WorldWideScience

Sample records for learning preferences personality

  1. Personalized summarization using user preference for m-learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sihyoung; Yang, Seungji; Ro, Yong Man; Kim, Hyoung Joong

    2008-02-01

    As the Internet and multimedia technology is becoming advanced, the number of digital multimedia contents is also becoming abundant in learning area. In order to facilitate the access of digital knowledge and to meet the need of a lifelong learning, e-learning could be the helpful alternative way to the conventional learning paradigms. E-learning is known as a unifying term to express online, web-based and technology-delivered learning. Mobile-learning (m-learning) is defined as e-learning through mobile devices using wireless transmission. In a survey, more than half of the people remarked that the re-consumption was one of the convenient features in e-learning. However, it is not easy to find user's preferred segmentation from a full version of lengthy e-learning content. Especially in m-learning, a content-summarization method is strongly required because mobile devices are limited to low processing power and battery capacity. In this paper, we propose a new user preference model for re-consumption to construct personalized summarization for re-consumption. The user preference for re-consumption is modeled based on user actions with statistical model. Based on the user preference model for re-consumption with personalized user actions, our method discriminates preferred parts over the entire content. Experimental results demonstrated successful personalized summarization.

  2. Incorporating Learning Style and Personality Preferences into an Oral Communication Course Syllabus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Individual difference factors of personality typology and learning style preference and their effect on second language acquisition have been the focus of several prominent SLA theorists over the past twenty-five years. However, few articles have demonstrated how individual learner difference research can be applied within a classroom by second…

  3. Maximizing and Personalizing E-Learning Support for Students with Different Backgrounds and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironova, Olga; Amitan, Irina; Vendelin, Jelena; Vilipõld, Jüri; Saar, Merike

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present a teaching approach to achieve the most personal support for students with different backgrounds and preferences in studying an Informatics course. Design/Methodology/Approach: The presented methodology is based on the main principles of flexible and blended learning. The authors considered three main aspects:…

  4. Medical students' preferences for problem-based learning in relation to culture and personality: a multicultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, Are; Manandhar, Kedar; Pant, Devendra S; Karmacharya, Biraj M; Olson, Linda M; Koju, Rajendra; Mansur, Dil I

    2015-07-19

    The aim of this study was to explore positive and negative preferences towards problem-based learning in relation to personality traits and socio-cultural context. The study was an anonymous and voluntary cross-sectional survey of medical students (N=449) in hybrid problem-based curricula in Nepal, Norway and North Dakota. Data was collected on gender, age, year of study, cohabitation and medical school. The PBL Preference Inventory identified students' positive and negative preferences in relation to problem-based learning; the personality traits were detected by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. The determinants of the two kinds of preferences were analyzed by hierarchical multiple linear regressions. Positive preferences were mostly determined by personality; associations were found with the traits Extra-version, Openness to experience, Conscientiousness and Neuroticism; the first three are related to sociability, curiosity and orderliness, the last, to mental health. The learn-ing environments of such curricula may be supportive for some and unnerving for others who score high on Neuroticism. Negative preferences were rather determined by culture, but also, they correlated with Neuroticism and Conscientiousness. Negative preferences were lower among females and students living in symmetrical relationships. Some high on Conscientiousness disliked group work, and the negative correlation with Agreeableness indicated that less sociable students were not predisposed to this kind of learning activity. Preferences related to problem-based learning were significantly and independently determined both by personality traits and culture. More insights into the nature of students' preferences may guide aspects of curriculum modifications and the daily facilitation of groups.

  5. E-LEARNING PERSONALIZATION BASED ON COLLABORATIVE FILTERING AND LEARNER’S PREFERENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OUTMANE BOURKOUKOU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Personalized e-learning based on recommender system is recognized as one of the most interesting research field in the education and teaching in this last decade, since, the learning style is specific for each student. In fact from the knowledge of his or her learning style; it is easier to recommend a teaching strategy builds around a collection of the most adequate learning objects to give a better return on the educational level. This work focuses on the design of a personalized e-learning environment based on collaborative filtering and learning styles. Using the learner profile, the device proposed a personalized teaching strategy by selecting and sequencing learning objects fitting with the learners’ learning styles. Moreover, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of our approach. The result reveals the system effectiveness for which it appears that the proposed approach may be promising.

  6. Quality Reform: Personality Type, Preferred Learning Style and Majors in a Business School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallan, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The quality reform of higher education in Norway has generally recommended a substitution of classroom teaching with more active forms of learning in higher education. This study reveals that ignoring the student's personality type may be in conflict with the purpose of the reform. The student's personality type affects both the most effective…

  7. A Machine Learning Recommender System to Tailor Preference Assessments to Enhance Person-Centered Care Among Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannod, Gerald C; Abbott, Katherine M; Van Haitsma, Kimberly; Martindale, Nathan; Heppner, Alexandra

    2018-05-21

    Nursing homes (NHs) using the Preferences for Everyday Living Inventory (PELI-NH) to assess important preferences and provide person-centered care find the number of items (72) to be a barrier to using the assessment. Using a sample of n = 255 NH resident responses to the PELI-NH, we used the 16 preference items from the MDS 3.0 Section F to develop a machine learning recommender system to identify additional PELI-NH items that may be important to specific residents. Much like the Netflix recommender system, our system is based on the concept of collaborative filtering whereby insights and predictions (e.g., filters) are created using the interests and preferences of many users. The algorithm identifies multiple sets of "you might also like" patterns called association rules, based upon responses to the 16 MDS preferences that recommends an additional set of preferences with a high likelihood of being important to a specific resident. In the evaluation of the combined apriori and logistic regression approach, we obtained a high recall performance (i.e., the ratio of correctly predicted preferences compared with all predicted preferences and nonpreferences) and high precision (i.e., the ratio of correctly predicted rules with respect to the rules predicted to be true) of 80.2% and 79.2%, respectively. The recommender system successfully provides guidance on how to best tailor the preference items asked of residents and can support preference capture in busy clinical environments, contributing to the feasibility of delivering person-centered care.

  8. The Experience of Contrasting Learning Styles, Learning Preferences, and Personality Types in the Community College English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, William K.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the classroom experiences of students who identify themselves as learning best as reflective-observers (Assimilators) in contrast to those who learn best as active- experimenters (Accommodators), with additional consideration for their self-identified personality type (introvert vs. extrovert) as well as one of the VARK…

  9. Personalized Learning Objects Recommendation Based on the Semantic-Aware Discovery and the Learner Preference Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzone I; Tsai, Kun Hua; Lee, Ming Che; Chiu, Ti Kai

    2007-01-01

    With vigorous development of the Internet, especially the web page interaction technology, distant E-learning has become more and more realistic and popular. Digital courses may consist of many learning units or learning objects and, currently, many learning objects are created according to SCORM standard. It can be seen that, in the near future,…

  10. Nursing Students’ Preferred Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Salehi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Learning style is the processing of information and comprehension. If teachers present contents in a style that matches a student’s preferred learning style, academic performance and success will improve. If content retention improves it will result in an increase in thetest scores. It is also important to determine if students, as a group, fit into a particular style or a particular cycle as they move through an educational program.Methods: The study is a descriptive analytical research. Nursing Students at Isfahan Medical Sciences University completed a questionnaire  formulated to assess learning styles. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the possible relationship between learning cycle and student’s grades in the curriculum (i.e. freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior. Cross tabulation was used to test for a relationship between learning style and student academic year of study in the curriculum.Results: 294 students received the Kolb LSI questionnaire. The data demonstrated that juniors preferred a converger learning style and the senior students were in the abstract conceptualization cycle of learning. There were no relationships demonstrated between other groups in the study.Conclusion: The junior and senior students appear to prefer the stage of learning involving thinking and problem analysis. When a group of students demonstrate a preference for particular learning style teachers can develop their curriculum along their learning styleKey words: LEARNING STYLES, NURSING STUDENTS, FRESHMAN, SOPHOMORE, JUNIOR, SENIOR

  11. The Relationship of Stated Learning Preferences, Personality Type, and Career Background to Academic and Leadership Performance at the United States Air Command and Staff College

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-11

    Kolb envisioned experiential 26 Table 2 Subscales on the NASSP Learning Styles Profile Cognitive Styles Perceptual Responses Analytic Skill...Research Type Theory and Learning Preferences Jung and the Theory of Psychological Types Isabel Briggs Myers’ Contribution to Jung’s Work The Myers...Implications Recommendations for Further Study Summary of Specific Conclusions Discussion Grounded Curriculum Learning Preferences Type Theory Student

  12. Personalizing Access to Learning Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Simon, Bernd; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe a Smart Space for Learning™ (SS4L) framework and infrastructure that enables personalized access to distributed heterogeneous knowledge repositories. Helping a learner to choose an appropriate learning resource or activity is a key problem which we address in this fra......In this article, we describe a Smart Space for Learning™ (SS4L) framework and infrastructure that enables personalized access to distributed heterogeneous knowledge repositories. Helping a learner to choose an appropriate learning resource or activity is a key problem which we address...... in this framework, enabling personalized access to federated learning repositories with a vast number of learning offers. Our infrastructure includes personalization strategies both at the query and the query results level. Query rewriting is based on learning and language preferences; rule-based and ranking...

  13. Preference learning for cognitive modeling: a case study on entertainment preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yannakakis, Georgios; Maragoudakis, Manolis; Hallam, John

    2009-01-01

    Learning from preferences, which provide means for expressing a subject's desires, constitutes an important topic in machine learning research. This paper presents a comparative study of four alternative instance preference learning algorithms (both linear and nonlinear). The case study...... investigated is to learn to predict the expressed entertainment preferences of children when playing physical games built on their personalized playing features (entertainment modeling). Two of the approaches are derived from the literature--the large-margin algorithm (LMA) and preference learning...... with Gaussian processes--while the remaining two are custom-designed approaches for the problem under investigation: meta-LMA and neuroevolution. Preference learning techniques are combined with feature set selection methods permitting the construction of effective preference models, given suitable individual...

  14. HOW BRAND PERSONALITY INFLUENCES CONSUMER'S BRAND PREFERENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Țichindelean

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is to identify if the congruence of the consumers personality with the perceived brand per-sonality increases their brand preferences. To achieve this purpose, the paper was structured in two parts; the first part contains a general literature review of the consumer behaviour theory and its influence factors and a more specific one regarding the consumer’s and brand personality concepts. The second part describes the used research methodology for achieving the paper’s purpose. The results of the underlying exploratory research confirmed the hypothesis that an overlapping of the consumers’ personality and the brand personality they perceive is positively correlated with their brand preferences.

  15. Semantic Learning Service Personalized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Chen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To provide users with more suitable and personalized service, personalization is widely used in various fields. Current e-Learning systems search for learning resources using information search technology, based on the keywords that selected or inputted by the user. Due to lack of semantic analysis for keywords and exploring the user contexts, the system cannot provide a good learning experiment. In this paper, we defined the concept and characteristic of the personalized learning service, and proposed a semantic learning service personalized framework. Moreover, we made full use of semantic technology, using ontologies to represent the learning contents and user profile, mining and utilizing the friendship and membership of the social relationship to construct the user social relationship profile, and improved the collaboration filtering algorithm to recommend personalized learning resources for users. The results of the empirical evaluation show that the approach is effectiveness in augmenting recommendation.

  16. Personality Preferences in Laboratory Economics Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtis J. Swope; John Cadigan; Pamela M. Schmitt; Robert S. Shupp

    2005-01-01

    Student volunteers at the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA) participated in one of the following oneshot games: a dictator game, an ultimatum game, a trust game, or a prisoner’s dilemma game. We find limited support for the importance of personality type for explaining subjects’ decisions. With controls for personality preferences, we find little evidence of behavioral differences between males and females. Furthermore, we conclude that seniority breeds feelings of entitlement - seniors at USNA gener...

  17. Learning Style Preferences of Southeast Asian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Clara C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the perceptual learning style preferences (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, and tactile) and preferences for group and individual learning of Southeast Asian students compared to white students. Surveys indicated significant differences in learning style preferences between Southeast Asian and white students and between the diverse…

  18. An Examination of Georgia Young Farmer Program Participants’ Learning Style Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry S. Bailey

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to describe Georgia Young Farmer Program participants’ learning style preferences. Using survey research methods, a questionnaire was designed to collect data related to the purpose of the study. The population for this study included active members in the program. Study findings showed that participants had a preference for kinesthetic learning over visual and auditory learning. While participants indicated a preference for kinesthetic learning, all three learning styles were deemed effective. Preferences for learning styles and perception of effectiveness did not differ by personal characteristics. Recommendations include taking learning style preferences into account when designing and delivering programming, training for teachers, and continuing to assess learners’ preferences.

  19. Employability attributes and personality preferences of postgraduate business management students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Potgieter

    2013-05-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between employees’ employability attributes (as the Employability Attributes Scale measures them and their personality preferences (as the Myers-Briggs Type indicator, Form M, measures them. Motivation for the study: There seems to be a paucity of information about how employees’ personality preferences relate to their employability attributes in South Africa’s multicultural organisational context. Research design, approach and method: The authors conducted a quantitative survey. It involved a non-probability sample of 304 early career adults enrolled for an Honour’s degree in business management in an open distance learning higher education institution. They used correlational statistics and multiple regression analyses to analyse the data. Main findings: The authors observed a number of significant relationships between the participants’ personality preferences and their employability attributes. Practical/managerial implications: Career counsellors and human resource practitioners need to recognise how employees’ personality preferences influence their employability attributes in the management of their career development and employability. Contribution/value add: The findings add to the existing career literature on the career metacompetencies that influence employees’ employability. They also provide valuable information that organisations can use for career development support and counselling practices in the contemporary world of work.

  20. Learning style preferences of surgical residency applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    The learning style preferences of general surgery residents have been previously reported; there is evidence that residents who prefer read/write learning styles perform better on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE). However, little is known regarding the learning style preferences of applicants to general surgery residency and their impact on educational outcomes. In this study, the preferred learning styles of surgical residency applicants were determined. We hypothesized that applicant rank data are associated with specific learning style preferences. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was offered to all general surgery residency applicants that were interviewed at a university hospital-based program. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), kinesthetic (K), or multimodal (MM). Responses on the inventory were scored to determine the preferred learning style for each applicant. Applicant data, including United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores, class rank, interview score, and overall final applicant ranking, were examined for association with preferred learning styles. Sixty-seven applicants were interviewed. Five applicants were excluded due to not completing the VARK inventory or having incomplete applicant data. The remaining 62 applicants (92%) were included for analysis. Most applicants (57%) had a multimodal preference. Sixty-nine percent of all applicants had some degree of preference for kinesthetic learning. There were statistically significant differences between applicants of different learning styles in terms of USMLE step 1 scores (P = 0.001) and USMLE step 2 clinical knowledge scores (P = 0.01), but not for class ranks (P = 0.27), interview scores (P = 0.20), or final ranks (P = 0.14). Multiple comparison analysis demonstrated that applicants with aural preferences had higher USMLE 1 scores (233.2) than those with kinesthetic (211.8, P = 0.005) or multimodal

  1. Preference Learning and Ranking by Pairwise Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürnkranz, Johannes; Hüllermeier, Eyke

    This chapter provides an overview of recent work on preference learning and ranking via pairwise classification. The learning by pairwise comparison (LPC) paradigm is the natural machine learning counterpart to the relational approach to preference modeling and decision making. From a machine learning point of view, LPC is especially appealing as it decomposes a possibly complex prediction problem into a certain number of learning problems of the simplest type, namely binary classification. We explain how to approach different preference learning problems, such as label and instance ranking, within the framework of LPC. We primarily focus on methodological aspects, but also address theoretical questions as well as algorithmic and complexity issues.

  2. Personality correlates of music preferences in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Franek, Marek

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the structure of music preferences in the sample of participants from the Czech Republic (n=521), differences in structure of music preferences among various age groups and the associations between these preferences and certain personality characteristics. The exploratory factor analysis revealed five music preference dimensions. Further analysis addressed the question how music preferences are related to personality characteristics. Preferences for these music dimensions ...

  3. Personality and music preferences: the influence of personality traits on preferences regarding musical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Malgorzata

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific study was to determine how personality traits, as classified by Cattell, influence preferences regarding musical elements. The subject group consisted of 145 students, male and female, chosen at random from different Polish universities. For the purpose of determining their personality traits the participants completed the 16PF Questionnaire (Cattell, Saunders, & Stice, 1957; Russel & Karol, 1993), in its Polish adaptation by Choynowski (Nowakowska, 1970). The participants' musical preferences were determined by their completing a Questionnaire of Musical Preferences (specifically created for the purposes of this research), in which respondents indicated their favorite piece of music. Next, on the basis of the Questionnaire of Musical Preferences, a list of the works of music chosen by the participants was compiled. All pieces were collected on CDs and analyzed to separate out their basic musical elements. The statistical analysis shows that some personality traits: Liveliness (Factor F), Social Boldness (Factor H), Vigilance (Factor L), Openness to Change (Factor Q1), Extraversion (a general factor) have an influence on preferences regarding musical elements. Important in the subjects' musical preferences were found to be those musical elements having stimulative value and the ability to regulate the need for stimulation. These are: tempo, rhythm in relation to metrical basis, number of melodic themes, sound voluminosity, and meter.

  4. Learning space preferences of higher education students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, R.; van der Voordt, Theo; Dewulf, G

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to address higher education students' learning space preferences. The study is based on a survey that involved 697 business management students of a Dutch University of Applied Sciences. The research focuses on preferred learning spaces for individual study activities, which

  5. Learning space preferences of higher education students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, Ronald; van der Voordt, Theo; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to address higher education students’ learning space preferences. The study is based on a survey that involved 697 business management students of a Dutch University of Applied Sciences. The research focuses on preferred learning spaces for individual study activities, which require

  6. Students' Preferred Learning Styles in Graphic Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Clark, Aaron C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify changes in dominant preferred learning styles of students based on instructional presentation of course content. This study evaluates dominant preferred learning styles of two groups of university students. The first group of students was enrolled in a course that introduces graphical representation in…

  7. Holland’s personality types versus preferences in accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Cewińska; Lena Grzesiak; Przemysław Kabalski; Ewa Kusidel

    2017-01-01

    Holland’s personality types versus preferences in accounting The article presents the results of research on the relationship between personality according to the typol-ogy of Holland with preferences in accounting. In his theory, Holland distinguished six personality types: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional. The authors formulated a general hypothesis that these different personality types have different preferences and views on certain issues in ...

  8. Viewpoint A Viewpoint of Personal Aesthetic Preferences and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viewpoint A Viewpoint of Personal Aesthetic Preferences and Aesthetic Education, Landscape Theory and Survival in the Kalahari Region of South Africa: Implications for an Authentic Contemporary Curriculum.

  9. Learning User Preferences for Sets of Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    desJardins, Marie; Eaton, Eric; Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2006-01-01

    Most work on preference learning has focused on pairwise preferences or rankings over individual items. In this paper, we present a method for learning preferences over sets of items. Our learning method takes as input a collection of positive examples--that is, one or more sets that have been identified by a user as desirable. Kernel density estimation is used to estimate the value function for individual items, and the desired set diversity is estimated from the average set diversity observed in the collection. Since this is a new learning problem, we introduce a new evaluation methodology and evaluate the learning method on two data collections: synthetic blocks-world data and a new real-world music data collection that we have gathered.

  10. The relationship between personality types and reward preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nienaber

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Research has shown that total rewards models structured according to individual preferences, positively influence efforts to attract, retain and motivate key employees. Yet, this is seldom done. Structuring total rewards models according to the preferences of employee segments is a viable alternative to accommodate individual preferences. Research purpose: The primary aim of the study was to determine the relationship between personality types and reward preferences. The secondary aim was to determine the reward preferences for different demographic groups. Motivation for the study: An enhanced understanding of reward preferences for different employee segments will enable employers to offer more competitive reward options to their employees. This may, in turn, have a positive impact on retention. Research design, approach and method: Two measuring instruments, the MBTI® Form GRV and the Rewards Preferences Questionnaire, were distributed electronically to 5 000 potential respondents. The results from 589 sets of questionnaires were used in the data analyses. Primary and secondary factor analyses were done on the items in the Rewards Preferences Questionnaire. Main findings/results: The study confirmed that individuals with certain personality types and personality preferences, have different preferences for certain reward categories. There was a stronger relationship between reward preferences and personality preferences than for reward preferences and personality types. Preferences for reward categories by different demographic groups were confirmed. The significant difference in reward preferences between Black and White respondents in particular was noteworthy, with Black respondents indicating significantly higher mean scores for all reward categories than White respondents. Finally, a total rewards framework influenced by the most prominent preferences for reward categories, was designed. Practical/Managerial implications

  11. Holland’s personality types versus preferences in accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Cewińska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Holland’s personality types versus preferences in accounting The article presents the results of research on the relationship between personality according to the typol-ogy of Holland with preferences in accounting. In his theory, Holland distinguished six personality types: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional. The authors formulated a general hypothesis that these different personality types have different preferences and views on certain issues in accounting. They also formulated several detailed hypotheses related to two personality types: Conven-tional and Enterprising. In order to verify the hypotheses, the authors carried out quantitative research (a questionnaire survey and focus interviews. Generally speaking, these hypotheses were confirmed.

  12. Pupils Learning Preferences and Interest Development in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikpo, Ofem U.; Domike, Grace

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the extent pupils learning preference and interest development influences their learning in schools. Interest is refers to an individual's relatively enduring psychological predisposition (preference) to re-engage in particular classes of objects, available evidence indicates that, there are many factors that…

  13. Color preferences for different topics in connection to personal characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I.C.; van der Voordt, Theo; Vink, P.; de Boon, J; Bazley, C

    2015-01-01

    Studies on color preferences are dependent on the topic and the relationships with personal characteristics, particularly personality, but these are seldom studied in one population. Therefore a questionnaire was collected from 1095 Dutch people asking for color preferences about different topics

  14. Music Preferences, Personality Style, and Developmental Issues of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kelly D.; Fouts, Gregory T.

    2003-01-01

    Studied the personality characteristics and developmental issues of three groups of adolescent music listeners divided by preferred type of music. Findings for 164 adolescents show that each of the three music preference groups is inclined to demonstrate a unique profile of personality dimensions and developmental issues. (SLD)

  15. Music preferences and personality among Japanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R A

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been conducted outside of the European-North American cultural area concerning the personality-based determinants of musical genre preferences The present research investigated the personality profiles and general music genre preferences of 268 Japanese college students. Six dimensions and 24 facets of personality, and 12 music genres, were assessed. Results indicated that, consistent with much previous research, openness (to experience) and particularly the facet of "aesthetic appreciation" were associated with a preference for "reflective" music (jazz, classical, opera, gospel, enka), while one extraversion facet (sociability) was associated with the preference for pop music. Other personality dimensions were less consistently associated with musical preferences, pointing to cultural differences and the need to assess both personality and music genres at more specific levels.

  16. Personalized E-Learning System Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih-Ming, Chen; Lee, Hahn-Ming; Chen, Ya-Hui

    2005-01-01

    Personalized service is important on the Internet, especially in Web-based learning. Generally, most personalized systems consider learner preferences, interests, and browsing behaviors in providing personalized services. However, learner ability usually is neglected as an important factor in implementing personalization mechanisms. Besides, too…

  17. Personality Influences Temporal Discounting Preferences: Behavioral and Brain Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Joshua; Hedden, Trey; Wickens, Nina; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Prelec, Drazen; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits are stable predictors of many life outcomes that are associated with important decisions that involve tradeoffs over time. Therefore, a fundamental question is how tradeoffs over time vary from person to person in relation to stable personality traits. We investigated the influence of personality, as measured by the Five-Factor Model, on time preferences and on neural activity engaged by intertemporal choice. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants...

  18. Introduction to Psychology Students' Parental Status Predicts Learning Preferences and Life Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Elyse D'nn; Munn, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    This study explores Introduction to Psychology students' learning preferences and their personal search for meaning while considering their parental status. The findings suggest that parents show preferences for project-based learning and have lower levels of searching for meaning than non-parents. When parental status, age, and finances were…

  19. Students' Media Preferences in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Michiko

    2017-01-01

    This study examined students' preferred media in online learning and its relationship with learner characteristics and online technology self-efficacy. One hundred six college students in a mid-size U.S. university responded to a survey. The frequency analysis showed that students did not necessarily favor rich media over lean media in online…

  20. Transformative Learning: Personal Empowerment in Learning Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassi, Marja-Liisa; Laursen, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of personal empowerment as a form of transformative learning. It focuses on commonly ignored but enhancing elements of mathematics learning and argues that crucial personal resources can be essentially promoted by high engagement in mathematical problem solving, inquiry, and collaboration. This personal…

  1. Towards a Standards-Based Approach to E-Learning Personalization Using Reusable Learning Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, Owen; Dagger, Declan; Wade, Vincent

    E-Learning systems that produce personalized course offerings for the learner are often expensive, both from a time and financial perspective, to develop and maintain. Learning content personalized to a learners' cognitive preferences has been shown to produce more effective learning, however many approaches to realizing this form of…

  2. Personality influences temporal discounting preferences: behavioral and brain evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Joshua; Hedden, Trey; Wickens, Nina; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Prelec, Drazen; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-09-01

    Personality traits are stable predictors of many life outcomes that are associated with important decisions that involve tradeoffs over time. Therefore, a fundamental question is how tradeoffs over time vary from person to person in relation to stable personality traits. We investigated the influence of personality, as measured by the Five-Factor Model, on time preferences and on neural activity engaged by intertemporal choice. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants made choices between smaller-sooner and larger-later monetary rewards. For each participant, we estimated a constant-sensitivity discount function that dissociates impatience (devaluation of future consequences) from time sensitivity (consistency with rational, exponential discounting). Overall, higher neuroticism was associated with a relatively greater preference for immediate rewards and higher conscientiousness with a relatively greater preference for delayed rewards. Specifically, higher conscientiousness correlated positively with lower short-term impatience and more exponential time preferences, whereas higher neuroticism (lower emotional stability) correlated positively with higher short-term impatience and less exponential time preferences. Cognitive-control and reward brain regions were more activated when higher conscientiousness participants selected a smaller-sooner reward and, conversely, when higher neuroticism participants selected a larger-later reward. The greater activations that occurred when choosing rewards that contradicted personality predispositions may reflect the greater recruitment of mental resources needed to override those predispositions. These findings reveal that stable personality traits fundamentally influence how rewards are chosen over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationships Between the Vocational Preference Inventory and the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, James A., Jr.; Cunningham, Claude H.

    1975-01-01

    The Vocational Preference Inventory and the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule were administered to 372 undergraduates. The two instruments were compared using canonical analysis. The analysis revealed three significant relationships between components of the two instruments. The relationships were viewed as supportive of Holland's theory of…

  4. Blended Learning in Personalized Assistive Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinagi, Catherine; Skourlas, Christos

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the special needs/requirements of disabled students and cost-benefits for applying blended learning in Personalized Educational Learning Environments (PELE) in Higher Education are studied. The authors describe how blended learning can form an attractive and helpful framework for assisting Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing (D-HH) students to…

  5. Personality Preferences in Students Identified as Gifted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjercke, Carol

    2006-01-01

    School achievement and even intelligence have been linked to personality styles. Extroversion (the desire to be surrounded by people) and introversion (the desire to be alone in a quiet area) are two of these styles. More students and teachers tend to be extroverted, so this style is more prominent in schools. Extroverts and introverts have almost…

  6. Empirical Taxonomies of Gameplay Enjoyment: Personality and Video Game Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, John M.; Atkinson, Robert K.; Lin, Lijia

    2012-01-01

    A survey study was conducted to better understand how gameplay enjoyment relates to players' personality traits and video game preferences. This study demonstrated that the core design elements of games that lead to enjoyment can be empirically identified. Similarly, it showed that considering personality, an individual characteristic, can produce…

  7. Actual and preferred personality characteristics of physical educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Cecić Erpič

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Five-Factor Model of personality, which includes dimensions energy, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness, gained a growing acceptance by personality researchers. In the present study the actual personality characteristics of physical educators and the personality profile of an ideal (according to subjective evaluations of experts physical educator were investigated. The aim of the study was to examine differences between profiles of actual and preferred personality characteristics and to present differences in personality characteristics between male and female physical educators of different ages. The study included 76 (40 male, 36 female 24 to 58 year-old physical educators (mean age 39.7 years. 34 experts from the field of sport, physical education, and kinesiology evaluated the preferred personality structure of an ideal physical educator. The Big Five Observer (BFO was used to assess actual and preferred personality structures. These results show that the actual personality profile of physical educators is described with all five moderately high dimensions, which is relatively congruent with the social type from Holland's typology, characteristic of educators. In comparison with participants, an ideal physical educator should have equally expressed agreeableness, while other four dimensions should be highly expressed. Gender differences in energy and agreeableness (women have higher results in both dimensions were found significant. No significant age differences in the personality structure were obtained by a cross-sectional comparison.

  8. Students’ Media Preferences in Online Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko KOBAYASHI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined students’ preferred media in online learning and its relationship with learner characteristics and online technology self-efficacy. One hundred six college students in a mid-size U.S. university responded to a survey. The frequency analysis showed that students did not necessarily favor rich media over lean media in online learning. They preferred recorded online slide presentations with audio to Internet-based live video lectures in two-way video and audio interactions. Online discussion boards and chat groups were less favored than other types of media. As expected, online technology self-efficacy was correlated with a type of media requiring a relatively higher level of technology skills. The paper presents the results and discusses their implications of the study.

  9. Explanatory Preferences Shape Learning and Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombrozo, Tania

    2016-10-01

    Explanations play an important role in learning and inference. People often learn by seeking explanations, and they assess the viability of hypotheses by considering how well they explain the data. An emerging body of work reveals that both children and adults have strong and systematic intuitions about what constitutes a good explanation, and that these explanatory preferences have a systematic impact on explanation-based processes. In particular, people favor explanations that are simple and broad, with the consequence that engaging in explanation can shape learning and inference by leading people to seek patterns and favor hypotheses that support broad and simple explanations. Given the prevalence of explanation in everyday cognition, understanding explanation is therefore crucial to understanding learning and inference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PERSONALITY AND CHARACTER PREFERENCE IN ROLE-PLAYING GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Ramos-Villagrasa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In role-playing games players perform participative and episodic stories. Personality is a psychological construct associated with decision processes in many aspects of life. In this study, we analyzed if Big Five Personality Factors were related to game character preferences in the role-playing game “Dungeons & Dragons”. Results show that Personality is related only in the decision of character’s class. We also study the relationship between Personality and plots in role-playing games (action, intrigue, mystery, and personal relationships. Finally, recommendations to further investigation were given.

  11. Personal traits underlying environmental preferences: a discrete choice experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Soliño

    Full Text Available Personality plays a role in human behavior, and thus can influence consumer decisions on environmental goods and services. This paper analyses the influence of the big five personality dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness in a discrete choice experiment dealing with preferences for the development of an environmental program for forest management in Spain. For this purpose, a reduced version of the Big Five Inventory survey (the BFI-10 is implemented. Results show a positive effect of openness and extraversion and a negative effect of agreeableness and neuroticism in consumers' preferences for this environmental program. Moreover, results from a latent class model show that personal traits help to explain preference heterogeneity.

  12. Thermal preference predicts animal personality in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Marco; Rey, Sonia; Silva, Tome; Featherstone, Zoe; Crumlish, Margaret; MacKenzie, Simon

    2016-09-01

    Environmental temperature gradients provide habitat structure in which fish orientate and individual thermal choice may reflect an essential integrated response to the environment. The use of subtle thermal gradients likely impacts upon specific physiological and behavioural processes reflected as a suite of traits described by animal personality. In this study, we examine the relationship between thermal choice, animal personality and the impact of infection upon this interaction. We predicted that thermal choice in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus reflects distinct personality traits and that under a challenge individuals exhibit differential thermal distribution. Nile tilapia were screened following two different protocols: 1) a suite of individual behavioural tests to screen for personality and 2) thermal choice in a custom-built tank with a thermal gradient (TCH tank) ranging from 21 to 33 °C. A first set of fish were screened for behaviour and then thermal preference, and a second set were tested in the opposite fashion: thermal then behaviour. The final thermal distribution of the fish after 48 h was assessed reflecting final thermal preferendum. Additionally, fish were then challenged using a bacterial Streptococcus iniae model infection to assess the behavioural fever response of proactive and reactive fish. Results showed that individuals with preference for higher temperatures were also classified as proactive with behavioural tests and reactive contemporaries chose significantly lower water temperatures. All groups exhibited behavioural fever recovering personality-specific thermal preferences after 5 days. Our results show that thermal preference can be used as a proxy to assess personality traits in Nile tilapia and it is a central factor to understand the adaptive meaning of animal personality within a population. Importantly, response to infection by expressing behavioural fever overrides personality-related thermal choice. © 2016 The Authors

  13. Students’ Preferred Characteristics of Learning Environments in Vocational Secondary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Placklé

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available If teachers and teacher educators are willing to support the learning of students, it is important for them to learn what motivates students to engage in learning. Students have their own preferences on design characteristics of powerful learning environments in vocational education. We developed an instrument - the Inventory Powerful Learning Environments in Vocational Education - to measure students’ preferences on characteristics of powerful learning environments in vocational education. We investigated whether student preferences on the design of their learning environments are in line with what is described in the literature as beneficial for learning. Data of 544 students show that the preferences of students support most characteristics of PLEs in vocational education. Looking through the eyes of students, teachers have to challenge their students and encourage them to take their learning in their own hands. Adaptive learning support is needed. Remarkable, students do not prefer having reflective dialogues with teachers or peers.

  14. Toward a better understanding of the relation between music preference, listening behavior, and personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunn, Greg; Ruyter, de B.E.R.; Bouwhuis, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research relating personality and music preferences has often measured such reported preferences according to genre labels. To support previous research, the current paper has expanded investigation of the relation between personality and music preferences to include direct measurement of

  15. Evolving Random Forest for Preference Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Noor

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for pairwise preference learning through a combination of an evolutionary method and random forest. Grammatical evolution is used to describe the structure of the trees in the Random Forest (RF) and to handle the process of evolution. Evolved random forests ...... obtained for predicting pairwise self-reports of users for the three emotional states engagement, frustration and challenge show very promising results that are comparable and in some cases superior to those obtained from state-of-the-art methods....

  16. Game preferences and personality of older adult users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vette, Anna Frederiek Alberdien; Tabak, Monique; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2015-01-01

    To improve engagement needed for long-term adherence to telemedicine services for elderly users, we need methods to design effective and tailored gamification. This study explores the relation between personality (based on the Five Factor Model) and game preference (based on the Five Domains of Play

  17. Personality, Drug Preference, Drug Use, and Drug Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…

  18. Linkages between motivation, self-efficacy, self-regulated learning and preferences for traditional learning environments or those with an online component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Auld

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed 96 law school students’ preferences for online, hybrid, or traditional learning environments, and their reasons for these preferences, learning strategies, and motivational orientations. A discriminant analysis revealed that non-traditional learning environment familiarity, self-efficacy, and employment status were the strongest predictors of preferences for non-traditional learning environments. Preferences for traditional environments were attributed to students’ familiarity and ability to engage in and foster personal interaction. Preferences for hybrid and online environments were attributed to opportunities for enhanced learning given the convenience and flexible manner in which students with time and familial constraints could access these environments.

  19. Learning Style Preferences of Iranian EFL High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Vaseghi; Hamed Barjesteh; Sedigheh Shakib

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the learning style preferences of 75 Iranian students at Marefat high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 41 are females and 34 are males. As there are very few researches in which the learning style preferences of Iranian high school students investigated, this study attempts to fulfil this gap. To this end, in order to identify the students’ preferred learning styles (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Tactile, Group, and Individual) Reid’s Perceptual Learning Style Pref...

  20. Students’ Preferred Characteristics of Learning Environments in Vocational Secondary Education

    OpenAIRE

    Ingeborg Placklé; Karen D. Könings; Wolfgang Jacquet; Katrien Struyven; Arno Libotton; Jeroen J. G. van Merriënboer; Nadine Engels

    2014-01-01

    If teachers and teacher educators are willing to support the learning of students, it is important for them to learn what motivates students to engage in learning. Students have their own preferences on design characteristics of powerful learning environments in vocational education. We developed an instrument – the Inventory Powerful Learning Environments in Vocational Education - to measure students’ preferences on characteristics of powerful learning environments in vocational education. W...

  1. Students Preferred Characteristics of Learning Environments in Vocational Secondary Education

    OpenAIRE

    Placklé, Ingeborg

    2014-01-01

    If teachers and teacher educators are willing to support the learning of students, it is important for them to learn what motivates students to engage in learning. Students have their own preferences on design characteristics of powerful learning environments in vocational education. We developed an instrument - the Inventory Powerful Learning Environments in Vocational Education - to measure studentsâ preferences on characteristics of powerful learning environments in voca-tional education. ...

  2. Learning Style Preferences of Iranian EFL High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Vaseghi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the learning style preferences of 75 Iranian students at Marefat high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 41 are females and 34 are males. As there are very few researches in which the learning style preferences of Iranian high school students investigated, this study attempts to fulfil this gap. To this end, in order to identify the students’ preferred learning styles (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Tactile, Group, and Individual Reid’s Perceptual Learning Style Preferences Questionnaire was used. Results indicated that the six learning style preferences considered in the questionnaire were positively preferred. Overall, kinesthetic and tactile learning were major learning styles. Auditory, group, visual, and individual were minor.

  3. Nursing students at a university - a study about learning style preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallin, Karin

    2014-12-01

    In most adult education, teachers use methods that assume all students learn in the same way. But knowledge of students' learning style preferences highlights the importance of adequate teaching and learning adaptation. The aim of the study was to describe and compare final year nursing students' learning style preferences in two campuses during three semesters. A further aim was to identify differences between learning style preferences and personal characteristics. A descriptive cross-sectional study using the Productivity Environmental Preference Survey (PEPS) questionnaire was conducted at a Swedish rural university. Three semester groups with 263 nursing students participated in 2012-2013. The majority of the students were 'flexible' in their learning style preferences and had none or few strong preferences. Students with strong preferences preferred high structure (75%) and an authority figure present (40%). About a third were highly auditory, tactile and/or kinesthetic while 8% were highly visual. Few significant differences were revealed between the groups of campuses and the groups of semesters or between learning style preferences and upper secondary school and care experience. There were no significant differences between learning style preferences and age and assistant nurse graduation. More women than men were highly motivated, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic and preferred structure and mobility. The PEPS questionnaire provides nursing students with self-awareness regarding their strengths and shortcomings in learning and teachers with a valuable and practical basis for their selection of adapted individual and group teaching methods. The findings suggest the need for wide variation and interactive teaching approaches, conscious didactic actions between cooperating teachers and conscious learning strategies for nursing students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Relationship between Cultural Values and Learning Preference: The Impact of Acculturation Experiences upon East Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Szu-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Globalization and technology advancement are creating more biculturalism at workplaces and learning settings. However, little is known about acculturation experience and its influence on a person's cultural values and learning preference. The research reported in this study investigates the impact of acculturation experiences upon the relationship…

  5. Asynchronous learning: student utilization out of sync with their preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward K. Lew

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asynchronous learning is gaining popularity. Data are limited regarding this learning method in medical students rotating in emergency medicine (EM. In EM, faculty time is limited to give in-person lectures. The authors sought to create an online curriculum that students could utilize as an additional learning modality. Objective: The goal was to evaluate effectiveness, participation, and preference for this mode of learning. Methods: We developed five online, narrated PowerPoint presentations. After orientation, access to the online curriculum was provided to the students, which they could review at their leisure. Results: One hundred and seven fourth-year medical students participated. They reported the curriculum to be of high quality. Pretest scores were similar for those that viewed all lectures – compliant group (CG (9.5 [CI 4.8–14.1] and those that did not view any – non-compliant group (NCG (9.6 [CI 5.9–13.4]. There was no statistical significant difference in posttest scores between the groups although there was improvement overall: CG 14.6 (CI 6.9–22.1; NCG 11.4 (CI 5.7–17.1. A majority (69.2% favored inclusion of asynchronous learning, but less than a quarter (22.4% reported viewing all five modules and more than a third (36.4% viewed none. Conclusion: Despite student-expressed preference for an online curriculum, they used the online resource less than expected. This should give pause to educators looking to convert core EM topics to an online format. However, when high-quality online lectures are utilized as a learning tool, this study demonstrates that they had neither a positive nor a negative impact on test scores.

  6. Preschoolers prefer to learn causal information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubry eAlvarez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Young children, in general, appear to have a strong drive to explore the environment in ways that reveal its underlying causal structure. But are they really attuned specifically to casual information in this quest for understanding, or do they show equal interest in other types of non-obvious information about the world? To answer this question, we introduced 20 three-year-old children to two puppets who were anxious to tell the child about a set of novel artifacts and animals. One puppet consistently described causal properties of the items while the other puppet consistently described carefully matched non-causal properties of the same items. After a familiarization period in which children learned which type of information to expect from each informant, children were given the opportunity to choose which they wanted to hear describe each of eight pictured test items. On average, children chose to hear from the informant that provided causal descriptions on 72% of the trials. This preference for causal information has important implications for explaining the role of conceptual information in supporting early learning and may suggest means for maximizing interest and motivation in young children.

  7. Responding to Students' Learning Preferences in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Wiebe, Rick

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports on a teacher's and his students' responsiveness to a new tetrahedral-oriented (Mahaffy in J Chem Educ 83(1):49-55, 2006) curriculum requiring more discursive classroom practices in the teaching of chemistry. In this instrumental case study, we identify the intentions of this learner-centered curriculum and a teacher's development in response to this curriculum. We also explore the tensions this teacher experiences as students subsequently respond to his adjusted teaching. We use a Chemistry Teacher Inventory (Lewthwaite and Wiebe in Res Sci Educ 40(11):667-689, 2011; Lewthwaite and Wiebe in Can J Math Sci Technol Educ 12(1):36-61, 2012; Lewthwaite in Chem Educ Res Pract. doi:10.1039/C3RP00122A, 2014) to assist the teacher in monitoring how he teaches and how he would like to improve his teaching. We also use a student form of the instrument, the Chemistry Classroom Inventory and Classroom Observation Protocol (Lewthwaite and Wiebe 2011) to verify the teacher's teaching and perception of student preferences for his teaching especially in terms of the discursive processes the curriculum encourages. By so doing, the teacher is able to use both sets of data as a foundation for critical reflection and work towards resolution of the incongruence in data arising from students' preferred learning orientations and his teaching aspirations. Implications of this study in regards to the authority of students' voice in triggering teachers' pedagogical change and the adjustments in `teachering' and `studenting' required by such curricula are considered.

  8. A comparative study about learning styles preferences of two cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutay, Huban

    elements covering each person's perceptual, psychological, environmental, physiological, emotional, and sociological processing preferences and analyzes the learning conditions for students' individual preferences in these six areas. All of these variables can effect one's learning style preferences. Each subject rates 118 items on a five-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. A two-sample t test was used to identify the differences between Turkish and American students by means of their learning style preferences and social anxiety levels. The sample consisted of 67% males and 33% female. The age of the subjects was relatively young as we expected; 51% of them 25 years old and under and 46% of them were between the ages of 26 and 35. In terms of academic major areas 38% of the students were from the basic science areas such as chemistry, biology, physics, and science education with a B.S. degree or pursuing a B.S. degree in one of the science areas mentioned previously. The second most prevalent major category was engineering with 35% of the subject. Out of a total of twenty-four elements, eight were identified as being different in these groups. These differences were mostly in the physiological and environmental stimulus that can be explained as cultural habits or practices.

  9. Assessing Adult Learning Preferences Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doris; McCool, John; Napieralski, Laura

    2000-01-01

    Graduate students (n=134) used the analytic hierarchy process, which weights expressed preferences, to rate four learning activities: lectures, discussion/reflection, individual projects, and group projects. Their preferences for discussion/reflection and individual projects were independent of auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learning styles.…

  10. Learning Style Preferences of Elderly Coronary Artery Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theis, Saundra L.; Merritt, Sharon L.

    1992-01-01

    The Patient Learning Styles Questionnaire derived from Canfield and administered to 134 elderly coronary artery disease patients revealed the following order of learning preferences: structure, iconics, listening, direct experience, reading, achievement, affiliation, and eminence. Level of education significantly influenced preferred learning…

  11. Students' Preferred Characteristics of Learning Environments in Vocational Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placklé, Ingeborg; Könings, Karen D.; Jacquet, Wolfgang; Struyven, Katrien; Libotton, Arno; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Engels, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    If teachers and teacher educators are willing to support the learning of students, it is important for them to learn what motivates students to engage in learning. Students have their own preferences on design characteristics of powerful learning environments in vocational education. We developed an instrument--the Inventory Powerful Learning…

  12. Influence of Personal Preferences on Link Dynamics in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Bahulkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a unique network dataset including periodic surveys and electronic logs of dyadic contacts via smartphones. The participants were a sample of freshmen entering university in the Fall 2011. Their opinions on a variety of political and social issues and lists of activities on campus were regularly recorded at the beginning and end of each semester for the first three years of study. We identify a behavioral network defined by call and text data, and a cognitive network based on friendship nominations in ego-network surveys. Both networks are limited to study participants. Since a wide range of attributes on each node were collected in self-reports, we refer to these networks as attribute-rich networks. We study whether student preferences for certain attributes of friends can predict formation and dissolution of edges in both networks. We introduce a method for computing student preferences for different attributes which we use to predict link formation and dissolution. We then rank these attributes according to their importance for making predictions. We find that personal preferences, in particular political views, and preferences for common activities help predict link formation and dissolution in both the behavioral and cognitive networks.

  13. Exploration of preferred learning styles in medical education using VARK modal

    OpenAIRE

    Laxman Khanal; Sandip Shah; Sarun Koirala

    2014-01-01

    Learning styles is a term used to refer to the methods of gathering, processing, interpreting, organizing and thinking about information. Students have different learning styles, which is the reason for the diversity seen in classrooms in regards to how students acquire information. Claxton and Murrell had divided the learning styles into the following four categories: personality models, information-processing models, social-interaction models, and instructional preferences models. VARK (an ...

  14. "What I Want and What You Want": Children's Thinking about Competing Personal Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolova, Masha; Wainryb, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how children reason about competing personal preferences. Seventy-two participants (mean ages 5 years 5 months, 10 years 4 months, and 17 years 7 months) considered three hypothetical scenarios in which a protagonist's personal preference was in conflict with her or his friend's personal preference. Scenarios varied in the…

  15. Student-Centred Learning Environments: An Investigation into Student Teachers' Instructional Preferences and Approaches to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Marlies; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien; Parmentier, Emmeline; Vanderbruggen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The use of student-centred learning environments in education has increased. This study investigated student teachers' instructional preferences for these learning environments and how these preferences are related to their approaches to learning. Participants were professional Bachelor students in teacher education. Instructional preferences and…

  16. Learning style preferences among pre-clinical medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Aye Mon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Generally, different students employ different learning styles dur-ing their studies and medical students are exposed to diverse methods of teaching. Therefore, understanding students’ learning style preference is an important consideration for a high quality and effective teaching and learning process.The aim of the study was to study the variation of learning styles among pre-clinical medical students of SEGi University, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was performed by using VARK (Visual, Audio, Reading and Kinaesthetic questionnaire version 7.2 to assess the learning style preference of 98 (n=98 pre-clinical medical students in SEGi University. The questionnaire consists of 16 items which identify four different learning styles: visual, aural, reading/writing and kin-esthetic. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the learning styles of students. 61 students preferred multimodal as their learning style, out of which 43 (70% of them were female stu-dents and 18 (30% were male students. 37 students preferred unimodal as their learning style out of which 22 (59% of them were female students and 15 (41% were male students. In addi-tion, female students had more diverse preferences than male students by having 10 out of the other 11 possible combinations in multimodal learning style of preference, whereas the male stu-dents only had 5 out of the 11 combinations. In this study, there was no significant gender difference in the percentages of males and female students who preferred unimodal and multimodal styles of information presentation (P= 0.263; α=0.05. To con-clude, the majority of students of both genders had chosen quad-modal as their learning style preference. The results of this study can provide useful information for improving the quality of the teaching and learning experiences of students.

  17. Learning style preferences of Australian health science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghi, Maryam; Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; Roller, Louis; Jaberzadeh, Shapour; Palermo, Claire; McKenna, Lisa; Wright, Caroline; Baird, Marilyn; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Hewitt, Lesley; Sim, Jenny; Holt, Tangerine-Ann

    2010-01-01

    It has been identified that health science student groups may have distinctive learning needs. By university educators' and professional fieldwork supervisors' being aware of the unique learning style preferences of health science students, they have the capacity to adjust their teaching approaches to best fit with their students' learning preferences. The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning style preferences of a group of Australian health science students enrolled in 10 different disciplines. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory was distributed to 2,885 students enrolled in dietetics and nutrition, midwifery, nursing, occupational therapy, paramedics, pharmacy, physiotherapy, radiation therapy, radiography, and social work at one Australian university. A total of 752 usable survey forms were returned (response rate 26%). The results indicated the converger learning style to be most frequently preferred by health science students and that the diverger and accommodator learning styles were the least preferred. It is recommended that educators take learning style preferences of health science students into consideration when planning, implementing, and evaluating teaching activities, such as including more problem-solving activities that fit within the converger learning style.

  18. The Association between Learning Preferences and Preferred Methods of Assessment of Dental Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Phil

    2016-01-01

    This study is designed to gather information concerning a possible relationship between how dental students prefer to take in and communicate new information and how they prefer to be assessed. Though there are numerous references in the literature regarding the learning styles of students there are also references to the inaccuracy of such…

  19. Telecommuting and Learning Style Preference: An Examination of Learning Transfer in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Lisa C.

    2010-01-01

    Telecommuting learning style preferences were examined in an effort to determine the impact of learning transfer and if employees could benefit from blended training methodologies (i.e., online, face-to-face). Learning style preferences were examined in an effort to promote learning transfer and retention in the workplace. Employees in higher…

  20. Personal Learning Environments for Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Panagiotidis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The advent of web 2.0 and the developments it has introduced both in everyday practice and in education have generated discussion and reflection concerning the technologies which higher education should rely on in order to provide the appropriate e-learning services to future students. In this context, the Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs, which are widely used in universities around the world to provide online courses to every specific knowledge area and of course in foreign languages, have started to appear rather outdated. Extensive research is under progress, concerning the ways in which educational practice will follow the philosophy of web 2.0 by adopting the more learner-centred and collaborative approach of e-learning 2.0 applications, without abandoning the existing investment of the academic institutions in VLEs, which belong to the e-learning 1.0 generation, and, thus, serve a teacher- or coursecentred approach. Towards this direction, a notably promising solution seems to be the exploitation of web 2.0 tools in order to form Personal Learning Environments (PLEs. These are systems specifically designed or created by the combined use of various external applications or tools that can be used independently or act as a supplement to existing VLE platforms, creating a personalized learning environment. In a PLE, students have the opportunity to form their own personal way of working, using the tools they feel are most appropriate to achieve their purpose. Regarding the subject of foreign language, in particular, the creation of such personalized and adaptable learning environments that extend the traditional approach of a course seems to promise a more holistic response to students’ needs, who, functioning in the PLE, could combine learning with their daily practice, communicating and collaborating with others, thus increasing the possibilities of access to multiple sources, informal communication and practice and eventually

  1. Personal Learning Environments for Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Panagiotidis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The advent of web 2.0 and the developments it has introduced both in everyday practice and in education have generated discussion and reflection concerning the technologies which higher education should rely on in order to provide the appropriate e-learning services to future students.In this context, the Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs, which are widely used in universities around the world to provide online courses to every specific knowledge area and of course in foreign languages, have started to appear rather outdated. Extensive research is under progress, concerning the ways in which educational practice will follow the philosophy of web 2.0 by adopting the more learner-centred and collaborative approach of e-learning 2.0 applications, without abandoning the existing investment of the academic institutions in VLEs, which belong to the e-learning 1.0 generation, and, thus, serve a teacher- or coursecentred approach.Towards this direction, a notably promising solution seems to be the exploitation of web 2.0 tools in order to form Personal Learning Environments (PLEs. These are systems specifically designed or created by the combined use of various external applications or tools that can be used independently or act as a supplement to existing VLE platforms, creating a personalized learning environment. In a PLE, students have the opportunity to form their own personal way of working, using the tools they feel are most appropriate to achieve their purpose.Regarding the subject of foreign language, in particular, the creation of such personalized and adaptable learning environments that extend the traditional approach of a course seems to promise a more holistic response to students’ needs, who, functioning in the PLE, could combine learning with their daily practice, communicating and collaborating with others, thus increasing the possibilities of access to multiple sources, informal communication and practice and eventually acquiring

  2. Personality Traits, Learning and Academic Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in personality traits (especially the five-factor model) in relation to education and learning over the last decade. Previous studies have shown a relation between personality traits and learning, and between personality traits and academic achievement. The latter is typically described in terms of Grade Point…

  3. Resource Guide for Persons with Learning Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IBM, Atlanta, GA. National Support Center for Persons with Disabilities.

    The resource guide identifies products which assist learning disabled and mentally retarded individuals in accessing IBM (International Business Machine) Personal Computers or the IBM Personal System/2 family of products. An introduction provides a general overview of ways computers can help learning disabled or retarded persons. The document then…

  4. Algorithms for Learning Preferences for Sets of Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; desJardins, Marie; Eaton, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A method is being developed that provides for an artificial-intelligence system to learn a user's preferences for sets of objects and to thereafter automatically select subsets of objects according to those preferences. The method was originally intended to enable automated selection, from among large sets of images acquired by instruments aboard spacecraft, of image subsets considered to be scientifically valuable enough to justify use of limited communication resources for transmission to Earth. The method is also applicable to other sets of objects: examples of sets of objects considered in the development of the method include food menus, radio-station music playlists, and assortments of colored blocks for creating mosaics. The method does not require the user to perform the often-difficult task of quantitatively specifying preferences; instead, the user provides examples of preferred sets of objects. This method goes beyond related prior artificial-intelligence methods for learning which individual items are preferred by the user: this method supports a concept of setbased preferences, which include not only preferences for individual items but also preferences regarding types and degrees of diversity of items in a set. Consideration of diversity in this method involves recognition that members of a set may interact with each other in the sense that when considered together, they may be regarded as being complementary, redundant, or incompatible to various degrees. The effects of such interactions are loosely summarized in the term portfolio effect. The learning method relies on a preference representation language, denoted DD-PREF, to express set-based preferences. In DD-PREF, a preference is represented by a tuple that includes quality (depth) functions to estimate how desired a specific value is, weights for each feature preference, the desired diversity of feature values, and the relative importance of diversity versus depth. The system applies statistical

  5. The development of rhythmic preferences by Dutch-learning infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keij, B.M.; Kager, R.W.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter the early acquisition of word stress is discussed. This study is aimed at examining rhythmic preferences for either strong-weak or weak-strong stress patterns of Dutch-learning infants between 4 and 8 months of age. It is complementary to previous rhythmic preference studies

  6. The Effects of Framing Grades on Student Learning and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bies-Hernandez, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether framing effects, in terms of losses and gains, can be extended to student learning and grading preferences. In Experiment 1, participants rated psychology course syllabi to investigate preferences for differently framed grading systems: a loss versus gain grading system. The results showed a clear framing effect…

  7. The development of rhythmic preferences by Dutch-learning infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keij, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374786097; Kager, R.W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072294124

    In this chapter the early acquisition of word stress is discussed. This study is aimed at examining rhythmic preferences for either strong-weak or weak-strong stress patterns of Dutch-learning infants between 4 and 8 months of age. It is complementary to previous rhythmic preference studies

  8. Exploration of preferred learning styles in medical education using VARK modal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Khanal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning styles is a term used to refer to the methods of gathering, processing, interpreting, organizing and thinking about information. Students have different learning styles, which is the reason for the diversity seen in classrooms in regards to how students acquire information. Claxton and Murrell had divided the learning styles into the following four categories: personality models, information-processing models, social-interaction models, and instructional preferences models. VARK (an acronym for Visual, Aural, Read/write and Kinesthetic, different way of learning styles is a learning inventory categorized into the ‘instructional preference’ modal. Many studies were done using the VARK inventory among the medical education but the preferred mode of learning was variable in different parts of the world. The relationship of age, gender and academic performance with the mode of learning was also not consistent. So this article tried to conclude the preferred mode of learning and relationship of mode of learning with gender and other factors by analyzing the previous studies done using VARK questionnaire among the medical students in daily teaching and learning environment. Pub Med and Google Scholar were used as a search engine to find the article. Altogether 20 full text research papers were retrieved and reviewed. In the most of part of the world the studies showed that multimodal learning style was the predominant one over unimodal. Further in multimodal quadmodal was the most preferred one followed by other presentation. In the unimodal presentation most preferred one is kinesthetic type of learning along with visual, aural and read write in less extent. Age factors had no lucid relationship with the learning style though some variations were observed with age.This review was expected to be useful as scientific evidence in the field of medical education and also as a reference for further research.

  9. Why the Personal Competencies Matter. Connect: Making Learning Personal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This issue in the "Connect" series is a field report that discusses how a student's personal competencies--cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, and social/emotional--propel learning and other forms of goal attainment. These personal competencies are personal to the individual in their shape, size, and effect, but they are enhanced by…

  10. Correlations between Clinical Judgement and Learning Style Preferences of Nursing Students in the Simulation Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallin, Karin; Häggström, Marie; Bäckström, Britt; Kristiansen, Lisbeth Porskrog

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health care educators account for variables affecting patient safety and are responsible for developing the highly complex process of education planning. Clinical judgement is a multidimensional process, which may be affected by learning styles. The aim was to explore three specific hypotheses to test correlations between nursing students’ team achievements in clinical judgement and emotional, sociological and physiological learning style preferences. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with Swedish university nursing students in 2012-2013. Convenience sampling was used with 60 teams with 173 nursing students in the final semester of a three-year Bachelor of Science in nursing programme. Data collection included questionnaires of personal characteristics, learning style preferences, determined by the Dunn and Dunn Productivity Environmental Preference Survey, and videotaped complex nursing simulation scenarios. Comparison with Lasater Clinical Judgement Rubric and Non-parametric analyses were performed. Results: Three significant correlations were found between the team achievements and the students’ learning style preferences: significant negative correlation with ‘Structure’ and ‘Kinesthetic’ at the individual level, and positive correlation with the ‘Tactile’ variable. No significant correlations with students’ ‘Motivation’, ‘Persistence’, ‘Wish to learn alone’ and ‘Wish for an authoritative person present’ were seen. Discussion and Conclusion: There were multiple complex interactions between the tested learning style preferences and the team achievements of clinical judgement in the simulation room, which provides important information for the becoming nurses. Several factors may have influenced the results that should be acknowledged when designing further research. We suggest conducting mixed methods to determine further relationships between team achievements, learning style preferences

  11. Correlations Between Clinical Judgement and Learning Style Preferences of Nursing Students in the Simulation Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallin, Karin; Haggstrom, Marie; Backstrom, Britt; Kristiansen, Lisbeth Porskrog

    2015-09-28

    Health care educators account for variables affecting patient safety and are responsible for developing the highly complex process of education planning. Clinical judgement is a multidimensional process, which may be affected by learning styles. The aim was to explore three specific hypotheses to test correlations between nursing students' team achievements in clinical judgement and emotional, sociological and physiological learning style preferences. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with Swedish university nursing students in 2012-2013. Convenience sampling was used with 60 teams with 173 nursing students in the final semester of a three-year Bachelor of Science in nursing programme. Data collection included questionnaires of personal characteristics, learning style preferences, determined by the Dunn and Dunn Productivity Environmental Preference Survey, and videotaped complex nursing simulation scenarios. Comparison with Lasater Clinical Judgement Rubric and Non-parametric analyses were performed. Three significant correlations were found between the team achievements and the students' learning style preferences: significant negative correlation with 'Structure' and 'Kinesthetic' at the individual level, and positive correlation with the 'Tactile' variable. No significant correlations with students' 'Motivation', 'Persistence', 'Wish to learn alone' and 'Wish for an authoritative person present' were seen. There were multiple complex interactions between the tested learning style preferences and the team achievements of clinical judgement in the simulation room, which provides important information for the becoming nurses. Several factors may have influenced the results that should be acknowledged when designing further research. We suggest conducting mixed methods to determine further relationships between team achievements, learning style preferences, cognitive learning outcomes and group processes.

  12. Preference Learning Style in Engineering Mathematics: Students' Perception of E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawil, Norngainy Mohd; Ismail, Nur Arzilah; Asshaari, Izamarlina; Othman, Haliza; Zaharim, Azami; Bahaludin, Hafizah

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, traditional learning styles are assisted with e-learning components to ensure the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process, especially for the students. This approach is known as blended learning. Objective of this paper is to investigate and clarify the students' preferences in learning style, either traditional or e-learning.…

  13. Preference learning with evolutionary Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Noor; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for pairwise preference learning through combining an evolutionary method with Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS). Collecting users' feedback through pairwise preferences is recommended over other ranking approaches as this method is more appealing...... for function approximation as well as being relatively easy to interpret. MARS models are evolved based on their efficiency in learning pairwise data. The method is tested on two datasets that collectively provide pairwise preference data of five cognitive states expressed by users. The method is analysed...

  14. Aberrant Learning Achievement Detection Based on Person-Fit Statistics in Personalized e-Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Tsung; Yu, Pao-Ta

    2011-01-01

    A personalized e-learning service provides learning content to fit learners' individual differences. Learning achievements are influenced by cognitive as well as non-cognitive factors such as mood, motivation, interest, and personal styles. This paper proposes the Learning Caution Indexes (LCI) to detect aberrant learning patterns. The philosophy…

  15. Mobile and pervasive media for personalized learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Kalz, M. (2013, 18 April). Mobile and pervasive media for personalized learning. Presentation provided during a workshop for visitors from Lithuania, Learning Media Lab, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit in the Netherlands.

  16. Personal Learning Environments in Black and White

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Kalz, M. (2010, 22 January). Personal Learning Environments in Black and White. Presentation provided during the workshop "Informal Learning and the use of social software in veterinary medicine" of the Noviceproject (http://www.noviceproject.eu), Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  17. Evaluation of color preference in zebrafish for learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdesh, Avdesh; Martin-Iverson, Mathew T; Mondal, Alinda; Chen, Mengqi; Askraba, Sreten; Morgan, Newman; Lardelli, Michael; Groth, David M; Verdile, Giuseppe; Martins, Ralph N

    2012-01-01

    There is growing interest in using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. A zebrafish model of tauopathies has recently been developed and characterized in terms of presence of the pathological hallmarks (i.e., neurofibrillary tangles and cell death). However, it is also necessary to validate these models for function by assessing learning and memory. The majority of tools to assess memory and learning in animal models involve visual stimuli, including color preference. The color preference of zebrafish has received little attention. To validate zebrafish as a model for color-associated-learning and memory, it is necessary to evaluate its natural preferences or any pre-existing biases towards specific colors. In the present study, we have used four different colors (red, yellow, green, and blue) to test natural color preferences of the zebrafish using two procedures: Place preference and T-maze. Results from both experiments indicate a strong aversion toward blue color relative to all other colors (red, yellow, and green) when tested in combinations. No preferences or biases were found among reds, yellows, and greens in the place preference procedure. However, red and green were equally preferred and both were preferred over yellow by zebrafish in the T-maze procedure. The results from the present study show a strong aversion towards blue color compared to red, green, and yellow, with yellow being less preferred relative to red and green. The findings from this study may underpin any further designing of color-based learning and memory paradigms or experiments involving aversion, anxiety, or fear in the zebrafish.

  18. A Study on the Relationships between Digital Game Preference and Game Preference Reason with Gender, Class Level and Learning Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Ferhat Kadir PALA; Mukaddes ERDEM

    2011-01-01

    This study examined for to determine the relationships between digital game preferences and the game preferences reasons with gender, class levels and learning styles of university students. Study group consisted of students of Computer Education and Instructional Technology Department. Game preferences and preference reasons data were gathered by an open ended 16 items questionnaire. Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory was used for collecting learning styles data. As a result, significant relati...

  19. AN ADAPTIVE ACO-DRIVEN SCHEME FOR LEARNING AIM ORIENTED PERSONALIZED E-LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Hans

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The e-learning paradigm is now a well-established vehicle of modern education. It caters to a wide spectrum of students with diverse backgrounds who enroll with their own learning aims. A core challenge under this scenario is to generate personalized learning paths so that each student can achieve her learning aim most effectively. Prior works used static attributes such as prior knowledge level, learning ability, browsing preferences, learning style etc. to generate personalized learning paths. In this paper, we take an entirely new route by taking into account the continuous improvement of a learner in the light of her own learning aim, to redefine her learning path at each level of the course. We introduce the concept of personalized examination system that systematically evaluates the dynamic learning ability of every student according to her pre-set goals. The proposed intelligent e-learning system uses Ant Colony Optimization to iteratively optimize the forward learning paths. Experimental results reveal that the system is able to tap a student’s improved learning ability to choose more difficult paths that contribute highly towards her own aims. We demonstrate that the overall learning success of weaker students doubles as compared to statically generated paths while there is considerable improvement of 50% in the learning success for average students as well. This clearly indicates that our approach gives realistic benefits to initially weak students who gradually evolve as the course progresses.

  20. Identifying Learning Preferences in Vocational Education and Training Classroom Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    This research was designed to assess whether teachers and trainers of vocational learners noted and valued differences in individual learning preferences and, if so, how those differences were observed in natural classroom, workshop or other formal learning settings. Data were collected from six vocational education and training (VET) learning…

  1. Preferred Learning Styles in the Second Language Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta, Madeline Strong

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the preferred learning styles of students studying second languages, offering suggestions for their application in second-language classrooms. The paper describes the right-brain/left-brain theory and how the two brain hemispheres are involved in learning; presents four classroom strategies (diversification, contextualization,…

  2. Musical preferences predict personality: evidence from active listening and Facebook likes

    OpenAIRE

    Nave, Gideon; Minxha, Juri; Greenburg, David; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David John; Rentfrow, Peter Jason

    2018-01-01

    Research over the past decade has shown that various personality traits are communicated through musical preferences. One limitation of that research is external validity, as most studies have assessed individual differences in musical preferences using self-reports of music-genre preferences. Are personality traits communicated through behavioral manifestations of musical preferences? We addressed this question in two large-scale online studies with demographically diverse populations. Study...

  3. An Approach To Personalized e-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Gaeta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the concept of personalized e-Learning for the computer science (or informatics education. Several authors have stated that personalization, in educational context, allows executing more efficient and effective learning processes. On the other side the use of Semantic Web technologies (e.g. ontologies is more and more often considered as a technological basis for personalization in e-Learning (the so-called self-regulated learning. In this paper we describe how personalization can be exploited in e-Learning systems, focusing on our proposal: the Intelligent Web Teacher (IWT. Therefore we present the evaluation of our personalization tools tested in real academic courses, where e-Learning activities are carried out to complement the traditional lectures.

  4. A Taxonomy of Consumer Motives through Preferred Brand Personality : Empirical Findings for 11 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    N. GEEROMS; I. VERMEIR; P. VAN KENHOVE; H. HENDRICKX

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a circumplex taxonomy of related consumer motives based on valence ratings of 34 preferred brand personality traits. Results of INDSCAL analysis reveal a consistent, replicable preferred brand personality structure across 11 different countries and four different product categories. As preferred brand personality dimensions are considered as behavioral expressions of underlying motives, the found structure was reformulated in terms of a taxonomy of eight fundamental consum...

  5. Monte Carlo methods for preference learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viappiani, P.

    2012-01-01

    Utility elicitation is an important component of many applications, such as decision support systems and recommender systems. Such systems query the users about their preferences and give recommendations based on the system’s belief about the utility function. Critical to these applications is th...... is the acquisition of prior distribution about the utility parameters and the possibility of real time Bayesian inference. In this paper we consider Monte Carlo methods for these problems....

  6. Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Learning Orientation, and Supportive Learning Environment on Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woojae; Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    While workplace learning includes formal and informal learning, the relationship between the two has been overlooked, because they have been viewed as separate entities. This study investigated the effects of formal learning, personal learning orientation, and supportive learning environment on informal learning among 203 middle managers in Korean…

  7. Personality in learning and education : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeRaad, B; Schouwenburg, HC

    1996-01-01

    The literature relevant to the combined area of personality and education and learning is summarized, covering almost a century of research and theorizing. Different topics considered important from the aspect of education and learning or from the aspect of personality ape represented. For

  8. A Design Framework for Personal Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi, E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to develop a PLE (personal learning environment) design framework for workplace settings. By doing such, the research has answered this research question, how should a technology-based personal learning environment be designed, aiming at supporting learners to gain

  9. Student Engagement: Key to Personalized Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlazzo, Larry

    2017-01-01

    Personalized learning has the potential to greatly improve student achievement--but realistic teachers know that any instructional strategy will only be effective if students are willing to do the work. That is why Larry Ferlazzo emphasizes the importance of weaving intrinsic motivation into every personalized learning classroom. Four key elements…

  10. Organizational Learning Support Preferences of Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kevin S.

    2016-01-01

    Since more than $140 Billion is invested annually on employee learning and development in the U.S (Harward, 2014) it is important that training leads to improved job performance. Millennials, who comprise the latest employee generation, are age 18-37 (Tyler, 2007) and share the same performance requirements and expectations of the generations that…

  11. Relationship between the Learning Styles Preferences and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, H.; Samad, N. Abd; Faiz, N. S. Mohd; Roddin, R.; Kankia, J. D.

    2017-08-01

    The individual learning differences that have been much explored relate to differences in personality, learning styles, strategies and conceptual of learning. This article studies the learning style profile exhibited by students towards the academic achievement in Malaysian Polytechnic. The relationship between learning styles of Polytechnic students and their academic achievement based on VARK learning styles model. The target population was international business students of Malaysian Polytechnic. By means of randomly sampling method, 103 students were selected as sample of research. By descriptive - survey research method and a questionnaire adapted from VARK Learning Style Index, required data were collected. According to the results, no significantly difference between learning style and academic achievement of students. Students academic achievement was quite similar to their individual learning styles. These facts reveal that each learning style has its own strengths and weaknesses.

  12. Music preferences based on audio features, and its relation to personality

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have summarized reported music preferences by genre into four broadly defined categories, which relate to various personality characteristics. Other research has indicated that genre classification is ambiguous and inconsistent. This ambiguity suggests that research relating personality to music preferences based on genre could benefit from a more objective definition of music. This problem is addressed by investigating how music preferences linked to objective audio features r...

  13. Personality Preferences and Career Expectations of Finnish Business Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlstrom, Maria

    2000-01-01

    Predominant Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) scores for 533 Finnish business students were as follows: 67% extraverted, 53% intuitive, 67% thinking, and 33% feeling. For Schein's career anchors, 26% preferred Technical Competence, 17% Managerial Competence, and 14% Independence. Significant relationships between MBTI preferences and career…

  14. Preference for tap, bottled, and recycled water: Relations to PTC taste sensitivity and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Daniel; Gauvain, Mary; Z Reisz; Arthur, Isaac; Story, S Drew

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated people's preferences for different water sources and factors that predict such preferences using a blind taste test. Water preferences of 143 participants for one name-brand bottled water, one groundwater-sourced tap water, and one indirect potable reuse (IDR) water were assessed. For predictors of water preference, we measured each participant's PTC taste sensitivity and assessed two personality traits (Neuroticism, Openness to Experience). We also explored participants' descriptions of each water source. Results indicate a preference for water treated with Reverse Osmosis (RO) (bottled and IDR water) over groundwater-sourced water, which had higher pH levels and lower concentrations of Ca and HCO 3 - . PTC taste sensitivity did not predict preferences, while Openness to Experience and Neuroticism predicted preference for IDR water. Positive relations between Openness to Experience and preferences for bottled and IDR water were moderated by gender and were stronger among females. Participants described water primarily by its taste and texture. Findings suggest that (1) tap water treated by RO is equally preferable to some bottled water, (2) personality traits may affect water preferences, and (3) prior findings of gender differences in preferences for bottled water may reflect personality characteristics. Efforts to increase acceptance for sustainable water alternatives, such as IDR, may be more successful by assuring consumers about taste and addressing personality traits that encourage or inhibit use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Learning and Socializing Preferences in Hong Kong Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eva E; Corriveau, Kathleen H; Lai, Veronica K W; Poon, Sze Long; Gaither, Sarah E

    2018-04-30

    The impact of social group information on the learning and socializing preferences of Hong Kong Chinese children were examined. Specifically, the degree to which variability in racial out-group exposure affects children's use of race to make decisions about unfamiliar individuals (Chinese, White, Southeast Asian) was investigated. Participants (N = 212; M age  = 60.51 months) chose functions for novel objects after informants demonstrated their use; indicated with which peer group member to socialize; and were measured on racial group recognition, preference, and identification. Overall, children preferred in-group members, though out-group exposure and the relative social status of out-groups mattered as well. At a young age, children's specific experiences with different races influence how they learn and befriend others across racial group lines. © 2018 Society for Research in Child Development.

  16. Effects of learning styles on career preferences of senior secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research investigated the effects of learning styles on career preferences of senior secondary school students in Jigawa State, Nigeria. A total of six hundred students, three hundred and sixty male, and two hundred and forty female were randomly selected from ten senior secondary schools across the state for the study ...

  17. Radiologists' preferences for just-in-time learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Charles E; Ehlers, Kevin C; Wood, Beverly P

    2006-09-01

    Effective learning can occur at the point of care, when opportunities arise to acquire information and apply it to a clinical problem. To assess interest in point-of-care learning, we conducted a survey to explore radiologists' attitudes and preferences regarding the use of just-in-time learning (JITL) in radiology. Following Institutional Review Board approval, we invited 104 current radiology residents and 86 radiologists in practice to participate in a 12-item Internet-based survey to assess their attitudes toward just-in-time learning. Voluntary participation in the survey was solicited by e-mail; respondents completed the survey on a web-based form. Seventy-nine physicians completed the questionnaire, including 47 radiology residents and 32 radiologists in practice; the overall response rate was 42%. Respondents generally expressed a strong interest for JITL: 96% indicated a willingness to try such a system, and 38% indicated that they definitely would use a JITL system. They expressed a preference for learning interventions of 5-10 min in length. Current and recent radiology trainees have expressed a strong interest in just-in-time learning. The information from this survey should be useful in pursuing the design of learning interventions and systems for delivering just-in-time learning to radiologists.

  18. Deep learning for EEG-Based preference classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Jason; Hou, Chew Lin; Mountstephens, James

    2017-10-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based emotion classification is rapidly becoming one of the most intensely studied areas of brain-computer interfacing (BCI). The ability to passively identify yet accurately correlate brainwaves with our immediate emotions opens up truly meaningful and previously unattainable human-computer interactions such as in forensic neuroscience, rehabilitative medicine, affective entertainment and neuro-marketing. One particularly useful yet rarely explored areas of EEG-based emotion classification is preference recognition [1], which is simply the detection of like versus dislike. Within the limited investigations into preference classification, all reported studies were based on musically-induced stimuli except for a single study which used 2D images. The main objective of this study is to apply deep learning, which has been shown to produce state-of-the-art results in diverse hard problems such as in computer vision, natural language processing and audio recognition, to 3D object preference classification over a larger group of test subjects. A cohort of 16 users was shown 60 bracelet-like objects as rotating visual stimuli on a computer display while their preferences and EEGs were recorded. After training a variety of machine learning approaches which included deep neural networks, we then attempted to classify the users' preferences for the 3D visual stimuli based on their EEGs. Here, we show that that deep learning outperforms a variety of other machine learning classifiers for this EEG-based preference classification task particularly in a highly challenging dataset with large inter- and intra-subject variability.

  19. Normalization and Personalization of Learning Situation: NPLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounia Abik

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The personalization of learning is a major pedagogical challenge solicited by pedagogues and didacts. There are several projects about the production of personalizable learning situations such as Reload-LDE and Alfanet. These projects are interested in producing new standardized and personalizable learning situations. However, on the Web, an important number of learning situations exist. These situations are rich in information but don't consider all the characteristics of participants taking part in the learning, nor their technical environments. In this paper we suggest a help system that can transform an existing learning situation to another structure standardized and personalizable depending on the context of learning personalization that we have defined.

  20. Mapping Students’ Informal Learning Using Personal Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Anđelković Labrović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Personal learning environments are a widely spared ways of learning, especially for the informal learning process. The aim of this research is to identify the elements of studens’ personal learning environment and to identify the extent to which students use modern technology for learning as part of their non-formal learning. A mapping system was used for gathering data and an analysis of percentages and frequency counts was used for data analysis in the SPSS. The results show that students’ personal learning environment includes the following elements: Wikipedia, Google, YouTube and Facebook in 75% of all cases, and an interesting fact is that all of them belong to a group of Web 2.0 tools and applications.

  1. The relationship between students' perceptual learning style preferences, language learning strategies and English language vocabulary size

    OpenAIRE

    Gorevanova, Anna

    2000-01-01

    Ankara : The Institute of Economic and Social Sciences Bilkent Univ., 2000. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2000. Includes bibliographical references leaves 54-58 This study investigated the relationship between students’ perceptual learning style preferences, language learning strategies and English language vocabulary size. It is very important for teachers to be aware of students’ preferences in learning to help them be more successful and to avoid conflicts when...

  2. The Integration of Personal Learning Environments & Open Network Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chih-Hsiung; Sujo-Montes, Laura; Yen, Cherng-Jyh; Chan, Junn-Yih; Blocher, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Learning management systems traditionally provide structures to guide online learners to achieve their learning goals. Web 2.0 technology empowers learners to create, share, and organize their personal learning environments in open network environments; and allows learners to engage in social networking and collaborating activities. Advanced…

  3. a New Model for Fuzzy Personalized Route Planning Using Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadi, S.; Houshyaripour, A. H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes a new model for personalized route planning under uncertain condition. Personalized routing, involves different sources of uncertainty. These uncertainties can be raised from user's ambiguity about their preferences, imprecise criteria values and modelling process. The proposed model uses Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Relation Analytical Hierarchical Process (FLPRAHP) to analyse user's preferences under uncertainty. Routing is a multi-criteria task especially in transportation networks, where the users wish to optimize their routes based on different criteria. However, due to the lake of knowledge about the preferences of different users and uncertainties available in the criteria values, we propose a new personalized fuzzy routing method based on the fuzzy ranking using center of gravity. The model employed FLPRAHP method to aggregate uncertain criteria values regarding uncertain user's preferences while improve consistency with least possible comparisons. An illustrative example presents the effectiveness and capability of the proposed model to calculate best personalize route under fuzziness and uncertainty.

  4. Personalized search result diversification via structured learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, S.; Ren, Z.; de Rijke, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of personalized diversification of search results, with the goal of enhancing the performance of both plain diversification and plain personalization algorithms. In previous work, the problem has mainly been tackled by means of unsupervised learning. To

  5. Learning and Personality on Study Tours Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shin Yu; Harris, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Study tours abroad are important arenas for post-compulsory education. This paper focuses on how personality affects students' learning on study tours abroad. The research involved 66 learners from one higher education institution in Taiwan on tours to the UK, the USA and Australia. Data were gathered using questionnaires and learning journals,…

  6. Predicting Learned Helplessness Based on Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maadikhah, Elham; Erfani, Nasrollah

    2014-01-01

    Learned helplessness as a negative motivational state can latently underlie repeated failures and create negative feelings toward the education as well as depression in students and other members of a society. The purpose of this paper is to predict learned helplessness based on students' personality traits. The research is a predictive…

  7. Divulging Personal Information within Learning Analytics Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifenthaler, Dirk; Schumacher, Clara

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if students are prepared to release any personal data in order to inform learning analytics systems. Besides the well-documented benefits of learning analytics, serious concerns and challenges are associated with the application of these data driven systems. Most notably, empirical evidence regarding…

  8. Learning Style Preferences and the Perceived Usefulness of E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Alexander Toni; Holtbrugge, Dirk; Berg, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses data gathered from 953 students to investigate how far individuals' preferences for a particular learning style are associated with the perceived usefulness of e-learning. Our findings reveal the effect of individuals' learning styles as well as their gender and professional experience on the perceived usefulness of different forms…

  9. Practice education learning environments: the mismatch between perceived and preferred expectations of undergraduate health science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; McKenna, Lisa; Palermo, Claire; McCall, Louise; Roller, Louis; Hewitt, Lesley; Molloy, Liz; Baird, Marilyn; Aldabah, Ligal

    2011-11-01

    Practical hands-on learning opportunities are viewed as a vital component of the education of health science students, but there is a critical shortage of fieldwork placement experiences. It is therefore important that these clinical learning environments are well suited to students' perceptions and expectations. To investigate how undergraduate students enrolled in health-related education programs view their clinical learning environments and specifically to compare students' perception of their 'actual' clinical learning environment to that of their 'preferred/ideal' clinical learning environment. The Clinical Learning Environment Inventory (CLEI) was used to collect data from 548 undergraduate students (55% response rate) enrolled in all year levels of paramedics, midwifery, radiography and medical imaging, occupational therapy, pharmacy, nutrition and dietetics, physiotherapy and social work at Monash University via convenience sampling. Students were asked to rate their perception of the clinical learning environment at the completion of their placements using the CLEI. Satisfaction of the students enrolled in the health-related disciplines was closely linked with the five constructs measured by the CLEI: Personalization, Student Involvement, Task Orientation, Innovation, and Individualization. Significant differences were found between the student's perception of their 'actual' clinical learning environment and their 'ideal' clinical learning environment. The study highlights the importance of a supportive clinical learning environment that places emphasis on effective two-way communication. A thorough understanding of students' perceptions of their clinical learning environments is essential. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Personalization of XML Content Browsing Based on User Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encelle, Benoit; Baptiste-Jessel, Nadine; Sedes, Florence

    2009-01-01

    Personalization of user interfaces for browsing content is a key concept to ensure content accessibility. In this direction, we introduce concepts that result in the generation of personalized multimodal user interfaces for browsing XML content. User requirements concerning the browsing of a specific content type can be specified by means of…

  11. Young Drivers Perceptual Learning Styles Preferences and Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Čičević

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Young drivers are over-represented in crash and fatality statistics. One way of dealing with this problem is to achieve primary prevention through driver education and training. Factors of traffic accidents related to gender, age, driving experience, and self-assessments of safety and their relationship to perceptual learning styles (LS preferences have been analyzed in this study. The results show that auditory is the most prominent LS. Drivers in general, as well as drivers without traffic accidents favour visual and tactile LS. Both inexperienced and highly experienced drivers show relatively high preference of kinaesthetic style. Yet, taking into account driving experience we could see that the role of kinaesthetic LS is reduced, since individual LS has become more important. Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that a multivariate and multistage approach to driver education, taking into account differences in LS preferences, would be highly beneficial for traffic safety.

  12. Factors Influencing Pop Music Preferences of Young Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, J. David; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examined and compared self-reported reasons for pop music preferences of 397 students in grades five, seven, nine, eleven, and college. Results revealed that characteristics such as melody, mood, rhythm, and lyrics were the most important reasons for selection. Differences in response by age and background characteristics were noted. (Author/SJL)

  13. Reality-Based Genre Preferences Do Not Direct Personal Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konijn, Elly A.; Hoorn, Johan F.

    2004-01-01

    Although it seems plausible that people who prefer a particular genre would appreciate characters from that category more than those from other genres, this appears not to be the case. We devised a parsimonious reality-based genre taxonomy that differentiates nonfiction, realism, fantasy, and humor. In Study 1, evidence from film viewers' genre…

  14. A Personalized Recommendation-Based Mobile Learning Approach to Improving the Reading Performance of EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Kun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chang, Chih-Kai

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a personalized recommendation-based mobile language learning approach is proposed. A mobile learning system has been developed based on the approach by providing a reading material recommendation mechanism for guiding EFL (English as Foreign Language) students to read articles that match their preferences and knowledge levels, and a…

  15. Through the Student's Eyes: A Perspective on Personalized Learning and Practice Guide for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Sam

    2013-01-01

    The standard definition of "personalized learning" stresses instruction that is varied in pace, method, objectives, and content for each student and tailored to the student's interests and preferences. Technology is seen as a means to efficiently manage this level of differentiation, access a cornucopia of learning opportunities and…

  16. People learn other people's preferences through inverse decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jern, Alan; Lucas, Christopher G; Kemp, Charles

    2017-11-01

    People are capable of learning other people's preferences by observing the choices they make. We propose that this learning relies on inverse decision-making-inverting a decision-making model to infer the preferences that led to an observed choice. In Experiment 1, participants observed 47 choices made by others and ranked them by how strongly each choice suggested that the decision maker had a preference for a specific item. An inverse decision-making model generated predictions that were in accordance with participants' inferences. Experiment 2 replicated and extended a previous study by Newtson (1974) in which participants observed pairs of choices and made judgments about which choice provided stronger evidence for a preference. Inverse decision-making again predicted the results, including a result that previous accounts could not explain. Experiment 3 used the same method as Experiment 2 and found that participants did not expect decision makers to be perfect utility-maximizers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The do re mi's of everyday life: the structure and personality correlates of music preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentfrow, Peter J; Gosling, Samuel D

    2003-06-01

    The present research examined individual differences in music preferences. A series of 6 studies investigated lay beliefs about music, the structure underlying music preferences, and the links between music preferences and personality. The data indicated that people consider music an important aspect of their lives and listening to music an activity they engaged in frequently. Using multiple samples, methods, and geographic regions, analyses of the music preferences of over 3,500 individuals converged to reveal 4 music-preference dimensions: Reflective and Complex, Intense and Rebellious, Upbeat and Conventional, and Energetic and Rhythmic. Preferences for these music dimensions were related to a wide array of personality dimensions (e.g., Openness), self-views (e.g., political orientation), and cognitive abilities (e.g., verbal IQ).

  18. An Exploratory Study of the Language-learning Style Preferences of Iranian EFL High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Afsaneh Effatdokht Ramezani; Meysam Dehgahi; Hanie Hashemi

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the learning style preferences of 40 Iranian students at Marefat Iranian high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 20 are females and 20 are males. To this end, this study used structured interview to elicit in-depth information from the students. The results of the study showed that learning style preferences of Iranian students were different according to their gender. Female students preferred auditory learning as their major learning style, while male students preferred ki...

  19. Bayes-Optimal Entropy Pursuit for Active Choice-Based Preference Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Pallone, Stephen N.; Frazier, Peter I.; Henderson, Shane G.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the problem of learning a single user's preferences in an active learning setting, sequentially and adaptively querying the user over a finite time horizon. Learning is conducted via choice-based queries, where the user selects her preferred option among a small subset of offered alternatives. These queries have been shown to be a robust and efficient way to learn an individual's preferences. We take a parametric approach and model the user's preferences through a linear classifier...

  20. Correlation of preferences for social comparison goals and certain personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Samoylenko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigation of differences in preference of certain goals of social comparison in individuals with opposite personality traits evaluated with the Big Five test are presented.

  1. An Exploratory Study of the Language-learning Style Preferences of Iranian EFL High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Effatdokht Ramezani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the learning style preferences of 40 Iranian students at Marefat Iranian high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 20 are females and 20 are males. To this end, this study used structured interview to elicit in-depth information from the students. The results of the study showed that learning style preferences of Iranian students were different according to their gender. Female students preferred auditory learning as their major learning style, while male students preferred kinesthetic more. Moreover, the findings revealed that Kinesthetic learning was the least preferred learning style of the most female students, whereas the least preferred learning style of male students was tactile learning.  Keywords:  Learning Style Preferences, High School Students, Gender, EFL

  2. Is basic personality related to violent and non-violent video game play and preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chory, Rebecca M; Goodboy, Alan K

    2011-04-01

    Based on the uses and gratifications perspective, personality was expected to relate to violent video game play frequency and game preferences. Participants completed measures of personality and frequency of violent video game play, and identified their most frequently played video games. Results indicate that individuals higher in openness but lower in agreeableness played violent video games more frequently. In addition, more open and extroverted but less agreeable and neurotic individuals generally preferred to play video games that are more violent. Results suggest personality may be more predictive of violent video game use than traditional media use, though the predictive personality dimensions may be consistent across media types.

  3. Learning User Preferences in Ubiquitous Systems: A User Study and a Reinforcement Learning Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidenberg , Sofia; Reignier , Patrick; Mandran , Nadine

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Our study concerns a virtual assistant, proposing services to the user based on its current perceived activity and situation (ambient intelligence). Instead of asking the user to define his preferences, we acquire them automatically using a reinforcement learning approach. Experiments showed that our system succeeded the learning of user preferences. In order to validate the relevance and usability of such a system, we have first conducted a user study. 26 non-expert s...

  4. THE IMPACT OF BRAND PERSONALITY ON BRAND PREFERENCE AND LOYALTY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bamini KPD.Balakrishnan; Samuel Lee; Azlinda Shazneem Md.Shuaib; Najihah Hanisah Marmaya

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the roles of the perception of brand personality in consumers’ brand preference and loyalty. This research conducts a survey of 300 adults in Malaysia with regard to brand personality, brand preference and loyalty in investigating two foreign brand coffee outlets, Starbucks and Coffee Bean. A questionnaire was used to gather data from respondents in various cities in Malaysia using purposive and convenience sampling methods. Statistical tests including factor analysis,...

  5. Individual differences in bitter taste preferences are associated with antisocial personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagioglou, Christina; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how bitter taste preferences might be associated with antisocial personality traits. Two US American community samples (total N = 953; mean age = 35.65 years; 48% females) self-reported their taste preferences using two complementary preference measures and answered a number of personality questionnaires assessing Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism, everyday sadism, trait aggression, and the Big Five factors of personality. The results of both studies confirmed the hypothesis that bitter taste preferences are positively associated with malevolent personality traits, with the most robust relation to everyday sadism and psychopathy. Regression analyses confirmed that this association holds when controlling for sweet, sour, and salty taste preferences and that bitter taste preferences are the overall strongest predictor compared to the other taste preferences. The data thereby provide novel insights into the relationship between personality and the ubiquitous behaviors of eating and drinking by consistently demonstrating a robust relation between increased enjoyment of bitter foods and heightened sadistic proclivities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Does Gender Influence Learning Style Preferences of First-Year Medical Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jill A.; Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2007-01-01

    Students have specific learning style preferences, and these preferences may be different between male and female students. Understanding a student's learning style preference is an important consideration when designing classroom instruction. Therefore, we administered the visual, auditory, reading/writing, kinesthetic (VARK) learning preferences…

  7. Challenges Encountered in Creating Personalised Learning Activities to Suit Students Learning Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, Eileen; Wade, Vincent; Sharp, Mary; O'Donnell, Liam

    2013-01-01

    This book chapter reviews some of the challenges encountered by educators in creating personalised e-learning activities to suit students learning preferences. Technology-enhanced learning (TEL) alternatively known as e-learning has not yet reached its full potential in higher education. There are still many potential uses as yet undiscovered and other discovered uses which are not yet realisable by many educators. TEL is still predominantly used for e-dissemination and e-administration. This...

  8. The Personality Trait of Intolerance to Uncertainty Affects Behavior in a Novel Computer-Based Conditioned Place Preference Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milen Radell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has found that personality factors that confer vulnerability to addiction can also affect learning and economic decision making. One personality trait which has been implicated in vulnerability to addiction is intolerance to uncertainty (IU, i.e. a preference for familiar over unknown (possible better options. In animals, the motivation to obtain drugs is often assessed through conditioned place preference (CPP, which compares preference for contexts where drug reward was previously received. It is an open question whether participants with high IU also show heightened preference for previously-rewarded contexts. To address this question, we developed a novel computer-based CPP task for humans in which participants guide an avatar through a paradigm in which one room contains frequent reward and one contains less frequent reward. Following exposure to both contexts, subjects are assessed for preference to enter the previously-rich and previously-poor room. Individuals with low IU showed little bias to enter the previously-rich room first, and instead entered both rooms at about the same rate. By contrast, those with high IU showed a strong bias to enter the previously-rich room first. This suggests an increased tendency to chase reward in the intolerant group, consistent with previously observed behavior in opioid-addicted individuals. Thus, high IU may represent a pre-existing cognitive bias that provides a mechanism to promote decision-making processes that increase vulnerability to addiction.

  9. Personal Competencies/Personalized Learning: Reflection on Instruction. A Peer-to-Peer Learning and Observation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman, Janet; Redding, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This publication and its companion, "Personal Competencies/Personalized Learning: Lesson Plan Reflection Guide," were created in response to a request for further development of the practical application of personalized learning concepts by teachers. Personalized learning varies the time, place, and pace of learning for each student, and…

  10. Musical Preferences Predict Personality: Evidence From Active Listening and Facebook Likes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Gideon; Minxha, Juri; Greenberg, David M; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Rentfrow, Jason

    2018-03-01

    Research over the past decade has shown that various personality traits are communicated through musical preferences. One limitation of that research is external validity, as most studies have assessed individual differences in musical preferences using self-reports of music-genre preferences. Are personality traits communicated through behavioral manifestations of musical preferences? We addressed this question in two large-scale online studies with demographically diverse populations. Study 1 ( N = 22,252) shows that reactions to unfamiliar musical excerpts predicted individual differences in personality-most notably, openness and extraversion-above and beyond demographic characteristics. Moreover, these personality traits were differentially associated with particular music-preference dimensions. The results from Study 2 ( N = 21,929) replicated and extended these findings by showing that an active measure of naturally occurring behavior, Facebook Likes for musical artists, also predicted individual differences in personality. In general, our findings establish the robustness and external validity of the links between musical preferences and personality.

  11. Individual Syllabus for Personalized Learner-Centric E-Courses in E-Learning and M-Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Nasser ElSayed

    2014-01-01

    Most of e-learning and m-learning systems are course-centric. These systems provided services that concentrated on course material and pedagogical. They did not take into account varieties of student levels, skills, interests or preferences. This paper provides a design of an approach for personalized and self-adapted agent-based learning systems for enhancing e-learning and mobile learning (m-learning) services to be learner-centric. It presents a modeling of goals of different learners of a...

  12. Invited Reaction: Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Learning Orientation, and Supportive Learning Environment on Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseh, Maria; Manikoth, Nisha N.

    2011-01-01

    As the authors of the preceding article (Choi and Jacobs, 2011) have noted, the workplace learning literature shows evidence of the complementary and integrated nature of formal and informal learning in the development of employee competencies. The importance of supportive learning environments in the workplace and of employees' personal learning…

  13. Animal Personality and Mate Preference in American Mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl

    are unsustainable. Often, prescribed pairs of animals appear to be incompatible and reproductively unsuccessful. This is also a problem in solitary carnivore species, many of which are threatened with extinction. A suggested solution to this problem is to investigate, which male cues and signals the females use...... or cues: olfactory (urine and faeces), size, and behaviour. The latter may represent aspects of animal personality. The background for this is explained in the introduction (Chapter I). In Chapter II, a published article, I present a novel study on aspects of animal personality in the American mink...... aspects of shyness exist in the farmed American mink. These findings highlight the importance of carefully considering the context as well as the limitations of using the shyness-boldness continuum for describing animal personality traits. Chapter III, a manuscript, adds to the knowledge of animal...

  14. PERSONALIZATION SISTEM E-LEARNING BERBASIS ONTOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ashari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Personalization of Ontology Based E-learning System. Today, a form of technology known as Web 2.0 thatthoroughly supports web-to-web interactions is present. Interactions, such as information sharing in the forms ofdocument sharing (slideshare, picture sharing (flickr, video sharing (youtube, Wikis, and online networking (weblogand web-forum are principally accomodating community empowerment services. These factors cause the appearanceof social interaction through Internet as well as learning interaction and anywhere-anytime training which is recentlycalled e-Learning. Basically, e-Learning needs a self-employed learning method and learning habits that emphasize onthe learner as the most important role. However, e-learning system which is expected to boost the intensity of selfemployedlearning is uncapable to represent the importance. This is proven with the current e-Learning system inIndonesia that only accomodates the delivery of learning materials identical to all active learners, ignores the cognitiveaspects and does not offer any approach or experience of interactive self-learning and disregards the aspect of users’ability to adapt. The proposed e-learning system which is Web 2.0-based utilizes ontology as the representation ofmeaning of knowledge formed by the learner.

  15. Predicting personal preferences in subjective video quality assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of predicting the visual quality of a specific test sample (e.g. a video clip) experienced by a specific user, based on the ratings by other users for the same sample and the same user for other samples. A simple linear model and algorithm is presented, where...... the characteristics of each test sample are represented by a set of parameters, and the individual preferences are represented by weights for the parameters. According to the validation experiment performed on public visual quality databases annotated with raw individual scores, the proposed model can predict...

  16. Advancing Affect Modeling via Preference Learning and Unsupervised Feature Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, Héctor Pérez

    strategies (error functions and training algorithms) for artificial neural networks are examined across synthetic and psycho-physiological datasets, and compared against support vector machines and Cohen’s method. Results reveal the best training strategies for neural networks and suggest their superiority...... difficulties, ordinal reports such as rankings and ratings can yield more reliable affect annotations than alternative tools. This thesis explores preference learning methods to automatically learn computational models from ordinal annotations of affect. In particular, an extensive collection of training...... over the other examined methods. The second challenge addressed in this thesis refers to the extraction of relevant information from physiological modalities. Deep learning is proposed as an automatic approach to extract input features for models of affect from physiological signals. Experiments...

  17. Big two personality and big three mate preferences: similarity attracts, but country-level mate preferences crucially matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Jochen E; Leary, Mark R; Neberich, Wiebke

    2012-12-01

    People differ regarding their "Big Three" mate preferences of attractiveness, status, and interpersonal warmth. We explain these differences by linking them to the "Big Two" personality dimensions of agency/competence and communion/warmth. The similarity-attracts hypothesis predicts that people high in agency prefer attractiveness and status in mates, whereas those high in communion prefer warmth. However, these effects may be moderated by agentics' tendency to contrast from ambient culture, and communals' tendency to assimilate to ambient culture. Attending to such agentic-cultural-contrast and communal-cultural-assimilation crucially qualifies the similarity-attracts hypothesis. Data from 187,957 online-daters across 11 countries supported this model for each of the Big Three. For example, agentics-more so than communals-preferred attractiveness, but this similarity-attracts effect virtually vanished in attractiveness-valuing countries. This research may reconcile inconsistencies in the literature while utilizing nonhypothetical and consequential mate preference reports that, for the first time, were directly linked to mate choice.

  18. Product personality and its influence on consumer preference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, P.; Schoormans, J.P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Beyond their functional utility products have a symbolic meaning. Parts of this symbolic meaning are accounted for by concepts like brand personality and product-user image, which describe the symbolic meaning associated with the brand or product class. However, the physical product also

  19. Smart Educational Process Based on Personal Learning Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Gavriushenko, Mariia; Lindberg, Renny S. N.; Khriyenko, Oleksiy

    2017-01-01

    Personalized learning is increasingly gaining popularity, especially with the development of information technology and modern educational resources for learning. Each person is individual and has different knowledge background, different kind of memory, different learning speed. Teacher can adapt learning course, learning instructions or learning material according to the majority of learners in class, but that means that learning process is not adapted to the personality of each...

  20. Preference for and learning of amino acids in larval Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Kudow

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Relative to other nutrients, less is known about how animals sense amino acids and how behaviour is organized accordingly. This is a significant gap in our knowledge because amino acids are required for protein synthesis − and hence for life as we know it. Choosing Drosophila larvae as a case study, we provide the first systematic analysis of both the preference behaviour for, and the learning of, all 20 canonical amino acids in Drosophila. We report that preference for individual amino acids differs according to the kind of amino acid, both in first-instar and in third-instar larvae. Our data suggest that this preference profile changes across larval instars, and that starvation during the third instar also alters this profile. Only aspartic acid turns out to be robustly attractive across all our experiments. The essentiality of amino acids does not appear to be a determinant of preference. Interestingly, although amino acids thus differ in their innate attractiveness, we find that all amino acids are equally rewarding. Similar discrepancies between innate attractiveness and reinforcing effect have previously been reported for other tastants, including sugars, bitter substances and salt. The present analyses will facilitate the ongoing search for the receptors, sensory neurons, and internal, homeostatic amino acid sensors in Drosophila.

  1. A Personal Journey Into Home Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen RAJA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this narrative the author, Colleen Raja, shares her personal experience and reflections on the decision she made to homeschool. Through reflection and story she shares her own struggles and triumphs in learning about herself, her surroundings and the true desires and needs of her children. She also addresses and debunks some of the typical stereotypes and objections to home learning. In the end she sees that what had taken her several years to discover about and desire from the lifestyle of home learning took her children mere moments to embrace.

  2. Segmenting consumers according to experiential preferences based on personality type vs. personality traits – a latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jeanne

    Differences in consumers’ preferences for experiences have been suggested to be based on personality among other things. Personality in consumer research has primarily been operationalized as personality traits using the Five Factor theory. An old, re-emerged discussion in psychology is pointing...... at personality type rather than single personality traits to better understand behavior. Personality type represents “typical configurations of the dispositional attributes that define individuals” (Donnellan and Robins, 2010: 1). Type accounts for the necessity of understanding not only a person’s defining...... trait but also how this interacts with other traits providing a person centered rather than an attribute centered understanding. This allows for a classification of people rather than a classification of attributes of people. In the context of segmentation the objective is classifying people rather than...

  3. Ocena preferowanych predyspozycji trenera personalnego = Rating preferred predisposition personal trainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Stefaniak

    2016-09-01

    Abstract                 Services provided by personal trainers in Poland are becoming more popular. The legal situation of this professional group in Poland is unregulated, which creates many doubts about the competence and suitability personal trainer.                 The essence of the work presented in the study is to determine the changes in terms of perception of competence coach, taking place in recent years. The research was conducted in 2009 and repeated in 2015 in fitness clubs coming in Lower Silesia.                 The study involved 240 respondents, including 72 women and 168 men.                 Research results indicate that over the years, the number of people regularly using the services of a coach nearly doubled. The significant number of people for whom the profession of coaching combined with better and better assessment of the social and his authority continues to grow. 67.5% of respondents think that the coach should be well built and have mixed personality traits.

  4. Learning Style Preferences of Gifted, Average- Ability, and Special Needs Students: A Multivariate Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyryt, Michael C.; Sandals, Lauran H.; Begoray, John

    1998-01-01

    Compared learning-style preferences of intellectually gifted, average-ability, and special-needs students on the Learning Style Inventory. Also examined the general differences among ability level and gender. Analyses indicated that gifted students preferred learning alone, being self-motivated, and using tactile learning approaches, and that…

  5. From whom do older persons prefer support? The case of rural Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittirong, Jongjit; Prasartkul, Pramote; Rindfuss, Ronald R

    2014-12-01

    This study explores rural elderly preferences for support across a multi-dimensional measure of elderly care needs. Applying a framework developed in the U.S. to Thailand for the first time, five diverse types of support are considered: meal preparation, personal care, transportation, financial support, and emotional support. The emphasis is on preferences for care and not actual care received. The data are from focus group discussions conducted in seven villages in Nang Rong district, northeastern Thailand. Thailand and the study site represent the social and economic conditions faced by many rapidly industrializing places-where there has been a dramatic demographic transition (lowered fertility and substantial out-migration), growing numbers of older persons remaining in rural settings, and limited publically-financed elderly care or market-based elder care available for purchase. For this study, in each village, male and female older persons aged 60 and over participated in the focus group discussions. As part of the discussion, focus group participants were asked to rank their first four preferences by type of support. Male and female older persons' preferences were slightly different for genderized tasks. In addition, social closeness and geographical proximity mattered. Traditional matrilocal residence patterns contributed to the perceptions of the older persons. Neighbors were preferred when kin were not available. Preferences inform strategic choices by older persons given the context of available resources. Understanding preferences and strategic choices among the older persons can help policy makers tailor programs more effectively and efficiently, without jeopardizing elderly well-being. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Personal Learning Environment – a Conceptual Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Mühlburger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of digital technologies as well as the World Wide Web on education rises dramatically. In former years Learning Management Systems (LMS were introduced on educational institutes to address the needs both their institutions and their lecturers. Nowadays a shift from an institution-centered approach to a learner-centered one becomes necessary to allow individuality through the learning process and to think about learning strategies in general. In this paper a first approach of a Personal Learning Environment (PLE is described. The technological concept is pointed out as well as a study about the graphical user-interface done at Graz University of Technology (TU Graz. It can be concluded that PLEs are the next generation environments, which help to improve the learning and teaching behavior

  7. [Influence of gender in vocational preferences and personality traits in Medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monleón-Moscardó, P J; Rojo-Moreno, J; Monleón-Moscardó, A; García-Merita, M L; Alonso-Fonfría, A; Valdemoro-García, C

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we try to analyze he possible relationships between gender of the Medical students, their personality and their vocational preferences. A total of 1,482 2nd year medical students from the Valencia University were analyzed. They answered and anonymous survey on their sociodemographic characteristics and their vocational interests. We determined their personality profile with the 16 PF of Cattell. The data obtained were analyzed with the logistic regression techniques. Most of the population analyzed were female (62.7%) with a medium age of 20 years. The Pediatric and Gynecology-Obstetrics specialities were preferred mostly by female students and Orthopedic surgery by male students. The female students had a specific personality traits, they were more (A+), (G+), Boldness (H+), (n+) and (Q3+). While the male students were more (I+), (L+), (M+), Q2(+). Gender has a significant influence on the medical student both in their vocational preferences as well as their personality profile.

  8. Sexual Preferences and Partnerships of Transgender Persons Mid- or Post-Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, Lydia A; Salgado, Christopher J; Sputova, Klara; Estes, Christopher M; Medina, Carlos A

    2018-01-01

    The process of gender transition has varying effects on various aspects of sexuality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of transitioning on transgender persons' sexual preferences and partnerships. Data were collected through an anonymous online survey. Questions focused on timing of gender transition in relation to change in sexual preference. Transgender individuals have a variety of sexual partners, predominantly cisgender, and may change sexual preference when they transition. Transitioning can be associated with having no primary sexual partner, despite past sexual partnerships. Length of time between identifying as transgender and starting the transition might be associated with changing sexual partner preference, particularly in transgender women. The emerging trends of sexual partnerships and changing sexual preferences related to the transition in this study warrant further investigation. These data provide more understanding of the relationship between transitioning and sexual preferences and partnerships.

  9. Personalized Learning for Every Student Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Stacey; Benson, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The best hope for accelerating much needed improvement in student achievement is by using a range of pedagogical and technological innovations that deliver personalized learning to each student. The authors examine three school initiatives across the country that are using technology and new teaching methods successfully to drive student…

  10. Personality traits in learning and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B.

    Personality traits judged relevant for the context of learning and education are identified as a subset of a comprehensive set of 1203 trait descriptive adjectives, constructed by Brokken (1979). The identification procedure is described and relevant statistics are provided. Self- and peer-ratings

  11. Personality Types, Learning Styles, and Educational Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Outlines a new personality typology that provides a coherent system for construing and conducting research on learning styles. Discusses analytic, holistic, objective, and subjective styles as the affect versatility. Presents implications for educational goals, such as determining which students can benefit from stylistic versatility and which…

  12. Reflective portfolios support learning, personal growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion. Portfolios are an under-utilised assessment and self-development tool in postgraduate training. They allow students to self-assess their attainment of personal learning needs, professional growth and competency achievement and provide faculty with useful feedback on curriculum content, educational activities ...

  13. Personalized E-Learning in the Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Henze

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes our idea for realizing personalized e-Learning in the Semantic Web. We have developed a framework for designing, implementing and maintaining Personal Learning Object Readers, which enable the learners to study Learning Objects in an embedding, personalized context. We describe the architecture of our Personal Reader framework, and discuss the possible authoring processes for creating Personal Learning Object Readers.

  14. The Association between Students' Style of Learning Preferences, Social Presence, Collaborative Learning and Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Clement; Jones, Keith T.; Xu, Shawn

    2018-01-01

    Differences in styles of learning have become important considerations at all levels of education over the last several years. Examining college students' preferred style of learning is useful for course design and effective instructional methods. Using the Felder-Silverman Index of Learning Styles (ILS), we investigate how students' styles of…

  15. Personality and mate preferences: five factors in mate selection and marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwin, M D; Buss, D M; Shackelford, T K

    1997-03-01

    Although personality characteristics figure prominently in what people want in a mate, little is known about precisely which personality characteristics are most important, whether men and women differ in their personality preferences, whether individual women or men differ in what they want, and whether individuals actually get what they want. To explore these issues, two parallel studies were conducted, one using a sample of dating couples (N = 118) and one using a sample of married couples (N = 216). The five-factor model, operationalized in adjectival form, was used to assess personality characteristics via three data sources-self--report, partner report, and independent interviewer reports. Participants evaluated on a parallel 40-item instrument their preferences for the ideal personality characteristics of their mates. Results were consistent across both studies. Women expressed a greater preference than men for a wide array of socially desirable personality traits. Individuals differed in which characteristics they desired, preferring mates who were similar to themselves and actually obtaining mates who embodied what they desired. Finally, the personality characteristics of one's partner significantly predicted marital and sexual dissatisfaction, most notably when the partner was lower on Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, and Intellect-Openness than desired.

  16. Specialty choice preference of medical students according to personality traits by Five-Factor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Young; Park, So Youn

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits, using the Five-Factor Model, and characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice in Korean medical students. A questionnaire survey of Year 4 medical students (n=110) in July 2015 was administered. We evaluated the personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness by using the Korean version of Big Five Inventory. Questions about general characteristics, medical specialties most preferred as a career, motivational factors in determining specialty choice were included. Data between five personality traits and general characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice were analyzed using Student t-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variance. Of the 110 eligible medical students, 105 (95.4% response rate) completed the questionnaire. More Agreeableness students preferred clinical medicine to basic medicine (p=0.010) and more Openness students preferred medical departments to others (p=0.031). Personal interest was the significant motivational factors in more Openness students (p=0.003) and Conscientiousness students (p=0.003). Medical students with more Agreeableness were more likely to prefer clinical medicine and those with more Openness preferred medical departments. Personal interest was a significant influential factor determining specialty choice in more Openness and Conscientiousness students. These findings may be helpful to medical educators or career counselors in the specialty choice process.

  17. Specialty choice preference of medical students according to personality traits by Five-Factor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Young Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits, using the Five-Factor Model, and characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice in Korean medical students. Methods: A questionnaire survey of Year 4 medical students (n=110 in July 2015 was administered. We evaluated the personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness by using the Korean version of Big Five Inventory. Questions about general characteristics, medical specialties most preferred as a career, motivational factors in determining specialty choice were included. Data between five personality traits and general characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice were analyzed using Student t-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variance. Results: Of the 110 eligible medical students, 105 (95.4% response rate completed the questionnaire. More Agreeableness students preferred clinical medicine to basic medicine (p=0.010 and more Openness students preferred medical departments to others (p=0.031. Personal interest was the significant motivational factors in more Openness students (p=0.003 and Conscientiousness students (p=0.003. Conclusion: Medical students with more Agreeableness were more likely to prefer clinical medicine and those with more Openness preferred medical departments. Personal interest was a significant influential factor determining specialty choice in more Openness and Conscientiousness students. These findings may be helpful to medical educators or career counselors in the specialty choice process.

  18. A study on online learner profile for supporting personalized learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital learning as a popular learning approach has received increasing attention in modern education. The learner profile in online learning plays a critical role in supporting personalized learning. This article uses an information flow-based approach to build the learner profile for supporting personalized learning. The learner profile includes the individual profile to capture the personal features and the community profile to capture the social features in online learning environment.

  19. The Future of Personalized Learning for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Personalized learning models can give each student differentiated learning experiences based on their needs, interests, and strengths, including students with disabilities. Personalized learning can pinpoint specific gaps in student learning, identify where a student is on his or her learning pathway, and provide the appropriate interventions to…

  20. Personal Learning Environments: A Solution for Self-Directed Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I discuss "personal learning environments" and their diverse benefits, uses, and implications for life-long learning. Personal Learning Environments (PLEs) are Web 2.0 and social media technologies that enable individual learners the ability to manage their own learning. Self-directed learning is explored as a foundation…

  1. Learning Style Preferences of Asian American (Chinese, Filipino, Korean, and Vietnamese) Students in Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Clara C.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates for perceptual learning style preferences (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, and tactile) and preferences for group and individual leaning of Chinese, Filipino, Korean, and Vietnamese secondary education students. Comparison analysis reveals diverse learning style preferences between Anglo and Asian American students and also between…

  2. Preference to use aggregators rather than individual deal sites: Impact of Big Five Inventory personality traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Pavlicek, Antonin

    2017-01-01

    Deal sites are widely used for some time and there is a growing body of knowledge on them. There exists literature on infomediaries. But there is a gap when it comes to infomediaties focused on deal sites, i.e. aggregators of deal site offers. The research focused on impact of Big Five Inventory...... personality traits on whether respondents prefer visiting individual deal sites, or aggregators, or they do not have any preference and visit both. Gender was used as a control variable. With regards, to the results, conscientiousness agreeableness, and openness to experi-ence influence the preference. Higher...... the values of all three variables, more likely it is that a person prefers aggregators....

  3. Social learning as a way to overcome choice-induced preferences? Insights from humans and rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISABETTA eMONFARDINI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Much theoretical attention is currently devoted to social learning. Yet, empirical studies formally comparing its effectiveness relative to individual learning are rare. Here, we focus on free choice, which is at the heart of individual reward-based learning, but absent in social learning. Choosing among two equally valued options is known to create a preference for the selected option in both humans and monkeys. We thus surmised that social learning should be more helpful when choice-induced preferences retard individual learning than when they optimize it. To test this prediction, the same task requiring to find which among two items concealed a reward was applied to rhesus macaques and humans. The initial trial was individual or social, rewarded or unrewarded. Learning was assessed on the second trial. Choice-induced preference strongly affected individual learning. Monkeys and humans performed much more poorly after an initial negative choice than after an initial positive choice. Comparison with social learning verified our prediction. For negative outcome, social learning surpassed or at least equaled individual learning in all subjects. For positive outcome, the predicted superiority of individual learning did occur in a majority of subjects (5/6 monkeys and 6/12 humans. A minority kept learning better socially though, perhaps due to a more dominant/aggressive attitude toward peers. Poor learning from errors due to over-valuation of personal choices is among the decision-making biases shared by humans and animals. The present study suggests that choice-immune social learning may help curbing this potentially harmful tendency. Learning from successes is an easier path. The present data suggest that whether one tends to walk it alone or with a peer's help might depend on the social dynamics within the actor/observer dyad.

  4. Personalized learning Ecologies in Problem and Project Based Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rongbutsri, Nikorn; Ryberg, Thomas; Zander, Pär-Ola

    2012-01-01

    is in contrast to an artificial learning setting often found in traditional education. As many other higher education institutions, Aalborg University aims at providing learning environments that support the underlying pedagogical approach employed, and which can lead to different online and offline learning.......g. coordination, communication, negotiation, document sharing, calendars, meetings and version control. Furthermore, the pedagogical fabric of LMSs/VLEs have recently been called into question and critiqued by proponents of Personal Learning Environments (PLEs)(Ryberg, Buus, & Georgsen, 2011) . In sum....... making it important to understand and conceptualise students’ use of technology. Ecology is the study of relationship between organisms in an environment which is the set of circumstances surrounding that organism. Learning ecologies are the study of the relationship of a learner or a group of learners...

  5. A prospective cohort study examining the preferred learning styles of acute care registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrow, Judy; Yevchak, Andrea; Lewis, Peter

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on the preferred learning styles of Registered Nurses practicing in acute care environments and relationships between gender, age, post-graduate experience and the identified preferred learning styles. A prospective cohort study design was used. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and the Felder-Silverman Index of Learning Styles (ILS) questionnaire to determine preferred learning styles. Most of the Registered Nurse participants were balanced across the Active-Reflective (n = 77, 54%), and Sequential-Global (n = 96, 68%) scales. Across the other scales, sensing (n = 97, 68%) and visual (n = 76, 53%) were the most common preferred learning style. There were only a small proportion who had a preferred learning style of reflective (n = 21, 15%), intuitive (n = 5, 4%), verbal (n = 11, 8%) or global learning (n = 15, 11%). Results indicated that gender, age and years since undergraduate education were not related to the identified preferred learning styles. The identification of Registered Nurses' learning style provides information that nurse educators and others can use to make informed choices about modification, development and strengthening of professional hospital-based educational programs. The use of the Index of Learning Styles questionnaire and its ability to identify 'balanced' learning style preferences may potentially yield additional preferred learning style information for other health-related disciplines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Police personality : and the relationship between personality and preferences for conflict resolution tactics

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsen, Solveig

    2006-01-01

    Do police officers possess certain personality characteristics that make them unique compared to the non-police population? This question has been the subject of an extensive line of research. Several researchers have found evidence of a so-called police personality, while other researchers have failed to detect personality differences between the police and the public. Also, some researchers have found that officers differ from each other in terms of job performance, and that personality dif...

  7. Advance statements for borderline personality disorder: a qualitative study of future crisis treatment preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borschmann, Rohan; Trevillion, Kylee; Henderson, R Claire; Rose, Diana; Szmukler, George; Moran, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about the crisis treatment preferences of people with borderline personality disorder. Clinicians may also question service users' ability to make considered decisions about their treatment when in crisis. Therefore, this qualitative study aimed to investigate crisis treatment preferences of a sample of community-dwelling adults with borderline personality disorder. Participants were 41 adults with borderline personality disorder who had created joint crisis plans during a randomized controlled trial. Data from all 41 joint crisis plans were analyzed iteratively via a thematic analysis framework. Participants gave clear statements in their crisis plans relating to the desire to recover from the crisis and to improve their social functioning. Key themes included the desire to be treated with dignity and respect and to receive emotional and practical support from clinicians. Many participants spoke of the importance of connecting with others during periods of crisis, but several reported a clear desire to be left alone during a future crisis. Other themes concerned preferences for specific treatment refusals during crises, including particular types of psychotropic medication and involuntary treatment. The variation of participants' preferences underscores the importance of developing individually tailored crisis plans for people with borderline personality disorder. The need to be treated with dignity and respect and to be given autonomy in decision making--also identified in global surveys of people with severe mental illness--is important to people with borderline personality disorder. Key messages for clinicians, service users, and policy makers, in addition to staff training issues, are discussed.

  8. Gender and preferences for personal contact: key variables in the Internet Banking use by elderly people.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón Jerónimo, Mª Ángeles; Peral Peral, Begoña; Villarejo Ramos, Ángel Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the services offered by the Internet Banking and the response of clients to these services constitute a powerful tool for the success in this market. In the case of elders, the population is heterogeneous and the understanding of differences in responses and behaviours is the basis for any good strategic development driven to the personalization of the service. The present study aims to analyse the gender gap in the use of Internet Baking and preferences for personal contact i...

  9. The effect of personality traits on consumers' preferences for extra virgin olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Yangui, Ahmed; Costa Font, Montserrat; Gil Roig, José María

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of psychological factors on building the consumer's behavioral decision process towards extra virgin olive oil, with special attention paid to the organic attribute. The paper hypothesises that differences in consumers' personality traits, such as food-related personality traits, purchasing habits and lifestyles, affect consumers' preferences for extra virgin olive oil. The methodological framework is based on the specification of an extended h...

  10. The Development of Personality and Lifelong Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Lesar

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the introduction of improved educational strategies, the concept of life-long learning remains unfulfilled in a number of areas. Experts believe that even the best designed programs do not achieve their goals. What is the problem? It seems that a great deal depends on each individual student who must be not only capable of learning but also willing to approach learning in a permanent fashion . The author believes that to achieve the goal of life-long learning an enormous amount of energy must be devoted to the institutionalised forms of regular education to which each individual is exposed over the course of many years. Right at the beginning, teachers as educators must recognize the child as a »person in formation « and create a kind of » ped agogical eros« which facilitates not only mental development but also the development of personality (emotional, motivational etc.. The teacher's concept of teaching and learning is therefore of the utmost importance because it influences the pupil's attitude toward education. The style of teaching and the teacher's role in the educational process is extremely significant. Within standard educational formats, these various influences should be addressed and improved. The method of every teacher gradually evolves. Instead of the »substitutive method of teaching« - which is popular in Slovenia- teachers could progressively embrace a more »process-oriented way of teaching« which enables teacher and pupil to share responsibility for preparing class work, implementing and balancing learning, evaluating achievements and maintaining motivation and concentration.

  11. The Study on the Preferences of Customer Personal Values with Chinese Culture Background in Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhao, Hong; Yang, Yue

    Customer personal values are the important factors which affect customer behaviors, and they guide and decide the customer's attitudes and behaviors on the products or the services. The paper thinks there are only several important customer personal values to guide customer's decisions, and these values will have -strong cultural differences. This study focuses on discussing the preferences of customer personal values with Chinese culture background when customers consume service and analyzes on the customer preferences of customer personal values with the deep interview method. After interviewing 16 responders with the semi-structured questionnaires, the study finds out some interesting results: (1) Some customers have recognized the existent of customer personal values, even though customer perceived values still have the strong influences on customer behaviors. (2) As they pursue to high quality lives, customers enjoy the lives in easy and pleasure way and care about the safe of the family. Quick response, simple and professional services contribute to enhance the experiences of easy and pleasure lives. (3) Non-rational consumers need the respect from the staff and the companies seriously. In comparison, the rational customers care less about the respect. (4) The sociable requirements have become a common consuming psychology of the customers. More and more customers try to gain the friends by consuming some services. (5) The preferences of customer personal values have a close relationship with the Chinese culture, such as collective values, family conception and "face" culture. The results benefit for service companies improving service brands and service quality.

  12. Personalized Recommendation of Learning Material Using Sequential Pattern Mining and Attribute Based Collaborative Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mojtaba; Nakhai Kamalabadi, Isa; Ghaznavi Ghoushchi, Mohammad Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Material recommender system is a significant part of e-learning systems for personalization and recommendation of appropriate materials to learners. However, in the existing recommendation algorithms, dynamic interests and multi-preference of learners and multidimensional-attribute of materials are not fully considered simultaneously. Moreover,…

  13. Relationship between meanings, emotions, product preferences and personal values. Application to ceramic tile floorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agost, María-Jesús; Vergara, Margarita

    2014-07-01

    This work aims to validate a conceptual framework which establishes the main relationships between subjective elements in human-product interaction, such as meanings, emotions, product preferences, and personal values. The study analyzes the relationships between meanings and emotions, and between these and preferences, as well as the influence of personal values on such relationships. The study was applied to ceramic tile floorings. A questionnaire with images of a neutral room with different ceramic tile floorings was designed and distributed via the web. Results from the study suggest that both meanings and emotions must be taken into account in the generation of product preferences. The meanings given to the product can cause the generation of emotions, and both types of subjective impressions give rise to product preferences. Personal reference values influence these relationships between subjective impressions and product preferences. As a consequence, not only target customers' demographic data but specifically their values and criteria must be taken into account from the beginning of the development process. The specific results of this paper can be used directly by ceramic tile designers, who can better adjust product design (and the subjective impressions elicited) to the target market. Consequently, the chance of product success is reinforced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Geocoding location expressions in Twitter messages: A preference learning method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resolving location expressions in text to the correct physical location, also known as geocoding or grounding, is complicated by the fact that so many places around the world share the same name. Correct resolution is made even more difficult when there is little context to determine which place is intended, as in a 140-character Twitter message, or when location cues from different sources conflict, as may be the case among different metadata fields of a Twitter message. We used supervised machine learning to weigh the different fields of the Twitter message and the features of a world gazetteer to create a model that will prefer the correct gazetteer candidate to resolve the extracted expression. We evaluated our model using the F1 measure and compared it to similar algorithms. Our method achieved results higher than state-of-the-art competitors.

  15. Assessing learning preferences of dental students using visual, auditory, reading-writing, and kinesthetic questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana Bennadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Educators of the health care profession (teachers are committed in preparing future health care providers, but are facing many challenges in transmitting their ever expanding knowledge to the students. This study was done to focus on different learning styles among dental students. Aim: To assess different learning preferences among dental students. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire study using visual, auditory, reading-writing, and kinesthetic questionnaire among dental students. Results: Majority 75.8% of the students preferred multimodal learning style. Multimodal learning was common among clinical students. No statistical significant difference of learning styles in relation to gender (P > 0.05. Conclusion: In the present study, majority of students preferred multimodal learning preference. Knowledge about the learning style preference of different profession can help to enhance the teaching method for the students.

  16. Smile: Student Modification in Learning Environments. Establishing Congruence between Actual and Preferred Classroom Learning Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrow, Allan; Millwater, Jan

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated whether classroom psychosocial environment, as perceived by student teachers, could be improved to their preferred level. Students completed the College and University Classroom Environment Inventory, discussed interventions, then completed it again. Significant deficiencies surfaced in the learning environment early in the…

  17. Learning environment, approaches to learning and learning preferences: medical students versus general education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Raza

    2016-05-01

    The main objective of the study was to see whether medical students use more desirable approaches to studying than general education students. Survey method was used to collect data from both the medical students and the general education students. The survey of the medical students was carried out between January and March, 2012. The survey was administered to all the medical students present in lecture halls on day of data collection, while general education students were randomly selected from four subject areas at two universities. In total, 976 medical students and 912 general students participated in the study. Of the general students, 494(54%) were boys and 418(46%)were girls with an overall mean age of 20.53±1.77 years (range: 17-27 years). The medical students' perceptions of their learning environment and their learning preferences were broadly similar to that of general education students with the exception of workload. The medical students perceived the workload to be less appropriate (Mean = 2.06±0.72) than the students in general education (Mean = 2.84±0.90). The medical students were more likely to use the deep approach to studying (Mean = 3.66±0.59) than the students in general education (Mean = 3.16±0.91). The students in general education were slightly more likely to use the organized studying (Mean = 3.44±0.90) than the medical students (Mean =3.23±0.90). Both medical students and the students in general education tended to use the surface approaches along with other approaches to studying. There was not a great difference between the medical students and the students pursuing general education with regard to perceptions of the learning environment and approaches to learning.

  18. An exploratory analysis of personality, attitudes, and study skills on the learning curve within a team-based learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Adam M; Henry, Teague; Campbell, Ashley

    2015-03-25

    To examine factors that determine the interindividual variability of learning within a team-based learning environment. Students in a pharmacokinetics course were given 4 interim, low-stakes cumulative assessments throughout the semester and a cumulative final examination. Students' Myers-Briggs personality type was assessed, as well as their study skills, motivations, and attitudes towards team-learning. A latent curve model (LCM) was applied and various covariates were assessed to improve the regression model. A quadratic LCM was applied for the first 4 assessments to predict final examination performance. None of the covariates examined significantly impacted the regression model fit except metacognitive self-regulation, which explained some of the variability in the rate of learning. There were some correlations between personality type and attitudes towards team learning, with introverts having a lower opinion of team-learning than extroverts. The LCM could readily describe the learning curve. Extroverted and introverted personality types had the same learning performance even though preference for team-learning was lower in introverts. Other personality traits, study skills, or practice did not significantly contribute to the learning variability in this course.

  19. The Geometric Relationship Between Holland's Personality Typology and the Vocational Preference Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, James A., Jr.; Doughtie, Eugene B.

    1973-01-01

    Holland's Vocational Preference Inventory was administered to 373 undergraduates. The 11 scales of the inventory were intercorrelated and factor analyzed. Six common factors were obtained. The placement of the six personality types in six-dimensional space by factor analysis corresponded closely to Holland's model. (Author)

  20. Sensation Seeking and Internet Activities, Music Preference, and Personal Relationships among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

    Individuals vary in their need for excitement, involving a personality trait known as sensation seeking (SS). Previous research has found that a preference for rock music and participation in more self-disclosing behaviors are characteristic of high sensation seekers. This study examines if college student sensation seeking relates to the…

  1. Preference for Graphic Horror Featuring Male versus Female Victimization: Personality and Past Film Viewing Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Ron; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the relationship of personality and past film viewing experiences to preferences for different degrees of graphic horror in film, and for female versus male victimization. Finds that the Machiavellian trait of deceit, past exposure to horror films, and, for male subjects only, the enjoyment of pornography were good predictors. (SR)

  2. A Mobile Application Recommendation Framework by Exploiting Personal Preference with Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konglin Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Explosive mobile applications (Apps are proliferating with the popularity of mobile devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets. These Apps are developed to satisfy different function needs of users. Majority of existing App Stores have difficulty in recommending proper Apps for users. Therefore, it is of significance to recommend mobile Apps for users according to personal preference and various constraints of mobile devices (e.g., battery power. In this paper, we propose a mobile App recommendation framework by incorporating different requirements from users. We exploit modern portfolio theory (MPT to combine the popularity of mobile Apps, personal preference, and mobile device constraints for mobile App recommendation. Based on this framework, we discuss the recommendation approaches by constraints of phone power and limited mobile data plan. Extensive evaluations show that the proposed mobile App recommendation framework can well adapt to power and network data plan constraints. It satisfies the user App preference and mobile device constraints.

  3. Physiognomy: Personality Traits Prediction by Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Zhang; Ri-Zhen Qin; Qiu-Lei Dong; Wei Gao; Hua-Rong Xu; Zhan-Yi Hu

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating individuals' personality traits and intelligence from their faces plays a crucial role in interpersonal relationship and important social events such as elections and court sentences.To assess the possible correlations between personality traits (also measured intelligence) and face images,we first construct a dataset consisting of face photographs,personality measurements,and intelligence measurements.Then,we build an end-to-end convolutional neural network for prediction of personality traits and intelligence to investigate whether self-reported personality traits and intelligence can be predicted reliably from a face image.To our knowledge,it is the first work where deep learning is applied to this problem.Experimental results show the following three points:1)"Rule-consciousness" and "Tension" can be reliably predicted from face images.2) It is difficult,if not impossible,to predict intelligence from face images,a finding in accord with previous studies.3) Convolutional neural network (CNN) features outperform traditional handcrafted features in predicting traits.

  4. Preferences of personal and social goals in the high school pupils in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović Bora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available On the sample 246 high school pupils from various regions, cities and schools in Serbia, authors took survey of the degree of acceptance (graded from 1 to 5 of 18 personal and 18 social goals, as well as preferences, i.e. choice of most valuable of these goals on both lists. Among personal goals most widely accepted and preferred are friendly support, love and personal independence, while social power, subordination to authorities, social engagement and achievement are on the bottom of the preference scale. As for the social goals, full employment, social rights, standard of living, fight against criminal and corruption, and ecology are most preferred, while further process of privatization in economy, dominant role of one party, but also democracy and strong market economy. Demand of fulfillment of the conditions needed to enter European Union, have caused polarized reactions of young people. This have for its consequence that this aim according to the significance finds itself almost on the bottom of the preference list. Also, for the share of those who prefer enter in the EU, this aim is most important in the above part of the list. In the factor analysis four factors are extracted on the every list. In the realm of personal goals these factors were named comfortable living (that includes many other goals, notably these with high grades, social success, decent life and will toward self affirmation. In the realm of social goals as main factors were identified: normal state (including number of special goals, transition, orientation toward tradition and patriotism, while fourth factor (that includes assessment of good international relations, fight against criminal and corruption, market orientation was left without name. Authors are also dealing with analysis of established incoherency and with issue of stability of value system of young people. .

  5. Intelligent Web-Based Learning System with Personalized Learning Path Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. M.

    2008-01-01

    Personalized curriculum sequencing is an important research issue for web-based learning systems because no fixed learning paths will be appropriate for all learners. Therefore, many researchers focused on developing e-learning systems with personalized learning mechanisms to assist on-line web-based learning and adaptively provide learning paths…

  6. The relationship between personality preferences, self-esteem and emotional competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between leaders’ personality preferences, self-esteem and emotional competence is the focus of this article. A study was conducted to analyse the responses of a sample of 107 South African leaders in the manufacturing industry to measures of the three constructs. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI, the Culturefree Self-esteem Inventories for Adults (CFSEI-AD, and the 360° Emotional Competency Profiler (ECP were administered. Positive relationships were found between the three constructs. The self-esteem construct appeared to be a more reliable predictor of emotional competence than the MBTI personality preferences. The findings of the study make an important contribution to the expanding body of knowledge concerned with the evaluation of personality variables that influence the effectiveness of leaders.

  7. The perfectly motivated nurse and the others: workplace and personal characteristics impact preference of nursing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sven H; Proynova, Rumyana; Paech, Barbara; Wetter, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    To identify whether motivation of nurses coincides with personal values, workplace or personal characteristics. Shortage of nursing workforce compromises patient care. Motivation and job satisfaction are factors considered to make nurses quit. Little is known about measurement and variation of nurses' motivation. Funding for human resource programmes is limited - effective programmes could focus on nurses in need of motivational support. Exploratory study with nurses using questionnaires in an academic hospital in Germany. Work motivation was approximated through preference of nursing tasks. Questionnaires measured personal values, preference of generic nursing tasks, and workplace and personal characteristics. A total of 212 questionnaires were usable. Higher motivation was found in groups of nurses with the dominant personal value 'Benevolence', with high self-rated expertise, in the middle of their career or working in surgical or general wards. Motivation was low in nurses with the dominant value 'Hedonism', or nurses in internal medicine or with low to medium self-rated expertise or who used computers infrequently. Motivation coincided with dominant personal values, workplace and personal characteristics. The results should be validated in other settings. Human resource programmes could focus on nurses whose motivation is at risk. Prospectively highly motivated individuals should be hired with priority. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. An investigation on mate preferences with emphasize on the role of personality characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadat Dibaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between Big-Five personality traits and mate preferences in Isfahan, Iran. The sample consisted of 225 single girls and boys that they were volunteer to complete the research measures. They completed of Neo- FFI-3 to evaluate personality traits and Iranian cultural preference questionnaire. To response to research question, data was examined in two steps. The first step was to examine the intercorrelate relations matrix among dependent and independent variables. The results showed extraversion is related to attractive appearance, educational level, no having sexy relations with opposite sex in single period, and no having addiction. Also attractive appearance and no having too close relations with each other family is correlated with neuroticism and conscientiousness. Also extraversion can predict attractive appearance and no having addiction preferences. Neuroticism can predict no having too close relations with mate families preference. Other variables, although contributing to the overall variance, were not significant predictors in our focused and cultural preferences.

  9. Dangerous driving in a Chinese sample: associations with morningness-eveningness preference and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Weina; Ge, Yan; Xiong, Yuexin; Carciofo, Richard; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in morningness-eveningness preference may influence susceptibility and response to sleepiness. These differences could influence driving performance, but the influence of morningness-eveningness preference on driving behavior and accident risk has not been comprehensively studied. As morningness-eveningness preference is associated with personality characteristics, we also investigated how the interaction between morningness-eveningness preference and personality may be related to dangerous driving behaviors. Two hundred and ninety five drivers completed the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, the Dula Dangerous Driving Index, and personality scales for agreeableness, conscientiousness and neuroticism, and reported demographic information (gender, age, level of education, driving years and annual average driving mileage) and self-reported traffic violations (accidents, penalty points and fines). The results showed that more Risky Driving, Aggressive Driving, Negative Cognitive/Emotional Driving and Drunk Driving, as measured by the Dula Dangerous Driving Index, were all significantly correlated with more eveningness, corresponding to lower scores on the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Moreover, eveningness was correlated with self-reported traffic accidents, penalty points and fines. Furthermore, a moderation effect was found: eveningness was more strongly associated with risky driving and negative emotional driving in those who scored high for trait agreeableness.

  10. Dangerous driving in a Chinese sample: associations with morningness-eveningness preference and personality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Qu

    Full Text Available Individual differences in morningness-eveningness preference may influence susceptibility and response to sleepiness. These differences could influence driving performance, but the influence of morningness-eveningness preference on driving behavior and accident risk has not been comprehensively studied. As morningness-eveningness preference is associated with personality characteristics, we also investigated how the interaction between morningness-eveningness preference and personality may be related to dangerous driving behaviors. Two hundred and ninety five drivers completed the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, the Dula Dangerous Driving Index, and personality scales for agreeableness, conscientiousness and neuroticism, and reported demographic information (gender, age, level of education, driving years and annual average driving mileage and self-reported traffic violations (accidents, penalty points and fines. The results showed that more Risky Driving, Aggressive Driving, Negative Cognitive/Emotional Driving and Drunk Driving, as measured by the Dula Dangerous Driving Index, were all significantly correlated with more eveningness, corresponding to lower scores on the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Moreover, eveningness was correlated with self-reported traffic accidents, penalty points and fines. Furthermore, a moderation effect was found: eveningness was more strongly associated with risky driving and negative emotional driving in those who scored high for trait agreeableness.

  11. Learning preferences from paired opposite-based semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Montero, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Preference semantics examine the meaning of the preference predicate, according to the way that alternatives can be understood and organized for decision making purposes. Through opposite-based semantics, preference structures can be characterized by their paired decomposition of preference...... on the character of opposition, the compound meaning of preference emerges from the fuzzy reinforcement of paired opposite concepts, searching for significant evidence for affirming dominance among the decision objects. Here we propose a general model for the paired decomposition of preference, examining its...

  12. Using Machine Learning to Advance Personality Assessment and Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Hopwood, Christopher James

    2018-05-01

    Machine learning has led to important advances in society. One of the most exciting applications of machine learning in psychological science has been the development of assessment tools that can powerfully predict human behavior and personality traits. Thus far, machine learning approaches to personality assessment have focused on the associations between social media and other digital records with established personality measures. The goal of this article is to expand the potential of machine learning approaches to personality assessment by embedding it in a more comprehensive construct validation framework. We review recent applications of machine learning to personality assessment, place machine learning research in the broader context of fundamental principles of construct validation, and provide recommendations for how to use machine learning to advance our understanding of personality.

  13. The Relationship between Music Preferences of Different Mode and Tempo and Personality Traits--Implications for Music Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrota, Snježana; Reic Ercegovac, Ina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between music preferences of different mode and tempo and personality traits. The survey included 323 students who had to fill out the following tests: questionnaire of music preferences, scale of optimism and pessimism and International Personality Item Pool for measuring Big Five…

  14. Determinants of Internet use as a preferred source of information on personal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemire, Marc; Paré, Guy; Sicotte, Claude; Harvey, Charmian

    2008-11-01

    To understand the personal, social and cultural factors likely to explain recourse to the Internet as a preferred source of personal health information. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a population of 2923 Internet users visiting a firmly established website that offers information on personal health. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify the determinants of site use. The analysis template comprised four classes of determinants likely to explain Internet use: beliefs, intentions, user satisfaction and socio-demographic characteristics. Seven-point Likert scales were used. An analysis of the psychometric qualities of the variables provided compelling evidence of the construct's validity and reliability. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the correspondence with the factors predicted by the theoretical model. The regression analysis explained 35% of the variance in Internet use. Use was directly associated with five factors: perceived usefulness, importance given to written media in searches for health information, concern for personal health, importance given to the opinions of physicians and other health professionals, and the trust placed in the information available on the site itself. This study confirms the importance of the credibility of information on the frequency of Internet use as a preferred source of information on personal health. It also shows the potentially influential role of the Internet in the development of personal knowledge of health issues.

  15. An Exploratory Study of the Language-Learning Style Preferences of Iranian EFL High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Afsaneh Effatdokht; Dehgahi, Meysam; Hashemi, Hanie

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the learning style preferences of 40 Iranian students at Marefat Iranian high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 20 are females and 20 are males. To this end, this study used structured interview to elicit in-depth information from the students. The results of the study showed that learning style preferences of Iranian students…

  16. Farmer, Agent, and Specialist Perspectives on Preferences for Learning among Today's Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Nancy K.; Piercy, Fred; Donaldson, Joseph; Westbrook, Johnnie; Richard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the types of educational delivery methods preferred by farmers (Eckert & Bell, 2005; Eckert & Bell, 2006). The research project reported here explored the preferred learning methods of farmers in Louisiana, Tennessee, and Virginia. Data on learning methods collected directly from farmers were compared with…

  17. Adult Learners' Preferred Methods of Learning Preventative Heart Disease Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the preferred method of learning about heart disease by adult learners. This research study also investigated if there was a statistically significant difference between race/ethnicity, age, and gender of adult learners and their preferred method of learning preventative heart disease care. This…

  18. Preferences for Aftercare Among Persons Seeking Short-Term Opioid Detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Michael D; Anderson, Bradley J; Bailey, Genie L

    2015-12-01

    Without aftercare treatment, the period following discharge from short-term inpatient detoxification for opioid dependence presents a high risk of relapse. Yet the role of patient preference in treatment selection is rarely discussed in the substance-abuse literature. We surveyed 485 persons initiating inpatient opioid detoxification who were predominantly male (71.3%) and had detoxed in the past (73.2%). When asked to choose the one treatment that would work best for them after discharge, 43% of participants selected medication-assisted treatment (MAT), 29% preferred residential, 12% selected drug-free counseling, 12% NA/AA meetings only, and 4% preferred no additional treatment. Residential treatment preference was significantly associated with homelessness, having been in a detox program within the past year, and having pending legal problems, indicating that there is a distinct profile of detox patients who prefer residential treatment despite its limited availability. Detox program staff should work with patients to understand reasons for treatment preferences to optimize aftercare services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment Preference among Suicidal and Self-Injuring Women with Borderline Personality Disorder and PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Melanie S.; Tkachuck, Mathew A.; Youngberg, Kelly A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined treatment preferences among suicidal and self-injuring women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and PTSD. Method Women (N = 42, Mage =34) with BPD, PTSD and recent intentional self-injury were evaluated upon entry into a psychotherapy outcome study. Results The majority preferred a combined dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and prolonged exposure (PE) treatment (73.8%), followed by DBT alone (26.2%), and PE alone (0%). Women who preferred the combined treatment were more likely to report a desire to obtain relief from PTSD and to receive specific DBT and PE treatment components as reasons underlying this preference. Few women (21.4%) reported concerns about PE, but those who did were more likely to prefer DBT alone. More severe PTSD re-experiencing symptoms, a childhood index trauma, and less reduction in positive affect after a trauma interview predicted a preference for the combined treatment. Conclusions These results may help to inform treatment for these complex patients. PMID:23444147

  20. Identifying the Learning Styles and Instructional Tool Preferences of Beginning Food Science and Human Nutrition Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, D. M.; Rasmussen, C. N.; Schmidt, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    Learning styles vary among individuals, and understanding which instructional tools certain learning styles prefer can be utilized to enhance student learning. Students in the introductory Food Science and Human Nutrition course (FSHN 101), taught at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, were asked to complete Gregorc's Learning Style…

  1. Students' Preferred Characteristics of Learning Environments in Vocational Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placklé, Ingeborg; Könings, Karen D.; Jacquet, Wolfgang; Struyven, Katrien; Libotton, Arno; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Engels, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    If teachers and teacher educators are willing to support the learning of students, it is important for them to learn what motivates students to engage in learning. Students have their own preferences on design characteristics of powerful learning environments in vocational education. We developed an instrument - the Inventory Powerful Learning…

  2. Investigating the Value of Personalization in a Mobile Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalloo, Vani; Mohan, Permanand

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential benefits of personalization in a mobile learning environment for high school students learning mathematics. Personalization was expected to benefit the students in two main ways. These are improving their performance in mathematics and making navigation of the application easier. Personalization was…

  3. Critical Review on Affect of Personality on Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, Wirawani

    2012-01-01

    This paper is intended to review the affect of personality on learning styles. Costa and McCrae's Five-Factor Model of Personality (The Big 5) is explored against Kolb Learning Styles. The Big 5 factors are extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness, whereas Kolb Learning Styles are divergers, assimilators,…

  4. Learning strategy preferences, verbal-visual cognitive styles, and multimedia preferences for continuing engineering education instructional design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles Edward, Jr.

    A literature search revealed very little information on how to teach working engineers, which became the motivation for this research. Effective training is important for many reasons such as preventing accidents, maximizing fuel efficiency, minimizing pollution emissions, and reducing equipment downtime. The conceptual framework for this study included the development of a new instructional design framework called the Multimedia Cone of Abstraction (MCoA). This was developed by combining Dale's Cone of Experience and Mayer's Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. An anonymous survey of 118 engineers from a single Midwestern manufacturer was conducted to determine their demographics, learning strategy preferences, verbal-visual cognitive styles, and multimedia preferences. The learning strategy preference profile and verbal-visual cognitive styles of the sample were statistically significantly different than the general population. The working engineers included more Problem Solvers and were much more visually-oriented than the general population. To study multimedia preferences, five of the seven levels in the MCoA were used. Eight types of multimedia were compared in four categories (types in parantheses): text (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), non-interactive dynamic graphics (animation and video), and interactive dynamic graphics (simulated virtual reality and real virtual reality). The first phase of the study examined multimedia preferences within a category. Participants compared multimedia types in pairs on dual screens using relative preference, rating, and ranking. Surprisingly, the more abstract multimedia (text, drawing, animation, and simulated virtual reality) were preferred in every category to the more concrete multimedia (narration, photograph, video, and real virtual reality), despite the fact that most participants had relatively little prior subject knowledge. However, the more abstract graphics were only slightly

  5. Can only one person be right? The development of objectivism and social preferences regarding widely shared and controversial moral beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiphetz, Larisa; Young, Liane L

    2017-10-01

    Prior work has established that children and adults distinguish moral norms (e.g., hitting is wrong) from conventional norms (e.g., wearing pajamas to school is wrong). Specifically, moral norms are generally perceived as universal across time and space, similar to objective facts. We examined preschoolers' and adults' perceptions of moral beliefs alongside facts and opinions by asking whether only one person could be right in the case of disagreements. We also compared perceptions of widely shared moral beliefs (e.g., whether it is better to pull someone's hair or share with someone) and controversial moral beliefs (e.g., whether it is better to help someone with a project or make cookies for someone). In Studies 1 and 2, preschoolers and adults were more likely to judge that only one person could be right in the case of widely shared versus controversial moral beliefs, treating the former as more objective or fact-like. Children were also more likely than adults to say that only one person could be right in a moral disagreement. Study 2 additionally revealed that adults were more likely than children to report preferring individuals who shared their controversial moral beliefs. Study 3 replicated these patterns using a different sample of widely shared beliefs (e.g., whether it is okay to mock a poor classmate) and controversial moral beliefs (e.g., whether it is okay to tell small, prosocial lies). While some aspects of moral cognition may depend on abundant social learning and cognitive development, the perception that disagreements about widely shared moral beliefs have only one right answer while disagreements about controversial moral beliefs do not emerges relatively early. We discuss implications for moral learning and social preferences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nurse practitioner preferences for distance education methods related to learning style, course content, and achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrusyszyn, M A; Cragg, C E; Humbert, J

    2001-04-01

    The relationships among multiple distance delivery methods, preferred learning style, content, and achievement was sought for primary care nurse practitioner students. A researcher-designed questionnaire was completed by 86 (71%) participants, while 6 engaged in follow-up interviews. The results of the study included: participants preferred learning by "considering the big picture"; "setting own learning plans"; and "focusing on concrete examples." Several positive associations were found: learning on own with learning by reading, and setting own learning plans; small group with learning through discussion; large group with learning new things through hearing and with having learning plans set by others. The most preferred method was print-based material and the least preferred method was audio tape. The most suited method for content included video teleconferencing for counseling, political action, and transcultural issues; and video tape for physical assessment. Convenience, self-direction, and timing of learning were more important than delivery method or learning style. Preferred order of learning was reading, discussing, observing, doing, and reflecting. Recommended considerations when designing distance courses include a mix of delivery methods, specific content, outcomes, learner characteristics, and state of technology.

  7. Students' Personal Networks in Virtual and Personal Learning Environments: A Case Study in Higher Education Using Learning Analytics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casquero, Oskar; Ovelar, Ramón; Romo, Jesús; Benito, Manuel; Alberdi, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse the effect of the affordances of a virtual learning environment and a personal learning environment (PLE) in the configuration of the students' personal networks in a higher education context. The results are discussed in light of the adaptation of the students to the learning network made up by two…

  8. Integrating Learning Styles and Personality Traits into an Affective Model to Support Learner's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontidis, Makis; Halatsis, Constantin

    The aim of this paper is to present a model in order to integrate the learning style and the personality traits of a learner into an enhanced Affective Style which is stored in the learner’s model. This model which can deal with the cognitive abilities as well as the affective preferences of the learner is called Learner Affective Model (LAM). The LAM is used to retain learner’s knowledge and activities during his interaction with a Web-based learning environment and also to provide him with the appropriate pedagogical guidance. The proposed model makes use of an ontological approach in combination with the Bayesian Network model and contributes to the efficient management of the LAM in an Affective Module.

  9. Do quality improvement collaboratives' educational components match the dominant learning style preferences of the participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weggelaar-Jansen, Anne Marie; van Wijngaarden, Jeroen; Slaghuis, Sarah-Sue

    2015-06-20

    Quality improvement collaboratives are used to improve healthcare by various organizations. Despite their popularity literature shows mixed results on their effectiveness. A quality improvement collaborative can be seen as a temporary learning organization in which knowledge about improvement themes and methods is exchanged. In this research we studied: Does the learning approach of a quality improvement collaborative match the learning styles preferences of the individual participants and how does that affect the learning process of participants? This research used a mixed methods design combining a validated learning style questionnaire with data collected in the tradition of action research methodology to study two Dutch quality improvement collaboratives. The questionnaire is based on the learning style model of Ruijters and Simons, distinguishing five learning style preferences: Acquisition of knowledge, Apperception from others, Discovery of new insights, Exercising in fictitious situations and Participation with others. The most preferred learning styles of the participants were Discovery and Participation. The learning style Acquisition was moderately preferred and Apperception and Exercising were least preferred. The educational components of the quality improvement collaboratives studied (national conferences, half-day learning sessions, faculty site visits and use of an online tool) were predominantly associated with the learning styles Acquisition and Apperception. We observed a decrease in attendance to the learning activities and non-conformance with the standardized set goals and approaches. We conclude that the participants' satisfaction with the offered learning approach changed over time. The lacking match between these learning style preferences and the learning approach in the educational components of the quality improvement collaboratives studied might be the reason why the participants felt they did not gain new insights and therefore ceased

  10. The Learning Preferences of Applicants Who Interview for General Surgery Residency: A Multiinstitutional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Roger H; Kurtzman, Scott H; Collier, Ashley N; Shabahang, Mohsen M

    Learning styles theory posits that learners have distinct preferences for how they assimilate new information. The VARK model categorizes learners based on combinations of 4 learning preferences: visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), and kinesthetic (K). A previous single institution study demonstrated that the VARK preferences of applicants who interview for general surgery residency are different from that of the general population and that learning preferences were associated with performance on standardized tests. This multiinstitutional study was conducted to determine the distribution of VARK preferences among interviewees for general surgery residency and the effect of those preferences on United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores. The VARK learning inventory was administered to applicants who interviewed at 3 general surgery programs during the 2014 to 2015 academic year. The distribution of VARK learning preferences among interviewees was compared with that of the general population of VARK respondents. Performance on USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 Clinical Knowledge was analyzed for associations with VARK learning preferences. Chi-square, analysis of variance, and Dunnett's test were used for statistical analysis, with p learning modality. The distribution of VARK preferences of interviewees was different than that of the general population (p = 0.02). By analysis of variance, there were no overall differences in USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 Clinical Knowledge scores by VARK preference (p = 0.06 and 0.21, respectively). However, multiple comparison analysis using Dunnett's test revealed that interviewees with R preferences had significantly higher scores than those with multimodal preferences on USMLE Step 1 (239 vs. 222, p = 0.02). Applicants who interview for general surgery residency have a different pattern of VARK preferences than that of the general population. Interviewees with preferences for read/write learning modalities have higher scores

  11. Context-aware Cloud Computing for Personal Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Feng; Al-Bayatti, Ali Hilal; Siewe, Francois

    2016-01-01

    Virtual learning means to learn from social interactions in a virtual platform that enables people to study anywhere and at any time. Current Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) are a range of integrated web based applications to support and enhance the education. Normally, VLEs are institution centric; are owned by the institutions and are designed to support formal learning, which do not support lifelong learning. These limitations led to the research of Personal Learning Environments (PLE...

  12. Towards a Quality Assessment Method for Learning Preference Profiles in Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindriks, Koen V.; Tykhonov, Dmytro

    In automated negotiation, information gained about an opponent's preference profile by means of learning techniques may significantly improve an agent's negotiation performance. It therefore is useful to gain a better understanding of how various negotiation factors influence the quality of learning. The quality of learning techniques in negotiation are typically assessed indirectly by means of comparing the utility levels of agreed outcomes and other more global negotiation parameters. An evaluation of learning based on such general criteria, however, does not provide any insight into the influence of various aspects of negotiation on the quality of the learned model itself. The quality may depend on such aspects as the domain of negotiation, the structure of the preference profiles, the negotiation strategies used by the parties, and others. To gain a better understanding of the performance of proposed learning techniques in the context of negotiation and to be able to assess the potential to improve the performance of such techniques a more systematic assessment method is needed. In this paper we propose such a systematic method to analyse the quality of the information gained about opponent preferences by learning in single-instance negotiations. The method includes measures to assess the quality of a learned preference profile and proposes an experimental setup to analyse the influence of various negotiation aspects on the quality of learning. We apply the method to a Bayesian learning approach for learning an opponent's preference profile and discuss our findings.

  13. A Comparison between Learning Style Preferences, Gender, Sport and Achievement in Elite Team Sport Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Braakhuis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Athletes have preferences for the way in which they internalize and process information, whether that is visual, aural, by-doing (kinesthetic, reading or a mixture of preferences. Health professionals that interact with athletes rarely consider the individual learning style prior to any communication or education, despite mounting evidence for the benefits of learning-style tailored education. The aim of this study was to characterize athletes with regards to their preferred learning style. Athletes (n = 93 from 24 sports and various sport achievement levels completed a questionnaire, including the visual (V, auditory (A, reading/writing (R, kinesthetic (K/(VARK Questionnaire for Athletes. Questionnaire outcomes were analysed by X2 analysis on SPSS. The main findings were: (1 very few athletes have a visual learning-style preference; (2 there was a significant relationship between gender and VARK preference (X2 = 13.84, p = 0.003; (3 and between athletic status and VARK preference (X2 = 9.2, p = 0.025; (4 there was a trivial association between individual/ team sport athletes and assessed VARK preference (X2 = 3.95, p = 0.265. Our findings show significant variation in learning-style preference between males and females, and those of different athletic status. Health professionals should be aware of the inadequacy of visual information presentation when working with athletes. Furthermore, health professionals working with elite and female athletes should be comfortable using a mixture of learning styles (multi-modal.

  14. Personalized E- learning System Based on Intelligent Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duo, Sun; Ying, Zhou Cai

    Lack of personalized learning is the key shortcoming of traditional e-Learning system. This paper analyzes the personal characters in e-Learning activity. In order to meet the personalized e-learning, a personalized e-learning system based on intelligent agent was proposed and realized in the paper. The structure of system, work process, the design of intelligent agent and the realization of intelligent agent were introduced in the paper. After the test use of the system by certain network school, we found that the system could improve the learner's initiative participation, which can provide learners with personalized knowledge service. Thus, we thought it might be a practical solution to realize self- learning and self-promotion in the lifelong education age.

  15. Individual personality differences in goats predict their performance in visual learning and non-associative cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; Prentice, Pamela M; McElligott, Alan G

    2017-01-01

    Variation in common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk-reward trade-offs and behavioural flexibility. To date, only a few studies have examined the effects of consistent behavioural traits on both learning and cognition. We investigated whether certain personality traits ('exploration' and 'sociability') of individuals were related to cognitive performance, learning flexibility and learning style in a social ungulate species, the goat (Capra hircus). We also investigated whether a preference for feature cues rather than impaired learning abilities can explain performance variation in a visual discrimination task. We found that personality scores were consistent across time and context. Less explorative goats performed better in a non-associative cognitive task, in which subjects had to follow the trajectory of a hidden object (i.e. testing their ability for object permanence). We also found that less sociable subjects performed better compared to more sociable goats in a visual discrimination task. Good visual learning performance was associated with a preference for feature cues, indicating personality-dependent learning strategies in goats. Our results suggest that personality traits predict the outcome in visual discrimination and non-associative cognitive tasks in goats and that impaired performance in a visual discrimination tasks does not necessarily imply impaired learning capacities, but rather can be explained by a varying preference for feature cues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Preliminary Survey of the Preferred Learning Methods for Interpretation Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    There are many different methods that individuals use to learn languages like reading books or writing essays. Not all methods are equally successful for second language learners but nor do all successful learners of a second language show identical preferences for learning methods. Additionally, at the highest level of language learning various…

  17. Characterizing Engineering Learners' Preferences for Active and Passive Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magana, Alejandra J.; Vieira, Camilo; Boutin, Mireille

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies electrical engineering learners' preferences for learning methods with various degrees of activity. Less active learning methods such as homework and peer reviews are investigated, as well as a newly introduced very active (constructive) learning method called "slectures," and some others. The results suggest that…

  18. What Learning Analytics‐Based Prediction Models Tell Us About Feedback Preferences of Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Quan; Tempelaar, Dirk; Rienties, Bart; Giesbers, Bas

    2016-01-01

    Learning analytics seeks to enhance learning processes through systematic measurements of learning-related data and to provide informative feedback to learners and educators (Siemens & Long, 2011). This study examined the use of preferred feedback modes in students by using a dispositional

  19. Pre-Service Teachers' Learning Styles and Preferences towards Instructional Technology Activities and Collaborative Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, Farrah Dina; Sumari, Melati

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate pre-service teachers' learning styles and their preferences with respect to 15 technology-based instructional activities and collaborative work tasks. Felder and Silverman's online Index of Learning Style (ILS) and a questionnaire were used to measure students' learning styles and…

  20. Danish obstetricians' personal preference and general attitude to elective cesarean section on maternal request: a nation-wide postal survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholt, Thomas; Østberg, Birgitte; Legarth, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess Danish obstetricians' and gynecologists' personal preference and general attitude towards elective cesarean section on maternal request in uncomplicated single cephalic pregnancies at term. DESIGN: Nation-wide anonymous postal questionnaire. POPULATION: Four hundred and fifty......-five obstetricians and gynecologists identified in the records of the Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology from January 2000. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Personal preference on the mode of delivery and general attitude towards elective cesarean section on maternal request in an uncomplicated single cephalic...... and gynecologists would personally prefer vaginal delivery in uncomplicated pregnancies, but nearly 40% agree with the woman's right to request a cesarean section....

  1. The Influence of Emotions and Learning Preferences on Learning Strategy Use before Transition into High-Achiever Track Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obergriesser, Stefanie; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2016-01-01

    Research on the relationships between students' achievement emotions and their (self-regulated) learning behavior is growing. However, little is known about the relationships between students' learning preferences and achievement emotions and the extent to which these influence learning strategies. In this study we, first, looked at the…

  2. Contingent valuation method applied to survey on personal preferences on choice of electric power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Reiko; Nakagome, Yoshihiro

    2004-01-01

    A Survey was conducted on personal preferences regarding their choice of electric power source to verify the applicability of Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) to such analysis. The survey was carried out on local and urban inhabitants in two steps, first by mail and thereafter by direct interview. A choice of four typical forms of power source was presented: nuclear, coal, hydro and green power; and the question was asked whether the respondent would be willing to pay additional charge for specifying their preferable power source. The mail survey indicated more than half of the respondents hold some willingness to pay either for disuse of nuclear power or expansion of green power. The interview survey revealed various complex motives lying behind their answers. Consequently, it was found that their preference is significantly correlated to their personal image or knowledge of power sources, their thinking or attitude toward energy conservation, their sense of consumption and their private view of life. It is concluded that CVM is pertinently applicable to quantitative analysis of individual opinions, particularly in terms of their motivation to participate in national energy issues. A number of modifications, however, should be required to be brought to the survey design in order to ensure smooth application in practice. (author)

  3. A New Approach to Personalization: Integrating E-Learning and M-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedungadi, Prema; Raman, Raghu

    2012-01-01

    Most personalized learning systems are designed for either personal computers (e-learning) or mobile devices (m-learning). Our research has resulted in a cloud-based adaptive learning system that incorporates mobile devices into a classroom setting. This system is fully integrated into the formative assessment process and, most importantly,…

  4. Who art thou? Personality predictors of artistic preferences in a large UK sample: the importance of openness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Reimers, Stian; Hsu, Anne; Ahmetoglu, Gorkan

    2009-08-01

    The present study examined individual differences in artistic preferences in a sample of 91,692 participants (60% women and 40% men), aged 13-90 years. Participants completed a Big Five personality inventory (Goldberg, 1999) and provided preference ratings for 24 different paintings corresponding to cubism, renaissance, impressionism, and Japanese art, which loaded on to a latent factor of overall art preferences. As expected, the personality trait openness to experience was the strongest and only consistent personality correlate of artistic preferences, affecting both overall and specific preferences, as well as visits to galleries, and artistic (rather than scientific) self-perception. Overall preferences were also positively influenced by age and visits to art galleries, and to a lesser degree, by artistic self-perception and conscientiousness (negatively). As for specific styles, after overall preferences were accounted for, more agreeable, more conscientious and less open individuals reported higher preference levels for impressionist, younger and more extraverted participants showed higher levels of preference for cubism (as did males), and younger participants, as well as males, reported higher levels of preferences for renaissance. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  5. Learning style preferences of nursing students at two universities in Iran and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolghani Abdollahimohammad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Learning style preferences vary within the nursing field and there is no consensus on a predominant learning style preference in nursing students. The current study compared the learning style preferences of nursing students at two universities in Iran and Malaysia. Methods: A purposive sampling method was used to collect data from the two study populations. Data were collected using the Learning Style Scale (LSS, which is a valid and reliable inventory. The LSS consists of 22 items with five subscales including perceptive, solitary, analytic, imaginative, and competitive. The questionnaires were distributed at the end of the academic year during regular class time for optimum response. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the learning style preferences between the two study populations. Results: A significant difference was found in perceptive, solitary, and analytic learning styles between two groups of nursing students. However, there was no significant difference in imaginative and competitive learning styles between the two groups. Most of the students were in the middle range of the learning styles. Conclusion: There were similarities and differences in learning style preferences between Zabol Medical Sciences University (ZBMU and University Sains Malaysia (USM nursing students. The USM nursing students were more sociable and analytic learners, whereas the ZBMU nursing students were more solitary and perceptive learners.

  6. Learning style preferences of nursing students at two universities in Iran and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani; Ja'afar, Rogayah

    2014-01-01

    Learning style preferences vary within the nursing field and there is no consensus on a predominant learning style preference in nursing students. The current study compared the learning style preferences of nursing students at two universities in Iran and Malaysia. A purposive sampling method was used to collect data from the two study populations. Data were collected using the Learning Style Scale (LSS), which is a valid and reliable inventory. The LSS consists of 22 items with five subscales including perceptive, solitary, analytic, imaginative, and competitive. The questionnaires were distributed at the end of the academic year during regular class time for optimum response. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the learning style preferences between the two study populations. A significant difference was found in perceptive, solitary, and analytic learning styles between two groups of nursing students. However, there was no significant difference in imaginative and competitive learning styles between the two groups. Most of the students were in the middle range of the learning styles. There were similarities and differences in learning style preferences between Zabol Medical Sciences University (ZBMU) and University Sains Malaysia (USM) nursing students. The USM nursing students were more sociable and analytic learners, whereas the ZBMU nursing students were more solitary and perceptive learners.

  7. Personality, Organizational Orientations and Self-Reported Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, David; Castka, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To identify competencies connecting personality, organizational orientations and self-reported learning outcomes (as measured by concise Likert-type scales), for individuals who are learning for their organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Five concise factor scales were constructed to represent aspects of personality. Three further…

  8. Whole Person Learning: Embedding Ethical Enterprise Leadership in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, E. Vincent; Donohue, Mary

    2012-01-01

    This study introduces a collaborative business education curricular design known as "whole person learning." The post-financial crisis market environment requires business education to encompass curricular, commercial and community skills. Drawing on the Toronto based National Mentoring Program (NMP), "whole person learning"…

  9. Monoracial and Biracial Children: Effects of Racial Identity Saliency on Social Learning and Social Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Sarah E.; Chen, Eva E.; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.; Ambady, Nalini; Sommers, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    Children prefer learning from, and affiliating with, their racial ingroup but those preferences may vary for biracial children. Monoracial (White, Black, Asian) and biracial (Black/White, Asian/White) children (N=246, 3–8 years) had their racial identity primed. In a learning preferences task, participants determined the function of a novel object after watching adults (White, Black, and Asian) demonstrate its uses. In the social preferences task, participants saw pairs of children (White, Black, and Asian) and chose with whom they most wanted to socially affiliate. Biracial children showed flexibility in racial identification during learning and social tasks. However, minority-primed biracial children were not more likely than monoracial minorities to socially affiliate with primed racial ingroup members, indicating their ingroup preferences are contextually based. PMID:25040708

  10. Effects of congruence between preferred and perceived learning environments in nursing education in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Chan, Wing P; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-05-20

    To investigate the effects of congruence between preferred and perceived learning environments on learning outcomes of nursing students. A nursing course at a university in central Taiwan. 124 Taiwanese nursing students enrolled in a 13-week problem-based Fundamental Nursing curriculum. Students' preferred learning environment, perceptions about the learning environment and learning outcomes (knowledge, self-efficacy and attitudes) were assessed. On the basis of test scores measuring their preferred and perceived learning environments, students were assigned to one of two groups: a 'preferred environment aligned with perceived learning environment' group and a 'preferred environment discordant with perceived learning environment' group. Learning outcomes were analysed by group. Most participants preferred learning in a classroom environment that combined problem-based and lecture-based instruction. However, a mismatch of problem-based instruction with students' perceptions occurred. Learning outcomes were significantly better when students' perceptions of their instructional activities were congruent with their preferred learning environment. As problem-based learning becomes a focus of educational reform in nursing, teachers need to be aware of students' preferences and perceptions of the learning environment. Teachers may also need to improve the match between an individual student's perception and a teacher's intention in the learning environment, and between the student's preferred and actual perceptions of the learning environment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Personality and Political Preferences Over Time: Evidence From a Multi-Wave Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrom, Pierce D; Federico, Christopher M

    2018-05-27

    To investigate how the relations between the Big Five personality traits and political preferences develop over a campaign. We rely on a 6-wave nationwide longitudinal survey from the 2008 U.S. election that included 20,000 respondents. Mean age: 49 (SD=15). 53% of respondents were women, 47% men. 82% were White, 8% Black, 6% Hispanic/Latino, 1% Asian, 1% Native American, and 2% other. Survey weights were applied to approximate a representative sample of the U.S. Ns for reported analyses range from 5,160 to 12,535. First, conscientiousness and openness to experience were significantly associated with changes in outcomes over time, such that individuals higher in conscientiousness and lower in openness tended to become more conservative, identify as more Republican, and evaluate John McCain more favorably relative to Barack Obama. Second, the effects of personality on candidate evaluations were mediated by partisanship and ideology. Finally, we find that the relations between traits and late-campaign candidate evaluations are stronger than those between traits and early-campaign candidate evaluations. Personality plays an important and dynamic role in the formation and change of political preferences over the course of political campaigns-a role which is not entirely visible in cross-sectional analyses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Personality does not predict treatment preference, treatment experience does: a study of four complementary pain treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasche, Gerhard; Melchart, Herbert; Leitner, Daniela; Marktl, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which personality and treatment experience affect patients' appraisals of 4 complementary treatments for chronic pain. A total of 232 chronic pain patients (164 females, 68 males, average age 56.6 years) visiting a spa clinic in Austria returned a questionnaire on patient characteristics and personality (autonomy, depressiveness, assertiveness, self-control) as well as attitudes towards (i.e. appealing, effective, pleasant) and experience of the treatments. Results were analysed by use of linear regression analysis and confidence intervals. Although all treatments were appraised positively, the passive treatments (thermal water tub baths, classical massage) were favoured more than the active treatments (relaxation training or exercise therapy). Treatment appraisal was not predicted by any of the personality traits but to a large extent by treatment experience. Relaxing, not unpleasant treatments were the most highly esteemed treatments. How strenuous or tiring a treatment was only had a minor effect on its appraisal. Neither do dependent, passive patients prefer passive treatments, nor do conscientious patients prefer active treatments. Instead, the appraisal of treatments that induce specific somatosensory sensations is largely determined by treatment experiences, i.e. what the treatment feels like. Despite the popularity of CAM which encompasses many experientially intensive treatments, treatment experience has to date been a neglected topic of treatment research.

  13. An Enhanced Personal Learning Environment Using Social Semantic Web Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, Khaled; Seridi-Bouchelaghem, Hassina; Faron-Zucker, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Compared with learning in classrooms, classical e-learning systems are less adaptive and once a system that supports a particular strategy has been designed and implemented, it is less likely to change according to student's interactions and preferences. Remote educational systems should be developed to ensure as much as necessary the…

  14. Honors pedagogy: tailoring learning preferences of honors and regular students for autonomy and structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, Tineke; Kamans, Elanor; Heijne, Marjolein; Wolfensberger, Marca; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    Students differ in their learning preferences. When students are more intrinsically motivated this improves their well-being and involvement (Levesque, Zuehlke, Stanek, & Ryan, 2004). Teaching highly motivated honors students places different demands on teachers (Wolfensberger, 2012). High motivated

  15. IMPLEMENTASI PERSONAL PREFERENCE PADA SISTEM SHARE-IT BERBASIS PADA PLATFORM UNIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Mazharuddin Shidiqy

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Arsitektur UPnP memungkinkan suatu aplikasi ataupun device untuk dapat terhubung ke dalam suatu jaringan dan berkomunikasi dengan aplikasi ataupun device lain di  dalam jaringan tersebut tanpa perlu adanya konfigurasi (zero configuration serta meniadakan batas-batas sistem operasi ataupun bahasa pemograman yang digunakan untuk membuat aplikasi tersebut. Dengan sifatnya yang universal tersebut, UPnP semakin banyak dikembangkan serta dipergunakan. Membuka kemungkinan untuk terciptanya babak baru di dalam interaksi manusia dan komputer. Sistem Share-It adalah aplikasi yang menerapkan arsitektur UPnP (Universal Plug and Play untuk berbagi content dengan aplikasi lain yang sejenis. Content yang dimaksud di sini adalah file mp3. Sistem Share-It terdiri dari Server Device dan Client Device. Server Device berfungsi untuk menyediakan content, sedangkan Client Device mempunyai fungsi sebagai player yang dapat memainkan content file serta juga menyediakan content untuk dapat berbagi pakai dengan Client Device yang lain. Dalam pengerjaan Tugas Akhir ini akan dikembangkan dan diimplementasikan Personal Preference pada sistem Share-It. Personal Preference itu sendiri mempunyai tujuan untuk memilihkan content file yang

  16. Handling risk attitudes for preference learning and intelligent decision support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Nielsen, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent decision support should allow integrating human knowledge with efficient algorithms for making interpretable and useful recommendations on real world decision problems. Attitudes and preferences articulate and come together under a decision process that should be explicitly modeled...

  17. effects of learning styles on career preferences of senior secondary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth Egbochuku

    Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. Dutse .... bright chaps for science oriented career, the mediocre opt for career .... preference area and computed into X2 table 4 contains the analysis. ... independent social and future career. 2.

  18. When I Grow Up: The Relationship of "Science Learning Activation" to STEM Career Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorph, Rena; Bathgate, Meghan E.; Schunn, Christian D.; Cannady, Matthew A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes three new measures of components STEM career preferences (affinity, certainty, and goal), and then explores which dimensions of "science learning activation" (fascination, values, competency belief, and scientific sensemaking) are predictive of STEM career preferences. Drawn from the ALES14 dataset, a sample of 2938…

  19. Relationship Between Age, Experience, and Student Preference for Types of Learning Activities in Online Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Simonds

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two researchers explored student learning preferences in online courses. They used the scholarship of teaching and learning process as a research model, and embedded a web-based survey and online focus groups in the online courses they were teaching. After collecting data, the researchers conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to test their hypothesis that a relationship existed between some student factors and student preferences for types of online learning activities. The results of the data analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship between student age and student preference for certain types of online learning activities. Older students in the study indicated a much stronger preference for videos of the professor lecturing, while younger students tended to prefer more interactive learning strategies. Focus group comments from the older students provide insights into some of the reasons why they found watching video lectures to be helpful for their learning, and comments from younger students illustrate how they learn best in online courses. The researchers offer suggestions for online instructors based on the findings of this study, and they explain why online instructors may find the scholarship of teaching and learning research process especially helpful for both teaching and research efforts.

  20. The relationship between learning preferences (styles and approaches) and learning outcomes among pre-clinical undergraduate medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Siaw-Cheok; Sidhu, Jagmohni; Barua, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    Background Learning styles and approaches of individual undergraduate medical students vary considerably and as a consequence, their learning needs also differ from one student to another. This study was conducted to identify different learning styles and approaches of pre-clinical, undergraduate medical students and also to determine the relationships of learning preferences with performances in the summative examinations. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected...

  1. Results of a study assessing teaching methods of faculty after measuring student learning style preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Bridget V

    2017-08-01

    Learning style preference impacts how well groups of students respond to their curricula. Faculty have many choices in the methods for delivering nursing content, as well as assessing students. The purpose was to develop knowledge around how faculty delivered curricula content, and then considering these findings in the context of the students learning style preference. Following an in-service on teaching and learning styles, faculty completed surveys on their methods of teaching and the proportion of time teaching, using each learning style (visual, aural, read/write and kinesthetic). This study took place at the College of Nursing a large all-female university in Saudi Arabia. 24 female nursing faculty volunteered to participate in the project. A cross-sectional design was used. Faculty reported teaching using mostly methods that were kinesthetic and visual, although lecture was also popular (aural). Students preferred kinesthetic and aural learning methods. Read/write was the least preferred by students and the least used method of teaching by faculty. Faculty used visual methods about one third of the time, although they were not preferred by the students. Students' preferred learning style (kinesthetic) was the method most used by faculty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Personal Coaching: Reflection on a Model for Effective Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kerryn

    2015-01-01

    The article "Personal Coaching: A Model for Effective Learning" (Griffiths, 2006) appeared in the "Journal of Learning Design" Volume 1, Issue 2 in 2006. Almost ten years on, Kerryn Griffiths reflects upon her original article. Specifically, Griffiths looks back at the combined coaching-learning model she suggested in her…

  3. A Personalized e-Learning Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhawiti, Mohammed M.; Abdelhamid, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    With the advent of web based learning and content management tools, e-learning has become a matured learning paradigm, and changed the trend of instructional design from instructor centric learning paradigm to learner centric approach, and evolved from "one instructional design for many learners" to "one design for one learner"…

  4. Learning the preferences of physicians for the organization of result lists of medical evidence articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, D; Wilk, S; Michalowski, W; Slowinski, R; Thomas, R; Kadzinski, M; Farion, K

    2014-01-01

    Online medical knowledge repositories such as MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library are increasingly used by physicians to retrieve articles to aid with clinical decision making. The prevailing approach for organizing retrieved articles is in the form of a rank-ordered list, with the assumption that the higher an article is presented on a list, the more relevant it is. Despite this common list-based organization, it is seldom studied how physicians perceive the association between the relevance of articles and the order in which articles are presented. In this paper we describe a case study that captured physician preferences for 3-element lists of medical articles in order to learn how to organize medical knowledge for decision-making. Comprehensive relevance evaluations were developed to represent 3-element lists of hypothetical articles that may be retrieved from an online medical knowledge source such as MEDLINE or The Cochrane Library. Comprehensive relevance evaluations asses not only an article's relevance for a query, but also whether it has been placed on the correct list position. In other words an article may be relevant and correctly placed on a result list (e.g. the most relevant article appears first in the result list), an article may be relevant for a query but placed on an incorrect list position (e.g. the most relevant article appears second in a result list), or an article may be irrelevant for a query yet still appear in the result list. The relevance evaluations were presented to six senior physicians who were asked to express their preferences for an article's relevance and its position on a list by pairwise comparisons representing different combinations of 3-element lists. The elicited preferences were assessed using a novel GRIP (Generalized Regression with Intensities of Preference) method and represented as an additive value function. Value functions were derived for individual physicians as well as the group of physicians. The results show

  5. Investigating the Relationship between Learning Style Preferences and Teaching Collaboration Skills and Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Seung L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory study that investigates the relationship between participants' learning style preferences and their perceptions of a professional workshop on collaboration and technology to support collaboration. The Learning Preference Scale-Students (LPSS) (Owens & Barnes...... style, and Group 2 showed a strong preference for competitive and cooperative learning styles. Group 1 rated the workshop more positively than Group 2. However, Group 2 reported a larger increase in self-efficacy compared to those in Group 1 (18.9% vs. 6.0%). Both groups provided different suggestions...... regarding the content of the workshop. Group 1 suggested adding more discussions and group exercises, whereas Group 2 suggested adding explicit theory or rules to govern behavior. These findings indicate that learning styles should be considered as a potential variable that influences learning outcomes...

  6. Extending color psychology to the personality realm: interpersonal hostility varies by red preferences and perceptual biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Adam K; Liu, Tianwei; Robinson, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    The color psychology literature has made a convincing case that color is not just about aesthetics, but also about meaning. This work has involved situational manipulations of color, rendering it uncertain as to whether color-meaning associations can be used to characterize how people differ from each other. The present research focuses on the idea that the color red is linked to, or associated with, individual differences in interpersonal hostility. Across four studies (N = 376 undergraduates), red preferences and perceptual biases were measured along with individual differences in interpersonal hostility. It was found that (a) a preference for the color red was higher as interpersonal hostility increased, (b) hostile people were biased to see the color red more frequently than nonhostile people, and (c) there was a relationship between a preference for the color red and hostile social decision making. These studies represent an important extension of the color psychology literature, highlighting the need to attend to person-based, as well as situation-based, factors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Accommodating student learning styles and preferences in an online occupational therapy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Nancy Wolcott; Jacobs, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Occupational therapy's online education must be research-based and inclusive. One way to provide a more inclusive online learning experience is to attend to individual learning styles and preferences. This study uses the best available evidence on learning styles and online education to develop, implement, and study occupational therapy students' experiences with an online learning module and related assignment. Eight students consented to take an online survey after completing a learning module and related assignment in an online post-professional graduate course in occupational therapy. The survey explored their learning experience and its applicability to clinical work. Data gathered from multiple-choice, Likert-scale, and open-ended questions were descriptively analyzed. Results from this study suggest that students find the study of learning styles and preferences enjoyable and applicable to their clinical work, but are often motivated by factors such as time and technology when selecting the format of a course assignment.

  8. Relationship between Student Pharmacist Decision Making Preferences and Experiential Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charlene R; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Cox, Wendy C; Shepherd, Greene

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To determine if student pharmacists' preferences towards experiential and rational thinking are associated with performance on advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and whether thinking style preference changes following APPEs. Methods. The Rational Experiential Inventory (REI), a validated survey of thinking style, was administered to student pharmacists before starting APPEs and re-administered after completing APPEs. APPE grades were compared to initial REI scores. Results. Rational Experiential Inventory scores remained consistent before and after APPEs. Overall, APPE grades were independent of REI scores. In a regression model, the REI experiential score was a significant negative predictor of hospital APPE grades. Conclusion. These findings suggest that overall APPE performance is independent of decision-making preference, and decision-making style does not change following immersion into APPEs. Instead of targeting teaching strategies towards a specific decision-making style, preceptors may use pedagogical approaches that promote sound clinical decision-making skills through critical thinking and reflection.

  9. Relationship between Student Pharmacist Decision Making Preferences and Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline E.; Cox, Wendy C.; Shepherd, Greene

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine if student pharmacists’ preferences towards experiential and rational thinking are associated with performance on advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and whether thinking style preference changes following APPEs. Methods. The Rational Experiential Inventory (REI), a validated survey of thinking style, was administered to student pharmacists before starting APPEs and re-administered after completing APPEs. APPE grades were compared to initial REI scores. Results. Rational Experiential Inventory scores remained consistent before and after APPEs. Overall, APPE grades were independent of REI scores. In a regression model, the REI experiential score was a significant negative predictor of hospital APPE grades. Conclusion. These findings suggest that overall APPE performance is independent of decision-making preference, and decision-making style does not change following immersion into APPEs. Instead of targeting teaching strategies towards a specific decision-making style, preceptors may use pedagogical approaches that promote sound clinical decision-making skills through critical thinking and reflection. PMID:27756927

  10. Positive media portrayals of obese persons: impact on attitudes and image preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Puhl, Rebecca M; Brownell, Kelly D

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess the impact of nonstereotypical, positive media portrayals of obese persons on biased attitudes, as well as propose a change in media practices that could reduce public weight bias and consequent negative health outcomes for those who experience weight stigma. Two online experiments were conducted in which participants viewed either a stigmatizing or a positive photograph of an obese model. In Experiment 1 (N = 146), participants viewed a photograph of either a Caucasian or African American obese woman; in Experiment 2 (N = 145), participants viewed either a Caucasian male or female obese model. Multiple linear regression models were used to analyze outcomes for social distance attitudes toward the obese models depicted in the images, in addition to other negative attitudes and image preferences. Participants who viewed the stigmatizing images endorsed stronger social distance attitudes and more negative attitudes toward obese persons than participants who viewed the positive images, and there was a stronger preference for the positive images than the stigmatizing images. These results were consistent regardless of the race or gender of the obese model pictured. The findings indicate that more positive media portrayals of obese individuals may help reduce weight stigma and its associated negative health outcomes.

  11. Individual differences in personality in laying hens are related to learning a colour cue association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Elske N; Lee, Caroline; Hernandez, Carlos E; Naguib, Marc; Rodenburg, T Bas

    2017-01-01

    Personality can influence how animals perceive and learn cues. The behaviour and physiological responses animals show during stressful events is indicative of their personality. Acute induced stress prior to a cognitive test are known to affect the judgement of a stimulus, but personality of an individual could also affect learning of a specific cognitive paradigm. Here, we assessed if adult laying hens' behaviour and physiological responses, as indicators of their personality, were related to their cognitive performance. We assessed their behavioural responses to a tonic immobility test, an open field test, and a manual restraint test, and measured plasma corticosterone levels after manual restraint. After that, hens (n=20) were trained in a pre-set training schedule to associate a colour-cue with a reward. In a two-choice go-go test, hens needed to choose between a baited or non-baited food container displayed randomly on the left or right side of an arena. Success in learning was related to personality, with better performance of hens which showed a reactive personality type by a long latency to walk, struggle or vocalize during the tests. Only eight out of 20 hens reached the training criteria. The non-learners showed a strong side preference during all training days. Side preferences were strong in hens with high levels of plasma corticosterone and with a long duration of tonic immobility, indicating that fearful, stress-sensitive hens are more prone to develop side biases. Our results show that learning can be hindered by side biases, and fearful animals with a more proactive personality type are more sensitive to develop such biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Learning style preferences: A study of pre-clinical medical students in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    OJEH, NKEMCHO; SOBERS-GRANNUM, NATASHA; GAUR, UMA; UDUPA, ALAYA; MAJUMDER, MD.ANWARUL AZIM

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students’ learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R) and kinesthetic (K)] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compare the perceived and assessed learning style preferences, assess gender differences in learning style preferences, and determine whether any relationships exists between awareness of learning styles and academic grades, age, gender and learning modality. Methods: The VARK questionnaire was administered to pre-clinical students taking a variety of courses in the first three years of the undergraduate MB BS degree programme at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados in 2014. Results: The majority of the students were multimodal learners with no differences observed between males (59.5%) and females (60.0%), with tetramodal being the most common. Read/write (33.8%) followed by kinesthetic (32.5%) were the most common learning style preferences. The sensory modality preference for females was read/write (34.2%) and for males it was kinesthetic (40.5%). Significant differences were observed between the perceived and assessed learning style preferences with a majority of visual and read/write learners correctly matching their perceived to their actual learning styles. Awareness of learning styles was associated with learning modality but not with academic performance, age or gender. Overall, 60.7% of high achievers used multimodal learning compared to 56.9% low achievers. Conclusion: The findings from this study indicated that the VARK tool was useful in gathering information about different learning styles, and might assist

  13. Learning style preferences: A study of pre-clinical medical students in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeh, Nkemcho; Sobers-Grannum, Natasha; Gaur, Uma; Udupa, Alaya; Majumder, Md Anwarul Azim

    2017-10-01

    Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students' learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R) and kinesthetic (K)] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compare the perceived and assessed learning style preferences, assess gender differences in learning style preferences, and determine whether any relationships exists between awareness of learning styles and academic grades, age, gender and learning modality. The VARK questionnaire was administered to pre-clinical students taking a variety of courses in the first three years of the undergraduate MB BS degree programme at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados in 2014. The majority of the students were multimodal learners with no differences observed between males (59.5%) and females (60.0%), with tetramodal being the most common. Read/write (33.8%) followed by kinesthetic (32.5%) were the most common learning style preferences. The sensory modality preference for females was read/write (34.2%) and for males it was kinesthetic (40.5%). Significant differences were observed between the perceived and assessed learning style preferences with a majority of visual and read/write learners correctly matching their perceived to their actual learning styles. Awareness of learning styles was associated with learning modality but not with academic performance, age or gender. Overall, 60.7% of high achievers used multimodal learning compared to 56.9% low achievers. The findings from this study indicated that the VARK tool was useful in gathering information about different learning styles, and might assist educators in designing blended teaching

  14. Learning style preferences: A study of Pre-clinical Medical Students in Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NKEMCHO OJEH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students’ learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V, aural (A, read/write (R and kinesthetic (K] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compare the perceived and assessed learning style preferences, assess gender differences in learning style preferences, and determine whether any relationships exists between awareness of learning styles and academic grades, age, gender and learning modality. Methods: The VARK questionnaire was administered to preclinical students taking a variety of courses in the first three years of the undergraduate MB BS degree programme at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados in 2014. Results: The majority of the students were multimodal learners with no differences observed between males (59.5% and females (60.0%, with tetramodal being the most common. Read/write (33.8% followed by kinesthetic (32.5% were the most common learning style preferences. The sensory modality preference for females was read/write (34.2% and for males it was kinesthetic (40.5%. Significant differences were observed between the perceived and assessed learning style preferences with a majority of visual and read/write learners correctly matching their perceived to their actual learning styles. Awareness of learning styles was associated with learning modality but not with academic performance, age or gender. Overall, 60.7% of high achievers used multimodal learning compared to 56.9% low achievers. Conclusion: The findings from this study indicated that the VARK tool was useful in gathering information about different learning styles, and might

  15. Willingness and preferences of nurses related to learning with technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth W; Bedford, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    To what extent are nurses willing to learn with technology-enhanced tools, such as online education, podcasts, webcasts, mobile learning, and realistic simulations? What factors influence their willingness? This article includes a description of a mixed methodology study that addressed these questions. Nurses of all ages indicated a willingness to learn with a variety of technological tools. Primary determinants of willingness were associated with ease of use, familiarity, convenience, and perceived benefit.

  16. Study preferences for exemplar variability in self-regulated category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N; DeSoto, K Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Increasing exemplar variability during category learning can enhance classification of novel exemplars from studied categories. Four experiments examined whether participants preferred variability when making study choices with the goal of later classifying novel exemplars. In Experiments 1-3, participants were familiarised with exemplars of birds from multiple categories prior to making category-level assessments of learning and subsequent choices about whether to receive more variability or repetitions of exemplars during study. After study, participants classified novel exemplars from studied categories. The majority of participants showed a consistent preference for variability in their study, but choices were not related to category-level assessments of learning. Experiment 4 provided evidence that study preferences were based primarily on theoretical beliefs in that most participants indicated a preference for variability on questionnaires that did not include prior experience with exemplars. Potential directions for theoretical development and applications to education are discussed.

  17. Personal value preferences, group identifications, and cultural practices of Palestinian Israelis working in close contact with Jewish Israelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene; Abu Kheit, Ayat

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the connection between personal value preferences, group identifications, and cultural practices among Palestinian Israelis working in close contact with the Jewish population in Israel. One hundred twenty-two Palestinian Israelis participated in the study. The participants were employed in different professional positions in the Tel Aviv Metropolitan area and were recruited to the study using the snowball technique. A stronger national identification was associated with a higher preference for the security and conformity values, and a lower preference for the humility values. A stronger ethnic identification was associated with a lower preference for the security, power, and stimulation values. Group identifications mediated the connection between personal value preferences and cultural practices. A longer time working in close contact with the majority group and less frequent visits home were associated with a greater adherence to the majority group's cultural practices but not with adherence to the ethnic group's practices and not with the group identifications.

  18. Student learning style preferences in college-level biology courses: Implications for teaching and academic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitton, Jennifer Susan

    Education research has focused on defining and identifying student learning style preferences and how to incorporate this knowledge into teaching practices that are effective in engaging student interest and transmitting information. One objective was determining the learning style preferences of undergraduate students in Biology courses at New Mexico State University by using the online VARK Questionnaire and an investigator developed survey (Self Assessed Learning Style Survey, LSS). Categories include visual, aural, read-write, kinesthetic, and multimodal. The courses differed in VARK single modal learning preferences (p = 0.035) but not in the proportions of the number of modes students preferred (p = 0.18). As elsewhere, the majority of students were multimodal. There were similarities and differences between LSS and VARK results and between students planning on attending medical school and those not. Preferences and modalities tended not to match as expected for ratings of helpfulness of images and text. To detect relationships between VARK preferred learning style and academic performance, ANOVAs were performed using modality preferences and normalized learning gains from pre and post tests over material taught in the different modalities, as well as on end of semester laboratory and lecture grades. Overall, preference did not affect the performance for a given modality based activity, quiz, or final lecture or laboratory grades (p > 0.05). This suggests that a student's preference does not predict an improved performance when supplied with material in that modality. It is recommended that methods be developed to aid learning in a variety of modalities, rather than catering to individual learning styles. Another topic that is heavily debated in the field of education is the use of simulations or videos to replace or supplement dissections. These activities were compared using normalized learning gains from pre and post tests, as well as attitude surveys

  19. The Preference of Visualization in Teaching and Learning Absolute Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyalioglu, Alper Cihan; Aksu, Zeki; Senel, Esma Ozge

    2012-01-01

    Visualization is mostly despised although it complements and--sometimes--guides the analytical process. This study mainly investigates teachers' preferences concerning the use of the visualization method and determines the extent to which they encourage their students to make use of it within the problem-solving process. This study was conducted…

  20. Activity Based Learning in a Freshman Global Business Course: Analyses of Preferences and Demographic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Mark F.; Guy, Paul W.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates pre-business students' reaction to Activity Based Learning in a lower division core required course entitled Introduction to Global Business in the business curriculum at California State University Chico. The study investigates students' preference for Activity Based Learning in comparison to a more traditional…

  1. What Do Students Want? Making Sense of Student Preferences in Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechenkina, Ekaterina; Aeschliman, Carol

    2017-01-01

    This article, with its focus on university students as intended recipients and users of technological innovations in education, explores student preferences across three dimensions of technology-enhanced learning: mode of instruction; communication; and educational technology tools embedded in learning and teaching activities. The article draws on…

  2. Preferences for Deep-Surface Learning: A Vocational Education Case Study Using a Multimedia Assessment Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Simon; Robertson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This research tests the proposition that the integration of a multimedia assessment activity into a Diploma of Events Management program promotes a deep learning approach. Firstly, learners' preferences for deep or surface learning were evaluated using the revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire. Secondly, after completion of an assessment…

  3. Student Preferences for Live versus Virtual Rats in a Learning Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcoro, Mirari; Trundle, Melissa B.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the preference of undergraduate students for a live or a virtual rat when learning about concepts of operant conditioning. Students were provided with the opportunity to directly compare a virtual and a live rat in a supplemental exercise for Learning courses. We argue that the design of teaching exercises should involve a systematic…

  4. Predicting High School Student Use of Learning Strategies: The Role of Preferred Learning Styles and Classroom Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the predictiveness of preferred learning styles (competitive and cooperative) and classroom climate (teacher support and disciplinary climate) on learning strategy use in mathematics. The student survey part of the Programme for International Student Assessment 2003 comprising of 4633 US observations was used in a weighted…

  5. Personalization of immediate feedback to learning styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasilyeva, E.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Gavrilova, T.; Puuronen, S.; Spector, J.M.; Sampson, D.G.; Okamoto, T.; Cerri, S.A.; Ueno, M.; Kashihara, A.

    2007-01-01

    Feedback provided to a user is an important part of learning and interaction in e-learning systems. In this paper we present the results of our pilot experiment aimed to study interrelation between several types of immediate feedback presentation and learning styles (LSs) of users. In the experiment

  6. Paramedic Learning Style Preferences and Continuing Medical Education Activities: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staple, Louis; Carter, Alix; Jensen, Jan L; Walker, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Paramedics participate in continuing medical education (CME) to maintain their skills and knowledge. An understanding of learning styles is important for education to be effective. This study examined the preferred learning styles of ground ambulance paramedics and describes how their preferred learning styles relate to the elective CME activities these paramedics attend. All paramedics (n=1,036) employed in a provincial ground ambulance service were invited to participate in a survey containing three parts: demographics, learning style assessed by the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (LSI), and elective CME activity. 260 paramedics (25%) participated in the survey. Preferred learning styles were: assimilator, 28%; diverger, 25%; converger, 24%; and accommodator, 23%. Advanced life support (ALS) providers had a higher proportion of assimilators (36%), and basic life support (BLS) providers had a higher proportion of divergers (30%). The learning style categories of CME activities attended by paramedics were: assimilators, 25%; divergers, 26%; convergers, 25%; and accommodators, 24%. These results suggest that paramedics are a diverse group of learners, and learning style differs within their demographics. Paramedics attend CME activities that complement all learning styles. Organizations providing education opportunities to paramedics should consider paramedics a diverse learning group when designing their CME programs.

  7. The Influence of Learning on Host Plant Preference in a Significant Phytopathogen Vector, Diaphorina citri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara G Stockton

    Full Text Available Although specialist herbivorous insects are guided by innate responses to host plant cues, host plant preference may be influenced by experience and is not dictated by instinct alone. The effect of learning on host plant preference was examined in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; vector of the causal agent of citrus greening disease or huanglongbing. We investigated: a whether development on specific host plant species influenced host plant preference in mature D. citri; and b the extent of associative learning in D. citri in the form of simple and compound conditioning. Learning was measured by cue selection in a 2-choice behavioral assay and compared to naïve controls. Our results showed that learned responses in D. citri are complex and diverse. The developmental host plant species influenced adult host plant preference, with female psyllids preferring the species on which they were reared. However, such preferences were subject to change with the introduction of an alternative host plant within 24-48 hrs, indicating a large degree of experience-dependent response plasticity. Additionally, learning occurred for multiple sensory modalities where novel olfactory and visual environmental cues were associated with the host plant. However, males and females displayed differing discriminatory abilities. In compound conditioning tasks, males exhibited recognition of a compound stimulus alone while females were capable of learning the individual components. These findings suggest D. citri are dynamic animals that demonstrate host plant preference based on developmental and adult experience and can learn to recognize olfactory and visual host plant stimuli in ways that may be sex specific. These experience-based associations are likely used by adults to locate and select suitable host plants for feeding and reproduction and may suggest the need for more tailored lures and traps, which reflect region-specific cultivars or predominate

  8. The Influence of Learning on Host Plant Preference in a Significant Phytopathogen Vector, Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Dara G; Martini, Xavier; Patt, Joseph M; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2016-01-01

    Although specialist herbivorous insects are guided by innate responses to host plant cues, host plant preference may be influenced by experience and is not dictated by instinct alone. The effect of learning on host plant preference was examined in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; vector of the causal agent of citrus greening disease or huanglongbing. We investigated: a) whether development on specific host plant species influenced host plant preference in mature D. citri; and b) the extent of associative learning in D. citri in the form of simple and compound conditioning. Learning was measured by cue selection in a 2-choice behavioral assay and compared to naïve controls. Our results showed that learned responses in D. citri are complex and diverse. The developmental host plant species influenced adult host plant preference, with female psyllids preferring the species on which they were reared. However, such preferences were subject to change with the introduction of an alternative host plant within 24-48 hrs, indicating a large degree of experience-dependent response plasticity. Additionally, learning occurred for multiple sensory modalities where novel olfactory and visual environmental cues were associated with the host plant. However, males and females displayed differing discriminatory abilities. In compound conditioning tasks, males exhibited recognition of a compound stimulus alone while females were capable of learning the individual components. These findings suggest D. citri are dynamic animals that demonstrate host plant preference based on developmental and adult experience and can learn to recognize olfactory and visual host plant stimuli in ways that may be sex specific. These experience-based associations are likely used by adults to locate and select suitable host plants for feeding and reproduction and may suggest the need for more tailored lures and traps, which reflect region-specific cultivars or predominate Rutaceae in the area

  9. A unique, culture-aware, personalized learning environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillman Swinke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines what current learning systems offer towards the idea of a multi- dimensional learning system. It will show the requirements for a multi-dimensional learning system and that no current system is able to meet them. Therefore a new model is proposed that is not only capable of fulfilling the requirements for cultural diversity but also of satisfying the rising demand for personalization that has been rising in the course of the last twenty years. This new model will enable systems, which bring the personalization of e- learning to the next level.

  10. Typical Intellectual Engagement, Big Five Personality Traits, Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Ability Predictors of Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Monsen, Jeremy; Ahmetoglu, Gorkan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Both ability (measured by power tests) and non-ability (measured by preference tests) individual difference measures predict academic school outcomes. These include fluid as well as crystalized intelligence, personality traits, and learning styles. This paper examines the incremental validity of five psychometric tests and the sex and…

  11. Personalization and Contextualization of Learning Experiences based on Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Capuano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context-aware e-learning is an educational model that foresees the selection of learning resources to make the e-learning content more relevant and suitable for the learner in his/her situation. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that an ontological approach can be used to define leaning contexts and to allow contextualizing learning experiences finding out relevant topics for each context. To do that, we defined a context model able to formally describe a learning context, an ontology-based model enabling the representation of a teaching domain (including context information and a methodology to generate personalized and context-aware learning experiences starting from them. Based on these theoretical components we improved an existing system for personalized e-learning with contextualisation features and experimented it with real users in two University courses. The results obtained from this experimentation have been compared with those achieved by similar systems.

  12. Learning Explainable User Sentiment and Preferences for Information Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Pappas, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, online social networks have enabled people to interact in many ways with each other and with content. The digital traces of such actions reveal people's preferences towards online content such as news or products. These traces often result from interactions such as sharing or liking, but also from interactions in natural language. The continuous growth of the amount of content and of digital traces has led to information overload: surrounded by large volumes of informatio...

  13. Personal Profiles: Enhancing Social Interaction in Learning Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berlanga, Adriana; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Brouns, Francis; Sloep, Peter; Fetter, Sibren

    2009-01-01

    Berlanga, A. J., Bitter-Rijpkema, M., Brouns, F., Sloep, P. B., & Fetter, S. (2011). Personal Profiles: Enhancing Social Interaction in Learning Networks. International Journal of Web Based Communities, 7(1), 66-82.

  14. Educational Modelling Language and Learning Design: new challenges for instructional re-usability and personalized learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, Hans; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Tattersall, Colin; Koper, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Published: Hummel, H. G. K., Manderveld, J. M., Tattersall, C.,& Koper, E. J. R. (2004). Educational Modelling Language: new challenges for instructional re-usability and personalized learning. International Journal of Learning Technology, 1, 1, 110-111.

  15. The relationship between learning preferences (styles and approaches) and learning outcomes among pre-clinical undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Siaw-Cheok; Sidhu, Jagmohni; Barua, Ankur

    2015-03-11

    Learning styles and approaches of individual undergraduate medical students vary considerably and as a consequence, their learning needs also differ from one student to another. This study was conducted to identify different learning styles and approaches of pre-clinical, undergraduate medical students and also to determine the relationships of learning preferences with performances in the summative examinations. A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 419 pre-clinical, undergraduate medical students of the International Medical University (IMU) in Kuala Lumpur. The number of students from Year 2 was 217 while that from Year 3 was 202. The Visual, Auditory, Read/Write, Kinesthetic (VARK) and the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) questionnaires were used for data collection. This study revealed that 343 students (81.9%) had unimodal learning style, while the remaining 76 (18.1%) used a multimodal learning style. Among the unimodal learners, a majority (30.1%) were of Kinesthetic (K) type. Among the middle and high achievers in summative examinations, a majority had unimodal (Kinaesthetic) learning style (30.5%) and were also strategic/deep learners (79.4%). However, the learning styles and approaches did not contribute significantly towards the learning outcomes in summative examinations. A majority of the students in this study had Unimodal (Kinesthetic) learning style. The learning preferences (styles and approaches) did not contribute significantly to the learning outcomes. Future work to re-assess the viability of these learning preferences (styles and approaches) after the incorporation of teaching-learning instructions tailored specifically to the students will be beneficial to help medical teachers in facilitating students to become more capable learners.

  16. Learning Tools for Knowledge Nomads: Using Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) in Web-based Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Christian Sebastian

    2001-01-01

    Examines how mobile computers, or personal digital assistants (PDAs), can be used in a Web-based learning environment. Topics include wireless networks on college campuses; online learning; Web-based learning technologies; synchronous and asynchronous communication via the Web; content resources; Web connections; and collaborative learning. (LRW)

  17. Personalized Age Progression with Bi-Level Aging Dictionary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiangbo; Tang, Jinhui; Li, Zechao; Lai, Hanjiang; Zhang, Liyan; Yan, Shuicheng

    2018-04-01

    Age progression is defined as aesthetically re-rendering the aging face at any future age for an individual face. In this work, we aim to automatically render aging faces in a personalized way. Basically, for each age group, we learn an aging dictionary to reveal its aging characteristics (e.g., wrinkles), where the dictionary bases corresponding to the same index yet from two neighboring aging dictionaries form a particular aging pattern cross these two age groups, and a linear combination of all these patterns expresses a particular personalized aging process. Moreover, two factors are taken into consideration in the dictionary learning process. First, beyond the aging dictionaries, each person may have extra personalized facial characteristics, e.g., mole, which are invariant in the aging process. Second, it is challenging or even impossible to collect faces of all age groups for a particular person, yet much easier and more practical to get face pairs from neighboring age groups. To this end, we propose a novel Bi-level Dictionary Learning based Personalized Age Progression (BDL-PAP) method. Here, bi-level dictionary learning is formulated to learn the aging dictionaries based on face pairs from neighboring age groups. Extensive experiments well demonstrate the advantages of the proposed BDL-PAP over other state-of-the-arts in term of personalized age progression, as well as the performance gain for cross-age face verification by synthesizing aging faces.

  18. A Randomized Crossover Design to Assess Learning Impact and Student Preference for Active and Passive Online Learning Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunuske, Amy J; Henn, Lisa; Brearley, Ann M; Prunuske, Jacob

    Medical education increasingly involves online learning experiences to facilitate the standardization of curriculum across time and space. In class, delivering material by lecture is less effective at promoting student learning than engaging students in active learning experience and it is unclear whether this difference also exists online. We sought to evaluate medical student preferences for online lecture or online active learning formats and the impact of format on short- and long-term learning gains. Students participated online in either lecture or constructivist learning activities in a first year neurologic sciences course at a US medical school. In 2012, students selected which format to complete and in 2013, students were randomly assigned in a crossover fashion to the modules. In the first iteration, students strongly preferred the lecture modules and valued being told "what they need to know" rather than figuring it out independently. In the crossover iteration, learning gains and knowledge retention were found to be equivalent regardless of format, and students uniformly demonstrated a strong preference for the lecture format, which also on average took less time to complete. When given a choice for online modules, students prefer passive lecture rather than completing constructivist activities, and in the time-limited environment of medical school, this choice results in similar performance on multiple-choice examinations with less time invested. Instructors need to look more carefully at whether assessments and learning strategies are helping students to obtain self-directed learning skills and to consider strategies to help students learn to value active learning in an online environment.

  19. Construction of health preferences: a comparison of direct value assessment and personal narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstholt, José H; van der Zwaard, Fred; Bart, Hans; Cremers, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Most terminally ill patients prefer to die at home rather than at an institution. However, patients are often insufficiently aware of the downsides of staying at home, which signals a need for effective decision aids. The main purpose of the present study was to compare indirect methods of value elicitation (personal narratives["stories"] in text or video) with a direct method (assessment of the subjective importance of each attribute). The authors asked 183 participants to evaluate 3 possible places to die: home, hospice, and nursing home. The participants received 1 of 3 value elicitation methods. The main dependent variable was participants' evaluations of the choice options before and after value elicitation, measured on a 100-point scale. A shift occurred between pre- and posttest, F(4, 342) = 4.11, P = 0.003, only with the indirect methods. When text and videos were used, participants became more positive about a hospice (text: 41.9 to 49.1; video: 52.9 to 60.3). In the video condition, participants also became more positive about a nursing home (from 20.9 to 24.9). Stories have more impact in shaping people's preferences than merely asking for an assessment of attribute importance. The most straightforward explanation for this effect is that stories, particularly when presented in video, provide a better image of potential consequences.

  20. The importance of cultivating a preference for complexity in veterinarians for effective lifelong learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Vicki H M; Pierce, Stephanie E; May, Stephen A

    2010-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the link between students' approaches to study and the quality of their learning. Less attention has been paid to the lifelong learner. We conceptualized a tripartite relationship between three measures of learning preference: conceptions of knowledge (construction and use vs. intake), need for cognition (high vs. low), and approach to study (deep vs. surface) and hypothesized that an individual's profile on these three measures-reconceptualized as a preference for complexity versus simplicity-would affect their attitude toward continuing professional development (CPD). A questionnaire was mailed to 2,000 randomly selected, home-practicing UK veterinarians to quantify their learning preferences, motivation to engage in CPD, and perception of barriers to participation and to assess the relationships between these constructs. Analysis of 775 responses (a 38.8% response rate) confirmed our tripartite model of learning and showed that a preference for complexity was negatively correlated with barriers and positively correlated with intrinsic, social, and extrinsic motivating factors, suggesting that all play a role in the continuing education of this group of professionals. A preference for simplicity was negatively correlated with social motivation and positively correlated with barriers. This study demonstrates that approach not only affects the quality of learning but crucially affects motivation to engage in CPD and perception of barriers to lifelong learning. This should emphasize to veterinary educators the importance of fostering a preference for complexity from an early age, both in terms of its immediate benefits (better understanding) and longer-term benefits (continued engagement with learning).

  1. Learning Styles Preferences of Statistics Students: A Study in the Faculty of Business and Economics at the UAE University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Darwish Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Although there are many studies addressing the learning styles of business students as well as students of other disciplines, there are few studies which address the learning style preferences of statistics students. The purpose of this study is to explore the learning style preferences of statistics students at a United Arab Emirates…

  2. The new learning environment is personal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.

    2013-01-01

    In a traditional sense the learning environment is qualified as the institutional setting for the teaching and learning to take place. This comprises the students, the teachers, management, the services and all the buildings, the classrooms, the equipment, the tools and laboratories that constitute

  3. Soft Systems Methodology for Personalized Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Uday

    2015-01-01

    There are two sides to a coin when it comes to implementing technology at universities; on one side, there is the university using technologies via the virtual learning environment that seems to be outdated with the digital needs of the students, and on the other side, while implementing technology at the university learning environment the focus…

  4. Learning preferences and attitudes by multi-criteria overlap dominance and relevance functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Nielsen, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes an interval-valued multi-criteria method for learning preferences and attitudes, identifying priorities with maximal robustness for decision support. The method is based on the notion of weighted overlap dominance, formalized by means of aggregation operators and interval......-valued fuzzy sets. The procedure handles uncertainty by estimating the likelihood of dominance among pairs of alternatives, inducing an attitude-based system of dominance and indifference relations. This system allows conflicting situations of indifference/dependency to arise, which need to be resolved...... for properly identifying preferences under any attitude. In order to do so, relevance functions are examined over the whole system of relations, obtaining a weak preference order together with its associated attitude and robustness index. As a result, the proposed method allows learning preferences...

  5. Millennial Students' Preferred Methods for Learning Concepts in Psychiatric Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Janet K

    2015-09-01

    The current longitudinal, descriptive, and correlational study explored which traditional teaching strategies can engage Millennial students and adequately prepare them for the ultimate test of nursing competence: the National Council Licensure Examination. The study comprised a convenience sample of 40 baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in a psychiatric nursing course. The students were exposed to a variety of traditional (e.g., PowerPoint(®)-guided lectures) and nontraditional (e.g., concept maps, group activities) teaching and learning strategies, and rated their effectiveness. The students' scores on the final examination demonstrated that student learning outcomes met or exceeded national benchmarks. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. From Personal to Social: Learning Environments that Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Mar; Guilana, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    VLE (Virtual Learning Environments) are rapidly falling short to meet the demands of a networked society. Web 2.0 and social networks are proving to offer a more personalized, open environment for students to learn formally as they are already doing informally. With the irruption of social media into society, and therefore, education, many voices…

  7. Dyslexia and Learning a Foreign Language: A Personal Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Charlann S.

    2000-01-01

    This participant observer report reviews research on how dyslexia complicates learning a second language, a description of how dyslexia has affected educational experiences, personal experiences learning a foreign language, and recommendations to individuals with dyslexia who are faced with fulfilling a foreign language requirement and their…

  8. Constant Change: The Ever-Evolving Personal Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Kompen, Ricardo; Monguet, Josep Ma.; Brigos, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    There are several definitions for the term "personal learning environment" (PLE); in this article, PLE refers to a group of web technologies, with various degrees of integration and interaction, that helps users and learners manage the flow of information that relates to the learning process, the creation of knowledge, and the…

  9. On Sparse Multi-Task Gaussian Process Priors for Music Preference Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Larsen, Jan

    In this paper we study pairwise preference learning in a music setting with multitask Gaussian processes and examine the effect of sparsity in the input space as well as in the actual judgments. To introduce sparsity in the inputs, we extend a classic pairwise likelihood model to support sparse...... simulation shows the performance on a real-world music preference dataset which motivates and demonstrates the potential of the sparse Gaussian process formulation for pairwise likelihoods....

  10. Preferred Methods of Learning for Nursing Students in an On-Line Degree Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Debra; Pearce, Patricia F; Moser, Debra K

    Investigators have demonstrated that on-line courses result in effective learning outcomes, but limited information has been published related to preferred teaching strategies. Delivery of on-line courses requires various teaching methods to facilitate interaction between students, content, and technology. The purposes of this study were to understand student teaching/learning preferences in on-line courses to include (a) differences in preferred teaching/learning methods for on-line nursing students across generations and (b) which teaching strategies students found to be most engaging and effective. Participants were recruited from 2 accredited, private school nursing programs (N=944) that admit students from across the United States and deliver courses on-line. Participants provided implied consent, and 217 (23%) students completed the on-line survey. Thirty-two percent of the students were from the Baby Boomer generation (1946-1964), 48% from Generation X (1965-1980), and 20% from the Millennial Generation (born after 1980). The preferred teaching/learning methods for students were videos or narrated PowerPoint presentations, followed by synchronous Adobe Connect educations sessions, assigned journal article reading, and e-mail dialog with the instructor. The top 2 methods identified by participants as the most energizing/engaging and most effective for learning were videos or narrated PowerPoint presentations and case studies. The teaching/learning method least preferred by participants and that was the least energizing/engaging was group collaborative projects with other students; the method that was the least effective for learning was wikis. Baby Boomers and Generation X participants had a significantly greater preference for discussion board (PBaby Boomer and Generation X students and rated on-line games as significantly more energizing/engaging and more effective for learning (PBaby Boomer and Generation X students. In conclusion, the results of this

  11. Neural correlates of reinforcement learning and social preferences in competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Wouter; Talwar, Arjun; McClure, Samuel M

    2013-01-30

    In competitive social environments, people often deviate from what rational choice theory prescribes, resulting in losses or suboptimal monetary gains. We investigate how competition affects learning and decision-making in a common value auction task. During the experiment, groups of five human participants were simultaneously scanned using MRI while playing the auction task. We first demonstrate that bidding is well characterized by reinforcement learning with biased reward representations dependent on social preferences. Indicative of reinforcement learning, we found that estimated trial-by-trial prediction errors correlated with activity in the striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Additionally, we found that individual differences in social preferences were related to activity in the temporal-parietal junction and anterior insula. Connectivity analyses suggest that monetary and social value signals are integrated in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and striatum. Based on these results, we argue for a novel mechanistic account for the integration of reinforcement history and social preferences in competitive decision-making.

  12. Turkish Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Preferred Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil Ingec, Sebnem

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the dominant learning styles of pre-service physics teachers and to examine them in terms of variables such as gender, information and communication technologies skills, academic achievement and type of motivation. Survey model was used. The sample composed of 50 pre-service physics teachers. The data were collected…

  13. Teamwork orientation and personal learning: The role of individual cultural values and value congruence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: There is a growing body of research that indicates that personal factors such as collectivist value orientation play an important role in individuals’ preference for teamwork, and an individual’s propensity to work in a team is seen as a contributing factor in one’s personal learning. Research purpose: The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, the article aims to explore whether individual-level cultural values of power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity–femininity interact with individual collectivist values to influence teamwork orientation. Secondly, the study aims to examine the influence of teamwork orientation on personal learning further exploring the role of perceived value congruence in this relationship. Motivation for the study: While an extensive amount of research has been conducted on teamwork orientation, the question of how individual cultural values influence formation of teamwork orientation is still largely unanswered. This lack is especially evident with regard to how the influence of collectivism on the development of positive attitudes towards teamwork is promoted or inhibited by other values such as power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity–femininity. Moreover, the current evidence about the influence of teamwork orientation on personal learning and the role of personal and contextual factors in such a relationship is still scarce. Research design, approach and method: The study used a cross-sectional survey, with data collected from 120 business students engaged in project teams at a Norwegian university. All the hypothesised relationships were assessed using partial least square structural equation modelling technique. Main findings: The findings indicate that the link between collectivism–teamwork orientation is stronger for team members who scored high on uncertainty avoidance values and the relationship was weaker for team members who endorsed high

  14. Psychological Characteristics of Personality in Students with Learning Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T A Shilova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research of the psychological characteristics of the personality of a student with learning difficulties from the position of the mismatch of mental development in operational sphere. The article considers the system of methods of research with the personality-oriented approach. The influence of certain psychological characteristics of a personality on the outcome of the study is revealed. The ways of building correctional-developing programmes for psychological preparation of junior schoolchildren for successful learning are shown.

  15. First year medical students' learning style preferences and their correlation with performance in different subjects within the medical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Torrano, Daniel; Ali, Syed; Chan, Chee-Kai

    2017-08-08

    Students commencing their medical training arrive with different educational backgrounds and a diverse range of learning experiences. Consequently, students would have developed preferred approaches to acquiring and processing information or learning style preferences. Understanding first-year students' learning style preferences is important to success in learning. However, little is understood about how learning styles impact learning and performance across different subjects within the medical curriculum. Greater understanding of the relationship between students' learning style preferences and academic performance in specific medical subjects would be valuable. This cross-sectional study examined the learning style preferences of first-year medical students and how they differ across gender. This research also analyzed the effect of learning styles on academic performance across different subjects within a medical education program in a Central Asian university. A total of 52 students (57.7% females) from two batches of first-year medical school completed the Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire, which measures four dimensions of learning styles: sensing-intuitive; visual-verbal; active-reflective; sequential-global. First-year medical students reported preferences for visual (80.8%) and sequential (60.5%) learning styles, suggesting that these students preferred to learn through demonstrations and diagrams and in a linear and sequential way. Our results indicate that male medical students have higher preference for visual learning style over verbal, while females seemed to have a higher preference for sequential learning style over global. Significant associations were found between sensing-intuitive learning styles and performance in Genetics [β = -0.46, B = -0.44, p styles and performance in Genetics [β = 0.36, B = 0.43, p learning techniques. Instructors can also benefit by modifying and adapting more appropriate teaching approaches in these

  16. Teachers' Self-Initiated Professional Learning through Personal Learning Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, Ekaterina

    2017-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that to be able to teach language and literacy with digital technologies, teachers need to engage in relevant professional learning. Existing formal models of professional learning are often criticised for being ineffective. In contrast, informal and self-initiated forms of learning have been recently recognised as…

  17. Personalized e-Learning Environments: Considering Students' Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyharabide, Victoria; Gasparini, Isabela; Schiaffino, Silvia; Pimenta, Marcelo; Amandi, Analía

    Personalization in e-learning systems is vital since they are used by a wide variety of students with different characteristics. There are several approaches that aim at personalizing e-learning environments. However, they focus mainly on technological and/or networking aspects without caring of contextual aspects. They consider only a limited version of context while providing personalization. In our work, the objective is to improve e-learning environment personalization making use of a better understanding and modeling of the user’s educational and technological context using ontologies. We show an example of the use of our proposal in the AdaptWeb system, in which content and navigation recommendations are provided depending on the student’s context.

  18. Learning behaviour and preferences of family medicine residents under a flexible academic curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Alice; Wong, Eric; Boisvert, Leslie

    2014-11-01

    To determine family medicine residents' learning behaviour and preferences outside of clinical settings in order to help guide the development of an effective academic program that can maximize their learning. Retrospective descriptive analysis of academic learning logs submitted by residents as part of their academic training requirements between 2008 and 2011. London, Ont. All family medicine residents at Western University who had completed their academic program requirements (N = 72) by submitting 300 or more credits (1 credit = 1 hour). Amount of time spent on various learning modalities, location where the learning took place, resources used for self-study, and the objective of the learning activity. A total of 72 residents completed their academic requirements during the study period and logged a total of 25 068 hours of academic learning. Residents chose to spend most of their academic time engaging in self-study (44%), attending staff physicians' teaching sessions (20%),and participating in conferences, courses, or workshops (12%) and in postgraduate medical education sessions (12%). Textbooks (26%), medical journals (20%), and point-of-care resources (12%) were the 3 most common resources used for self-study. The hospital (32%), residents' homes (32%),and family medicine clinics (14%) were the most frequently cited locations where academic learning occurred. While all physicians used a variety of educational activities, most residents (67%) chose self-study as their primary method of learning. The topic for academic learning appeared to have some influence on the learning modalities used by residents. Residents used a variety of learning modalities and chose self-study over other more traditional modalities (eg, lectures) for most of their academic learning. A successful academic program must take into account residents' various learning preferences and habits while providing guidance and training in the use of more effective learning methods and

  19. Beauty matters: social preferences in a three-person ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Hu, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Preference for beauty is human nature, as previous behavior studies have supported the notion of "beauty premium" in which attractive people were more easily to get promoted and receive higher salaries. In the present study, 29 males were recruited to participate in a three-person ultimatum game (UG) including a proposer, a responder and a powerless third player. Each subject, playing as the responder, had to decide whether to accept an offer from the allocator both for himself and a female third person. We aimed to elucidate how the facial attractiveness of the female subject affected the male subjects' fairness and decision-making in social exchanges. Frontal feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to four offers in an attractive-face condition revealed no significant differences between offers; however, when the companion was an unattractive female, an "unfair/fair" offer, which assigned a lower share to the responder and a fair share to the third player, elicited the largest FRN. Furthermore, when the third player was offered the smallest amount ("fair/unfair" offer), a larger FRN was generated in an attractive-face condition than unattractive-face condition. In the "unfair/fair" offer condition in which subjects received a smaller allocation than the third person, the beauty of their female counterparts attenuated subjects' aversion to inequality, resulting in a less negative FRN in the frontal region and an increased acceptance ratio. However, the influence of the third player's facial attractiveness only affected the early evaluation stage: late P300 was found to be immune to the "beauty premium". Under the two face conditions, P300 was smallest following an "unfair/fair" offer, whereas the amplitudes in the other three offer conditions exhibited no significant differences. In addition, the differentiated neural features of processing facial attractiveness were also determined and indexed by four event-related potentials (ERP) components: N170, frontal

  20. Learning style preferences of dental students at a single institution in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, evaluated using the VARK questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldosari MA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad A Aldosari, Aljazi H Aljabaa, Fares S Al-Sehaibany, Sahar F Albarakati Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Students differ in their preferred methods of acquiring, processing, and recalling new information. The aim of this study was to investigate the learning style preferences of undergraduate dental students and examine the influence of gender, Grade Point Average (GPA, and academic year levels on these preferences.Methods: The Arabic version of the visual, aural, read/write, and kinesthetic (VARK questionnaire was administered to 491 students from the first- to the fifth-year academic classes at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the learning styles of the students, and Chi-square test and Fisher’s test were used to compare the learning preferences between genders and among academic years. Significance was set at a p-value of <0.05.Results: A total of 368 dental students completed the questionnaire. The multimodal learning style was preferred by 63.04% of the respondents, with the remaining 36% having a unimodal style preference. The aural (A and the kinesthetic (K styles were the most preferred unimodal styles. The most common style overall was the quadmodal (VARK style with 23.64% having this preference. These differences did not reach statistical significance (p>0.05. Females were more likely to prefer a bimodal learning style over a unimodal style (relative risk =2.37. Students with a GPA of “C” were less likely to have a bimodal or a quadmodal style preference compared to students with a GPA of “A” (relative risk =0.34 and 0.36, respectively. Second-year students were less likely to prefer a bimodal over a unimodal style compared to first-year students (relative risk =0.34.Conclusion: The quadmodal VARK style is the preferred learning method chosen by dental students

  1. Learning deep features with adaptive triplet loss for person reidentification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Sang, Nong; Chen, Kezhou; Gao, Changxin; Wang, Ruolin

    2018-03-01

    Person reidentification (re-id) aims to match a specified person across non-overlapping cameras, which remains a very challenging problem. While previous methods mostly focus on feature extraction or metric learning, this paper makes the attempt in jointly learning both the global full-body and local body-parts features of the input persons with a multichannel convolutional neural network (CNN) model, which is trained by an adaptive triplet loss function that serves to minimize the distance between the same person and maximize the distance between different persons. The experimental results show that our approach achieves very promising results on the large-scale Market-1501 and DukeMTMC-reID datasets.

  2. E-Learning and Further Education: How do Individual Learning Paths support Personal Learning Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertil Haack

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The MOPEM project includes two fixed scenarios that have been defined to convey the idea of "learning paths". Our aim in this paper is to demonstrate the contexts and conditions for flexible learning paths that can be tailored to meet individual needs. The concept of this kind of specialised path is to enable learners to individualise the learning process and to adjust it to their personal needs. We will outline the background and pro- vide examples to explain the concept of learning stations which we use in our four courses: Online Marketing, CRM Systems, Business Communications and Event Marketing. This idea of "freely" combining subject matter naturally leads to the ques- tion of multi-applicability for the learning blocks in various educational contexts. The answers to this question are interest- ing not only in terms of the feasibility of learning paths from a content and didactic point of view, but also with regard to the economic viability of E-Learning or Blended Learning Systems, which ultimately require technical implementation. In addition we will present some first thoughts on the design of a prototype "Content Pool". It would, however, only make sense to develop and implement this within the scope of a follow-up project.

  3. Innate Host Habitat Preference in the Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata: Functional Significance and Modifications through Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F Segura

    Full Text Available Parasitoids searching for polyphagous herbivores can find their hosts in a variety of habitats. Under this scenario, chemical cues from the host habitat (not related to the host represent poor indicators of host location. Hence, it is unlikely that naïve females show a strong response to host habitat cues, which would become important only if the parasitoids learn to associate such cues to the host presence. This concept does not consider that habitats can vary in profitability or host nutritional quality, which according to the optimal foraging theory and the preference-performance hypothesis (respectively could shape the way in which parasitoids make use of chemical cues from the host habitat. We assessed innate preference in the fruit fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata among chemical cues from four host habitats (apple, fig, orange and peach using a Y-tube olfactometer. Contrary to what was predicted, we found a hierarchic pattern of preference. The parasitism rate realized on these fruit species and the weight of the host correlates positively, to some extent, with the preference pattern, whereas preference did not correlate with survival and fecundity of the progeny. As expected for a parasitoid foraging for generalist hosts, habitat preference changed markedly depending on their previous experience and the abundance of hosts. These findings suggest that the pattern of preference for host habitats is attributable to differences in encounter rate and host quality. Host habitat preference seems to be, however, quite plastic and easily modified according to the information obtained during foraging.

  4. VARK learning preferences and mobile anatomy software application use in pre-clinical chiropractic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J; Stomski, Norman J; Innes, Stanley I; Armson, Anthony J

    2016-05-06

    Ubiquitous smartphone ownership and reduced face-to-face teaching time may lead to students making greater use of mobile technologies in their learning. This is the first study to report on the prevalence of mobile gross anatomy software applications (apps) usage in pre-clinical chiropractic students and to ascertain if a relationship exists between preferred learning styles as determined by the validated VARK(©) questionnaire and use of mobile anatomy apps. The majority of the students who completed the VARK questionnaire were multimodal learners with kinesthetic and visual preferences. Sixty-seven percent (73/109) of students owned one or more mobile anatomy apps which were used by 57 students. Most of these students owned one to five apps and spent less than 30 minutes per week using them. Six of the top eight mobile anatomy apps owned and recommended by the students were developed by 3D4Medical. Visual learning preferences were not associated with time spent using mobile anatomy apps (OR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.12-1.40). Similarly, kinesthetic learning preferences (OR = 1.88, 95% CI 0.18-20.2), quadmodal preferences (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.06-9.25), or gender (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 0.48-4.81) did not affect the time students' spent using mobile anatomy apps. Learning preferences do not appear to influence students' time spent using mobile anatomy apps. Anat Sci Educ 9: 247-254. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Towards AI-powered personalization in MOOC learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Han; Miao, Chunyan; Leung, Cyril; White, Timothy John

    2017-12-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) represent a form of large-scale learning that is changing the landscape of higher education. In this paper, we offer a perspective on how advances in artificial intelligence (AI) may enhance learning and research on MOOCs. We focus on emerging AI techniques including how knowledge representation tools can enable students to adjust the sequence of learning to fit their own needs; how optimization techniques can efficiently match community teaching assistants to MOOC mediation tasks to offer personal attention to learners; and how virtual learning companions with human traits such as curiosity and emotions can enhance learning experience on a large scale. These new capabilities will also bring opportunities for educational researchers to analyse students' learning skills and uncover points along learning paths where students with different backgrounds may require different help. Ethical considerations related to the application of AI in MOOC education research are also discussed.

  6. Vocational students' learning preferences: the interpretability of ipsative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P J

    2000-02-01

    A number of researchers have argued that ipsative data are not suitable for statistical procedures designed for normative data. Others have argued that the interpretability of such analyses of ipsative data are little affected where the number of variables and the sample size are sufficiently large. The research reported here represents a factor analysis of the scores on the Canfield Learning Styles Inventory for 1,252 students in vocational education. The results of the factor analysis of these ipsative data were examined in a context of existing theory and research on vocational students and lend support to the argument that the factor analysis of ipsative data can provide sensibly interpretable results.

  7. Personal health records in the Netherlands: potential user preferences quantified by a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determann, Domino; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Heldoorn, Marcel; Pedersen, Line Bjørnskov; de Wit, G Ardine

    2017-05-01

    To identify groups of potential users based on their preferences for characteristics of personal health records (PHRs) and to estimate potential PHR uptake. We performed a discrete choice experiment, which consisted of 12 choice scenarios, each comprising 2 hypothetical PHR alternatives and an opt-out. The alternatives differed based on 5 characteristics. The survey was administered to Internet panel members of the Dutch Federation of Patients and Consumer Organizations. We used latent class models to analyze the data. A total of 1,443 potential PHR users completed the discrete choice experiment. We identified 3 latent classes: "refusers" (class probability 43%), "eager adopters" (37%), and "reluctant adopters" (20%). The predicted uptake for the reluctant adopters ranged from 4% in the case of a PHR with the worst attribute levels to 68% in the best case. Those with 1 or more chronic diseases were significantly more likely to belong to the eager adopter class. The data storage provider was the most decisive aspect for the eager and reluctant adopters, while cost was most decisive for the refusers. Across all classes, health care providers and independent organizations were the most preferred data storage providers. We identified 3 groups, of which 1 group (more than one-third of potential PHR users) indicated great interest in a PHR irrespective of PHR characteristics. Policymakers who aim to expand the use of PHRs will be most successful when health care providers and health facilities or independent organizations store PHR data while refraining from including market parties. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Representing adaptive and adaptable Units of Learning. How to model personalized eLearning in IMS Learning Design

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos, Daniel; Tattersall, Colin; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Burgos, D., Tattersall, C., & Koper, E. J. R. (2007). Representing adaptive and adaptable Units of Learning. How to model personalized eLearning in IMS Learning Design. In B. Fernández Manjon, J. M. Sanchez Perez, J. A. Gómez Pulido, M. A. Vega Rodriguez & J. Bravo (Eds.), Computers and Education: E-learning - from theory to practice. Germany: Kluwer.

  9. Interactive Preference Learning of Utility Functions for Multi-Objective Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Dewancker, Ian; McCourt, Michael; Ainsworth, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Real-world engineering systems are typically compared and contrasted using multiple metrics. For practical machine learning systems, performance tuning is often more nuanced than minimizing a single expected loss objective, and it may be more realistically discussed as a multi-objective optimization problem. We propose a novel generative model for scalar-valued utility functions to capture human preferences in a multi-objective optimization setting. We also outline an interactive active learn...

  10. Just Google It: Young Children's Preferences for Touchscreens versus Books in Hypothetical Learning Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Sierra; Lillard, Angeline S

    2016-01-01

    Children today regularly interact with touchscreen devices (Rideout, 2013) and thousands of "educational" mobile applications are marketed to them (Shuler, 2012). Understanding children's own ideas about optimal learning has important implications for education, which is being transformed by electronic mobile devices, yet we know little about how children think about such devices, including what children think touchscreens are useful for. Based on a prior result that children prefer a book over a touchscreen for learning about dogs, the present study explored how children view touchscreens versus books for learning an array of different types of information. Seventy children ages 3-6 were presented with six different topics (cooking, today's weather, trees, vacuums, Virginia, and yesterday's football game) and chose whether a book or a touchscreen device would be best to use to learn about each topic. Some of this information was time-sensitive, like the current weather; we predicted that children would prefer a touchscreen for time-sensitive information. In addition, each child's parent was surveyed about the child's use of books and touchscreens for educational purposes, both at home and in school. Results indicated that younger children had no preference between books and touchscreen devices across learning tasks. However, 6-year-olds were significantly more likely to choose the touchscreen for several topics. Surprisingly, 6-year-olds chose a touchscreen device to learn about time-sensitive weather conditions, but not yesterday's football. Children's choices were not associated with their use of books and touchscreens at home and school.

  11. E-Learning Personalization Based on Hybrid Recommendation Strategy and Learning Style Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasnja-Milicevic, Aleksandra; Vesin, Boban; Ivanovic, Mirjana; Budimac, Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Personalized learning occurs when e-learning systems make deliberate efforts to design educational experiences that fit the needs, goals, talents, and interests of their learners. Researchers had recently begun to investigate various techniques to help teachers improve e-learning systems. In this paper, we describe a recommendation module of a…

  12. A Model to Investigate Preference for Use of Gamification in a Learning Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Filippou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Applying the engaging and motivating aspects of video games in non-game contexts is known as gamification. Education can benefit from gamification by improving the learning environment to make it more enjoyable and engaging for students. Factors that influence students’ preference for use of gamification are identified. Students are surveyed on their experiences of playing a gamified quiz, named Quick Quiz, during class. Quick Quiz features several gamification elements such as points, progress bars, leader boards, timers, and charts. Data collected from the survey is analysed using Partial Least Squares. Factors including ‘usefulness’, ‘preference for use’, ‘knowledge improvement’, ‘engagement’, ‘immersion’ and ‘enjoyment’ were found to be significant determinants.  Students were found to have a preference for use for gamification in their learning environment.

  13. General Education Oral Communication Assessment and Student Preferences for Learning: E-Textbook versus Paper Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Karen Kangas; Davidson, Marlina M.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a yearly university mandated assessment of a large basic communication course that fulfills the oral communication general education requirement, this study examined student preferences for textbooks, reading, and learning. Specifically, basic course students ("N"=321) at a large state university in the Midwest were asked to…

  14. The Flexible Learning Needs and Preferences of Regional Occupational Therapy Students In Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldenryk, Lynne; Bradey, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the flexible learning needs and preferences of occupational therapy students from a regional Australian university. Participants ("n"?=?170) were surveyed using a quantitative survey tool. Findings were analysed using SPSS to determine significant differences between variable attributes of the student cohort.…

  15. Generation Y Health Professional Students ’ Preferred Teaching and Learning Approaches: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Mary Hills

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generation Y or Millennials are descriptors for those born between 1982 and 2000. This cohort has grown up in the digital age and is purported to have different learning preferences from previous generations. Students are important stakeholders in identifying their preferred teaching and learning approaches in health professional programs. This study aimed to identify, appraise, and synthesize the best available evidence regarding the teaching and learning preferences of Generation Y health professional students. The review considered any objectively measured or self-reported outcomes of teaching and learning reported from Generation Y health professional student perspectives. In accordance with a previously published Joanna Briggs Institute Protocol, a three-step search strategy was completed. Two research articles (nursing and dental hygiene students and three dissertations (nursing were critically appraised. All studies were cross-sectional descriptive studies. A range of pedagogical approaches was reported, including lecture, group work, and teaching clinical skills. Based on the Joanna Briggs Institute levels of evidence, reviewers deemed the evidence as Level 3. Some generational differences were reported, but these were inconsistent across the studies reviewed. There is, therefore, insufficient evidence to provide specific recommendations for the preferred educational approaches of health professional students and further research is warranted.

  16. The Relationship between Perceptual Learning Style Preferences and Multiple Intelligences among Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Shayeghi, Rose

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationships between preferences of Multiple Intelligences and perceptual/social learning styles. Two self-report questionnaires were administered to a total of 207 male and female participants. Pearson correlation results revealed statistically significant positive relations between…

  17. A scalable method for online learning of non-linear preferences based on anonymous negotiation data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somefun, D.J.A.; Poutré, la J.A.

    2006-01-01

    We consider the problem of a shop agent negotiating bilaterally with many customers about a bundle of goods or services together with a price. To facilitate the shop agent's search for mutually beneficial alternative bundles, we develop a method for online learning customers' preferences, while

  18. A Correlational Study of Self-Directed Learning Readiness and Learning Activity Preference for Continuing Medical Education among Family Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Theresa J.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative, nonexperimental, correlational study sought to determine whether a relationship exists between family physicians' levels of self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) and their preferences for continuing medical education (CME) activities. The study also sought to determine whether years in clinical practice or size of clinical…

  19. Personal and Professional Characteristics of Music Education Professors: Factors Associated with Expectations and Preferences of Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Tiger

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine music education undergraduate students' expectations of and preferences for their music education faculty members' personal and professional backgrounds and compare them to the actual backgrounds of current music teacher educators. The research questions were: Do music education undergraduate students…

  20. Examining Gender with General Creativity and Preferences for Creative Persons in College Students within the Sciences and the Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charyton, Christine; Basham, Kimberly M.; Elliott, John O.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to investigate gender similarities and differences in general creativity constructs with their preferences for creative persons. Data were collected from 247 participants (87 engineering, 24 psychology students with a psychology major, 51 psychology students with a major other than psychology, 30 English, and 55…

  1. A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Students' Preferences for Lecturers' Personalities in Britain, Malaysia and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Maakip, Ismail; Ahmad, Sharani; Hudani, Nurul; Voo, Peter S. K.; Christopher, Andrew N.; Garwood, Jeanette

    2007-01-01

    This study examined students' preferences for lecturers' personalities on three continents. Two-hundred and 35 university students in Malaysia, 347 university students in Britain and 139 university students in the United States provided ratings of 30 desirable and undesirable lecturer trait characteristics, which were coded into an internally…

  2. Learning Preferences and Impacts of Education Programs in Dog Health Programs in Five Rural and Remote Australian Indigenous Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Sophie; Dixon, Roselyn; Dixon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As part of strategies to improve dog and community health in rural and remote Indigenous communities, this study investigated preferences and impacts of dog health education programs. Semistructured interviews with 63 residents from five communities explored learning preferences. Though each community differed, on average yarning was preferred by…

  3. Danish obstetricians' personal preference and general attitude to elective cesarean section on maternal request: a nation-wide postal survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholt, Thomas; Østberg, Birgitte; Legarth, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess Danish obstetricians' and gynecologists' personal preference and general attitude towards elective cesarean section on maternal request in uncomplicated single cephalic pregnancies at term. DESIGN: Nation-wide anonymous postal questionnaire. POPULATION: Four hundred and fifty......-five obstetricians and gynecologists identified in the records of the Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology from January 2000. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Personal preference on the mode of delivery and general attitude towards elective cesarean section on maternal request in an uncomplicated single cephalic...... pregnancies at term. RESULTS: Of Danish specialists in obstetrics and gynecology, 1.1% would prefer an elective cesarean section in an uncomplicated pregnancy at 37 weeks of gestation with fetal weight estimation of 3.0 kg. This rose to 22.5% when the fetal weight estimation was 4.5 kg at 37 weeks. The main...

  4. Preferences for Learning and Skill Development at Work: Comparison of Two Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Karaivanova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The changing economic conditions of the current dynamic and insecure labour market make learning a constant preoccupation of the workforce with view of meeting the growing qualification demands. These demands are likely to influence the work preferences of both young people now entering the labour market and older people with established career paths. Research findings suggest that the younger generation exhibits a stronger orientation towards learning and skill development as compared to the older generations. Moreover, studies show that the younger people are more ready to leave the organization when they have better learning opportunities elsewhere. The present study aims at establishing how preferences for learning and skill development in the workplace relate to a number of job and organizational characteristics. Particular focus is placed on the predictive capacity of perceived learning opportunities towards the tendency to leave the organization for either of the two generations. The study addresses work preferences of two generations in the Bulgarian labour market. To this aim, 121 respondents answered a 55-item questionnaire consisting of newly developed scales as well as scales based on or adopted from standardized instruments such as the Extended Delft Measurement Kit (Roe et al., 2000. Contrary to findings from previous research done in countries with different cultural and socio-economic background, the older people in our sample were more eager to learn and more ready to leave their organization in pursuit of better opportunities, as compared to the younger generation. Another noteworthy conclusion is that the preferences for learning and development form different patterns in each of the two age groups and are expressed in a different way for each of the two generations.

  5. Music Preference, Depression, Suicidal Preoccupation, and Personality: Comment on Stack and Gundlach's Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Whipple, Melissa

    1996-01-01

    In a sample of students (n=93), preference for country and western music was not associated with depression or suicidal preoccupation as has been suggested by Stack and Gundlach. However, preference for heavy metal music was associated with prior suicidal ideation. Stronger associations were found between music preferences and measures of…

  6. The effect of personal experience on choice-based preferences for wildfire protection programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Holmes; Armando Gonzalez-Caban; John Loomis; Jose Sanchez

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate homeowner preferences and willingness to pay for wildfire protection programs using a choice experiment with three attributes: risk, loss and cost. Preference heterogeneity among survey respondents was examined using three econometric models and risk preferences were evaluated by comparing willingness to pay for wildfire protection...

  7. Agency matters! Social preferences in the three-person ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Johanna; Pfabigan, Daniela M; Göschl, Florian; Bauer, Herbert; Fischmeister, Florian Ph S

    2013-01-01

    In the present study EEG was recorded simultaneously while two participants were playing the three-person ultimatum game (UG). Both participants received different offers from changing proposers about how to split up a certain amount of money between the three players. One of the participants had no say, whereas the other, the responder, was able to harm the payoff of all other players. The aim of the study was to investigate how the outcomes of the respective other are evaluated by participants who were treated fairly or unfairly themselves and to what extent agency influences concerns for fairness. Analyses were focused on the medial frontal negativity (MFN) as an early index for subjective value assignment. Recipients with veto-power exhibited enhanced, more negative-going, MFN amplitudes following proposals that comprised a low share for both recipients, suggesting that responders favored offers with a fair amount to at least one of the two players. Though, the powerless players cared about the amount assigned to the responder, MFN amplitudes were larger following fair compared to unfair offers assigned to the responder. Similarly, concerns for fairness which determined the amplitude of the MFN, suggested that the powerless players exhibited negative and conversely the responders, positive social preferences.

  8. Interdisciplinary and inter-institutional differences in learning preferences among Malaysian medical and health sciences students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REBECCA S.Y. WONG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The learner-centred approach in medical and health sciences education makes the study of learning preferences relevant and important. This study aimed to investigate the interdisciplinary, interinstitutional, gender and racial differences in the preferred learning styles among Malaysian medical and health sciences students in three Malaysian universities, namely SEGi University (SEGi, University of Malaya (UM and Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR. It also investigated the differences in the preferred learning styles of these students between high achievers and non-high achievers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on medical and health sciences students from three Malaysian universities following the approval of the Research and Ethics Committee, SEGi University. Purposive sampling was used and the preferred learning styles were assessed using the VARK questionnaire. The questionnaire was validated prior to its use. Three disciplines (medicine, pharmacy and dentistry were chosen based on their entry criteria and some similarities in their course structure. The three participating universities were Malaysian universities with a home-grown undergraduate entry medical program and students from a diverse cultural and socioeconomic background. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software, version 22. VARK subscale scores were expressed as mean±standard deviation. Comparisons of the means were carried out using t-test or ANOVA. A p value of 0.05. Conclusion: This study gives an insight into the learner characteristics of more than one medical school in Malaysia. Such multi-institutional studies are lacking in the published literature and this study gives a better representation of the current situation in the learning preferences among medical students in Malaysia.

  9. Interdisciplinary and inter-institutional differences in learning preferences among Malaysian medical and health sciences students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rebecca S Y; Siow, Heng Loke; Kumarasamy, Vinoth; Shaherah Fadhlullah Suhaimi, Nazrila

    2017-10-01

    The learner-centred approach in medical and health sciences education makes the study of learning preferences relevant and important. This study aimed to investigate the interdisciplinary, inter-institutional, gender and racial differences in the preferred learning styles among Malaysian medical and health sciences students in three Malaysian universities, namely SEGi University (SEGi), University of Malaya (UM) and Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR). It also investigated the differences in the preferred learning styles of these students between high achievers and non-high achievers. This cross-sectional study was carried out on medical and health sciences students from three Malaysian universities following the approval of the Research and Ethics Committee, SEGi University. Purposive sampling was used and the preferred learning styles were assessed using the VARK questionnaire. The questionnaire was validated prior to its use. Three disciplines (medicine, pharmacy and dentistry) were chosen based on their entry criteria and some similarities in their course structure. The three participating universities were Malaysian universities with a home-grown undergraduate entry medical program and students from a diverse cultural and socioeconomic background. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 22. VARK subscale scores were expressed as mean+standard deviation. Comparisons of the means were carried out using t-test or ANOVA. A p value of 0.05). This study gives an insight into the learner characteristics of more than one medical school in Malaysia. Such multi-institutional studies are lacking in the published literature and this study gives a better representation of the current situation in the learning preferences among medical students in Malaysia.

  10. E-learning systems intelligent techniques for personalization

    CERN Document Server

    Klašnja-Milićević, Aleksandra; Ivanović, Mirjana; Budimac, Zoran; Jain, Lakhmi C

    2017-01-01

    This monograph provides a comprehensive research review of intelligent techniques for personalisation of e-learning systems. Special emphasis is given to intelligent tutoring systems as a particular class of e-learning systems, which support and improve the learning and teaching of domain-specific knowledge. A new approach to perform effective personalization based on Semantic web technologies achieved in a tutoring system is presented. This approach incorporates a recommender system based on collaborative tagging techniques that adapts to the interests and level of students' knowledge. These innovations are important contributions of this monograph. Theoretical models and techniques are illustrated on a real personalised tutoring system for teaching Java programming language. The monograph is directed to, students and researchers interested in the e-learning and personalization techniques. .

  11. The Role of Work-Integrated Learning in Student Preferences of Instructional Methods in an Accounting Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, Indra

    2015-01-01

    The role of work-integrated learning in student preferences of instructional methods is largely unexplored across the accounting curriculum. This study conducted six experiments to explore student preferences of instructional methods for learning, in six courses of the accounting curriculum that differed in algorithmic rigor, in the context of a…

  12. The effect of surgical resident learning style preferences on American Board of Surgery In-training Examination scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy; Ristig, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature that suggests that learners assimilate information differently, depending on their preferred learning style. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), kinesthetic (K), or multimodal (MM). We hypothesized that resident VARK learning style preferences and American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) performance are associated. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was administered to all general surgery residents at a university hospital-based program each year to determine their preferred learning style. Resident scores from the 2012 and 2013 ABSITE were examined to identify any correlation with learning style preferences. Over a 2-year period, residents completed 53 VARK inventory assessments. Most (51%) had a multimodal preference. Dominant aural and read/write learners had the lowest and highest mean ABSITE scores, respectively (p = 0.03). Residents with dominant read/write learning preferences perform better on the ABSITE than their peers did, whereas residents with dominant aural learning preferences underperform on the ABSITE. This may reflect an inherent and inadvertent bias of the examination against residents who prefer to learn via aural modalities. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adaptive E- Learning System Based on Personalized Learning Style

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... motivation to this research is to improve the learner performance and achieve the ... valuable factor for enhancing learning process by adopting an effective .... Video. Reflective Intuitive. Primer Test. Verbal Sequential. Tutorial.

  14. By the numbers: Structure-seeking individuals prefer quantitative over qualitative representations of personal value to compensate for the threat of unclear performance contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Zachary K; Landau, Mark J; Sullivan, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    What combination of dispositional and situational factors leads people to represent their personal value in quantitative terms (e.g., salary) rather than qualitative terms (e.g., virtue)? Integrating research on quantitative information seeking, dispositional epistemic motivation, and learned helplessness, the current article hypothesized that individuals high, but not low, in uncertainty avoidance (measured with the Personal Need for Structure Scale [PNS]) would prefer quantitative (over qualitative) value representations to compensate for the diminished self-esteem certainty caused by exposure to unclear performance contingencies. Accordingly, in Study 1 high-PNS participants exposed to unclear (vs. clear) performance contingencies in one domain (visual intelligence) preferred a quantitative value representation in another domain (verbal intelligence). Study 2 showed that this effect is mediated by self-esteem certainty, not self-esteem level. Study 3 included a failure feedback condition to further isolate the role of epistemic motivation, as distinct from self-enhancement motivation, in driving the tendency to quantify personal value.

  15. Do general practitioners' risk-taking propensities and learning styles influence their continuing medical education preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    US studies have shown that a clinician's risk-taking propensity significantly predicts clinical behaviour. Other US studies examining relationships between family practice doctors' preferences for CME and their Kolb learning style have described conflicting findings. The aim of the present study was to investigate GPs' learning styles, risk-taking propensities and CME preferences, and to explore links between them. A descriptive confidential cross-sectional postal questionnaire survey of the 304 general practitioner principals within Portsmouth and South East Hampshire Health Authority was conducted. Two hundred and seventy-four GPs returned questionnaires, a response rate of 90.1%. The Kolb learning style types were assimilators 43.8% (predominant learning abilities watching and thinking), divergers 21.1% (feeling and watching), convergers 18.3% (doing and thinking), and accommodators 16.8% (doing and feeling). The Pearson risk-taking propensities were 65.8% risk neutral, 19.4% risk seeking and 14.8% risk averse. Risk-seeking GPs were significantly more likely to be accommodators or convergers than divergers or assimilators (p = 0.006). Majorities of 54.9% stated that the present PGEA system works well, 85% welcomed feedback from their peers, and 76.8% stated that learning should be an activity for all the practice team. Further majorities would welcome help to decide their learning needs (63.8%) and are looking to judge CME effectiveness by changes in GP performance or patient care (54.8%). Further significant correlations and cross-tabulations were found between learning style and risk-taking and CME attitudes, experiences and preferences. It is concluded that risk seekers and accommodators (doing and feeling) prefer feedback, interaction and practical hands-on learning, and assimilators (watching and thinking) and the risk averse tend towards lectures, theoretical learning formats and less interactive activities. Sharing feelings in groups may be difficult for

  16. Kiosk versus In-person Screening for Alcohol and Drug Use in the Emergency Department: Patient Preferences and Disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankin, Abigail

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Annually eight million emergency department (ED visits are attributable to alcohol use. Screening ED patients for at-risk alcohol and substance use is an integral component of screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment programs, shown to be effective at reducing substance use. The objective is to evaluate ED patients’ acceptance of and willingness to disclose alcohol/substance use via a computer kiosk versus an in-person interview. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, survey-based study. Eligible participants included those who presented to walk-in triage, were English-speaking, ≥18 years, were clinically stable and able to consent. Patients had the opportunity to access the kiosk in the ED waiting room, and were approached for an in-person survey by a research assistant (9am-5pm weekdays. Both surveys used validated assessment tools to assess drug and alcohol use. Disclosure statistics and preferences were calculated using chi-square tests and McNemar’s test. Results: A total of 1,207 patients were screened: 229 in person only, 824 by kiosk, and 154 by both in person and kiosk. Single-modality participants were more likely to disclose hazardous drinking (p=0.003 and high-risk drug use (OR=22.3 [12.3-42.2]; p<0.0001 via kiosk. Participants who had participated in screening via both modalities were more likely to reveal high-risk drug use on the kiosk (p=0.003. When asked about screening preferences, 73.6% reported a preference for an in-person survey, which patients rated higher on privacy and comfort. Conclusion: ED patients were significantly more likely to disclose at-risk alcohol and substance use to a computer kiosk than an interviewer. Paradoxically patients stated a preference for in-person screening, despite reduced disclosure to a human screener. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:220–228.

  17. Visual diet versus associative learning as mechanisms of change in body size preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda G Boothroyd

    Full Text Available Systematic differences between populations in their preferences for body size may arise as a result of an adaptive 'prepared learning' mechanism, whereby cues to health or status in the local population are internalized and affect body preferences. Alternatively, differences between populations may reflect their 'visual diet' as a cognitive byproduct of mere exposure. Here we test the relative importance of these two explanations for variation in body preferences. Two studies were conducted where female observers were exposed to pictures of high or low BMI women which were either aspirational (healthy, attractive models in high status clothes or non-aspirational (eating disordered patients in grey leotards, or to combinations thereof, in order to manipulate their body-weight preferences which were tested at baseline and at post-test. Overall, results showed good support for visual diet effects (seeing a string of small or large bodies resulted in a change from pre- to post-test whether the bodies were aspirational or not and also some support for the associative learning explanation (exposure to aspirational images of overweight women induced a towards preferring larger bodies, even when accompanied by equal exposure to lower weight bodies in the non-aspirational category. Thus, both influences may act in parallel.

  18. Preferences for Masculinity Across Faces, Bodies, and Personality Traits in Homosexual and Bisexual Chinese Men: Relationship to Sexual Self-Labels and Attitudes Toward Masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lijun; Zheng, Yong

    2016-04-01

    This study examined preferences for masculinity across faces, bodies, and personality traits in 462 homosexual and bisexual men in China. The impact of sexual self-labels (tops, bottoms, and versatiles) and attitude toward male masculinity on preferences for masculinity were also examined. Participants were asked to select the seven most desirable personality traits for a romantic partner from a list of 32 traits of gender roles. A series of 10 masculinized and feminized dimorphic images of male faces and bodies were then presented to participants, who were required to identify their preferred image. The results indicated that participants preferred more masculine faces, bodies, and personality traits. Significant differences in preferences for masculinity were found between tops, bottoms, and versatiles, with both bottoms and versatiles preferring more masculine faces, bodies, and personality traits than did tops. In addition, preferences for masculinity across faces, bodies, and traits showed a significant positive correlation with each other for all sexual self-labels, indicating a consistent preference for masculinity. Attitude toward male masculinity was significantly correlated with facial, body, and trait preferences; individuals with more rigid attitudes toward male masculinity (low acceptance of femininity in males) preferred more masculine characters. These results indicate a consistent preference for masculinity between both physical features (faces and bodies) and personality traits (instrumentality) that may be affected by observer perception.

  19. Male Drosophila melanogaster learn to prefer an arbitrary trait associated with female mating status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verzijden, Machteld Nicolette; Abbott, Jessica K.; Philipsborn, Anne von

    2015-01-01

    Although males are generally less discriminating than females when it comes to choosing a mate, they still benefit from distinguishing between mates that are receptive to courtship and those that are not, in order to avoid wasting time and energy. It is known that males of Drosophila melanogaster...... color, but that males which were trained with sexually receptive females of a given eye color showed a preference for that color during a standard binary choice experiment. The learned cue was indeed likely to be truly visual, since the preference disappeared when the binary choice phase...

  20. Learning in the light of the first-person approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    The intention of this article is to unfold and present the experiential or first-person perspective as a source of the individual's deeper understanding of his/her interplay with a specific context and environment. This perspective will be connected to the concept of the lived body. Embodied...... able to build up well-functioning learning and working communities....

  1. Personal Learning Environments and University Teacher Roles Explored Using Delphi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Zaffar Ahmed; Khoja, Shakeel Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research using an online Delphi method, which aimed to explore university teacher roles and readiness for learner-centred pedagogy, driven by personal learning environments (PLEs). Using a modified Policy Delphi technique, a group of researchers worked with 34 international experts who are university teachers by…

  2. Personality, Self-Regulated Learning, and Academic Entitlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Chelsea K.; Jackson, Dennis L.

    2017-01-01

    The current study explored the relation between the Big-Five personality domains, self-regulated learning, and academic entitlement. Academic entitlement is defined as the tendency to possess expectations of unearned academic success, unearned/undeserved academic services, and/or the expectation of unrealistic accommodation (Chowning and Campbell…

  3. The Development of a Personal Learning Environment in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sandra Sutton; Stokrocki, Mary; Jannasch-Pennell, Angel; DiGangi, Samuel A.

    2010-01-01

    In this qualitative pilot study, the authors report on curriculum field trials within a personal learning environment (PLE) designed by a collaboration of academic researchers and nonprofit volunteers working together in the virtual world of Second Life. The purpose of the PLE is to provide learners less likely to have access to educational…

  4. The effect of adventure-based experiential learning on personal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of Adventure-based Experiential Learning (AEL) in developing the personal effectiveness of adolescents. Twenty three adolescents, currently enrolled in a post-matriculation development centre were studied. The study consisted of an experimental (n=12) and ...

  5. Building Eclectic Personal Learning Landscapes with Open Source Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Kalz, M. (2005). Building Eclectic Personal Learning Landscapes with Open Source Tools. In F. de Vries, G. Attwell, R. Elferink & A. Tödt (Eds.), Open Source for Education in Europe. Research & Practice (= Proceedings of the Open Source for Education in Europe Conference) (pp. 163-168). 2005,

  6. An Analysis of University Students' Attitudes towards Personalized Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Muhittin; Kisla, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze university students' attitudes towards personalized learning environments with respect to the independent variables of gender, age, university, year of study, knowledge about the environment, participation in the environment and being willing to participate in the environment. The correlative survey model is…

  7. Building Eclectic Personal Learning Landscapes with Open Source Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Kalz, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Kalz, M. (2005). Building Eclectic Personal Learning Landscapes with Open Source Tools. In F. de Vries, G. Attwell, R. Elferink & A. Tödt (Eds.), Open Source for Education in Europe. Research & Practice (= Proceedings of the Open Source for Education in Europe Conference) (pp. 163-168). 2005, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  8. 2016 Personalized Learning & Student Success Summit: Summary from the NMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Media Consortium, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The New Media Consortium (NMC) hosted the Personalized Learning & Student Success Summit at SXSWedu on March 7-9 in Austin, Texas. The summit convened grantees and partners of the Postsecondary Strategy at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and served as a call-to-action for education leaders to first imagine if and then commit to trying…

  9. Surgical resident learning styles: faculty and resident accuracy at identification of preferences and impact on ABSITE scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy; Ristig, Kyle; Chu, Quyen D

    2013-09-01

    As a consequence of surgical resident duty hour restrictions, there is a need for faculty to utilize novel teaching methods to convey information in a more efficient manner. The current paradigm of surgical training, which has not changed significantly since the time of Halsted, assumes that all residents assimilate information in a similar fashion. However, recent data has shown that learners have preferences for the ways in which they receive and process information. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), and kinesthetic (K). The VARK learning style preferences of surgical residents have not been previously evaluated. In this study, the preferred learning styles of general surgery residents were determined, along with faculty and resident perception of resident learning styles. In addition, we hypothesized that American Board of Surgery In-Training Exam (ABSITE) scores are associated with preference for a read/write (R) learning style. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was administered to all general surgery residents at a university hospital-based program. Responses on the inventory were scored to determine the preferred learning style for each resident. Faculty members were surveyed to determine their accuracy in identifying the preferred learning style of each resident. All residents were also surveyed to determine their accuracy in identifying their peers' VARK preferences. Resident ABSITE scores were examined for association with preferred learning styles. Twenty-nine residents completed the inventory. Most (18 of 29, 62%) had a multimodal preference, although more than a third (11 of 29, 38%) demonstrated a single-modality preference. Seventy-six percent of all residents (22 of 29) had some degree of kinesthetic (K) learning, while under 50% (14 of 29) were aural (A) learners. Although not significant, dominant (R) learners had the highest mean ABSITE scores. Faculty identified residents' learning styles

  10. When I grow up: the relationship of science learning activation to STEM career preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorph, Rena; Bathgate, Meghan E.; Schunn, Christian D.; Cannady, Matthew A.

    2018-06-01

    This paper proposes three new measures of components STEM career preferences (affinity, certainty, and goal), and then explores which dimensions of science learning activation (fascination, values, competency belief, and scientific sensemaking) are predictive of STEM career preferences. Drawn from the ALES14 dataset, a sample of 2938 sixth and eighth grade middle-school students from 11 schools in two purposefully selected diverse areas (Western Pennsylvania & the Bay Area of California) was used for the analyses presented in this paper. These schools were chosen to represent socio-economic and ethnic diversity. Findings indicate that, overall, youth who are activated towards science learning are more likely to have affinity towards STEM careers, certainty about their future career goals, and have identified a specific STEM career goal. However, different dimensions of science learning activation are more strongly correlated with different aspects career preference across different STEM career foci (e.g. science, engineering, technology, health, etc.). Gender, age, minority status, and home resources also have explanatory power. While many results are consistent with prior research, there are also novel results that offer important fodder for future research. Critically, our strategy of measuring affinity towards the specific disciplines that make up STEM, measuring STEM and health career goals separately, and looking at career affinity and career goals separately, offers interesting results and underscores the value of disentangling the conceptual melting pot of what has previously been known as 'career interest.' Study findings also have implications for design of science learning opportunities for youth.

  11. Learning Preference Models from Data: On the Problem of Label Ranking and Its Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüllermeier, Eyke; Fürnkranz, Johannes

    The term “preference learning” refers to the application of machine learning methods for inducing preference models from empirical data. In the recent literature, corresponding problems appear in various guises. After a brief overview of the field, this work focuses on a particular learning scenario called label ranking where the problem is to learn a mapping from instances to rankings over a finite number of labels. Our approach for learning such a ranking function, called ranking by pairwise comparison (RPC), first induces a binary preference relation from suitable training data, using a natural extension of pairwise classification. A ranking is then derived from this relation by means of a ranking procedure. This paper elaborates on a key advantage of such an approach, namely the fact that our learner can be adapted to different loss functions by using different ranking procedures on the same underlying order relations. In particular, the Spearman rank correlation is minimized by using a simple weighted voting procedure. Moreover, we discuss a loss function suitable for settings where candidate labels must be tested successively until a target label is found. In this context, we propose the idea of “empirical conditioning” of class probabilities. A related ranking procedure, called “ranking through iterated choice”, is investigated experimentally.

  12. Large-scale assessment of olfactory preferences and learning in Drosophila melanogaster: behavioral and genetic components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Versace

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Evolve and Resequence method (E&R, experimental evolution and genomics are combined to investigate evolutionary dynamics and the genotype-phenotype link. As other genomic approaches, this methods requires many replicates with large population sizes, which imposes severe restrictions on the analysis of behavioral phenotypes. Aiming to use E&R for investigating the evolution of behavior in Drosophila, we have developed a simple and effective method to assess spontaneous olfactory preferences and learning in large samples of fruit flies using a T-maze. We tested this procedure on (a a large wild-caught population and (b 11 isofemale lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Compared to previous methods, this procedure reduces the environmental noise and allows for the analysis of large population samples. Consistent with previous results, we show that flies have a preference for orange vs. apple odor. With our procedure wild-derived flies exhibit olfactory learning in the absence of previous laboratory selection. Furthermore, we find genetic differences in the olfactory learning with relatively high heritability. We propose this large-scale method as an effective tool for E&R and genome-wide association studies on olfactory preferences and learning.

  13. The Challenge of Content Creation to Facilitate Personalized E-Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Ali; Gorgun, Ilhami; Conlan, Owen

    2006-01-01

    The runtime creation of pedagogically coherent learning content for an individual learner's needs and preferences is a considerable challenge. By selecting and combining appropriate learning assets into a new learning object such needs and preferences may be accounted for. However, to assure coherence, these objects should be consumed within…

  14. Representing adaptive and adaptable Units of Learning. How to model personalized eLearning in IMS Learning Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Tattersall, Colin; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Burgos, D., Tattersall, C., & Koper, E. J. R. (2007). Representing adaptive and adaptable Units of Learning. How to model personalized eLearning in IMS Learning Design. In B. Fernández Manjon, J. M. Sanchez Perez, J. A. Gómez Pulido, M. A. Vega Rodriguez & J. Bravo (Eds.), Computers and Education:

  15. Personal Learning Environments, Social Media, and Self-Regulated Learning: A Natural Formula for Connecting Formal and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Nada; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    A Personal Learning Environment or PLE is a potentially promising pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning using social media and supporting student self-regulated learning in higher education contexts. The purpose of this paper is to (a) review research that support this claim, (b) conceptualize the connection…

  16. The construction and evaluation of a normative learning style preference questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Viljoen

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Various authors have indicated the need for and value of identifying the learning style preferences of individual learners. Similar needs have been voiced in the South African context.The focal point of this study was the development of a normative instrument for predicting the preferred learning styles of individuals. Secondary aims were to determine whether there are differences between groups formed on the basis of gender, academic qualifications and functional disciplines as far as their learning style preferences are concerned. Based on a review of the literature and an existing questionnaire, namely the Learning Style Inventory (LSI 85, the Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (LSPQ consisting of 136 items was developed and administered to respondents (N= 542 in a large organisation. The LSPQ was subjected to a principal factor analysis and six factors were obtained.The six factors were rotated to simple structure by means of the Direct Oblimin procedure. The matrix of intercorrelations of the six factorswas subjected to a second-order factor analysis and yielded a single factor. Opsomming Verskeie outeurs het na die behoefte aan asook die waarde van identi¢kasie van leerstylvoorkeure van individuele leerders verwys. Soortgelyke behoeftes is ook in Suid-Afrikaanse verband geopper.Die fokus van hierdie studie was die ontwikkeling van ’n normatiewe instrument om die leerstylvoorkeure van individue te meet. Sekondere doelwitte was omte bepaal of daar verskille tussen groepe is wat saamgestel is op grond van geslag, akademiese kwalifikasies en funksionele dissiplines wat hul leerstylvoorkeure betref. Gegrond op ’n oorsig van die literatuur en ’n bestaande vraelys, tewete die ‘‘Learning Style Inventory’’ (LSI 85, is die ‘‘Learning Style PreferenceQuestionnaire‘‘ (LSPQ, bestaande uit 136 items, gekonstrueer en op 542 respondente in’n groot organisasie toegepas. Die LSPQ is aan ’n hoo¡aktorontleding onderwerp en ses

  17. Learning-style preferences of Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in an introductory biology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantopoulos, Helen D.

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify, according to the Productivity Environment Preference Survey (PEPS) instrument, which learning-style domains (environmental, emotional, sociological, and physiological) were favored among Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in introductory biology classes in a large, urban community college. An additional purpose of this study was to determine whether statistically significant differences existed between the learning-style preferences and the demographic variables of age, gender, number of prior science courses, second language learner status, and earlier exposure to scientific information. Methodology. The study design was descriptive and ex post facto. The sample consisted of a total of 332 Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in General Biology 3. Major findings. The study revealed that Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in introductory biology at a large urban community college scored higher for the learning preference element of structure. Students twenty-five years and older scored higher for the learning preference elements of light, design, persistence, responsibility, and morning time (p learning-style preferences were found between second English language learners and those who learned English as their primary language (p tactile (p learning-style model and instruments and on recent learning-style research articles on ethnically diverse groups of adult learners; and (2) Instructors should plan their instruction to incorporate the learning-style preferences of their students.

  18. Milestones and Millennials: A Perfect Pairing-Competency-Based Medical Education and the Learning Preferences of Generation Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desy, Janeve R; Reed, Darcy A; Wolanskyj, Alexandra P

    2017-02-01

    Millennials are quickly becoming the most prevalent generation of medical learners. These individuals have a unique outlook on education and have different preferences and expectations than their predecessors. As evidenced by its implementation by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in the United States and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons in Canada, competency based medical education is rapidly gaining international acceptance. Characteristics of competency based medical education can be perfectly paired with Millennial educational needs in several dimensions including educational expectations, the educational process, attention to emotional quotient and professionalism, assessment, feedback, and intended outcomes. We propose that with its attention to transparency, personalized learning, and frequent formative assessment, competency based medical education is an ideal fit for the Millennial generation as it realigns education and assessment with the needs of these 21st century learners. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Preferred Learning Styles of Neurosurgeons, Neurosurgery Residents, and Neurology Residents: Implications in the Neurosurgical Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yi; Lee, Ching-Yi; Chiu, Angela; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2014-01-01

    To delineate the learning style that best defines a successful practitioner in the field of neurosurgery by using a validated learning style inventory. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory, a validated assessment tool, was administered to all practicing neurosurgeons, neurosurgical residents, and neurology residents employed at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, an institution that provides primary and tertiary clinical care in 3 locations, Linkou, Kaohsiung, and Chiayi. There were 81 participants who entered the study, and all completed the study. Neurosurgeons preferred the assimilating learning style (52%), followed by the diverging learning style (39%). Neurosurgery residents were slightly more evenly distributed across the learning styles; however, they still favored assimilating (32%) and diverging (41%). Neurology residents had the most clearly defined preferred learning style with assimilating (76%) obtaining the large majority and diverging (12%) being a distant second. The assimilating and diverging learning styles are the preferred learning styles among neurosurgeons, neurosurgery residents, and neurology residents. The assimilating learning style typically is the primary learning style for neurosurgeons and neurology residents. Neurosurgical residents start off with a diverging learning style and progress toward an assimilating learning style as they work toward becoming practicing neurosurgeons. The field of neurosurgery has limited opportunities for active experimentation, which may explain why individuals who prefer reflective observation are more likely to succeed in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Social Media as Avenue for Personal Learning for Educators: Personal Learning Networks Encourage Application of Knowledge and Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    Social media sites furnish an online space for a community of practice to create relationships and trust, collaboration and connections, and a personal learning environment. Social networking sites, both public and private, have common elements: member profiles, groups, discussions, and forums. A community of practice brings participants together…

  1. Just Google It: Young Children’s Preferences for Touchscreens Versus Books in Hypothetical Learning Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierra Eisen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Children today regularly interact with touchscreen devices (Rideout, 2013 and thousands of educational mobile applications are marketed to them (Shuler, 2012. Understanding children's own ideas about optimal learning has important implications for education, which is being transformed by electronic mobile devices, yet we know little about how children think about such devices, including what children think touchscreens are useful for. Based on a prior result that children prefer a book over a touchscreen for learning about dogs, the present study explored how children view touchscreens versus books for learning an array of different types of information. Seventy children ages 3 to 6 were presented with six different topics (cooking, today's weather, trees, vacuums, Virginia, and yesterday's football game and chose whether a book or a touchscreen device would be best to use to learn about each topic. Some of this information was time-sensitive, like the current weather; we predicted that children would prefer a touchscreen for time-sensitive information. In addition, each child's parent was surveyed about the child's use of books and touchscreens for educational purposes, both at home and in school. Results indicated that younger children had no preference between books and touchscreen devices across learning tasks. However, 6-year-olds were significantly more likely to choose the touchscreen for several topics. Surprisingly, 6-year-olds chose a touchscreen device to learn about time sensitive weather conditions, but not yesterday's football. Children's choices were not associated with their use of books and touchscreens at home and school.

  2. Just Google It: Young Children’s Preferences for Touchscreens versus Books in Hypothetical Learning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Sierra; Lillard, Angeline S.

    2016-01-01

    Children today regularly interact with touchscreen devices (Rideout, 2013) and thousands of “educational” mobile applications are marketed to them (Shuler, 2012). Understanding children’s own ideas about optimal learning has important implications for education, which is being transformed by electronic mobile devices, yet we know little about how children think about such devices, including what children think touchscreens are useful for. Based on a prior result that children prefer a book over a touchscreen for learning about dogs, the present study explored how children view touchscreens versus books for learning an array of different types of information. Seventy children ages 3–6 were presented with six different topics (cooking, today’s weather, trees, vacuums, Virginia, and yesterday’s football game) and chose whether a book or a touchscreen device would be best to use to learn about each topic. Some of this information was time-sensitive, like the current weather; we predicted that children would prefer a touchscreen for time-sensitive information. In addition, each child’s parent was surveyed about the child’s use of books and touchscreens for educational purposes, both at home and in school. Results indicated that younger children had no preference between books and touchscreen devices across learning tasks. However, 6-year-olds were significantly more likely to choose the touchscreen for several topics. Surprisingly, 6-year-olds chose a touchscreen device to learn about time-sensitive weather conditions, but not yesterday’s football. Children’s choices were not associated with their use of books and touchscreens at home and school. PMID:27713717

  3. "It's like we're grasping at anything": caregivers' education needs and preferred learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastel-Smith, Beth; Stanley-Hermanns, Melinda

    2012-07-01

    In this qualitative descriptive study, we explored caregivers' educational needs and preferred methods of information delivery. Descriptions are based on five focus groups (N = 29) conducted with ethnically diverse, current and past family caregivers, including those who had previously attended a structured educational program. Themes arose from verbatim data transcriptions and coded themes. Four categories of educational needs were identified: (a) respite, (b) caregiving essentials, (c) self-care, and (d) the emotional aspects of caregiving. Advantages and disadvantages of learning methods are discussed, along with reasons for and outcomes of attending caregiver workshops. An informed caregiver model is proposed. Health care providers must assess educational needs and strive to provide appropriate information as dictated by the care recipient's condition and caregiver's expressed desires. Innovative methods of delivering information that are congruent with different caregiving circumstances and learning preferences must be developed and tested.

  4. Place preference and vocal learning rely on distinct reinforcers in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Don; Chen, Ruidong; Goldberg, Jesse H

    2018-04-30

    In reinforcement learning (RL) agents are typically tasked with maximizing a single objective function such as reward. But it remains poorly understood how agents might pursue distinct objectives at once. In machines, multiobjective RL can be achieved by dividing a single agent into multiple sub-agents, each of which is shaped by agent-specific reinforcement, but it remains unknown if animals adopt this strategy. Here we use songbirds to test if navigation and singing, two behaviors with distinct objectives, can be differentially reinforced. We demonstrate that strobe flashes aversively condition place preference but not song syllables. Brief noise bursts aversively condition song syllables but positively reinforce place preference. Thus distinct behavior-generating systems, or agencies, within a single animal can be shaped by correspondingly distinct reinforcement signals. Our findings suggest that spatially segregated vocal circuits can solve a credit assignment problem associated with multiobjective learning.

  5. Danish obstetricians' personal preference and general attitude to elective cesarean section on maternal request: a nation-wide postal survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholt, Thomas; Østberg, Birgitte; Legarth, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess Danish obstetricians' and gynecologists' personal preference and general attitude towards elective cesarean section on maternal request in uncomplicated single cephalic pregnancies at term. DESIGN: Nation-wide anonymous postal questionnaire. POPULATION: Four hundred and fifty......-five obstetricians and gynecologists identified in the records of the Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology from January 2000. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Personal preference on the mode of delivery and general attitude towards elective cesarean section on maternal request in an uncomplicated single cephalic...... indication. Obstetricians and gynecologists who had experienced a noninstrumental vaginal delivery themselves or practiced as a private gynecologist only, were less likely to agree with the woman's right to elective cesarean section on maternal request. CONCLUSION: The vast majority of Danish obstetricians...

  6. A Fuzzy Logic-Based Personalized Learning System for Supporting Adaptive English Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tung-Cheng; Wang, Tzone-I; Su, Chien-Yuan; Lee, Ming-Che

    2012-01-01

    As a nearly global language, English as a Foreign Language (EFL) programs are essential for people wishing to learn English. Researchers have noted that extensive reading is an effective way to improve a person's command of English. Choosing suitable articles in accordance with a learner's needs, interests and ability using an e-learning system…

  7. Personal Learning Environments for Supporting Out-of-Class Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinders, Hayo

    2014-01-01

    A Personal Learning Environment (PLE) it is a combination of tools (usually digital) and resources chosen by the learner to support different aspects of the learning process, from goal setting to materials selection to assessment. The importance of PLEs for teachers lies in their ability to help students develop autonomy and prepare them for…

  8. Differential Programming Needs of College Students Preferring Web-Based Versus In-Person Physical Activity Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Stephanie P; Forman, Evan M; Butryn, Meghan L; Herbert, James D

    2017-09-21

    College students report several barriers to exercise, highlighting a need for university-based programs that address these challenges. In contrast to in-person interventions, several web-based programs have been developed to enhance program engagement by increasing ease of access and lowering the necessary level of commitment to participate. Unfortunately, web-based programs continue to struggle with engagement and less-than-ideal outcomes. One explanation for this discrepancy is that different intervention modalities may attract students with distinctive activity patterns, motivators, barriers, and program needs. However, no studies have formally evaluated intervention modality preference (e.g., web-based or in-person) among college students. The current study sought to examine the relationship between intervention modality preference and physical activity programming needs. Undergraduate students (n = 157) enrolled in psychology courses at an urban university were asked to complete an online survey regarding current activity patterns and physical activity program preferences. Participants preferring web-based physical activity programs exercised less (p = .05), were less confident in their abilities to exercise (p = .01), were less likely to endorse the maintenance stage of change (p web-based programming may require programs that enhance self-efficacy by fostering goal-setting and problem-solving skills. A user-centered design approach may enhance the engagement (and therefore effectiveness) of physical activity promotion programs for college students.

  9. Chinese undergraduates' preferences for altruistic traits in mate selection and personal advertisement: Evidence from Q-sort technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingke; Feng, Linlin; Wang, Mingming

    2017-04-01

    Human's preferences for altruistic mates have been confirmed by many researchers. Under the deep influence of Confucianism that authorised more parental control over offspring's mate selection, Chinese people's mating strategies and mate preferences may be different from what the evolutionary psychologists have suggested. This study used the Q-sort technique to assess the roles of altruistic traits in mate selection and personal advertisement. A total of 200 university students participated in the Q-sort procedures and were asked to sort 50 traits (among which altruistic traits were mixed) according to their importance when choosing (or advertising to) a long-term (LT) or a short-term (ST) mate. Our findings were quite different from prior studies. When Chinese participants chose a mate or advertised themselves to a potential mate, kin altruism was considered to be the most important trait; altruistic traits were more preferred by males than by females and females tended to advertise themselves as more altruistic; preferences for altruistic traits showed no difference between LT and ST mate selections (or between personal advertisement to a LT and a ST mate). © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. Personalized Physical Activity Coaching: A Machine Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talko B. Dijkhuis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Living a sedentary lifestyle is one of the major causes of numerous health problems. To encourage employees to lead a less sedentary life, the Hanze University started a health promotion program. One of the interventions in the program was the use of an activity tracker to record participants' daily step count. The daily step count served as input for a fortnightly coaching session. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of automating part of the coaching procedure on physical activity by providing personalized feedback throughout the day on a participant's progress in achieving a personal step goal. The gathered step count data was used to train eight different machine learning algorithms to make hourly estimations of the probability of achieving a personalized, daily steps threshold. In 80% of the individual cases, the Random Forest algorithm was the best performing algorithm (mean accuracy = 0.93, range = 0.88–0.99, and mean F1-score = 0.90, range = 0.87–0.94. To demonstrate the practical usefulness of these models, we developed a proof-of-concept Web application that provides personalized feedback about whether a participant is expected to reach his or her daily threshold. We argue that the use of machine learning could become an invaluable asset in the process of automated personalized coaching. The individualized algorithms allow for predicting physical activity during the day and provides the possibility to intervene in time.

  11. Toward Personalized Vibrotactile Support When Learning Motor Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga C. Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal tracking technologies allow sensing of the physical activity carried out by people. Data flows collected with these sensors are calling for big data techniques to support data collection, integration and analysis, aimed to provide personalized support when learning motor skills through varied multisensorial feedback. In particular, this paper focuses on vibrotactile feedback as it can take advantage of the haptic sense when supporting the physical interaction to be learnt. Despite each user having different needs, when providing this vibrotactile support, personalization issues are hardly taken into account, but the same response is delivered to each and every user of the system. The challenge here is how to design vibrotactile user interfaces for adaptive learning of motor skills. TORMES methodology is proposed to facilitate the elicitation of this personalized support. The resulting systems are expected to dynamically adapt to each individual user’s needs by monitoring, comparing and, when appropriate, correcting in a personalized way how the user should move when practicing a predefined movement, for instance, when performing a sport technique or playing a musical instrument.

  12. Musical preferences and learning outcome of medical students in cadaver dissection laboratory: A Nigerian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, G E; Nto, J N; Agu, A U; Ekezie, J; Esom, E A

    2016-11-01

    Background music has been reported to enhance learning in the cadaver dissection laboratory. This study was designed to determine the impact of various forms of musical genre and some of their characteristics on students' learning outcome in the dissection laboratory. Some selected musical genre in vocal and non-vocal forms and at different tempi and volume were played as background music (BM) to 253 Medical and Dental students during various sessions of cadaver dissection. Psychological Stress assessment was done using Psychological stress measure-9. Participants love for music, preferred musical genre and other musical characteristics were assessed. The impact of the various musical genre and their characteristics on learning was done via written examination on the region dissected during each musical session. A positive relationship was noted between students' preference for musical genre during leisure with their preference for BM during private study time (Pmusical genre on some selected learning factors. Country and Classical music gave the highest positive impact on the various learning factors in CDL followed by R&B. No significant difference was noted between the cognitive values of vocal and non-vocal music. Classical music most effectively reduced the stress induced by dissection in the CDL while Reggae and High life musical genre created a more stressful environment than regular background noise (Pmusical genre and their various characteristics. The inability to isolate the particular musical genre with these desired properties could account for the controversies in the reports of the role of music in academic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. PREFERENCES ON INTERNET BASED LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS IN STUDENT-CENTERED EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal CUBUKCU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, educational systems are being questionned to find effective solutions to problems that are being encountered, and discussions are centered around the ways of restructuring systems so as to overcome difficulties. As the consequences of the traditional teaching approach, we can indicate that the taught material is not long-lasting but easily forgotten, that students do not sufficiently acquire the knowledge and skills that are aimed at developing, and that students lack transferring their knowledge to real life. In our current situation, individuals prefer to use educational resources where and when they want, based on their individual skills and abilities. Throughout the world, because the internet infrastructure has developed quite rapidly, it has been offered as an alternative way for a rich learning and teaching environment. This study aims at determining teacher candidates’ preferences regarding internet-based learning environments in student-centered education by involving the teacher candidates enrolled at Osmangazi University, Faculty of Education, Primary School Teaching, Mathematics Teaching and Computer and Educational Technologies Education programmes. This study is a descriptive study. The data collection scale consists of the “Constructivist Internet-based Education of Science Scale (CILES-S”. The sample group of teacher candidates in the study showed differences with respect to their preferences regarding internet-based learning in student-centered education. The candidates scored higher in the internet-based learning environments of Cognitive Development and Critical Judgement. The lowest average scores of the sample group were observed in the internet-based learning environment of Episthemologic awareness.

  14. Evidence that personal genome testing enhances student learning in a course on genomics and personalized medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyan Salari

    Full Text Available An emerging debate in academic medical centers is not about the need for providing trainees with fundamental education on genomics, but rather the most effective educational models that should be deployed. At Stanford School of Medicine, a novel hands-on genomics course was developed in 2010 that provided students the option to undergo personal genome testing as part of the course curriculum. We hypothesized that use of personal genome testing in the classroom would enhance the learning experience of students. No data currently exist on how such methods impact student learning; thus, we surveyed students before and after the course to determine its impact. We analyzed responses using paired statistics from the 31 medical and graduate students who completed both pre-course and post-course surveys. Participants were stratified by those who did (N = 23 or did not (N = 8 undergo personal genome testing. In reflecting on the experience, 83% of students who underwent testing stated that they were pleased with their decision compared to 12.5% of students who decided against testing (P = 0.00058. Seventy percent of those who underwent personal genome testing self-reported a better understanding of human genetics on the basis of having undergone testing. Further, students who underwent personal genome testing demonstrated an average 31% increase in pre- to post-course scores on knowledge questions (P = 3.5×10(-6; this was significantly higher (P = 0.003 than students who did not undergo testing, who showed a non-significant improvement. Undergoing personal genome testing and using personal genotype data in the classroom enhanced students' self-reported and assessed knowledge of genomics, and did not appear to cause significant anxiety. At least for self-selected students, the incorporation of personal genome testing can be an effective educational tool to teach important concepts of clinical genomic testing.

  15. A Comparison of the Influence of Anticipated Death Trajectory and Personal Values on End-of-Life Care Preferences: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supiano, Katherine P; McGee, Nancy; Dassel, Kara B; Utz, Rebecca

    2017-08-17

    We examined anticipated preferences for end-of-life (EOL) care in healthy older adults in the context of various terminal disease scenarios to explore the relationship between personal values and diseases and conditions that would influence EOL care choices. Qualitative Descriptive Analysis was used to derive themes and the relationship between EOL preference themes and personal value themes in 365 respondents in a national sample of healthy older adults who completed a survey on their anticipated preferences for end-of-life (EOL) care. Reluctance to burden close others was the most frequently voiced personal value across all conditions affecting EOL preferences, followed by the personal value of quality of life. Concern about whether one's wishes would be honored was more commonly voiced in the context of hypothetical, prospective terminal cancer than in neurological conditions. Respondents who voiced desire for autonomy in how they would die clearly attributed extreme pain as the primary influence on EOL preferences. Comprehensive assessment of patient personal values should include consideration of particular chronic disease scenarios and death trajectories to fully inform EoL preferences. Because personal values do influence EOL preferences, care should be taken to ascertain patient values when presenting diagnoses, prognoses, and treatment options. In particular, patients and families of patients with progressive neurological diseases will likely face a time when the patient cannot self-represent EOL wishes. Early discussion of values and preferences, particularly in the context of cognitive disease is vital to assure patient-directed care.

  16. Students' goal preferences, ethnocultural background and the quality of cooperative learning in secondary vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijzen, Daphne Minette

    2006-01-01

    The thesis presents an exploration of the relationships between students’ motivation, represented by students’ personal goals, and the quality of cooperative learning (CL) processes of first and second year students, enrolled in secondary vocational schools. Special attention has been paid to

  17. Object-oriented user interfaces for personalized mobile learning

    CERN Document Server

    Alepis, Efthimios

    2014-01-01

    This book presents recent research in mobile learning and advanced user interfaces. It is shown how the combination of this fields can result in personalized educational software that meets the requirements of state-of-the-art mobile learning software. This book provides a framework that is capable of incorporating the software technologies, exploiting a wide range of their current advances and additionally investigating ways to go even further by providing potential solutions to future challenges. The presented approach uses the well-known Object-Oriented method in order to address these challenges. Throughout this book, a general model is constructed using Object-Oriented Architecture. Each chapter focuses on the construction of a specific part of this model, while in the conclusion these parts are unified. This book will help software engineers build more sophisticated personalized software that targets in mobile education, while at the same time retaining a high level of adaptivity and user-friendliness w...

  18. Are Surgeons Born or Made? A Comparison of Personality Traits and Learning Styles Between Surgical Trainees and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Ryan A; Cope, Alexandra C

    2016-01-01

    Medical students and surgical trainees differ considerably in both their preferential learning styles and personality traits. This study compares the personality profiles and learning styles of surgical trainees with a cohort of medical students specifically intent on pursuing a surgical career. A cross-sectional study was conducted contrasting surgical trainees with medical students specifying surgical career intent. The 50-item International Personality Item Pool Big-Five Factor Marker (FFM) questionnaire was used to score 5 personality domains (extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness to experience, and neuroticism). The 24-item Learning Style Inventory (LSI) Questionnaire was used to determine the preferential learning styles (visual, auditory, or tactile). χ(2) Analysis and independent samples t-test were used to compare LSI and FFM scores, respectively. Surgical trainees from several UK surgical centers were contrasted to undergraduate medical students. A total of 53 medical students who had specifically declared desire to pursue a surgical career and were currently undertaking an undergraduate intercalated degree in surgical sciences were included and contrasted to 37 UK core surgical trainees (postgraduate years 3-4). The LSI questionnaire was completed by 53 students and 37 trainees. FFM questionnaire was completed by 29 medical students and 34 trainees. No significant difference for learning styles preference was detected between the 2 groups (p = 0.139), with the visual modality being the preferred learning style for both students and trainees (69.8% and 54.1%, respectively). Neuroticism was the only personality trait to differ significantly between the 2 groups, with medical students scoring significantly higher than trainees (2.9 vs. 2.6, p = 0.03). Medical students intent on pursuing a surgical career exhibit similar personality traits and learning styles to surgical trainees, with both groups preferring the visual learning modality

  19. Personal Learning Network Clusters: A Comparison between Mathematics and Computer Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Ansie; Engelbrecht, Johann

    2015-01-01

    "Personal learning environments" (PLEs) and "personal learning networks" (PLNs) are well-known concepts. A personal learning network "cluster" is a small group of people who regularly interact academically and whose PLNs have a non-empty intersection that includes all the other members. At university level PLN…

  20. Parental preferences and allocations of investments in children's learning and health within families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abufhele, Alejandra; Behrman, Jere; Bravo, David

    2017-12-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that parental preferences may be important in determining investment allocations among their children. However, there is mixed or no evidence on a number of important related questions. Do parents invest more in better-endowed children, thus reinforcing differentials among their children? Or do they invest more in less-endowed children to compensate for their smaller endowments and reduce inequalities among their children? Does higher maternal education affect the preferences underlying parental decisions in investing among their children? What difference might such intrafamilial investments among children make? And what is the nature of these considerations in the very different context of developing countries? This paper gives new empirical evidence related to these questions. We examine how parental investments affecting child education and health respond to initial endowment differences between twins within families, as represented by birth weight differences, and how parental preference tradeoffs and therefore parental investment strategies vary between families with different maternal education. Using the separable earnings-transfers model (Behrman et al., 1982), we first illustrate that preference differences may make a considerable difference in the ratios of health and learning differentials between siblings - up to 30% in the simulations that we provide. Using a sample of 2000 twins, collected in the 2012 wave of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey for Chile, we find that preferences are not at the extreme of pure compensatory investments to offset endowment inequalities among siblings nor at the extreme of pure reinforcement to favor the better-endowed child with no concern about inequality. Instead, they are neutral, so that parental investments do not change the inequality among children due to endowment differentials. We also find that there are not significant preference differences between families with low- and high

  1. A New Autonomy-Supportive Way of Teaching That Increases Conceptual Learning: Teaching in Students' Preferred Ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyungshim; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Halusic, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We tested the educational utility of "teaching in students' preferred ways" as a new autonomy-supportive way of teaching to enhance students' autonomy and conceptual learning. A pilot test first differentiated preferred versus nonpreferred ways of teaching. In the main study, a hired teacher who was blind to the purpose of the study…

  2. Learning Style Preferences of Korean-, Mexican-, Armenian-American, and Anglo Students in Secondary Schools. Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Clara C.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated the four basic learning style preferences (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile) of Korean-, Armenian-, and Mexican-American students attending 10 Los Angeles schools and compared them with those of Anglo students. All four ethnic groups, regardless of sex and academic achievement level, indicate a major preference for…

  3. Effectiveness of flavour nutrient learning and mere exposure as mechanisms to increase toddler's intake and preference for green vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de V.W.T.; Graaf, de C.; Jager, G.

    2013-01-01

    Children’s consumption of vegetables is still below recommendations. Since preference is the most important predictor of children’s intake and most children dislike vegetables, new strategies are needed to increase their preferences for vegetables. Flavour nutrient learning (FNL) could be an

  4. An Exploration of the Relationship between Students' Preferences for Formative Feedback and Self-Regulated Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakir, Recep; Korkmaz, Özgen; Bacanak, Ahmet; Arslan, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore students' preferences for formative feedback and its relationship with their self-regulated learning skills. The study used a mixed methods approach in which quantitative data collection and analysis was followed by qualitative data collection and analysis. "Preferences toward Formative Feedback"…

  5. Personalized Resource Recommendations using Learning from Positive and Unlabeled Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank Thakkar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel approach for recommending social resources using learning from positive and unlabeled examples. Bookmarks submitted on social bookmarking system delicious1 and artists on online music system last.fm2 are considered as social resources. The foremost feature of this problem is that there are no labeled negative resources/examples available for learning a recommender/classifier. The memory based collaborative filtering has served as the most widely used algorithm for social resource recommendation. However, its predictions are based on some ad hoc heuristic rules and its success depends on the availability of a critical mass of users. This paper proposes model based two-step techniques to learn a classifier using positive and unlabeled examples to address personalized resource recommendations. In the first step of these techniques, naïve Bayes classifier is employed to identify reliable negative resources. In the second step, to generate effective resource recommender, classification and regression tree and least square support vector machine (LS-SVM are exercised. A direct method based on LS-SVM is also put forward to realize the recommendation task. LS-SVM is customized for learning from positive and unlabeled data. Furthermore, the impact of feature selection on our proposed techniques is also studied. Memory based collaborative filtering as well as our proposed techniques exploit usage data to generate personalized recommendations. Experimental results show that the proposed techniques outperform existing method appreciably.

  6. Evaluating the Influence of Past Gaming Experience on Learner Preferences and Motivation to Learn in a Military Training Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    increased preference for hands-on training. To investigate this theory , a preferred learning style measure was required. An in-depth review of the...Applications. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 78, No. 1 , 98-104. Donald, J. (2005). Voting with Your Hands: GIS and Experiential Learning . Coates...high. Retrieved Jan 24, 2009, from Ipsos News Center: http://www.ipsos- na.com/news/pressrelease.cfm?id=3124 Kolb , D. A. (1984). Experiential

  7. Blue colour preference in honeybees distracts visual attention for learning closed shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawetz, Linde; Svoboda, Alexander; Spaethe, Johannes; Dyer, Adrian G

    2013-10-01

    Spatial vision is an important cue for how honeybees (Apis mellifera) find flowers, and previous work has suggested that spatial learning in free-flying bees is exclusively mediated by achromatic input to the green photoreceptor channel. However, some data suggested that bees may be able to use alternative channels for shape processing, and recent work shows conditioning type and training length can significantly influence bee learning and cue use. We thus tested the honeybees' ability to discriminate between two closed shapes considering either absolute or differential conditioning, and using eight stimuli differing in their spectral characteristics. Consistent with previous work, green contrast enabled reliable shape learning for both types of conditioning, but surprisingly, we found that bees trained with appetitive-aversive differential conditioning could additionally use colour and/or UV contrast to enable shape discrimination. Interestingly, we found that a high blue contrast initially interferes with bee shape learning, probably due to the bees innate preference for blue colours, but with increasing experience bees can learn a variety of spectral and/or colour cues to facilitate spatial learning. Thus, the relationship between bee pollinators and the spatial and spectral cues that they use to find rewarding flowers appears to be a more rich visual environment than previously thought.

  8. Impact of selected personal factors on seasonal variability of recreationist weather perceptions and preferences in Warsaw (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner-Cendrowska, Katarzyna; Błażejczyk, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    Weather and climate are important natural resources for tourism and recreation, although sometimes they can make outdoor leisure activities less satisfying or even impossible. The aim of this work was to determine weather perception seasonal variability of people staying outdoors in urban environment for tourism and recreation, as well as to determine if personal factors influence estimation of recreationist actual biometeorological conditions and personal expectations towards weather elements. To investigate how human thermal sensations vary upon meteorological conditions typical for temperate climate, weather perception field researches were conducted in Warsaw (Poland) in all seasons. Urban recreationists' preference for slightly warm thermal conditions, sunny, windless and cloudless weather, were identified as well as PET values considered to be optimal for sightseeing were defined between 27.3 and 31.7 °C. The results confirmed existence of phenomena called alliesthesia, which manifested in divergent thermal perception of comparable biometeorological conditions in transitional seasons. The results suggest that recreationist thermal sensations differed from other interviewees' responses and were affected not only by physiological processes but they were also conditioned by psychological factors (i.e. attitude, expectations). Significant impact of respondents' place of origin and its climate on creating thermal sensations and preferences was observed. Sex and age influence thermal preferences, whereas state of acclimatization is related with thermal sensations to some point.

  9. A novel biomedical image indexing and retrieval system via deep preference learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shuchao; Orgun, Mehmet A; Yu, Zhezhou

    2018-05-01

    The traditional biomedical image retrieval methods as well as content-based image retrieval (CBIR) methods originally designed for non-biomedical images either only consider using pixel and low-level features to describe an image or use deep features to describe images but still leave a lot of room for improving both accuracy and efficiency. In this work, we propose a new approach, which exploits deep learning technology to extract the high-level and compact features from biomedical images. The deep feature extraction process leverages multiple hidden layers to capture substantial feature structures of high-resolution images and represent them at different levels of abstraction, leading to an improved performance for indexing and retrieval of biomedical images. We exploit the current popular and multi-layered deep neural networks, namely, stacked denoising autoencoders (SDAE) and convolutional neural networks (CNN) to represent the discriminative features of biomedical images by transferring the feature representations and parameters of pre-trained deep neural networks from another domain. Moreover, in order to index all the images for finding the similarly referenced images, we also introduce preference learning technology to train and learn a kind of a preference model for the query image, which can output the similarity ranking list of images from a biomedical image database. To the best of our knowledge, this paper introduces preference learning technology for the first time into biomedical image retrieval. We evaluate the performance of two powerful algorithms based on our proposed system and compare them with those of popular biomedical image indexing approaches and existing regular image retrieval methods with detailed experiments over several well-known public biomedical image databases. Based on different criteria for the evaluation of retrieval performance, experimental results demonstrate that our proposed algorithms outperform the state

  10. Social learning and human mate preferences: a potential mechanism for generating and maintaining between-population diversity in attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.; Caldwell, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by studies demonstrating mate-choice copying effects in non-human species, recent studies of attractiveness judgements suggest that social learning also influences human preferences. In the first part of our article, we review evidence for social learning effects on preferences in humans and other animals. In the second part, we present new empirical evidence that social learning not only influences the attractiveness of specific individuals, but can also generalize to judgements of previously unseen individuals possessing similar physical traits. The different conditions represent different populations and, once a preference arises in a population, social learning can lead to the spread of preferences within that population. In the final part of our article, we discuss the theoretical basis for, and possible impact of, biases in social learning whereby individuals may preferentially copy the choices of those with high status or better access to critical information about potential mates. Such biases could mean that the choices of a select few individuals carry the greatest weight, rapidly generating agreement in preferences within a population. Collectively, these issues suggest that social learning mechanisms encourage the spread of preferences for certain traits once they arise within a population and so may explain certain cross-cultural differences. PMID:21199841

  11. Does personal experience affect choice-based preferences for wildfire protection programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando González-Cabán; Thomas P. Holmes; John B. Loomis; José J. Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate homeowner preferences and willingness to pay for wildfire protection programs using a choice experiment with three attributes: risk, loss, and cost. A phone-mail-phone survey was used to collect data from homeowners predominantly living in medium and high wildfire risk communities in Florida. We tested three hypotheses: (1) homeowner...

  12. The Geometric Relationship Between Holland's Personality Typology and the Vocational Preference Inventory for Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, James A.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Holland's Vocational Preference Inventory was administered to 115 black undergraduate college students. The scales for the black subjects correspond generally to Holland's model but not as well as they do for white subjects. Three weaknesses in the correspondence between the scales of black students and Holland's model were identified. (Author)

  13. Variations in Perceived Parenting Education Preferences: A Person-Centred Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YaeBin

    2015-01-01

    Parenting education needs assessment surveys were collected from a large group of the parents or caregivers of 698 0-5-year-old children in southern Nevada. Survey questions addressed parenting education interests, family characteristics, and preferred delivery methods of parenting education. Cluster analysis was used to empirically determine if…

  14. Using VARK Approach for Assessing Preferred Learning Styles of First Year Medical Sciences Students: A Survey from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, Hadi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Yasemi, Masood; Rasool, Mohammad; Yaghoubi, Yasemi Monireh; Nahal, Monireh Mohammad Hassan; Karim, Hemati

    2014-08-01

    Preferred learning styles of learners are different, which depend on tastes, mentality preparedness, as well as physical condition, in terms of sensory modalities. Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles, which can improve education ultimately. The present study aimed to assess the diversity of learning styles amongst medical students of a medical sciences university which was located west of Iran, in 2010. A cross-sectional study which employed VARK learning style's questionnaire was done on 141 first year medical sciences students at Ilam University of Medical Sciences in 2010. Data was collected with use of VARK questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed on basis of experts' views and its reliability was calculated by using Cronbach's alpha coefficients (α=0.86). Data were analysed by using SPSS software and Chi-square test. Overall, 41.6% of the samples preferred to use a single learning style (Uni-modal). Of these, 17.7% preferred the Aural style, 17% preferred Reading and Writing, 6.4% preferred Kinesthetic style and 0.7% preferred Visual styles. Among the rest of the 82 students who preferred more than one style (multimodal), 17% chose two modes (bimodal), 13.5% chose three modes (tri-modal), and 27.6% chose four modes (quad-modal). There was a significant difference between educational levels and majors on one hand and choice of quad modal of VARK styles on the other hand (p=0.008). A significant association was also found between participants' genders and selection of visual and reading/writing styles (p=0.03). The preferred learning styles of medical students in the present study were aural and reading/writing. It is suggested that all medical students must be tested to determine their desired learning styles by using VARK questionnaire, also to choose appropriate teaching methods and to improve educational goals.

  15. Innate colour preference, individual learning and memory retention in the ant Camponotus blandus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ayse; Dyer, Adrian G; Rössler, Wolfgang; Spaethe, Johannes

    2017-09-15

    Ants are a well-characterized insect model for the study of visual learning and orientation, but the extent to which colour vision is involved in these tasks remains unknown. We investigated the colour preference, learning and memory retention of Camponotus blandus foragers under controlled laboratory conditions. Our results show that C. blandus foragers exhibit a strong innate preference for ultraviolet (UV, 365 nm) over blue (450 nm) and green (528 nm) wavelengths. The ants can learn to discriminate 365 nm from either 528 nm or 450 nm, independent of intensity changes. However, they fail to discriminate between 450 nm and 528 nm. Modelling of putative colour spaces involving different numbers of photoreceptor types revealed that colour discrimination performance of individual ants is best explained by dichromacy, comprising a short-wavelength (UV) receptor with peak sensitivity at about 360 nm, and a long-wavelength receptor with peak sensitivity between 470 nm and 560 nm. Foragers trained to discriminate blue or green from UV light are able to retain the learned colour information in an early mid-term (e-MTM), late mid-term (l-MTM), early long-term (e-LTM) and late long-term (l-LTM) memory from where it can be retrieved after 1 h, 12 h, 24 h, 3 days and 7 days after training, indicating that colour learning may induce different memory phases in ants. Overall, our results show that ants can use chromatic information in a way that should promote efficient foraging in complex natural environments. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Differences in Waiting List Prioritization Preferences of Occupational Therapists, Elderly People, and Persons With Disabilities: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Marie-Hélène; Demers, Louise; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann

    2018-01-01

    To compare the preferences of occupational therapists, elderly people, and adults with disabilities regarding prioritization criteria for occupational therapy waiting lists in home care. Discrete choice experiment survey. Survey mailed to occupational therapists working in home care and community-dwelling elderly or disabled persons. A sample (N=714) of home-based occupational therapists (n=241), elderly persons from a bank of research participants (n=226), and adults with physical disabilities recruited through community organizations (n=247). Not applicable. The dependent variable was whether the referral scenario was prioritized or not in each question. The results were analyzed through logistic regression using conditional logit models. Prioritization preferences differed between groups (Ppeople who had a few falls (odds ratio vs no falls, 48.7), whereas elderly people and adults with disabilities most strongly prioritized people who were unable to enter and exit the home (odds ratio vs no difficulty entering and exiting the home, 30.8 for elderly people and 16.8 for persons with disabilities.) CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the gap between the priorities of home-based occupational therapists and their target clientele. Although further inquiry is needed to inform priority setting, the findings emphasize the importance of public or patient involvement in decisions on waiting list prioritization. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of personality traits in self-rated oral health and preferences for different types of flawed smiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, J; Gómez Polo, C; Rosel, E; Barrios, R; Albaladejo, A; López-Valverde, A

    2016-01-01

    Symmetric, aligned and luminous smiles are usually classified as 'beautiful' and aesthetic. However, smile perception is not strictly governed by standardised rules. Personal traits may influence the perception of non-ideal smiles. We aimed to determine the influence of personality traits in self-rated oral health and satisfaction and in the aesthetic preference for different strategically flawed smiles shown in photographs. Smiles with dark teeth, with uneven teeth, with lip asymmetry and dental asymmetry were ordered from 1 to 4 as a function of the degree of beauty by 548 participants, of which 50·7% were females with a mean age of 41·5 ± 17·6 years (range: 16-89 years). Self-assessment and oral satisfaction were recorded on a Likert scale. Personality was measured by means of the Big Five Inventory (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness), and the Life Orientation Test was used to measure optimism and pessimism. Of the four photographs with imperfect smiles, dental asymmetry was the most highly assessed in 63% of the sample, and the worst was lip asymmetry, in 43·7% of the sample. Some personality traits (above all conscientiousness and openness) were significantly correlated with the position assigned to the photographs with dental and lip asymmetry or with misaligned teeth. The extraversion, agreeableness and openness traits were correlated with the self-perceptions of oral health and aesthetics of the participants. Dental asymmetry seems to be better tolerated than lip asymmetry. Personality traits are weakly but significantly correlated with the aesthetic preference and oral health values, conscientiousness and openness being the most relevant domains in this sense. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Preferences don't have to be personal: expanding attitude theorizing with a cross-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Hila; Shavitt, Sharon; Koo, Minkyung; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2014-10-01

    Attitudes, theorized as behavioral guides, have long been a central focus of research in the social sciences. However, this theorizing reflects primarily Western philosophical views and empirical findings emphasizing the centrality of personal preferences. As a result, the prevalent psychological model of attitudes is a person-centric one. We suggest that incorporating research insights from non-Western sociocultural contexts can significantly enhance attitude theorizing. To this end, we propose an additional model-a normative-contextual model of attitudes. The currently dominant person-centric model emphasizes the centrality of personal preferences, their stability and internal consistency, and their possible interaction with externally imposed norms. In contrast, the normative-contextual model emphasizes that attitudes are always context-contingent and incorporate the views of others and the norms of the situation. In this model, adjustment to norms does not involve an effortful struggle between the authentic self and exogenous forces. Rather, it is the ongoing and reassuring integration of others' views into one's attitudes. According to the normative-contextual model, likely to be a good fit in contexts that foster interdependence and holistic thinking, attitudes need not be personal or necessarily stable and internally consistent and are only functional to the extent that they help one to adjust automatically to different contexts. The fundamental shift in focus offered by the normative-contextual model generates novel hypotheses and highlights new measurement criteria for studying attitudes in non-Western sociocultural contexts. We discuss these theoretical and measurement implications as well as practical implications for health and well-being, habits and behavior change, and global marketing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Improving education under work-hour restrictions: comparing learning and teaching preferences of faculty, residents, and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Megan C; Kenkare, Sonya B; Saville, Benjamin R; Beidler, Stephanie K; Saba, Sam C; West, Alisha N; Hanemann, Michael S; van Aalst, John A

    2010-01-01

    Faced with work-hour restrictions, educators are mandated to improve the efficiency of resident and medical student education. Few studies have assessed learning styles in medicine; none have compared teaching and learning preferences. Validated tools exist to study these deficiencies. Kolb describes 4 learning styles: converging (practical), diverging (imaginative), assimilating (inductive), and accommodating (active). Grasha Teaching Styles are categorized into "clusters": 1 (teacher-centered, knowledge acquisition), 2 (teacher-centered, role modeling), 3 (student-centered, problem-solving), and 4 (student-centered, facilitative). Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (HayGroup, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) and Grasha-Riechmann's TSS were administered to surgical faculty (n = 61), residents (n = 96), and medical students (n = 183) at a tertiary academic medical center, after informed consent was obtained (IRB # 06-0612). Statistical analysis was performed using χ(2) and Fisher exact tests. Surgical residents preferred active learning (p = 0.053), whereas faculty preferred reflective learning (p style more often than surgical faculty (p = 0.01). Medical students preferred converging learning (42%) and cluster 4 teaching (35%). Statistical significance was unchanged when corrected for gender, resident training level, and subspecialization. Significant differences exist between faculty and residents in both learning and teaching preferences; this finding suggests inefficiency in resident education, as previous research suggests that learning styles parallel teaching styles. Absence of a predominant teaching style in residents suggests these individuals are learning to be teachers. The adaptation of faculty teaching methods to account for variations in resident learning styles may promote a better learning environment and more efficient faculty-resident interaction. Additional, multi-institutional studies using these tools are needed to elucidate these findings fully

  20. ReMashed – Recommendation Approaches for Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments in Formal and Informal Learning Settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Pecceu, Dries; Arts, Tanja; Hutten, Edwin; Rutledge, Lloyd; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Peccau, D., Arts, T., Hutten, E., Rutledge, L., Van Rosmalen, P., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2009). ReMashed – Recommendation Approaches for Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments in Formal and Informal Learning Settings. Presentation at the 2nd Workshop Mash-Up Personal Learning

  1. Kinesthetic Learning Style Preferences: A Survey of Indonesian EFL Learners by Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peptia Asrining Tyas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated predominant learning style of 3rd semester students of English Language Education Program in Faculty of Cultural Studies at Universitas Brawijaya according to gender. Purposive sampling was used for this research and the sampling in this research was 100 students consist of 34 male students and 66 female students taken from 3rd semester English Department students of Faculty of Cultural Studies at Universitas Brawijaya. All participants were administered an Indonesian translated version of Reid’s (1984 Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire consisting of Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Tactile, Group, and Individual, included 30 items. This study used quantitative survey design and Microsoft Excel 2007 as the analysis software. The validity and the reliability of this research were calculated by SPSS v.21. The result indicated that predominant male’s learning style was Kinesthetic and estimated by 14 male students (41% while female students become Kinesthetic and Group and estimated the same percentage, 21 students (332% for Kinesthetic and 21 (32% students for Group. The result of the study also shows that both male and female tend to be Kinesthetic. It is suggested that to the English department to adjust the academic activities with the learning styles to enhance educational achievement and encouraging students take responsibility in their whole learning.

  2. Moodle & Co. auf dem Weg zur Personal Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Hafer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the typical IT infrastructure for e-learning in higher education and the contemporary research on Personal Learning Environments (PLEs the paper shows how existing tools and services can be brought together to meet the needs of modern, technology enhanced classroom-based teaching. For this interdisciplinary development process both traditional software, development methods and existing PLE models offer only little guidance. The paper describes the approach and the interim results of a campus-wide project at the University of Potsdam. Therefore first typical teaching and communication scenarios are identified from which afterwards the requirements for a supporting platform are derived. This leads to a comprehensive collection of considerable services and functions, which have to be integrated according to their specific use in an educational technology system. Based on this fundamental approaches for integration and technical details of this mash up are considered in an overview of all relevant services and gets transferred into an integrated system architecture. The paper describes the exemplary realization using the Liferay portal technology in which the above-defined scenarios are implemented. Additional adjustments with regard to personalized and adaptive learning (and working environments are supported too and described briefly

  3. Implementasi Pendekatan Personal Learning Environtments (PLE dalam Praktikum Fisika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Ayuningtyas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The background of this quasy experimental research is the lack of students’ independency in carrying out experiments, the low integration of information technology to explore student ability, also PLE approach that has not been widely implemented in learning. The purpose of this research, which is implemented PLE approach in the physics experiment to increase: independent and experiment abilities also the skill to make experiment report of high school student. The research was conducted from April until May 2015 at senior high school at Yogyakarta. The results of the research show that implementation PLE in the experiment: affect students in the determine the converging lens focus; in adjust theory and experimental purpose; and to conclude the experimental process and report. Keywords: Personal Learning Environtments, physics experiment, independent. Abstrak Penelitian eksperimen ini dilatarbelakangi kekurang mandirian siswa berpraktikum, kurang maksimalnya peran teknologi informasi untuk menggali potensi siswa, serta pendekatan PLE yang belum banyak diimplementasikan di pembelajaran. Sedangkan tujuan penelitian ini yaitu mengimplementasikan pendekatan PLE pada praktikum fisika untuk meningkatkan kemandirian, kemampuan praktikum serta keterampilan membuat laporan praktikum fisika pada siswa SMA. Penelitian dilakukan bulan April hingga Mei 2015 di SMA Negeri 3 Yogyakarta. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan implementasi PLE dalam praktikum: mempengaruhi kemampuan siswa menentukan fokus lensa cembung; menghubungkan dasar teori dengan tujuan praktikum; dan menyimpulkan hasil praktikum (proses maupun laporan. Kata kunci: Personal Learning Environtments, praktikum fisika, kemandirian.

  4. Personal computer versus personal computer/mobile device combination users' preclinical laboratory e-learning activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Haruka; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Naoki; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Yamaga, Yoshiro; Ono, Takahiro

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify differences between personal computer (PC)/mobile device combination and PC-only user patterns. We analyzed access frequency and time spent on a complete denture preclinical website in order to maximize website effectiveness. Fourth-year undergraduate students (N=41) in the preclinical complete denture laboratory course were invited to participate in this survey during the final week of the course to track login data. Students accessed video demonstrations and quizzes via our e-learning site/course program, and were instructed to view online demonstrations before classes. When the course concluded, participating students filled out a questionnaire about the program, their opinions, and devices they had used to access the site. Combination user access was significantly more frequent than PC-only during supplementary learning time, indicating that students with mobile devices studied during lunch breaks and before morning classes. Most students had favorable opinions of the e-learning site, but a few combination users commented that some videos were too long and that descriptive answers were difficult on smartphones. These results imply that mobile devices' increased accessibility encouraged learning by enabling more efficient time use between classes. They also suggest that e-learning system improvements should cater to mobile device users by reducing video length and including more short-answer questions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. The Effects of Game Strategy and Preference-Matching on Flow Experience and Programming Performance in Game-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Chun; Chen, Ming-Puu

    2010-01-01

    Learning to program is difficult for novices, even for those undergraduates who have majored in computer science. The study described in this paper has investigated the effects of game strategy and preference-matching on novice learners' flow experience and performance in learning to program using an experiential gaming activity. One hundred and…

  6. Using VARK Approach for Assessing Preferred Learning Styles of First Year Medical Sciences Students: A Survey from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Peyman, Hadi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Yasemi, Masood; Rasool, Mohammad; Yaghoubi, Yasemi Monireh; Nahal, Monireh Mohammad Hassan; Karim, Hemati

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preferred learning styles of learners are different, which depend on tastes, mentality preparedness, as well as physical condition, in terms of sensory modalities. Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles, which can improve education ultimately.

  7. Parents' learning needs and preferences when sharing management of their child's long-term/chronic condition: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Ruth; Friedl, Simone; Swallow, Veronica

    2015-11-01

    This review aimed to (1) identify parents' learning needs and preferences when sharing the management of their child's long-term/chronic (long-term) condition and (2) inform healthcare professional support provided to parents across the trajectory. We conducted a literature search in seven health databases from 1990 to 2013. The quality of included studies was assessed using a critical appraisal tool developed for reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. Twenty-three studies met our criteria and were included in the review. Three themes emerged from synthesis of the included studies: (1) parents' learning needs and preferences (2) facilitators to parents' learning, and (3) barriers to parents' learning. Asking parents directly about their learning needs and preferences may be the most reliable way for healthcare professionals to ascertain how to support and promote individual parents' learning when sharing management of their child's long-term condition. With the current emphasis on parent-healthcare professional shared management of childhood long-term conditions, it is recommended that professionals base their assessment of parents' learning needs and preferences on identified barriers and facilitators to parental learning. This should optimise delivery of home-based care, thereby contributing to improved clinical outcomes for the child. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Medical students preference of problem-based learning or traditional lectures in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; Banjar, Shorooq; Al-Ghamdi, Amal; Al-Darmasi, Moroj; Khoja, Abeer; Turkistani, Jamela; Arif, Rwan; Al-Sebyani, Awatif; Musawa, Al-Anoud; Basfar, Wijdan

    2014-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is the most important educational innovations in the past 4 decades. The objective of the study was to compare between the preference of medical students for PBL and the preference for traditional lectures regarding learning outcomes (e.g., knowledge, attitude, and skills) gained from both methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students who studied the hybrid curriculum (PBL and traditional lectures) in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, in 2011. Data was collected through a pre-constructed, validated, confidentially anonymous, and self-administered questionnaire. Students' perceptions toward PBL and traditional lectures were assessed through their response to 20 statements inquired about both methods of learning using a five-point Likert scale. Descriptive and analytic statistics were performed using SPSS, version 21 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill., USA). Learners preferred PBL more to traditional lectures for better linking the knowledge of basic and clinical sciences (t test=10.15, P .05) was observed regarding the amount of basic knowledge recalled from both methods. Students preferred PBL more to lectures for better learning attitudes, skills, future outcomes, and learning satisfaction (P learn better than lecturing (P traditional lectures for improving most of learning outcome domains, especially, learning attitudes and skills. Introducing hybrid-PBL curriculum in all Saudi universities is highly recommended.

  9. Lessons learned from different approaches towards classifying personal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Rachel; Geyh, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    To examine and compare existing suggestions towards a classification of Personal Factors (PF) of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Qualitative and quantitative content analyses of available categorizations of PF are conducted. While the eight categorizations greatly differ in their background and structure, the broad content areas covered seem to be similar and reflect the ICF definition of PF. They cover to various degrees 12 broad content areas: socio-demographic factors, behavioral and lifestyle factors, cognitive psychological factors, social relationships, experiences and biography, coping, emotional factors, satisfaction, other health conditions, biological/physiological factors, personality, motives/motivation. In comparing these categorizations, a common core of content issues for a potential ICF PF classification could be identified and valuable lessons learned. This can contribute to future classification development activities in relation to PF.

  10. Evaluating a Personal Learning Environment for Digital Storytelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Marianos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of flexible and personal learning environments is extremely challenging. It should not be limited to the assessment of products, but should address the quality of educative experience with close monitoring. The evaluation of a PLE using digital storytelling is even more complicated, due to the unpredictability of the usage scenarios. This paper presents an evaluation methodology for PLEs using digital storytelling, using a participatory design approach. The results from an open validation trial indicate that this methodology is able to incorporate all necessary factors and that the selected evaluation tools are appropriate for addressing the quality of educative experience.

  11. Psychopathy and interests: Implications of psychopathic personality traits for vocational and avocational preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Madeline G; Watts, Ashley L; Murphy, Brett A; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2018-06-21

    General personality traits and interests, both vocational and avocational, have long been considered intertwined constructs. Nevertheless, the linkages between personality disorder features, such as psychopathy, and interests are poorly understood. This study bridges this gap by examining how psychopathic traits relate to vocational and avocational interests, and to what extent these associations are distinctive to psychopathy as opposed to a broader pattern of general and abnormal personality traits. In a sample of 426 community participants, Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised Fearless Dominance features of psychopathy were associated with interest in a broad swath of vocational and avocational interests, whereas Self-Centered Impulsivity features were associated with realistic, artistic, enterprising, and conventional interests; most zero-order associations were in the small to medium range. Coldheartedness and the factors derived from the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale were largely unrelated to interests, although there were several notable exceptions. Narcissistic traits, as well as HEXACO (Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness) Honesty-Humility, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience, were also related broadly to interests. The patterns of interests associated with personality disorder traits may ultimately bear practical implications for interventions as individuals seek out positions or hobbies that suit their traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Learning style preferences and their influence on students' problem solving in kinematics observed by eye-tracking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekule, Martina

    2017-01-01

    The article presents eye-tracking method and its using for observing students when they solve problems from kinematics. Particularly, multiple-choice items in TUG-K test by Robert Beichner. Moreover, student's preference for visual way of learning as a possible influential aspect is proofed and discussed. Learning Style Inventory by Dunn, Dunn&Price was administered to students in order to find out their preferences. More than 20 high school and college students about 20 years old took part in the research. Preferred visual way of learning in contrast to the other ways of learning (audio, tactile, kinesthetic) shows very slight correlation with the total score of the test, none correlation with the average fixation duration and slight correlation with average fixation count on a task and average total visit duration on a task.

  13. A personal connection: Promoting positive attitudes towards teaching and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Heidi L; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2017-09-01

    Students' attitudes towards teaching and learning must be addressed with the same seriousness and effort as we address content. Establishing a personal connection and addressing our students' basic psychological needs will produce positive attitudes towards teaching and learning and develop life-long learners. It will also promote constructive student-teacher relationships that have a profound influence on our students' approach towards school. To begin this process, consider the major tenets of the Self-Determination Theory. The Self-Determination Theory of human motivation focuses on our students' innate psychological needs and the degree to which an individual's behavior is self-motivated and self-determined. Faculty can satisfy the innate psychological needs by addressing our students' desire for relatedness, competence and autonomy. Relatedness refers to our students' need to feel connected to others, to be a member of a group, to have a sense of communion and to develop close relationships with others. Competence is believing our students can succeed , challenging them to do so and imparting that belief in them. Autonomy involves considering the perspectives of the student and providing relevant information and opportunities for student choice and initiating and regulating their own behaviors. Establishing a personal connection and addressing our students' basic psychological needs will improve our teaching, inspire and engage our students and promote positive attitudes towards teaching and learning while reducing competition and increasing compassion. These are important goals because unless students are inspired and motivated and have positive attitudes towards teaching and learning our efforts will fail to meet their full potential. Anat Sci Educ 10: 503-507. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. α7-Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: role in early odor learning preference in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Hellier

    Full Text Available Recently, we have shown that mice with decreased expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 in the olfactory bulb were associated with a deficit in odor discrimination compared to wild-type mice. However, it is unknown if mice with decreased α7-receptor expression also show a deficit in early odor learning preference (ELP, an enhanced behavioral response to odors with attractive value observed in rats. In this study, we modified ELP methods performed in rats and implemented similar conditions in mice. From post-natal days 5-18, wild-type mice were stroked simultaneously with an odor presentation (conditioned odor for 90 s daily. Control mice were only stroked, exposed to odor, or neither. On the day of testing (P21, mice that were stroked in concert with a conditioned odor significantly investigated the conditioned odor compared to a novel odor, as observed similarly in rats. However, mice with a decrease in α7-receptor expression that were stroked during a conditioned odor did not show a behavioral response to that odorant. These results suggest that decreased α7-receptor expression has a role in associative learning, olfactory preference, and/or sensory processing deficits.

  15. Group learning versus local learning: Which is prefer for public cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Han; Song, Qi-Qing

    2018-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in public goods games on various graphs, focusing on the effects that are brought by different kinds of strategy donors. This highlights a basic feature of a public good game, for which there exists a remarkable difference between the interactive players and the players who are imitated. A player can learn from all the groups where the player is a member or from the typically local nearest neighbors, and the results show that the group learning rules have better performance in promoting cooperation on many networks than the local learning rules. The heterogeneity of networks' degree may be an effective mechanism for harvesting the cooperation expectation in many cases, however, we find that heterogeneity does not definitely mean the high frequency of cooperators in a population under group learning rules. It was shown that cooperators always hardly evolve whenever the interaction and the replacement do not coincide for evolutionary pairwise dilemmas on graphs, while for PG games we find that breaking the symmetry is conducive to the survival of cooperators.

  16. Personal Variation in Preference for Sweetness: Effects of Age and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobowski, Nuala; Mennella, Julie A

    2017-10-01

    Use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs), which provide sweet taste with few to no calories, has increased, but data on whether children's hedonic responses to NNSs differ from nutritive sugars or from adults' hedonic responses are limited. Most preferred levels of sucrose and the NNS sucralose were determined via a forced-choice tracking procedure in 48 children, 7-14 years (mean = 10 years), and 34 adults. Each participant also rated the liking of these taste stimuli, as well as varying concentrations of aspartame on 3- and 5-point facial hedonic scales. Anthropometric measures were obtained, and motives for palatable food intake were assessed with the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS, adults) and Kids PEMS. While use of the 3-point scale showed no age-related differences in liking of sweeteners, the 5-point scale showed that more children than adults liked higher concentrations of sucrose, sucralose, and aspartame, and the tracking procedure showed that children most preferred higher concentrations of sucrose and sucralose than adults. Regardless of age, sweet preference did not differ between obese and nonobese participants and showed no association with motives for eating palatable foods. Children's body mass index z-scores were positively associated with social and conformity motive scores for eating palatable foods. Research should move beyond measures of variation in sweet taste hedonics to include identifying motives, and the physiological and psychological consequences of eating sweets, to shed light on what children are more vulnerable to develop unfavorable eating habits, increasing risk for obesity, and other diseases.

  17. Food preferences, personality and parental rearing styles: analysis of factors influencing health of left-behind children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Sha; Yu, Lina; Gao, Wanlin; Xue, Wentong

    2016-11-01

    To understand the health status and problems of left-behind children (LBC) in rural China, those whose parents have moved to urban areas without them, and to focus on ways to improve their physical and mental health. The study examined 827 children between 7 and 15 years old, selected using stratified cluster random sampling from five towns in Xiji County of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Each child was classified as either LBC or non-LBC. Measures included age- and sex-specific height and body mass index (kg/m 2 ), a food preference questionnaire, the Revised Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-My Memories of Upbringing (EMBU). Malnutrition rates for LBC and non-LBC were 14.83 % (70/472) and 7.04 % (25/355) (χ 2  = 11.86, p health status of LBC is problematic. Food preferences, personality type and parenting styles should be taken into account when measures are developed to improve the health of these children.

  18. Semantic Web, Reusable Learning Objects, Personal Learning Networks in Health: Key Pieces for Digital Health Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Wharrad, Heather; Windle, Richard; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge existing in the World Wide Web is exponentially expanding, while continuous advancements in health sciences contribute to the creation of new knowledge. There are a lot of efforts trying to identify how the social connectivity can endorse patients' empowerment, while other studies look at the identification and the quality of online materials. However, emphasis has not been put on the big picture of connecting the existing resources with the patients "new habits" of learning through their own Personal Learning Networks. In this paper we propose a framework for empowering patients' digital health literacy adjusted to patients' currents needs by utilizing the contemporary way of learning through Personal Learning Networks, existing high quality learning resources and semantics technologies for interconnecting knowledge pieces. The framework based on the concept of knowledge maps for health as defined in this paper. Health Digital Literacy needs definitely further enhancement and the use of the proposed concept might lead to useful tools which enable use of understandable health trusted resources tailored to each person needs.

  19. Selection of appropriates E-learning personalization strategies from ontological perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi Essalmi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available When there are several personalization strategies of E-learning, authors of courses need to be supported for deciding which strategy will be applied for personalizing each course. In fact, the time, the efforts and the learning objects needed for preparing personalized learning scenarios depend on the personalization strategy to be applied. This paper presents an approach for selecting personalization strategies according to the feasibility of generating personalized learning scenarios with minimal intervention of the author. Several metrics are proposed for putting in order and selecting useful personalization strategies. The calculus of these metrics is automated based on the analyses of the LOM (Learning Object Metadata standard according to the semantic relations between data elements and learners’ characteristics represented in the Ontology for Selection of Personalization Strategies (OSPS.

  20. PELS: A Noble Architecture and Framework for a Personal E-Learning System (PELS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Jahangir; Chowdhury, Morshed; Batten, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a personal e-learning system architecture in the context of a social network environment. The main objective of a personal e-learning system is to develop individual skills on a specific subject and share resources with peers. The authors' system architecture defines the organisation and management of a personal learning…

  1. Learning from Scientific Texts: Personalizing the Text Increases Transfer Performance and Task Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutke, Stephan; Grefe, Anna Christina; Leopold, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    In an experiment with 65 high-school students, we tested the hypothesis that personalizing learning materials would increase students' learning performance and motivation to study the learning materials. Students studied either a 915-word standard text on the anatomy and functionality of the human eye or a personalized version of the same text in…

  2. The Application of Carl Rogers' Person-Centered Learning Theory to Web-Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher T.

    This paper provides a review of literature that relates research on Carl Rogers' person-centered learning theory to Web-based learning. Based on the review of the literature, a set of criteria is described that can be used to determine how closely a Web-based course matches the different components of Rogers' person-centered learning theory. Using…

  3. Rats' learned preferences for flavors encountered early or late in a meal paired with the postingestive effects of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kevin P; Whitney, Margaret C

    2011-03-28

    Rats learn to prefer flavors that are followed by postingestive effects of nutrients. This experiment investigated whether the timing of a flavor (specifically, in the first or second half of the meal) influences learning about that flavor. Stronger learning about earlier or later flavors would indicate when the rewarding postingestive effects of nutrients are sensed. Rats with intragastric (IG) catheters drank saccharin-sweetened, calorically-dilute solutions with distinct flavors added, accompanied by IG infusion of glucose (+sessions) or water (-sessions). In both types of sessions, an "Early" flavor was provided for the first 8 min and a "Late" flavor for the last 8 min. Thus, rats were trained with Early(+) and Late(+) in high-calorie meals, and Early(-) and Late(-) in low-calorie meals. Strength of the learned preference for Early(+) and Late(+) was then assessed in a series of two-bottle choice tests between Early(+) vs. Early(-), Late(+) vs. Late(-), Early(+) vs. Late(+), and Early(-) vs. Late(-). Rats preferred both Early(+) and Late(+) over the respective (-) flavors. But Early(+) was only preferred when rats were tested hungry. Late(+) was preferred when rats were tested hungry or recently satiated. This indicates qualitatively different associations learned about flavors at different points in the meal. While not supporting the idea that postingestive effects become most strongly associated with later-occurring ("dessert") flavors, it does suggest a reason dessert flavors may remain attractive in the absence of hunger. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An Analysis Of Personalized Learning Systems For Navy Training And Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    student engagement and learning outcomes in higher education. The survey showed that, although 70 percent of students do prefer a learning environment...believable pedagogical agents. These intelligent agents can enhance student engagement with learning material by creating rapport, inciting enthusiasm

  5. E-Learning Personalization Using Triple-Factor Approach in Standard-Based Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksitowening, K. A.; Santoso, H. B.; Hasibuan, Z. A.

    2017-01-01

    E-Learning can be a tool in monitoring learning process and progress towards the targeted competency. Process and progress on every learner can be different one to another, since every learner may have different learning type. Learning type itself can be identified by taking into account learning style, motivation, and knowledge ability. This study explores personalization for learning type based on Triple-Factor Approach. Considering that factors in Triple-Factor Approach are dynamic, the personalization system needs to accommodate the changes that may occurs. Originated from the issue, this study proposed personalization that guides learner progression dynamically towards stages of their learning process. The personalization is implemented in the form of interventions that trigger learner to access learning contents and discussion forums more often as well as improve their level of knowledge ability based on their state of learning type.

  6. Personalized learning: From neurogenetics of behaviors to designing optimal language training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C M; Vuong, Loan C; Liu, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    Variability in drug responsivity has prompted the development of Personalized Medicine, which has shown great promise in utilizing genotypic information to develop safer and more effective drug regimens for patients. Similarly, individual variability in learning outcomes has puzzled researchers who seek to create optimal learning environments for students. "Personalized Learning" seeks to identify genetic, neural and behavioral predictors of individual differences in learning and aims to use predictors to help create optimal teaching paradigms. Evidence for Personalized Learning can be observed by connecting research in pharmacogenomics, cognitive genetics and behavioral experiments across domains of learning, which provides a framework for conducting empirical studies from the laboratory to the classroom and holds promise for addressing learning effectiveness in the individual learners. Evidence can also be seen in the subdomain of speech learning, thus providing initial support for the applicability of Personalized Learning to language. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Differences in Dietary Preferences, Personality and Mental Health in Australian Adults with and without Food Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy Burrows; Leanne Hides; Robyn Brown; Christopher V Dayas; Frances Kay-Lambkin

    2017-01-01

    Increased obesity rates, an evolving food supply and the overconsumption of energy dense foods has led to an increase in research exploring addictive eating behaviours. This study aimed to investigate food addiction in a sample of Australian adults using the revised Yale Food Addiction Survey (YFAS) 2.0 tool and how it is associated with dietary intake, personality traits and mental health issues. Australian adults were invited to complete an online survey that collected information including...

  8. Usefulness and preference for tablet personal computers by medical students: are the features worth the money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Dawn; Atreja, Ashish; Mehta, Neil

    2008-11-06

    Tablet Personal Computers (PCs) have a huge potential in medical education due to their interactive human- computer interface and the need for anatomical diagrams, annotations, biochemistry flow charts etc. We conducted an online survey of medical students to determine their pattern of usage of the tablet features. The results revealed that the majority of medical students use the tablet features infrequently and most do not place a high value on the tablet features.

  9. Student personality and learning styles: A comparison between radiation therapy and medical imaging undergraduate students in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungey, G.; Yielder, J.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the learning styles and personality type of undergraduate radiation therapy students at the University of Otago, Wellington (UOW) in New Zealand (NZ) to ascertain whether there is a pattern evidenced for this group and how that might compare with NZ medical imaging students. All students enrolled in the first year of the Bachelor of Radiation Therapy degree from 2014 to 2016 at the UOW were invited to participate in this research. The test tool was the Paragon Learning Style Inventory (PLSI), which is a standardised questionnaire adapted from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). All students who participated in the workshops consented for their data to be used for this project. The current study is longitudinal, and will continue for five years in total. The initial findings indicate that the cohorts of RT students exhibit personality and learning style preferences similar in Introversion/Extraversion and Thinking/Feeling to the proportion expected in the normal population. However, the Sensing/Intuition and Judging/Perceiving dichotomies show some similarities to the medical imaging students studied, who fell considerably outside that expected in the normal population. Overall, the dominant preference combinations identified, although different in degree, were similar to those of medical imaging students. The continuation of the radiation therapy study is important to ascertain more fully whether the results are particular to these cohorts of students or are trending towards showing a pattern of personality and learning style within the profession. - Highlights: • RT students are likely to have personality types that enable them to be caring, dependable, and good team-players. • When under stress, RT students may catastrophise, blame others, and exhibit a decrease in efficiency. • Low job satisfaction and burnout is possible without a balanced team that includes the vision from intuitive leaders. • Educators need to encourage

  10. Ethics teaching in a medical education environment: preferences for diversity of learning and assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMahmoud, Tahra; Hashim, M Jawad; Elzubeir, Margaret Ann; Branicki, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Ethics and professionalism are an integral part of medical school curricula; however, medical students' views on these topics have not been assessed in many countries.  The study aimed to examine medical students' perceptions toward ethics and professionalism teaching, and its learning and assessment methods. A self-administered questionnaire eliciting views on professionalism and ethics education was distributed to a total of 128 final-year medical students. A total of 108 students completed the survey, with an 84% response rate. Medical students reported frequently encountering ethical conflicts during training but stated only a moderate level of ethics training at medical school (mean = 5.14 ± 1.8). They noted that their education had helped somewhat to deal with ethical conflicts (mean = 5.39 ± 2.0). Students strongly affirmed the importance of ethics education (mean = 7.63 ± 1.03) and endorsed the value of positive role models (mean = 7.45 ± 1.5) as the preferred learning method. The cohort voiced interest in direct faculty supervision as an approach to assessment of knowledge and skills (mean = 7.62 ± 1.26). Female students perceived greater need for more ethics education compared to males (p = methods for learning.

  11. Selecting the best bank that offered Islamic personal loan package by using consistent fuzzy preference relations (CFPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Norhidayah A.; Sarudin, Ezzah Suraya; Hamid, Fairus; Shamsuddin, Nor Diyana Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    There are various thoughts and opinions when it comes to how people think of their selected banks. Therefore, to choose the best bank with a good personal loan package can be a bit tricky especially for first time customer. This research offers a guide in choosing the right bank for applying personal loan package by highlighting the important criteria that applicants should take into consideration. In order to cater the problem above, we used Consistent Fuzzy Preference Relations (CFPR). Based on expert and public opinions, the important criteria in selecting an Islamic personal loan package are interest rate, tenure of loan, processing period and security of the loan. We developed questionnaire with the criteria mention earlier and distributed it among academic staffs and non academic staffs at Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences (FSKM), UiTM Shah Alam. Based on the questionnaire, we found that four banks have been selected for multiple reasons. Before we could determine the best bank, calculations are divided into 2 phases which are criteria weights determination and ranking of alternatives. We implemented these phases to get the aggregation result and to obtain the ranking in descending order. As a result, our objectives have been achieved. As a conclusion, CFPR can help others in the decision making process.

  12. Using a User-Interactive QA System for Personalized E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dawei; Chen, Wei; Zeng, Qingtian; Hao, Tianyong; Min, Feng; Wenyin, Liu

    2008-01-01

    A personalized e-learning framework based on a user-interactive question-answering (QA) system is proposed, in which a user-modeling approach is used to capture personal information of students and a personalized answer extraction algorithm is proposed for personalized automatic answering. In our approach, a topic ontology (or concept hierarchy)…

  13. Tablet computers and eBooks. Unlocking the potential for personal learning environments?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Kalz, M. (2012, 9 May). Tablet computers and eBooks. Unlocking the potential for personal learning environments? Invited presentation during the annual conference of the European Association for Distance Learning (EADL), Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands.

  14. Personalized Learning: From Neurogenetics of Behaviors to Designing Optimal Language Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Vuong, Loan; Liu, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Variability in drug responsivity has prompted the development of Personalized Medicine, which has shown great promise in utilizing genotypic information to develop safer and more effective drug regimens for patients. Similarly, individual variability in learning outcomes has puzzled researchers who seek to create optimal learning environments for students. “Personalized Learning” seeks to identify genetic, neural and behavioral predictors of individual differences in learning and aims to use predictors to help create optimal teaching paradigms. Evidence for Personalized Learning can be observed by connecting research in pharmacogenomics, cognitive genetics and behavioral experiments across domains of learning, which provides a framework for conducting empirical studies from the laboratory to the classroom and holds promise for addressing learning effectiveness in the individual learners. Evidence can also be seen in the subdomain of speech learning, thus providing initial support for the applicability of Personalized Learning to language. PMID:27720749

  15. Personal recommender systems for learners in lifelong learning: requirements, techniques and model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2008). Personal recommender systems for learners in lifelong learning: requirements, techniques and model. International Journal of Learning Technology, 3(4), 404-423.

  16. An adaptive multi-agent memetic system for personalizing e-learning experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Gaeta, M.; Munoz, E.; Vitiello, A.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid changes in modern knowledge, due to exponential growth of information sources, are complicating learners' activity. For this reason, novel approaches are necessary to obtain suitable learning solutions able to generate efficient, personalized and flexible learning experiences. From this

  17. Flying personal planes: modeling the airport choices of general aviation pilots using stated preference methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camasso, M J; Jagannathan, R

    2001-01-01

    This study employed stated preference (SP) models to determine why general aviation pilots choose to base and operate their aircraft at some airports and not others. Thirteen decision variables identified in pilot focus groups and in the general aviation literature were incorporated into a series of hypothetical choice tasks or scenarios. The scenarios were offered within a fractional factorial design to establish orthogonality and to preclude dominance in any combination of variables. Data from 113 pilots were analyzed for individual differences across pilots using conditional logit regression with and without controls. The results demonstrate that some airport attributes (e.g., full-range hospitality services, paved parallel taxiway, and specific types of runway lighting and landing aids) increase pilot utility. Heavy airport congestion and airport landing fees, on the other hand, decrease pilot utility. The importance of SP methodology as a vehicle for modeling choice behavior and as an input into the planning and prioritization process is discussed. Actual or potential applications include the development of structured decision-making instruments in the behavioral sciences and in human service programs.

  18. Comparing face-to-face, synchronous, and asynchronous learning: postgraduate dental resident preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunin, Marc; Julliard, Kell N; Rodriguez, Tobias E

    2014-06-01

    The Department of Dental Medicine of Lutheran Medical Center has developed an asynchronous online curriculum consisting of prerecorded PowerPoint presentations with audio explanations. The focus of this study was to evaluate if the new asynchronous format satisfied the educational needs of the residents compared to traditional lecture (face-to-face) and synchronous (distance learning) formats. Lectures were delivered to 219 dental residents employing face-to-face and synchronous formats, as well as the new asynchronous format; 169 (77 percent) participated in the study. Outcomes were assessed with pretests, posttests, and individual lecture surveys. Results found the residents preferred face-to-face and asynchronous formats to the synchronous format in terms of effectiveness and clarity of presentations. This preference was directly related to the residents' perception of how well the technology worked in each format. The residents also rated the quality of student-instructor and student-student interactions in the synchronous and asynchronous formats significantly higher after taking the lecture series than they did before taking it. However, they rated the face-to-face format as significantly more conducive to student-instructor and student-student interaction. While the study found technology had a major impact on the efficacy of this curricular model, the results suggest that the asynchronous format can be an effective way to teach a postgraduate course.

  19. Examining the impact of modality and learning style preferences on recall of psychiatric nursing and pharmacology terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Patience S; Willis, Jana; Peters, Michelle L; O'Toole, Robin S

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of this experimental research study was to explore how modality and learning style preferences impact non-prescribing, first-year Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN) students' recall of vocabulary. Independent t-test results indicated a statistically significant mean difference in short-term recall of pharmacological and psychiatric terms, with learners receiving visual text instruction recalling significantly more vocabulary than learners receiving audio text instruction. A correlation was not found between learning preferences and vocabulary recall. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Goals, Motivation for, and Outcomes of Personal Learning through Networks: Results of a Tweetstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sie, Rory L. L.; Pataraia, Nino; Boursinou, Eleni; Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Margaryan, Anoush; Falconer, Isobel; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Littlejohn, Allison; Sloep, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of social media for learning have posed serious challenges for learners. The information overload that these online social tools create has changed the way learners learn and from whom they learn. An investigation of learners' goals, motivations and expected outcomes when using a personal learning network is…

  1. Differences in Dietary Preferences, Personality and Mental Health in Australian Adults with and without Food Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy; Hides, Leanne; Brown, Robyn; Dayas, Christopher V; Kay-Lambkin, Frances

    2017-03-15

    Increased obesity rates, an evolving food supply and the overconsumption of energy dense foods has led to an increase in research exploring addictive eating behaviours. This study aimed to investigate food addiction in a sample of Australian adults using the revised Yale Food Addiction Survey (YFAS) 2.0 tool and how it is associated with dietary intake, personality traits and mental health issues. Australian adults were invited to complete an online survey that collected information including: demographics, dietary intake, depression, anxiety, stress and personality dimensions including impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness and anxiety sensitivity. A total of 1344 individuals were recruited with the samples comprising 75.7% female, mean age 39.8 ± 13.1 years (range 18-91 years) and body mass index BMI 27.7 ± 9.5. Food addiction was identified in 22.2% of participants using the YFAS 2.0 tool, which classified the severity of food addiction as "mild" in 0.7% of cases, "moderate" in 2.6% and "severe" in 18.9% of cases. Predictors of severe food addiction were female gender (odds ratio (OR) 3.65 95% CI 1.86-7.11) and higher levels of soft drink OR 1.36 (1.07-1.72), confectionary consumption and anxiety sensitivity 1.16 (1.07-1.26). Overall people with "severe" (OR 13.2, 5.8-29.8) or extremely severe depressive symptoms (OR 15.6, range 7.1-34.3) had the highest odds of having severe food addiction. The only variable that reduced the odds of having severe food addiction was vegetable intake. The current study highlights that addictive food behaviours are associated with a complex pattern of poor dietary choices and a clustering with mental health issues, particularly depression.

  2. Awareness of identity alteration and diagnostic preference between borderline personality disorder and dissociative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Alioğlu, Firdevs; Akyuz, Gamze; Tayakısı, Emre; Öğülmüş, Ezgi F; Sönmez, Doğuş

    2017-01-01

    This study inquires into identity alteration among college students and its relationship to borderline personality disorder (BPD) and/or dissociative disorders (DDs). Steinberg Identity Alteration Questionnaire (SIAQ), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and self-report screening tool of the BPD section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-BPD) were administered to 1301 college students. Participants who fit the diagnostic criteria of BPD (n = 80) according to the clinician-administered SCID-BPD and 111 non-BPD controls were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV DDs (SCID-D) by two psychiatrists blind to the group membership and scale scores. Test-retest evaluations and internal consistency analyses suggested that SIAQ was a reliable instrument. Of the participants, 11.3% reported a SIAQ score 25 or above alongside some impairment. SIAQ scores differentiated participants who fit the diagnostic criteria for a DD from those who did not. While self-report identity alteration was correlated with all childhood trauma types, clinician-assessed identity alteration was correlated with childhood sexual abuse only. Those who fit criteria for both disorders had the highest identity alteration scores in self-report and clinician-assessment. Although both syndromes had significant effect on self-report identity alteration total scores, in contrast to DD, BPD did not have an effect on the clinician-administered evaluation. An impression of personality disorder rather than a DD may seem more likely when identity alteration remains subtle in clinical assessment, notwithstanding its presence in self-report. Lack of recognition of identity alteration may lead to overdiagnosis of BPD among individuals who have a DD.

  3. Differences in Dietary Preferences, Personality and Mental Health in Australian Adults with and without Food Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Burrows

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased obesity rates, an evolving food supply and the overconsumption of energy dense foods has led to an increase in research exploring addictive eating behaviours. This study aimed to investigate food addiction in a sample of Australian adults using the revised Yale Food Addiction Survey (YFAS 2.0 tool and how it is associated with dietary intake, personality traits and mental health issues. Australian adults were invited to complete an online survey that collected information including: demographics, dietary intake, depression, anxiety, stress and personality dimensions including impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness and anxiety sensitivity. A total of 1344 individuals were recruited with the samples comprising 75.7% female, mean age 39.8 ± 13.1 years (range 18–91 years and body mass index BMI 27.7 ± 9.5. Food addiction was identified in 22.2% of participants using the YFAS 2.0 tool, which classified the severity of food addiction as “mild” in 0.7% of cases, “moderate” in 2.6% and “severe” in 18.9% of cases. Predictors of severe food addiction were female gender (odds ratio (OR 3.65 95% CI 1.86–7.11 and higher levels of soft drink OR 1.36 (1.07–1.72, confectionary consumption and anxiety sensitivity 1.16 (1.07–1.26. Overall people with “severe” (OR 13.2, 5.8–29.8 or extremely severe depressive symptoms (OR 15.6, range 7.1–34.3 had the highest odds of having severe food addiction. The only variable that reduced the odds of having severe food addiction was vegetable intake. The current study highlights that addictive food behaviours are associated with a complex pattern of poor dietary choices and a clustering with mental health issues, particularly depression.

  4. Informal Workplace Learning among Nurses: Organisational Learning Conditions and Personal Characteristics That Predict Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Eva; Vermeire, Eva; Cabus, Shana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine which organisational learning conditions and individual characteristics predict the learning outcomes nurses achieve through informal learning activities. There is specific relevance for the nursing profession because of the rapidly changing healthcare systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: In total, 203 nurses…

  5. Millennial Dental Hygiene Students' Learning Preferences Compared to Non-Millennial Faculty Members' Teaching Methods: A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, April M; Prihoda, Thomas J; English, Dana K; Chismark, Aubreé; Jacks, Mary E

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the learning preferences of millennial dental hygiene students (born between 1982 and 2002) in the U.S. with the teaching methods used by their non-millennial instructors. Cross-sectional surveys were developed with 21-item, five-point Likert scales to examine students' preferences for and faculty use of lecture, collaborative activities, technology, independent work, and group discussion. Surveys were emailed to U.S. dental hygiene program directors in September 2015. The respondents totaled 800 students and 343 faculty members-approximately 5% of all dental hygiene students and 6.8% of all dental hygiene faculty members in the U.S. The results showed that the responding faculty members (88.7%) used case studies more than the students (61.2%) preferred and that the students (71.4%) preferred games when learning more than the faculty members (57.2%) used them (pStudent respondents (82.1%) preferred handouts for lecture more than did the faculty respondents (58.8%; pstudents to read before class 39.3% more than student respondents read (pStudent respondents preferred study guides for exams 39.2% more than the faculty respondents provided them (pstudents work in groups more than these students preferred (57.8%), and 92% of these faculty members used group activities in class (pstudents in this study were consistent with previous research on millennial traits. This study found areas of disagreement between students and faculty members on the use of case studies, study guides, and group work. Although these students stated they preferred lecture over group work, trends in education stress using active learning over lecture.

  6. Critical connections: personal learning environments and information literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Hicks

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal learning environments (PLEs and critical information literacies (CILs are two concepts that have been presented as responses to the challenges of the rich and complex information landscape. While both approaches support learners’ critical engagement with new information environments, each was developed within a different field. This paper connects and contrasts PLEs and CILs in order to explore the design of pedagogical responses to the information environment. Through a careful examination of PLE and CIL literature, the paper demonstrates that information literacy education intersects with the concepts and goals of PLEs. As such, the authors suggest that PLE scholarship informed by CIL scholarship, and vice versa, will yield a deeper understanding of modern learning contexts as well as a more holistic and responsive learner framework. The example of the research assignment will be used to demonstrate the viability of this approach. With these propositions, the authors invite educators, librarians and information technologists to engage in a dialogue about these concepts and the potential for pedagogical change.

  7. Preferred Primary Healthcare Provider Choice Among Insured Persons in Ashanti Region, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheal Kofi Boachie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background In early 2012, National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS members in Ashanti Region were allowed to choose their own primary healthcare providers. This paper investigates the factors that enrolees in the Ashanti Region considered in choosing preferred primary healthcare providers (PPPs and direction of association of such factors with the choice of PPP. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, the study sampled 600 NHIS enrolees in Kumasi Metro area and Kwabre East district. The sampling methods were a combination of simple random and systematic sampling techniques at different stages. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic information and the criteria for selecting PPP. Multinomial logistic regression technique was used to ascertain the direction of association of the factors and the choice of PPP using mission PPPs as the base outcome. Results Out of the 600 questionnaires administered, 496 were retained for further analysis. The results show that availability of essential drugs (53.63% and doctors (39.92%, distance or proximity (49.60%, provider reputation (39.52%, waiting time (39.92, additional charges (37.10%, and recommendations (48.79% were the main criteria adopted by enrolees in selecting PPPs. In the regression, income (-0.0027, availability of doctors (-1.82, additional charges (-2.14 and reputation (-2.09 were statistically significant at 1% in influencing the choice of government PPPs. On the part of private PPPs, availability of drugs (2.59, waiting time (1.45, residence (-2.62, gender (-2.89, and reputation (-2.69 were statistically significant at 1% level. Presence of additional charges (-1.29 was statistically significant at 5% level. Conclusion Enrolees select their PPPs based on such factors as availability of doctors and essential drugs, reputation, waiting time, income, and their residence. Based on these findings, there is the need for healthcare providers to improve on their quality levels by

  8. A Longitudinal Study in Learning Preferences and Academic Performance in First Year Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yenya; Gao, Hong; Wofford, Marcia M; Violato, Claudio

    2017-12-18

    This is a longitudinal study of first year medical students that investigates the relationship between the pattern change of the learning preferences and academic performance. Using the visual, auditory, reading-writing, and kinesthetic inventory at the beginning of the first and second year for the same class, it was found that within the first year, 36% of the class remained unimodal (single) modality learners (SS), 14% changed from unimodal to multimodality learners (SM), 27% changed from multimodality to unimodal modality learners (MS) and 21% remained as multimodality learners (MM). Among the academic performance through subsequent didactic blocks from Clinical Anatomy, Cell and Subcellular Processes to Medical Neuroscience during first year, the SM group made more significant improvement compared to the SS group. Semi-structured interview results from the SM group showed that students made this transition between the Clinical Anatomy course and the middle of the Medical Neuroscience course, in an effort to improve their performance. This study suggests that the transition from unimodal to multimodality learning among academically struggling students improved their academic performance in the first year of medical school. Therefore, this may be considered as part of academic advising tools for struggling students to improve their academic performances. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Caregiver Preferences Regarding Personal Health Records in the Management of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, Sarah D; Baldwin, Constance D; McIntosh, Scott; McConnochie, Kenneth; Szilagyi, Peter G; Dolan, James

    2015-07-01

    Personal health records (PHRs) may address the needs of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Among parents, we assessed acceptance, barriers, and intentions regarding use of PHR for their children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Survey of parents from 3 practices in Rochester, NY. Stepwise logistic regression analysis explored factors predicting respondents' intentions for future use of PHR, accounting for care coordination needs, caregiver education, socioeconomic status, and satisfaction with providers. Of 184 respondents, 23% had used the PHR for their child, 82% intended future use. No difference was observed between users and nonusers regarding gender, age, race, or education. Users were more likely than nonusers to reside in the suburbs (P = .03). Caregivers were more likely to plan future use of the PHR if they felt engaged as partners in their child's care (adjusted odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2, 4.5). Parents are enthusiastic about PHRs. Future work should focus on engaging them as members of the health care team. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Learner Characteristic Based Learning Effort Curve Mode: The Core Mechanism on Developing Personalized Adaptive E-Learning Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pi-Shan

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop the core mechanism for realizing the development of personalized adaptive e-learning platform, which is based on the previous learning effort curve research and takes into account the learner characteristics of learning style and self-efficacy. 125 university students from Taiwan are classified into 16 groups according…

  11. Understanding the Construction of Personal Learning Networks to Support Non-Formal Workplace Learning of Training Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Christin

    2013-01-01

    Workers in the 21st century workplace are faced with rapid and constant developments that place a heavy demand on them to continually learn beyond what the Human Resources and Training groups can meet. As a consequence, professionals must rely on non-formal learning approaches through the development of a personal learning network to keep…

  12. Student personality and learning styles: A comparison between radiation therapy and medical imaging undergraduate students in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungey, G; Yielder, J

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the learning styles and personality type of undergraduate radiation therapy students at the University of Otago, Wellington (UOW) in New Zealand (NZ) to ascertain whether there is a pattern evidenced for this group and how that might compare with NZ medical imaging students. All students enrolled in the first year of the Bachelor of Radiation Therapy degree from 2014 to 2016 at the UOW were invited to participate in this research. The test tool was the Paragon Learning Style Inventory (PLSI), which is a standardised questionnaire adapted from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). All students who participated in the workshops consented for their data to be used for this project. The current study is longitudinal, and will continue for five years in total. The initial findings indicate that the cohorts of RT students exhibit personality and learning style preferences similar in Introversion/Extraversion and Thinking/Feeling to the proportion expected in the normal population. However, the Sensing/Intuition and Judging/Perceiving dichotomies show some similarities to the medical imaging students studied, who fell considerably outside that expected in the normal population. Overall, the dominant preference combinations identified, although different in degree, were similar to those of medical imaging students. The continuation of the radiation therapy study is important to ascertain more fully whether the results are particular to these cohorts of students or are trending towards showing a pattern of personality and learning style within the profession. Copyright © 2016 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biological sex influences learning strategy preference and muscarinic receptor binding in specific brain regions of prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Elin M; Hawley, Wayne R; Hodges, Kelly S; Fawcett-Patel, Jessica M; Dohanich, Gary P

    2013-04-01

    According to the theory of multiple memory systems, specific brain regions interact to determine how the locations of goals are learned when rodents navigate a spatial environment. A number of factors influence the type of strategy used by rodents to remember the location of a given goal in space, including the biological sex of the learner. We recently found that prior to puberty male rats preferred a striatum-dependent stimulus-response strategy over a hippocampus-dependent place strategy when solving a dual-solution task, while age-matched females showed no strategy preference. Because the cholinergic system has been implicated in learning strategy and is known to be sexually dimorphic prior to puberty, we explored the relationship between learning strategy and muscarinic receptor binding in specific brain regions of prepubertal males and female rats. We confirmed our previous finding that at 28 days of age a significantly higher proportion of prepubertal males preferred a stimulus-response learning strategy than a place strategy to solve a dual-solution visible platform water maze task. Equal proportions of prepubertal females preferred stimulus-response or place strategies. Profiles of muscarinic receptor binding as assessed by autoradiography varied according to strategy preference. Regardless of biological sex, prepubertal rats that preferred stimulus-response strategy exhibited lower ratios of muscarinic receptor binding in the hippocampus relative to the dorsolateral striatum compared to rats that preferred place strategy. Importantly, much of the variance in this ratio was related to differences in the ventral hippocampus to a greater extent than the dorsal hippocampus. The ratios of muscarinic receptors in the hippocampus relative to the basolateral amygdala also were lower in rats that preferred stimulus-response strategy over place strategy. Results confirm that learning strategy preference varies with biological sex in prepubertal rats with males

  14. Understanding the Self-Directed Online Learning Preferences, Goals, Achievements, and Challenges of MIT OpenCourseWare Subscribers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonk, Curtis J.; Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Kou, Xiaojing; Xu, Shuya; Sheu, Feng-Ru

    2015-01-01

    This research targeted the learning preferences, goals and motivations, achievements, challenges, and possibilities for life change of self-directed online learners who subscribed to the monthly OpenCourseWare (OCW) e-newsletter from MIT. Data collection included a 25-item survey of 1,429 newsletter subscribers; 613 of whom also completed an…

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Preferred Learning and Teaching Styles for Engineering, Industrial, and Technology Education Students and Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros; Fantz, Todd D.

    2012-01-01

    In the spring semester of 2010, a materials process course was selected as a means to perform a preferred learning style research study. This course was selected because it contained three groups of students: technology education, engineering technology, and industrial technology. The researchers believed that the differences in the students'…

  16. Differences between Mobile Learning Environmental Preferences of High School Teachers and Students in Taiwan: A Structural Equation Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chiu-Lin; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technology has been increasingly applied to educational settings in the past decade. Although researchers have attempted to investigate both students' and teachers' preferences regarding mobile learning, few studies have investigated the differences between the two, an understanding of which is important for developing effective mobile…

  17. Exploring the Relationship between Experienced Students' Preference for Open- and Closed-Book Examinations, Approaches to Learning and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannopoulou, Evangelia; Milienos, Fotios S.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between university students' approaches to learning and preference for the open- and closed-book examinations was investigated for 144 Greek undergraduate (56 third- and 88 fourth-year) students attending a Philosophy, Education and Psychology Department. The approaches were explored by the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory…

  18. Web-Based Language Learning Perception and Personality Characteristics of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaee, Meisam; Gharibeh, Sajjad Gharibeh

    2016-01-01

    The significance of learners' personality in language learning/teaching contexts has often been cited in literature but few studies have scrutinized the role it can play in technology-oriented language classes. In modern language teaching/learning contexts, personality differences are important and should be taken into account. This study…

  19. Understanding Personal Learning Environment Perspectives of Thai International Tourism and Hospitality Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyong, Siriwan; Sharafuddin, Mohamed Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper is part of a periodic research conducted in developing a personal learning environment for Thailand's higher education students with English as medium of instruction. The objective of the first phase in this research was to understand the personal learning environment perspectives of Thai International tourism and hospitality higher…

  20. Exploring New Potentials of Blogs for Learning: Can Children Use Blogs for Personal Information Management (PIM)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Hwan-Ik; Lee, Yekyung Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the use of blogs for personal information management (PIM) as a learning tool that could bring increased efficiency and academic self-efficacy for carrying out learning tasks. In order to identify the uses and effects of using blogs for PIM by children, a control group that used personal spaces within the class website and an…

  1. Personality Traits and Learning Styles of Secondary School Students in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djigic, Gordana; Stojiljkovic, Snežana; Markovic, Andrijana

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the personality dimensions and learning styles of secondary school students, attending grammar and technical vocational school. The aim of the study is to examine differences in personality traits and learning styles between students from these types of schools, as well as to determine the predictive power of…

  2. Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility and Transfer of Learning: Opportunities and Challenges for Teachers and Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Barrie; Doyle, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The transfer of learning from the gym to other areas of participants' lives has always been a core component of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model. The degree to which transfer of learning is successfully facilitated in the reality of Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model-based teaching and coaching is, however,…

  3. The Relationship between the Big-Five Model of Personality and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidjerano, Temi; Dai, David Yun

    2007-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between the big-five model of personality and the use of self-regulated learning strategies. Measures of self-regulated learning strategies and big-five personality traits were administered to a sample of undergraduate students. Results from canonical correlation analysis indicated an overlap between the…

  4. The Impact of Role Modeling on Proteges' Personal Learning and Work-to-Family Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Ho Kwong; Mao, Yina; Zhang, Haina

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the impact of role modeling as perceived by proteges on their personal learning (i.e., relational job learning and personal skill development) and work-to-family enrichment (WFE). Results from a two-wave field survey of 173 proteges in the People's Republic of China indicate that role modeling positively affects…

  5. Transferring managerial learning back to the workplace : the influence of personality and the workplace environment

    OpenAIRE

    Belling, Ruth

    2000-01-01

    This thesis identifies the influences of individual characteristics, particularly psychological type preferences, and workplace environment features, on managers’ perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to transferring their learning from management development programmes. In doing so, it provides information and insights to help increase understanding of the transfer of learning process through the building of a model of transfer. Guided by a Realist perspective, this ...

  6. Learning styles and strategies preferences of Iranian medical students in gross anatomy courses and their correlations with gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlasi, Mohammad Ali; Moravveji, Alireza; Nikzad, Hossein; Mehrabadi, Vahid; Naderian, Homayoun

    2017-12-01

    The learning approaches can help anatomy teachers design a suitable curriculum in harmony with their students' learning styles. The research objective is to evaluate gross anatomy learning styles and strategies preferences of Iranian medical students at Kashan University of Medical Sciences (KAUMS). This cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was carried out on 237 Iranian medical students. The students answered questions on approaches to learning anatomy and expressed opinions about learning anatomy in medical curriculum. The data were analyzed to disclose statistically significant differences between male and female students. Iranian male and female students were interested in learning anatomy using notes, plastic models, pictures and diagrams, clinical context, dissection and prosection of cadavers; however, they rarely used cross-sectional images and web-based resources. Both groups of medical students used region and system in learning anatomy. However, there existed some striking differences, particularly in having difficulty in studying anatomy using cadaveric specimens, using books alone, and learning it in small groups. Male students were less interested in learning with cadavers than female counterparts. However, female students were more interested in learning anatomy in small groups. This study suggests that instructors should design gross anatomy curriculum based on limitations of using dissection of cadaver in Iranian universities, emphasis on the applied anatomy, and learning of gross anatomy in small groups.

  7. Engaging Students in Active Learning: The Case for Personalized Multimedia Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Roxana; Mayer, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that personalized messages in a multimedia science lesson can promote deep learning by actively engaging students in the elaboration of the materials and reducing processing load. Instructional messages were presented in either a personalized style or a neutral style. Results reveal that personalized messages produced better…

  8. Fostering the development of effective person-centered healthcare communication skills: an interprofessional shared learning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, James T; Konrad, Shelley Cohen

    2012-01-01

    To describe the implementation of an interprofessional shared learning model designed to promote the development of person-centered healthcare communication skills. Master of social work (MSW) and doctor of physical therapy (DPT) degree students. The model used evidence-based principles of effective healthcare communication and shared learning methods; it was aligned with student learning outcomes contained in MSW and DPT curricula. Students engaged in 3 learning sessions over 2 days. Sessions involved interactive reflective learning, simulated role-modeling with peer assessment, and context-specific practice of communication skills. The perspective of patients/clients was included in each learning activity. Activities were evaluated through narrative feedback. Students valued opportunities to learn directly from each other and from healthcare consumers. Important insights and directions for future interprofessional learning experiences were gleaned from model implementation. The interprofessional shared learning model shows promise as an effective method for developing person-centered communication skills.

  9. Underlying Processes of an Inverted Personalization Effect in Multimedia Learning – An Eye-Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi Zander

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the frequently examined design principles in multimedia learning is the personalization principle. Based on empirical evidence this principle states that using personalized messages in multimedia learning is more beneficial than using formal language (e.g., using ‘you’ instead of ‘the’. Although there is evidence that these slight changes in regard to the language style affect learning, motivation and the perceived cognitive load, it remains unclear, (1 whether the positive effects of personalized language can be transferred to all kinds of content of learning materials (e.g., specific potentially aversive health issues and (2 which are the underlying processes (e.g., attention allocation of the personalization effect. German university students (N = 37 learned symptoms and causes of cerebral hemorrhages either with a formal or a personalized version of the learning material. Analysis revealed comparable results to the few existing previous studies, indicating an inverted personalization effect for potentially aversive learning material. This effect was specifically revealed in regard to decreased average fixation duration and the number of fixations exclusively on the images in the personalized compared to the formal version. These results can be seen as indicators for an inverted effect of personalization on the level of visual attention.

  10. Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery and Renewal of Flavor Preferences Based on Taste-Taste Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Estrella; De la Casa, L. G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of extinction, spontaneous recovery and renewal in a conditioned preferences paradigm based on taste-taste associations. More specifically, in three experiments rats exposed to a simultaneous compound of citric acid-saccharin solution showed a preference for the citric solution when the preference was measured with a…

  11. Exploring the opinions of registered nurses working in a clinical transfusion environment on the contribution of e-learning to personal learning and clinical practice: results of a small scale educational research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Susan; Donaldson, Jayne H

    2013-05-01

    To explore the opinions of registered nurses on the Learnbloodtransfusion Module 1: Safe Transfusion Practice e-learning programme to meeting personal learning styles and learning needs. A qualitative research methodology was applied based on the principles of phenomenology. Adopting a convenience sampling plan supported the recruitment of participants who had successfully completed the e-learning course. Thematic analysis from the semi-structured interviews identified common emerging themes through application of Colaizzis framework. Seven participants of total sample population (89) volunteered to participate in the study. Five themes emerged which included learning preferences, interactive learning, course design, patient safety and future learning needs. Findings positively show the e-learning programme captures the learning styles and needs of learners. In particular, learning styles of a reflector, theorist and activist as well as a visual learner can actively engage in the online learning experience. In an attempt to bridge the knowledge practice gap, further opinions are offered on the course design and the application of knowledge to practice following completion of the course. The findings of the small scale research study have shown that the e-learning course does meet the diverse learning styles and needs of nurses working in a clinical transfusion environment. However, technology alone is not sufficient and a blended approach to learning must be adopted to meet bridging the theory practice gap supporting the integration of knowledge to clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preferences for technology versus human assistance and control over technology in the performance of kitchen and personal care tasks in baby boomers and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Scott R; Schulz, Richard; Matthews, Judith T; Courtney, Karen; Dabbs, Annette DeVito

    2014-11-01

    Quality of Life technology (QoLT) stresses humans and technology as mutually dependent and aware, working together to improve task performance and quality of life. This study examines preferences for technology versus human assistance and control in the context of QoLT. Data are from a nationally representative, cross-sectional web-based sample of 416 US baby boomers (45-64) and 114 older adults (65+) on preferences for technology versus human assistance and control in the performance of kitchen and personal care tasks. Multinomial logistic regression and ordinary least squares regression were used to determine predictors of these preferences. Respondents were generally accepting of technology assistance but wanted to maintain control over its' operation. Baby boomers were more likely to prefer technology than older adults, and those with fewer QoLT privacy concerns and who thought they were more likely to need future help were more likely to prefer technology over human assistance and more willing to relinquish control to technology. Results suggest the need for design of person- and context-aware QoLT systems that are responsive to user desires for level of control over operation of the technology. The predictors of these preferences suggest potentially receptive markets for the targeting of QoLT systems.

  13. Learner Self-Regulation and Web 2.0 Tools Management in Personal Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cherng-Jyh; Tu, Chih-Hsiung; Sujo-Montes, Laura E.; Armfield, Shadow W. J.; Chan, Junn-Yih

    2013-01-01

    Web 2.0 technology integration requires a higher level of self-regulated learning skills to create a Personal Learning Environment (PLE). This study examined each of the four aspects of learner self-regulation in online learning (i.e., environment structuring, goal setting, time management, & task strategies) as the predictor for level of…

  14. The Relationship between Age of Post-Graduate Adult Learning Students and Learning Style Preferences: A Case of Africa International University, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngala, Francisca Wavinya

    2017-01-01

    This paper sought to examine the relationship between age and learning preferences of post- graduate students at Africa International University (AIU). The study employed a descriptive survey design which used cross-sectional approach to data collection. The population of the study consisted of all the 397 post-graduate students at Africa…

  15. Periodic self-rostering in shift work: correspondence between objective work hours, work hour preferences (personal fit), and work schedule satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingre, M.; Äkerstedt, T.; Ekstedt, M.; Kecklund, L.G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The main objective of the present study was to investigate relative personal fit as the association between rated needs and preferences for work hours, on the one hand, and actual work hours, on the other hand, in three groups (hospital, call-center, and police) working with periodic

  16. Analyzing the Relationship of Strengths to Personality Preferences and Vocational Interests Utilizing Clifton StrengthsFinder, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and Strong Interest Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Paulette M.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of vocational psychology, career counselors have constantly searched for, devised, and implemented practices and techniques to best prepare clients for the world of work. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between strengths to personality preference and vocational interests utilizing the Myers-Briggs…

  17. How do activating interventions fit the personal needs, characteristics and preferences of people with dementia living in the community and their informal caregivers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. van 't Leven; Dr. J. de Lange; A.E. Prick; A.M. Pot

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions aim to mitigate the serious consequences of dementia for the daily life of people with dementia and their informal caregivers. To deliver a person-centred approach, it is crucial to take needs, characteristics and preferences of people with dementia and their informal

  18. Persons' various experiences of learning processes in patient education for osteoarthritis, a qualitative phenomenographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Ingalill; Sundén, Anne; Ekvall Hansson, Eva

    2018-03-30

    Patient education (PE) is a core treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) with the aim to increase persons' knowledge, self-efficacy, and empowerment. To describe person's various experiences of learning processes in PE for OA. Phenomenography. Semi-structured interviews were performed with the same persons, pre- (11) and post- (9) education. Various experiences on learning processes were found and were described in an outcome space. Achieving knowledge describes self-regulated learning and strongly relates to Control, which describes a high order cognitive learning skill, and minor to Confirm, which describes a cognitive learning skill based on recognition and application. Receiving knowledge describes the expectancy of learning regulated from the educator and strongly relates to Comply, which describes a low-order cognitive learning skill, and minor to Confirm. Different experiences of motivation and learning impact on persons' learning processes which, in turn, influence the persons' capability to accomplish self-efficacy and empowerment. The outcome space may serve as a basis for discussions between healthcare educators involved in PE to better understand what learning implies and to develop PE further.

  19. Factors Effecting E-Learning Preference: An Analysis On Turkish University Students From Government and Private Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Sevinç Çağlar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Informationand communications technology has become an important tool in education. The use of online e-learning by members of educational communities isincreasing, and this seems to bean accelerating tendency that will go on for the coming years. So it isimportant to identify and address students’ preferences or their anxieties ine-learning, to offer beneficial programs. Although Turkish educational system,especially in universities, is also taking action parallel to this globaltrend, there is only limited research on the subject. Present study aims tofill this gap, andto identify effective factors while highlighting theircontributions on e-learning preferences of university students. The sample ofthe study consist 606 university students from both government and privateinstitutions which enables group comparisons. Results indicate ‘reduction intraining costs’ and ‘time flexibility of the programs’ are the most valuedfactors to prefer e-learning. On the other hand,having courses and the exams on the internet was not found to be muchfavorable. With respect to demographic variables such as age, gender,private/government university, department, and grade (the year at theuniversity group differences were identified. Based on the findings,suggestions were presented.

  20. Preferences for learning different types of genome sequencing results among young breast cancer patients: Role of psychological and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Ivanovich, Jennifer; Lyons, Sarah; Biesecker, Barbara; Dresser, Rebecca; Elrick, Ashley; Matsen, Cindy; Goodman, Melody

    2018-01-29

    The growing importance of genome sequencing means that patients will increasingly face decisions regarding what results they would like to learn. The present study examined psychological and clinical factors that might affect these preferences. 1,080 women diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 or younger completed an online survey. We assessed their interest in learning various types of genome sequencing results: risk of preventable disease or unpreventable disease, cancer treatment response, uncertain meaning, risk to relatives' health, and ancestry/physical traits. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine whether being "very" interested in each result type was associated with clinical factors: BRCA1/2 mutation status, prior genetic testing, family history of breast cancer, and psychological factors: cancer recurrence worry, genetic risk worry, future orientation, health information orientation, and genome sequencing knowledge. The proportion of respondents who were very interested in learning each type of result ranged from 16% to 77%. In all multivariable models, those who were very interested in learning a result type had significantly higher knowledge about sequencing benefits, greater genetic risks worry, and stronger health information orientation compared to those with less interest (p-values psychological factors. Shared decision-making approaches that increase knowledge about genome sequencing and incorporate patient preferences for health information and learning about genetic risks may help support patients' informed choices about learning different types of sequencing results. © Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018.