print Home » News & Events » Public Education Projects » Learn the Link - ...

  10. 2010 drug packaging review: identifying problems to prevent errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Prescrire's analyses showed that the quality of drug packaging in 2010 still left much to be desired. Potentially dangerous packaging remains a significant problem: unclear labelling is source of medication errors; dosing devices for some psychotropic drugs create a risk of overdose; child-proof caps are often lacking; and too many patient information leaflets are misleading or difficult to understand. Everything that is needed for safe drug packaging is available; it is now up to regulatory agencies and drug companies to act responsibly. In the meantime, health professionals can help their patients by learning to identify the pitfalls of drug packaging and providing safe information to help prevent medication errors.

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... News NIDA Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects Contact the Press Office Meetings & Events Media Guide ... Search Share Print Home » News & Events » Public Education Projects » Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and ... available for your use to share on your social media accounts. About the Campaign Overview The Learn ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Learn the Link campaign uses TV, print, and Web public service announcements (PSAs), as well as posters, e-cards, ... to misuse drugs. The Learn the Link public service campaign is just one ... site. Sincerely, Nora D. Volkow, M.D. Director ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... for young people, parents and teachers, and the media with links to our latest research findings and news updates. Read on to Learn the Link between ... to this site at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . ... Social Media Send the message to young people and to ...

  17. Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…

  18. Identifying Adverse Drug Events by Relational Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, David; Costa, Vítor Santos; Natarajan, Sriraam; Barnard, Aubrey; Peissig, Peggy; Caldwell, Michael

    2012-07-01

    The pharmaceutical industry, consumer protection groups, users of medications and government oversight agencies are all strongly interested in identifying adverse reactions to drugs. While a clinical trial of a drug may use only a thousand patients, once a drug is released on the market it may be taken by millions of patients. As a result, in many cases adverse drug events (ADEs) are observed in the broader population that were not identified during clinical trials. Therefore, there is a need for continued, post-marketing surveillance of drugs to identify previously-unanticipated ADEs. This paper casts this problem as a reverse machine learning task , related to relational subgroup discovery and provides an initial evaluation of this approach based on experiments with an actual EMR/EHR and known adverse drug events.

  19. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  20. Learning unlearnable problems with perceptrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkin, Timothy L. H.; Rau, Albrecht

    1992-03-01

    We study how well perceptrons learn to solve problems for which there is no perfect answer (the usual case), taking as examples a rule with a threshold, a rule in which the answer is not a monotonic function of the overlap between question and teacher, and a rule with many teachers (a ``hard'' unlearnable problem). In general there is a tendency for first-order transitions, even using spherical perceptrons, as networks compromise between conflicting requirements. Some existing learning schemes fail completely-occasionally even finding the worst possible solution; others are more successful. High-temperature learning seems more satisfactory than zero-temperature algorithms and avoids ``overlearning'' and ``overfitting,'' but care must be taken to avoid ``trapping'' in spurious free-energy minima. For some rules examples alone are not enough to learn from, and some prior information is required.

  1. An active role for machine learning in drug development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the complexity of biological systems, cutting-edge machine-learning methods will be critical for future drug development. In particular, machine-vision methods to extract detailed information from imaging assays and active-learning methods to guide experimentation will be required to overcome the dimensionality problem in drug development. PMID:21587249

  2. Characteristics of Problem-Based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Anette

    2003-01-01

    Problem BAsed LEarning (PBL) is widely regarded as a successful and innovative method for engineering education. The article highlights the Dutch approach of directing the learning process throuogh problem analysis and the Danish model of project-organised learning...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and what to do to counter these trends. Online Resources NIDA for Teens Web site : This Web ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... women can pass HIV to their babies during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding. HIV destroys a certain kind ... at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... link between drug misuse and HIV. http://1.usa.gov/1z20ww6 How many of us think about ... can’t ignore. Learn the Link: http://1.usa.gov/1uSUAI3 Think you’re not at risk? ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and ... HIV/AIDS and the discovery of promising treatment interventions for breaking the harmful links between them, we ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... HIV to their babies during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding. HIV destroys a certain kind of white blood ... at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... HIV > Learn the Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use can lead to poor decision making, which can result in risky sexual behaviors and HIV infection. Although the characters are fictional, ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to parents, teachers, and the media ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... and what to do to counter these trends. Online Resources NIDA for Teens Web site : This Web ... at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... site. Please link these banners back to this site at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to ...

  17. Deep Learning in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawehn, Erik; Hiss, Jan A; Schneider, Gisbert

    2016-01-01

    Artificial neural networks had their first heyday in molecular informatics and drug discovery approximately two decades ago. Currently, we are witnessing renewed interest in adapting advanced neural network architectures for pharmaceutical research by borrowing from the field of "deep learning". Compared with some of the other life sciences, their application in drug discovery is still limited. Here, we provide an overview of this emerging field of molecular informatics, present the basic concepts of prominent deep learning methods and offer motivation to explore these techniques for their usefulness in computer-assisted drug discovery and design. We specifically emphasize deep neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine networks and convolutional networks. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Java problem-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran P, Šimić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the self-directed problem-based learning system (PBL named Java PBL. The expert module is the kernel of Java PBL. It involves a specific domain model, a problem generator and a solution generator. The overall system architecture is represented in the paper. Java PBL can act as the stand-alone system, but it is also designed to provide support to learning management systems (LMSs. This is provided by a modular design of the system. An LMS can offer the declarative knowledge only. Java PBL offers the procedural knowledge and the progress of the learner programming skills. The free navigation, unlimited numbers of problems and recommendations represent the main pedagogical strategies and tactics implemented into the system.

  19. Teaching Problem Based Learning as Blended Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte; Nortvig, Anne-Mette

    2018-01-01

    Problem-based and project organized learning (PBL) was originally developed for collaboration between physically present students, but political decisions at many universities require that collaboration, dialogues, and other PBL activities take place online as well. With a theoretical point...... of departure in Dewey and a methodological point of departure in netnography, this study focuses on an online module at Aalborg University where teaching is based on PBL. With the research question ‘How can teachers design for PBL online,’ this study explores the teacher’s role in a six weeks’ blended learning...... program, and we present suggestions for designs for blended learning PBL based on case studies from two PBL courses...

  20. Features and Characteristics of Problem Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceker, Eser; Ozdamli, Fezile

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the years, there appears to be an increase in Problem Based Learning applications in education; and Problem Based Learning related research areas. The main aim of this research is to underline the fundamentals (basic elements) of Problem Based Learning, investigate the dimensions of research approached to PBL oriented areas (with a look…

  1. Problem Based Learning for engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Radcliffe, Pj

    2017-07-01

    the role of Problem Based Learning (PBL) is relative clear in domains such as medicine but its efficacy in engineering is as yet less certain. To clarify the role of PBL in engineering, a 3 day workshop was conducted for senior Brazilian engineering academics where they were given the theory and then an immersive PBL experience. One major purpose for running this workshop was for them to identify suitable courses where PBL could be considered. During this workshop, they were split in teams and given a diverse range of problems. At the conclusion of the workshop, a quantifiable survey was conducted and the results show that PBL can deliver superior educational outcomes providing the student group is drawn from the top 5% of the year 12 students, and that significantly higher resources are made available. Thus, any proposed PBL program in engineering must be able to demonstrate that it can meet these requirements before it can move forward to implementation.

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cigs Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse ...

  3. Drug problem in southeast and southwest Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsudjarit, Kongpetch

    2004-10-01

    In 2002, the drug problem in Southeast and Southwest Asia was serious, particularly in the production of opium and heroin in Afghanistan, Myanmar, and Laos, the three largest producers of illicit opium in the world. The increasing illicit manufacture of ATS, particularly methamphetamine, in Southeast Asia, mainly in China and Myanmar, was also a major concern. Some reports indicated that ephedrine, used for illicitly producing methamphetamine in Southeast Asia, is diverted and smuggled out of China and India, whereas caffeine, the adulterant used for producing methamphetamine tablets, is mainly smuggled into Myanmar through its border with Thailand. Seizure data showed a dramatic increase in trafficking in MDMA through Southeast Asia. In terms of the drug epidemic, in 2002, cannabis remained overall the main drug of abuse in all of the countries of Southeast and Southwest Asia. Opiates, mainly opium and heroin, were also the drugs of choice except in Thailand, where opiate abuse declined, but ATS was the main drug of abuse due to its low cost and availability. A significant increase in ATS abuse, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and MDMA among the youth who smoked, sniffed, and inhaled them was reported in Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, the Philippines, and Thailand. Injecting drug use among opiate abusers has been identified as the prime cause of the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS in Southeast and Southwest Asia.

  4. Learning from the problems of problem-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epstein Richard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The last decade has witnessed a rapid expansion of biomedical knowledge. Despite this, fashions in medical education over the same period have shifted away from factual (didactic teaching and towards contextual, or problem-based, learning (PBL. This paradigm shift has been justified by studies showing that PBL improves reasoning and communication while being associated with few if any detectable knowledge deficits. Discussion Analysis of the literature indicates that the recent rapid rise of PBL has closely paralleled the timing of the information explosion. The growing dominance of PBL could thus worsen the problems of information management in medical education via several mechanisms: first, by creating the impression that a defined spectrum of core factual knowledge suffices for clinical competence despite ongoing knowledge expansion (quality cost; second, by dissuading teachers from refining the educational utility of didactic modalities (improvement cost; and third, by reducing faculty time for developing reusable resources to impart factual knowledge more efficiently (opportunity cost. Summary These costs of PBL imply a need for strengthening the knowledge base of 21st-century medical graduates. New initiatives towards this end could include the development of more integrated cognitive techniques for facilitating the comprehension of complex data; the design of differentiated medical curricula for producing graduates with defined high-priority skill sets; and the encouragement of more cost-effective faculty teaching activities focused on the prototyping and testing of innovative commercializable educational tools.

  5. Using Problem-Based Learning in Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the process of writing a problem-based learning (PBL) problem and shows how a typical end-of-chapter accounting problem can be converted to a PBL problem. PBL uses complex, real-world problems to motivate students to identify and research the concepts and principles they need to know to solve these problems.…

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/ ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens ... Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and ... Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing ... please visit: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/age/youth/index.html​ . Resources Publications Drug Facts: Drug ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug misuse are among the main ... lead people to engage in impulsive and unsafe behaviors. Injection drug use. People typically associate drug misuse ...

  13. Features and characteristics of problem based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eser Ceker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the years, there appears to be an increase in Problem Based Learning applications in education; and Problem Based Learning related research areas. The main aim of this research is to underline the fundamentals (basic elements of Problem Based Learning, investigate the dimensions of research approached to PBL oriented areas (with a look for the latest technology supported tools of Problem Based Learning. This research showed that the most researched characteristics of PBL are; teacher and student assessments on Problem Based Learning, Variety of disciplines in which Problem Based Learning strategies were tried and success evaluated, Using Problem Based Learning alone or with other strategies (Hybrid or Mix methods, Comparing Problem Based Learning with other strategies, and new trends and tendencies in Problem Based Learning related research. Our research may help us to identify the latest trends and tendencies referred to in the published studies related to “problem based learning” areas. In this research, Science Direct and Ulakbim were used as our main database resources. The sample of this study consists of 150 articles.

  14. Least bad solutions to the 'drugs problem'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugford, S

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the current difficulties being faced in Australia by policy-makers attempting to regulate the non-medical use of illegal drugs, and it is suggested that the difficulties centre upon two aspects. First, existing prohibitions are unsuccessful, with use levels rising and, in some arenas (e.g. cocaine use in the USA), quite out of control. On the other hand, a move towards decriminalization or legalization is difficult because past propaganda has been so vehement that a change now apparently risks sending the wrong messages to young people. This dilemma means that there is no solution, including inertia, which is risk-free, nor is there one free of difficulties. It is thus relevant to think in terms of 'least bad' rather than 'best' when formulating a system to face these problems. The exploration of what this least bad solution might be begins with the examination of the prominent myths (such as 'the drug-free society', 'the evil pusher', 'the user as victim' and 'the young person as cultural dope') that hinder our reasoning. Secondly, by suggesting that, in a climate of increasing crime related to drugs, inability of prohibitions to control that use and escalating health risks attendant on use (including the AIDS problem), the central policy thrust must be harm reduction and damage minimization rather than illusory goals such as widespread abstinence. The paper concludes with a discussion of some relevant evidence on alternative options.

  15. Problem-based learning and radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurley, P.; Dennick, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Royal College of Radiologists recently published documents setting out guidelines to improve the teaching of radiology to medical students. These included recommendations that clinicians who teach radiology should be aware of newer educational techniques, such as problem-based learning, and should be involved in the development of curricula and assessment in medical schools. This review aims to introduce the educational theories behind problem-based learning and describe how a problem-based learning tutorial is run. The relevance of problem-based learning to radiology and the potential advantages and disadvantages are discussed

  16. Problem Solving Reasoning and Problem Based Instruction in Geometry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyowati, F.; Budiyono, B.; Slamet, I.

    2017-09-01

    This research aims to analyze the comparison Problem Solving Reasoning (PSR) and Problem Based Instruction (PBI) on problem solving and mathematical communication abilities viewed from Self-Regulated Learning (SRL). Learning was given to grade 8th junior high school students. This research uses quasi experimental method, and then with descriptive analysis. Data were analyzed using two-ways multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with different cells. The result of data analysis were learning model gives different effect, level of SRL gives the same effect, and there is no interaction between the learning model with the SRL on the problem solving and mathematical communication abilities. The t-test statistic was used to find out more effective learning model. Based on the test, regardless of the level of SRL, PSR is more effective than PBI for problemsolving ability. The result of descriptive analysis was PSR had the advantage in creating learning that optimizing the ability of learners in reasoning to solve a mathematical problem. Consequently, the PSR is the right learning model to be applied in the classroom to improve problem solving ability of learners.

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... www.cdc.gov/actagainstaids/basics/whatishiv.html ). Atlanta, GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved November 2017. How are Drug ... lead people to engage in impulsive and unsafe behaviors. Injection drug use. People typically associate drug misuse ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... or reduce their drug use and related risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug use disorder treatment programs also serve an important role in providing ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... risk for getting HIV. Drug and alcohol intoxication affect judgment and can lead to unsafe sexual practices, ... effects of drugs. Drug misuse and addiction can affect a person's overall health, thereby altering susceptibility to ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... is partly due to the addictive and intoxicating effects of many drugs, which can alter judgment and ... HIV or transmitting it to someone else. Biological effects of drugs. Drug misuse and addiction can affect ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts ... to HIV and progression of AIDS. Drugs of abuse and HIV both affect the brain. Research has ...

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    Full Text Available ... Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana ... person at risk for getting HIV. Drug and alcohol intoxication affect judgment and can lead to unsafe ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search ... Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/ ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... or reduce their drug use and related risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug use disorder treatment programs also serve an important role in ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl ... groups of young people, guiding the use of technology, the discussion between friends, and the importance of ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental ... is partly due to the addictive and intoxicating effects of many drugs, which can alter judgment and ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the ... AIDS, as well as HIV/AIDS research and policies. AIDS.gov New Media Tools : These new media ...

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    Full Text Available ... Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl ... AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). AIDS is a disease of the immune system for which there is ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... Campaign! NIDA acknowledges the following television networks, organizations, educational institutions, magazines, newspapers, companies, events, and radio stations ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... parents and teachers). It provides them with useful information on the science behind drug use. NIDA’s Easy-to-Read Drug Facts Web site describes the dangers of drug misuse and ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts Research Reports Mind Over Matter Science of Addiction Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical Research Post- ...

  12. Problems Associated With Substandard And Counterfeit Drugs In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problems Associated With Substandard And Counterfeit Drugs In Developing Countries: A Review Article On Global Implications Of Counterfeit Drugs In The Era Of Anti-Retroviral (ARVS) Drugs In A Free Market Economy.

  13. Understanding the Problems of Learning Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semilla-Dube, Lilia

    1983-01-01

    A model is being developed to categorize problems in teaching and learning mathematics. Categories include problems due to language difficulties, lack of prerequisite knowledge, and those related to the affective domain. This paper calls on individuals to share teaching and learning episodes; those submitted will then be compiled and categorized.…

  14. Learning from Dealing with Real World Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an example of using real world issues as tools for science teaching and learning. Using real world issues provides students with experiences in learning in problem-based environments and encourages them to apply their content knowledge to solving current and local problems.

  15. Psychological Problems of Children with Learning Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Scott, Patricia Carol

    The paper presents tips for parents of children with learning problems. It describes the emotional side effects of low achievement which may include low self-esteem, clinical depression, "learned helplessness," suicidal ideation, acting out behavior, low frustration tolerance, guilt feelings, interpersonal problems, withdrawal, running away,…

  16. Problem-Based Learning Approaches in Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton-Perez, Andrew James

    2013-01-01

    Problem-Based Learning, despite recent controversies about its effectiveness, is used extensively as a teaching method throughout higher education. In meteorology, there has been little attempt to incorporate Problem-Based Learning techniques into the curriculum. Motivated by a desire to enhance the reflective engagement of students within a…

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and ... the Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs ... from the Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Dr. Nora D. Volkow. Message from the Director ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... parents and teachers). It provides them with useful information on the science behind drug use. NIDA’s Easy-to-Read Drug ... between drugs and HIV, as well as other information about the science of drug use is available at NIDA's home ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis ( ... service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), offers access to the latest, federally approved ... & Alcohol Chat Day HBO Addiction Project ...

  1. Problem-Based Learning: Student Engagement, Learning and Contextualized Problem-Solving. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossuto, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The adoption of problem-based learning as a teaching method in the advertising and public relations programs offered by the Business TAFE (Technical and Further Education) School at RMIT University is explored in this paper. The effect of problem-based learning on student engagement, student learning and contextualised problem-solving was…

  2. Problem Based Learning - Linking Students and Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Flemming K.

    2006-01-01

    WG2_G4 Problem based learning – linking students and industry: a case study from Aalborg, Denmark Flemming K. Flink ELITE Aalborg University In Aalborg University, Denmark, all study programmes are organised around inter-disciplinary project work in groups. Up to 50% of the study work is problem-...... is essentially problem solving. The presentation looks into on campus POPBL and the Facilitated Work Based Learning (FBL) for continuing education. It also presents case examples of POPBL work....

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts Research Reports Mind Over Matter Science of Addiction Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical Research Post- ...

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    Full Text Available ... Plan Search Share ... Behaviors associated with drug misuse are among the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, ...

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    Full Text Available ... News NIDA Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects National Drug & Alcohol Facts Week NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog The NIDA Science Fair Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... associated with drug misuse are among the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the ... associated with drug misuse are among the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the ...

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    Full Text Available ... Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts Research Reports Mind Over Matter Science of Addiction Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical Research Post- ...

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    Full Text Available ... the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the ... about the link between drug misuse and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and ...

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    Full Text Available ... Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... AIDS. ( https://www.cdc.gov/actagainstaids/basics/whatishiv.html ). Atlanta, GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved November 2017. How ... www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/age/youth/index.html​ . Resources Publications Drug Facts: Drug Use and Viral ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts ... HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts ...

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  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... www.cdc.gov/actagainstaids/basics/whatishiv.html ). Atlanta, GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved November 2017. How are Drug ... HIV in brain cells 1 . Drug use disorder treatment. Since the late 1980s, research has shown that ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... affect judgment and can lead to unsafe sexual practices, which put people at risk for getting HIV ... risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug use disorder treatment programs also serve an ...

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    Full Text Available ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter ... is partly due to the addictive and intoxicating effects of many drugs, which can alter judgment and ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... November 2017. How are Drug Misuse and HIV Related? Drug misuse and addiction have been linked with ... Campaign messages and materials were tested among various groups of young people, guiding the use of technology, ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... from the Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Dr. Nora D. Volkow. Message from the Director ... D. Volkow, M.D. Director National Institute on Drug Abuse Collaborators Thanks to Those Who Have Helped Raise ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... with HIV is a key predictor of the development of AIDS. Because of their compromised immune system, ... needle sharing. When people who inject drugs share "equipment"—such as needles, syringes, and other drug injection ...

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    Full Text Available ... Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental ... and alcohol even once can have serious health consequences. We also work to reach parents and teachers— ...

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    Full Text Available ... Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental Health Military Opioid Overdose Reversal with Naloxone (Narcan, Evzio) Pain ... and other tools to send the message to America's youth that using drugs and alcohol even once ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts Research Reports Mind Over Matter Science of Addiction Funding Funding Opportunities ... After the Party" "Text Message" NIDA Home Site Map Accessibility Privacy FOIA(NIH) Working at NIDA FAQs ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... drugs, which can alter judgment and inhibition and lead people to engage in impulsive and unsafe behaviors. ... Drug and alcohol intoxication affect judgment and can lead to unsafe sexual practices, which put people at ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA ( ... materials include print PSAs, Web banner PSAs, promo cards, and posters. Videos The campaign includes the "After ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... HIV or transmitting it to someone else. Biological effects of drugs. Drug misuse and addiction can affect a person's overall health, thereby altering susceptibility to HIV and progression of ...

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    Full Text Available ... intoxication affect judgment and can lead to unsafe sexual practices, which put people at risk for getting ... related risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug use disorder treatment programs also serve ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people ... States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people ...

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    Full Text Available ... night she went to a party and under the influence of drugs and alcohol engaged in risky sexual behavior that resulted in HIV infection. Watch the "After the Party" Video Behaviors associated with drug ...

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    Full Text Available ... Prevention Recovery Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search ... the link between drug misuse and HIV/AIDS, populations most at risk, trends in HIV/AIDS, and ...

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    Full Text Available ... HIV or transmitting it to someone else. Biological effects of drugs. Drug misuse and addiction can affect a person's overall health, thereby altering susceptibility to HIV and progression of AIDS. Drugs of abuse and HIV both affect the brain. Research has shown that HIV causes greater injury ...

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    Full Text Available ... related risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug use disorder treatment programs also serve an important role in ... increasingly at risk for HIV infection through risky sexual behaviors. NIDA ... of the disease. Since the epidemic began, injection drug use has ...

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    Full Text Available ... teachers). It provides them with useful information on the science behind drug use. NIDA’s Easy-to-Read Drug ... and HIV, as well as other information about the science of drug use is available at NIDA's home ...

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    Full Text Available ... effects of drugs. Drug misuse and addiction can affect a person's overall health, thereby altering susceptibility to HIV and progression of ... drugs and alcohol even once can have serious health consequences. We also work to reach parents and teachers—influential figures in ...

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    Full Text Available ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... Meetings & Events Media Guide Get this Publication Español View Webisodes View Videos "After the Party" "Text Message" ...

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    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug misuse are among the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Bath Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine and E-Cigs Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults ... 2017. How are Drug Misuse and HIV Related? Drug misuse and addiction have been linked with HIV/AIDS since the ...

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    Full Text Available ... Learn the Link with Videos We have numerous videos on our website that are available for your use to share on your social media accounts. About the Campaign Overview The Learn the ...

  3. Enhanced learning through design problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Högberg, Stig; Jensen, Frida av Fløtum

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a teaching method used in an electrical machines course, where the students learn about electrical machines by designing them. The aim of the course is not to teach design, albeit this is a side product, but rather to teach the fundamentals and the function of electrical...... machines through design. The teaching method is evaluated by a student questionnaire, designed to measure the quality and effectiveness of the teaching method. The results of the questionnaire conclusively show that this method labelled ‘learning through design’ is a very effective way of teaching...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... WMATA) Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) NY Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) Titan Worldwide Hestia International Panasonic Times ... Education Projects National Drug & Alcohol Facts Week NIDA ...

  5. Problem Based Learning, curriculum development and change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problem Based Learning, curriculum development and change process at ... was started in 1924 and has been running a traditional curriculum for 79 years. ... Methods: The stages taken during the process were described and analysed.

  6. Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crul, Liselore

    2014-01-01

    This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…

  7. Cooperative learning, problem solving and mediating artifacts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF.MIREKU

    10, 2012. 39. Cooperative learning, problem solving and mediating artifacts. F. Bahmaei6 & N. ... out cooperative learning in the end, post-test was done and by analyzing the tests it was concluded that ... Johnson et al, 1991 b, Reynolds et al. 1995, Vidakovic .... connection of mental constructs (Hiebert, Carpenter, 1992).

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr ... Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts Research Reports Mind Over Matter ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of ... Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Dr. Nora D. Volkow. Message from the Director The ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... E-Cigs Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged ... Reference Marcondes, M.C. et al. “Methamphetamine increases brain viral load and ... are Teens Affected? Young people are at risk for contracting ...

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    Full Text Available ... Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts Research Reports Mind Over Matter Science of Addiction Funding Funding Opportunities ... hiv-aids-101/statistics/ . Reference Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National ...

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    Full Text Available ... person at risk for getting HIV. Drug and alcohol intoxication affect judgment and can lead to unsafe sexual practices, which put people at risk for getting HIV or transmitting it to someone ... HIV, and using drugs and alcohol can increase the chances of unsafe behavior by ...

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    Full Text Available ... she went to a party and under the influence of drugs and alcohol engaged in risky sexual behavior that resulted in HIV infection. Watch the "After the Party" Video Behaviors associated with drug misuse are among the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the ...

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  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... in the spread of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making decisions. This page connects you to information about the link between drug misuse and HIV ...

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    Full Text Available ... can be transmitted between users. Other infections, such as hepatitis C, can also be spread this way. Hepatitis C can cause liver disease and permanent liver damage. Poor judgment and risky behavior. Drug misuse by any route (not just injection) can put a person at risk for getting HIV. Drug and ...

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    Full Text Available ... gov/hiv/risk/age/youth/index.html​ . Resources Publications Drug Facts: Drug Use and Viral Infections : Describes ... Press Office Meetings & Events Media Guide Get this Publication Español View Webisodes View Videos "After the Party" " ...

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  1. MEMECAHKAN MASALAH GEOGRAFI MELALUI PROBLEM BASED LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujiono Sujiono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of Problem Based Learning model on geography problem-solving sklills. This research model is quasi experiment with non-equivalent control group design. The subjects of the study were the students of XI IPS SMA Negeri 1 Pulau Laut Timur, academic year 2016/2017. The assessment instrument is an essay test based on an indicator of problem solving skills, ie (1 identifying problems; (2 formulate the problem; (3 finding alternative solutions; (4 choose alternative solutions; and (5 make conclusions. Data analysis using independent sample t-test model with 5% significance level. The results showed that there is an influence of PBL model on geography problem-solving sklills. The geography problem-solving skills of experimental class with PBL model is higher than control class with conventional model. Suggestion given, that is to make a plan of learning well and doing learning PBL on outdoor study.   Keywords Problem Based Learning, problem-solving skills, geography   http://dx.doi.org/10.17977/um022v2i22017p072

  2. Pharmacist intervention in drug-related problems for patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trop J Pharm Res, October 2016; 15(10): 2275. Tropical Journal of ... medication errors in irrational drug use, while patient adherence ..... Drug-related problems identified from geriatric medication safety ... Ann. Pharmacother. 2005; 39:1423-.

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... shown that drug use disorder treatment is an effective way to prevent the spread of HIV. People ... that use text messaging as a means of communication. The "Text Message" PSA features two young girls ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Dr. Nora D. Volkow. Message from the Director The ... their peers to prevent the spread of this disease. NIDA's public service announcements depict the devastating consequences ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Link between drug use and HIV and to help us Send the Message . Get the Facts What ... and the public. Send the Message Overview Please help us send the message to young people and ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... that use text messaging as a means of communication. The "Text Message" PSA features two young girls ... about the link between drug misuse and HIV. Post on Facebook or Twitter ; add photos to your ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... drug injection paraphernalia—HIV can be transmitted between users. Other infections, such as hepatitis C, can also ... also serve an important role in providing current information on HIV/AIDS and related diseases, counseling and ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Meetings & Events Media Guide About NIDA Director's Page Organization Legislative Activities Advisory Boards & Groups Working at NIDA Donating to ... 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug misuse are among the main ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... she went to a party and under the influence of drugs and alcohol engaged in risky sexual ... encourages them to share this information with their peers to prevent the spread of this disease. NIDA's ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine and E-Cigs Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent ... Blog NIDA in the News NIDA Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects Contact the Press Office ...

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  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... cells in the brain and cognitive impairment among people who use methamphetamine than among HIV patients who do not misuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... HIV patients who do not misuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the ... of this virus. Although we currently have medical therapies that greatly extend the lives of people infected ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Pain Prevention Recovery Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications ... can affect anyone. Watch the “d’cisions” Videos Campaign Materials After the Party Posters: We have developed ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the ... linked and referred to as "HIV/AIDS." HIV can be transferred between people if an infected person's ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter ... AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). AIDS is a disease of the immune system for which there is ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental Health Military Opioid Overdose ... be transmitted between users. Other infections, such as hepatitis C, can also be spread this way. Hepatitis ...

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    Full Text Available ... News Nora's Blog NIDA in the News NIDA Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects Contact the ... News Nora's Blog NIDA in the News NIDA Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects National Drug & ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... the spread of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, ... about current statistics of HIV in the United States, please visit: https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids- ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with ... among people who use methamphetamine than among HIV patients who do not misuse drugs. In animal studies, ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... the Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol ... After the Party Posters: We have developed posters with our campaign ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... HIV patients who do not misuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the ... groups of young people, guiding the use of technology, the discussion between friends, and the importance of ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter ... Opioid Overdose Reversal with Naloxone (Narcan, Evzio) Pain Prevention Recovery Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... the devastating consequences of compromised judgment and critical thinking that can result from drug use. Young women ... Daytona Beach Film Festival Big Mini Film Festival Visual AIDS Bus Boys and Poets Sistahs Getting Real ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental Health Military Opioid Overdose Reversal with Naloxone (Narcan, Evzio) Pain ... brain. Research has shown that HIV causes greater injury to cells in the brain and cognitive impairment ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts Research Reports Mind Over Matter Science of Addiction Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical Research ... is largely because of treatment with HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy), a combination of three or more ...

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    Full Text Available ... the devastating consequences of compromised judgment and critical thinking that can result from drug use. Young women ... Our Campaign! NIDA acknowledges the following television networks, organizations, educational institutions, magazines, newspapers, companies, events, and radio ...

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    Full Text Available ... that use text messaging as a means of communication. The "Text Message" PSA features two young girls ... NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog The NIDA Science Fair Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... affect anyone. Watch the “d’cisions” Videos Campaign Materials After the Party Posters: We have developed posters ... NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog The NIDA Science Fair Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... their compromised immune system, people with AIDS often develop serious infections or cancers, and they frequently suffer ... Drugs of abuse and HIV both affect the brain. Research has shown that HIV causes greater injury ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... between drug misuse and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and ... AIDS is a disease of the immune system for which there is treatment, but no cure, ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... E-Cigs Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice ... public service ads (PSA) where an HIV-positive teenager recounts the night she went to a party ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... HIV patients who do not misuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the ... on HIV/AIDS and related diseases, counseling and testing services, and referrals for medical and social services. ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Pain Prevention Recovery Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications ... Center of Excellence in Women’s Health Duke Ellington School of the Arts Howard University Print Media: People ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... between drug misuse and HIV/AIDS. In the early years of the HIV epidemic, it became clear ... Children, Youth and Families The American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) The United Negro College Fund, ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) ... transmitted between users. Other infections, such as hepatitis C, can also be spread this way. Hepatitis C ...

  4. Problem Solving Model for Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberida, H.; Lufri; Festiyed; Barlian, E.

    2018-04-01

    This research aims to develop problem solving model for science learning in junior high school. The learning model was developed using the ADDIE model. An analysis phase includes curriculum analysis, analysis of students of SMP Kota Padang, analysis of SMP science teachers, learning analysis, as well as the literature review. The design phase includes product planning a science-learning problem-solving model, which consists of syntax, reaction principle, social system, support system, instructional impact and support. Implementation of problem-solving model in science learning to improve students' science process skills. The development stage consists of three steps: a) designing a prototype, b) performing a formative evaluation and c) a prototype revision. Implementation stage is done through a limited trial. A limited trial was conducted on 24 and 26 August 2015 in Class VII 2 SMPN 12 Padang. The evaluation phase was conducted in the form of experiments at SMPN 1 Padang, SMPN 12 Padang and SMP National Padang. Based on the development research done, the syntax model problem solving for science learning at junior high school consists of the introduction, observation, initial problems, data collection, data organization, data analysis/generalization, and communicating.

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... other organizations in your tweets to spread the word even further. Tweet About Learn the Link To ... other organizations in your tweets to spread the word even further. Share with Flickr, Pinterest or Instagram ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... can affect anyone. Watch the “d’cisions” Videos Campaign Materials After the Party Posters: We have developed ... share on your social media accounts. About the Campaign Overview The Learn the Link campaign uses TV, ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... can suppress the virus and prevent or decrease symptoms of illness. To learn about current statistics of HIV in the United States, please visit: https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/hiv-aids-101/statistics/ . ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... NIDA’s "Learn the Link" campaign continues to raise awareness among this generation of the real risks of ... Collaborators Thanks to Those Who Have Helped Raise Awareness of Our Campaign! NIDA acknowledges the following television ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Campaign Overview The Learn the Link campaign uses TV, print, and Web public service announcements (PSAs), as ... CW BET NBC ABC FOX LATV My Network TV Organizations: AIDS.gov AIDS Alliance for Children, Youth ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... chances of unsafe behavior by altering judgment and decision-making. To learn about HIV among youth, please visit: ... use and alcohol use can lead to poor decision making, which can result in risky sexual behaviors and ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... people use to weigh risks and benefits when making decisions. This page connects you to information about ... of unsafe behavior by altering judgment and decision-making. To learn about HIV among youth, please visit: ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Learn the Link campaign uses TV, print, and Web public service announcements (PSAs), as well as posters, e-cards, and other tools to send the message to America's youth that ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... the Learn the Link message. Campaign messages and materials were tested among various groups of young people, guiding the use of technology, the discussion between friends, and the importance of family. For ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... teens and young adults have never known a world without it. NIDA’s "Learn the Link" campaign continues ... for HIV infection through risky sexual behaviors. NIDA researchers have studied and continue to study the links ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... increases brain viral load and activates natural killer cells in simian immunodeficiency ... out with friends? It’s a topic you can’t ignore. Learn the Link: http://1.usa.gov/ ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... pictures from NIDA images. Visit the NIDA Flickr account for images. Share your favorite image! Check out ... your use to share on your social media accounts. About the Campaign Overview The Learn the Link ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... or decrease symptoms of illness. To learn about current statistics of HIV in the United States, please ... programs also serve an important role in providing current information on HIV/AIDS and related diseases, counseling ...

  18. Problem Based Learning and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Løkke, Søren; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup

    and challenges that the PBL model offers for developing five key competences in sustainability: (i) system thinking, (ii) interpersonal competence, (iii) anticipatory competence, (iv) strategic competence, (v) normative competences. The study draws on the experiences from PBL activities performed at Aalborg...... University (AAU), Denmark, and focuses on the teaching of Life Cycle Assessment as a method for sustainability assessment. The objective is providing recommendations for future LCA teaching and learning. PBL activites performed at AAU were evaluated critically to detemine to what extent they addressed...... of how PBL-approaches were used to develop five specific competences in sustainability. It is concluded that -for the case fo LCA teaching at AAU- the PBL model included activities to develop system thinking, interpersonal competence, and normative competence. However, the PBL approach should...

  19. Creative Problem Solving as a Learning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ninck

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Business School at the Bern University of Applied Sciences is offering a new MScBA degree program in business development. The paper presents a practical report about the action learning approach in the course 'Business Analysis and Design'. Our problem-based approach is more than simply 'learning by doing'. In a world of increasing complexity, taking action alone will not result in a learning effect per se. What is imperative is to structure and facilitate the learning process on different levels: individual construction of mental models; understanding needs and developing adequate solutions; critical reflection of methods and processes. Reflective practice, where individuals are learning from their own professional experiences rather than from formal teaching or knowledge transfer, may be the most important source for lifelong learning.

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Drug use disorder treatment programs also serve an important role in providing current information on HIV/AIDS ... en Español LATeen Viva La Fiesta! Trace Washington Times USA Today Companies: Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority ( ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... risk for getting HIV. Drug and alcohol intoxication affect judgment and can lead to unsafe sexual practices, which put people at risk for getting HIV or transmitting it to someone else. ... can affect a person's overall health, thereby altering susceptibility to ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... in Women’s Health Duke Ellington School of the Arts Howard University Print Media: People en Español LATeen ... NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog The NIDA Science Fair Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making decisions. This page connects you to information about the ... brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making decisions. Watch the "Send the Message About Drugs and ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Plan Search Share ... HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making decisions. This page connects you to ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... the influence of drugs and alcohol engaged in risky sexual behavior that resulted in HIV infection. Watch the "After ... to poor decision making, which can result in risky sexual behaviors and HIV infection. Although the characters are fictional, ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental Health Military Opioid Overdose Reversal with Naloxone (Narcan, Evzio) ... DC Department of Health AIDS Arms, Inc. National Community Center of Excellence in Women’s Health National Women’s Health Resource Center (NWHRC) Mujeres Unidas ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... the United States. We now know that the behaviors and practices associated with non-injection drug use also contribute significantly to the spread of this virus. Although we currently have medical therapies that greatly extend the lives of people infected ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... young people and to parents, teachers, and the media about the link between drug misuse and HIV. We have produced a set of multicultural public service announcements (PSAs) that use text messaging as a means of communication. The "Text Message" PSA features two young girls ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental Health Military Opioid Overdose Reversal with Naloxone (Narcan, ... of Illinois Chicago, Center of Excellence in Women’s Health Duke Ellington School of the Arts Howard University Print Media: People ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... but now their night out always will be associated with HIV/AIDS. The “d’cisions” Webisode series is part ... We now know that the behaviors and practices associated with non-injection ... infected with HIV, drug misuse can interfere with an individual's likelihood ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) ... University Print Media: People en Español LATeen Viva La Fiesta! Trace Washington Times USA Today Companies: Washington ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental Health Military Opioid Overdose Reversal with Naloxone (Narcan, Evzio) ... and what to do to counter these trends. Online Resources NIDA for Teens Web site : This Web site was created ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of ... In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the amount of HIV in brain cells 1 . ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... parties or hanging out with friends? In the “d’cisions” Webisode series, Kim and her friends never ... always will be associated with HIV/AIDS. The “d’cisions” Webisode series is part of the Drugs + ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... www.cdc.gov/actagainstaids/basics/whatishiv.html ). Atlanta, GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved November 2017. How are Drug ... al. “Methamphetamine increases brain viral load and activates natural killer cells in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected monkeys. ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of abuse and HIV both affect the brain. Research has shown that HIV causes greater injury to cells in the brain and cognitive impairment among people who use methamphetamine than among HIV patients who do not misuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the amount ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental Health Military Opioid Overdose Reversal ... hepatitis C, can also be spread this way. Hepatitis C can cause liver disease and ... increases brain viral load and activates natural killer cells in simian ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... among various groups of young people, guiding the use of technology, the discussion between friends, and the importance of ... raise awareness among this generation of the real risks of drug use for transmitting HIV, and it encourages them to ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... HIV/AIDS, and the general public. U.S. National Library of Medicine HIV/AIDS Information : Specialized Information Services. ... NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog The NIDA Science Fair Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... latest, federally approved HIV/AIDS medical practice guidelines, HIV treatment and prevention clinical trials, and other research information ... of this virus. Although we currently have medical therapies that ... infected with HIV, drug misuse can interfere with an individual's likelihood ...

  2. Using isomorphic problems to learn introductory physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yin Lin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine introductory physics students’ ability to perform analogical reasoning between two isomorphic problems which employ the same underlying physics principles but have different surface features. Three hundred sixty-two students from a calculus-based and an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a quiz in the recitation in which they had to first learn from a solved problem provided and take advantage of what they learned from it to solve another problem (which we call the quiz problem which was isomorphic. Previous research suggests that the multiple-concept quiz problem is challenging for introductory students. Students in different recitation classes received different interventions in order to help them discern and exploit the underlying similarities of the isomorphic solved and quiz problems. We also conducted think-aloud interviews with four introductory students in order to understand in depth the difficulties they had and explore strategies to provide better scaffolding. We found that most students were able to learn from the solved problem to some extent with the scaffolding provided and invoke the relevant principles in the quiz problem. However, they were not necessarily able to apply the principles correctly. Research suggests that more scaffolding is needed to help students in applying these principles appropriately. We outline a few possible strategies for future investigation.

  3. Using isomorphic problems to learn introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examine introductory physics students’ ability to perform analogical reasoning between two isomorphic problems which employ the same underlying physics principles but have different surface features. Three hundred sixty-two students from a calculus-based and an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a quiz in the recitation in which they had to first learn from a solved problem provided and take advantage of what they learned from it to solve another problem (which we call the quiz problem) which was isomorphic. Previous research suggests that the multiple-concept quiz problem is challenging for introductory students. Students in different recitation classes received different interventions in order to help them discern and exploit the underlying similarities of the isomorphic solved and quiz problems. We also conducted think-aloud interviews with four introductory students in order to understand in depth the difficulties they had and explore strategies to provide better scaffolding. We found that most students were able to learn from the solved problem to some extent with the scaffolding provided and invoke the relevant principles in the quiz problem. However, they were not necessarily able to apply the principles correctly. Research suggests that more scaffolding is needed to help students in applying these principles appropriately. We outline a few possible strategies for future investigation.

  4. Students’ Mathematical Problem-Solving Abilities Through The Application of Learning Models Problem Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. L.; Yerizon, Y.; Gusmiyanti, R.

    2018-04-01

    One of the purpose mathematic learning is to develop problem solving abilities. Problem solving is obtained through experience in questioning non-routine. Improving students’ mathematical problem-solving abilities required an appropriate strategy in learning activities one of them is models problem based learning (PBL). Thus, the purpose of this research is to determine whether the problem solving abilities of mathematical students’ who learn to use PBL better than on the ability of students’ mathematical problem solving by applying conventional learning. This research included quasi experiment with static group design and population is students class XI MIA SMAN 1 Lubuk Alung. Class experiment in the class XI MIA 5 and class control in the class XI MIA 6. The instrument of final test students’ mathematical problem solving used essay form. The result of data final test in analyzed with t-test. The result is students’ mathematical problem solving abilities with PBL better then on the ability of students’ mathematical problem solving by applying conventional learning. It’s seen from the high percentage achieved by the group of students who learn to use PBL for each indicator of students’ mathematical problem solving.

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... once can have serious health consequences. We also work to reach parents and teachers—influential figures in the lives of young people—with the Learn the Link message. Campaign messages and materials were tested among various groups of young people, guiding the use of technology, ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Sharing Tools and Badges Other Resources Strategic Plan Search Share Print Home » News & Events » Public ... chances of unsafe behavior by altering judgment and decision-making. To learn about HIV among youth, please visit: ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV. Post on Facebook About Learn the Link Need ideas for posts? We’ve provided sample Facebook ... HIV, be sure to use the hashtag #LearntheLink. Need ideas for tweets? We’ve provided sample tweets ...

  8. Problem-Based Learning in Formal and Informal Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimic, Goran; Jevremovic, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered instructional strategy in which students solve problems and reflect on their experiences. Different domains need different approaches in the design of PBL systems. Therefore, we present one case study in this article: A Java Programming PBL. The application is developed as an additional module for…

  9. Drug Pollution - The Problem of Abuse*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at this stage, is to educate the public in the dangers of ... embroiled in a rebellion against 'The Establishment', where ... incidence of addicts, varying with the type of drug, to be .... behaviour disturbances. ... and personality disturbances.75.

  10. Auditory verbal learning in drug-free Ecstasy polydrug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, H. C.; Toplis, A. S.; Turner, J. J. D.; Parrott, A. C.

    2001-12-01

    Drug-free Ecstasy polydrug users have shown impairment on tasks of verbal working memory and memory span. Current research aims to investigate how these deficits may affect the learning of verbal material by administration of the Auditory Verbal Learning Task (AVLT) (Rey, 1964). The task provides a learning curve by assessing immediate memory span over multiple trials. Learning strategies are further analysed by tendencies to confabulate as well as demonstrate either proactive or retroactive interference elicited by a novel 'distractor' list. Three groups completed the task: two groups of 14 Ecstasy users (short- and long-term) and one group of 14 polydrug controls. Compared with controls both Ecstasy groups recalled significantly fewer words and made more confabulation errors on the initial three recall trials as well as a delayed recall trial. Long-term users demonstrated increased confabulation on the initial trials and the novel 'distractor7' trial, compared with short-term users. Only following repeated presentations were both short- and long-term users shown to perform at control levels. As such, deficits in verbal learning may be more related to storage and/or retrieval problems than problems associated with capacity per se. No interference errors were demonstrated by either of the Ecstasy groups. However, a high level of intrusion errors may indicate selective working memory problems associated with longer-term use of the drug. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Incorporating Problem-Based Learning in Physical Education Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hushman, Glenn; Napper-Owen, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an educational method that identifies a problem as a context for student learning. Critical-thinking skills, deductive reasoning, knowledge, and behaviors are developed as students learn how theory can be applied to practical settings. Problem-based learning encourages self-direction, lifelong learning, and sharing…

  12. Bridging disciplines through problem based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether a problem based approach to students’ learning may support interdisciplinary education at university level, where students are required to engage with the complexities inherent in constructing knowledge across disciplinary boundaries. These complexities include students...... engaging with multiple and conflicting epistemologies, identification and contextualisation of problems involving several disciplines in their solution etc. A practical example found in the case of newly developed BSc and MSc programs in Techno-Anthropology is provided.The paper includes some examples...

  13. Subcutaneous drug infusions: a review of problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitten, T

    2001-02-01

    Subcutaneous drug infusion using a portable syringe driver has had a significant impact on patient comfort in palliative care. It permits the continuous delivery of a range of drug therapies, so bypassing problems of dysphagia, weakness and the inability of many patients in the terminal phase to take oral medication. The devices are not problem-free, however. Mechanical problems, reactions at the infusion site and difficulties with the mixing of drugs in the syringe are all widely recognized. This article reviews some general issues with the operation of portable syringe drivers, and discusses a range of potential problems and their solutions.

  14. Teaching Gases through Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Mukadder

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate not only the applicability of the method of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) to the lesson subject of "Gasses" within the scope of the 9th grade course of Chemistry in Hakkari Gazi High School but also the influence of this method on the students' achievement levels in chemistry and on their…

  15. METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF E-LEARNING DIDACTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey F. Sergeev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the discussion of the methodological problems of e-learning, didactic issues the use of advanced networking and Internet technologies to create training systems and simulators based on the methodological principles of non-classical and post-non-classical psychology and pedagogy. 

  16. Producing and Scrounging during Problem Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, William L.

    2013-01-01

    When problem based learning occurs in a social context it is open to a common social behaviour, scrounging. In the animal behaviour literature, scroungers do not attempt to find resources themselves but rather exploit resources found by other group members (referred to as producers). We know from studies of animal behaviour (including humans) that…

  17. Problem Based Learning in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahms, Mona-Lisa; Sauerbier, Gabriele; Stubbe, Korinna

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a recent EU-project from five European Institutions. The aim was the development and implementation of a new international Master’s programme for staff development, directed towards the introduction of Problem Based Learning methods in the field of engineering education...

  18. Learning Matlab a problem solving approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gander, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and stimulating introduction to Matlab, a computer language now widely used for technical computing, is based on an introductory course held at Qian Weichang College, Shanghai University, in the fall of 2014.  Teaching and learning a substantial programming language aren’t always straightforward tasks. Accordingly, this textbook is not meant to cover the whole range of this high-performance technical programming environment, but to motivate first- and second-year undergraduate students in mathematics and computer science to learn Matlab by studying representative problems, developing algorithms and programming them in Matlab. While several topics are taken from the field of scientific computing, the main emphasis is on programming. A wealth of examples are completely discussed and solved, allowing students to learn Matlab by doing: by solving problems, comparing approaches and assessing the proposed solutions.

  19. Producing and scrounging during Problem Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Vickery

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available When problem based learning occurs in a social context it is open to a common social behaviour, scrounging. In the animal behaviour literature, scroungers do not attempt to find resources themselves but rather exploit resources found by other group members (referred to as producers. We know from studies of animal behaviour (including humans that scrounging can be expected whenever animals exploit resources in groups. We also know that scrounging can have deleterious effects on the group. We can expect scrounging to occur during social learning because the exchange of information (which I will consider here as a resource is essential to social learning. This exchange can be seen as each individual scrounging from the other members of the group whenever the individual learns from the work of others. However, there is a danger if some individuals learn mostly through their own efforts while others indulge in “social loafing” relying heavily on colleagues to provide knowledge. Here I propose that game theory models developed to analyse feeding in animal societies may also apply to social learning. We know from studies of birds feeding in groups that scrounging behaviour depends on the extent to which resources can be shared. Further, when scrounging is prevalent groups tend to obtain fewer resources. By contrast, in social learning we attempt to facilitate sharing of knowledge. We thus encourage scrounging and run the risk of reducing learning within study groups. Here I analyse the role of scrounging in problem based learning. I argue that scrounging is inherent and necessary to any social learning process. However, it can have perverse effects if the acquisition of facts rather than understanding comes to dominate learning objectives. Further, disparities among individuals within a group can lead certain individuals to specialise in scrounging thus undermining the functioning of the group. I suggest that motivation, problem structure

  20. Deep Learning Applications for Predicting Pharmacological Properties of Drugs and Drug Repurposing Using Transcriptomic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliper, Alexander; Plis, Sergey; Artemov, Artem; Ulloa, Alvaro; Mamoshina, Polina; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-07-05

    Deep learning is rapidly advancing many areas of science and technology with multiple success stories in image, text, voice and video recognition, robotics, and autonomous driving. In this paper we demonstrate how deep neural networks (DNN) trained on large transcriptional response data sets can classify various drugs to therapeutic categories solely based on their transcriptional profiles. We used the perturbation samples of 678 drugs across A549, MCF-7, and PC-3 cell lines from the LINCS Project and linked those to 12 therapeutic use categories derived from MeSH. To train the DNN, we utilized both gene level transcriptomic data and transcriptomic data processed using a pathway activation scoring algorithm, for a pooled data set of samples perturbed with different concentrations of the drug for 6 and 24 hours. In both pathway and gene level classification, DNN achieved high classification accuracy and convincingly outperformed the support vector machine (SVM) model on every multiclass classification problem, however, models based on pathway level data performed significantly better. For the first time we demonstrate a deep learning neural net trained on transcriptomic data to recognize pharmacological properties of multiple drugs across different biological systems and conditions. We also propose using deep neural net confusion matrices for drug repositioning. This work is a proof of principle for applying deep learning to drug discovery and development.

  1. Distance learning, problem based learning and dynamic knowledge networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, U; Martone, P

    1998-06-01

    This paper is an attempt to develop a distance learning model grounded upon a strict integration of problem based learning (PBL), dynamic knowledge networks (DKN) and web tools, such as hypermedia documents, synchronous and asynchronous communication facilities, etc. The main objective is to develop a theory of distance learning based upon the idea that learning is a highly dynamic cognitive process aimed at connecting different concepts in a network of mutually supporting concepts. Moreover, this process is supposed to be the result of a social interaction that has to be facilitated by the web. The model was tested by creating a virtual classroom of medical and nursing students and activating a learning session on the concept of knowledge representation in health sciences.

  2. Dealing with Drug Problems: Preventing and Treating Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pittsburgh is looking at whether teaching healthy caregiving strategies to parents can help promote self-regulation skills in children and prevent substance abuse later on. Starting when children are two years old, Shaw’s study enrolls families at risk of substance use problems ...

  3. Solving multiconstraint assignment problems using learning automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Geir; Oommen, B John

    2010-02-01

    This paper considers the NP-hard problem of object assignment with respect to multiple constraints: assigning a set of elements (or objects) into mutually exclusive classes (or groups), where the elements which are "similar" to each other are hopefully located in the same class. The literature reports solutions in which the similarity constraint consists of a single index that is inappropriate for the type of multiconstraint problems considered here and where the constraints could simultaneously be contradictory. This feature, where we permit possibly contradictory constraints, distinguishes this paper from the state of the art. Indeed, we are aware of no learning automata (or other heuristic) solutions which solve this problem in its most general setting. Such a scenario is illustrated with the static mapping problem, which consists of distributing the processes of a parallel application onto a set of computing nodes. This is a classical and yet very important problem within the areas of parallel computing, grid computing, and cloud computing. We have developed four learning-automata (LA)-based algorithms to solve this problem: First, a fixed-structure stochastic automata algorithm is presented, where the processes try to form pairs to go onto the same node. This algorithm solves the problem, although it requires some centralized coordination. As it is desirable to avoid centralized control, we subsequently present three different variable-structure stochastic automata (VSSA) algorithms, which have superior partitioning properties in certain settings, although they forfeit some of the scalability features of the fixed-structure algorithm. All three VSSA algorithms model the processes as automata having first the hosting nodes as possible actions; second, the processes as possible actions; and, third, attempting to estimate the process communication digraph prior to probabilistically mapping the processes. This paper, which, we believe, comprehensively reports the

  4. Learning Radiology in an Integrated Problem-Based Learning (PBL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Faculty of Medicine (FoM) has been training health professions in Uganda since 1924. Five years ago, it decided to change the undergraduate curriculum from traditional to Problem Based Learning (PBL) and adopted the SPICES model. Radiology was integrated into the different courses throughout the 5 ...

  5. Concept mapping as learning tool in problem-oriented learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fürstenau, B.; Kneppers, L.; Sánchez, J.; Cañas, A.J.; Novak, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    In two studies we investigated whether concept mapping or summary writing is more effective in supporting students’ learning from authentic problems in the field of business. We interpret concept mapping and summary writing as elaboration tools aiming at helping students to understand new

  6. Evaluation of drug therapy problems among renal patients receiving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adibe et al. Trop J Pharm Res, March 2017; 16(3): 697 .... suggestions to address medication problems, ..... Preventable drug-related hospital admissions. Ann. Pharmacother. 2002;. 36: .... geriatric hospitalized patients in yogyakarta hospitals,.

  7. Beyond Problem-Based Learning: Using Dynamic PBL in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Tina L.; Randles, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a novel pedagogy, dynamic problem-based learning. The pedagogy utilises real-world problems that evolve throughout the problem-based learning activity and provide students with choice and different data sets. This new dynamic problem-based learning approach was utilised to teach…

  8. A survey of drug abuse problems among students of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to survey drug abuse problems among students of selected secondary schools in Ile-Ife in Osun State. Specifically, the study was to find out the reasons for drug abuse among students. The major instrument used to collect needed information was the questionnaire which was distributed to ...

  9. Pharmacist intervention in drug-related problems for patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the role of the community pharmacist in identifying, preventing and resolving drug related problems (DRPs) encountered by patients, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular drugs in community pharmacies in Northern Cyprus, Turkey. Methods: A prospective observational study for the ...

  10. Characteristics of potential drug-related problems among oncology patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulsink, Arjan; Imholz, Alex L. T.; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.; Jansman, Frank G. A.

    Background Oncology patients are more at risk for drug related problems because of treatment with (combinations of) anticancer drugs, as they have a higher risk for organ failure or altered metabolism with progression of their disease. Objective The aim of this study was to characterize and to

  11. Machine Learning and Inverse Problem in Geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnas, M. H.; Yuen, D. A.; Pysklywec, R.

    2017-12-01

    During the past few decades numerical modeling and traditional HPC have been widely deployed in many diverse fields for problem solutions. However, in recent years the rapid emergence of machine learning (ML), a subfield of the artificial intelligence (AI), in many fields of sciences, engineering, and finance seems to mark a turning point in the replacement of traditional modeling procedures with artificial intelligence-based techniques. The study of the circulation in the interior of Earth relies on the study of high pressure mineral physics, geochemistry, and petrology where the number of the mantle parameters is large and the thermoelastic parameters are highly pressure- and temperature-dependent. More complexity arises from the fact that many of these parameters that are incorporated in the numerical models as input parameters are not yet well established. In such complex systems the application of machine learning algorithms can play a valuable role. Our focus in this study is the application of supervised machine learning (SML) algorithms in predicting mantle properties with the emphasis on SML techniques in solving the inverse problem. As a sample problem we focus on the spin transition in ferropericlase and perovskite that may cause slab and plume stagnation at mid-mantle depths. The degree of the stagnation depends on the degree of negative density anomaly at the spin transition zone. The training and testing samples for the machine learning models are produced by the numerical convection models with known magnitudes of density anomaly (as the class labels of the samples). The volume fractions of the stagnated slabs and plumes which can be considered as measures for the degree of stagnation are assigned as sample features. The machine learning models can determine the magnitude of the spin transition-induced density anomalies that can cause flow stagnation at mid-mantle depths. Employing support vector machine (SVM) algorithms we show that SML techniques

  12. Prisoners' views about the drugs problem in prisons, and the new Prison Service drug strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, S M; Bird, A G; Cassidy, J

    1999-09-01

    Three hundred and seventy-five out of 575 prisoners (222/299 drug users and 153/267 non-users) who responded to a self-completion health care questionnaire at two prisons in 1997 commented on drugs in prisons. One hundred and forty-eight out of 176 responses expressed negative opinions about mandatory drugs testing (MDT), and 107 said that MDT promoted switching to or increased use of heroin/hard drugs'. Sixty-two prisoners suggested that more help/counselling was needed for drug users, 52 segregation of drug users/drug-free wings, and 50 more security on visits/in corridors after medication. The new Prison Service drug strategy has revised random MDT. It targets those who supply drugs, and supports those who want to stop using drugs, and accords with prisoners' views about the heroin problem in prisons.

  13. Drug-related problems and pharmacy interventions in community practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, Tommy; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Melander, Arne

    1999-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To document types and number of drug-related problems identified by community pharmacy personnel in Sweden; (2) to determine relationships among the types and number of problems identified and the gender, age and number of prescribed drugs in patients; and (3) to document the inte......Objectives. (1) To document types and number of drug-related problems identified by community pharmacy personnel in Sweden; (2) to determine relationships among the types and number of problems identified and the gender, age and number of prescribed drugs in patients; and (3) to document...... the interventions made by pharmacy personnel with patients and prescribers. Method. Random samples of pharmacists, prescriptionists and pharmacy technicians were drawn nationwide in Sweden; 144 (63 per cent) of the employees fulfilling the inclusion criteria agreed to take part. The participants documented drug......-related problems, interventions and patient variables on a data collection form, and tallied the number of patients they served on another form. Setting. One hundred and sixteen community pharmacies and 12 outpatient hospital pharmacies. Key findings. One problem or more was identified among 2.5 per cent...

  14. Learning via problem solving in mathematics education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Human

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Three forms of mathematics education at school level are distinguished: direct expository teaching with an emphasis on procedures, with the expectation that learners will at some later stage make logical and functional sense of what they have learnt and practised (the prevalent form, mathematically rigorous teaching in terms of fundamental mathematical concepts, as in the so-called “modern mathematics” programmes of the sixties, teaching and learning in the context of engaging with meaningful problems and focused both on learning to become good problem solvers (teaching for problem solving andutilising problems as vehicles for the development of mathematical knowledge andproficiency by learners (problem-centred learning, in conjunction with substantialteacher-led social interaction and mathematical discourse in classrooms.Direct expository teaching of mathematical procedures dominated in school systems after World War II, and was augmented by the “modern mathematics” movement in the period 1960-1970. The latter was experienced as a major failure, and was soon abandoned. Persistent poor outcomes of direct expository procedural teaching of mathematics for the majority of learners, as are still being experienced in South Africa, triggered a world-wide movement promoting teaching mathematics for and via problem solving in the seventies and eighties of the previous century. This movement took the form of a variety of curriculum experiments in which problem solving was the dominant classroom activity, mainly in the USA, Netherlands, France and South Africa. While initially focusing on basic arithmetic (computation with whole numbers and elementary calculus, the problem-solving movement started to address other mathematical topics (for example, elementary statistics, algebra, differential equations around the turn of the century. The movement also spread rapidly to other countries, including Japan, Singapore and Australia. Parallel with the

  15. Off-Label Drug Use in Pediatric Practice: Unsolved Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Titova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread «off-label» drug use and the prescribing of unlicensed medicines in pediatric practice is a major health problem. The authors discuss actual regulatory and legal issues of «off-label» drug use in children in the US, Europe and Russia. The results of different population-based studies from many countries, showing the structure and frequency of «off-label» drug use in children, are summarized in this article. It is shown that such practice increases the risk of adverse drug reactions. The authors offer practical recommendations for a safer use of drugs in pediatric practice. The priority issue is conducting high quality clinical trials with the participation of children, improving national pharmacovigilance and the monitoring of off-label drug use, developing pediatric formularies, improving doctors’ knowledge and awareness of safety and efficacy of medicines in pediatric population.

  16. Power, Democracy and Problem-Based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Xiangyun; Stentoft, Diana; Dahms, Mona-Lisa

    2007-01-01

      Problem Based Learning (PBL) as an educational approach has been increasingly applied in educational settings around the world. Given that PBL - as well as any other educational approach - is rooted in a given cultural context and thus carries the ‘fingerprint' of the specific context......, an interesting question is: To which extent is PBL a universally applicable approach to teaching and learning, i.e. an approach which can be implemented successfully to all times and in all societies, independent of differences in social, cultural, political and economic contexts? With this question...... participants are teachers involved in technical education, who have an interest in initiating changes towards PBL in their institutions and/or in their educational practices. The participants are located in various parts of the world and thus bring diverse experiences to the course and the MPBL programme...

  17. Educational Change towards Problem Based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Huichun

    As a promising educational approach, PBL (Problem Based Learning) has been adopted by an increasing number of higher education institutions worldwide to replace the traditional lectured based educational approach. However, the organizational change towards PBL is not easy for higher education...... universities which are transforming their traditional educational approaches to PBL. Specifically, this book is concerned with how managers, staff members, and students interpret PBL and its implementation. It reveals that the challenges for implementing PBL are closely linked to organizational members...... institutions, especially for those with a long history of Lecture Based Learning. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the challenges and obstacles for higher education institutions which are implementing PBL. In order to address the research concern, this book involves in an intensive exploration of two...

  18. Drug problems in contemporary China: a profile of Chinese drug users in a metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaicheng; Zhang, Lening; Liu, Jianhong

    2011-03-01

    Drug problems are reemerging in China since the nation implemented economic reform and an "open door" policy in the early 1980s. This is causing both national and international concern. However, knowledge and understanding of the Chinese drug problem is fairly limited because of the nation's unique social and political history. In response to this shortage of information, our study presents a profile of Chinese drug users. Data were collected from a survey of drug users attending mandatory treatment centres in a large city in 2009. We present a demographic profile of the drug users, describe their patterns of drug use, their access to drugs and their history of drug treatment. Chinese drug users, like those from the U.S., are likely to be unemployed and have a low level of education. However, they are more likely than those in the U.S. to use heroin, Bingdu (methamphetamine) and Maguo (a derivative of methamphetamine), and they pay less for their drugs. This profile of drug users is informative and valuable for drug prevention, intervention, and treatment in the Chinese setting because knowing and understanding the drug population is essential for effective control. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of machine learning approaches for novel drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Angélica Nakagawa; Philot, Eric Allison; Trossini, Gustavo Henrique Goulart; Scott, Luis Paulo Barbour; Maltarollo, Vinícius Gonçalves; Honorio, Kathia Maria

    2016-01-01

    The use of computational tools in the early stages of drug development has increased in recent decades. Machine learning (ML) approaches have been of special interest, since they can be applied in several steps of the drug discovery methodology, such as prediction of target structure, prediction of biological activity of new ligands through model construction, discovery or optimization of hits, and construction of models that predict the pharmacokinetic and toxicological (ADMET) profile of compounds. This article presents an overview on some applications of ML techniques in drug design. These techniques can be employed in ligand-based drug design (LBDD) and structure-based drug design (SBDD) studies, such as similarity searches, construction of classification and/or prediction models of biological activity, prediction of secondary structures and binding sites docking and virtual screening. Successful cases have been reported in the literature, demonstrating the efficiency of ML techniques combined with traditional approaches to study medicinal chemistry problems. Some ML techniques used in drug design are: support vector machine, random forest, decision trees and artificial neural networks. Currently, an important application of ML techniques is related to the calculation of scoring functions used in docking and virtual screening assays from a consensus, combining traditional and ML techniques in order to improve the prediction of binding sites and docking solutions.

  20. Deep and surface learning in problem-based learning: a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.J.M. Dolmans (Diana); S.M.M. Loyens (Sofie); Marcq, H. (Hélène); D. Gijbels (David)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn problem-based learning (PBL), implemented worldwide, students learn by discussing professionally relevant problems enhancing application and integration of knowledge, which is assumed to encourage students towards a deep learning approach in which students are intrinsically interested

  1. Deep and surface learning in problem-based learning: a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.J.M. Dolmans (Diana); S.M.M. Loyens (Sofie); H. Marcq (Hélène); D. Gijbels (David)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn problem-based learning (PBL), implemented worldwide, students learn by discussing professionally relevant problems enhancing application and integration of knowledge, which is assumed to encourage students towards a deep learning approach in which students are intrinsically interested

  2. Dysfunctional problem-based learning curricula: resolving the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim William K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problem-based learning (PBL has become the most significant innovation in medical education of the past 40 years. In contrast to exam-centered, lecture-based conventional curricula, PBL is a comprehensive curricular strategy that fosters student-centred learning and the skills desired in physicians. The rapid spread of PBL has produced many variants. One of the most common is 'hybrid PBL' where conventional teaching methods are implemented alongside PBL. This paper contends that the mixing of these two opposing educational philosophies can undermine PBL and nullify its positive benefits. Schools using hybrid PBL and lacking medical education expertise may end up with a dysfunctional curriculum worse off than the traditional approach. Discussion For hybrid PBL schools with a dysfunctional curriculum, standard PBL is a cost-feasible option that confers the benefits of the PBL approach. This paper describes the signs of a dysfunctional PBL curriculum to aid hybrid PBL schools in recognising curricular breakdown. Next it discusses alternative curricular strategies and costs associated with PBL. It then details the four critical factors for successful conversion to standard PBL: dealing with staff resistance, understanding the role of lectures, adequate time for preparation and support from the administrative leadership. Summary Hybrid PBL curricula without oversight by staff with medical education expertise can degenerate into dysfunctional curricula inferior even to the traditional approach from which PBL emerged. Such schools should inspect their curriculum periodically for signs of dysfunction to enable timely corrective action. A decision to convert fully to standard PBL is cost feasible but will require time, expertise and commitment which is only sustainable with supportive leadership.

  3. The Swedish drug problem: Conceptual understanding and problem handling, 1839–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edman Johan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM - To analyse the Swedish drug question by examining dominant concepts used to portray the problem in the years 1839-2011. Theoretically, we understand these concepts as ideological tools that shape the political initiatives and administrative efforts to deal with the problem. The study is based on two kinds of source material: articles in medical journals from the years 1839-1964 and public reports on vagrancy, the alcohol problem, mental health and the drug problem from the years 1882-2011.

  4. Problem based learning - A brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Sandra; Oliveira, Teresa A.; Oliveira, Amílcar

    2017-07-01

    Teaching is a complex mission that requires not only the theoretical knowledge transmission, but furthermore requires to provide the students the necessary skills for solving real problems in their respective professional activities where complex issues and problems must be frequently faced. Over more than twenty years we have been experiencing an increase in scholar failure in the scientific area of mathematics, which means that Teaching Mathematics and related areas can be even a more complex and hard task. Scholar failure is a complex phenomenon that depends on various factors as social factors, scholar factors or biophysical factors. After numerous attempts made in order to reduce scholar failure our goal in this paper is to understand the role of "Problem Based Learning" and how this methodology can contribute to the solution of both: increasing mathematical courses success and increasing skills in the near future professionals in Portugal. Before designing a proposal for applying this technique in our institutions, we decided to conduct a survey to provide us with the necessary information about and the respective advantages and disadvantages of this methodology, so this is the brief review aim.

  5. Drug Pollution - The Problem of Abuse | Bensusan | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the aetiological factors are given as well as an outline of the extent of drug abuse in many countries, age of addiction and also the role of the medical practitioner. The main problem facing the profession in South Africa, at this stage, is to educate the public in the dangers of dagga. Five principles are ...

  6. a survey on drug related problems in cervical cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Cisplatin/5FU/paclitaxel. 6. 9.23. 6. Seizure. Cisplatin. 2. 3.08. 7. Loss of hair. Cisplatin/5FU/Paclitaxel. 3. 4.62. 8. Nephrotoxicity. Cisplatin. 3. 4.62. 9. Hypotension. Paclitaxel. 3. 4.62. TOTAL. 65. 100. Table 3: Relationship between cervical cancer patients' factors and DRPs. Patients Factor. Drug Related Problems (DRPs).

  7. Drug Therapy Problems in Patients on Antihypertensives and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug therapy problems (DTPs), with the associated risks inherent in antihypertensive and antidiabetic therapy require utmost attention. This present study was aimed at assessing the DTPs observed in the management of hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) in two tertiary health facilities in Niger Delta region. In this ...

  8. Drug-related problems in patients with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Drug-related problems are especially frequent among patients suffering from non-communicable diseases, like osteoporosis, leading to suboptimal treatment response. The aim of this study was to identify drug-related problems in patients with osteoporosis. Methods. This cross-sectional prospective study was conducted in January 2014 on outpatients with osteoporosis from three health facilities in Belgrade, Serbia. The patients included in the study were older than 50 years, and they were offered an anonymous questionnaire with open-ended questions. Results. There were 355 study participants, 329 (92.7% females and 26 (7.3% males. The patients who experienced at least one osteoporotic fracture (n = 208 were significantly less adherent to the therapy, less engaged in sports and regular physical activities, and more prone to nutrition with inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D than patients without fractures (n = 147. Conclusion. The effectiveness of osteoporosis treatment is decreased by several drug-related problems encountered by both physicians and patients. However, the majority of the drug-related problems could be greatly influenced by appropriate educational programs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175007

  9. Pharmacists' Intervention to Reduce Drug Related Problems in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite advances in the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the management of HIV/AIDS, drug-related problems (DRPs) still remain an issue, particularly in developing countries. This study evaluated the incidence of DRPs among HIV/AIDS patients in a HIV/AIDS care centre in southern Nigeria and the ...

  10. No Problem? No Research, Little Learning ... Big Problem!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ornelas Marques

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The motivation to carry out this study stemmed from the generalized perception that nowadays youth lacks the skills for the 21st century. Especially the high-level competences like critical thinking, problem solving and autonomy. Several tools can help to improve these competences (e.g. the SCRATCH programming language, but, as researchers and educators, we are mostly concerned with the skill to recognize problems. What if we do not find problems to solve? What if we do not even feel the need to find or solve problems? The problem is to recognize the problem; the next step is to equate the problem; finally we have to feel the need to solve it. No need? No invention. Recognizing a problem is probably the biggest problem of everyday life, because we are permanently faced with problems (many ill-defined problems, which we need to identify, equate and solve.

  11. Effects of cooperative and problem-solving learning strategies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learning is internalised faster and better when students are given opportunity to interact with one another in small groups; when topics are structured to solve real life problems, studying becomes fun and learning is facilitated and internalised; students learn better when a problem is used as a starting point for new ...

  12. Investigative Primary Science: A Problem-Based Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherington, Matthew B.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the success of using a problem-based learning approach (PBL) as a pedagogical mode of learning open inquiry science within a traditional four-year undergraduate elementary teacher education program. In 2010, a problem-based learning approach to teaching primary science replaced the traditional content driven syllabus. During…

  13. Mapping Students Use of Technologies in Problem Based Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rongbutsri, Nikorn; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Ryberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to understand how students use technology to enhance their learning in problem-based learning environments. The research methodology is based on both qualitative and quantitative studies. The results are based on students’ interviews, a survey and students’ reflections in course......-related blog posts; they show that students have positive perceptions toward using technologies in problem-based learning environments....

  14. Solution to reinforcement learning problems with artificial potential field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Li-juan; XIE Guang-rong; CHEN Huan-wen; LI Xiao-li

    2008-01-01

    A novel method was designed to solve reinforcement learning problems with artificial potential field. Firstly a reinforcement learning problem was transferred to a path planning problem by using artificial potential field(APF), which was a very appropriate method to model a reinforcement learning problem. Secondly, a new APF algorithm was proposed to overcome the local minimum problem in the potential field methods with a virtual water-flow concept. The performance of this new method was tested by a gridworld problem named as key and door maze. The experimental results show that within 45 trials, good and deterministic policies are found in almost all simulations. In comparison with WIERING's HQ-learning system which needs 20 000 trials for stable solution, the proposed new method can obtain optimal and stable policy far more quickly than HQ-learning. Therefore, the new method is simple and effective to give an optimal solution to the reinforcement learning problem.

  15. Facilitating Problem Framing in Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihla, Vanessa; Reeve, Richard

    2016-01-01

    While problem solving is a relatively well understood process, problem framing is less well understood, particularly with regard to supporting students to learn as they frame problems. Project-based learning classrooms are an ideal setting to investigate how teachers facilitate this process. Using participant observation, this study investigated…

  16. Creating Problem-Based Leadership Learning across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sara E.; Couto, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores problem-based learning (PBL) as effective pedagogy to enhance leadership learning. Through institutional examples, research, and personal experiences, the authors provide a rationale for faculty and staff to utilize PBL across the curriculum.

  17. Problem-Based Learning: Exploiting Knowledge of How People Learn to Promote Effective Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. J.

    2004-01-01

    There is much information from educational psychology studies on how people learn. The thesis of this paper is that we should use this information to guide the ways in which we teach rather than blindly using our traditional methods. In this context, problem-based learning (PBL), as a method of teaching widely used in medical schools but…

  18. Introducing problem-based learning (PBL) into a foundation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    second chance learners they cannot be taught by the same traditional methods that ... a shift from content coverage to problem engagement; from lecturing to coaching; and ..... Project on the effectiveness of Problem Based Learning (PBL).

  19. Problem solving and problem strategies in the teaching and learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perennial poor performance recorded annually in both internal and external examinations in Mathematics has been a great concern for the Mathematics Educators in Nigeria. This paper discusses problem-solving and influence of problem-solving strategies on students' performance in mathematics. The concept of ...

  20. 49 CFR 40.205 - How are drug test problems corrected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are drug test problems corrected? 40.205 Section 40.205 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.205 How are drug test problems...

  1. Effectiveness of problem-based learning among student nurses: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this review is to analyze available literature from 2005 to 2012 on the effectiveness of problem based learning among the nursing students. Twenty articles that discussed problem based learning among nurses and those that discussed nursing with other allied health were included as meeting the criteria for ...

  2. Problem-Based Learning in Social Work Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Merete; Mølholt, Anne-Kirstine

    2017-01-01

    ’ experiences of PBL. In this article we address this gap by exploring experiences of learning and learning preferences among master’s-level students in a Danish social work education setting where extensive problem-based project work is used. We find a discrepancy between students’ preferred learning and when...

  3. Effectiveness of discovery learning model on mathematical problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdiana, Yunita; Wahyudin, Sispiyati, Ririn

    2017-08-01

    This research is aimed to describe the effectiveness of discovery learning model on mathematical problem solving. This research investigate the students' problem solving competency before and after learned by using discovery learning model. The population used in this research was student in grade VII in one of junior high school in West Bandung Regency. From nine classes, class VII B were randomly selected as the sample of experiment class, and class VII C as control class, which consist of 35 students every class. The method in this research was quasi experiment. The instrument in this research is pre-test, worksheet and post-test about problem solving of mathematics. Based on the research, it can be conclude that the qualification of problem solving competency of students who gets discovery learning model on level 80%, including in medium category and it show that discovery learning model effective to improve mathematical problem solving.

  4. Potential and problems in ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao YZ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ying-Zheng Zhao,1,3 Li-Na Du,2 Cui-Tao Lu,1 Yi-Guang Jin,2 Shu-Ping Ge3 1Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou City, Zhejiang Province, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3St Christopher’s Hospital for Children/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Ultrasound is an important local stimulus for triggering drug release at the target tissue. Ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems (URDDS have become an important research focus in targeted therapy. URDDS include many different formulations, such as microbubbles, nanobubbles, nanodroplets, liposomes, emulsions, and micelles. Drugs that can be loaded into URDDS include small molecules, biomacromolecules, and inorganic substances. Fields of clinical application include anticancer therapy, treatment of ischemic myocardium, induction of an immune response, cartilage tissue engineering, transdermal drug delivery, treatment of Huntington’s disease, thrombolysis, and disruption of the blood–brain barrier. This review focuses on recent advances in URDDS, and discusses their formulations, clinical application, and problems, as well as a perspective on their potential use in the future. Keywords: ultrasound, targeted therapy, clinical application

  5. An Educational Approach to Problem-based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Chieh Chen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the educational framework of problem-based learning (PBL. As known and used, PBL finds its root in the Structuralism and Pragmatism schools of philosophy. In this paper, the three main requirements of PBL, namely learning by doing, learning in context, and focusing on the student, are discussed within the context of these two schools of thought. Given these attributes, PBL also seems ideally suited for use in learning bioethics.

  6. Learning Problems among Male and Female First Year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been the observation that fresh students in their first year in the university encounter some learning problems. Specific problems investigated in this work include those of concentration ability, memory ability, study time management ability, attention problems, ability to join other students in study group work and ...

  7. Deep and Surface Learning in Problem-Based Learning: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Marcq, Hélène; Gijbels, David

    2016-01-01

    In problem-based learning (PBL), implemented worldwide, students learn by discussing professionally relevant problems enhancing application and integration of knowledge, which is assumed to encourage students towards a deep learning approach in which students are intrinsically interested and try to understand what is being studied. This review…

  8. Managing the Gap between Curriculum Based and Problem Based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygholm, Ann; Buus, Lillian

    2009-01-01

    /or but rather both/and. In this paper we describe an approach to design and delivery of online courses in computer science which on the one hand is based on a specified curriculum and on the other hand gives room for different learning strategies, problem based learning being one of them. We discuss......Traditionally there has been a clear distinction between curriculum based and problem based approaches to accomplish learning. Preferred approaches depend of course on conviction, culture, traditions and also on the specific learning situation. We will argue that it is not a question of either...

  9. The effect of discovery learning and problem-based learning on middle school students’ self-regulated learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miatun, A.; Muntazhimah

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the effect of learning models on mathematics achievement viewed from student’s self-regulated learning. The learning model compared were discovery learning and problem-based learning. The population was all students at the grade VIII of Junior High School in Boyolali regency. The samples were students of SMPN 4 Boyolali, SMPN 6 Boyolali, and SMPN 4 Mojosongo. The instruments used were mathematics achievement tests and self-regulated learning questionnaire. The data were analyzed using unbalanced two-ways Anova. The conclusion was as follows: (1) discovery learning gives better achievement than problem-based learning. (2) Achievement of students who have high self-regulated learning was better than students who have medium and low self-regulated learning. (3) For discovery learning, achievement of students who have high self-regulated learning was better than students who have medium and low self-regulated learning. For problem-based learning, students who have high and medium self-regulated learning have the same achievement. (4) For students who have high self-regulated learning, discovery learning gives better achievement than problem-based learning. Students who have medium and low self-regulated learning, both learning models give the same achievement.

  10. Problem-based Learning and Problem Finding Among University Graduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ankit, A, Ravankar; Shotaro, Imai; Michiyo, Shimamura; Go, Chiba; Taichi, Takasuka

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, problem-based learning (PBL) techniques have been gaining momentum in schools and university curricula around the world. The main advantage of the PBL method is that it promotes creative problem solving, improves cognition and enhances overall thought processes in learners. For most PBL-style programmes, problem solving is at the core, although the notion of problem discovery or problem finding is not seriously considered. In most cases, students are always presen...

  11. What students learn in problem-based learning: a process analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.J. Yew (Elaine); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study aimed to provide an account of how learning takes place in problem-based learning (PBL), and to identify the relationships between the learning-oriented activities of students with their learning outcomes. First, the verbal interactions and computer resources studied by nine

  12. Problem Posing with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach in Geometry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, R.; Slamet, I.; Budiyono

    2017-09-01

    One of the difficulties of students in the learning of geometry is on the subject of plane that requires students to understand the abstract matter. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of Problem Posing learning model with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach in geometry learning. This quasi experimental research was conducted in one of the junior high schools in Karanganyar, Indonesia. The sample was taken using stratified cluster random sampling technique. The results of this research indicate that the model of Problem Posing learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach can improve students’ conceptual understanding significantly in geometry learning especially on plane topics. It is because students on the application of Problem Posing with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach are become to be active in constructing their knowledge, proposing, and problem solving in realistic, so it easier for students to understand concepts and solve the problems. Therefore, the model of Problem Posing learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach is appropriately applied in mathematics learning especially on geometry material. Furthermore, the impact can improve student achievement.

  13. Glutamatergic Targets for Enhancing Extinction Learning in Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Cleva, R.M; Gass, J.T; Widholm, J.J; Olive, M.F

    2010-01-01

    The persistence of the motivational salience of drug-related environmental cues and contexts is one of the most problematic obstacles to successful treatment of drug addiction. Behavioral approaches to extinguishing the salience of drug-associated cues, such as cue exposure therapy, have generally produced disappointing results which have been attributed to, among other things, the context specificity of extinction and inadequate consolidation of extinction learning. Extinction of any behavio...

  14. Synthesizing Huber's Problem Solving and Kolb's Learning Cycle: A Balanced Approach to Technical Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.

    2009-01-01

    How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…

  15. Problem-Based Learning and Problem-Solving Tools: Synthesis and Direction for Distributed Education Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert S.; Deek, Fadi P.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how the design and implementation of problem-solving tools used in programming instruction are complementary with both the theories of problem-based learning (PBL), including constructivism, and the practices of distributed education environments. Examines how combining PBL, Web-based distributed education, and a problem-solving…

  16. Personalized learning Ecologies in Problem and Project Based Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rongbutsri, Nikorn; Ryberg, Thomas; Zander, Pär-Ola

    2012-01-01

    is in contrast to an artificial learning setting often found in traditional education. As many other higher education institutions, Aalborg University aims at providing learning environments that support the underlying pedagogical approach employed, and which can lead to different online and offline learning.......g. coordination, communication, negotiation, document sharing, calendars, meetings and version control. Furthermore, the pedagogical fabric of LMSs/VLEs have recently been called into question and critiqued by proponents of Personal Learning Environments (PLEs)(Ryberg, Buus, & Georgsen, 2011) . In sum....... making it important to understand and conceptualise students’ use of technology. Ecology is the study of relationship between organisms in an environment which is the set of circumstances surrounding that organism. Learning ecologies are the study of the relationship of a learner or a group of learners...

  17. Learning by similarity in coordination problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub; Stewart, C.

    -, č. 324 (2007), s. 1-40 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : similarity * learning * case-based reasoning Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp324.pdf

  18. [Neurobiology of learning and memory and anti-dementia drug].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, K

    1995-08-01

    Discoveries of long-term potentiation and immediate early gene in the central nervous system have enabled new developments in experiments on learning and memory. These experiments are conducted in many kinds of animals with different procedures, physiology, chemistry and pharmacology. However, there is still some confusion when these various procedures are discussed. Memory is defined as information storage of an animal's previous experiences. The memory induces changes in behavioral performance. This means that memory must be observed in whole animals, and one question that can occur is how does long-term potentiation, for example, correlate with memory. Furthermore, memory has been divided into two major classifications, declarative and non-declarative, from the comparison of amnesias observed in humans and animals. The declarative memory can be observed in human subjects, but not in animals. This article presents a neuronal circuit concerning memory formation and some results obtained from benzodiazepines, and it discusses some problems encountered executing when experiments on learning and memory. In addition, the discussion speculates over the possibility for an "anti-dementia drug".

  19. Experiential Learning in Drug and Alcohol Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Rosemary

    2001-01-01

    A workshop for Australian nursing students used simulation to impart information about illicit drug use and enhance nurses' ability to care for patients who use drugs. Simulations challenged attitudes, beliefs, and stereotypes and expanded students' knowledge about health promotion and patient care. (Contains 18 references.) (SK)

  20. Learning through Debate during Problem-Based Learning: An Active Learning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Sadaf; Latif, Rabia

    2017-01-01

    We explored medical student's views and perceptions of a series of debates conducted during problem-based learning (PBL) practiced as a part of the Spiral curriculum at the Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. A series of debates were employed during PBL sessions for second-year female medical students, over the period 2014-2016.…

  1. Measuring the influence of Cooperative Learning and Project Based Learning on problem solvin skill.

    OpenAIRE

    García Martín, Javier; Pérez Martínez, Jorge Enrique

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects obtained after applying two active learning methodologies (cooperative learning and project based learning) to the achievement of the competence problem solving. This study was carried out at the Technical University of Madrid, where these methodologies were applied to two Operating Systems courses. The first hypothesis tested was whether the implementation of active learning methodologies favours the achievement of ?problem solving?. The secon...

  2. Project- Based Learning and Problem-Based Learning: Are They Effective to Improve Student's Thinking Skills?

    OpenAIRE

    Anazifa, R. D; Djukri, D

    2017-01-01

    The study aims at finding (1) the effect of project-based learning and problem-based learning on student's creativity and critical thinking and (2) the difference effect of project-based learning and problem-based learning on student's creativity and critical thinking. This study is quasi experiment using non-equivalent control-group design. Research population of this study was all classes in eleventh grade of mathematics and natural science program of SMA N 1 Temanggung. The participants we...

  3. An e-learning approach to informed problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Weichhart

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When taking into account individualized learning processes not only content and interaction facilities need to be re-considered, but also the design of learning processes per se. Besides explicitness of learning objectives, interactive means of education need to enable intertwining content and communication elements as basic elements of active learning in a flexible way while preserving a certain structure of the learning process. Intelligibility Catchers are a theoretically grounded framework to enable such individualized processes. It allows learners and teachers agreeing and determining a desired learning outcome in written form. This type of e-learning contract enables students to individually explore content and participate in social interactions, while being guided by a transparent learning process structure. The developed implementation empowers learners in terms of creative problem-solving capabilities, and requires adaptation of classroom situations. The framework and its supporting semantic e-learning environment not only enables diverse learning and problem solving processes, but also supports the collaborative construction of e-learning contracts.

  4. Addressing complex design problems through inductive learning

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, S.

    2012-01-01

    Optimisation and related techniques are well suited to clearly defined problems involving systems that can be accurately simulated, but not to tasks in which the phenomena in question are highly complex or the problem ill-defined. These latter are typical of architecture and particularly creative design tasks, which therefore currently lack viable computational tools. It is argued that as design teams and construction projects of unprecedented scale are increasingly frequent, this is just whe...

  5. ENGAGE: A Game Based Learning and Problem Solving Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    Gamification Summit 2012  Mensa Colloquium 2012.2: Social and Video Games  Seattle Science Festival  TED Salon Vancouver : http...From - To) 6/1/2012 – 6/30/2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ENGAGE: A Game Based Learning and Problem Solving Framework 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b...Popović ENGAGE: A Game Based Learning and Problem Solving Framework (Task 1 Month 4) Progress, Status and Management Report Monthly Progress

  6. Identification of Chemistry Learning Problems Viewed From Conceptual Change Model

    OpenAIRE

    Redhana, I. W; Sudria, I. B. N; Hidayat, I; Merta, L. M

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at describing and explaining chemistry learning problems viewed from conceptual change model and misconceptions of students. The study was qualitative research of case study type conducted in one class of SMAN 1 Singaraja. Subjects of the study were a chemistry teacher and students. Data were obtained through classroom observation, interviews, and conception tests. The chemistry learning problems were grouped based on aspects of necessity, intelligibility, plausibility, and f...

  7. EFFECT OF PROBLEM BASED LEARNING AND MODEL CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY TO PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unita S. Zuliani Nasution

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to analyze the different between physic resolving problem ability by using problem based learning model and direct instruction model, the different of physic resolving problem ability between the students that have critical thinking ability upper the average and the students that have critical thinking ability under the average, and the interaction of problem based learning model toward critical thinking ability and students’ physic resolving problem ability. This research was quasy experimental research that use critical thinking ability tests and physic resolving problem ability tests as the instruments. Result of the research showed that the students’ physic resolving problem ability by using problem based learning model was better than by using direct instruction model, students’ physic resolving problem ability and critical thinking ability upper the average showed better different and result than students’ critical thinking ability under the average, besides there was an interaction between problem based learning model and critical thinking ability in improving students’ physic resolving problem ability.

  8. (CBTP) on knowledge, problem-solving and learning approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the first instance attention is paid to the effect of a computer-based teaching programme (CBTP) on the knowledge, problem-solving skills and learning approach of student ... In the practice group (oncology wards) no statistically significant change in the learning approach of respondents was found after using the CBTP.

  9. Usefulness of problem-based learning in clinical nursing education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problem based learning (PBL) in clinical nursing is described as an effective learning strategy that can encourage students to become self-directed learners and to master clinical skills that can be transferable to service users. This study explores the usefulness of PBL in a nursing clinical setting from the nursing students' ...

  10. Evaluation of a Problem Based Learning Curriculum Using Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihatiningsih, Titi Savitri; Qomariyah, Nurul

    2016-01-01

    Faculty of Medicine UGM has implemented Problem Based Learning (PBL) since 1985. Seven jump tutorial discussions are applied. A scenario is used as a trigger to stimulate students to identify learning objectives (LOs) in step five which are used as the basis for self study in step six. For each scenario, the Block Team formulates the LOs which are…

  11. New Realities and the Implications for Problem Based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2004-01-01

    -based learning model with the new realities of today. Three new realities are discussed, the new global realities, the new business realities, and the new realities at the individual level. The new realities challenge the problem-based learning model. Adjustments are needed in terms of closer co...

  12. Evaluating potentialities and constrains of Problem Based Learning curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Aida

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a research design to evaluate Problem Based Learning (PBL) curriculum potentialities and constrains for future changes. PBL literature lacks examples of how to evaluate and analyse established PBL learning environments to address new challenges posed. The research design......) in the curriculum and a mean to choose cases for further case study (third phase)....

  13. ICT in Problem- and Project-based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Lars Birch; Lerche Nielsen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses how teaching and learning practices at universities can implement new information technologies, inspired by the traditions of problem- and project-based learning. The changing roles in the teacher-student relationship, and students’ development of information literacy are disc...

  14. Scaffolding Problem-Based Learning with CSCL Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jingyan; Lajoie, Susanne P.; Wiseman, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Small-group medical problem-based learning (PBL) was a pioneering form of collaborative learning at the university level. It has traditionally been delivered in face-to-face text-based format. With the advancement of computer technology and progress in CSCL, educational researchers are now exploring how to design digitally-implemented scaffolding…

  15. How play enhances creativity in problem based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, Ann Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on 20 Danish university students’ reflections in and on a Problem-based Learning process (PBL). The study showed how a more playful approach changed how the students collaborated, communicated, and approached a given task. They felt more creative, open minded and engaged compared...... between play and creativity in higher education learning processes?...

  16. Designing Teaching Materials for Learning Problem Solving in Technology Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornekamp, B.G.

    In the process of designing teaching materials for learning problem solving in technology education, domain-specific design specifications are considered important elements to raise learning outcomes with these materials. Two domain-specific design specifications were drawn up using a four-step

  17. Implementation of Problem-Based Learning in Environmental Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Stina; So¨derstro¨m, Hanna; Andersson, Patrik L.; Nording, Malin L.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental Chemistry covers a range of topics within the discipline of chemistry, from toxicology to legislation, which warrants interdisciplinary study. Consequently, problem-based learning (PBL), a style of student-centered learning which facilitates the integration of multiple subjects, was investigated to determine if it would be a more…

  18. Are marketing students in control in problem-based learning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geitz, Gerry; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated to what extent self-efficacy, learning behavior, and performance outcomes relate to each other and how they can be positively influenced by students asking for and seeking feedback within a problem-based learning (PBL) environment in order to meet today’s requirements of

  19. The Guinea Pigs of a Problem-Based Learning Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sarasvathie; McKenna, Sioux

    2016-01-01

    Participants in a study on learning the clinical aspects of medicine in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum repeatedly referred to themselves as "Guinea pigs" at the mercy of a curriculum experiment. This article interrogates and problematises the "Guinea pig" identity ascribed to and assumed by the first cohort of…

  20. Problems in the Deployment of Learning Networks In Small Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shankle, Dean E.; Shankle, Jeremy P.

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Shankle, D.E., & Shankle, J.P. (2006). Problems in the Deployment of Learning Networks In Small Organizations. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st, Sofia, Bulgaria:

  1. Problem-based learning on quantitative analytical chemistry course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Noor

    2017-12-01

    This research applies problem-based learning method on chemical quantitative analytical chemistry, so called as "Analytical Chemistry II" course, especially related to essential oil analysis. The learning outcomes of this course include aspects of understanding of lectures, the skills of applying course materials, and the ability to identify, formulate and solve chemical analysis problems. The role of study groups is quite important in improving students' learning ability and in completing independent tasks and group tasks. Thus, students are not only aware of the basic concepts of Analytical Chemistry II, but also able to understand and apply analytical concepts that have been studied to solve given analytical chemistry problems, and have the attitude and ability to work together to solve the problems. Based on the learning outcome, it can be concluded that the problem-based learning method in Analytical Chemistry II course has been proven to improve students' knowledge, skill, ability and attitude. Students are not only skilled at solving problems in analytical chemistry especially in essential oil analysis in accordance with local genius of Chemistry Department, Universitas Islam Indonesia, but also have skilled work with computer program and able to understand material and problem in English.

  2. Project organized Problem-based learning in Distance Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Peter; Helbo, Jan; Knudsen, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Project organized problem based learning is a successful concept for on-campus engineering education at Aalborg University. Recently this "Aalborg concept" has been used in networked distance education as well. This paper describes the experiences from two years of Internet-mediated project work...... in a new Master of Information Technology education. The main conclusions are, that the project work is a strong learning motivator, enhancing peer collaboration, for off-campus students as well. However, the concept cannot be directly transferred to off-campus learning. In this paper, the main problems...... experienced with group organized project work in distance education are described, and some possible solutions are listed....

  3. Project-Organized Problem-Based Learning in Distance Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Peter; Helbo, Jan; Knudsen, Morten

    2003-01-01

    Project organized problem based learning is a successful concept for on-campus engineering education at Aalborg University. Recently this "Aalborg concept" has been used in networked distance education as well. This paper describes the experiences from two years of Internet-mediated project work...... in a new Master of Information Technology education. The main conclusions are, that the project work is a strong learning motivator, enhancing peer collaboration, for off-campus students as well. However, the concept cannot be directly transferred to off-campus learning. In this paper, the main problems...... experienced with group organized project work in distance education are described, and some possible solutions are listed....

  4. College Students' Perceptions of Severity and Willingness to Seek Psychological Help For Drug and Alcohol Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowinger, Robert Jay

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 201 college students were surveyed with respect to their perceptions of severity and willingness to seek psychological help for drug and alcohol problems. Results indicated that students perceive alcohol problems as significantly less serious than drug problems and are significantly less willing to seek help for alcohol problems. Males…

  5. Learning Ethics through Everyday Problems: Informed Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdu, Fernando; Frances, Francesc; Castello, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of bioethics and its importance in clinical relationships is to a certain extent complicated when we address students of medicine, young people who are more used to dealing with and solving strictly clinical problems. Informed Consent is one of the aspects of professional practice that is generally and widely accepted in Western…

  6. Using Isomorphic Problems to Learn Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examine introductory physics students' ability to perform analogical reasoning between two isomorphic problems which employ the same underlying physics principles but have different surface features. Three hundred sixty-two students from a calculus-based and an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a quiz in the…

  7. Child Labor, Learning Problems, and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In Africa, approximately 80 million children are working. Africa's 41% child labor rate is nearly twice as high as that in Asia. This study examined whether child labor is a direct result of poverty or of reading and math problems in school. The study analyzed reading and math scores of 62 child laborers and 62 non-child laborers from a farming…

  8. Illicit Drug Use Among South Korean Offenders: Assessing the Generality of Social Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minwoo; Kim, Eunyoung

    2015-10-01

    Since the mid-1990s, illicit drug use has become a problem in Korean society. This trend is likely due to the rapid globalization and expansion that occurred with the Internet revolution, which led to greater numbers of people socially learning about drug culture. The current study attempts to uncover criminogenic causality of such social learning about drug use by studying adult felony drug offenders in South Korea. The data used for the study were obtained from self-reported surveys, originally collected by the Korean Institution of Criminology (KIC). The final sample comprised 1,452 felony offenders convicted of illicit drug use, and their responses were analyzed with a set of multiple logistic regression tests. The current study found supportive evidence for the generalizability of social learning theory from the sample of the South Korean adult drug offenders. We argue that the current study provides additional empirical evidence that supports the generalizability of social learning theory. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Philosophical problems between teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Alvim Monteiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to think the relation between teaching and learning, questioning the conception of education as a way to shape the subject involved in this relationship. Thus, introduce some legal bases readings that establish the Brazilian high school in order to consider the importance of discussing philosophically the Philosophy teaching.This way, with the reading of Foucault and Deleuze, rethink the conception of subject present in the parameters that rule the education, as well as the education paradigm as a way to promote the student to a social subject. In this sense, it is necessary to bring official discourse elements to stablish the conception of educating in this curriculum and, together, discuss about the notion of subject present in this documents. We intend to dissolve the comprehension of universal subject in order to treat the subjectivities and rethink the relation between teaching and learning. This relation is designed, most of the time, with a certain homogeneity in the formation of a certain subject and a certain knowledge. Therefore, this proposal aims to question the bases of education that start from a perception of teaching as a product. Discourse about a teaching that does not address only content transmission, but a teaching as philosophical experience. Think with Deleuze that learning is related not only to a rational aspect, but also to a sensitive one. However, starting with some researchers interested in the subject, consider these terms in order to propose possibilities of thinking a philosophical Philosophy teaching in high school. It is noteworthy that this proposal do not intend to deplete the thought of concepts that are so complex, but to raise questions that are still in an investigation process and should be analyzed constantly.

  10. Dealing with Insecurity in Problem Oriented Learning Approaches--The Importance of Problem Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Annie Aarup; Lund, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction of a pedagogical concept, Kubus, in a problem oriented learning context--analysed within the framework of an activity system--indicates what might happen when offering tools tempting to influence and regulate students' learning approach and hereby neglecting the importance of existing habits and values. Introduction of this new…

  11. Posing Problems to Understand Children's Learning of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lu Pien

    2013-01-01

    In this study, ways in which problem posing activities aid our understanding of children's learning of addition of unlike fractions and product of proper fractions was examined. In particular, how a simple problem posing activity helps teachers take a second, deeper look at children's understanding of fraction concepts will be discussed. The…

  12. Problem based learning: tutors' views 5 years after implementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PBL as an appropriate strategy for achieving skills in problem identification, and problem- solving through team work and appropriate use of resources. The other questions were about tutor involvement in providing administrative feed- back (to student learning). In sum- mary there were five questions about student effects,.

  13. Implementation of Problem Based Learning among Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Kwan, Chan Li; Khan, Aqeel; Ghafar, Mohamed Najib Abdul; Sihes, Ahmad Johari

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking and effective problem solving skills have been regarded as an important element and as an educational outcome in professional nursing. The purpose of this study is to examine the implementation of Problem Based Learning (PBL) among nursing students. More specifically, it compares pretest and post test scores of the implementation…

  14. Learning disabilities and social problem solving skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina Filippello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Recent studies showed that children with learning disabilities present significant difficulties in learning as well as in social skills (Siperstein, 2009.Therefore, it was observed how it is difficult for these children to establish adequate relationships, especially to advise coping strategies to face interpersonal conflicts (Oliva & LaGreca, 1988. Accordingly to this argument and with reference to Agaliotis e Kalyva (2004, 2009, this study examines the preferences for strategies to solve an hypothetical conflict on a sample of children with LD in comparison to typical developing peers. They used the method of social story to conduct this research. In fact, researchers asked to the children, after they have listened a short story describing an interpersonal conflict interaction between adult and peers,  which strategies they would have chosen if they were in the same situation and the strategies that would be most appropriate to resolve a conflict. Results obtained from the experiment corroborated literature data and demonstrated that children with LD, in comparison to typical developing peers, use and prefer dysfunctional coping strategies, aggressive or passive, also in relation to the partner interaction (adult or peers to face interpersonal conflict.

  15. Problem based Learning in surveying Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    The challenge of the future will be that the only constant is change. Therefore, the educational base must be flexible. The graduates must possess skills to adapt to a rapidly changing labour market and they must possess skills to deal with even the unknown problems of the future. The point is...... that opportunity. The basis principles of this educational model are presented using the surveying programme at Aalborg University as an example....

  16. LEARNING PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN WITH MILD INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keskinova Angelka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available School failure is one of the more complex, more difficult and unfortunately frequent problem that modern school meets. Many factors can cause school failure, such as: child development characteristics, family and school-originated factors. The purpose of the research is analysis of the specific learning problems in students with a mild intellectual disability. For our research we used ACADIA test, which contains 13 subtests for assessing the overall individual functioning. The research involved 144 students. We divided the sample into two groups, children with intellectual disability (our target group and control group. We found that generally all students with the intellectual disability have special learning problems. According to individual subtests analysis we concluded that the ability for visual association is best developed among these students while on the subtest for auditory memory they achieved worse results. With the analysis of the control group we found that 13.75% of the students have special learning problems.

  17. Role-playing in the problem-based learning class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2012-01-01

    Learning and teaching have been conceptualized and executed in many styles, such as self-learning, peer learning, and interaction between the learner and mentor. Today, openness to alternative ideas and embracing innovative approaches in nursing education are encouraged in order to meet students' learning interests and needs, and to address ever-changing healthcare requests. Problem-based learning has been widely adopted in nursing education, with various positive effects on students' learning, such as motivated learning, team work, problem-solving skills and critical thinking. Role-plays have been demonstrated as an effective learning strategy that includes an active and experiential feature that facilitates students' autonomy in their health-related learning. However, there is a lack of discussion of whether and how role-play can be used in problem-based learning (PBL). This paper shows the development of a classroom-based innovation using role-play in the PBL class for higher diploma year-one nurse students (a total of 20 students, five per group). This paper consists of five sections: a) the literature on PBL and nurse education, and role-plays as the innovation; b) the PBL case scenario with the illustration of the two role-play scripts, c) student evaluation on role-play in the PBL class; d) discussions on both achievements and limitations of this innovation, and e) the conclusion. It is hoped that this paper will be an example to other nurse educators who are keen on exploring interactive and student-driven learning and teaching strategies in the PBL class. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterizing Reinforcement Learning Methods through Parameterized Learning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    extraneous. The agent could potentially adapt these representational aspects by applying methods from feature selection ( Kolter and Ng, 2009; Petrik et al...611–616. AAAI Press. Kolter , J. Z. and Ng, A. Y. (2009). Regularization and feature selection in least-squares temporal difference learning. In A. P

  19. Safety learning from drugs of the same class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansdottir, G; Knol, M J; Arnardottir, A H

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the extent of safety learning from data pertaining to other drugs of the same class. We studied drug classes for which the first and second drugs were centrally registered in the European Union from 1995 to 2008. We assessed whether adverse drug reactions (ADRs......) associated with one of the drugs also appeared in the Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) of the other drug, either initially or during the postmarketing phase. We identified 977 ADRs from 19 drug pairs, of which 393 ADRs (40.2%) were listed in the SPCs of both drugs of a pair. Of these 393 that were...... present in both SPCs of a drug pair, 241 (61.3%) were present when the drug entered the market and 152 (30.7%) appeared in the postmarketing phase. The mention of ADRs in the SPCs of both same-class drugs in the postmarketing phase was associated with type A ADRs, marketing in the same regulator country...

  20. Learning and interactivity in solving a transformation problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Lisa G; Vallée-Tourangeau, Frédéric; Vallée-Tourangeau, Gaëlle; Howard, Chelsea

    2015-07-01

    Outside the psychologist's laboratory, thinking proceeds on the basis of a great deal of interaction with artefacts that are recruited to augment problem-solving skills. The role of interactivity in problem solving was investigated using a river-crossing problem. In Experiment 1A, participants completed the same problem twice, once in a low interactivity condition, and once in a high interactivity condition (with order counterbalanced across participants). Learning, as gauged in terms of latency to completion, was much more pronounced when the high interactivity condition was experienced second. When participants first completed the task in the high interactivity condition, transfer to the low interactivity condition during the second attempt was limited; Experiment 1B replicated this pattern of results. Participants thus showed greater facility to transfer their experience of completing the problem from a low to a high interactivity condition. Experiment 2 was designed to determine the amount of learning in a low and high interactivity condition; in this experiment participants completed the problem twice, but level of interactivity was manipulated between subjects. Learning was evident in both the low and high interactivity groups, but latency per move was significantly faster in the high interactivity group, in both presentations. So-called problem isomorphs instantiated in different task ecologies draw upon different skills and abilities; a distributed cognition analysis may provide a fruitful perspective on learning and transfer.

  1. Developing a Blended Learning-Based Method for Problem-Solving in Capability Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyogo, Wasis D.

    2018-01-01

    The main objectives of the study were to develop and investigate the implementation of blended learning based method for problem-solving. Three experts were involved in the study and all three had stated that the model was ready to be applied in the classroom. The implementation of the blended learning-based design for problem-solving was…

  2. Effect of Worksheet Scaffolds on Student Learning in Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Serene S. Y.; Rotgans, Jerome I.; Yew, Elaine H. J.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of worksheets as a scaffolding tool on students' learning achievement in a problem-based learning (PBL) environment. Seventeen PBL classes (N = 241) were randomly assigned to two experimental groups--one with a worksheet provided and the other without. Students' learning of the topic at hand…

  3. Problem-Based Learning and Learning Approach: Is There a Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Michele

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To assess the influence of a graduate-entry PBL (problem-based learning) curriculum on individual learning style; and to investigate the relationship between learning style, academic achievement and clinical reasoning skill. Method: Subjects were first-year medical students completed the Study Process Questionnaire at the commencement, and…

  4. Problem-Based Learning to Foster Deep Learning in Preservice Geography Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golightly, Aubrey; Raath, Schalk

    2015-01-01

    In South Africa, geography education students' approach to deep learning has received little attention. Therefore the purpose of this one-shot experimental case study was to evaluate the extent to which first-year geography education students used deep or surface learning in an embedded problem-based learning (PBL) format. The researchers measured…

  5. Effects of worked examples, example-problem, and problem-example pairs on novices’ learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Van Gog, T., Kester, L., & Paas, F. (2011). Effects of worked examples, example-problem, and problem-example pairs on novices’ learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36(3), 212-218. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.10.004

  6. What Is the Problem in Problem-Based Learning in Higher Education Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Bettina

    2018-01-01

    Problem and Project-Based Learning (PBL) emphasise collaborate work on problems relevant to society and emphases the relation between theory and practice. PBL fits engineering students as preparation for their future professions but what about mathematics? Mathematics is not just applied mathematics, but it is also a body of abstract knowledge…

  7. Faces of Change: Do I Have a Problem with Alcohol or Drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You Do About Drugs And Alcohol In Your Life? Know if there’s a problem: • Are drugs or alcohol affecting your work or health? • Do you feel like you need alcohol or drugs to get through the day? • Are your friends or family members telling you there’s a problem? ...

  8. Deep learning and the electronic structure problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kyle; Spanner, Michael; Tamblyn, Isaac

    In the past decade, the fields of artificial intelligence and computer vision have progressed remarkably. Supported by the enthusiasm of large tech companies, as well as significant hardware advances and the utilization of graphical processing units to accelerate computations, deep neural networks (DNN) are gaining momentum as a robust choice for many diverse machine learning applications. We have demonstrated the ability of a DNN to solve a quantum mechanical eigenvalue equation directly, without the need to compute a wavefunction, and without knowledge of the underlying physics. We have trained a convolutional neural network to predict the total energy of an electron in a confining, 2-dimensional electrostatic potential. We numerically solved the one-electron Schrödinger equation for millions of electrostatic potentials, and used this as training data for our neural network. Four classes of potentials were assessed: the canonical cases of the harmonic oscillator and infinite well, and two types of randomly generated potentials for which no analytic solution is known. We compare the performance of the neural network and consider how these results could lead to future advances in electronic structure theory.

  9. Junior High School Students’ Perception about Simple Environmental Problem as an Impact of Problem based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapilouw, M. C.; Firman, H.; Redjeki, S.; Chandra, D. T.

    2017-09-01

    Environmental problem is a real problem that occur in student’s daily life. Junior high school students’ perception about environmental problem is interesting to be investigated. The major aim of this study is to explore junior high school students’ perception about environmental problems around them and ways to solve the problem. The subject of this study is 69 Junior High School Students from two Junior High School in Bandung. This study use two open ended question. The core of first question is environmental problem around them (near school or house). The core of second question is the way to prevent or to solve the problem. These two question are as an impact of problem based learning in science learning. There are two major findings in this study. The first finding, based on most students’ perception, plastic waste cause an environmental problem. The second finding, environmental awareness can be a solution to prevent environmental pollution. The third finding, most student can classify environmental pollution into land, water and air pollution. We can conclude that Junior High School Students see the environmental problem as a phenomenon and teacher can explore environmental problem to guide the way of preventing and resolving environmental problem.

  10. Deep-Learning-Based Drug-Target Interaction Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; Zhang, Zhimin; Niu, Shaoyu; Sha, Haozhi; Yang, Ruihan; Yun, Yonghuan; Lu, Hongmei

    2017-04-07

    Identifying interactions between known drugs and targets is a major challenge in drug repositioning. In silico prediction of drug-target interaction (DTI) can speed up the expensive and time-consuming experimental work by providing the most potent DTIs. In silico prediction of DTI can also provide insights about the potential drug-drug interaction and promote the exploration of drug side effects. Traditionally, the performance of DTI prediction depends heavily on the descriptors used to represent the drugs and the target proteins. In this paper, to accurately predict new DTIs between approved drugs and targets without separating the targets into different classes, we developed a deep-learning-based algorithmic framework named DeepDTIs. It first abstracts representations from raw input descriptors using unsupervised pretraining and then applies known label pairs of interaction to build a classification model. Compared with other methods, it is found that DeepDTIs reaches or outperforms other state-of-the-art methods. The DeepDTIs can be further used to predict whether a new drug targets to some existing targets or whether a new target interacts with some existing drugs.

  11. [Problem-based learning in cardiopulmonary resuscitation: basic life support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardo, Pedro Miguel Garcez; Dal Sasso, Grace Terezinha Marcon

    2008-12-01

    Descriptive and exploratory study, aimed to develop an educational practice of Problem-Based Learning in CPR/BLS with 24 students in the third stage of the Nursing Undergraduate Course in a University in the Southern region of Brazil. The study used the PBL methodology, focused on problem situations of cardiopulmonary arrest, and was approved by the CONEP. The methodological strategies for data collection, such as participative observation and questionnaires to evaluate the learning, the educational practices and their methodology, allowed for grouping the results in: students' expectations; group activities; individual activities; practical activities; evaluation of the meetings and their methodology. The study showed that PBL allows the educator to evaluate the academic learning process in several dimensions, functioning as a motivating factor for both the educator and the student, because it allows the theoretical-practical integration in an integrated learning process.

  12. LEARNING STYLES AND STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN DESIGN PROBLEM SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elçin Tezel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Design curricula and all core design studio courses are prepared for performance attainment by giving theoretical and professional training. However students’ performance may be affected by both the constraints set on a design problem, and their learning styles. This study explores the performance of interior architectural students in relation to their learning styles (as proposed by Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory, and different types of constraints set on design problems. Design performance, measured as conceptual development, form and spatial configuration, structural innovation and ergonomics, and craftsmanship, was found to change throughout the two bipolar continuum of the learning cycle with regard to two design conditions characterized by different types of constraint use.

  13. The effectiveness of problem-based learning on students’ problem solving ability in vector analysis course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushlihuddin, R.; Nurafifah; Irvan

    2018-01-01

    The student’s low ability in mathematics problem solving proved to the less effective of a learning process in the classroom. Effective learning was a learning that affects student’s math skills, one of which is problem-solving abilities. Problem-solving capability consisted of several stages: understanding the problem, planning the settlement, solving the problem as planned, re-examining the procedure and the outcome. The purpose of this research was to know: (1) was there any influence of PBL model in improving ability Problem solving of student math in a subject of vector analysis?; (2) was the PBL model effective in improving students’ mathematical problem-solving skills in vector analysis courses? This research was a quasi-experiment research. The data analysis techniques performed from the test stages of data description, a prerequisite test is the normality test, and hypothesis test using the ANCOVA test and Gain test. The results showed that: (1) there was an influence of PBL model in improving students’ math problem-solving abilities in vector analysis courses; (2) the PBL model was effective in improving students’ problem-solving skills in vector analysis courses with a medium category.

  14. Using standardized patients versus video cases for representing clinical problems in problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Bo Young; Choi, Ikseon; Choi, Seokjin; Kim, Tae-Hee; Roh, Hyerin; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2016-06-01

    The quality of problem representation is critical for developing students' problem-solving abilities in problem-based learning (PBL). This study investigates preclinical students' experience with standardized patients (SPs) as a problem representation method compared to using video cases in PBL. A cohort of 99 second-year preclinical students from Inje University College of Medicine (IUCM) responded to a Likert scale questionnaire on their learning experiences after they had experienced both video cases and SPs in PBL. The questionnaire consisted of 14 items with eight subcategories: problem identification, hypothesis generation, motivation, collaborative learning, reflective thinking, authenticity, patient-doctor communication, and attitude toward patients. The results reveal that using SPs led to the preclinical students having significantly positive experiences in boosting patient-doctor communication skills; the perceived authenticity of their clinical situations; development of proper attitudes toward patients; and motivation, reflective thinking, and collaborative learning when compared to using video cases. The SPs also provided more challenges than the video cases during problem identification and hypotheses generation. SPs are more effective than video cases in delivering higher levels of authenticity in clinical problems for PBL. The interaction with SPs engages preclinical students in deeper thinking and discussion; growth of communication skills; development of proper attitudes toward patients; and motivation. Considering the higher cost of SPs compared with video cases, SPs could be used most advantageously during the preclinical period in the IUCM curriculum.

  15. Open source biotechnology : A drug for developing countries' health problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, M.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    In developing countries, many people suffer from diseases for which there are no drugs or for which drugs exist that they cannot afford because they are too expensive. The advent of genomics has sparked the idea that new drugs can be more easily developed and that genomics thus could lessen the

  16. UICEE Centre for Problem Based Learning (UCPBL) at Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Flemming Kobberøe; Enemark, Stig; Moesby, Egon

    2002-01-01

    University is considered to have a strong position in Problem-Based Learning (PBL) with many years of experience. Within engineering education co-operation with industry has also always been a field of high importance for Aalborg University and part of the PBL concept. An increasing number of universities...... and engineering schools worldwide are consequently seeking consultancy and cooperation with Aalborg University. The establishment of UCPBL is therefore welcomed as a possibility to merge these activities into one organisational structure and to strengthen the effort of improving engineering education......UICEE Centre for Problem-Based Learning (UCPBL) is a global centre for Problem-Based Learning located at Aalborg University, Denmark UCPBL is established as a partner to the UNESCO International Centre for Engineering Education (UICEE) located at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. Aalborg...

  17. The Effect of Problem Based Learning (PBL) Instruction on Students' Motivation and Problem Solving Skills of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argaw, Aweke Shishigu; Haile, Beyene Bashu; Ayalew, Beyene Tesfaw; Kuma, Shiferaw Gadisa

    2017-01-01

    Through the learning of physics, students will acquire problem solving skills which are relevant to their daily life. Determining the best way in which students learn physics takes a priority in physics education. The goal of the present study was to determine the effect of problem based learning strategy on students' problem solving skills and…

  18. Differential Effects of Parent and Grandparent Drug Use on Behavior Problems of Male and Female Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Judith A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Grandparents' and mothers' drug use predicted hyperactivity, psychosomatic complaints, and social problems for boys, and acting-out behaviors for boys and girls. Maternal drug use predicted fearfulness, hyperactivity, and social problems for boys, and developmental problems for boys and girls. (BC)

  19. Nursing problem-based learning activity: song writing and singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2014-08-01

    The function of song is not only to deliver individual's messages, but also to serve as a learning approach to facilitate students' learning. To observe the effectiveness of songs in facilitating students' learning, a Problem-based Learning (PBL) class with twenty students was divided into four groups with five students per group. Each group was asked to write a song based on two given scenarios, to sing the song out loud, and to participate in a follow-up focus group interview afterwards. The four songs reflected the students' understanding of academic knowledge and their perspectives toward the protagonists in the presented scenarios. Two songs are presented in this paper to demonstrate how the approach was carried out in the nursing PBL class. This paper aims to show the implication of song writing and singing in PBL and shed some light on teaching and learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Motivating programming students by Problem Based Learning and LEGO robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Coto Chotto, Mayela; Mora, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    . For this reason the school is focusing on different teaching methods to help their students master these skills. This paper introduces an experimental, controlled comparison study of three learning designs, involving a problem based learning (PBL) approach in connection with the use of LEGO Mindstorms to improve...... students programming skills and motivation for learning in an introductory programming course. The paper reports the results related with one of the components of the study - the experiential qualities of the three learning designs. The data were collected through a questionnaire survey with 229 students...... from three groups exposed to different learning designs and through six qualitative walk-alongs collecting data from these groups by informal interviews and observations. Findings from the three studies were discussed in three focus group interviews with 10 students from the three experimental groups....

  1. Enabling Problem Based Learning through Web 2.0 Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambouris, Efthimios; Panopoulou, Eleni; Tarabanis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    of modern educational systems. Established pedagogical strategies, such as Problem Based Learning (PBL), are being adapted for online use in conjunction with modern Web 2.0 technologies and tools. However, even though Web 2.0 and progressive social-networking technologies are automatically associated......Advances in Information and Communications Technology (ICT), particularly the so-called Web 2.0, are affecting all aspects of our life: how we communicate, how we shop, how we socialise, and how we learn. Facilitating learning through the use of ICT, also known as eLearning, is a vital part...... with ideals such as collaboration, sharing, and active learning, it is also possible to use them in a very conservative, teacher-centred way limiting thus their impact. In this paper, we present a PBL 2.0 framework, i.e., a framework combining PBL practices with Web 2.0 technologies. More specifically, we (a...

  2. Problem-based learning biotechnology courses in chemical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Charles E; Gonzalez, Ramon; Huba, Mary E; Mallapragada, Surya K; Narasimhan, Balaji; Reilly, Peter J; Saunders, Kevin P; Shanks, Jacqueline V

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a series of upper undergraduate/graduate lecture and laboratory courses on biotechnological topics to supplement existing biochemical engineering, bioseparations, and biomedical engineering lecture courses. The laboratory courses are based on problem-based learning techniques, featuring two- and three-person teams, journaling, and performance rubrics for guidance and assessment. Participants initially have found them to be difficult, since they had little experience with problem-based learning. To increase enrollment, we are combining the laboratory courses into 2-credit groupings and allowing students to substitute one of them for the second of our 2-credit chemical engineering unit operations laboratory courses.

  3. PENERAPAN BLENDED-PROBLEM BASED LEARNING DALAM PEMBELAJARAN BIOLOGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Agus Triyanto

    2016-07-01

    Biologi abad 21 merupakan integrasi dan mengintegrasikan kembali sub disiplin ilmu biologi, serta integrasi biologi dengan disiplin ilmu lain untuk mengatasi permasalahan sosial. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui penerapan Blended-Problem Based Learning, aktivitas belajar, dan respon siswa dalam pembelajaran biologi. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian survei dengan pendekatan deskriptif kualitatif. Data hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aktivitas positif siswa dalam pembelajaran memuaskan, sedangkan respon siswa baik terhadap pembelajaran. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, disimpulkan bahwa Blended-Problem Based Learning dapat diterapkan dan diterima sebagai model dalam pembelajaran.

  4. Problem-based and project-oriented learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus; Chen, Zhe

    2005-01-01

    . Generally, the content of the curriculum should be more expanded without extra study time. This paper presents a teaching approach, which makes it possible very fast for the students to obtain in-depth skills into new research areas, and this method is the problem-oriented and project-based learning....... In this paper the necessary skills for power electronic engineers are outlined that is followed up by a description on how the problem-oriented and project-based learning are implemented. A complete curriculum in power electronics and drives at Aalborg University is presented where different power electronics...... related projects at different study levels also are presented....

  5. Identification and management of physical health problems among an injecting drug using population

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Injecting drug use is highly prevalent in London and is associated with specific physical health problems. These problems are related to the toxicity of the substances, their mode of consumption and as a consequence of the drug taking lifestyle. Hepatitis B and C viral infections are common among drug users due to sharing of both needles and other drug taking paraphernalia. Hepatitis B infection can be prevented by immunisation. Hepatitis C infection can interact with alcohol consumption to a...

  6. Automated problem generation in Learning Management Systems: a tutorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Romero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of solving problems have been widely acknowledged by literature. Its implementation in e–learning platforms can make easier its management and the learning process itself. However, its implementation can also become a very time–consuming task, particularly when the number of problems to generate is high. In this tutorial we describe a methodology that we have developed aiming to alleviate the workload of producing a great deal of problems in Moodle for an undergraduate business course. This methodology follows a six-step process and allows evaluating student’s skills in problem solving, minimizes plagiarism behaviors and provides immediate feedback. We expect this tutorial encourage other educators to apply our six steps process, thus benefiting themselves and their students of its advantages.

  7. ICT-Supported Problem-Based Learning: Possibilities of Applying Problem-Based Learning from Primary School to Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czékmán Balázs

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem Based Learning was originally created for medical students to better diagnose new illnesses; this methodology can be used in almost all the fields of education. Teachers can teach by appealing to students’ natural instincts to create, and they can improve the students’ performance in different disciplines. So, we can say that it is an easy way of the acquisition and integration of new knowledge. While the content and structure of PBL courses may differ, the general goals and learning objectives tend to be similar. It begins with the assumption that learning is an active, integrated, and constructive process influenced by social and contextual factors. The task of our paper is to show how Problem-Based Learning can be used from primary to university level education in teaching different subjects.

  8. Position-aware deep multi-task learning for drug-drug interaction extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Deyu; Miao, Lei; He, Yulan

    2018-05-01

    A drug-drug interaction (DDI) is a situation in which a drug affects the activity of another drug synergistically or antagonistically when being administered together. The information of DDIs is crucial for healthcare professionals to prevent adverse drug events. Although some known DDIs can be found in purposely-built databases such as DrugBank, most information is still buried in scientific publications. Therefore, automatically extracting DDIs from biomedical texts is sorely needed. In this paper, we propose a novel position-aware deep multi-task learning approach for extracting DDIs from biomedical texts. In particular, sentences are represented as a sequence of word embeddings and position embeddings. An attention-based bidirectional long short-term memory (BiLSTM) network is used to encode each sentence. The relative position information of words with the target drugs in text is combined with the hidden states of BiLSTM to generate the position-aware attention weights. Moreover, the tasks of predicting whether or not two drugs interact with each other and further distinguishing the types of interactions are learned jointly in multi-task learning framework. The proposed approach has been evaluated on the DDIExtraction challenge 2013 corpus and the results show that with the position-aware attention only, our proposed approach outperforms the state-of-the-art method by 0.99% for binary DDI classification, and with both position-aware attention and multi-task learning, our approach achieves a micro F-score of 72.99% on interaction type identification, outperforming the state-of-the-art approach by 1.51%, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Using cooperative learning for a drug information assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Grace L

    2009-11-12

    To implement a cooperative learning activity to engage students in analyzing tertiary drug information resources in a literature evaluation course. The class was divided into 4 sections to form expert groups and each group researched a different set of references using the jigsaw technique. Each member of each expert group was reassigned to a jigsaw group so that each new group was composed of 4 students from 4 different expert groups. The jigsaw groups met to discuss search strategies and rate the usefulness of the references. In addition to group-based learning, teaching methods included students' writing an independent research paper to enhance their abilities to search and analyze drug information resources. The assignment and final course grades improved after implementation of the activity. Students agreed that class discussions were a useful learning experience and 75% (77/102) said they would use the drug information references for other courses. The jigsaw technique was successful in engaging students in cooperative learning to improve critical thinking skills regarding drug information.

  10. In silico machine learning methods in drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobchev, Dimitar A; Pillai, Girinath G; Karelson, Mati

    2014-01-01

    Machine learning (ML) computational methods for predicting compounds with pharmacological activity, specific pharmacodynamic and ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) properties are being increasingly applied in drug discovery and evaluation. Recently, machine learning techniques such as artificial neural networks, support vector machines and genetic programming have been explored for predicting inhibitors, antagonists, blockers, agonists, activators and substrates of proteins related to specific therapeutic targets. These methods are particularly useful for screening compound libraries of diverse chemical structures, "noisy" and high-dimensional data to complement QSAR methods, and in cases of unavailable receptor 3D structure to complement structure-based methods. A variety of studies have demonstrated the potential of machine-learning methods for predicting compounds as potential drug candidates. The present review is intended to give an overview of the strategies and current progress in using machine learning methods for drug design and the potential of the respective model development tools. We also regard a number of applications of the machine learning algorithms based on common classes of diseases.

  11. Enhancing students' learning in problem based learning: validation of a self-assessment scale for active learning and critical thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoiriyah, U.; Roberts, C.; Jorm, C.; Vleuten, C.P. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Problem based learning (PBL) is a powerful learning activity but fidelity to intended models may slip and student engagement wane, negatively impacting learning processes, and outcomes. One potential solution to solve this degradation is by encouraging self-assessment in the PBL

  12. Learning of Rule Ensembles for Multiple Attribute Ranking Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembczyński, Krzysztof; Kotłowski, Wojciech; Słowiński, Roman; Szeląg, Marcin

    In this paper, we consider the multiple attribute ranking problem from a Machine Learning perspective. We propose two approaches to statistical learning of an ensemble of decision rules from decision examples provided by the Decision Maker in terms of pairwise comparisons of some objects. The first approach consists in learning a preference function defining a binary preference relation for a pair of objects. The result of application of this function on all pairs of objects to be ranked is then exploited using the Net Flow Score procedure, giving a linear ranking of objects. The second approach consists in learning a utility function for single objects. The utility function also gives a linear ranking of objects. In both approaches, the learning is based on the boosting technique. The presented approaches to Preference Learning share good properties of the decision rule preference model and have good performance in the massive-data learning problems. As Preference Learning and Multiple Attribute Decision Aiding share many concepts and methodological issues, in the introduction, we review some aspects bridging these two fields. To illustrate the two approaches proposed in this paper, we solve with them a toy example concerning the ranking of a set of cars evaluated by multiple attributes. Then, we perform a large data experiment on real data sets. The first data set concerns credit rating. Since recent research in the field of Preference Learning is motivated by the increasing role of modeling preferences in recommender systems and information retrieval, we chose two other massive data sets from this area - one comes from movie recommender system MovieLens, and the other concerns ranking of text documents from 20 Newsgroups data set.

  13. EFFECT OF PROBLEM BASED LEARNING IN COMPARISION WITH LECTURE BASED LEARNING IN FORENSIC MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmakumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Problem based learning (PBL is an approach to learning and instruction in which students tackle problems in small groups under the supervision of a teacher. This style of learning assumed to foster increased retention of knowledge, improve student’s gene ral problem solving skills, enhance integration of basic science concepts in to clinical problems, foster the development of self - directed learning skills and strengthen student’s intrinsic motivation. AIM: The study was conducted to compare the effect of Problem based learning in comparison with lecture based learning. SETTING: A cross - sectional study was conducted among 2nd year MBBS students of Jubilee Mission Medical College and Research Institute, Thrissur during the period of December 2014 to March 20 15. METHODOLOGY: The batch is divided into two groups (A & B, 45 in each group. By using PBL method, blunt force injuries were taught to Group - A and sharp weapon injuries to group - B. By using lecture based learning (LBL method blunt force injuries were t aught to Group - B and sharp weapon injuries to group - A. At the end of the session a test in the form of MCQ was conducted on the students to evaluate their learning outcome. OBSERVATION AND RESU LTS: In session I, the average test score of LBL group was 8.16 and PBL group was 12. The difference was statistically significant. In session - II also 45 students has participated each in LBL and PBL classes. The average of test score of LBL group was 7.267 and PBL was 11.289, which was highly significant statistical ly . CONCLUSION: Study has proven that problem based learning is an effective teaching learning method when compared to conventional lecture based learning.

  14. Teaching Agile Software Engineering Using Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khalili, Nuha H.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have reported the utilization of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in teaching Software Engineering courses. However, these studies have different views of the effectiveness of PBL. This paper presents the design of an Advanced Software Engineering course for undergraduate Software Engineering students that uses PBL to teach them Agile…

  15. Student and tutor perception of a new problem based learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Makerere University Faculty of Medicine started the implementation of the Problem Based Learning/Community Based Education and Service curriculum for incoming students in the academic year 2003/2004. It undertook an intense preparatory period of 2 years before implementation, which included ...

  16. Problem-Based Learning in Engineering Ethics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Robert

    2016-01-01

    I describe the first stages of a process of design research in which I employ problem-based learning in a course in engineering ethics, which fulfills a requirement for students in engineering degree programs. The aim of the course is to foster development of particular cognitive skills contributing to moral imagination, a capacity to notice,…

  17. The Impact of Problem Sets on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong Hwan; Cho, Moon-Heum; Leonard, Karen Moustafa

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the role of problem sets on student learning in university microeconomics. A total of 126 students participated in the study in consecutive years. independent samples t test showed that students who were not given answer keys outperformed students who were given answer keys. Multiple regression analysis showed that, along with…

  18. Relationship between Learning Problems and Attention Deficit in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponde, Milena Pereira; Cruz-Freire, Antonio Carlos; Silveira, Andre Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of attention deficit on learning problems in a sample of schoolchildren in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Method: All students enrolled in selected elementary schools were included in this study, making a total of 774 children. Each child was assessed by his or her teacher using a standardized scale. "The…

  19. Problem based learning in acoustics at Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Christensen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    in the project work, or are defining for the candidate's professional profile. This presentation gives an overview of Problem Based Learning organized in groups in the M. Sc. in Acoustics program of Aalborg University. Examples of projects and course activities are presented to illustrate the relation...

  20. Problem-Based Learning for Production and Operations Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanet, John J.; Barut, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our application of "problem-based learning" in the teaching of production/operations management. We describe a study of the effectiveness of this approach and present the results and analysis of this study. We provide a collection of our experiences in using this method and conclude with some general…

  1. Problem-Based Learning in a General Psychology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Sandra A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the adoption of problem-based learning (PBL) techniques in a general psychology course. States that the instructor used a combination of techniques, including think-pair-share, lecture/discussion, and PBL. Notes means and standard deviations for graded components of PBL format versus lecture/discussion format. (Contains 18 references.)…

  2. Implementing Problem-Based Learning in the Counseling Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kimberly R.

    This study examined the use of problem-based learning (PBL) in an actual counseling session and the effects on student assertiveness skills. A group of seventh-grade students, who were all victims of bullies, participated in the study. The students, two boys and one girls, were 13 and 14 years old. Teachers rated the level of assertiveness skills…

  3. Problem-based learning: Developing resilience in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Yuan Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A society needs mature and confident nurse practitioners, who are able to think analytically and flexibly, recognize needs for further preparation, and willing to engage in self-development. Concern is raised regarding how educators will build the capacity of resilient students with a knowledge base and a minimum set of skills in responding to various issues and for engaging in self-reflection. Drawing on the framework of nursing competencies and global standards for the education of professional nurses, resilient students may contribute through their social competence, problem-solving ability, sense of purpose, and persistence in the process to achieve the goal of the project. Educators should know how to build the resilient attribute in students by encouraging them to engage in self-reflection. This article discusses four areas that help students build resilience from project-based learning of a small group: the impact of problem-based learning at clinical practice, project/problem-based learning, resilient nursing student, and developing nursing students’ resilience. Self-assessment to check the promoting skills for teaching in a problem-based learning program helps the faculty holding the empowerment to encourage or support the students to face the challenge within the small team.

  4. "Theory repositories" via the web for problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Johan (CTIT); van Riemsdijk, Maarten; Jones, Valerie M.; Collis, Betty

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments conducted at the School of Management Studies at the University of Twente designed to improve students' concentration on the theoretical study materials in a particular course. In 1997 a problem-based learning approach was introduced into a course on

  5. Learning and Teaching Problems in Part-Time Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman-Dickenson, D. I.

    1988-01-01

    Results of a British survey of the administrations of six universities and six public colleges, employers, and employees who were part-time students are reported and discussed. The survey assessed the perceptions of those groups concerning problems in the instruction and learning of part-time students. (MSE)

  6. The problem-based learning (PBL and health education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Moraes Vignochi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The Problem-Based Learning (Problem-Based Learning - PBL has been recognized worldwide as an approach to promote the acquisition of knowledge by students at the same time that helps them develop skills and professional attitudes desirable. Unlike the conventional methods of teaching that use of application problems after the theory was presented, the PBL uses a problem to start, focus and motivate the learning of new concepts 13. In this approach, the student uses different mental processes, such as ability to raise hypotheses, compare, analyze, interpret, and evaluate and develop the ability to take responsibility for their education 11.12. The methodology of PBL has been a valuable tool in shaping the health care professional, with advantages over the traditional method of teaching. However, for its deployment there is a need for considerable institutional effort. Are necessary adjustments, including changes in the way of evaluation, for changes in mindset about the role of teachers in the process teaching / learning, investment in infrastructure, adaptations of the environment, improvement of libraries and other 19,20,21, 22. The process of change in education will bring many challenges, such as a break with traditional models of education and train health professionals with skills to recover the essential dimension of care: the relationship between humans.

  7. Introduction to Problem Based Learning for Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Egon; Rosenørn, Torben

    2003-01-01

    Documentation material and working papers for the workshop "Introduction to Problem Based Learning for Engineering Education" held at Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 6 - 10 October 2003. The material support the workshop where the participants go through a complete pre-planning cycle...

  8. Advanced prototyping tools for project- and problem-based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Bech, Michael Møller; Holm, Allan J.

    2002-01-01

    A new approach in prototyping for project- and problem-based learning is achieved by using the new Total Development Environment concept introduced by dSPACE that allows a full visual block-oriented programming of dynamic real-time systems to be achieved  using the Matlab/Simulink environment...

  9. Learning Styles and Problem Solving Skills of Turkish Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencel, Ilke Evin

    2015-01-01

    Global changes in educational discourse have an impact on educational systems, so teacher education programs need to be transformed to better train teachers and to contribute to their professional development. In this process learning styles and problem solving skills should be considered as individual differences which have an impact in…

  10. Designing Digital Problem Based Learning Tasks that Motivate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Anne-Marieke; Ros, Anje; Martens, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether teachers are able to apply the principles of autonomy support and structure support in designing digital problem based learning (PBL) tasks. We examine whether these tasks are more autonomy- and structure-supportive and whether primary and secondary school students experience greater autonomy, competence, and motivation…

  11. Problem drug use the public health imperative: what some of the literature says.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Gez

    2009-12-16

    With more than 200,000 problem drug users is contact with structured treatment services in England the public health imperative behind drug treatment is great. Problem drug use for many is a chronic and relapsing condition, where "cure" is often neither a reasonable or appropriate expectation and it can further be argued that in these circumstances problem drug use is no different from any number of chronic and enduring health conditions that are managed in the health care system and therefore should be conceptualised as such. A public health approach to drug treatment emphasises the need for drug users in or accessing treatment, to reduce their harmful drug use, reduce drug use related risks such as sepsis and overdose and stay alive for longer. However a public health perspective in relation to problem drug use isn't always either apparent or readily understood and to that end there is still a significant need to continue the arguments and debate that treatment and interventions for problem and dependent drug users need to extend beyond an individualistic approach. For the purposes of discussion in this article public and population health will be used interchangeably. A recognition and acceptance that a public and population health approach to the management of problem drug users is sound public health policy also then requires a long term commitment in terms of staffing and resources where service delivery mirrors that of chronic condition management.

  12. Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault and That the Problems in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi Kantarcı

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The assailants of sexuel assault to serve this purpose to the victims of many different drug can use. These drugs can be applied together with alcohol, soft drinks, water and other drinks can be given together. Most of these drugs tasteless and odorless. In a few minutes after ingestion chemical effect of drugs can start. Victims the conscious reduction and limitation of the physical move occur. Drug drinking from the pass the time until impact memory loss can occur. For this purpose the main benzodiazepines (Diazepam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, etc., hypnotics (Zopiclone, zolpidem, anesthetics (Gama-hydroxybutyrate, ketamine, amphetamines (Metylendioxymetamphetamine=ecstasy, opiats (Cocaine, cannabis=marihuana and alcohols such as ethanol substances used. However in study frequently encountered in the literature; cocaine, cannabis, metylendioxymetamphetamine, zolpidem, ketamine hydrochloride, zopiclone, gamma hydroxybutirate, diazepam, flunitrazepam and the effects of these substances after oral ingestion were evaluated and the approach to victims.

  13. Transfer of learning in binary decision making problems.

    OpenAIRE

    Robotti, O. P.

    2007-01-01

    Transfer, the use of acquired knowledge, skills and abilities across tasks and contexts, is a key and elusive goal of learning. Most evidence available in literature is based on a limited number of tasks, predominantly open-ended problems, game-like problems and taught school subjects (e.g. maths, physics, algebra). It is not obvious that findings from this work can be extended to the domain of decision making problems. This thesis, which aims to broaden the understanding of enhancing and lim...

  14. Drug related problems with Antiparkinsonian agents: consumer Internet reports versus published data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Sabrina; Zöllner, York Francis; Schaefer, Marion

    2007-10-01

    There is currently a lack of detailed information concerning drug related problems in the outpatient treatment of Parkinson's disease. Problems associated with drug treatment communicated anonymously in Parkinson's disease online forums were therefore retrospectively searched and documented for 1 year. Based on postings concerning 12 drugs for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, a total of 238 drug related problems were identified and categorised using the Problem Intervention Documentation (PI-Doc). Of these, 153 were adverse drug reactions. Adverse drug reactions associated with the skin were relatively common, but central effects such as cognitive or psychiatric changes, effects on the sleep/waking system and other problems like headache and dizziness accounted for the highest percentage of adverse events. A comparison with data from scientific literature revealed a number of differences. This means that an analysis of online forums detected a number of drug related problems that were otherwise largely invisible. These were mainly associated with the qualitative aspects of treatment such as medication handling, dosage and individual problems concerning adverse events. In addition, the described method of identifying and classifying drug related problems in Internet forums may also be seen as a contribution to the international discussion about consumer reports and pharmacovigilance. The information about adverse drug reactions given by Internet users can be seen as a valuable adjunct to clinical trial data and as being very timely with regard to the event itself. Online forums may be considered as a suitable source of observational information to complement data from randomised clinical trials.

  15. PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING IN THE DIGITAL AGE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    Problem-based and project-organized learning (PBL) was originally developed to facilitate collaboration between physically present students; however, due to digitalization, collaboration, dialogues, and other PBL activities should take place online as well. With a theoretical point of departure...... from Dewey and a methodological point of departure from netnography, this study focused on a blended learning module at Aalborg University, where teaching is based on PBL. A primary research question was investigated: “How can IT support collaborative learning among learner communities in a PBL Master......’s program at Aalborg University?” The ways teachers and groups of students could benefit from utilizing IT as a platform for learning were examined. Netnography was the chosen methodology, and the data consisted of the course materials, the reflections, and the dialogues available online. The study showed...

  16. Disciplinary Knots and Learning Problems in Waves Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzone, Simone; Frati, Serena; Montalbano, Vera

    An investigation on student understanding of waves is performed during an optional laboratory realized in informal extracurricular way with few, interested and talented pupils. The background and smart intuitions of students rendered the learning path very dynamic and ambitious. The activities started by investigating the basic properties of waves by means of a Shive wave machine. In order to make quantitative observed phenomena, the students used a camcorder and series of measures were obtained from the captured images. By checking the resulting data, it arose some learning difficulties especially in activities related to the laboratory. This experience was the starting point for a further analysis on disciplinary knots and learning problems in the physics of waves in order to elaborate a teaching-learning proposal on this topic.

  17. Deep and surface learning in problem-based learning: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmans, Diana H J M; Loyens, Sofie M M; Marcq, Hélène; Gijbels, David

    2016-12-01

    In problem-based learning (PBL), implemented worldwide, students learn by discussing professionally relevant problems enhancing application and integration of knowledge, which is assumed to encourage students towards a deep learning approach in which students are intrinsically interested and try to understand what is being studied. This review investigates: (1) the effects of PBL on students' deep and surface approaches to learning, (2) whether and why these effects do differ across (a) the context of the learning environment (single vs. curriculum wide implementation), and (b) study quality. Studies were searched dealing with PBL and students' approaches to learning. Twenty-one studies were included. The results indicate that PBL does enhance deep learning with a small positive average effect size of .11 and a positive effect in eleven of the 21 studies. Four studies show a decrease in deep learning and six studies show no effect. PBL does not seem to have an effect on surface learning as indicated by a very small average effect size (.08) and eleven studies showing no increase in the surface approach. Six studies demonstrate a decrease and four an increase in surface learning. It is concluded that PBL does seem to enhance deep learning and has little effect on surface learning, although more longitudinal research using high quality measurement instruments is needed to support this conclusion with stronger evidence. Differences cannot be explained by the study quality but a curriculum wide implementation of PBL has a more positive impact on the deep approach (effect size .18) compared to an implementation within a single course (effect size of -.05). PBL is assumed to enhance active learning and students' intrinsic motivation, which enhances deep learning. A high perceived workload and assessment that is perceived as not rewarding deep learning are assumed to enhance surface learning.

  18. Causes of learning problems in primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkov Snežana I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were conducted on learning problems using the sample of eighth-grade students of primary school (N=335. The respondents opted for one or more than seven offered statements related to: insufficient previous knowledge, insufficient studying, teaching contents (extensive, difficult unintelligible, textbook and teacher’s method of presenting the contents. On the basis of the results obtained, one-third of students have problems in mastering teaching contents of foreign language, physics and chemistry, and about one-fourth in mastering those of history and mathematics. All the mentioned causes of problems are present in varying degrees in some school subjects. The causes of learning problems are markedly present in a larger number of school subjects and they are related to some characteristics of teaching contents. Respondents point out, to a large extent, that teaching contents of technical education are uninteresting. In addition, students’ responses indicate that it is necessary to improve the method for mastering the teaching contents in various school subjects i.e. methods applied in the teaching process. Subjective causes, as pointed out by students, are connected with some of the subjects they have characterized as the most difficult. Unintelligible textbook is stressed to the lowest extent as a cause of learning problems compared to other causes stated for the majority of school subjects.

  19. The philosophical aspect of learning inverse problems of mathematical physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Семенович Корнилов

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes specific questions student learning inverse problems of mathematical physics. When teaching inverse problems of mathematical physics to the understanding of the students brought the information that the inverse problems of mathematical physics with a philosophical point of view are the problems of determining the unknown causes of known consequences, and the search for their solutions have great scientific and educational potential. The reasons are specified in the form of unknown coefficients, right side, initial conditions of the mathematical model of inverse problems, and as a consequence are functionals of the solution of this mathematical model. In the process of learning the inverse problems of mathematical physics focuses on the philosophical aspects of the phenomenon of information and identify cause-effect relations. It is emphasized that in the process of logical analysis applied and humanitarian character, students realize that information is always related to the fundamental philosophical questions that the analysis applied and the humanitarian aspects of the obtained results the inverse problem of mathematical physics allows students to make appropriate inferences about the studied process and to, ultimately, new information, to study its properties and understand its value. Philosophical understanding of the notion of information opens up to students a new methodological opportunities to comprehend the world and helps us to reinterpret existing science and philosophy of the theory related to the disclosure of the interrelationship of all phenomena of reality.

  20. Drug-related problems identified in medication reviews by Australian pharmacists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafford, Andrew C; Tenni, Peter C; Peterson, Gregory M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In Australia, accredited pharmacists perform medication reviews for patients to identify and resolve drug-related problems. We analysed the drug-related problems identified in reviews for both home-dwelling and residential care-facility patients. The objective of this study was to exam......OBJECTIVE: In Australia, accredited pharmacists perform medication reviews for patients to identify and resolve drug-related problems. We analysed the drug-related problems identified in reviews for both home-dwelling and residential care-facility patients. The objective of this study....... These reviews had been self-selected by pharmacists and submitted as part of the reaccreditation process to the primary body responsible for accrediting Australian pharmacists to perform medication reviews. The drug-related problems identified in each review were classified by type and drugs involved. MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURE: The number and nature of drug-related problems identified in pharmacist-conducted medication reviews. RESULTS: There were 1,038 drug-related problems identified in 234 medication reviews (mean 4.6 (+/-2.2) problems per review). The number of problems was higher (4.9 +/- 2.0 vs. 3.9 +/- 2...

  1. Problems in the regulatory policy of the drug market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miziara, Nathália Molleis; Coutinho, Diogo Rosenthal

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Analyze the implementation of drug price regulation policy by the Drug Market Regulation Chamber. METHODS This is an interview-based study, which was undertaken in 2012, using semi-structured questionnaires with social actors from the pharmaceutical market, the pharmaceuticals industry, consumers and the regulatory agency. In addition, drug prices were compiled based on surveys conducted in the state of Sao Paulo, at the point of sale, between February 2009 and May 2012. RESULTS The mean drug prices charged at the point of sale (pharmacies) were well below the maximum price to the consumer, compared with many drugs sold in Brazil. Between 2009 and 2012, 44 of the 129 prices, corresponding to 99 drugs listed in the database of compiled prices, showed a variation of more than 20.0% in the mean prices at the point of sale and the maximum price to the consumer. In addition, many laboratories have refused to apply the price adequacy coefficient in their sales to government agencies. CONCLUSIONS The regulation implemented by the pharmaceutical market regulator was unable to significantly control prices of marketed drugs, without succeeding to push them to levels lower than those determined by the pharmaceutical industry and failing, therefore, in its objective to promote pharmaceutical support for the public. It is necessary reconstruct the regulatory law to allow market prices to be reduced by the regulator as well as institutional strengthen this government body. PMID:26083945

  2. Drug-related problems and changes in drug utilization after medication reviews in nursing homes in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fog, Amura Francesca; Kvalvaag, Gunnar; Engedal, Knut; Straand, Jørund

    2017-12-01

    We describe the drug-related problems (DRPs) identified during medication reviews (MRs) and the changes in drug utilization after MRs at nursing homes in Oslo, Norway. We explored predictors for the observed changes. Observational before-after study. Forty-one nursing homes. MRs performed by multidisciplinary teams during November 2011 to February 2014. In all, 2465 long-term care patients. DRPs identified by explicit criteria (STOPP/START and NORGEP) and drug-drug interaction database; interventions to resolve DRPs; drug use changes after MR. A total of 6158 DRPs were identified, an average of 2.6 DRPs/patient, 2.0 for regular and 0.6 for pro re nata (prn) drugs. Of these patients, 17.3% had no DRPs. The remaining 82.7% of the patients had on average 3.0 DRPs/patient. Use of unnecessary drugs (43.5%), excess dosing (12.5%) and lack of monitoring of the drug use (11%) were the most frequent DRPs. Opioids and psychotropic drugs were involved in 34.4% of all DRPs. The mean number of drugs decreased after the MR from 6.8 to 6.3 for regular drugs and from 3.0 to 2.6 for prn drugs. Patients with DRPs experienced a decrease of 1.1 drugs after MR (0.5 for regular and 0.6 for prn drugs). The reduction was most pronounced for the regular use of antipsychotics, antidepressants, hypnotics/sedatives, diuretics, antithrombotic agents, antacid drugs; and for prn use of anxiolytics, opioids, hypnotics/sedatives, metoclopramide and NSAIDs. The medication review resulted in less drug use, especially opioids and psychotropic drugs.

  3. Improving mathematical problem solving ability through problem-based learning and authentic assessment for the students of Bali State Polytechnic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darma, I. K.

    2018-01-01

    This research is aimed at determining: 1) the differences of mathematical problem solving ability between the students facilitated with problem-based learning model and conventional learning model, 2) the differences of mathematical problem solving ability between the students facilitated with authentic and conventional assessment model, and 3) interaction effect between learning and assessment model on mathematical problem solving. The research was conducted in Bali State Polytechnic, using the 2x2 experiment factorial design. The samples of this research were 110 students. The data were collected using a theoretically and empirically-validated test. Instruments were validated by using Aiken’s approach of technique content validity and item analysis, and then analyzed using anova stylistic. The result of the analysis shows that the students facilitated with problem-based learning and authentic assessment models get the highest score average compared to the other students, both in the concept understanding and mathematical problem solving. The result of hypothesis test shows that, significantly: 1) there is difference of mathematical problem solving ability between the students facilitated with problem-based learning model and conventional learning model, 2) there is difference of mathematical problem solving ability between the students facilitated with authentic assessment model and conventional assessment model, and 3) there is interaction effect between learning model and assessment model on mathematical problem solving. In order to improve the effectiveness of mathematics learning, collaboration between problem-based learning model and authentic assessment model can be considered as one of learning models in class.

  4. Mobile Learning for Higher Education in Problem-Based Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rongbutsri, Nikorn

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the PhD project on Mobile Learning for Higher Education in Problem-Based Learning Environment which aims to understand how students gain benefit from using mobile devices in the aspect of project work collaboration. It demonstrates research questions, theoretical perspective...

  5. Effect of worksheet scaffolds on student learning in problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S.Y. Choo (Serene); J.I. Rotgans (Jerome); E.H.J. Yew (Elaine); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of worksheets as a scaffolding tool on students' learning achievement in a problem-based learning (PBL) environment. Seventeen PBL classes (N = 241) were randomly assigned to two experimental groups-one with a worksheet provided and

  6. Rethinking the globalisation of problem-based learning: how culture challenges self-directed learning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, J.M.; Driessen, E.W.; Chan, L.C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    Medical Education 2012: 46: 738-747 Context Medical schools worldwide are increasingly switching to student-centred methods such as problem-based learning (PBL) to foster lifelong self-directed learning (SDL). The cross-cultural applicability of these methods has been questioned because of their

  7. Fostering Critical Thinking Skills in Students with Learning Disabilities through Online Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    As a pedagogical approach, problem-based learning (PBL) has shown success for average and gifted students (HmeloSiver, 2004) and there are numerous incentives for its implementation in online learning environments (Savid-Baden, 2007; Chernobilsky, Nagarajan, & Hmelo-Silver, 2005). However, little research has been conducted regarding the…

  8. Program Administrator's Handbook. Strategies for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. The College Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook is for administrators of programs in higher education settings which deal with alcohol and other drug (AOD) related problems. Chapter 1, "Defining the Problem, Issues, and Trends" examines the problem from various perspectives and presents the latest statistics on the extent of AOD use on campuses, specific problems affecting…

  9. Inverse Problems in Geodynamics Using Machine Learning Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnas, M. H.; Yuen, D. A.; Pysklywec, R. N.

    2018-01-01

    During the past few decades numerical studies have been widely employed to explore the style of circulation and mixing in the mantle of Earth and other planets. However, in geodynamical studies there are many properties from mineral physics, geochemistry, and petrology in these numerical models. Machine learning, as a computational statistic-related technique and a subfield of artificial intelligence, has rapidly emerged recently in many fields of sciences and engineering. We focus here on the application of supervised machine learning (SML) algorithms in predictions of mantle flow processes. Specifically, we emphasize on estimating mantle properties by employing machine learning techniques in solving an inverse problem. Using snapshots of numerical convection models as training samples, we enable machine learning models to determine the magnitude of the spin transition-induced density anomalies that can cause flow stagnation at midmantle depths. Employing support vector machine algorithms, we show that SML techniques can successfully predict the magnitude of mantle density anomalies and can also be used in characterizing mantle flow patterns. The technique can be extended to more complex geodynamic problems in mantle dynamics by employing deep learning algorithms for putting constraints on properties such as viscosity, elastic parameters, and the nature of thermal and chemical anomalies.

  10. Problem-based learning for technical students on the base TRIZ (theory of inventive problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babenko Oksana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The basis of modern educational technology in teaching is problem-based learning through the use of educational technologies Powerful Thinking - Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ, including a systematic approach to the complex organization of independent work of search and research character. Developed by systemic administration of the physical features workshops on the basis TRIZ in the cycle of the natural sciences with the implementation of all aspects of the educational activities - substantive, procedural and motivational. A new model of the physical design of the workshop and its form of organization, which is based on problem-based learning with the use of TRIZ Interactive form of organization of the workshop allows you to get high-quality substantive and personality of the students who have a significant role in the formation of professional competencies and affect the quality of produce practice-oriented specialists.

  11. From machine learning to deep learning: progress in machine intelligence for rational drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Tan, Jianjun; Han, Dan; Zhu, Hao

    2017-11-01

    Machine intelligence, which is normally presented as artificial intelligence, refers to the intelligence exhibited by computers. In the history of rational drug discovery, various machine intelligence approaches have been applied to guide traditional experiments, which are expensive and time-consuming. Over the past several decades, machine-learning tools, such as quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling, were developed that can identify potential biological active molecules from millions of candidate compounds quickly and cheaply. However, when drug discovery moved into the era of 'big' data, machine learning approaches evolved into deep learning approaches, which are a more powerful and efficient way to deal with the massive amounts of data generated from modern drug discovery approaches. Here, we summarize the history of machine learning and provide insight into recently developed deep learning approaches and their applications in rational drug discovery. We suggest that this evolution of machine intelligence now provides a guide for early-stage drug design and discovery in the current big data era. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Implementation of problem-based learning in geometry lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, S. N. S. H.; Li, H.-C.; Shahrill, M.; Prahmana, R. C. I.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is twofold. Firstly, it aims to examine the effects of the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) approach on students’ performance in the learning of geometry. Secondly, it seeks to gain insights from the students regarding the implementation of PBL in geometry lessons. The participants were 22 students from one Year 10 class in a co-educational secondary school in Brunei Darussalam. A mixed method design was employed with data collected from the pre-, post- and retention tests, and interviews. The findings from this study revealed positive influences on students’ performance in learning geometry as gain and retention of knowledge was observed. Meanwhile, mixed responses from the interviews implied that in terms of 1) learning attitudes, students favoured the idea of independent learning but some critiqued that the process of PBL might be time-consuming; 2) learning difficulties, some students struggled in assimilating information leading to poor decision- making; and 3) knowledge and skills, some students believed to have nurtured some skills such as communication and research skills.

  13. Teaching with Concrete and Abstract Visual Representations: Effects on Students' Problem Solving, Problem Representations, and Learning Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Roxana; Ozogul, Gamze; Reisslein, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In 3 experiments, we examined the effects of using concrete and/or abstract visual problem representations during instruction on students' problem-solving practice, near transfer, problem representations, and learning perceptions. In Experiments 1 and 2, novice students learned about electrical circuit analysis with an instructional program that…

  14. The Use of Problem-Based Learning Model to Improve Quality Learning Students Morals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurzaman

    2017-01-01

    Model of moral cultivation in MTsN Bangunharja done using three methods, classical cultivation methods, extra-curricular activities in the form of religious activities, scouting, sports, and Islamic art, and habituation of morals. Problem base learning models in MTsN Bangunharja applied using the following steps: find the problem, define the…

  15. Students’ Mathematical Creative Thinking through Problem Posing Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfah, U.; Prabawanto, S.; Jupri, A.

    2017-09-01

    The research aims to investigate the differences in enhancement of students’ mathematical creative thinking ability of those who received problem posing approach assisted by manipulative media and students who received problem posing approach without manipulative media. This study was a quasi experimental research with non-equivalent control group design. Population of this research was third-grade students of a primary school in Bandung city in 2016/2017 academic year. Sample of this research was two classes as experiment class and control class. The instrument used is a test of mathematical creative thinking ability. Based on the results of the research, it is known that the enhancement of the students’ mathematical creative thinking ability of those who received problem posing approach with manipulative media aid is higher than the ability of those who received problem posing approach without manipulative media aid. Students who get learning problem posing learning accustomed in arranging mathematical sentence become matter of story so it can facilitate students to comprehend about story

  16. From inverse problems to learning: a Statistical Mechanics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassi, Carlo; Gerace, Federica; Saglietti, Luca; Zecchina, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    We present a brief introduction to the statistical mechanics approaches for the study of inverse problems in data science. We then provide concrete new results on inferring couplings from sampled configurations in systems characterized by an extensive number of stable attractors in the low temperature regime. We also show how these result are connected to the problem of learning with realistic weak signals in computational neuroscience. Our techniques and algorithms rely on advanced mean-field methods developed in the context of disordered systems.

  17. A Danish Perspective on Problem Based Learning in Space Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan D. V.; Bisgaard, Morten; Alminde, Lars

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the goals of the Student Satellite Program at Aalborg University (AAU), and the means for implementing it, namely a concept called Problem Based Learning, which is the cornerstone in the education at AAU. AAU has within the last decade chosen to focus strongly on education...... in space technology, not because the country lacks aerospace engineers, but because space projects require the students to think about systems rather than individual modules, while providing problems that are technically challenging for the students to solve. This combination makes the graduates very...

  18. A problem-based learning curriculum for occupational therapy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royeen, C B

    1995-04-01

    To prepare practitioners and researchers who are well equipped to deal with the inevitable myriad changes in health care and in society coming in the 21st century, a new focus is needed in occupational therapy education. In addition to proficiency in clinical skills and technical knowledge, occupational therapy graduates will need outcome competencies underlying the skills of critical reflection. In this article, the author presents (a) the rationale for the need for change in occupational therapy education, (b) key concepts of clinical reasoning and critical reflection pertaining to the outcome such change in occupational therapy education should address, (c) problem-based learning as a process and educational method to prepare occupational therapists in these competencies, and (d) the experience of the Program in Occupational Therapy at Shenandoah University in Winchester, Virginia, in implementing a problem-based learning curriculum.

  19. [The opinion of teachers about tutorial problem based learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro H, Nancy; Zamora S, José

    2014-08-01

    In 2004 the Faculty of Medicine of Universidad de La Frontera in Chile implemented curricular changes, incorporating small group problem based learning in different carriers. To explore aspects that hamper or facilitate tutorial problem based learning from the perspective of tutors. Six in depth interviews and a focus group with tutors were carried out in 2010 and 2011. Data were analyzed through constant comparisons using the program ATLAS ti, guaranteeing credibility, reliance, validation and transferability. Five hundred and twenty eight (528) significance units were identified and 25 descriptive categories emerged. The categories of tutor motivation, methodological domain, tutor responsibility, tutor critical capacity, disciplinary domain, student participation and tutor-student interaction were emphasized. Three qualitative domains were generated, namely tutor skills, transformation of student roles and institutional commitment. Tutorial teaching is favored by teachers when the institutions train them in the subject, when there is administrative support and an adequate infrastructure and coordination.

  20. Problem-based learning in a health sciences librarianship course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroff, A; Ancona, A M; Beman, S B; Dodge, A M; Hutchinson, K L; LaBonte, M J; Mays, T L; Simon, D T

    1998-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has been adopted by many medical schools in North America. Because problem solving, information seeking, and lifelong learning skills are central to the PBL curriculum, health sciences librarians have been actively involved in the PBL process at these medical schools. The introduction of PBL in a library and information science curriculum may be appropriate to consider at this time. PBL techniques have been incorporated into a health sciences librarianship course at the School of Library and Information Science (LIS) at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee to explore the use of this method in an advanced Library and Information Science course. After completion of the course, the use of PBL has been evaluated by the students and the instructor. The modified PBL course design is presented and the perceptions of the students and the instructor are discussed. PMID:9681169

  1. Evaluation of problem-based learning in medical students’ education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD HADI IMANIEH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In traditional medical education systems much interest is placed on the cramming of basic and clinical facts without considering their applicability in the future professional career. The aim of this study is to evaluate a novice medical training method (problem-based learning as compared to the contemporary teacher-based medical education or traditional methods. Methods: Selection of the study subjects was done through simple sampling and according to the division of medical students introduced from Medical Faculty to the Pediatrics Department with no personal involvement. 120 medical students were assigned to 8 groups of 15 students each. For four months, 4 groups were trained with traditional method and 4 other groups underwent problem-based learning method on selected subject materials. In each method, a pre-course test at the beginning and a post-course test at the end of each course were given to each group. The questionnaire used in this study as the instrument was composed of 39 questions, 37 multiple choice questions and two short answer questions. Three professors of pediatric gastroenterologist took part in the training. Two of these professors were responsible for solving task training method. The third professor used traditional teacher-centered methodology to eliminate any possible bias. Scores obtained from these tests were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test. P values of less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: The scores of the students undergoing the traditional method were 14.70±3.03 and 21.20±4.07 in the first and second test, respectively. In problembased learning, the scores were 15.82±3.29 in the first and 27.52±4.72 in the second test. There was a significant difference between the mean scores of post-course exams of the two groups (p=0.001, while no significant difference was observed between the mean scores of pre-course exams of the groups (p=0.550. Conclusion: It may be

  2. THE ROLE OF STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS IN PROBLEM BASED LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Damiyanti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available To reach the effectiveness of study, it is recommended to work on active learning method. The learning activity must be done with emphasis on the students’ characteristics. The characteristic means internal factors (cognitive entry behavior and affective entry characteristics, which are considered important as solving problems. The previous studies have shown that there is a correlation between achievement test and students’ characteristic entry behavior. At the beginning of the academic year of 2003, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia started active learning with PBL curriculum for the BDS degree. From a study about the correlation between the achievement and students’ entry behavior (previous knowledge, self concept, attitude, and anxiety during attending the test the study showed that characteristic entry behavior contributes to the student’s achievement test. The results supported the previous study.

  3. A problem with inclusion in learning disability research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClimens, Alex; Allmark, Peter

    2011-09-01

    People with severe learning disability are particularly difficult to include in the research process. As a result, researchers may be tempted to focus on those with learning disability who can be included. The problem is exacerbated in this field as the political agenda of inclusion and involvement is driven by those people with learning disability who are the higher functioning. To overcome this we should first detach the notion of consent from ideas about autonomy and think instead of it as a way to avoid wronging others; this fits the original historical use of consent in research. This allows us to think in terms of including participants to the best of their abilities rather than in terms of a threshold of autonomy. Researchers could then use imaginative ways to include the least able and to ensure they are not wronged in research or by exclusion from it.

  4. Managing the Complexity of Design Problems through Studio-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, Katherine; Brandt, Carol; Scott, Brigitte; Douglas, Sarah; McGrath, Margarita; Reimer, Yolanda; Vernon, Mitzi

    2011-01-01

    The ill-structured nature of design problems makes them particularly challenging for problem-based learning. Studio-based learning (SBL), however, has much in common with problem-based learning and indeed has a long history of use in teaching students to solve design problems. The purpose of this ethnographic study of an industrial design class,…

  5. Learning to Solve Problems by Searching for Macro-Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    executing generalized robot plans. Aritificial Intelligence 3:25 1-288, 1972. [Frey 821 Frey, Alexander Ii. Jr., and David Singmaster. Handbook of Cubik...and that searching for macros may be a useful general learning paradigm. 1.1. Introduction One view of die die field of artificial intelligence is that... intelligence literature [Schofield 67, Gaschnig 79, Ericsson 761 and provides one of the simplest examples of the operation of the Macro Problem Solver. It

  6. PENGGUNAAN MODEL PROBLEM BASED LEARNING BERBANTUAN E-LEARNING TERHADAP KEMANDIRIAN BELAJAR MAHASISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusep Saputra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulated learning of learners can be achieved, if in the process of learning mathematics provides an open opportunity for students to learn independently. This research is a mixed method type embedded design, which aims to do studies focused on the use of the Problem Based Learning (PBL model assisted e-learning to student self-regulated learning. Sample selection is done on the purposive sampling and was taken 2 class contracting courses of school math III. Class A numbered 50 members, 24 the superior group and 26 the low group, given the treatment with PBL models assisted e-learning and class B numbered 50, 27 the superior group and 23 the low group, with expository. Instruments used in this research is self-regulated learning questionnaire with Likert scale. Based on data analysis we concluded that (1 Self-regulated learning of superior and low student who obtains aided PBL models assisted e-learning is better than self-regulated learning of superior and low superior students who obtain expository.

  7. Algebraic Reasoning in Solving Mathematical Problem Based on Learning Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indraswari, N. F.; Budayasa, I. K.; Ekawati, R.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to describe algebraic reasoning of secondary school’s pupils with different learning styles in solving mathematical problem. This study begins by giving the questionnaire to find out the learning styles and followed by mathematical ability test to get three subjects of 8th-grade whereas the learning styles of each pupil is visual, auditory, kinesthetic and had similar mathematical abilities. Then it continued with given algebraic problems and interviews. The data is validated using triangulation of time. The result showed that in the pattern of seeking indicator, subjects identified the things that were known and asked based on them observations. The visual and kinesthetic learners represented the known information in a chart, whereas the auditory learner in a table. In addition, they found the elements which makes the pattern and made a relationship between two quantities. In the pattern recognition indicator, they created conjectures on the relationship between two quantities and proved it. In the generalization indicator, they were determining the general rule of pattern found on each element of pattern using algebraic symbols and created a mathematical model. Visual and kinesthetic learners determined the general rule of equations which was used to solve problems using algebraic symbols, but auditory learner in a sentence.

  8. The Application of Problem-Based Learning in Mechanical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Z. A.; Dewi, M.

    2018-02-01

    The course of Technology and Material Testing prepare students with the ability to do a variety of material testing in the study of mechanical engineering. Students find it difficult to understand the materials to make them unable to carry out the material testing in accordance with the purpose of study. This happens because they knowledge is not adequately supported by the competence to find and construct learning experience. In this study, quasy experiment research method with pre-post-test with control group design was used. The subjects of the study were students divided in two groups; control and experiment with twenty-two students in each group. Study result: their grades showed no difference in between the pre-test or post-test in control group, but the difference in grade existed between the pre-test and post-test in experiment group. Yet, there is no significant difference in the study result on both groups. The researcher recommend that it is necessary to develop Problem-Based Learning that suits need analysis on D3 Program for Mechanical Engineering Department at the State University of Padang, to ensure the compatibility between Model of Study and problems and need. This study aims to analyze how Problem-Based Learning effects on the course of Technology and Material Testing for the students of D3 Program of Mechanical Engineering of the State University of Padang.

  9. Distribution-Preserving Stratified Sampling for Learning Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervellera, Cristiano; Maccio, Danilo

    2017-06-09

    The need for extracting a small sample from a large amount of real data, possibly streaming, arises routinely in learning problems, e.g., for storage, to cope with computational limitations, obtain good training/test/validation sets, and select minibatches for stochastic gradient neural network training. Unless we have reasons to select the samples in an active way dictated by the specific task and/or model at hand, it is important that the distribution of the selected points is as similar as possible to the original data. This is obvious for unsupervised learning problems, where the goal is to gain insights on the distribution of the data, but it is also relevant for supervised problems, where the theory explains how the training set distribution influences the generalization error. In this paper, we analyze the technique of stratified sampling from the point of view of distances between probabilities. This allows us to introduce an algorithm, based on recursive binary partition of the input space, aimed at obtaining samples that are distributed as much as possible as the original data. A theoretical analysis is proposed, proving the (greedy) optimality of the procedure together with explicit error bounds. An adaptive version of the algorithm is also introduced to cope with streaming data. Simulation tests on various data sets and different learning tasks are also provided.

  10. [Between scientific management and research-action: the problem of overconsumption of drugs in Kasongo (Zaire)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brouwere, V; Van Lerberghe, W; Criel, B; Van Dormael, M

    1996-01-01

    A Primary Health Care (PHC) system may be effective and efficient to the extent that essential drugs are available in health services and financially accessible to the population. In developing countries, besides the difficulties related to supplying health services with adequate amounts of drugs, the control of drug consumption is one of the frequent problems encountered by health authorities. Literature is relatively abundant in the field of rationalization of the diagnosis and drug prescription processes, and also in the field of drug financing mechanisms; publications are however rather scarce when topics related to corruption or drug misappropriation are concerned. The case study submitted hereafter reports a drug overconsumption problem in the health centres (HC) of the Kasongo district (Zaire). Despite the existence of direct control mechanisms as well as indirect ones (monitoring of drug consumption by HC), the problem has been identified belatedly. The district staff then used a step-by-step analysis of the HC drug consumption profiles; this analysis allowed to demonstrate that misappropriation would be the most plausible hypothesis. In order to solve the misappropriation problem-the consequences of which jeopardized the functioning of the very health system-the district staff chose to involve the nurses, in charge of the HC, in the entire problem-solving process. This participative approach, involving different actors as partners, allowed to deepen the situation analysis and to elaborate solutions congruent with PHC principles and acceptable to all concerned.

  11. [Analysis of drug-related problems in a tertiary university hospital in Barcelona (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrández, Olivia; Casañ, Borja; Grau, Santiago; Louro, Javier; Salas, Esther; Castells, Xavier; Sala, Maria

    2018-05-07

    To describe drug-related problems identified in hospitalized patients and to assess physicians' acceptance rate of pharmacists' recommendations. Retrospective observational study that included all drug-related problems detected in hospitalized patients during 2014-2015. Statistical analysis included a descriptive analysis of the data and a multivariate logistic regression to evaluate the association between pharmacists' recommendation acceptance rate and the variable of interest. During the study period 4587 drug-related problems were identified in 44,870 hospitalized patients. Main drug-related problems were prescription errors due to incorrect use of the computerized physician order entry (18.1%), inappropriate drug-drug combination (13.3%) and dose adjustment by renal and/or hepatic function (11.5%). Acceptance rate of pharmacist therapy advice in evaluable cases was 81.0%. Medical versus surgical admitting department, specific types of intervention (addition of a new drug, drug discontinuation and correction of a prescription error) and oral communication of the recommendation were associated with a higher acceptance rate. The results of this study allow areas to be identified on which to implement optimization strategies. These include training courses for physicians on the computerized physician order entry, on drugs that need dose adjustment with renal impairment, and on relevant drug interactions. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Bringing problem based learning to life using virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Linda; Sadler, Lynne; Surtees, Geoffrey

    2005-03-01

    Recent UK government policy advocates the need for a more flexible approach to nurse education and ;Fitness for Practice' stresses the importance of information technology and computer mediated learning facilities in the future of nursing education [Department of Health, Making a Difference, Strengthening the Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting Contribution to Health Care, Department of Health, 1999; The United Kingdom Central Council For Nursing, Fitness for Practice, The UKCC Commission for Nursing and Midwifery Education, 1999]. In response to this recommendation, a virtual reality package has been designed as a learning resource within adult pre-registration nursing education. This learning and teaching strategy is used in conjunction with problem based learning, enabling students to visualise individual/family life in a community setting. Students are encouraged to consider wider issues such as social and environmental factors and their impact upon health. The virtual reality package acts as one of a number of triggers. This paper will discuss the early development and offer an example of its use as a learning and teaching strategy within year two of a three year programme.

  13. eLearning techniques supporting problem based learning in clinical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Charles; Hoy, Derek; Topp, Helena; Trinder, Kathryn

    2005-08-01

    This paper details the results of the first phase of a project using eLearning to support students' learning within a simulated environment. The locus was a purpose built clinical simulation laboratory (CSL) where the School's philosophy of problem based learning (PBL) was challenged through lecturers using traditional teaching methods. a student-centred, problem based approach to the acquisition of clinical skills that used high quality learning objects embedded within web pages, substituting for lecturers providing instruction and demonstration. This encouraged student nurses to explore, analyse and make decisions within the safety of a clinical simulation. Learning was facilitated through network communications and reflection on video performances of self and others. Evaluations were positive, students demonstrating increased satisfaction with PBL, improved performance in exams, and increased self-efficacy in the performance of nursing activities. These results indicate that eLearning techniques can help students acquire clinical skills in the safety of a simulated environment within the context of a problem based learning curriculum.

  14. Achievement of learning outcome after implemented physical modules based on problem based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isna, R.; Masykuri, M.; Sukarmin

    2018-03-01

    Implementation of Problem BasedLearning (PBL) modules can grow the students' thinking skills to solve the problems in daily life and equip the students into higher education levels. The purpose of this research is to know the achievement of learning outcome after implementation physics module based on PBL in Newton,s Law of Gravity. This research method use the experimental method with posttest only group design. To know the achievement of student learning outcomes was analyzed using t test through application of SPSS 18. Based on research result, it is found that the average of student learning outcomes after appliying physics module based on PBL has reached the minimal exhaustiveness criteria. In addition, students' scientific attitudes also improved at each meeting. Presentation activities which contained at learning sync are also able to practice speaking skills and broaden their knowledge. Looking at some shortcomings during the study, it is suggested the issues raised into learning should be a problem close to the life of students so that, the students are more active and enthusiastic in following the learning of physics.

  15. Analysis of mathematical problem-solving ability based on metacognition on problem-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyono; Hadiyanti, R.

    2018-03-01

    Problem-solving is the primary purpose of the mathematics curriculum. Problem-solving abilities influenced beliefs and metacognition. Metacognition as superordinate capabilities can direct, regulate cognition and motivation and then problem-solving processes. This study aims to (1) test and analyzes the quality of problem-based learning and (2) investigate the problem-solving capabilities based on metacognition. This research uses mixed method study with The subject research are class XI students of Mathematics and Science at High School Kesatrian 2 Semarang which divided into tacit use, aware use, strategic use and reflective use level. The collecting data using scale, interviews, and tests. The data processed with the proportion of test, t-test, and paired samples t-test. The result shows that the students with levels tacit use were able to complete the whole matter given, but do not understand what and why a strategy is used. Students with aware use level were able to solve the problem, be able to build new knowledge through problem-solving to the indicators, understand the problem, determine the strategies used, although not right. Students on the Strategic ladder Use can be applied and adopt a wide variety of appropriate strategies to solve the issues and achieved re-examine indicators of process and outcome. The student with reflective use level is not found in this study. Based on the results suggested that study about the identification of metacognition in problem-solving so that the characteristics of each level of metacognition more clearly in a more significant sampling. Teachers need to know in depth about the student metacognitive activity and its relationship with mathematical problem solving and another problem resolution.

  16. Appreciation of learning environment and development of higher-order learning skills in a problem-based learning medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mala-Maung; Abdullah, Azman; Abas, Zoraini W

    2011-12-01

    This cross-sectional study determined the appreciation of the learning environment and development of higher-order learning skills among students attending the Medical Curriculum at the International Medical University, Malaysia which provides traditional and e-learning resources with an emphasis on problem based learning (PBL) and self-directed learning. Of the 708 participants, the majority preferred traditional to e-resources. Students who highly appreciated PBL demonstrated a higher appreciation of e-resources. Appreciation of PBL is positively and significantly correlated with higher-order learning skills, reflecting the inculcation of self-directed learning traits. Implementers must be sensitive to the progress of learners adapting to the higher education environment and innovations, and to address limitations as relevant.

  17. Rational drug therapy education in clinical phase carried out by task-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, S. Sırrı; Akyüz, Bahar; Ağrı, Arzu Erdal; Özlem, Mıdık

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Irrational drug use results in drug interactions, treatment noncompliance, and drug resistance. Rational pharmacotherapy education is being implemented in many faculties of medicine. Our aim is to introduce rational pharmacotherapy education by clinicians and to evaluate task-based rational drug therapy education in the clinical context. Methods: The Kirkpatrick's evaluation model was used for the evaluation of the program. The participants evaluated the program in terms of constituents of the program, utilization, and contribution to learning. Voluntary participants responded to the evaluation forms after the educational program. Data are evaluated using both quantitative and qualitative tools. SPSS (version 21) used for quantitative data for determining mean and standard deviation values. Descriptive qualitative analysis approach is used for the analysis of open-ended questions. Results: It was revealed that the program and its components have been favorable. A total 95.9% of the students consider the education to be beneficial. Simulated patients practice and personal drug choice/problem-based learning sessions were appreciated by the students in particular. 93.9% of the students stated that all students of medicine should undergo this educational program. Among the five presentations contained in the program, “The Principles of Prescribing” received the highest points (9 ± 1.00) from participating students in general evaluation of the educational program. Conclusion: This study was carried out to improve task-based rational drug therapy education. According to feedback from the students concerning content, method, resource, assessment, and program design; some important changes, especially in number of facilitators and indications, are made in rational pharmacotherapy education in clinical task-based learning program. PMID:28458432

  18. A guided interview process to improve student pharmacists' identification of drug therapy problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovers, John; Miller, Michael J; Koenigsfeld, Carrie; Haack, Sally; Hegge, Karly; McCleeary, Erin

    2011-02-10

    To measure agreement between advanced pharmacy practice experience students using a guided interview process and experienced clinical pharmacists using standard practices to identify drug therapy problems. Student pharmacists enrolled in an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) and clinical pharmacists conducted medication therapy management interviews to identify drug therapy problems in elderly patients recruited from the community. Student pharmacists used a guided interview tool, while clinical pharmacists' interviews were conducted using their usual and customary practices. Student pharmacists also were surveyed to determine their perceptions of the interview tool. Fair to moderate agreement was observed on student and clinical pharmacists' identification of 4 of 7 drug therapy problems. Of those, agreement was significantly higher than chance for 3 drug therapy problems (adverse drug reaction, dosage too high, and needs additional drug therapy) and not significant for 1 (unnecessary drug therapy). Students strongly agreed that the interview tool was useful but agreed less strongly on recommending its use in practice. The guided interview process served as a useful teaching aid to assist student pharmacists to identify drug therapy problems.

  19. Helping someone with problem drug use: a delphi consensus study of consumers, carers, and clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Claire M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problem use of illicit drugs (i.e. drug abuse or dependence is associated with considerable health and social harms, highlighting the need for early intervention and engagement with health services. Family members, friends and colleagues play an important role in supporting and assisting individuals with problem drug use to seek professional help, however there are conflicting views about how and when such support should be offered. This paper reports on the development of mental health first aid guidelines for problem drug use in adults, to help inform community members on how to assist someone developing problem drug use or experiencing a drug-related crisis. Methods A systematic review of the scientific and lay literature was conducted to develop a 228-item survey containing potential first-aid strategies to help someone developing a drug problem or experiencing a drug-related crisis. Three panels of experts (29 consumers, 31 carers and 27 clinicians were recruited from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Panel members independently rated the items over three rounds, with strategies reaching consensus on importance written into the guidelines. Results The overall response rate across three rounds was 80% (86% consumers, 81% carers, 74% clinicians. 140 first aid strategies were endorsed as essential or important by 80% or more of panel members. The endorsed strategies provide information and advice on what is problem drug use and its consequences, how to approach a person about their problem drug use, tips for effective communication, what to do if the person is unwilling to change their drug use, what to do if the person does (or does not want professional help, what are drug-affected states and how to deal with them, how to deal with adverse reactions leading to a medical emergency, and what to do if the person is aggressive. Conclusions The guidelines provide a consensus

  20. Advantages of video trigger in problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lap Ki; Patil, Nivritti G; Chen, Julie Y; Lam, Jamie C M; Lau, Chak S; Ip, Mary S M

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, paper cases are used as 'triggers' to stimulate learning in problem-based learning (PBL). However, video may be a better medium because it preserves the original language, encourages the active extraction of information, avoids depersonalization of patients and allows direct observation of clinical consultations. In short, it exposes the students to the complexity of actual clinical problems. The study aims to find out whether students and facilitators who are accustomed to paper cases would prefer video triggers or paper cases and the reasons for their preference. After students and facilitators had completed a video PBL tutorial, their responses were measured by a structured questionnaire using a modified Likert scale. A total of 257 students (92%) and 26 facilitators (100%) responded. The majority of students and facilitators considered that using video triggers could enhance the students' observational powers and clinical reasoning, help them to integrate different information and better understand the cases and motivate them to learn. They found PBL using video triggers more interesting and preferred it to PBL using paper cases. Video triggers are preferred by both students and facilitators over paper cases in PBL.

  1. Advances in industrial biopharmaceutical batch process monitoring: Machine-learning methods for small data problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsyan, Aditya; Garvin, Christopher; Ündey, Cenk

    2018-04-06

    Biopharmaceutical manufacturing comprises of multiple distinct processing steps that require effective and efficient monitoring of many variables simultaneously in real-time. The state-of-the-art real-time multivariate statistical batch process monitoring (BPM) platforms have been in use in recent years to ensure comprehensive monitoring is in place as a complementary tool for continued process verification to detect weak signals. This article addresses a longstanding, industry-wide problem in BPM, referred to as the "Low-N" problem, wherein a product has a limited production history. The current best industrial practice to address the Low-N problem is to switch from a multivariate to a univariate BPM, until sufficient product history is available to build and deploy a multivariate BPM platform. Every batch run without a robust multivariate BPM platform poses risk of not detecting potential weak signals developing in the process that might have an impact on process and product performance. In this article, we propose an approach to solve the Low-N problem by generating an arbitrarily large number of in silico batches through a combination of hardware exploitation and machine-learning methods. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first article to provide a solution to the Low-N problem in biopharmaceutical manufacturing using machine-learning methods. Several industrial case studies from bulk drug substance manufacturing are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach for BPM under various Low-N scenarios. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Alcohol- and drug-related absenteeism: a costly problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Ann; Pidd, Ken; Kostadinov, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    Absenteeism related to alcohol and other drug (AOD) use can place a substantial burden on businesses and society. This study estimated the cost of AOD-related absenteeism in Australia using a nationally representative dataset. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey (n=12,196) was undertaken. Two measures of AOD-related absenteeism were used: participants' self-reported absence due to AOD use (M1); and the mean difference in absence due to any illness/injury for AOD users compared to abstainers (M2). Both figures were multiplied by $267.70 (average day's wage in 2013 plus 20% on-costs) to estimate associated costs. M1 resulted in an estimation of 2.5 million days lost annually due to AOD use, at a cost of more than $680 million. M2 resulted in an estimation of almost 11.5 million days lost, at a cost of $3 billion. AOD-related absenteeism represents a significant and preventable impost upon Australian businesses. Workplaces should implement evidence-based interventions to promote healthy employee behaviour and reduce AOD-related absenteeism. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  3. Learning through debate during problem-based learning: an active learning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Sadaf; Latif, Rabia

    2017-09-01

    We explored medical student's views and perceptions of a series of debates conducted during problem-based learning (PBL) practiced as a part of the Spiral curriculum at the Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. A series of debates were employed during PBL sessions for second-year female medical students, over the period 2014-2016. Each cohort of students was randomly split into 10 small PBL groups and exposed to weekly PBL activity. Within each group, the students were divided into a proposition half and an opposition half. Students were given 1 wk for debate preparation. The students' responses were recorded on a formulated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze quantitative data, and results are presented as percentages. The usefulness of debate in alleviating potential difficulties in communicating with patients was agreed to by 69% ( n = 126) of participants. That these sessions evoked critical thinking among students was reported by 78% ( n = 142). This series of debates helped 61% ( n = 111) of students to learn effectively about controversial issues. Seventy-one percent ( n = 130) considered that debate promoted argument generation and interpretation skills. Enhanced ability to analyze and research evidence was reported by 59% ( n = 108) of students. One hundred and thirteen students (62%) agreed that debate helped them to improve clinical decision-making, and 75% of students agreed that debates encouraged tolerance toward diverse viewpoints/convincing strategies. The majority of our medical students found debating enhanced analytic decision-making, communication, and critical thinking skills. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Incorporating technology-based learning tools into teaching and learning of optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Irene

    2014-07-01

    The traditional approach of teaching optimization problems in calculus emphasizes more on teaching the students using analytical approach through a series of procedural steps. However, optimization normally involves problem solving in real life problems and most students fail to translate the problems into mathematic models and have difficulties to visualize the concept underlying. As an educator, it is essential to embed technology in suitable content areas to engage students in construction of meaningful learning by creating a technology-based learning environment. This paper presents the applications of technology-based learning tool in designing optimization learning activities with illustrative examples, as well as to address the challenges in the implementation of using technology in teaching and learning optimization. The suggestion activities in this paper allow flexibility for educator to modify their teaching strategy and apply technology to accommodate different level of studies for the topic of optimization. Hence, this provides great potential for a wide range of learners to enhance their understanding of the concept of optimization.

  5. Exploring a Problem-Based Learning Approach in Pharmaceutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara McKenzie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The basis of this study was to explore the impact of the initiation of a Problem-Base Learning (PBL approach within a second-year pharmaceutics degree on a Master of Pharmacy programme, introduced as a way of improving deep learning and to foster independent learning. Design. A semi-structured interview was used to seek feedback from the students, and feedback from staff was secured though a focus group. A thematic approach was used for the analysis, once data saturation had been reached. Exam pass-rate statistics were also analysed. Assessment. Five parent themes were identified from the student interviews: Module structure, Promoting lifelong learning, Integration and future practice, Outcomes and Student experience. The third year exam pass rate improved by 12% in the year following the introduction of PBL in second year. Conclusions. Various recommendations were proposed to further improve the module, based on the findings of this study. These include improving feedback and support through tutorials, reducing the volume of directed study, as well as highlighting the relevance of pharmaceutics to the pharmacy degree. A long-term review would be needed to assess the full implications of PBL teaching within this course.

  6. Problem-centric Process for Research-based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Shaban

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Research-based Learning (RbL extends Inquiry and Project-based Learning by facilitating an early stage exposure and training for future scientists through authentic research activities. In this paper, an iterative problem-centric RbL process is introduced, and its activities and management aspects are described. The process helps implement course-integrated research systematically and practically. Furthermore, the novel process follows constructivist methods in incorporating inquiry, scaffolding, open-ended projects, as well as a goal oriented learning approach. The RbL process is adopted in two advanced computing courses, at two different universities: a leading comprehensive Western university and a new university in a developing country. The paper summarizes new lessons learned in these rewarding experiences. In particular, the instructor should help students start their projects, by providing them with previous work or data and pre-approving the papers to review by students. He should also maintain a continuous feedback to and from students to keep the students motivated and help the instructor refine and adapt the RBL process. We note that research collaborators can help students in identifying the research topics early. The paper also shows how to alleviate difficulties that may be encountered by students who find the novel approach demanding, and consequently it also helps the instructors better manage the course contents.

  7. Prediction of Human Drug Targets and Their Interactions Using Machine Learning Methods: Current and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Abhigyan; Kumari, Priyanka; Chaube, Radha

    2018-01-01

    Identification of drug targets and drug target interactions are important steps in the drug-discovery pipeline. Successful computational prediction methods can reduce the cost and time demanded by the experimental methods. Knowledge of putative drug targets and their interactions can be very useful for drug repurposing. Supervised machine learning methods have been very useful in drug target prediction and in prediction of drug target interactions. Here, we describe the details for developing prediction models using supervised learning techniques for human drug target prediction and their interactions.

  8. DEVELOPING PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS FOR LIFELONG LEARNING THROUGH WORK-BASED LEARNING AMONG COMMUNITY COLLEGE STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Azlinda Wan Mohamed; Badrul Omar; Mohd Faroul Rafiq Romli

    2010-01-01

    Many training providers are working to improve their curricula to meet the demand of today’s industries. The Malaysian College Communities, one of the major providers for lifelong learning program, had introduced the Work-Based Learning (WBL) concept since 2007 to ensure that their graduates met these demands. One of the key skills required by industry is problem solving skill. The ability to solve a complex or an ill-structured work problem in the workplace is the kind of skill demanded at a...

  9. COMPARISON OF PROBLEM BASED LEARNING WITH TRADITIONAL LECTURES AMONG FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS IN PHYSIOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Problem based learning has emerged as an effective teaching learning method. Students taught by the problem based learning method have better problem solving skills and better long-term memory than those taught by traditional lectures. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of problem based learning with that of traditional lecture method. METHODOLOGY: First MBBS students (n=127) were divided into two groups. One group was taught a topic from Applied Physiolog...

  10. Blended Learning and Problem Based Learning in a multinational and multidisciplinary setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Lazaro, José; Mank, Lea

    2017-01-01

    , and a project part where the students work in groups across nationalities and disciplines on real-world Projects posed by companies. This paper presents the evaluations carried out by all participating students, and discusses the experiences with the different learning components including different features...... of the Learning Management System Moodle, which was used for the modules. Moreover, it introduces the concept of just-in-time resources for Problem Based Learning, where we tackle the challenge of providing the students with methods and tools to be used in the projects just when they need it....

  11. Facilitating Problem-Based Learning in Teams with Scrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis

    2013-01-01

    Project-organised and problem-based learning (POPBL) is becoming increasingly popular across universities all over the world, and hence this, it is also gaining currency in some university-based design educations. At Aalborg University, the curriculum in Industrial Design engineering is no except......Project-organised and problem-based learning (POPBL) is becoming increasingly popular across universities all over the world, and hence this, it is also gaining currency in some university-based design educations. At Aalborg University, the curriculum in Industrial Design engineering...... is no exception: Each semester, students are divided into groups and work with various problems or issues partly defined by themselves within the frame of the semester theme. During the first year at Aalborg University, students are taught how to manage and plan projects independently with the use of common...... planning tools like Gantt charts, schedules and simple resource management practices – tools, which are used throughout the education. However, this paper argues that these common project planning and management practices – typically representing rigid “plan-your-work, then work-your-plan” approaches – do...

  12. PBL - Problem Based Learning for Companies and Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamburg, I; Vladut, G.

    2016-07-01

    Small and medium sized companies (SMEs) assure economic growth in Europe. Generally many SMEs are struggling to survive in an ongoing global recession and often they are becoming reluctant to release or pay for staff training. In this paper we present shortly the learning methods in SMEs particularly the Problem Based Learning (PBL) as an efficient form for SMEs and entrepreneurship education. In the field of Urban Logistics it was developed four Clusters with potential of innovation and research in four European Regions: Tuscany - Italy, Valencia - Spain, Lisbon and Tagus - Portugal, Oltenia – Romania. Training and mentoring for SMEs, are essential to create competitiveness. Information and communication technologies (ICT) support the tutors by using an ICT platform which is in the development. (Author)

  13. Problem and Project Based Learning in Hybrid Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien

    2016-01-01

    There is a need within networked learning to understand and conceptualise the interplay between digital and physical spaces or what we could term hybrid spaces. Therefore, we discuss a recent study of students from two different programmes who are engaged in long-term, group-based problem...... and project based learning. Based on interviews, workshops and observations of students’ actual group practices in open, shared and flexible spaces in Aalborg University (AAU), we identify and discuss how students incorporate networked and digital technologies into their group work and into the study places...... they create for themselves. We describe how in one of the programmes ‘nomadic’ groups of students used different technologies and spaces for ‘placemaking’. We then show how their experience and approach to collaborative work differs to that of the more static or ‘artisan’ groups of students in the other...

  14. Using Supervised Deep Learning for Human Age Estimation Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnyh, K. A.; Polovinkin, A. N.

    2017-05-01

    Automatic facial age estimation is a challenging task upcoming in recent years. In this paper, we propose using the supervised deep learning features to improve an accuracy of the existing age estimation algorithms. There are many approaches solving the problem, an active appearance model and the bio-inspired features are two of them which showed the best accuracy. For experiments we chose popular publicly available FG-NET database, which contains 1002 images with a broad variety of light, pose, and expression. LOPO (leave-one-person-out) method was used to estimate the accuracy. Experiments demonstrated that adding supervised deep learning features has improved accuracy for some basic models. For example, adding the features to an active appearance model gave the 4% gain (the error decreased from 4.59 to 4.41).

  15. Inappropriate prescribing and prescribing omissions among drug-related problems using STOPP-START criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdoorn, M.A.; Kwint, H.-F.; Faber, A.; L. Bouvy, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: Medication review has been suggested as a way to prevent drug related problems (DRPs). Screening tools have been formulated to identify potentially inappropriate medicines (PIMs) and potential prescribing omissions (PPOs) respectively called Screening Tool of Older

  16. Pervasive developmental disorder, behavior problems, and psychotropic drug use in children and adolescents with mental retardation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bildt, de A.; Mulder, E.J.; Scheers, T.; Minderaa, R.B.; Tobi, H.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study investigated the interrelationship between psychopharmacotherapy in general and the use of specific psychotropic drugs and pervasive developmental disorder and other behavior problems in children and adolescents with mental retardation. METHODS. A total of 862 participants 4 to

  17. "Krokodil":revival of an old drug with new problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahr, Maximilian; Freudenmann, Roland W; Hiemke, Christoph; Gunst, Ingo M; Connemann, Bernhard J; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2012-06-01

    In order to summarize current knowledge about the drug "Krokodil" a systematic review including a literature search of the databases PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Google was conducted in December 2011. According to information acquired, "Krokodil" is a mixture of several substances and was first reported to have been used in Russia in 2003. The core agent of "Krokodil" is desomorphine, an opioid-analogue that can be easily and cheaply manufactured by oneself. Self-production results in a contaminated suspension that is injected intravenously. Due to its pharmacologic features, desomorphine shows a high potential to cause dependence. Against the background of first possible cases of "Krokodil" use in Western Europe, it appears advisable to provide information regarding the fatal consequences of "Krokodil."

  18. The problem of resistant Trichomonas vaginalis to antiprotozoal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Poznyak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents recent data on the energy metabolism of Trichomonas vaginalis and ways the activation of metronidazole. The sensitivity of microorganisms to the 5-nitroimidazole by the presence of their enzyme systems, generating and transporting electrons, which can then transfer them to the nitro group of the drug. In T.vaginalis these are pyruvate ferredoxin-oxydoreductase, thioredoxin reductase and flavin reductase. The development of resistance T.vaginalis to metronidazole preparations of this multistep process, based on the gradual reduction (up to a loss activity hydrogenosomal enzymes and / or violation of the flavindependent metabolic pathways.

  19. Sequenced Integration and the Identification of a Problem-Solving Approach through a Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormas, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Preservice teachers (N = 27) in two sections of a sequenced, methodological and process integrated mathematics/science course solved a levers problem with three similar learning processes and a problem-solving approach, and identified a problem-solving approach through one different learning process. Similar learning processes used included:…

  20. Approaching the social control of drugs, I: Construction of the problem

    OpenAIRE

    Radulović Dragan

    2008-01-01

    The paper aims at outlining the social process whereby drug use has been defined as a major problem of contemporary society. The beginning of profane use of drugs is located in modern industrial society, while their global spread and the establishment of the prohibition system took place in the second half of 20th century. The generalized notion of drugs has dissolved into three different groups: some substances (coffee, tea, alcohol, tobacco) are socially accepted; others, like barbiturates ...